WorldWideScience

Sample records for sick listed patients

  1. Quality of life and illness perception in working and sick-listed chronic RSI patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study differences between working and sick-listed chronic repetitive strain injury (RSI) patients in the Netherlands with respect to indices of quality of life and illness perception. METHODS: In a cross-sectional design, one questionnaire was sent to all 3,250 members of the national

  2. How primary health care physicians make sick listing decisions: The impact of medical factors and functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svärdsudd Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decision to issue sickness certification in Sweden for a patient should be based on the physician's assessment of the reduction of the patient's work capacity due to a disease or injury, not on psychosocial factors, in spite of the fact that they are known as risk factors for sickness absence. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of medical factors and functioning on sick listing probability. Methods Four hundred and seventy-four patient-physician consultations, where sick listing could be an option, in general practice in Örebro county, central Sweden, were documented using physician and patient questionnaires. Information sought was the physicians' assessments of causes and consequences of the patients' complaints, potential to recover, diagnoses and prescriptions on sick leave, and the patients' view of their family and work situation and functioning as well as data on the patients' former and present health situation. The outcome measure was whether or not a sickness certificate was issued. Multivariate analyses were performed. Results Complaints entirely or mainly somatic as assessed by the physician decreased the risk of sick listing, and complaints resulting in severe limitation of occupational work capacity, as assessed by the patient as well as the physician, increased the risk of sick listing, as did appointments for locomotor complaints. The results for patients with infectious diseases or musculoskeletal diseases were partly similar to those for all diseases. Conclusion The strongest predictors for sickness certification were patient's and GP's assessment of reduced work capacity, with a striking concordance between physician and patient on this assessment. When patient's complaints were judged to be non-somatic the risk of sickness certification was enhanced.

  3. Prognostic factors for duration of sick leave in patients sick listed with acute low back pain: a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstra, I. A.; Verbeek, J. H.; Heymans, M. W.; Bongers, P. M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The percentages of patients with acute low back pain ( LBP) that go on to a chronic state varies between studies from 2% to 34%. In some of these cases low back pain leads to great costs. Aims: To evaluate the evidence for prognostic factors for return to work among workers sick listed

  4. Prognostic factors for duration of sick leave in patients sick listed with acute low back pain: a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstra, I.A.; Verbeek, J.H.A.M.; Heymans, M.W.; Bongers, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The percentages of patients with acute low back pain (LBP) that go on to a chronic state varies between studies from 2% to 34%. In some of these cases low back pain leads to great costs. AIMS: To evaluate the evidence for prognostic factors for return to work among workers sick listed

  5. Prognostic factors for duration of sick leave in patients sick listed with acute low back pain: A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstra, I.A.; Verbeek, J.H.; Heymans, M.W.; Bongers, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The percentages of patients with acute low back pain (LBP) that go on to a chronic state varies between studies from 2% to 34%. In some of these cases low back pain leads to great costs. Aims: To evaluate the evidence for prognostic factors for return to work among workers sick listed

  6. Characteristics of sick-listing cases that physicians consider problematic--analyses of written case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engblom, Monika; Alexanderson, Kristina; Rudebeck, Carl Edvard

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to discern common characteristics in the sick-listing cases that physicians in general practice and occupational health services find problematic. Descriptive categorization within a narrative theoretical framework. Sickness-insurance course for physicians in general practice and occupational health services. A total of 195 case reports written by 195 physicians. Main outcome measures. Categories of features regarding medical, work, and social situation as well as medical interventions. Beside age and sex, the following information was often provided: family situation, stressful life events, occupation, problem at work, considerations concerning diagnoses, medical investigations, treatments, and vocational rehabilitation measures. Two-thirds of the patients had been sickness absent for more than a year. The most common type of case reports concerned women, employed in non-qualified nursing occupations, and sick listed due to mental disorders. The most common measures taken by the physicians were referrals to psychotherapy and/or physiotherapy, and prescribing antidepressants (SSRI). Facts about alcohol habits were rarely provided in the cases. Some of the circumstances, such as prolonged sick-listing, are likely to be more or less inevitable in problematic sick-listing cases. Other circumstances, such as stress-full life events, more closely reflect what the reporting physicians find problematic. The categories identified can be regarded as markers of problematic sick-listing cases in general practice and occupational health service.

  7. Sick-listing adherence: a register study of 1.4 million episodes of sickness benefit 2010-2013 in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijon, Ola; Josephson, Malin; Österlund, Niklas

    2015-04-14

    This register study aims to increase the knowledge on how common it is that sickness benefit recipients are sick-listed for as long as their physician prescribes in their medical sickness certificate, i.e. sick-listing adherence, or wholly/partly bring return-to-work (RTW) forward, i.e. early RTW. The unit for analysis was an episode of 100% sickness benefit, commenced between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013. Completed episodes of sickness benefit and full or partial early RTW was analysed by comparing the prescribed length of sick leave in medical sickness certificates and benefit days disbursed by the sickness insurance system. Probability for a full and partial early RTW was estimated with hazard ratio (HR) using the Cox proportional hazard model. In total, about 1.4 million episodes of sickness benefit (60% women) were included in the study. The overall sick-listing adherence was 84% for women and 82% for men during the first year of sick leave. Adherence varied between 82 and 87% among women and between 79 and 86% among men with regard to ICD-10 diagnosis chapter. The probability of an early RTW varied between diagnosis chapters, where mental disorders was associated with a lower probability of a full early RTW among women and men (HR 0.52 and HR 0.47) as well as a partial early RTW (HR 0.51 and HR 0.46). Younger age (16-29 years), high educational level and high income was associated with a higher probability of an early RTW, while older age (≥ 50 years), not native-born, low educational level, unemployment and parental leave were associated with a lower probability. The study demonstrates that sick-listing adherence is relatively high. Probability of an early RTW differs with regard to diagnosis chapter, demographic, socioeconomic and labour market characteristics of the sickness benefit recipients. Interventions intended to improve the sick-listing process, and to affect the length and degree of sick leave in certain target groups, should include

  8. Evaluation of self-reported work ability and usefulness of interventions among sick-listed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wåhlin, Charlotte; Ekberg, Kerstin; Persson, Jan; Bernfort, Lars; Öberg, Birgitta

    2013-03-01

    To describe the types of intervention offered, to investigate the relationship between the type of intervention given, patient-reported usefulness of interventions and the effect on self-reported work ability in a cohort of sick-listed patients with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) or mental disorders (MD). A prospective cohort study was performed including 810 newly sick-listed patients (MSD 62 % and MD 38 %). The baseline questionnaire included sociodemographic characteristics and measures of work ability. The 3-month follow-up questionnaire included measures of work ability, type of intervention received, and judgment of usefulness. Twenty-five percent received medical intervention modalities (MI) only, 45 % received a combination of medical and rehabilitative intervention modalities (CRI) and 31 % received work-related interventions combined with medical or rehabilitative intervention modalities (WI). Behavioural treatments were more common for patients with MD compared with MSD and exercise therapy were more common for patients with MSD. The most prevalent workplace interventions were adjustment of work tasks or the work environment. Among patients with MD, WI was found to be useful and improved work ability significantly more compared with only MI or CRI. For patients with MSD, no significant differences in improved work ability were found between interventions. Patients with MD who received a combination of work-related and clinical interventions reported best usefulness and best improvement in work ability. There was no difference in improvements in work ability between rehabilitation methods in the MSD group. There seems to be a gap between scientific evidence and praxis behaviour in the rehabilitation process. Unimodal rehabilitation was widely applied in the early rehabilitation process, a multimodal treatment approach was rare and only one-third received work-related interventions. It remains a challenge to understand who needs what type of intervention.

  9. Predictors of return to work in employees sick-listed with mental health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D.Nielsen, Maj Britt; Madsen, Ida E.H.; Bültmann, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Sickness absence due to mental health problems (MHPs) is increasing in several European countries. However, little is known about return to work (RTW) for employees with MHPs. This prospective study aimed to identify predictors for RTW in employees sick-listed with MHPs.......Sickness absence due to mental health problems (MHPs) is increasing in several European countries. However, little is known about return to work (RTW) for employees with MHPs. This prospective study aimed to identify predictors for RTW in employees sick-listed with MHPs....

  10. Effect of integrated care for sick listed patients with chronic low back pain: economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeek, Ludeke C; Bosmans, Judith E; Van Royen, Barend J; Van Tulder, Maurits W; Van Mechelen, Willem; Anema, Johannes R

    2010-11-30

    To evaluate the cost effectiveness, cost utility, and cost-benefit of an integrated care programme compared with usual care for sick listed patients with chronic low back pain. Economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial with 12 months' follow-up. Primary care (10 physiotherapy practices, one occupational health service, one occupational therapy practice) and secondary care (five hospitals) in the Netherlands, 2005-9. 134 adults aged 18-65 sick listed because of chronic low back pain: 66 were randomised to integrated care and 68 to usual care. Integrated care consisted of a workplace intervention based on participatory ergonomics, with involvement of a supervisor, and a graded activity programme based on cognitive behavioural principles. Usual care was provided by general practitioners and occupational physicians according to Dutch guidelines. The primary outcome was duration until sustainable return to work. The secondary outcome was quality adjusted life years (QALYs), measured using EuroQol. Total costs in the integrated care group (£13 165, SD £13 600) were significantly lower than in the usual care group (£18 475, SD £13 616). Cost effectiveness planes and acceptability curves showed that integrated care was cost effective compared with usual care for return to work and QALYs gained. The cost-benefit analyses showed that every £1 invested in integrated care would return an estimated £26. The net societal benefit of integrated care compared with usual care was £5744. Implementation of an integrated care programme for patients sick listed with chronic low back pain has a large potential to significantly reduce societal costs, increase effectiveness of care, improve quality of life, and improve function on a broad scale. Integrated care therefore has large gains for patients and society as well as for employers.

  11. Employers' Importance for the Return to Work of Sick-Listed Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Sociologisk Institut, Københavns Universitet, Anders; V Benn, Nis; Høgelund, Jan

    -sick leave employer or returns to work for this employer, and, for individuals who separate, the duration until the sick-listed worker returns to work for new employer. To capture the effect of the threat of dismissal, we use a structurally-dependent-competing-risks model, allowing the risk of separation...... to affect the risk of returning to work. Controlling for unobserved heterogeneity, we cannot identify that employers’ dismissal threat affects the sick-listed workers’ chance of returning to work. The paper is written by associate professor, Department of Sociology, University of Copenhagen and Centre...... for Applied Microeconomics, University of Copenhagen, senior researcher, Jan Høgelund, the Danish National Institute of Social Research, and research assistant Nis Vilhelm Benn, the Danish National Institute of Social Research....

  12. Employees Sick-Listed with Mental Disorders : Who Returns to Work and When?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Norder, G.; Koopmans, P. C.; van Rhenen, W.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; Bultmann, U.

    Purpose To investigate return to work (RTW) in employees sick-listed with mental disorders classified according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Methods Sickness absences (SA) medically certified as emotional disturbance (ICD-10 R45) or mental and behavioral disorders (ICD-10

  13. Effect of integrated care for sick listed patients with chronic low back pain: economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lambeek, Ludeke C; Bosmans, Judith E; Van Royen, Barend J; Van Tulder, Maurits W; Van Mechelen, Willem; Anema, Johannes R

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cost effectiveness, cost utility, and cost-benefit of an integrated care programme compared with usual care for sick listed patients with chronic low back pain. Design Economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial with 12 months? follow-up. Setting Primary care (10 physiotherapy practices, one occupational health service, one occupational therapy practice) and secondary care (five hospitals) in the Netherlands, 2005-9. Participants 134 adults aged 18-65...

  14. Does graded return-to-work improve sick-listed workers' chance of returning to regular working hours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders; McIntosh, James

    2010-01-01

    Using Danish register and survey data, we examine the effect of a national graded return-to-work program on the probability of sick-listed workers returning to regular working hours. During program participation, the sick-listed worker works fewer hours and receives the normal hourly wage for the hours worked and sickness benefit for the hours off work. When the worker's health improves, working hours are increased until the sick-listed worker is able to work regular hours. Taking account of unobserved differences between program participants and non-participants, we find that participation in the program significantly increases the probability of returning to regular working hours. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Return-to-work of sick-listed workers without an employment contract--what works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Sylvia J; Tamminga, Sietske J; Schellart, Antonius Jm; Ybema, Jan Fekke; Anema, Johannes R

    2009-07-14

    In the past decade flexible labour market arrangements have emerged as a significant change in the European Union labour market. Studies suggest that these new types of labour arrangements may be linked to ill health, an increased risk for work disability, and inadequate vocational rehabilitation. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: 1. to examine demographic characteristics of workers without an employment contract sick-listed for at least 13 weeks, 2. to describe the content and frequency of occupational health care (OHC) interventions for these sick-listed workers, and 3. to examine OHC interventions as possible determinants for return-to-work (RTW) of these workers. A cohort of 1077 sick-listed workers without an employment contract were included at baseline, i.e. 13 weeks after reporting sick. Demographic variables were available at baseline. Measurement of cross-sectional data took place 4-6 months after inclusion. Primary outcome measures were: frequency of OHC interventions and RTW-rates. Measured confounding variables were: gender, age, type of worker (temporary agency worker, unemployed worker, or remaining worker without employment contract), level of education, reason for absenteeism (diagnosis), and perceived health. The association between OHC interventions and RTW was analysed with a logistic multiple regression analysis. At 7-9 months after the first day of reporting sick only 19% of the workers had (partially or completely) returned to work, and most workers perceived their health as fairly poor or poor. The most frequently reported (49%) intervention was 'the OHC professional discussed RTW'. However, the intervention 'OHC professional made and discussed a RTW action plan' was reported by only 19% of the respondents. The logistic multiple regression analysis showed a significant positive association between RTW and the interventions: 'OHC professional discussed RTW'; and 'OHC professional made and discussed a RTW action plan'. The

  16. The influence of previous low back trouble, general health, and working conditions on future sick-listing because of low back trouble. A 15-year follow-up study of risk indicators for self-reported sick-listing caused by low back trouble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C F; Monrad, T; Biering-Sørensen, F; Darre, E; Deis, A; Kryger, P

    1999-08-01

    A 15-year follow-up study. To find risk indicators for self-reported sick-listing because of low back trouble and to evaluate which variables were the most important indicators of work incapacity resulting from low back trouble during the follow-up period of 15 years. The initial data were obtained from a health survey conducted in a general population from the Municipality of Glostrup, Denmark. The follow-up data included information from the Central Person Register, the Early Retirement Pension Register, and a postal questionnaire regarding self-reported sick-listing because of low back trouble. An epidemiologic study, in which logistic regression analyses were used for evaluation of the data. The model used consisted of the variable in question, age, gender, and previous experience of low back trouble, along with interactions. It was found that 22 of 37 variables were risk indicators for later self-reported sick-listing because of low back trouble during the preceding year or the 7 years before the date of follow-up evaluation. In analyzing the most significant variables simultaneously, it was found that information from the initial investigation about sick-listing in general during the previous 10 years, sciatic pain, use of analgesics for low back trouble, previous sick-listing because of low back trouble, and occupation were the most important risk indicators for self-reported work incapacity resulting from low back trouble during the follow-up period of 15 years. Findings showed that the strongest prognostic indicators of later sick-listing because of low back trouble involve information from the person about previous sick-listing behavior in general and previous experience of low back trouble episodes, especially if these had been accompanied by sciatic pain, use of analgesics, or previous low back trouble sick-listing.

  17. Inter-physician agreement on the readiness of sick-listed employees to return to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Jolanda A H; Roelen, Corné A M; de Boer, Mintje; Brouwer, Sandra; Groothoff, Johan W

    2012-01-01

    To determine the agreement between occupational physician (OP) ratings of an employee's readiness to return to work (RRTW). Anonymized written vignettes of 132 employees, sick-listed for at least 3 weeks, were reviewed by 5 OPs. The OPs intuitively rated RRTW as the ability (knowledge and skills) and willingness (motivation and confidence) of sick-listed employees to resume work. Inter-OP percentages of agreement were calculated and Cohen's kappas (κ) were determined to correct for agreement by chance. The percentage of agreement between OPs was 57% (range 39-89%) on the ability and 63% (range 48-87%) on the willingness of sick-listed employees to resume work. The mean κ was 0.14 (range from -0.21 to 0.79) for ability and 0.25 (range from -0.11 to 0.74) for willingness. The OP-rating of RRTW of employees sick-listed with mental disorders did not differ from the OP-rating of RRTW of employees with musculoskeletal disorders. The inter-OP agreement on intuitively rated RRTW showed a wide variability, which accentuates the need for instruments to establish an employee's RRTW and for training in giving well founded return to work recommendations.

  18. Work and family: associations with long-term sick-listing in Swedish women – a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandmark Hélène

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of Swedish women who are long-term sick-listed is high, and twice as high as for men. Also the periods of sickness absence have on average been longer for women than for men. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between factors in work- and family life and long-term sick-listing in Swedish women. Methods This case-control study included 283 women on long-term sick-listing ≥90 days, and 250 female referents, randomly chosen, living in five counties in Sweden. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses with odds ratios were calculated to estimate the associations between long-term sick-listing and factors related to occupational work and family life. Results Long-term sick-listing in women is associated with self-reported lack of competence for work tasks (OR 2.42 1.23–11.21 log reg, workplace dissatisfaction (OR 1.89 1.14–6.62 log reg, physical workload above capacity (1.78 1.50–5.94, too high mental strain in work tasks (1.61 1.08–5.01 log reg, number of employers during work life (OR 1.39 1.35–4.03 log reg, earlier part-time work (OR 1.39 1.18–4.03 log reg, and lack of influence on working hours (OR 1.35 1.47–3.86 log reg. A younger age at first child, number of children, and main responsibility for own children was also found to be associated with long-term sick-listing. Almost all of the sick-listed women (93% wanted to return to working life, and 54% reported they could work immediately if adjustments at work or part-time work were possible. Conclusion Factors in work and in family life could be important to consider to prevent women from being long-term sick-listed and promote their opportunities to remain in working life. Measures ought to be taken to improve their mobility in work life and control over decisions and actions regarding theirs lives.

  19. What bothers the sick-listed employee with severe MUPS?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedeman, R.; Blankenstein, A. H.; Koopmans, P. C.; Groothoff, J. W.

    Aims: The aim of this study was to explore what employees with severe medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) experience as causes of distress with regard to employees with mild or no MUPS. Methods: This study is an additional analysis of a cross-sectional study in which 486 sick-listed

  20. Return-to-work of sick-listed workers without an employment contract – what works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Sylvia J; Tamminga, Sietske J; Schellart, Antonius JM; Ybema, Jan Fekke; Anema, Johannes R

    2009-01-01

    Background In the past decade flexible labour market arrangements have emerged as a significant change in the European Union labour market. Studies suggest that these new types of labour arrangements may be linked to ill health, an increased risk for work disability, and inadequate vocational rehabilitation. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: 1. to examine demographic characteristics of workers without an employment contract sick-listed for at least 13 weeks, 2. to describe the content and frequency of occupational health care (OHC) interventions for these sick-listed workers, and 3. to examine OHC interventions as possible determinants for return-to-work (RTW) of these workers. Methods A cohort of 1077 sick-listed workers without an employment contract were included at baseline, i.e. 13 weeks after reporting sick. Demographic variables were available at baseline. Measurement of cross-sectional data took place 4–6 months after inclusion. Primary outcome measures were: frequency of OHC interventions and RTW-rates. Measured confounding variables were: gender, age, type of worker (temporary agency worker, unemployed worker, or remaining worker without employment contract), level of education, reason for absenteeism (diagnosis), and perceived health. The association between OHC interventions and RTW was analysed with a logistic multiple regression analysis. Results At 7–9 months after the first day of reporting sick only 19% of the workers had (partially or completely) returned to work, and most workers perceived their health as fairly poor or poor. The most frequently reported (49%) intervention was 'the OHC professional discussed RTW'. However, the intervention 'OHC professional made and discussed a RTW action plan' was reported by only 19% of the respondents. The logistic multiple regression analysis showed a significant positive association between RTW and the interventions: 'OHC professional discussed RTW'; and 'OHC professional made and discussed a

  1. Return-to-work of sick-listed workers without an employment contract – what works?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellart Antonius JM

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past decade flexible labour market arrangements have emerged as a significant change in the European Union labour market. Studies suggest that these new types of labour arrangements may be linked to ill health, an increased risk for work disability, and inadequate vocational rehabilitation. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: 1. to examine demographic characteristics of workers without an employment contract sick-listed for at least 13 weeks, 2. to describe the content and frequency of occupational health care (OHC interventions for these sick-listed workers, and 3. to examine OHC interventions as possible determinants for return-to-work (RTW of these workers. Methods A cohort of 1077 sick-listed workers without an employment contract were included at baseline, i.e. 13 weeks after reporting sick. Demographic variables were available at baseline. Measurement of cross-sectional data took place 4–6 months after inclusion. Primary outcome measures were: frequency of OHC interventions and RTW-rates. Measured confounding variables were: gender, age, type of worker (temporary agency worker, unemployed worker, or remaining worker without employment contract, level of education, reason for absenteeism (diagnosis, and perceived health. The association between OHC interventions and RTW was analysed with a logistic multiple regression analysis. Results At 7–9 months after the first day of reporting sick only 19% of the workers had (partially or completely returned to work, and most workers perceived their health as fairly poor or poor. The most frequently reported (49% intervention was 'the OHC professional discussed RTW'. However, the intervention 'OHC professional made and discussed a RTW action plan' was reported by only 19% of the respondents. The logistic multiple regression analysis showed a significant positive association between RTW and the interventions: 'OHC professional discussed RTW'; and 'OHC

  2. Work Characteristics and Return to Work in Long-Term Sick-Listed Employees with Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijs, Jenny J J M; Koppes, Lando L J; Taris, Toon W; Blonk, Roland W B

    2017-12-01

    Purpose The present study investigated the relations between work characteristics, depressive symptoms and duration until full return to work (RTW) among long-term sick-listed employees. This knowledge may add to the development of effective interventions and prevention, especially since work characteristics can be subjected to interventions more easily than many disorder-related or personal factors. Methods this prospective cohort study with a two-year follow-up employs a sample of 883 Dutch employees who had been sick-listed for at least 13 weeks at baseline, who filled out three questionnaires: at 19 weeks, 1 and 2 years after the start of sick leave. The dependent measure was duration until full RTW. Results not working (partially) at baseline, low decision authority, high psychological demands, low supervisor support and low RTW self-efficacy were related to more depressive symptoms. The duration until full RTW was longer for employees with depressive symptoms. Low physical exertion, high RTW self-efficacy, working partially at baseline, being married or cohabiting, and young age were related to less time until full RTW. Other work characteristics appeared no independent predictors of RTW. Conclusions although the role of job demands and job resources in the RTW process is limited for long-term sick-listed employees with depressive symptoms, a few work characteristics are prognostic factors of full RTW. Focus on these elements in the selection or development of interventions may be helpful in preventing sickness absence, and in supporting long-term sick-listed employees towards full RTW.

  3. Severe MUPS in a sick-listed population: a cross-sectional study on prevalence, recognition, psychiatric co-morbidity and impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koopmans Petra C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS have a high prevalence in the general population and are associated with psychiatric morbidity. There are indications that MUPS are an important determinant of frequent and long-term disability. The primary objective was to assess the prevalence of MUPS in sick-listed-employees and its associations with depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, health anxiety, distress and functional impairment. Secondary objectives were to investigate the classification of the occupational health physicians (OHPs, their opinions about the causes as well as the attributions of the employee. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 489 sick-listed employees from 5 OHP group practices, MUPS, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, health anxiety, distress and functional impairment were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ, the Whitely Index (WI, the Four- Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ and the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36. We used a cut off score of 15 on the PHQ for the categorisation of severe MUPS. The opinions of the OHPs were evaluated by means of a separate questionnaire with regard to the presence of employees physical symptoms, and the symptoms attributions, and the diagnoses of the OHPs. Results Severe MUPS had a prevalence of 15.1% in this population of sick-listed employees. These employees had 4-6 times more depressive and anxiety disorders, and were more impaired. Female gender and PHQ-9 scores were determinants of severe MUPS. Most of the time the OHPs diagnosed employees with severe MUPS as having a mental disorder. The employees attributed their physical symptoms in 66% to mental or to both mental and physical causes. Conclusion The prevalence of severe MUPS is higher in long-term sick-listed employees than in the non-sick- listed working population and at least equals the prevalence in the general practice population. Severe MUPS are associated with

  4. Comparison of mental distress in patients with low back pain and a population-based control group measured by Symptoms Check List

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan; Fisker, Annette; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-01-01

    . The objective of this study was to compare mental symptoms and distress as measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 in sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed patients with low back pain with a population-based control group. METHODS: Mental distress was compared in a group of patients with low back pain (n......=770) and a randomly selected population-based reference group (n=909). Established Danish cut-off values for mental distress were used to evaluate the mental distress status in the low back pain and control group and logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for the Global Severity Index......PURPOSE: Mental distress is common in persons experiencing low back pain and who are sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed. It is, however, not known how mental distress measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 differs between patients with low back pain and the general population...

  5. Is mobility in the labor market a solution to sustainable return to work for some sick listed persons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, Kerstin; Wåhlin, Charlotte; Persson, Jan; Bernfort, Lars; Öberg, Birgitta

    2011-09-01

    The study aims to identify characteristics associated with long-term expectations of professional stability or mobility among recently sick-listed workers, and to study whether expectations of professional mobility and turnover intentions were associated with duration of sick leave. A cross-sectional study was performed on baseline measures in a prospective cohort study of patients who were granted sick leave due to musculoskeletal (MSD) or mental (MD) disorders. A total of 1,375 individuals fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A baseline questionnaire was sent by mail within 3 weeks of their first day of certified medical sickness; 962 individuals responded (70%). The main diagnosis was MSD in 595 (62%) individuals and MD in 367 (38%). Expectations of ability to remain in the present profession in 2 years was associated with better health and health-related resources, younger age, higher education, and better effort-reward balance. Effort-reward imbalance, MD, high burnout scores, and better educational and occupational position were associated with turnover intentions. Low expectations of ability to remain in the present profession defined two vulnerable groups with regard to RTW, those with no turnover intentions were older, had lower personal resources, more often had MSD, and slower RTW rate. Those with turnover intentions had a clear effort-reward imbalance and high burnout scores. The results of this explorative study underline the importance of differentiating RTW-interventions based on knowledge about the sick-listed person's resources in relation to the labor market and the work place, and their expectations of future employment and employability.

  6. Sick-listed persons' experiences with taking part in an in-patient occupational rehabilitation program based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: a qualitative focus group interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rise, Marit B; Gismervik, Sigmund Ø; Johnsen, Roar; Fimland, Marius S

    2015-11-27

    Occupational medicine has shifted emphasis from disease treatment to disability rehabilitation and management. Hence, newly developed occupational rehabilitation programs are often generic and multicomponent, aiming to influence the sick-listed persons' perception on return to work, and thereby support the return to work process. The aim of this study was to explore sick-listed persons' experiences with taking part in an in-patient occupational rehabilitation program based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. Twenty-nine adults on sickness benefit or work assessment allowance due to musculoskeletal and/or common mental health disorders participated in this study. They were interviewed in focus groups at the beginning and at the end of a 3.5 week inpatient group-based occupational rehabilitation program in Central Norway. Key elements in the program were Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), physical exercise and creating a work-participation plan. The program was mainly group-based including participants with different diagnoses. Data was analyzed according to a phenomenological approach. At the start of the program most participants expressed frustration regarding being sick-listed, external anticipations as well as hindrances towards returning to work, and described hope that the program would provide them with the skills and techniques necessary to cope with health problems and being able to return to work. At the end of the program the participants described that they had embarked upon a long process of increased awareness. This process encompassed four areas; an increased awareness of what was important in life, realizing the strain from external expectations and demands, a need to balance different aspects of life, and return to work as part of a long and complex process. The occupational rehabilitation program induced a perceived meaningful reorientation encompassing several aspects of life. However, the return to work process was described as diffuse

  7. Predictors of return to work in employees sick-listed with mental health problems : findings from a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Bultmann, Ute; Christensen, Ulla; Diderichsen, Finn; Rugulies, Reiner

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sickness absence due to mental health problems (MHPs) is increasing in several European countries. However, little is known about return to work (RTW) for employees with MHPs. This prospective study aimed to identify predictors for RTW in employees sick-listed with MHPs. Methods:

  8. Prediction of future labour market outcome in a cohort of long-term sick-listed Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jacob; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Bjørner, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Targeted interventions for the long-term sick-listed may prevent permanent exclusion from the labour force. We aimed to develop a prediction method for identifying high risk groups for continued or recurrent long-term sickness absence, unemployment, or disability among persons on long...... data set, statistical prediction methods were built using logistic regression and a discrete event simulation approach for a one year prediction horizon. Personalized risk profiles were obtained for five outcomes: employment, unemployment, recurrent sickness absence, continuous long-term sickness...... of recession (2008-2010). The accuracy of the prediction models was assessed with analyses of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and the Brier score in an independent validation data set. RESULTS: In comparison with a null model which ignored the predictor variables, logistic regression achieved...

  9. Return to work of workers without a permanent employment contract, sick-listed due to a common mental disorder: design of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammerts, Lieke; Vermeulen, Sylvia J; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; van Mechelen, Willem; Anema, Johannes R

    2014-06-12

    Workers without a permanent employment contract represent a vulnerable group within the working population. Mental disorders are a major cause of sickness absence within this group. Common mental disorders are stress-related, depressive and anxiety disorders. To date, little attention has been paid to effective return to work interventions for this type of sick-listed workers. Therefore, a participatory supportive return to work program has been developed. It combines elements of a participatory return to work program, integrated care and direct placement in a competitive job.The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this program compared to care as usual. The cost-effectiveness of the participatory supportive return to work program will be examined in a randomised controlled trial with a follow-up of twelve months.The program strongly involves the sick-listed worker in the identification of obstacles for return to work and possible solutions, resulting in a consensus based action plan. This plan will be used as a starting point for the search of suitable competitive employment with support of a rehabilitation agency. During this process the insurance physician of the sick-listed worker contacts other caregivers to promote integrated care.Workers eligible to participate in this study have no permanent employment contract, have applied for a sickness benefit at the Dutch Social Security Agency and are sick-listed between two and fourteen weeks due to mental health problems.The primary outcome measure is the duration until first sustainable return to work in a competitive job. Outcomes are measured at baseline and after three, six, nine and twelve months. If the participatory supportive return to work program proves to be cost-effective, the social security system, the sick-listed worker and society as a whole will benefit. A cost-effective return to work program will lead to a

  10. Work characteristics and return to work in long-term sick-listed employees with depressive symptoms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, J.J.J.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Taris, T.W.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the relations between work characteristics, depressive symptoms and duration until full return to work (RTW) among long-term sick-listed employees. This knowledge may add to the development of effective interventions and prevention, especially since work

  11. Work characteristics and return to work in long-term sick-listed employees with depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, Jenny; Koppes, L.L.J.; Taris, A.W.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The present study investigated the relations between work characteristics, depressive symptoms and duration until full return to work (RTW) among long-term sick-listed employees. This knowledge may add to the development of effective interventions and prevention, especially since work

  12. Work Characteristics and Return to Work in Long-Term Sick-Listed Employees with Depressive Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, J.J.J.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Taris, T.W.; Blonk, R.WE.B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The present study investigated the relations between work characteristics, depressive symptoms and duration until full return to work (RTW) among long-term sick-listed employees. This knowledge may add to the development of effective interventions and prevention, especially since work

  13. Sick Leave and Factors Influencing Sick Leave in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Appelman-Noordermeer, Simone; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; de Bruin-Weller, Marjolein

    2015-03-27

    Little is known about the prevalence of sick leave due to atopic dermatitis (AD). The current literature on factors influencing sick leave is mostly derived from other chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sick leave due to AD and to identify influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out in adult patients with AD. sick leave during the two-week and one-year periods, socio-demographic characteristics, disease severity, quality of life and socio-occupational factors. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine influencing factors on sick leave over the two-week period. In total, 253 patients were included; 12% of the patients had to take sick leave in the last two weeks due to AD and 42% in the past year. A higher level of symptom interference (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.13-1.40) or perfectionism/diligence (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.83-0.96) may respectively increase or decrease the number of sick leave days. Sick leave in patients with AD is a common problem and symptom interference and perfectionism/diligence appeared to influence it. Novel approaches are needed to deal with symptoms at work or school to reduce the amount of sick leave due to AD.

  14. Reliability of sickness certificates in detecting potential sick leave reduction by modifying working conditions: a clinical epidemiology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnsen Roar

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical sickness certificates are generally the main source for information when scrutinizing the need for aimed intervention strategies to avoid or reduce the individual and community side effects of sick leave. This study explored the value of medical sickness certificates related to daily work in Norwegian National Insurance Offices to identify sick-listed persons, where modified working conditions might reduce the ongoing sick leave. Methods The potential for reducing the ongoing sick leave by modifying working conditions was individually assessed on routine sickness certificates in 999 consecutive sick leave episodes by four Norwegian National Insurance collaborators, two with and two without formal medical competence. The study took place in Northern Norway in 1997 and 1998. Agreement analysed with differences against mean, kappa, and proportional-agreement analysis within and between groups of assessors was used in the judgement. Agreements between the assessors and the self-assessment of sick-listed subjects were additionally analysed in 159 sick-leave episodes. Results Both sick-listed subjects and National Insurance collaborators anticipated a potential reduction in sick leave in 20–30% of cases, and in another 20% the potential was assessed as possible. The chance corrected agreements, however, were poor (k Conclusion Information in medical sickness certificates proved ineffective in detecting cases where modified working conditions may reduce sick leave, and focusing on medical certificates may prevent identification of needed interventions. Strategies on how to communicate directly with sick-listed subjects would enable social authorities to exploit more of the sick leave reduction potential by modifying the working conditions than strategies on improving medical information.

  15. Sick-listed employees with severe medically unexplained physical symptoms : burden or routine for the occupational health physician? A cross sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedeman, Rob; Krol, Boudien; Blankenstein, Annette H.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The two primary objectives of this study were to the assess consultation load of occupational health physicians (OHPs), and their difficulties and needs with regard to their sickness certification tasks in sick-listed employees with severe medical unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS).

  16. Sick Leave and Factors Influencing Sick Leave in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmieke van Os-Medendorp

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little is known about the prevalence of sick leave due to atopic dermatitis (AD. The current literature on factors influencing sick leave is mostly derived from other chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sick leave due to AD and to identify influencing factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in adult patients with AD. Outcome measures: sick leave during the two-week and one-year periods, socio-demographic characteristics, disease severity, quality of life and socio-occupational factors. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine influencing factors on sick leave over the two-week period. Results: In total, 253 patients were included; 12% of the patients had to take sick leave in the last two weeks due to AD and 42% in the past year. A higher level of symptom interference (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.13–1.40 or perfectionism/diligence (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.83–0.96 may respectively increase or decrease the number of sick leave days. Conclusion: Sick leave in patients with AD is a common problem and symptom interference and perfectionism/diligence appeared to influence it. Novel approaches are needed to deal with symptoms at work or school to reduce the amount of sick leave due to AD.

  17. Sick-listed employees with severe medically unexplained physical symptoms: burden or routine for the occupational health physician? A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koopmans Petra C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The two primary objectives of this study were to the assess consultation load of occupational health physicians (OHPs, and their difficulties and needs with regard to their sickness certification tasks in sick-listed employees with severe medical unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS. Third objective was to determine which disease-, patient-, doctor- and practice-related factors are associated with the difficulties and needs of the OHPs. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 43 participating OHPs from 5 group practices assessed 489 sick-listed employees with and without severe MUPS. The OHPs filled in a questionnaire about difficulties concerning sickness certification tasks, consultation time, their needs with regard to consultation with or referral to a psychiatrist or psychologist, and communication with GPs. The OHPs also completed a questionnaire about their personal characteristics. Results OHPs only experienced task difficulties in employees with severe MUPS in relation to their communication with the treating physician. This only occured in cases in which the OHP attributed the physical symptoms to somatoform causes. If they attributed the physical symptoms to mental causes, the OHPs reported a need to consultate a psychiatrist about the diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions OHPs experience few difficulties with their sickness certification tasks and consultation load concerning employees with severe MUPS. However, they encounter problems if the diagnostic uncertainties of the treating physician interfere with the return to work process. OHPs have a need for psychiatric expertise whenever they are uncertain about the psychiatric causes of a delayed return to work process. We recommend further training programs for OHPs. They should also have more opportunity for consultation and referral to a psychiatrist, and their communication with treating physicians should be improved.

  18. Subgroup analyses on return to work in sick-listed employees with low back pain in a randomised trial comparing brief and multidisciplinary intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersen Karin D

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidisciplinary intervention is recommended for rehabilitation of employees sick-listed for 4-12 weeks due to low back pain (LBP. However, comparison of a brief and a multidisciplinary intervention in a randomised comparative trial of sick-listed employees showed similar return to work (RTW rates in the two groups. The aim of the present study was to identify subgroups, primarily defined by work-related baseline factors that would benefit more from the multidisciplinary intervention than from the brief intervention. Methods A total of 351 employees sick-listed for 3-16 weeks due to LBP were recruited from their general practitioners. They received a brief or a multidisciplinary intervention. Both interventions comprised clinical examination and advice by a rehabilitation doctor and a physiotherapist. The multidisciplinary intervention also comprised assignment of a case manager, who made a rehabilitation plan in collaboration with the patient and a multidisciplinary team. Using data from a national database, we defined RTW as no sickness compensation benefit disbursement for four consecutive weeks within the first year after the intervention. At the first interview in the clinic, it was ensured that sick leave was primarily due to low back problems.Questionnaires were used to obtain data on health, disability, demographic and workplace-related factors. Cox hazard regression analyses were used with RTW as outcome measure and hazard rate ratios (HRR = HRmultidisciplinary/HRbrief were adjusted for demographic and health-related variables. An interaction term consisting of a baseline variable*intervention group was added to the multivariable regression model to analyse whether the effects of the interventions were moderated by the baseline factor. Subsequently, a new study was performed that included 120 patients who followed the same protocol. This group was analyzed in the same way to verify the findings from the original

  19. The effect of part-time sick leave for employees with mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders

    reduces the duration until employees with mental disorders end their sick leave by reporting ready for returning to regular working hours. The programme allows fully sick-listed employees to resume work at reduced hours. When the sick-listed employee’s health improves, working hours are increased until...... the employee is able to work regular hours. We use combined survey and register data about 226 long-term sick-listed employees with mental disorders and 638 employees with physical disorders. Our analyses show that part-time sick-listing significantly reduces the duration until returning to regular working...... hours for employees with physical disorders. In contrast, we find that part-time sick-listing does not reduce durations for employees with mental disorders. The analyses also illustrate the importance of adjusting for unobserved differences between part-time sick-listed and full-time sick...

  20. "Here we're all in the same boat"--a qualitative study of group based rehabilitation for sick-listed citizens with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lotte Nygaard; Kohberg, Maria; Herborg, Lene Gram; Søgaard, Karen; Roessler, Kirsten Kaya

    2014-08-01

    Musculoskeletal pain impacts upon everyday life. A degree of chronicity may pose an increased risk of sickness absence. One of two rehabilitative interventions, "Tailored Physical Activity" or "Chronic Pain Self-Management Program", was offered to sick-listed citizens who experienced pain. The objectives of this paper were to: (1) Assess what factors are experienced as problematic for sick-listed citizens in everyday life with chronic pain, and (2) Evaluate the significance of two distinct rehabilitative interventions on the future everyday lives of sick-listed citizens. Seven semi-structured interviews with sick-listed citizens were analyzed using a phenomenological-hermeneutical approach. Results were discussed by applying the theoretical framework of Antonovsky's salutogenetic model and Yaloms principles for group psychology. The potential for development of citizen's coping is evaluated based on Roessler's notion of progression. The analysis revealed four main themes: (1) Living with pain and unemployment; (2) "Putting my foot down" and "asking for help"; (3) Significance of the group, including instructors, and; (4) Aspects significant to progression. Unemployment is a major life event that promotes stress and can be accompanied by problems related to depressed mood, acceptance of the life situation, feelings of not being useful, feelings of losing control and identity conflicts. Group characteristics that gave a significant basis for progression in the self-management program are both emotional and instrumental, while the physical training program offers a "here-and-now"-experience and motivation to participate. This study indicates that the self-management program could potentially improve coping while the physical activity program revealed one example of a means of progression. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Efficacy of 'Tailored Physical Activity' or 'Chronic Pain Self-Management Program' on return to work for sick-listed citizens: design of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lotte Nygaard; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Roessler, Kirsten Kaya; Herborg, Lene Gram; Sørensen, Thomas Lund; Søgaard, Karen

    2013-01-23

    Pain affects quality of life and can result in absence from work. Treatment and/or prevention strategies for musculoskeletal pain-related long-term sick leave are currently undertaken in several health sectors. Moreover, there are few evidence-based guidelines for such treatment and prevention. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of 'Tailored Physical Activity' or 'Chronic Pain Self-Management Program' for sick-listed citizens with pain in the back and/or the upper body. This protocol describes the design of a parallel randomised controlled trial on the efficacy of 'Tailored Physical Activity' or a 'Chronic Pain Self-management Program' versus a reference group for sick-listed citizens with complaints of pain in the back or upper body. Participants will have been absent from work due to sick-listing for 3 to 9 weeks at the time of recruitment. All interventions will be performed at the 'Health Care Center' in the Sonderborg Municipality, and a minimum of 138 participants will be randomised into one of the three groups.All participants will receive 'Health Guidance', a (1.5-hour) individualised dialogue focusing on improving ways of living, based on assessments of risk behavior, motivation for change, level of self-care and personal resources. In addition, the experimental groups will receive either 'Tailored Physical Activity' (three 50-minute sessions/week over 10 weeks) or 'Chronic Pain Self-Management Program' (2.5-hours per week over 6 weeks). The reference group will receive only 'Health Guidance'.The primary outcome is the participants' sick-listed status at 3 and 12 months after baseline. The co-primary outcome is the time it takes to return to work. In addition, secondary outcomes include anthropometric measurements, functional capacity and self-reported number of sick days, musculoskeletal symptoms, general health, work ability, physical capacity, kinesiophobia, physical functional status, interpersonal problems and mental disorders. There

  2. Individual factors and GP approach as predictors for the outcome of rehabilitation among long-term sick listed cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K.; Andersen, JH

    2005-01-01

    care professionals were found important for a positive outcome of the programme. Especially stable relations to a single General Practitioner (GP), who took good care of the patient in the form of giving good information about health and social possibilities, and an empathic attitude toward these hard...... than 1 year. The remainder had been transferred to receiving social benefits after having exceeded the time limit for being sick-listed. A plan of action for active rehabilitation, which was made at the end of the 8-week rehabilitation programme, was only poorly fulfilled after 9 months, 48% were still...

  3. Comparison of self-reported and register data on sickness absence among Norwegian patients participating in an occupational rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Øyeflaten

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sick leave and return to work are common outcome variables in studies where the aim is to measure the effect of targeted interventions for individuals that are on sick leave benefits or other allowances. Use of official register data is often restricted, and research on sick leave and return to work are often based on the participants self-reports. However, there is insufficient documentation that there is agreement between self-reports and register data on sick leave benefits and allowances.Aims: The aim of this study was to analyse the individuals' knowledge about states of sick leave benefits or allowances compared with register data from The Labour and Welfare Administration (NAV in Norway.Method: 153 individuals, sick-listed or on allowances, participated in a 4-week inpatient occupational rehabilitation program. 132 (86% answered a questionnaire on assessments of work, sick leave, and allowances three months after completed rehabilitation. Self-reported data were compared with register data from NAV according to four categories: working, sick-listed, on medical/vocational rehabilitation allowance or disability pension. Agreement between self-reported and register data was evaluated in cross-tabulations and reported with kappa values. Stratified analyses were done for gender, age, education, medical diagnosis and length of sick leave/allowances at baseline.Results: Good agreement was found for medical/vocational rehabilitation allowance (kappa=.70 and disability pension (kappa=.65. Moderate agreement was found for working (kappa=.49 and fair agreement for sick-listed (kappa=.36. Stratified analyses showed significant better kappa values for individuals that had been sick-listed less than 12 months before entering the rehabilitation program.Conclusions: Agreements from good to fair were found between self-reported and official register data on sick leave. However, official register data is preferred in research because this will

  4. Adjuvant occupational therapy improves long-term depression recovery and return-to-work in good health in sick-listed employees with major depression: results of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, Hiske L.; de Vries, Gabe; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Schene, Aart H.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether adjuvant occupational therapy (OT) can improve the effectiveness of treatment-as-usual (TAU) in sick-listed employees with major depression. In total, 117 employees sick-listed for a median duration of 4.8 months (IQR=2.6 to 10.1 months) because of major depression were

  5. Early coordinated multidisciplinary intervention to prevent sickness absence and labour market exclusion in patients with low back pain: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisker, Annette; Langberg, Henning; Petersen, Tom; Mortensen, Ole Steen

    2013-03-13

    Musculoskeletal disorders account for one third of the long-term absenteeism in Denmark and the number of individuals sick listed for more than four weeks is increasing. Compared to other diagnoses, patients with musculoskeletal diseases, including low back pain, are less likely to return to work after a period of sick leave. It seems that a multidisciplinary intervention, including cooperation between the health sector, the social sector and in the work place, has a positive effect on days off work due to musculoskeletal disorders and particularly low back pain. It is a challenge to coordinate this type of intervention, and the implementation of a return-to-work (RTW)-coordinator is suggested as an effective strategy in this process. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study protocol and present a new type of intervention, where the physiotherapist both has the role as RTW-coordinator and treating the patient. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is currently on-going. The RCT includes 770 patients with low back pain of minimum four weeks who are referred to an outpatient back centre. The study population consists of patients, who are sick-listed or at risk of sick-leave due to LBP. The control group is treated with usual care in a team of a physiotherapist, a chiropractor, a rheumatologist and a social worker employed at the centre. The Intervention group is treated with usual care and in addition intervention of a psychologist, an occupational physician, an ergonomist, a case manager from the municipal sickness benefit office, who has the authority in the actual case concerning sickness benefit payment and contact to the patients employer/work place. The treating physiotherapist is the RTW-coordinator. Outcome will be reported at the end of treatment as well as 6 and 12 months follow up. The primary outcome is number of days off work. Secondary outcomes are disability, pain, and quality of life. The study will follow the recommendations in CONSORT

  6. How physicians have learned to handle sickness-certification cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Anna; Silén, Charlotte; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2011-05-01

    Sickness absence is a common ''prescription'' in health care in many Western countries. Despite the significance of sick-listing for the life situation of patients, physicians have limited training in how to handle sickness-certification cases and the research about sickness-certification practices is scarce. Gain knowledge on physicians' learning regarding management of sickness certification of patients in formal, informal, and non-formal learning situations, respectively, and possible changes in this from 2004 to 2008. Data from two comprehensive questionnaires to physicians in Sweden about their sickness-certification practice in 2004 (n = 7665) and 2008 (n = 36,898); response rates: 71% and 61%, respectively. Answers from all the physicians ≤64 years old and who had sickness certification tasks (n = 4019 and n = 14,210) were analysed. ratings of importance of different types of learning situations for their sickness-certification competence. Few physicians stated that formal learning situations had contributed to a large or fairly large extent to their competence in sickness certification, e.g. undergraduate studies had done that for 17%, internship for 37%, and resident training for 46%, respectively. Contacts with colleagues had been helpful for 65%. One-third was helped by training arranged by social insurance offices. There was a significant increase between 2004 and 2008 in all items related to formal and non-formal learning situations, while there were no changes regarding informal learning situations. This study of all physicians in Sweden shows that physicians primarily attain competence in sickness certification in their daily clinical practice; through contacts with colleagues and patients.

  7. Dealing with sickness certification – a survey of problems and strategies among general practitioners and orthopaedic surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Gunnar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to get sickness benefit a sick-listed person need a medical certificate issued by a physician; in Sweden after one week of self-certification. Physicians experience sick-listing tasks as problematic and conflicts may arise when patients regard themselves unable to work due to complaints that are hard to objectively verify for the physician. Most GPs and orthopaedic surgeons (OS deal regularly with sick-listing issues in their daily practice. The aim of this study was to explore perceived problems and coping strategies related to tasks of sickness certification among general practitioners (GP and orthopaedic surgeons (OS. Methods A cross-sectional study about sickness certification in two Swedish counties, with 673 participating GPs and 149 OSs, who answered a comprehensive questionnaire. Frequencies together with crude and adjusted (gender and working years Odds ratios were calculated. Results A majority of the GPs and OSs experienced problems in sickness certification every week. To assess the patient's work ability, to handle situations when they and the patient had different opinions about the need for sickness absence, and to issue prolongation certificates when the previous was issued by another physician were reported as problematic by a majority in both groups. Both GPs and OSs prolonged sickness certifications due to waiting times in health care or at Social Insurance Office (SIO. To handle experienced problems they used different strategies; OSs issued sickness certificates without personal appointment more often than the GPs, who on the other hand reported having contact with SIO more often than the OSs. A higher rate of GPs experienced support from management and had a common strategy for handling sickness certification at the clinic than the OSs. Conclusion Most GPs and OSs handled sickness certification weekly and reported a variety of problems in relation to this task, generally GPs to a higher extent

  8. Cost-effectiveness of a participatory return-to-work intervention for temporary agency workers and unemployed workers sick-listed due to musculoskeletal disorders: design of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Sylvia J; Anema, Johannes R; Schellart, Antonius J M; van Mechelen, Willem; van der Beek, Allard J

    2010-03-28

    Within the working population there is a vulnerable group: workers without an employment contract and workers with a flexible labour market arrangement, e.g. temporary agency workers. In most cases, when sick-listed, these workers have no workplace/employer to return to. Also, for these workers access to occupational health care is limited or even absent in many countries. For this vulnerable working population there is a need for tailor-made occupational health care, including the presence of an actual return-to-work perspective. Therefore, a participatory return-to-work program has been developed based on a successful return-to-work intervention for workers, sick-listed due to low back pain.The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a randomised controlled trial to study the (cost-)effectiveness of this newly developed participatory return-to-work program adapted for temporary agency workers and unemployed workers, sick-listed due to musculoskeletal disorders, compared to usual care. The design of this study is a randomised controlled trial with one year of follow-up. The study population consists of temporary agency workers and unemployed workers sick-listed between 2 and 8 weeks due to musculoskeletal disorders. The new return-to-work program is a stepwise program aimed at making a consensus-based return-to-work implementation plan with the possibility of a (therapeutic) workplace to return-to-work. Outcomes are measured at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is duration of the sickness benefit period after the first day of reporting sick. Secondary outcome measures are: time until first return-to-work, total number of days of sickness benefit during follow-up; functional status; intensity of musculoskeletal pain; pain coping; and attitude, social influence and self-efficacy determinants. Cost-benefit is evaluated from an insurer's perspective. A process evaluation is part of this study. For sick-listed workers without an

  9. Cost-effectiveness of a participatory return-to-work intervention for temporary agency workers and unemployed workers sick-listed due to musculoskeletal disorders: design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellart Antonius JM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the working population there is a vulnerable group: workers without an employment contract and workers with a flexible labour market arrangement, e.g. temporary agency workers. In most cases, when sick-listed, these workers have no workplace/employer to return to. Also, for these workers access to occupational health care is limited or even absent in many countries. For this vulnerable working population there is a need for tailor-made occupational health care, including the presence of an actual return-to-work perspective. Therefore, a participatory return-to-work program has been developed based on a successful return-to-work intervention for workers, sick-listed due to low back pain. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a randomised controlled trial to study the (cost-effectiveness of this newly developed participatory return-to-work program adapted for temporary agency workers and unemployed workers, sick-listed due to musculoskeletal disorders, compared to usual care. Methods/Design The design of this study is a randomised controlled trial with one year of follow-up. The study population consists of temporary agency workers and unemployed workers sick-listed between 2 and 8 weeks due to musculoskeletal disorders. The new return-to-work program is a stepwise program aimed at making a consensus-based return-to-work implementation plan with the possibility of a (therapeutic workplace to return-to-work. Outcomes are measured at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is duration of the sickness benefit period after the first day of reporting sick. Secondary outcome measures are: time until first return-to-work, total number of days of sickness benefit during follow-up; functional status; intensity of musculoskeletal pain; pain coping; and attitude, social influence and self-efficacy determinants. Cost-benefit is evaluated from an insurer's perspective. A process evaluation is

  10. Sickness certification in the general practice consultation: the patients' perspective, a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kathryn; Cadbury, Naomi; Rollnick, Stephen; Wood, Fiona

    2008-02-01

    Up to a third of general practice consultations involve issuing sickness certificates. Recent research has looked at the GPs' perspective of sickness certification but there has been no in-depth research exploring patients' views of these consultations. To explore patients' views of sickness certification within general practice consultations, and how these could be improved. A qualitative study was carried out with 12 general practices in South Wales; interview study of 19 patients who had recently received a sick note from a GP. Patients rarely attended just for a sick note, more often wanting advice or an opportunity to ask questions. Patients valued continuity of care, a good doctor-patient relationship, adequate consultation time and discussion about their illness, social situation and work-related issues when consulting with their GP for a sick note. Many patients felt doctors did not have enough time or knowledge of the patient to the able to address this issue adequately and this increased feelings of anxiety. Patients did not feel that being questioned by their GP or discussing return to work threatened the doctor-patient relationship. GPs who simply give out sick notes without question or discussion are not necessarily giving the patient what they want. More time should be spent discussing work and illness-related issues. Policy makers should recognize that continuity of care a good doctor-patient relationship and adequate consultation time are important to patients and any initiatives aimed at GPs to improve return to work rates should take these into consideration.

  11. Efficacy of Tailored Physical Activity or Chronic Pain Self-Management Programme on return to work for sick-listed citizens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Nygaard; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Sørensen, Thomas Lund

    2015-01-01

    . In contrast, no benefit of TPA and CPSMP was evident regarding work ability, kinesiophobia or physical capacity after 3 months of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that TPA is a promising intervention to facilitate return to work and reduce pain among sick-listed citizens with pain related...

  12. Associations between leisure activities and binge drinking in adults: findings from a Swedish newly sick-listed sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Annika; Mårdby, Ann-Charlotte; Holmgren, Kristina; Hensing, Gunnel

    2014-01-01

    Leisure activities and drinking patterns are factors that can affect health and ability to return to work after a sick-leave. Associations between participation in leisure activities and binge drinking among sick-listed individuals have been paid little attention in the research literature. The aim of this study was to examine associations between leisure activities and binge drinking in a sample of newly sick-listed women and men. The study included 2,888 individuals aged 19-64 years. Cross-sectional questionnaire data from the Health Assets Project, Sweden, was used. Participation in 18 leisure activities was estimated. Binge drinking was defined as consuming alcohol at least once a month, and typically consuming five or more glasses. Among women aged 19-30 years who regularly went to concerts (OR 2.36) and wrote (OR 2.39) associations were found with binge drinking. Lower OR was found among women aged 31-64 who regularly went to the cinema (OR 0.43), out in the nature (OR 0.46) or participated in sports (OR 0.57). Among men, associations were found between socializing with friends and binge drinking in both age groups (OR 3.83 respectively 1.63). Among younger men who attended sporting events OR was 2.31, and among older men participating in religious communities OR was 0.28. This study contributes to understanding the interplay between leisure activities and health behavior. In particular, social activities in men were associated with binge drinking while the opposite was true for recreational activities in older women.

  13. Employment effects of active labor market measures for sick-listed workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Høgelund, Jan; Gørtz, Mette

    We use unique and rich register data of 88,948 sick-listed workers to investigate the effect of active labor market measures on the duration until returning to non-subsidized employment and the duration of this employment. To identify causal treatment effects, we exploit over-time variation in 98...... job centers’ use of active labor market measures. We find that ordinary education and especially subsidized job training have statistically significant positive employment effects. Subsidized job training has a large, statistically significant positive effect on the transition into employment...... but no effect on the subsequent employment duration. In contrast, ordinary education has a statistically significant positive effect on employment duration but no effect on the transition to employment. This null effect consists of a large positive effect of having completed education and a large negative lock...

  14. Structured functional assessments in general practice increased the use of part-time sick leave: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterås, Nina; Gulbrandsen, Pål; Kann, Inger Cathrine; Brage, Søren

    2010-03-01

    A method for structured functional assessments of persons with long-term sick leave was implemented in a cluster randomised controlled trial in general practice. The aim was to analyse intervention effects on general practitioner (GP) sick-listing practice and patient sick leave. 57 GPs were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group. The intervention group GPs learned the method at a 1-day workshop including teamwork and role-playing. The control group GPs were requested to assess functional ability as usual during the 8 months intervention period in 2005. Outcome measures included duration of patient sick leave episodes, GP prescription of part-time sick leave, active sick leave, and vocational rehabilitation. This data was extracted from a national register. The GPs in the intervention group prescribed part-time sick leave more often (p part-time and less active sick leave compared to the control group GPs. As a result, more intervention GP patients returned to part-time work compared to control GP patients. No intervention effect was seen on duration of patient sick leave episodes or on prescription of vocational rehabilitation.

  15. Return-to-work intervention versus usual care for sick-listed employees : Health-economic investment appraisal alongside a cluster randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokman, S.; Volker, D.; Zijlstra-Vlasveld, M.C.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Boon, B.; Beekman, A.T.; Smit, F.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the health-economic costs and benefits of a guided eHealth intervention (E-health module embedded in Collaborative Occupational healthcare (ECO)) encouraging sick-listed employees to a faster return to work. A two-armed cluster randomised trial with occupational physicians (OPs) (n=62),

  16. SICK SINUS SYNDROME IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Kazakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a clinical case of 2 patients with heart arrhythmias of the sick sinus syndrome type, who were implanted electriccardiac pacemakers in the acute period of cerebrovascular accidents. There were no cardiac complaints in the clinical manifestation, however, a comprehensive assessment confirmed the diagnosis of sick sinus syndrome.

  17. A participatory supportive return to work program for workers without an employment contract, sick-listed due to a common mental disorder: an economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts, L.; van Dongen, J.M.; Schaafsma, F.G.; van Mechelen, W.; Anema, J.R.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are associated with high costs for productivity loss, sickness absence and unemployment. A participatory supportive return to work (RTW) program was developed in order to improve RTW among workers without an employment contract, sick-listed due to a common mental

  18. Radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Masaru; Ishida, Yusei; Saeki, Mitsuaki

    1983-01-01

    The frequency of radiation sickness in 1,060 patients treated at our Department was 12.8 percent. It was frequent in patients with brain cancer (12 percent), whole spine cancer (47 percent), uterus cancer (28 percent), lung cancer (22 percent) and esophagus cancer (12 percent). Radiation sickness following X-irradiation was studied in its relation to patient's age, size of radiation fields, dosis and white blood cell count. However, we could not find any definite clinical feature relevant to occurrence. There are many theories published concerning the mechanism of radiation sickness. Clinical experiences have shown that radiation sickness cannot be explained by one theory alone but by several theories such as those based on psychology, stress or histamine. (author)

  19. Medical care of employees long-term sick listed due to mental health problems: a cohort study to describe and compare the care of the occupational physician and the general practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, J R; Jettinghoff, K; Houtman, I; Schoemaker, C G; Buijs, P C; van den Berg, R

    2006-03-01

    To describe medical management by the general practitioner (GP) and occupational physician (OP) of workers sick listed due to mental health problems, and to determine agreement in diagnosis, main cause of sickness absence and obstacles in return to work. A cohort of 555 employees being sick listed for 12 to 20 weeks due to mental health problems was recruited and followed for 1 year. These employees were interviewed about their mental health and contacts with GP, OP, other specialists and employer. In addition, the GP and/or the OP of 72 employees were interviewed about the medical diagnosis and management. Most employees sick listed for 12-20 weeks visited their GP and OP. According to the employees most interventions applied by the GP were medical interventions, such as referral of employees and prescription of medical drugs. Working conditions were seldom discussed by the GP and work-related interventions were never applied. Most interventions applied by the OP were work-related interventions and/or contact with the employer. The OP more often talked about working conditions and conflicts. According to the employees, the communication between GP and OP only took place in 8% of the cases. Agreement in the diagnosis, main cause of sickness absence, and obstacles in return to work reported by the GPs and OPs of the same employee was poor. In addition, similarity in reported diagnosis by GP and/or OP and the employees' scores on valid questionnaires on (mental) health was limited. The lack of communication and agreement by Dutch GPs and OPs in medical diagnosis and management of employees long-term sick listed due to mental health problems are indicators of sub-optimal medical treatment and return-to-work strategies.

  20. Protocol for the effect evaluation of independent medical evaluation after six months sick leave: a randomized controlled trial of independent medical evaluation versus treatment as usual in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husabo, Elisabeth; Monstad, Karin; Holmås, Tor Helge; Oyeflaten, Irene; Werner, Erik L; Maeland, Silje

    2017-06-14

    It has been discussed whether the relationship between a patient on sick leave and his/her general practitioner (GP) is too close, as this may hinder the GP's objective evaluation of need for sick leave. Independent medical evaluation involves an independent physician consulting the patient. This could lead to new perspectives on sick leave and how to follow-up the patient. The current study is a randomized controlled trial in a Norwegian primary care context, involving an effect evaluation, a cost/benefit analysis, and a qualitative evaluation. Independent medical evaluation will be compared to treatment as usual, i.e., the physicians' and social insurance agencies' current management of long-term sick-listed patients. Individuals aged 18-65 years, sick listed by their GP and on full or partial sick leave for the past 6 months in Hordaland county will be included. Exclusion criteria are pregnancy, cancer, dementia or an ICD-10 diagnosis. A total sample of 3800 will be randomly assigned to either independent medical evaluation or treatment as usual. Official register data will be used to measure the primary outcome; change in sickness benefits at 7, 9 and 12 months. Sick listed in other counties will serve as a second control group, if appropriate under the "common trend" assumption. The Norwegian effect evaluation of independent medical evaluation after 6 months sick leave is a large randomized controlled trial, and the first of its kind, to evaluate this type of intervention as a means of getting people back to work after long-term sickness absence. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02524392 . Registered June 23, 2015.

  1. Employment effects of active labor market programs for sick-listed workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Høgelund, Jan; Gørtz, Mette

    2017-01-01

    We use register data of 88,948 sick-listed workers in Denmark over the period 2008–2011 to investigate the effect of active labor market programs on the duration until returning to non-subsidized employment and the duration of this employment. To identify causal treatment effects, we exploit over......-time variation in the use of active labor market programs in 98 job centers and time-to- event. We find that ordinary education and subsidized job training have significant positive employment effects. Subsidized job training has a large, positive effect on the transition into employment but no effect...... on the subsequent employment duration. In contrast, ordinary education has a positive effect on employment duration but no effect on the transition into employment. The latter effect is the result of two opposing effects, a large positive effect of having completed education and a large negative lock-in effect...

  2. Is part-time sick leave helping the unemployed?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Using a discrete choice one-factor model, we estimate mean treatment parameters and distributional treatment parameters to analyze the effects of degree of sick leave on the probability of full recovery of lost work capacity for employed and unemployed individuals, respectively. Our results indicate that one year after the sick leave spell started, the average potential impact of part-time sick listing on an individual randomly chosen from the population on sick leave was positive for both gr...

  3. Protocol for the effect evaluation of independent medical evaluation after six months sick leave: a randomized controlled trial of independent medical evaluation versus treatment as usual in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Husabo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been discussed whether the relationship between a patient on sick leave and his/her general practitioner (GP is too close, as this may hinder the GP’s objective evaluation of need for sick leave. Independent medical evaluation involves an independent physician consulting the patient. This could lead to new perspectives on sick leave and how to follow-up the patient. Methods/design The current study is a randomized controlled trial in a Norwegian primary care context, involving an effect evaluation, a cost/benefit analysis, and a qualitative evaluation. Independent medical evaluation will be compared to treatment as usual, i.e., the physicians’ and social insurance agencies’ current management of long-term sick-listed patients. Individuals aged 18–65 years, sick listed by their GP and on full or partial sick leave for the past 6 months in Hordaland county will be included. Exclusion criteria are pregnancy, cancer, dementia or an ICD-10 diagnosis. A total sample of 3800 will be randomly assigned to either independent medical evaluation or treatment as usual. Official register data will be used to measure the primary outcome; change in sickness benefits at 7, 9 and 12 months. Sick listed in other counties will serve as a second control group, if appropriate under the “common trend” assumption. Discussion The Norwegian effect evaluation of independent medical evaluation after 6 months sick leave is a large randomized controlled trial, and the first of its kind, to evaluate this type of intervention as a means of getting people back to work after long-term sickness absence. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02524392 . Registered June 23, 2015.

  4. Determinants of sick-leave length: still limited to diagnosis elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, Yvan; Denis, Angélique; Fassier, Jean-Baptiste; Kellou, Nadir; Schott, Anne-Marie; Letrilliart, Laurent

    2017-12-01

    Sickness certification implies that a health problem impairs ability to work. However, its assessment is seldom performed by physicians. Our objective was, therefore, to assess the specific influence of functional and environmental limitations on the length of sick-leave prescriptions. We conducted a cross-sectional study in French general teaching practices and recorded 353 initial sick-leave certifications. For each of them, the functional and environmental limitations were collected using the ATCIF questionnaire, derived from the International Classification of Functioning. Data analysis was based on a linear regression multivariate model. Among the functional limitations, "pain" was the main body function impairment (22% of impairments) and "mobility" the main activity limitation (48%). An environmental barrier was identified in 39% of sick-listed patients, mainly relating to "products and technology" (20%), which refers to workplace factors. The prescription was longer in cases of activity limitations relating to "mobility" and in cases of environmental barriers relating to "products and technology". The multivariate model explained 27% of the variability of sick-leave length through diagnosis elements and only 7% through functional and contextual elements. In sick-leave prescription, a functional and contextual approach, in addition to the traditional diagnosis-based approach, could better support patients' shared understanding and follow-up, and accountability towards health authorities. Implication for Rehabilitation Although sickness certification implies that a health problem impairs ability to work, decision on sick-leave length in general practice is primarily based on diagnosis. A more functional and contextual approach could better support patients' and other health professionals' shared understanding and follow-up, and accountability towards health authorities. Such evolution requires a change of paradigm in medical education, and the way of

  5. Sustainability of return to work in sick-listed employees with low-back pain. Two-year follow-up in a randomized clinical trial comparing multidisciplinary and brief intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Chris

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sick-listed employees with low back pain had similar return to work (RTW rates at one-year follow-up in a randomized trial comparing two interventions, but the effects were modified by specific workplace related factors. The present study addressed the sustainability of the intervention effects by performing a two-year follow-up and by using different outcome measures. Methods A total of 351 employees sick-listed for 3–16 weeks due to LBP were recruited from their general practitioners and were randomly allocated to a hospital-based brief or multidisciplinary intervention. Outcome measures were based on sick leave registered in a national database of social and health-related benefits. RTW rates, RTW status, sick leave weeks and sick leave relapse were studied. Results During the two-year follow-up 80.0% and 77.3% had RTW for at least four weeks continuously, and the percentages with RTW at the 104th week were 61.1% and 58.0% in the brief and multidisciplinary intervention groups, respectively. At the 104th week 16.6% and 18.8% were on sick leave in the two groups, respectively, and about 12% were employed in modified jobs or participated in job training. The number of weeks on sick leave in the first year was significantly lower in the brief intervention group (median 14 weeks than in the multidisciplinary intervention group (median 20 weeks, but during the second year the number of weeks on sick leave were not significantly different between intervention groups. Subgroups characterised by specific work related factors modified the effect of the intervention groups on RTW rates (p = 0.017. No difference in sick leave relapse was found between the intervention groups. Conclusion The effects of the brief and multidisciplinary interventions at the two-year follow-up were in general similar to the effects at one-year follow-up. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN18609003

  6. Sickness absence among depressed patients attending the General Out Patients Department of the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goar, G S; Moses, D A; Micheal, T A

    2013-01-01

    Depression has been associated with low productivity and long absence from work. This has a serious consequence for the individuals, the employer and the society. The objectives of this study were to determine sickness absence from work among depressed patients attending General Out Patients Department (GOPD) in the preceding 12 months, to assess socio-demographic correlates of sickness absence in these patients and lastly, to determine the effect of depression on perception of work performance. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study among 200 consecutive patients attending the General Out Patients Department of the Jos University Teaching Hospital from November 2006 to March 2007. A semi-structured questionnaire designed by the authors was used to collect socio-demographic variables, self-reported perception of work and sickness absence days in the 12 months prior to the study. Depression was assessed using Structured clinical Interview for DSM- IV (SCID) axis 1 disorder. A total of 51(25.4%) of the 200 patients met the DSM IV diagnostic criteria for major depression. The depressed respondents significantly had higher mean and cumulative days of sickness absence compared to the non-depressed (p marital status (p = 0.867) were associated with sickness absence. Older age (P = 0.001) was associated with sickness absence in the non-depressed while gender (p = 0.117), and marital status (p = 0.752) were not. Having a diagnosis of depression was associated with poor work performance compared with the non-depressed (p productivity and toprevent long spells of sickness absence.

  7. Sickness absence and sickness attendance--what people with neck or back pain think.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Margareta; Boström, Carina; Harms-Ringdahl, Karin

    2006-05-01

    This study explores the decision of 33 men and women to be sick-listed from work for neck pain or low-back pain. Qualitative interviews with the subjects, who lived in a city or a sparsely populated area of Sweden, were tape-recorded, transcribed and analysed in the interpretive tradition by the three authors. New, intense and threatening pain quickly made persons report sick. For other pain, sickness absence, its timing and duration, were negotiated on the basis of the subjects' self-image, work-duty norms, organisational and extra-organisational work factors. Thirty-one people aimed to return to work, but spine-related pain was a hindrance. Five strategies to avoid, delay or shorten sickness absence were identified. Concepts of the illness flexibility model well described how the workers balanced the factors driving them from work and those forcing them or attracting them to remain. The conclusion is that reporting sick is neither undertaken lightly nor for short-term reasons only. Instead, personal history and anticipated future, spine-related pain, workplace and labour market factors are also important considerations.

  8. Undetected common mental disorders in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Background. Undetected Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) amongst people on sick leave complicate rehabilitation and return to work because appropriate treatments are not initiated. Aims. The aim of this study is to estimate (1) the frequencies of CMD, (2) the predictors of undetected CMD, and (3...... individuals registered on LSA who were sick-listed without a psychiatric sick leave diagnosis. In this respect, Phase 1 included 831 individuals, who were screened for mental disorders. In Phase 2, following the screening of Phase 1, 227 individuals were thoroughly examined by a psychiatrist applying Present...... State Examination. The analyses of the study were carried out based on the 227 individuals from Phase 2 and, subsequently, weighted to be representative of the 831 individuals in Phase 1. Results. The frequencies of undetected mental disorders among all sick-listed individuals were for any psychiatric...

  9. Changes in sick leave among Swedish dental patients after treatment for dental fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakeberg, M; Berggren, U

    1993-03-01

    The most obvious consequence of a genuine dental phobic reaction is the avoidance of necessary dental care. Previous research has indicated that such avoidance results in deterioration of the oral status, which subsequently worsens patients' well-being and quality of life. The authors' previous investigations have shown overt behavioural and social effects by an increased time spent on sick leave compared with the public experience. Self-reports by patients also indicated that the time spent on sick leave was reduced after successful treatment for dental fear. The present investigation assessed the frequency of sick leave days among patients with dental fear and avoidance with regard to successful or unsuccessful treatment for dental fear (subsequent regular dental visit habits). A sub-sample of the fear group was compared with a group of matched controls. Data were collected from the official register of the National Health Insurance Board. It was revealed that the number of sick leave days was significantly reduced after treatment for dental fear among treated patients. This effect was also confirmed by a significant post-treatment difference between treated patients and those who discontinued or never started treatment. When compared with a matched control group, the positive change was further supported by a significant pre-treatment difference and a non-significant post-treatment difference.

  10. Atrial fibrillation in patients with sick sinus syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Thomsen, Poul Erik B; Højberg, Søren

    2012-01-01

    between minimal-paced programmed AVI = 100 and >100 ms (median value), respectively (P= 0.60).ConclusionsThe present study indicates that a longer baseline PQ-interval is associated with an increased risk of AF in patients with sick sinus syndrome. Atrial fibrillation burden is not associated...

  11. Employer, insurance, and health system response to long-term sick leave in the public sector: policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijbel, Bodil; Josephson, Malin; Jensen, Irene; Vingård, Eva

    2005-06-01

    This study has been conducted to describe the situation of long-term sick-listed persons employed in the public sector regarding the medical reasons of their sick leave, the duration of their problems, the duration of the actual sick leave, rehabilitation support, rehabilitation measures, and the persons expectations of the future. Response rate of a postal questionnaire, where 484 women and 51 men on long-term sick leave answered, was 69%. The study-group consisted of 90% women with a median age of 50 years. The most common reasons for sick listing were long-lasting musculoskeletal problems, especially neck/shoulder pain, low back pain and osteoarthritis or other joint problems and mental problems, especially depression and burn-out syndromes. Forty-seven procent of the men and 57% of the women had been on the sick list for more than a year. Only half of them had been subjected to the legally required rehabilitation investigation of the employer This half got access to rehabilitation programs and/or vocational rehabilitation to a greater extent than those who not had been subjected to rehabilitation investigation. Less than half had been in contact with the workplace-connected rehabilitation actors, the Occupational Health Service or the Trade Union. In spite of this the sick-listed persons had a positive view of their future return to work. For long-term sick-listed persons in the public sector, there is a great potential for improvements of the rehabilitation at the workplace arena, in the involvement and cooperation between the already existing rehabilitation actors, in order to promote return to work.

  12. Employment and sick leave in patients with prostate cancer before, during and after radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveistrup, Joen; Mortensen, Ole S; Rosenschöld, Per M; Engelholm, Svend A; Petersen, Peter M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine employment outcomes after radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer (PCa). The Danish DREAM database contains information about social benefits paid to Danish citizens. Data are recorded prospectively every week. From the database, it is possible to assess whether a patient is working, on sick leave or retired at a certain time. Data on 417 Danish citizens treated with RT for PCa at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, between 1 January 2005 and 1 May 2010 were obtained from the database. The data were collected during a 2 year period from 1 year before RT to 1 year after RT. Among patients of working age, 75% were still available for work 1 year after RT. The degree of sick leave increased almost continuously in the year before the start of RT and reached a maximum of 56% during RT. After RT it gradually declined. There was no significant difference between the number of patients on sick leave 1 year after RT compared to 1 year before RT (p = 0.23). Patients spent a significantly higher number of weeks on sick leave in the year after the start of RT compared to the year before RT (p = 0.001). Except for a transient increase in sick leave during treatment, RT did not seem to affect the working lives of patients with PCa significantly.

  13. Prescribing a sedative antidepressant for patients at work or on sick leave under conditions of routine care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, M; Westram, A

    2010-01-01

    Sedation can be a beneficial effect of medication, but it can also be an unwanted side-effect, especially in patients who have to work. The aim of this study is to analyze whether physicians prescribe sedative antidepressants differently for patients at work vs. those on sick leave. A drug utilization study of mirtazapine was conducted for 12 weeks on 594 depressed outpatients from 227 general practitioners or psychiatrists. There were 319 patients working and 275 patients on sick leave. The two groups were compared regarding sociodemographic variables, illness characteristics, mode and course of treatment. As expected, patients on sick leave were sicker than working patients; they were treated by specialists more often and received higher dosages of mirtazapine. Work status had no influence on dosage after controlling for severity of illness, patient sex, and physician specialty. The overall improvement of depression was similar in both patient groups. Under treatment with mirtazapine, 64.5% of patients on sick leave returned to work, while 2.6% of the patients initially at work went on sick leave by the end of the 12 weeks. Sedation as an undesired side-effect was reported in less than 1%. The rate of sedative polypharmacy declined during treatment with mirtazapine. The results suggest that in routine treatment physicians do not see a need to adjust prescribing of mirtazapine because of its sedative properties to the working status of the patients. The majority of patients on sick leave returned to work. Mirtazapine can help to reduce sedative polypharmacy. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  14. Work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for sick leave in patients with neck or upper extremity complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, Sandra D M; Terwee, Caroline B; van der Windt, Daniëlle A W M; van der Beek, Allard J; Bouter, Lex M; Dekker, Joost

    2007-08-01

    To study work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for sick leave among patients who have visited their general practitioner for neck or upper extremity complaints. Three hundred and forty two patients with neck or upper extremity complaints completed self-report questionnaires at baseline and after 3 months. Cox regression models were used to investigate the association between work-related risk factors and sick leave (i.e., lost days from work due to neck or upper extremity complaints in 3 months). Effect modification by sick leave at baseline, sex, worrying and musculoskeletal co-morbidity was evaluated by adding product terms to the regression models. In the subgroup of patients who scored high on the pain copying scale "worrying" the hazard ratio of sick leave was 1.32 (95% CI 1.07-1.62) per 10% increase in heavy physical work. The subgroup of patients who were sitting for long periods of time had a reduced risk of sick leave as compared to patients who did not spend a lot of time sitting, again only in patients who scored high on the pain coping scale "worrying" (adjusted HR=0.17, 95%-CI 0.04-0.72). Other work-related risk factors were not significantly related to sick leave. Heavy physical work increased the risk of sick leave and prolonged sitting reduced the risk of sick leave in a subgroup of patients who worried much about their pain. Additional large longitudinal studies of sufficiently large size among employees with neck or upper extremity complaints are needed to confirm our results.

  15. Process evaluation of a blended web-based intervention on return to work for sick-listed employees with common mental health problems in the occupational health setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volker, D; Zijlstra-Vlasveld, M C; Brouwers, E.P.M.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C M

    2017-01-01

    Purpose A blended web-based intervention, "eHealth module embedded in collaborative occupational health care" (ECO), aimed at return to work, was developed and found effective in sick-listed employees with common mental disorders. In order to establish the feasibility of ECO, a process evaluation

  16. "Here we're all in the same boat" - a qualitative study of group based rehabilitation for sick-listed citizens with chronic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Nygaard; Kohberg, Maria; Herborg, Lene Gram

    2014-01-01

    emotional and instrumental, while the physical training program offers a "here-and-now"-experience and motivation to participate. This study indicates that the self-management program could potentially improve coping while the physical activity program revealed one example of a means of progression.......Musculoskeletal pain impacts upon everyday life. A degree of chronicity may pose an increased risk of sickness absence. One of two rehabilitative interventions, "Tailored Physical Activity" or "Chronic Pain Self-Management Program", was offered to sick-listed citizens who experienced pain...... on Roessler's notion of progression. The analysis revealed four main themes: (1) Living with pain and unemployment; (2) "Putting my foot down" and "asking for help"; (3) Significance of the group, including instructors, and; (4) Aspects significant to progression. Unemployment is a major life event...

  17. Solution-focused intervention for sick listed employees with psychological problems or muscle skeletal pain: a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN39140363

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Kare B

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term sick leave has been of concern to politicians and decision-makers in Norway for several years. In the current study we assess the efficacy of a solution-focused follow-up for sick-listed employees. Methods Employees on long-term sick leave due to psychological problems or muscle skeletal pain (n = 703 were invited to participate in the project. Following self-recruitment, 103 were randomly allocated to receive solution-focused follow-up (n = 53 or "treatment as usual" (n = 50. The intervention was integrated within the regular follow up of six social security offices and organised as eight weekly solution focused work sessions. Effectiveness was measured by rate of return to work and health related quality of life (SF-36. Results Intention to treat analysis showed no significant differences between the two groups for any of the outcome measures. Secondary analysis, comparing those who attended at least 50% of the sessions with the control group revealed a significant difference in favour of the active intervention group in the SF-36 subscale of mental health (Effect Size 0.56, p = 0.05. When comparing the subgroup of participants with psychological problems there was a significant difference in mental health in favour of the intervention group (Effect Size 0.71, p = 0.041. Conclusion A voluntary solution-focused intervention offered by social-security offices is no more effective than regular follow up for employees on long-term sick leave due to psychological problems or muscle skeletal pain.

  18. Collaborative care for sick-listed workers with major depressive disorder: a randomised controlled trial from the Netherlands Depression Initiative aimed at return to work and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasveld, Moniek C; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; Adèr, Herman J; Anema, Johannes R; Hoedeman, Rob; van Mechelen, Willem; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2013-04-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with absenteeism. In this study, the effectiveness of collaborative care, with a focus on return to work (RTW), was evaluated in its effect on depressive symptoms and the duration until RTW in sick-listed workers with MDD in the occupational health setting. In this randomised controlled trial, 126 sick-listed workers with MDD were randomised to usual care (N=61) or collaborative care (N=65). Collaborative care was applied by the occupational physician care manager, supported by a web-based tracking system and a consultant psychiatrist. Primary outcome measure was time to response. Secondary outcome measures were time to remission, depressive symptoms as continuous measure and the duration until full RTW. Collaborative care participants had a shorter time to response, with a difference of 2.8 months. However, no difference was found on time to remission or depressive symptoms as continuous measure. With a mean of 190 days in the collaborative care group, and 210 days in the usual care group, the groups did not differ significantly from each other in the duration until full RTW. Adherence to the collaborative care intervention was low. These results do not justify a widespread implementation of collaborative care in occupational healthcare, as it was operationalised in this study. However, since the study might have been underpowered for RTW and because treatment integrity was low, further research, with larger sample sizes, is needed to develop the best fitting (collaborative care) model for addressing RTW in depressed sick-listed workers. : ISRCTN78462860.

  19. Differences in predictors of return to work among long-term sick-listed employees with different self-reported reasons for sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, J.J.J.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Taris, T.W.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The present study aimed to gain insight in the predictors of full return to work (RTW) among employees on long-term sick leave due to three different self-reported reasons for sick leave: physical, mental or comorbid physical and mental problems. This knowledge can be used to develop

  20. Multifocal atherosclerosis in patient after acute first degree radiation sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metlyaeva N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: assessment the heavy psychosomatic and all-somatic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular pathology of patient, transferred an acute I degree radiation sickness, from the general evenly gamma-beta radiation. Conclusions. The subdepressive and disturbing-depressive syndrome of patient, transferred an acute radiation sickness (ARS of I degree, from the general evenly gamma-beta radiation, was independent risk factor of development of multifocal atherosclerosis; Features of development of all-somatic and psychosomatic pathology of patient are based on a combination of genetic prerequisites, environment influences (the stress caused by accident on the ChNPP and social factors, influencing on him during a course of life, especially during early socialization. Thus at development of psychosomatic frustration the combination of feature of the mental reaction connected with the personal characteristic and special relationship between mental (stress and physiological (somatic by aspects of reaction which led to metabolism violation, to aging, decrease in adaptation opportunities of an organism and development age — dependent pathology took place.

  1. Job mismatching, unequal opportunities and long-term sickness absence in female white-collar workers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmark, Hélène

    2009-01-01

    To investigate associations between long-term sick-listing and factors at work and in family life. Associations were investigated in a cross-sectional case-referent study. The study base included women in white-collar jobs, aged 30-55 years, living in three urban areas in Sweden between February 2004 and October 2004. A postal questionnaire was constructed with questions on occupational and family circumstances, and sent to 513 randomly selected female white-collar workers, of whom 233 had ongoing sick-leave of 90 days or more. The response rate was 81% (n = 413). Most of the women in this study were in managerial positions. The unadjusted associations showed that sick-listed women with children showed the highest estimates regarding reported long working hours, bullying, high mental strain, low control and low influence at work, and work-family imbalance. In a regression model, the strongest associations were: experiencing too high mental strain in work tasks (odds ratio (OR) = 2.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.09-3.15) and low control and influence at work (OR=2.17, 95% CI= 1.60-2.94). Sick-listed women reported an overall higher dissatisfaction with their workplace and working life. There seems to be a greater tendency for the sick-listed women in this study to experience low control and too high mental strain at work and to live in traditional family relationships with unequal opportunities. The women who were sick-listed were probably less able to cope with work stress and to find a balance between work and family life.

  2. Transitions between sickness absence, work, unemployment, and disability in Denmark 2004-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jacob; Bjørner, Jakob; Burr, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Studies of labor market outcomes like sickness absence are usually restricted to a single outcome. This paper investigates the use of multi-state models for studying multiple transitions between sick-listing, work, unemployment, and disability pension by analyzing longitudinal register data. Every...

  3. Return-to-work intervention versus usual care for sick-listed employees: health-economic investment appraisal alongside a cluster randomised trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokman, Suzanne; Volker, Danielle; Zijlstra-Vlasveld, Moniek C; Brouwers, Evelien PM; Boon, Brigitte; Beekman, Aartjan TF; Smit, Filip; Van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the health-economic costs and benefits of a guided eHealth intervention (E-health module embedded in Collaborative Occupational healthcare (ECO)) encouraging sick-listed employees to a faster return to work. Design A two-armed cluster randomised trial with occupational physicians (OPs) (n=62), clustered and randomised by region into an experimental and a control group, to conduct a health-economic investment appraisal. Online self-reported data were collected from employees at baseline, after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Setting Occupational health care in the Netherlands. Participants Employees from small-sized and medium-sized companies (≥18 years), sick-listed between 4 and 26 weeks with (symptoms of) common mental disorders visiting their OP. Interventions In the intervention group, employees (N=131) received an eHealth module aimed at changing cognitions regarding return to work, while OPs were supported by a decision aid for treatment and referral options. Employees in the control condition (N=89) received usual sickness guidance. Outcomes Measures Net benefits and return on investment based on absenteeism, presenteeism, health care use and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Results From the employer’s perspective, the incremental net benefits were €3187 per employee over a single year, representing a return of investment of €11 per invested Euro, with a break-even point at 6 months. The economic case was also favourable from the employee’s perspective, partly because of QALY health gains. The intervention was costing €234 per employee from a health service financier’s perspective. The incremental net benefits from a social perspective were €4210. This amount dropped to €3559 in the sensitivity analysis trimming the 5% highest costs. Conclusions The data suggest that the ECO intervention offers good value for money for virtually all stakeholders involved, because initial investments were more than recouped within a

  4. Effect of Psychosocial Work Environment on Sickness Absence Among Patients Treated for Ischemic Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering, Karin; Lund, Thomas; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2015-01-01

    -force becomes increasingly important. Previous studies among healthy workers suggest that the psychosocial working environment is associated with sickness absence. Whether the psychosocial working environment plays a role for patients with existing cardiovascular disease on return to work and sickness absence...

  5. [Relationship of sick leave before treatment to severity of symptoms and treatment outcome in in-patients with anxiety disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Franziska; Bassler, Markus; Bents, Hinrich; Carls, Winfried; Joraschky, Peter; Kriebel, Reinholde; Michelitsch, Boris; Ullrich, Joseph; Liedtke, Reinhard

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether or not being already on sick leave at admission to a psychosomatic clinic indicates a higher level of severity of symptoms in patients with anxiety disorders, and whether or not this has an impact on therapy outcome. We examined 194 in-patients at 8 psychosomatic clinics upon admission and discharge by interview and psychometric testing. Being on sick leave before admission proved to be an indicator for higher global symptom distress as well as a higher severity of anxiety symptoms. Treatment duration was longer for the sick leave group than for the patients that had not been on sick leave, but each group experienced the same degree of change in pre-and-post treatment symptoms. We conclude that sick leave before admission does give information about illness severity and need of treatment in patients with anxiety disorders.

  6. Sick leave in patients with ankylosing spondylitis before and after anti-TNF therapy: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Lars E; Petersson, Ingemar F; Geborek, Pierre; Jöud, Anna; Saxne, Tore; Jacobsson, Lennart T H; Englund, Martin

    2012-02-01

    To study levels of sick leave and disability pension before and after TNF-antagonist therapy in AS patients. Using the population-based South Swedish Arthritis Treatment Group register, we identified 139 AS patients (aged 18-58 years, 78% men), who between January 2002 and December 2008 started their first treatment with adalimumab, etanercept or infliximab. We linked data to the payment register by the Swedish Social Insurance Agency and calculated the proportion on sick leave in 30-day intervals from 12 months before treatment start until 12 months after. For each AS patient, we randomly selected four subjects from the general population matched for age, sex and area of residence. One to 3 months before treatment, an average of 24% of AS patients were on sick leave. During the first 6 months after treatment start, this fraction dropped to 15%, and further declined to 12% at 12 months (P patients with the general population, the relative risk of being on sick leave 3 months before treatment, treatment start and 12 months after treatment start was 8.0 (95% CI 4.6, 13.9), 9.2 (95% CI 5.4, 15.7) and 4.0 (95% CI 2.1, 6.3), respectively. The decrease in sick leave was not substantially offset by changes in disability pension. There is a decline in sick leave during the first 12 months after initiation of TNF-antagonist treatment in AS patients not explained by societal factors or secular trends. The proportion of AS patients on disability pension remained unchanged during the observation period.

  7. Sickness absence, marginality, and medically unexplained physical symptoms: a focus-group study of patients' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamland, Aase; Werner, Erik L; Malterud, Kirsti

    2013-06-01

    Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) form a major cause of sickness absence. The purpose of this study was to explore factors which may influence further marginalization among patients with MUPS on long-term sickness absence. Two focus-group discussions were conducted with a purposive sample of 12 participants, six men and six women, aged 24-59 years. Their average duration of sickness absence was 10.5 months. Participants were invited to share stories about experiences from the process leading to the ongoing sickness absence, with a focus on the causes being medically unexplained. Systematic text condensation was applied for analysis. Inspired by theories of marginalization and coping, the authors searched for knowledge of how patients' positive resources can be mobilized to counteract processes of marginality. Analysis revealed how invisible symptoms and lack of objective findings were perceived as an additional burden to the sickness absence itself. Factors that could counteract further marginalization were a supportive social network, positive coping strategies such as keeping to the daily schedule and physical activity, and positive attention and confidence from professionals. Confidence from both personal and professional contacts is crucial. GPs have an important and appreciated role in this aspect.

  8. Sick leave for follow-up control in thyroid cancer patients: comparison between stimulation with Thyrogen and thyroid hormone withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borget, I; Corone, C; Nocaudie, M; Allyn, M; Iacobelli, S; Schlumberger, M; De Pouvourville, G

    2007-05-01

    The clinical benefits of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH; Thyrogen) are well established as an alternative stimulation procedure to thyroid hormone withdrawal in the diagnostic follow-up of thyroid cancer patients. By avoiding periods of hypothyroidism, patients do not suffer from a decreased quality of life and keep their ability to work. This study compared the frequency, the duration and the cost of sick leave for follow-up control between rhTSH and withdrawal. The study population consisted of patients with thyroid carcinoma first treated by thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation. Patients were recruited at their control visit between October 2004 and May 2006 in three hospitals, both prospectively and retrospectively. Collection data consisted of patient information, job characteristics and duration of sick leave during the month before and the month after control. The valuation of sick leave used the friction cost method. Among the 306 patients included, 292 (95%) completed the entire questionnaire. The mean age was 46.7 years. Among the 194 active patients, patients treated with rhTSH, when compared with patients treated by withdrawal, were less likely to require sick leave (11 vs 33%; P=0.001). The mean duration of sick leave was shorter (3.1 vs 11.2 days; P=0.002) and indirect costs due to absenteeism accounted for 454 Euro +/- 1673 vs 1537 Euro +/- 2899 for withdrawal stimulation. For active patients, rhTSH treatment reduced the length and the cost of sick leave by 8.1 days and 1083 Euro per control respectively, when compared with withdrawal treatment.

  9. Some determinants of sick leave for respiratory disease : Occupation, asthma, obesity, smoking and rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Nathell, Lennart

    2002-01-01

    The cost to society of sick leave and disability pensions is currently the most urgent economic problem in Sweden. The availability of a large sick-listing database, Collective Group Health Insurance, AGS (in Swedish: Avtalsgruppsjukförsäkring) provides a rare opportunity to study sick leave in Sweden. Periods of sick leave exceeding 14 days are recorded together with a mandatory diagnosis by a physician, gender, age, residential area, name of the employer, and occupation. ...

  10. Effectiveness of a return-to-work program for workers without an employment contract, sick-listed due to common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammerts, Lieke; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; Bonefaas-Groenewoud, Karin; van Mechelen, Willem; Anema, Johannes

    2016-06-01

    Both the presence of mental health problems and the absence of an employment contract have been related to long-term sickness absence and unemployment, indicating a need for return-to-work (RTW) interventions. Our aim was to study the effectiveness of a new participatory, supportive RTW program for workers without an employment contract, sick-listed 2-14 weeks due to a common mental disorder, in comparison with usual care. A participatory approach, integrated care and direct placement in a competitive job were part of the new program. The primary outcome measure was duration until first sustainable RTW in competitive employment. Cox regression analysis was applied to study this outcome. Secondary outcome measures were average working hours, duration until any type of employment, sickness benefit duration, and perceived health and functioning. In total, 186 participants were included in the study and randomly allocated to an intervention group (N=94), or control group (N= 92). A hazard ratio (HR) of 1.15 (95% CI 0.61-2.16) for duration until first sustainable RTW indicated no significant effect of allocation to the new program, compared to usual care. Furthermore, no significant differences were found in favor of the intervention group on any secondary outcome. Compared to usual care, the new program did not result in a significant shorter duration until first sustainable RTW. However, due to low protocol adherence, it remains unclear what the results would have been if the program had been executed according to protocol.

  11. Sick Leave and Factors Influencing Sick Leave in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis : A Cross-Sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Appelman-Noordermeer, Simone; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A.F.M.; de Bruin-Weller, MS

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of sick leave due to atopic dermatitis (AD). The current literature on factors influencing sick leave is mostly derived from other chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sick leave due to AD and to identify

  12. Predictive validity of common mental disorders screening questionnaire as a screening instrument in long sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: Screening instruments for detection of common mental disorders have not been validity tested in long term sickness absence (LSA), which is the aim of this study for the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ). METHODS: Of all 2,414 incident persons on continuous sick...... in Denmark there is not a legal requirement that sick-listed persons are certified as sick by a physician....

  13. Sickness presence, sick leave and adjustment latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Gerich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Previous research on the association between adjustment latitude (defined as the opportunity to adjust work efforts in case of illness and sickness absence and sickness presence has produced inconsistent results. In particular, low adjustment latitude has been identified as both a risk factor and a deterrent of sick leave. The present study uses an alternative analytical strategy with the aim of joining these results together. Material and Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, a random sample of employees covered by the Upper Austrian Sickness Fund (N = 930 was analyzed. Logistic and ordinary least square (OLS regression models were used to examine the association between adjustment latitude and days of sickness absence, sickness presence, and an estimator for the individual sickness absence and sickness presence propensity. Results: A high level of adjustment latitude was found to be associated with a reduced number of days of sickness absence and sickness presence, but an elevated propensity for sickness absence. Conclusions: Employees with high adjustment latitude experience fewer days of health complaints associated with lower rates of sick leave and sickness presence compared to those with low adjustment latitude. In case of illness, however, high adjustment latitude is associated with a higher pro­bability of taking sick leave rather than sickness presence.

  14. Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About ACOG Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Morning Sickness: Nausea ... PDF Format Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Pregnancy How common is nausea and vomiting of ...

  15. [Vestibular testing abnormalities in individuals with motion sickness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Ou, Yongkang; Chen, Ling; Zheng, Yiqing

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the vestibular function of motion sickness. VNG, which tests the vestibular function of horizontal semicircular canal, and CPT, which tests vestibulospinal reflex and judge proprioceptive, visual and vestibular status, were performed in 30 motion sickness patients and 20 healthy volunteers (control group). Graybiel score was recorded at the same time. Two groups' Graybiel score (12.67 +/- 11.78 vs 2.10 +/- 6.23; rank test P<0.05), caloric test labyrinth value [(19.02 +/- 8.59) degrees/s vs (13.58 +/- 5.25) degrees/s; t test P<0.05], caloric test labyrinth value of three patients in motion sickness group exceeded 75 degrees/s. In computerized posturography testing (CPT), motion sickness patients were central type (66.7%) and disperse type (23.3%); all of control group were central type. There was statistical significance in two groups' CTP area, and motion sickness group was obviously higher than control group. While stimulating vestibulum in CPT, there was abnormality (35%-50%) in motion sickness group and none in control group. Generally evaluating CPT, there was only 2 proprioceptive hypofunction, 3 visual hypofunction, and no vestibular hypofunction, but none hypofunction in control group. Motion sickness patients have high vestibular susceptible, some with vestibular hyperfunction. In posturography, a large number of motion sickness patients are central type but no vestibular hypofunction, but it is hard to keep balance when stimulating vestibulum.

  16. The effect on length of sickness absence by recognition of undetected psychiatric disorder in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    of return to work. METHODS: Over one year all 2,414 incident persons on LSA in a well-defined population were within one week after eight weeks of continuous sickness absence posted the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ) to screen for mental disorders. In a randomized controlled trial...... (RCT), of 1,121 responding participants, persons with a minimum level of psychiatric symptoms 420 were allocated to the intervention group and 416 to the control group. The intervention was a psychiatric examination including diagnostics with Present State Examination and feedback regarding treatment...... to work. RESULTS: The rate of return to work was non-significantly lower for the intervention group than for the control group, except for persons without a psychiatric sick-leave diagnosis who were sick-listed from full time work, who showed a significantly higher rate of return to work...

  17. General practitioners' use of sickness certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roope, Richard; Parker, Gordon; Turner, Susan

    2009-12-01

    At present, sickness certification is largely undertaken by general practitioners (GPs). Guidance from the Department of Work and Pensions (DWP) is available to help with this task; however, there has been little formal evaluation of the DWP's guidance in relation to day-to-day general practice. To assess GPs' training, knowledge and application of the DWP's sickness certification guidelines. A structured questionnaire was sent to GPs within a (former) primary care trust (PCT). It probed demographics, training and knowledge of sickness certification guidelines. Case histories and structured questions were used to assess current practice. In this group of 113 GPs, there was a low awareness and use of the DWP's guidelines and Website relating to sickness certification. The majority of the GPs (63%) had received no training in sickness certification, and the mean length of time for those who had received training was 4.1 h. Most GPs also felt that patients and GPs have equal influence on the duration of sickness certification. This evidence of variable practice indicates that GPs should have more guidance and education in sickness certification. Closer sickness certification monitoring through existing GP computer systems may facilitate an improvement in practice that benefits patients and employers. The DWP, medical educators and PCTs may all have an additional role in further improving sickness certification practice.

  18. Predictive validity of common mental disorders screening questionnaire as a screening instrument in long term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: Screening instruments for detection of common mental disorders have not been validity tested in long term sickness absence (LSA), which is the aim of this study for the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ). METHODS: Of all 2,414 incident persons on continuous sick...... in Denmark there is not a legal requirement that sick-listed persons are certified as sick by a physician....

  19. A comparative study of cancer patients with short and long sick-leave after primary treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudbergsson, Saevar Berg; Torp, Steffen; Fløtten, Tone; Fosså, Sophie D; Nielsen, Roy; Dahl, Alv A

    2011-04-01

    Sick-leave after primary cancer treatment has hardly been studied. This study compares Norwegian cancer patients (CPs) with shorter (≤8 months) and longer (≥9 months) sick-leave after primary cancer treatment. Our aim was to characterize factors associated with these two types of sick-leave in order to identify possible factors for interventions by which long-term sick-leaves may be avoided. A mailed questionnaire was completed by a sample of Norwegian CPs 15 to 39 months after primary treatment of the ten most common invasive types of cancer. The groups with shorter (n=359) and longer (n=481) sick-leaves (SSL vs LSL) were compared with each other by self-reported information as to socio-demographic and cancer-related variables, health, quality of life, work ability, work situation and supportive interventions. The LSL consisted of 78% females, and 76% of them had breast or gynaecological cancer. A higher proportion of patients with low level of education, economical problems, treated with chemotherapy, hormones and multimodal treatment belonged to LSL compared to SSL. Significantly more LSL had recurrences of cancer, co-morbidity, regular use of medication, and poorer self-rated health, quality of life and work ability. Compared to SSL, more LSL reported needs for and offers of supportive care such as physiotherapy, physical activities and psychosocial support. A multivariate regression analysis showed that reduced work ability, changes in employment due to cancer, lack of support from supervisors at work, and having had combined treatment were significantly associated with being LSL. Longer sick-leave after primary cancer treatment is associated with combined cancer treatment, lack of support from supervisors and reduced overall work ability. Interventions and counselling related to the work place and reduced work ability could be of value for prevention of long-term sick-leaves.

  20. An explorative interview study of men and women on sick leave with a musculoskeletal diagnosis seeking an acceptable life role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla-Britt Eriksson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A dramatic increase in sicknesses absence in Sweden has led to a shift in the public debate. Departing from the view of sickness absence as a result of a poor work environment and stress, the debate in the early 2000s became more concerned with the breakdown of norms and the abuse of sickness insurance. Sickness absence became the responsibility of the individual rather than of society.Aim: This study has sought to explore the consequences of being on sick leave with a musculoskeletal diagnosis, the experiences of encounters with rehabilitation professionals, and the attitudes towards sick-listing from the perspective of the sick-listed persons. Methods: Individual in-depth interviews were conducted in 2010 with eight women and nine men aged 33-60 who were on long-term sick leave (at least 60 days with a musculoskeletal diagnosis. We analysed the data using a grounded-theory approach. Results: There was an obvious tension between work strategy as a societal norm and finding an acceptable life role when sick-listed. Four groups with partially differing experiences and perceptions crystallized out of the total population. These experiences and perceptions formed their choice of different acceptable life roles and strategies for gaining self-respect and the respect of others. Discussion: The fact that the four groups that emerged from our study experienced their sickness absence in different ways and their pathways back to work were different demonstrates the value of not considering those on sick leave with a musculoskeletal diagnosis as a homogeneous group. The results imply that rehabilitators should adopt a sensitive approach based on the sickness absentees’ wishes and views since the latter spend much of their time and thought during their period of sickness on counteracting distrust in search of an acceptable life role to regain respect.

  1. What factors are most relevant to the assessment of work ability of employees on long-term sick leave? The physicians' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers-Sánchez, Patricia M; Wind, Haije; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2013-07-01

    To reach insurance physician (IPs) consensus on factors that must be taken into account in the assessment of the work ability of employees who are sick-listed for 2 years. A Delphi study using online questionnaires was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011. One hundred and two insurance physicians reached a consensus on important factors for return to work (RTW) of employees on long-term sick leave; from those factors, the most relevant for the assessment of work ability was determined. From a total of 22 relevant factors considered for the return to work of long-term sick-listed employees, consensus was reached on nine relevant factors that need to be taken into account in the assessment of the work ability of employees on long-term sick leave. Relevant factors that support return to work are motivation, attitude towards RTW, assessment of cognitions and behaviour, vocational rehabilitation in an early stage and instruction for the sick-listed employee to cope with his disabilities. Relevant factors that hinder RTW are secondary gain from illness, negative perceptions of illness, inefficient coping style and incorrect advice of treating physicians regarding RTW. Non-medical personal and environmental factors may either hinder or promote RTW and must be considered in the assessment of the work ability of long-term sick-listed employees. Assessment of work ability should start early during the sick leave period. These factors may be used by IPs to improve the quality of the assessment of the work ability of employees on long-term sick leave.

  2. A 7-year follow-up of multidisciplinary rehabilitation among chronic neck and back pain patients. Is sick leave outcome dependent on psychologically derived patient groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Gunnar; Bergström, Cecilia; Hagberg, Jan; Bodin, Lennart; Jensen, Irene

    2010-04-01

    A valid method for classifying chronic pain patients into more homogenous groups could be useful for treatment planning, that is, which treatment is effective for which patient, and as a marker when evaluating treatment outcome. One instrument that has been used to derive subgroups of patients is the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI). The primary aim of this study was to evaluate a classification method based on the Swedish version of the MPI, the MPI-S, to predict sick leave among chronic neck and back pain patients for a period of 7 years after vocational rehabilitation. As hypothesized, dysfunctional patients (DYS), according to the MPI-S, showed a higher amount of sickness absence and disability pension expressed in days than adaptive copers (AC) during the 7-years follow-up period, even when adjusting for sickness absence prior to rehabilitation (355.8days, 95% confidence interval, 71.7; 639.9). Forty percent of DYS patients and 26.7% of AC patients received disability pension during the follow-up period. However, this difference was not statistically significant. Further analyses showed that the difference between patient groups was most pronounced among patients with more than 60days of sickness absence prior to rehabilitation. Cost-effectiveness calculations indicated that the DYS patients showed an increase in production loss compared to AC patients. The present study yields support for the prognostic value of this subgroup classification method concerning long-term outcome on sick leave following this type of vocational rehabilitation. Copyright (c) 2009 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sick leave and depression - determining factors and clinical effect in outpatient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Isaac; Kriston, Levente; Schneider, Frank; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Hegerl, Ulrich; Berger, Mathias; Härter, Martin

    2010-12-30

    Sickness leave is a major source of societal costs in depression treatment. However, very little is known about the rationale behind sick leave and their effects on depressive symptoms. Aim of the paper is to evaluate the effect of sick leave on treatment outcome and the association of sick leave with patient, depression and treatment-related factors. For this we compared patients with sick leave and non-sick leave regarding symptom reduction following 6 weeks of treatment. A total of 118 patients of 41 physicians in a controlled clinical trial with a naturalistic prospective design were analysed. After 8 weeks of treatment no significant differences were found between patients who had or did not have sick leave, in terms of improvement of depressive symptoms. The analyses of physician, patient and illness-related variables regarding their predictive value showed no significant effect. No systematic effect of sick leave and no clear criteria were found that were related to receiving a sick leave certificate. It can be assumed that physicians do not only base the decision of whether to sign a depressive patient off sick on illness-specific factors. For a targeted implementation of sick leave as therapeutic measure predictors for effectiveness should be defined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimation of doses to patients with chronic radiation sickness from external occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Delin; Dai Guangfu

    1991-01-01

    The doses to patients with chronic radiation sickness who had engaged in diagnostic radiology have been estimated according to the radiation work load, type and capacity of X-ray equipment, protection conditions, data of nationwide survey on doses to X-ray workers in China, or the data of dose monitoring in working places. Based on the activities of radium sources, time taken up in performing radium therapy, distance to radium sources and radiation work load, the doses to patients who had engaged in radium therapy have been estimated. The results of estimated average doses for 29 cases of chronic radiation sickness are given. Their average red marrow dose, trunk dose and effective dose equivalent are 1.3 Gy, 1.2 Gy and 1.6 Sv, respectively

  5. Harmful alcohol habits did not explain the social gradient of sickness absence in Swedish women and men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Charlotte M Mardby

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: the aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic distribution of harmful alcohol habits in sick-listed women and men, and whether the social gradient in sickness absence could be explained by the socioeconomic distribution of harmful alcohol habits.Methods: this cross-sectional questionnaire study included newly sick-listed individuals (n=2 798, 19-64 years, 66% women from Sweden. The outcome variable, self-reported harmful alcohol habits, was measured with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Registered socioeconomic variables (education, income, occupational class were explanatory variables with age as confounder and selfreported health, symptoms, mental wellbeing, and self-efficacy as mediators. Chi2-tests and logistic regression models were applied.Results: 9% of sick-listed women and 22% of men had harmful alcohol habits. Women with a low annual income (≤149 000 SEK had higher odds ratios (OR=2.47; 95% CI=1.43-4.27 of harmful alcohol habits than those with ≥300 000 SEK/year. The significance of low income remained when mediators were introduced into the logistic regression model (OR=2.03, 95% CI=1.13-3.65. In the model including age, income was no longer significant. Men with low income were more likely to have harmful alcohol habits than men with high income (OR=2.59; 95% CI=1.45-4.62. When mediators were included low income remained significant (OR=2.88; 95% CI=1.56-5.31. Income was no longer significant when age was introduced. Education and occupational status were not significant.Conclusions: harmful alcohol habits were common among sick-listed women and men. The socioeconomic differences in harmful alcohol habits did not explain the social gradient in sickness absence.

  6. GPs' negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Stein; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L; Maeland, Silje; Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2015-03-01

    To explore general practitioners' (GPs') specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patients suffering from subjective health complaints. Focus-group study. Nine focus-group interviews in three cities in different regions of Norway. 48 GPs (31 men, 17 women; age 32-65), participating in a course dealing with diagnostic practice and assessment of sickness certificates related to patients with subjective health complaints. The GPs identified some specific strategies that they claimed to apply when dealing with the question of sick leave for patients with subjective health complaints. The first step would be to build an alliance with the patient by complying with the wish for sick leave, and at the same time searching for information to acquire the patient's perspective. This position would become the basis for the main goal: motivating the patient for a rapid return to work by pointing out the positive effects of staying at work, making legal and moral arguments, and warning against long-term sick leave. Additional solutions might also be applied, such as involving other stakeholders in this process to provide alternatives to sick leave. GPs seem to have a conscious approach to negotiations of sickness certification, as they report applying specific strategies to limit the duration of sick leave due to subjective health complaints. This give-and-take way of handling sick-leave negotiations has been suggested by others to enhance return to work, and should be further encouraged. However, specific effectiveness of this strategy is yet to be proven, and further investigation into the actual dealings between doctor and patients in these complex encounters is needed.

  7. Reasons for and factors associated with issuing sickness certificates for longer periods than necessary: results from a nationwide survey of physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Physicians’ work with sickness certifications is an understudied field. Physicians’ experience of sickness certifying for longer periods than necessary has been previous reported. However, the extent and frequency of such sickness certification is largely unknown. The aims of this study were: a) to explore the frequency of sickness certifying for longer periods than necessary among physicians working in different clinical settings; b) to examine main reasons for issuing sickness certificates for longer periods than necessary; and c) to examine factors associated with unnecessary issued sickness certificates. Methods In 2008, all physicians living and working in Sweden (a total of 36,898) were sent an invitation to participate in a questionnaire study concerning their sick-listing practices. A total of 22,349 (60.6%) returned the questionnaire. In the current study, physicians reporting handling sickness certification consultations at least weekly were included in the analyses, a total of 12,348. Results The proportion of physicians reporting issuing sickness certificates for longer periods than actually necessary varied greatly between different types of clinics, with the highest frequency among those working at: occupational medicine, orthopedic, primary health care, and psychiatry clinics; and lowest among those working in: eye, dermatology, ear/nose/throat, oncology, surgery, and infection clinics. Logistic analyses showed that sickness certifying for longer periods than necessary due to limitations in the health care system was particularly common among physicians working at occupational medicine, orthopedic, and primary health care clinics. Sickness certifying for longer periods than necessary due to patient-related factors was much more common among physicians working at psychiatric clinics. In addition to differences between clinics, frequency of sickness certificates issued for longer periods than necessary varied by age, physicians

  8. The effect on length of sickness absence by recognition of undetected psychiatric disorder in long-term sickness absence. A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    of return to work. METHODS: Over one year all 2,414 incident persons on LSA in a well-defined population were within one week after eight weeks of continuous sickness absence posted the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ) to screen for mental disorders. In a randomized controlled trial...... (RCT), of 1,121 responding participants, persons with a minimum level of psychiatric symptoms 420 were allocated to the intervention group and 416 to the control group. The intervention was a psychiatric examination including diagnostics with Present State Examination and feedback regarding treatment...... to work. RESULTS: The rate of return to work was non-significantly lower for the intervention group than for the control group, except for persons without a psychiatric sick-leave diagnosis who were sick-listed from full time work, who showed a significantly higher rate of return to work...

  9. Sleeping Sickness Surveillance In The Abraka Sleeping Sickness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Confirmation of sleeping sickness (ss) was by the detection of trypanosomes in blood, body fluids and biopsy tissues. Thirteen (0.8%) seropositive subjects were parasitologically confirmed and treated with melasoprol at the Baptist Medical Centre (BMC) Eku. One (0.06%) patient died during the course of treatment.

  10. Study of prochlorperazine (Stemetil) in radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, A.K.

    1976-01-01

    The incidence of radiation sickness and the efficacy of prochlorperazine in alleviating it among the patients under radiotherapy have been investigated. 116 patients from those under radiotherapy were randomly chosen. 38% of this sample developed radiation sickness symptoms (nausea and vomiting). The onset of symptoms occurred in the earlier periods of radiotherapy. The younger and older group were more susceptible to side effects of radiation. Prochlorperazine was administered immediately after the onset of symptoms of radiation sickness in the dose schedule of 10 mg twice daily for adults and was continued for 5 to 10 days after the alleviation of the symptoms. This was found to be effective in all patients. (M.G.B.)

  11. Does computer use pose a hazard for future long-term sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, JH; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate if weekly duration of computer use predicted sickness absence for more than two weeks at a later time.A cohort of 2146 frequent computer users filled in a questionnaire at baseline and was followed for one year with continuously recording of the duration of...... and upper limb, and it seems that computer use neither predicts future long-term sickness absence of all causes.......The aim of the study was to investigate if weekly duration of computer use predicted sickness absence for more than two weeks at a later time.A cohort of 2146 frequent computer users filled in a questionnaire at baseline and was followed for one year with continuously recording of the duration...... of computer use and furthermore followed for 300 weeks in a central register of sickness absence for more than 2 weeks.147 participants of the 2,146 (6.9%) became first time sick listed in the follow-up period. Overall, mean weekly computer use did not turn out to be a risk factor for later sickness absence...

  12. Psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence -- a population-based cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The study estimates the incidence of psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence (LSA; more than eight weeks of continuous sickness absence) over one year. The study is the first accounting for everybody on LSA by linking a psychiatric assessment for all persons on LSA to public...... registers. METHODS: In a Danish population of 120,000 inhabitants all 2,414 incident persons on LSA within one year were posted a questionnaire, of whom 1,121 (46.4%) responded. In a two phase design the 1,121 sick-listed persons were screened for psychiatric disorders. Phase 2 consisted of 844 people...

  13. Cost-effectiveness of an activating intervention by social workers for patients with minor mental disorders on sick leave: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, Evelien P M; de Bruijne, Martine C; Terluin, Berend; Tiemens, Bea G; Verhaak, Peter F M

    2007-04-01

    Sickness absence often occurs in patients with emotional distress or minor mental disorders. In several European countries, these patients are over-represented among those receiving illness benefits, and interventions are needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an intervention conducted by social workers, designed to reduce sick leave duration in patients absent from work owing to emotional distress or minor mental disorders. In this Randomized Controlled Trial, patients were recruited by GPs. The intervention group (N = 98) received an activating, structured treatment by social workers, the control group (N = 96) received routine GP care. Sick leave duration, clinical symptoms, and medical consumption (consumption of medical staffs' time as well as consumption of drugs) were measured at baseline and 3, 6, and 18 months later. Neither for sick leave duration nor for clinical improvement over time were significant differences found between the groups. Also the associated costs were not significantly lower in the intervention group. Compared with usual GP care, the activating social work intervention was not superior in reducing sick leave duration, improving clinical symptoms, and decreasing medical consumption. It was also not cost-effective compared with GP routine care in the treatment of minor mental disorders. Therefore, further implementation of the intervention is not justified. Potentially, programmes aimed at reducing sick leave duration in patients with minor mental disorders carried out closer to the workplace (e.g. by occupational physicians) are more successful than programmes in primary care.

  14. Work participation and health-related characteristics of sickness absence beneficiaries with multiple somatic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momsen, A H; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Nielsen, M B D

    2016-01-01

    unemployed was higher for this group than for those with a low score. Adjusting for general health reduced the association between symptoms and unemployment, whereas problems with social relations only affected it marginally. Conclusions: Sick-listed individuals reporting high levels of symptoms were more......Objectives: The primary aim was to study whether high levels of multiple symptoms influenced sick-listed individuals' employment status or desire to return to work (RTW) and whether this was associated with social relations at work. Study design: A cross-sectional study nested in a clinical trial......-listing, and use of health care were register-data. Multivariate logistic regression analyses with adjustments were performed. Results: Beneficiaries with high SCL-SOM score (n = 218, 33%) reported poorer health, job satisfaction, a lower desire to RTW and more problems with supervisors. The risk of being...

  15. Relational social capital: Norwegian women’s experiences of the process of being on sick leave and the path back to work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Johanne Solheim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The reduction of the number of people that drop out of the labour force and temporarily receive public benefits has increasingly been a political priority in Norway since the early 1990s. In particular, there has been a focus on reducing sick leave. However, none of the efforts in this direction has had the desired effects. To succeed, more knowledge is needed regarding the factors that create the illnesses influencing the length of the sickness leave.Aim: The purpose of this article is to study how relational social capital, both at work and home, has an impact on the experience of being on long-term sick leave and the process of returning to work.Methods: Individual in-depth interviews have been performed with 20 women between 25 and 60 years old. They were all sick-listed for more than 30 days during 2013 with mental illness or musculoskeletal diagnoses.Results: The study illustrates how long-term sickness absence can threaten the identity and self-confidence of the sick-listed persons. The effects of relational social capital are expressed through personal relationships with their family members, friends, colleagues, and managers at their workplace. Individuals with high social capital in both the workplace and the domestic sphere have the best prospects for recovering and returning to work. High workplace capital may, to a certain degree, compensate for low domestic social capital. Single mothers with low social capital both in their domestic life and in their workplace are the most vulnerable.Conclusion: Relational social capital influences both the experience of being on sick leave and the process of returning to work. The efforts to reduce sickness leave should therefore focus on not only the sick-listed person, but also their relationships with their family and in their workplace, as well as the interplay between these.

  16. Work-family conflict as a risk factor for sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, N W H; Kant, I J; van Amelsvoort, L G P M; Kristensen, T S; Swaen, G M H; Nijhuis, F J N

    2006-07-01

    (1) To study both cross-sectional and prospective relationships between work-family conflict and sickness absence from work; (2) to explore the direction of the relationships between the different types of conflict (work-home interference and home-work interference) and sickness absence; and (3) to explore gender differences in the above relationships. Data from the Maastricht Cohort Study were used with six months of follow up (5072 men and 1015 women at T6). Work-family conflict was measured with the Survey Work-Home Interference Nijmegen (SWING). Sickness absence was assessed objectively through individual record linkage with the company registers on sickness absence. In the cross-sectional analyses, high levels of work-family conflict, work-home interference, and home-work interference were all associated with a higher odds of being absent at the time of completing the questionnaire, after controlling for age and long term disease. Differences in average number of absent days between cases and non-cases of work-home interference were significant for men and most pronounced in women, where the average number of absent days over six months follow up was almost four days higher in women with high versus low-medium work-home interference. A clear relation between work-family conflict and sickness absence was shown. Additionally, the direction of work-family conflict was associated with a different sickness absence pattern. Sickness absence should be added to the list of adverse outcomes for employees struggling to combine their work and family life.

  17. Low Risk of Unemployment, Sick Leave, and Work Disability Among Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Andersen, Marianne K; Prosberg, Michelle V; Vind, Ida

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To assess the occurrence and risk of unemployment (UE), sick leave (SL), and work disability (WD) in incident patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) after 7 years of follow-up compared with the background population and to determine outcome predictors. METHODS: The study popul...... underscores the need for the early identification of risk factors. A multidisciplinary approach to secure IBD patients' participation in the labor market is recommended.......BACKGROUND: To assess the occurrence and risk of unemployment (UE), sick leave (SL), and work disability (WD) in incident patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) after 7 years of follow-up compared with the background population and to determine outcome predictors. METHODS: The study...... population consisted of patients aged 18 to 67 years (N = 379) from an IBD inception cohort registered January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2004 in the Copenhagen area. Clinical data were retrospectively collected from medical records. Data on UE, SL, and WD were retrieved from national registries. A random...

  18. Determinants for return to work among sickness certified patients in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Celsing Anna-Sophia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term sickness absence is one of the main risk factors for permanent exit out of the labour market. Early identification of the condition is essential to facilitate return to work. The aim of this study was to analyse possible determinants of return to work and their relative impact. Methods All 943 subjects aged 18 to 63 years, sickness certified at a Primary Health Care Centre in Sweden from 1 January until 31 August 2004, were followed up for three years. Baseline information on sex, age, sick leave diagnosis, employment status, extent of sick leave, and sickness absence during the year before baseline was obtained, as was information on all compensated days of sick leave, disability pension and death during follow-up. Results Slightly more than half the subjects were women, mean age was 39 years. Half of the study population returned to work within 14 days after baseline, and after three years only 15 subjects were still on sick leave. In multivariate proportional hazards regression analysis the extent of previous sick leave, age, being on part-time sick leave, and having a psychiatric, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, nervous disease, digestive system, or injury or poisoning diagnosis decreased the return to work rate, while being employed increased it. Marital status, sex, being born in Sweden, citizenship, and annual salary had no influence. In logistic regression analyses across follow-up time these variables altogether explained 88-90% of return to work variation. Conclusions Return to work was positively or negatively associated by a number of variables easily accessible in the GP’s office. Track record data in the form of previous sick leave was the most influential variable.

  19. Explanation of nurse standard of external exposure acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiuling; Jiang Enhai; Sun Feifei; Zhang Bin; Wang Xiaoguang; Wang Guilin

    2012-01-01

    National occupational health standard-Nurse Standard of External Exposure Acute Radiation Sickness has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. Based on the extensive research of literature, collection of the previous nuclear and radiation accidents excessive exposed personnel data and specific situations in China, this standard was enacted according to the current national laws, regulations, and the opinions of peer experts. It is mainly used for care of patients with acute radiation sickness, and also has directive significance for care of patients with iatrogenic acute radiation sickness which due to the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation pretreatment. To correctly carry out this standard and to reasonably implement nursing measures for patients with acute radiation sickness, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  20. Pregnancy-related sickness absence among employed women in a Swedish county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanderson, K; Hensing, G; Carstensen, J; Bjurulf, P

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the variation of pregnancy-related sickness absence among employed women according to age, occupation, and degree of male-female domination within occupations. Data from a prospective study of all new sick-leave spells exceeding 7 d in 1985 and 1986 in the county of Ostergötland, Sweden, were related to the population at risk, through the Swedish Medical Birth Register. The subjects included in the analysis were all 7000 employed women that gave birth in 1985 and 1986, of which some 3000 were sick-listed at least once with pregnancy-related diagnoses. There was little difference in the pregnancy-related sickness absence between the age groups. The age-standardized rate for sick leaves involving pregnancy-related diagnoses differed substantially between occupations. Women in the metal industry had the highest rates; those employed in administration, banking, and insurance had the lowest. White-collar occupations generally had lower rates and blue-collar occupations higher rates, with some exceptions (eg, in saw mills, farming, and the chemical industry). Gender-integrated occupations had the lowest sick-leave rate, while extremely male-dominated jobs had the highest. The latter association remained after adjustment for occupational area. There were considerable differences between occupational groups in the rates of sick leaves involving pregnancy-related diagnoses. Some differences were related to physical load of the jobs being done, but not all. It seems important to consider also male-female domination within a job with respect to such sick leaves.

  1. Understanding the implementation of 'sick day guidance' to prevent acute kidney injury across a primary care setting in England: a qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Anne-Marie; Elvey, Rebecca; Howard, Susan J; McCorkindale, Sheila; Sinha, Smeeta; Blakeman, Tom

    2017-11-08

    The study sought to examine the implementation of sick day guidance cards designed to prevent acute kidney injury (AKI), in primary care settings. Qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted and comparative analysis informed by normalisation process theory was undertaken to understand sense-making, implementation and appraisal of the cards and associated guidance. A single primary care health setting in the North of England. 29 participants took part in the qualitative evaluation: seven general practitioners, five practice nurses, five community pharmacists, four practice pharmacists, two administrators, one healthcare assistant and five patients. The sick day guidance intervention was rolled out (2015-2016) in general practices (n=48) and community pharmacies (n=60). The materials consisted of a 'medicine sick day guidance' card, provided to patients who were taking the listed drugs. The card provided advice about medicines management during episodes of acute illness. An information leaflet was provided to healthcare practitioners and administrators suggesting how to use and give the cards. Implementation of sick day guidance cards to prevent AKI entailed a new set of working practises across primary care. A tension existed between ensuring reach in administration of the cards to at risk populations while being confident to ensure patient understanding of their purpose and use. Communicating the concept of temporary cessation of medicines was a particular challenge and limited their administration to patient populations at higher risk of AKI, particularly those with less capacity to self-manage. Sick day guidance cards that focus solely on medicines management may be of limited patient benefit without adequate resourcing or if delivered as a standalone intervention. Development and evaluation of primary care interventions is urgently warranted to tackle the harm associated with AKI. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the

  2. Severe occupational hand eczema, job stress and cumulative sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, D; Stock Gissendanner, S; Finkeldey, F; John, S M; Werfel, T; Diepgen, T L; Breuer, K

    2014-10-01

    Stress is known to activate or exacerbate dermatoses, but the relationships between chronic stress, job-related stress and sickness absence among occupational hand eczema (OHE) patients are inadequately understood. To see whether chronic stress or burnout symptoms were associated with cumulative sickness absence in patients with OHE and to determine which factors predicted sickness absence in a model including measures of job-related and chronic stress. We investigated correlations of these factors in employed adult inpatients with a history of sickness absence due to OHE in a retrospective cross-sectional explorative study, which assessed chronic stress (Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress), burnout (Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure), clinical symptom severity (Osnabrück Hand Eczema Severity Index), perceived symptom severity, demographic characteristics and cumulative days of sickness absence. The study group consisted of 122 patients. OHE symptoms were not more severe among patients experiencing greater stress and burnout. Women reported higher levels of chronic stress on some measures. Cumulative days of sickness absence correlated with individual dimensions of job-related stress and, in multiple regression analysis, with an overall measure of chronic stress. Chronic stress is an additional factor predicting cumulative sickness absence among severely affected OHE patients. Other relevant factors for this study sample included the 'cognitive weariness' subscale of the Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure and the physical component summary score of the SF-36, a measure of health-related life quality. Prevention and rehabilitation should take job stress into consideration in multidisciplinary treatment strategies for severely affected OHE patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Cost effectiveness of an activating intervention by social workers for patients with minor mental disorders on sick leave: a randomised controlled trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwers, E.P.M.; Bruijne, M.C. de; Tiemens, B.G.; Terluin, B.; Verhaak, P.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sickness absence often occurs in patients with emotional distress or minor mental disorders. In several European countries, these patients are over-represented among those receiving illness benefits, and interventions are needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an intervention conducted by social workers, designed to reduce sick leave duration in patients absent from work owing to emotional distress or minor mental disorders. METHODS: In this Random...

  4. Reduction in sick leave and costs to society of patients with Meniere's disease after treatment of temporomandibular and cervical spine disorders: a controlled six-year cost-benefit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorne, Assar; Agerberg, Göran

    2003-04-01

    This study compares the frequency of sick leave between the three-year period after and the three-year period before coordinated treatment of temporomandibular and cervical spine disorders in 24 patients (ten males and 14 females) diagnosed with Meniere's disease. The frequency of sick leave for the patients was also compared with the frequency of sick leave in a control group from the population. A cost-benefit analysis was made regarding the costs to society of sick leave related to the treatment costs of the patients. In a previous study the same patients were treated for their severe signs and symptoms of temporomandibular and cervical spine disorders, and they reported a substantial reduction in their vertigo, non-whirling dizziness, tinnitus, feeling of fullness in the ear, pain in the face and jaws, pain in the neck and shoulders, and headache. The number of days of sick leave and the year the patient began to receive disability pension due to the symptoms of Meniere's disease were obtained from the National Health Insurance Service in Sweden. Two of the patients received disability pension benefits due to Meniere's disease 17 years prior to their normal retirement pension. A third patient received disability pension for another reason and two were receiving a retirement pension. Data on the remaining 19 patients showed a considerable reduction in number of days of sick leave during the three-year period after coordinated treatment (270 days) compared with the three-year period before the treatment (1,536 days). The control subjects used a total of 14 days sick leave for the same symptoms during the same six-year period. Vertigo (nine days) was the dominant cause followed by pain in the neck and shoulders, and headache. The reduction in sick leave for the 19 nonretired patients and the treatment costs for the 24 patients can be used for a simple cost-benefit calculation for the subgroup of nonretired patients. During the first three years after treatment the

  5. Validation of sick leave measures: self-reported sick leave and sickness benefit data from a Danish national register compared to multiple workplace-registered sick leave spells in a Danish municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelfeldt, Christina Malmose; Jensen, Chris; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Fleten, Nils; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2012-08-15

    Previous validation studies of sick leave measures have focused on self-reports. Register-based sick leave data are considered to be valid; however methodological problems may be associated with such data. A Danish national register on sickness benefit (DREAM) has been widely used in sick leave research. On the basis of sick leave records from 3,554 and 2,311 eldercare workers in 14 different workplaces, the aim of this study was to: 1) validate registered sickness benefit data from DREAM against workplace-registered sick leave spells of at least 15 days; 2) validate self-reported sick leave days during one year against workplace-registered sick leave. Agreement between workplace-registered sick leave and DREAM-registered sickness benefit was reported as sensitivities, specificities and positive predictive values. A receiver-operating characteristic curve and a Bland-Altman plot were used to study the concordance with sick leave duration of the first spell. By means of an analysis of agreement between self-reported and workplace-registered sick leave sensitivity and specificity was calculated. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (95% CI) were used. The probability that registered DREAM data on sickness benefit agrees with workplace-registered sick leave of at least 15 days was 96.7% (95% CI: 95.6-97.6). Specificity was close to 100% (95% CI: 98.3-100). The registered DREAM data on sickness benefit overestimated the duration of sick leave spells by an average of 1.4 (SD: 3.9) weeks. Separate analysis on pregnancy-related sick leave revealed a maximum sensitivity of 20% (95% CI: 4.3-48.1).The sensitivity of self-reporting at least one or at least 56 sick leave day/s was 94.5 (95% CI: 93.4 - 95.5) % and 58.5 (95% CI: 51.1 - 65.6) % respectively. The corresponding specificities were 85.3 (95% CI: 81.4 - 88.6) % and 98.9 (95% CI: 98.3 - 99.3) %. The DREAM register offered valid measures of sick leave spells of at least 15 days among eldercare employees. Pregnancy

  6. Validation of sick leave measures: self-reported sick leave and sickness benefit data from a Danish national register compared to multiple workplace-registered sick leave spells in a Danish municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stapelfeldt Christina Malmose

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous validation studies of sick leave measures have focused on self-reports. Register-based sick leave data are considered to be valid; however methodological problems may be associated with such data. A Danish national register on sickness benefit (DREAM has been widely used in sick leave research. On the basis of sick leave records from 3,554 and 2,311 eldercare workers in 14 different workplaces, the aim of this study was to: 1 validate registered sickness benefit data from DREAM against workplace-registered sick leave spells of at least 15 days; 2 validate self-reported sick leave days during one year against workplace-registered sick leave. Methods Agreement between workplace-registered sick leave and DREAM-registered sickness benefit was reported as sensitivities, specificities and positive predictive values. A receiver-operating characteristic curve and a Bland-Altman plot were used to study the concordance with sick leave duration of the first spell. By means of an analysis of agreement between self-reported and workplace-registered sick leave sensitivity and specificity was calculated. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (95% CI were used. Results The probability that registered DREAM data on sickness benefit agrees with workplace-registered sick leave of at least 15 days was 96.7% (95% CI: 95.6-97.6. Specificity was close to 100% (95% CI: 98.3-100. The registered DREAM data on sickness benefit overestimated the duration of sick leave spells by an average of 1.4 (SD: 3.9 weeks. Separate analysis on pregnancy-related sick leave revealed a maximum sensitivity of 20% (95% CI: 4.3-48.1. The sensitivity of self-reporting at least one or at least 56 sick leave day/s was 94.5 (95% CI: 93.4 – 95.5 % and 58.5 (95% CI: 51.1 – 65.6 % respectively. The corresponding specificities were 85.3 (95% CI: 81.4 – 88.6 % and 98.9 (95% CI: 98.3 – 99.3 %. Conclusions The DREAM register offered valid measures of sick

  7. Predictors of Sick Sinus Syndrome in Patients after Successful Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Atrial Flutter

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Changho; Jin, Moo-Nyun; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kim, In-Soo; Uhm, Jae-Sun; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung; Joung, Boyoung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The identification of sick sinus syndrome (SSS) in patients with atrial flutter (AFL) is difficult before the termination of AFL. This study investigated the patient characteristics used in predicting a high risk of SSS after AFL ablation. Materials and Methods Out of 339 consecutive patients who had undergone radiofrequency ablation for AFL from 1991 to 2012, 27 (8%) had SSS (SSS group). We compared the clinical characteristics of patients with and without SSS (n=312, no-SSS group). ...

  8. Living conditions, including life style, in primary-care patients with nonacute, nonspecific spinal pain compared with a population-based sample: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odd Lindell

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Odd Lindell, Sven-Erik Johansson, Lars-Erik Strender1Center for Family and Community Medicine, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, SwedenBackground: Nonspecific spinal pain (NSP, comprising back and/or neck pain, is one of the leading disorders behind long-term sick-listing, including disability pensions. Early interventions to prevent long-term sick-listing require the identification of patients at risk. The aim of this study was to compare living conditions associated with long-term sick-listing for NSP in patients with nonacute NSP, with a nonpatient population-based sample. Nonacute NSP is pain that leads to full-time sick-listing>3 weeks.Methods: One hundred and twenty-five patients with nonacute NSP, 2000–2004, were included in a randomized controlled trial in Stockholm County with the objective of comparing cognitive–behavioral rehabilitation with traditional primary care. For these patients, a cross-sectional study was carried out with baseline data. Living conditions were compared between the patients and 338 nonpatients by logistic regression. The conditions from univariate analyses were included in a multivariate analysis. The nonsignificant variables were excluded sequentially to yield a model comprising only the significant factors (P <0.05. The results are shown as odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals.Results: In the univariate analyses, 13 of the 18 living conditions had higher odds for the patients with a dominance of physical work strains and Indication of alcohol over-consumption, odds ratio (OR 14.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2–67.6. Five conditions qualified for the multivariate model: High physical workload, OR 13.7 (CI 5.9–32.2; Hectic work tempo, OR 8.4 (CI 2.5–28.3; Blue-collar job, OR 4.5 (CI 1.8–11.4; Obesity, OR 3.5 (CI 1.2–10.2; and Low education, OR 2.7 (CI 1.1–6.8.Conclusions: As most of the living conditions have previously been

  9. [Duration of sick-leave and the moment of recovery in the hotel industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folgerø, I S; Larsen, S

    1991-09-10

    The paper addresses the problem of sick leave in the hotel industry. It was hypothesized that there would be a tendency for granted sick leaves to include weekends, thus imposing an additional financial burden on the hotel in question. A total of 401 medical certificates from a large city hotel were reviewed. According to these certificates one third of the patients regained their health between Sunday and Monday. Of the patients with "short" sick leaves (less than a fortnight), 40% recovered between Sunday and Monday. The average duration of the sick leave for this group was 1.3 days longer than that of the patients whose sick leaves ended on other days of the week. The results are discussed in terms of the ambiguous position of the medical practitioner.

  10. Sickness absence: a systematic review and meta-analysis of psychological treatments for individuals on sick leave due to common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsson, Sigrid; Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik; Öst, Lars-Göran

    2018-01-30

    Sick leave due to common mental disorders (CMDs) increase rapidly and present a major societal challenge. The overall effect of psychological interventions to reduce sick leave and symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated and there is a need for a systematic review and meta-analysis of the field. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to calculate the effect size of psychological interventions for CMDs on sick leave and psychiatric symptoms based on all published randomized controlled trials. Methodological quality, the risk of bias and publication bias were also assessed. The literature searches gave 2240 hits and 45 studies were included. The psychological interventions were more effective than care as usual on both reduced sick leave (g = 0.15) and symptoms (g = 0.21). There was no significant difference in effect between work focused interventions, problem-solving therapy, cognitive behavioural therapy or collaborative care. We conclude that psychological interventions are more effective than care as usual to reduce sick leave and symptoms but the effect sizes are small. More research is needed on psychological interventions that evaluate effects on sick leave. Consensual measures of sick leave should be established and quality of psychotherapy for patients on sick leave should be improved.

  11. Sickness certification difficulties in Ireland--a GP focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, M; Thorley, K; Von Hout, M-C

    2013-07-01

    Sickness certification causes problems for general practitioners (GPs). Difficulty with the assessment of capacity to work, conflict with patients and other non-medical factors have been shown to influence GPs' decision-making. Inadequate leadership and management of certification issues add to GPs' difficulties. To explore problems associated with sickness certification, as part of a larger mixed method research project exploring GPs' experiences and perceptions of sickness certification in Ireland. A qualitative study in an urban region of Ireland. A focus group of four male and four female GPs explored problems encountered by GPs in certifying sickness absence. Thematic data analysis was used. Three major themes emerged: perception of the sickness certification system, organization of health care and cultural factors in sickness absence behaviour. Employment structures in public and private sectors and lack of communication with other health care providers and employers were identified as complicating sickness certification. GPs encounter a complexity of issues in sick certification and are dissatisfied with their role in certifying sickness absence. Our results open the debate for policy change and development in Ireland.

  12. [Problem list in computer-based patient records].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, C A

    1997-01-14

    Computer-based clinical information systems are capable of effectively processing even large amounts of patient-related data. However, physicians depend on rapid access to summarized, clearly laid out data on the computer screen to inform themselves about a patient's current clinical situation. In introducing a clinical workplace system, we therefore transformed the problem list-which for decades has been successfully used in clinical information management-into an electronic equivalent and integrated it into the medical record. The table contains a concise overview of diagnoses and problems as well as related findings. Graphical information can also be integrated into the table, and an additional space is provided for a summary of planned examinations or interventions. The digital form of the problem list makes it possible to use the entire list or selected text elements for generating medical documents. Diagnostic terms for medical reports are transferred automatically to corresponding documents. Computer technology has an immense potential for the further development of problem list concepts. With multimedia applications sound and images will be included in the problem list. For hyperlink purpose the problem list could become a central information board and table of contents of the medical record, thus serving as the starting point for database searches and supporting the user in navigating through the medical record.

  13. Euthyroid sick syndrome in head injury patients compared with Glasgow Coma and Outcome Scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palugniok, R.; Kochanska-Dziurowicz, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Background: Evaluation of the role of euthyroid sick syndrome and pituitary gland hormonal changes and the prognosis of patient mortality after severe brain injury. METHODS: The research was conducted on 65 patients with isolated severe brain injury. Blood samples were obtained as soon as possible after the injury and on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th and 7th day after the injury. Blood concentrations of T3, rT3, T4, FT4, TSH, and PRL were estimated. The patients' state of health was evaluated in the sixth hour after the injury, using Glasgow Coma Scale, and after 180 days, using the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Multidirectional correlation was sought between the concentrations of the estimated hormones and the score obtained in the Glasgow Coma Scale and Glasgow Outcome Scale. RESULTS: Cluster analysis showed that concentrations of the hormones in the patients who died are grouped in different clusters from those in the patients who survived. This proves that hormonal patterns are different in these groups. Statistically significant lower T3 concentrations were observed on the 3rd day in comparison with the 0 day. Cumulative proportion surviving was lower for the OP group in comparison with the NOP group and amounted to 0.57. CONCLUSIONS: In all patients covered by the research euthyroid sick syndrome was diagnosed. T3 concentration on the 3rd day after the injury together with the evaluation in Glasgow Coma Scale allows for more precise prognosis. (author)

  14. Work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for sick leave in patients with neck or upper extremity complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, S.D.M.; Terwee, C.B.; Windt, D.A.W.M. van der; Beek, A.J. van der; Bouter, L.M.; Dekker, J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To study work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for sick leave among patients who have visited their general practitioner for neck or upper extremity complaints. Methods: Three hundred and forty two patients with neck or upper extremity complaints completed self-report

  15. Impact of anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha treatment on admissions to hospital and days of sick leave in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listing, J; Brandt, J; Rudwaleit, M; Zink, A; Sieper, J; Braun, J

    2004-12-01

    To analyse the impact of infliximab treatment on the number of hospital inpatient days and days of sick leave in patients with active ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The data of a 2 year open extension study of a 12 week, double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial, in which all patients with AS were treated with 5 mg/kg infliximab, were used to investigate the effect of anti-TNF treatment on admissions to hospital and days of sick leave. All patients were interviewed at baseline and at regular intervals during the study to collect this information by questionnaires. Patients who completed 2 years of treatment (n = 49) and those who did not (n = 20) were analysed separately. Sick leave analysis was restricted to currently employed patients (n = 38). During the 12 months before the screening visit, 20/49 (41%) completers had been admitted to hospital. After 1 and 2 years of treatment this percentage was reduced to 5/49 (10%; ppatients with active AS reduces some important costs of AS, but additional studies with detailed cost calculations are needed.

  16. Cognitive-behavioural therapy and return-to-work intervention for patients on sick leave due to common mental disorders: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsson, Sigrid; Santoft, Fredrik; Lindsäter, Elin; Ejeby, Kersti; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Öst, Lars-Göran; Ingvar, Martin; Lekander, Mats; Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik

    2017-12-01

    Common mental disorders (CMDs) cause great individual suffering and long-term sick leave. Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) effectively treats CMDs, but sick leave is not reduced to the same extent as psychiatric symptoms. Research results regarding return-to-work interventions (RTW-Is) and their effect on sick leave are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate CBT, a RTW-I and combined CBT and RTW-I (COMBO) for primary care patients on sick leave due to CMDs. Patients with CMDs (n=211) were randomised to CBT (n=64), RTW-I (n=67) or COMBO (n=80). Sick-leave registry data after 1 year and blinded Clinician's Severity Rating (CSR) of symptoms post-treatment and at follow-ups after 6 and 12 months were primary outcomes. There was no significant difference between treatments in days on sick leave 1 year after treatment start (mean difference in sick-leave days range=9-27). CBT led to larger reduction of symptoms post-treatment (CSR; Cohen's d=0.4 (95% CI 0.1 to 0.8)) than RTW-I, whereas COMBO did not differ from CBT or RTW-I. At follow-up, after 1 year, there was no difference between groups. All treatments were associated with large pre-treatment to post-treatment improvements, and results were maintained at 1-year follow-up. No treatment was superior to the other regarding reducing sick leave. All treatments effectively reduced symptoms, CBT in a faster pace than RTW-I, but at 1-year follow-up, all groups had similar symptom levels. Further research is needed regarding how CBT and RTW-I can be combined more efficiently to produce a larger effect on sick leave while maintaining effective symptom reduction. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. GPs' negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsen, Stein Tore; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore general practitioners ’(GPs’) specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patientssuffering from subjective health complaints. Design: Focus-group study. Setting: Nine focus-group interviews in three citiesin different regions of Norway. Participants: 48...... GPs (31 men, 17 women; age 32–65), participating in a course dealing with diagnostic practice and assessment of sickness certifi cates related to patients with subjective health complaints. Results: TheGPs identified some specific strategies that they claimed to apply when dealing with the question...... to sick leave. Conclusions and implications: GPs seem to have a conscious approach to negotiations of sickness certification, as they report applying specific strategies to limit the duration of sick leave due to subjective health complaints. This give-and-take way of handling sick leave negotiations has...

  18. You’re the Flight Surgeon: Pulmonary Decompression Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    follow-up of this patient Diagnosis: Decompression sickness (DeS) with pulmonary symptoms (Type Il DeS, older nomenclature). Treatment: Hyperbaric ...is quite clear thai any case of suspected decompression sickness in the USAF be discussed with the hyperbariC medicine specialists at Brooks City...physician in as respectful manner as you can that you suspect the patient’s condition is likely related to his hypobaric exposure. B. Agree with

  19. When healthcare workers get sick: exploring sickness absenteeism in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Erin; Yu, Shicheng; Alamgir, Hasanat

    2010-01-01

    To determine the demographic and work characteristics of healthcare workers who were more likely to take sickness absences from work in British Columbia, Canada. Payroll data were analyzed for three health regions. Sickness absence rates were determined per person-year and then compared across demographic and work characteristics using multivariate Poisson regression models. The direct costs to the employer due to sickness absences were also estimated. Female, older, full-time workers, long-term care workers and those with a lower hourly wage were more likely to take sickness absences and had similar trends with respect to the costs due to sickness absence. For occupations, licensed practical nurses, care aides and facility support workers had higher rates of sickness absence. Registered nurses, and those workers paid high hourly wages were associated with highest sickness related costs. It is important to understand the demographic and work characteristics of those workers who are more likely to take sickness absences in order to make sure that they are not experiencing additional hazards at work or facing detrimental workplace conditions. Policy makers need to establish healthy, safe and in turn more productive workplaces. Further research is needed on how interventions can reduce sickness absence.

  20. The social negotiation of fitness for work: tensions in doctor-patient relationships over medical certification of chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Elaine; Wainwright, David; Keogh, Edmund; Eccleston, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The UK government is promoting the health benefits of work, in order to change doctors' and patients' behaviour and reduce sickness absence. The rationale is that many people 'off sick' would have better outcomes by staying at work; but reducing the costs of health care and benefits is also an imperative. Replacement of the 'sick note' with the 'fit note' and a national educational programme are intended to reduce sickness-certification rates, but how will these initiatives impact on doctor-patient relationships and the existing tension between the doctor as patient advocate and gate-keeper to services and benefits? This tension is particularly acute for problems like chronic pain where diagnosis, prognosis and work capacity can be unclear. We interviewed 13 doctors and 30 chronic pain patients about their experiences of negotiating medical certification for work absence and their views of the new policies. Our findings highlight the limitations of naïve rationalist approaches to judgements of work absence and fitness for work for people with chronic pain. Moral, socio-cultural and practical factors are invoked by doctors and patients to contest decisions, and although both groups support the fit note's focus on capacity, they doubt it will overcome tensions in the consultation. Doctors value tacit skills of persuasion and negotiation that can change how patients conceptualise their illness and respond to it. Policy-makers increasingly recognise the role of this tacit knowledge and we conclude that sick-listing can be improved by further developing these skills and acknowledging the structural context within which protagonists negotiate sick-listing. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Car Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Head Neck & Nervous System > Car Sickness Health Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Car Sickness Page Content ...

  2. Sick but yet at work. An empirical study of sickness presenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronsson, G; Gustafsson, K; Dallner, M

    2000-07-01

    The study is an empirical investigation of sickness presenteeism in relation to occupation, irreplaceability, ill health, sickness absenteeism, personal income, and slimmed down organisation. Cross sectional design. Swedish workforce. The study group comprised a stratified subsample of 3801 employed persons working at the time of the survey, interviewed by telephone in conjunction with Statistics Sweden's labour market surveys of August and September 1997. The response rate was 87 per cent. A third of the persons in the total material reported that they had gone to work two or more times during the preceding year despite the feeling that, in the light of their perceived state of health, they should have taken sick leave. The highest presenteeism is largely to be found in the care and welfare and education sectors (nursing and midwifery professionals, registered nurses, nursing home aides, compulsory school teachers and preschool/primary educationalists. All these groups work in sectors that have faced personnel cutbacks during the 1990s). The risk ratio (odds ratio (OR)) for sickness presenteeism in the group that has to re-do work remaining after a period of absence through sickness is 2.29 (95% CI 1.79, 2.93). High proportions of persons with upper back/neck pain and fatigue/slightly depressed are among those with high presenteeism (pwork when sick. The link between difficulties in replacement or finding a stand in and sickness presenteeism is confirmed by study results. The categories with high sickness presenteeism experience symptoms more often than those without presenteeism. The most common combination is low monthly income, high sickness absenteeism and high sickness presenteeism.

  3. Sickness certification for common mental disorders and GP return-to-work advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, Mark; Shiels, Chris; Hillage, Jim

    2016-09-01

    Aim To report the types and duration of sickness certification for different common mental disorders (CMDs) and the prevalence of GP advice aimed at returning the patient to work. In the United Kingdom, common mental health problems, such and depression and stress, have become the main reasons for patients requesting a sickness certificate to abstain from usual employment. Increasing attention is being paid to mental health and its impact on employability and work capacity in all parts of the welfare system. However, relatively little is known about the extent to which different mental health diagnoses impact upon sickness certification outcomes, and how the GP has used the new fit note (introduced in 2010) to support a return to work for patients with mental health diagnoses. Sickness certification data was collected from 68 UK-based general practices for a period of 12 months. Findings The study found a large part of all sickness absence certified by GPs was due to CMDs (29% of all sickness absence episodes). Females, younger patients and those living in deprived areas were more likely to receive a fit note for a CMD (compared with one for a physical health problem). The highest proportion of CMD fit notes were issued for 'stress'. However, sickness certification for depression contributed nearly half of all weeks certified for mental health problems. Only 7% of CMD fit notes included any 'may be fit' advice from the GP, with type of advice varying by mental health diagnostic category. Patients living in the most socially deprived neighbourhoods were less likely to receive 'may be fit' advice on their CMD fit notes.

  4. Associations between self-rated health, sickness behaviour and inflammatory markers in primary care patients with allergic asthma: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodin, Karin; Lekander, Mats; Syk, Jörgen; Alving, Kjell; Andreasson, Anna

    2017-12-18

    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated with elevated levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE), serum eosinophilic cationic protein (S-ECP), plasma eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (P-EDN) and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (F E NO). Poor self-rated health and sickness behaviour has repeatedly been associated with inflammatory markers, but the nature of this relationship in chronic inflammatory disease is not known. Likewise, such findings largely rely on cross-sectional investigations. Self-rated health (How would you rate your general state of health?), sickness behaviour (mean rating of satisfaction with energy, sleep, fitness, appetite and memory), IgE, S-ECP, P-EDN, and F E NO were assessed in 181 non-smoking primary care patients with asthma in a 1-year longitudinal study. Associations between repeated measurements were calculated using mixed regression models and Spearman's correlations for change scores. Poor self-rated health was associated with high levels of seasonal IgE (p = 0.05) and food IgE (p = 0.04), but not total IgE or inflammatory markers. An increase over 1 year in perennial IgE was associated with a worsening of self-rated health (ρ = 0.16, p = 0.04). Poor self-rated health was associated with more pronounced sickness behaviour (p sickness behaviour was associated with a worsening of self-rated health over time (ρ = 0.21, p = 0.007). The study corroborates the importance of sickness behaviour as a determinant of self-rated health by showing that these factors co-vary over a 1-year period in a group of patients with allergic asthma. The importance of specific IgE for perceived health in primary care patients with mild to moderate asthma needs further investigation.

  5. Using patient lists to add value to integrated data repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Ted D; Zelarney, Pearlanne T; Hum, Richard C; McGee, Sylvia; Batson, Deborah H

    2014-12-01

    Patient lists are project-specific sets of patients that can be queried in integrated data repositories (IDR's). By allowing a set of patients to be an addition to the qualifying conditions of a query, returned results will refer to, and only to, that set of patients. We report a variety of use cases for such lists, including: restricting retrospective chart review to a defined set of patients; following a set of patients for practice management purposes; distributing "honest-brokered" (deidentified) data; adding phenotypes to biosamples; and enhancing the content of study or registry data. Among the capabilities needed to implement patient lists in an IDR are: capture of patient identifiers from a query and feedback of these into the IDR; the existence of a permanent internal identifier in the IDR that is mappable to external identifiers; the ability to add queryable attributes to the IDR; the ability to merge data from multiple queries; and suitable control over user access and de-identification of results. We implemented patient lists in a custom IDR of our own design. We reviewed capabilities of other published IDRs for focusing on sets of patients. The widely used i2b2 IDR platform has various ways to address patient sets, and it could be modified to add the low-overhead version of patient lists that we describe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The identification of job opportunities for severely disabled sick-listed employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broersen Jake PJ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work disability is a major problem for both the worker and society. To explore the work opportunities in regular jobs of persons low in functional abilities, we tried to identify occupations low in task demands. Because of the variety of functional abilities and of the corresponding work demands, the disabled persons need to be classified by type of disability in a limited number of subgroups. Within each subgroup, occupations judged suitable for the most seriously disabled will be selected as having a very low level of the corresponding task demands. These occupations can be applied as reference occupations to assess the presence or absence of work capacity of sick-listed employees in regular jobs, and as job opportunities for people with a specific type of functional disability. Methods Registered data from 50,931 disability assessments within the Dutch social security system were used in a second order factor analysis to identify types of disabilities in claimants for a disability pension. Threshold values were chosen to classify claimants according to the severity of the disability. In the disability assessment procedure, a labour expert needs to select jobs with task demands not exceeding the functional abilities of the claimant. For each type of disability, the accessible jobs for the subgroup of the most severely disabled claimants were identified as lowest in the corresponding demand. Results The factor analysis resulted in four types of disabilities: general physical ability; autonomy; psychological ability; and manual skills. For each of these types of disablement, a set of four to six occupations low in task demands were selected for the subgroup of most severely disabled claimants. Because of an overlap of the sets of occupations, 13 occupations were selected in total. The percentage of claimants with at least one of the occupations of the corresponding set (the coverage, ranged from 84% to 93%. An alternative

  7. Motion sickness in ancient China: Seasickness and cart-sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Thomas; Bauer, Matthias; Benson, Judy; Huppert, Doreen

    2016-07-19

    To find and analyze descriptions of motion sickness in Chinese historical sources. Databases and dictionaries were searched for various terms for seasickness and travel sickness, which were then entered into databases of full texts allowing selection of relevant passages from about the third to the 19th century ad. Already in 300 ad the Chinese differentiated cart-sickness, particularly experienced by persons from the arid north of China, from a ship-illness experienced by persons from the south, where rivers were important for transportation and travel. In the Middle Ages, a third form of motion sickness was called litter-influence experienced by persons transported in a bed suspended between 2 long poles. The ancient Chinese recognized the particular susceptibility of children to motion sickness. Therapeutic recommendations include drinking the urine of young boys, swallowing white sand-syrup, collecting water drops from a bamboo stick, or hiding some earth from the middle of the kitchen hearth under the hair. The Chinese medical classics distinguished several forms of travel sickness, all of which had their own written characters. The pathophysiologic mechanism was explained by the medicine of correspondences, which was based on malfunctions within the body, its invasion by external pathogens like wind, or the deficit or surfeit of certain bodily substances such as the life force Qi. The concept of motion as the trigger of sickness initially appeared in a chapter on warding off the influence of demons and corpses, e.g., ancient magic and beliefs. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  8. [Regulations of sickness certification as a factor for increased health care utilization in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Wolfram J; Haarmann, Alexander; Bærheim, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In Germany, utilization of ambulatory health care is high compared to other countries. Classical models of health care utilization cannot sufficiently explain these differences. The aim of this study was to explore relevant factors which can explain the higher health care utilization in Germany. In this article, we focus on regulations regarding sickness certification as a potential factor. An explorative qualitative study design. We conducted episodic interviews with 20 patients in Germany and 20 patients in Norway and participant observation in four primary care practices each. Additionally, we conducted a context analysis of relevant health care system related factors which emerged during the study. Qualitative data analysis was done by thematic coding in the framework of grounded theory. The need for a sickness certificate was an important reason for encounter in Germany, especially regarding minor illnesses. Sickness certification is a societal topic. GPs play a double role regarding sickness certification, both as the patients' advocate and as an expert witness for social security services. In Norway, longer periods of self-administered sickness certification and more differentiated possibilities of sickness certification have been introduced successfully. Our results point to regulations regarding sickness certification as a relevant factor for higher health care utilization in Germany. In pilot studies, the effect of extended self-certification of sickness and part-time sickness certification should be further assessed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. The sick-building syndrome; Das Sick-Building-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henne, A.; Neumann, H.F.; Winneke, G.

    1992-12-31

    The sick-building syndrome is characterized by the presence of general, non-specific symptoms (e.g., headache, tiredness, respiratory problems, eye trouble, vertigo, nausea, unspecific hypersensitivity) in association with a particular indoor ambience. It is clearly distinguishable from `building-related illness`, referring to a well-defined clinical syndrome due to staying in a building and for which a cause can, in general, be established. Disorders in the case of the sick-building syndrome are manifold and confirmed objectifiable results are hardly available so far. Yet there are some organ-related methods for the confirmation of findings concerning, for instance, the eyes, the skin and the area of the nose. The causes of the incidence of sick-building syndrome are more or less unclear. It is a multifactorial phenomenon involving physical, biological, chemical, individual-specific and psychological factors. Buildings where sick-building syndrome occurs typically exhibit certain properties. The European Community has already made proposals for the investigation of incriminated buildings. A systematic survey by questionnaire together with individual interviews plays an import part towards clarifying the syndrome. (orig./UWA) [Deutsch] Das Sick-Building-Syndrom beschreibt das Vorhandensein von allgemeinen, nicht spezifischen Symptomen (z.B. Kopfschmerzen, Muedigkeit, Atembeschwerden, Augenreizungen, Schwindelgefuehl, Uebelkeit, unspezifische Ueberempfindlichkeit), assoziiert mit einer besonderen Innenraumumgebung. Deutlich hiervon abzugrenzen ist die ``Building related illness``, bei der ein klinisch definiertes Krankheitsbild vorliegt, das durch den Aufenthalt im Gebaeude verursacht wird und fuer das im allgemeinen eine Ursache ermittelt werden kann. Das Beschwerdebild beim Sick-Building-Syndrom ist vielfaeltig, und gesicherte, objektivierbare Befunde liegen hierzu bisher kaum vor. Dennoch gibt es einige organbezogenen Methoden zur Befundabsicherung, z.B. fuer das

  10. Self-reported and employer-recorded sickness absence in doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, I J

    2014-09-01

    Doctors' sickness absence reduces the quality and continuity of patient care and is financially costly. Doctors have lower rates of sickness absence than other healthcare workers. To compare self-reported with recorded sickness absence in doctors in a UK National Health Service hospital trust. A retrospective questionnaire study. The main outcome measures were self-reported and trust-recorded sickness absence episodes of 4 days or more in two consecutive 6-month periods. The response rate was 82% (607/736). Self-reported sickness absence rates were 1.2% compared with a rate of 0.6% from trust-recorded data. There were 38 matched pairs of self-reported (mean duration: 18 days, standard deviation: 22 days) and trust-recorded (mean duration: 10 days, standard deviation: 17 days) sickness absence episodes of 4 days or more in the 12 months studied. A matched pairs t-test determined that the difference between the two means was significant (t = 2.57, P sickness absence was significantly under-recorded in this study population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Predictors of sickness absence in college and university educated self-employed: a historic register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnvoord, Liesbeth E C; Van der Klink, Jac J L; De Boer, Michiel R; Brouwer, Sandra

    2014-05-02

    Despite a large proportion of the workforce being self-employed, few studies have been conducted on risk factors for sickness absence in this population. The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for future sickness absence in a population of college and university educated self-employed. In a historic register study based on insurance company files risk factors were identified by means of logistic regression analysis. Data collected at application for private disability insurance from 634 applicants were related to subsequent sickness absence periods of 30 days or more during a follow-up period of 7.95 years. Variables studied were self-reported lifestyle variables, variables concerning medical history and present health conditions and variables derived from the general medical examination including blood tests and urinary analysis. Results from analysis of data from 634 applicants for private disability insurance show that previous periods of sickness absence (OR 2.07), female gender (OR 2.04), health complaints listed in the health declaration (OR 1.88), elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (OR 4.05) and the nature of the profession were related to a higher risk of sickness absence. Sickness absence was found to be related to demographic variables (gender, profession), medical variables (health complaints and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) and to variables with both a medical and a behavioural component (previous sickness absence).

  12. The role of stress in absenteeism: cortisol responsiveness among patients on long-term sick leave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik B Jacobsen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (1 See whether increased or decreased variation relate to subjective reports of common somatic and psychological symptoms for a population on long-term sick leave; and (2 See if this pattern in variation is correlated with autonomic activation and psychological appraisal. METHODS: Our participants (n = 87 were referred to a 3.5-week return-to-work rehabilitation program, and had been on paid sick leave >8 weeks due to musculoskeletal pain, fatigue and/or common mental disorders. An extensive survey was completed, addressing socio-demographics, somatic and psychological complaints. In addition, a physician and a psychologist examined the participants, determining baseline heart rate, medication use and SCID-I diagnoses. During the 3.5-week program, the participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups. Participants wore heart rate monitors and filled out Visual Analogue Scales during the TSST-G. RESULTS: Our participants presented a low cortisol variation, with mixed model analyses showing a maximal increase in free saliva cortisol of 26% (95% CI, 0.21-0.32. Simultaneously, the increase in heart rate and Visual Analogue Scales was substantial, indicating autonomic and psychological activation consistent with intense stress from the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings are the first description of a blunted cortisol response in a heterogeneous group of patients on long-term sick leave. The results suggest lack of cortisol reactivity as a possible biological link involved in the pathway between stress, sustained activation and long-term sick leave.

  13. Sleeping sickness in Buikwe South Health sub-district: Neuroinfection situation report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrodenkova, Silvia

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the incidence of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense sleeping sickness in the last functioning treatment centre in Buikwe South HSD in Southeast Uganda, in Mukono District, for a 19-year period (1989-2008). This is a report on the treatment outcome, structure of population affected, comparison with the published data on general incidence of T. b rhodesiensae in Uganda and functioning of sleeping sickness control program. Cross-sectional sleeping sickness data from 1989 to 2008 were collected retrospectively in 2009 at Buikwe Sleeping Sickness Center to identify case counts and measures of disease magnitude per sub-county per year. Data were collected from all available records of sleeping sickness patients. Case counts from the Buikwe South sub-counties, and even some neighboring sub-counties for 19 years (1989-2008) were collected and analyzed by Microsoft Excel and EpiInfo program. In the period from 1989 to 2008, 372 cases of sleeping sickness were diagnosed and treated. Children under 5 years were 12 (3.22%) - males 6, females 6, patients in the age from 6 to 15 years were 51 (13.7%) - males 30, females 21, and patients above 15 were 309 (83.06%) - males 176, females 133. In the category 5-15 years and above 15 years there was a significant gender difference closely connected to the professional exposure. The oldest patient was 80 years old, the youngest was 3 moths old. The average age of the patients was 30.8 years. From all 372 patients with trypanosomiasis 30 had died - 10 females and 20 males, which means 8% case fatality. The case fatality rate in the late stage of the disease was 14%. From this group 6 patients (20%) had negative BS. The average interval between the diagnosis and death was 14.4 days, in 10 patients the exact date of death was not recorded. Average age of the patients that died was 30.6 years. Sleeping sickness still remains a serious public health problem. Since the preventive and educational activities

  14. Sequence analysis to assess labour market participation following vocational rehabilitation an observational study among patients sick-listed with low back pain from a randomised clinical trial in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholdt, Louise; Labriola, Merete; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The return-to-work (RTW) process after long-term sickness absence is often complex and long and implies multiple shifts between different labour market states for the absentee. Standard methods for examining RTW research typically rely on the analysis of one outcome measure at a time...... (LBP). METHODS: The study population consisted of 160 patients randomly allocated to either a hospital-based brief or a multidisciplinary intervention. Data on labour market participation following intervention were obtained from a national register and analysed in two ways: as a binary outcome...... expressed as active or passive relief at a 1-year follow-up and as four different categories for labour market participation. Logistic regression and sequence analysis were performed. RESULTS: The logistic regression analysis showed no difference in labour market participation for patients in the two groups...

  15. Explaining the social gradient in sickness absence: a study of a general working population in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löve, Jesper; Hensing, Gunnel; Holmgren, Kristina; Torén, Kjell

    2013-06-05

    Some previous studies have proposed potential explanatory factors for the social gradient in sickness absence. Yet, this research area is still in its infancy and in order to comprise the full range of socioeconomic positions there is a need for studies conducted on random population samples. The main aim of the present study was to investigate if somatic and mental symptoms, mental wellbeing, job strain, and physical work environment could explain the association between low socioeconomic position and belonging to a sample of new cases of sick-listed employees. This study was conducted on one random working population sample (n = 2763) and one sample of newly sick-listed cases of employees (n = 3044), drawn from the same random general population in western Sweden. Explanatory factors were self-rated 'Somatic and mental symptoms', 'Mental well-being', 'job strain', and 'physical work conditions' (i.e. heavy lifting and awkward work postures). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used. Somatic and mental symptoms, mental well-being, and job strain, could not explain the association between socioeconomic position and sickness absence in both women and men. However, physical work conditions explained the total association in women and much of this association in men. In men the gradient between Non-skilled manual OR 1.76 (1.24;2.48) and Skilled manual OR 1.59 (1.10;2.20), both in relation to Higher non-manual, remained unexplained. The present study strengthens the scientific evidence that social differences in physical work conditions seem to comprise a key element of the social gradient in sickness absence, particularly in women. Future studies should try to identify further predictors for this gradient in men.

  16. Sickness presenteeism among health care providers in an academic tertiary care center in Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al Nuhait

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The term sickness presenteeism (SP has been described as the act of going to work despite having a state of health that may be regarded as poor enough to justify sick leave. SP has been observed to be prevalent among three-quarters of health care providers (HCPs. Working while sick not only puts patients at risk but also decreases productivity and increases the probability of medical errors. Moreover, SP has been identified as a risk factor for many negative health outcomes among the HCPs themselves, such as depression, burnout, and serious cardiac events. The aim of this study was to identify the reasons for and prevalence of SP and perceptions of the impact of this practice on patient safety among HCPs. A cross-sectional study was conducted, including 279 purposively selected healthcare professionals (doctors, nurses, dentists, pharmacists and other health care professionals working at the Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs—King Abdulaziz Medical City (MNGHA-KAMC. While nearly all of the participants (91% believed that working while sick exposed patients to risk, the rate of SP during the past year was reported as 74%, and one fourth of respondents reported working while sick 3–4 times during the past year. More than half of the participants were not aware of the existence of a departmental policy regarding sick leave. The most common reasons reported for working while sick were not wanting to burden co-workers (71%, feelings of duty toward patients (67%, and avoiding an increased future workload caused by absence (59%. A lack of awareness regarding the existing rules and polices related to sick leave was reported by more than half of the participants. Several predisposing and enabling factors were reported as determinants influencing SP, e.g., observation of the practice of SP by peers and feelings of sympathy towards coworkers, including not wanting to overburden them, were reported to be determinants informing the decision of

  17. Multidimensional intervention and sickness absence in assistant nursing students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Strøyer, Jesper; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When handling patients, nursing assistant (NA) students and nurse students are frequently exposed to risk factors for low back pain (LBP) including sudden loads and twisting and bending of the spine. Furthermore, LBP is a major cause of sickness absence. AIMS: To ascertain...... if a multidimensional prevention programme combining physical training, patient transfer technique and stress management prevents sickness absence and LBP in NA students. METHODS: The study was a 14-month cluster randomized controlled study. The participants were NA students from 37 randomly selected classes located...... at two schools of health and social care in Copenhagen, Denmark. The participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire regarding sickness absence, LBP and psychosocial factors on commencement and after completion of the study. RESULTS: Of 766 female NA students, 668 (87%) completed the baseline...

  18. Radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, A.; Leer, J.W.H.; Craandijk, M.; Feenstra, W.F.F.

    1990-01-01

    In a prospective inventory analysis of 169 irradiated patients concerning the incidence and course of Acute Radiation Sickness (fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting), it was found that 2/3 of the patients had these complaints. The complaints started during the first week of treatment and mostly even within a few hours after each radiotherapy session. All complaints were progressive during the radiotherapy course, but disappeared spontaneously within one week after completion of the treatment. The possible occurrence of these symptoms soon after the start of radiotherapy should be kept in mind, especially since they can be reduced by simple retimens. (author). 14 refs.; 2 tabs

  19. Cooperation between gatekeepers in sickness insurance – the perspective of social insurance officers. A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvidsson Barbro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objective was to describe variations in how social insurance officers conceive the cooperation with the health care in their daily work with sick leave. Methods Fifteen social insurance officers (SIOs working with administration of sickness benefits were interviewed. They were purposefully recruited to represent different parts of the social insurance office organization, different ages, gender, education, and work experience. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using phenomenographic approach. Results 11 women and 4 men, aged 25–65, with a work experience ranging from 1–40 years were interviewed. Three descriptive categories embracing eleven subcategories emerged: 1 Communication channels included three subcategories; to obtain medical opinions, to hold meetings with actors involved, to experience support functions; 2 Organizational conditions included five subcategories; to experience lack of time, to experience problems of availability, to experience lack of continuity, to experience unclear responsibility, to experience ongoing change; 3 Attitudes included three subcategories; to conceive the attitudes of the physicians, to conceive the attitudes of the patients, to conceive the attitudes of the SIOs. Conclusion Personal communication was described as crucial to ensure a more efficient working process. The personal contact was obstructed mainly by issues related to work load, lack of continuity, and reorganisations. By enhancing and enabling personal contact between SIOs and health care professionals, the waiting times for the sick-listed might be shortened, resulting in shorter periods of sick-leave. Issues around collaboration and communication between gatekeepers need to be recognized in the ongoing work with new guidelines and education in insurance medicine.

  20. Assessing predictors of intention to prescribe sick leave among primary care physicians using the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarna Nantha, Yogarabindranath; Wee, Lei Hum; Chan, Caryn Mei-Hsien

    2018-01-16

    Providing sickness certification is a decision that primary care physicians make on a daily basis. The majority of sickness certification studies in the literature involve a general assessment of physician or patient behaviour without the use of a robust psychological framework to guide research accuracy. To address this deficiency, this study utilized the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to specifically gauge the intention and other salient predictors related to sickness certification prescribing behaviour amongst primary care physicians. A cross-sectional study was conducted among N = 271 primary care physicians from 86 primary care practices throughout two states in Malaysia. Questionnaires used were specifically developed based on the TPB, consisting of both direct and indirect measures related to the provision of sickness leave. Questionnaire validity was established through factor analysis and the determination of internal consistency between theoretically related constructs. The temporal stability of the indirect measures was determined via the test-retest correlation analysis. Structural equation modelling was conducted to determine the strength of predictors related to intentions. The mean scores for intention to provide patients with sickness was low. The Cronbach α value for the direct measures was good: overall physician intent to provide sick leave (0.77), physician attitude towards prescribing sick leave for patients (0.77) and physician attitude in trusting the intention of patients seeking sick leave (0.83). The temporal stability of the indirect measures of the questionnaire was satisfactory with significant correlation between constructs separated by an interval of two weeks (p sick leave to patients. An integrated behavioural model utilizing the TPB could help fully explain the complex act of providing sickness leave to patients. Findings from this study could assist relevant agencies to facilitate the creation of policies that may help

  1. Atrial natriuretic peptide and red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in patients with chronic mountain sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, R L; Shai, H R; Takeoka, M; Hanaoka, M; Koizumi, T; Matsuzawa, Y; Kubo, K; Kobayashi, T

    2001-01-01

    Individuals with chronic mountain sickness (CMS) show severe hypoxemia, excessive polycythemia, and marked pulmonary hypertension. The pathophysiologic mechanisms of CMS are still not completely understood. We determined plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), hematocrit, hemoglobin, and arterialized ear lobe blood gas values in 13 patients with CMS (9 Hans, 4 Tibetans) and 18 control Han Chinese men of similar age, height, and weight who had been living at 4300 m on the Tibetan plateau of Qinghai Province, China, for approximately 14 years. A significantly higher level of ANP was found in the CMS patients compared to the non-CMS patients (113.4+/-5.5 pg/mL vs 87.6+/-4.7 pg/mL, P levels of ANP correlated positively with the hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.8282, P levels in the CMS patients were significantly increased compared to the non-CMS subjects (5.23+/-0.16 mmol/L vs 4.40+/-0.12 mmol/L, P levels, lower pH values, lower PaO2 levels, and greater alveolar-arterial oxygen differences (PAO2 - PaO2) compared to the non-CMS subjects. These findings suggest that overproduction of ANP and 2,3-DPG at high altitudes may play an important role in the pathophysiology of chronic mountain sickness.

  2. [The use of auto mode switching in patients with sick sinus syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasínová, J

    2005-01-01

    At present the dual chamber pacing, originally developed for patients with AV blockades, is widely used also for patients with Sick sinus syndrome (tachycardic-bradycardic type). But these patients often cause therapeutical problems to their physicians. In these cases either antiarrhythmic therapy is necessary to prevent recurrent supraventricular tachycardias (which are cause of rapid ventricular pacing) or in the case of failure of AA therapy the pacing mode has to be changed to DDI/R, which excludes physiological VAT pacing. The Auto Mode Switching (AMS) function ensures adequate ventricular pacing rate in the time of SV arrhythmias. Effects of dual chamber pacemakers equipped with AMS were studied in a group of patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrilation and/or atrial flutter. Therapy brings effects in lower of expenses due to less frequent visits at the physician, lower rate of rehospitalizations and lower need for powerful AA therapy.

  3. Characteristics of recovery from the euthyroid sick syndrome induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feelders, R. A.; Swaak, A. J.; Romijn, J. A.; Eggermont, A. M.; Tielens, E. T.; Vreugdenhil, G.; Endert, E.; van Eijk, H. G.; Berghout, A.

    1999-01-01

    Cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the euthyroid sick syndrome. Isolated limb perfusion (ILP) with recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha (rTNF) and melphalan in patients with melanoma or sarcoma is accompanied by high systemic TNF levels. We examined the prolonged effects

  4. Individual factors and GP approach as predictors for the outcome of rehabilitation among long-term sick listed cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kurt; Andersen, Johan H

    2005-01-01

    There appears to be a lack of evidence concerning the effect of rehabilitation programmes for the long-term sick. More focus in this area would supplement an approach that has been directed toward process evaluation of rehabilitation programmes. It was the purpose of this study to shed light...... on sick leave or social benefits at this time. Individual background variables, as well as psychological well-being, mental health, pain level, and pain coping, seemed to have little effect on the outcome of rehabilitation, whilst clients' own evaluations of competence and ability of the involved health...

  5. Improved work ability and return to work following vocational multidisciplinary rehabilitation of subjects on long-term sick leave

    OpenAIRE

    Braathen, Tore; Veiersted, Kaj Bo; Heggenes, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a vocational multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme for patients on long-term sick leave with respect to their work ability and return to work. Methods: A multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme was administered to an intervention group of 183 patients on long-term sick leave (mean 12.2 months). Effects of the treatment were compared with a control group (n = 96) recruited from the national sickness insurance record of patients on sick leave of 6??2 month...

  6. General practitioners' experiences with sickness certification: a comparison of survey data from Sweden and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winde Lee D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most countries with sickness insurance systems, general practitioners (GPs play a key role in the sickness-absence process. Previous studies have indicated that GPs experience several tasks and situations related to sickness certification consultations as problematic. The fact that the organization of primary health care and social insurance systems differ between countries may influence both GPs' experiences and certification. The aim of the present study was to gain more knowledge of GPs' experiences of sickness certification, by comparing data from Sweden and Norway, regarding frequencies and aspects of sickness certification found to be problematic. Methods Statistical analyses of cross-sectional survey data of sickness certification by GPs in Sweden and Norway. In Sweden, all GPs were included, with 3949 (60.6% responding. In Norway, a representative sample of GPs was included, with 221 (66.5% responding. Results Most GPs reported having consultations involving sickness certification at least once a week; 95% of the GPs in Sweden and 99% of the GPs in Norway. A majority found such tasks problematic; 60% of the GPs in Sweden and 53% in Norway. In a logistic regression, having a higher frequency of sickness certification consultations was associated with a higher risk of experiencing them as problematic, in both countries. A higher rate of GPs in Sweden than in Norway reported meeting patients wanting a sickness certification without a medical reason. GPs in Sweden found it more problematic to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of sick leave with patients and to issue a prolongation of a sick-leave period initiated by another physician. GPs in Norway more often worried that patients would go to another physician if they did not issue a certificate, and a higher proportion of Norwegian GPs found it problematic to handle situations where they and their patient disagreed on the need for sick leave. Conclusions The

  7. Sick building syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome describes a number of mostly unspesific complaints of some occupants of the building. The exact pathophysiological mechanism remains elusive. It is a multi factorial event which may include physical, chemical, biological as well as psycological factors. In many cases it is due to insufficient maintenance of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning system in the building. Sign and symptoms can be uncomfortable and even disabling, which may include mucus membrane irritation, neurotoxic symptoms, asthma like symptoms, skin complaints, gastrointestinal symptoms and other related symptoms. There are various investigation methods to diagnose sick building syndrome, and on site assessment of the building is extremely useful. Prevention through a proactive air quality monitoring program is far more desirable than dealing with an actual sick building. Indoor air and the sick building symdrome serves as a paradigm of modern occupational and environmental medicine. (Med J Indones 2002; 11:124-31Keywords: indoor air pollution, sick building syndrome, building related illness

  8. Workload, work stress, and sickness absence in Swedish male and female white-collar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Gunilla; Lundberg, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse, in a homogeneous population of highly educated men and women, gender differences in self-reported sickness absence as related to paid and unpaid work and combinations of these (double exposure), as well as to perceived work stress and work-home conflict, i.e. conflict between demands from the home and work environment. A total of 743 women and 596 men, full-time working white-collar employees randomly selected from the general Swedish population aged 32-58, were assessed by a Swedish total workload instrument. The influence of conditions in paid and unpaid work and combinations of these on self-reported sickness absence was investigated by multivariate regression analyses. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess differences between men and women. Overtime was associated with lower sickness absence, not only for men but also for women, and a double-exposure situation did not increase the risk of sick leave. Contrary to what is normally seen, conflict between demands did not emerge as a risk factor for sickness absence for women, but for men. Our assumption that sickness absence patterns would be more similar for white-collar men and women than for the general population was not confirmed. However, the women working most hours were also the least sick-listed and assumed less responsibility for household chores. These women were mainly in top-level positions and therefore we conclude that men and women in these high-level positions seem to share household burdens more evenly, but they can also afford to employ someone to assist in the household.

  9. Stress-related mental disorders with sick leave: a minimal intervention in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    1. Introduction As stated in chapter 1, this study is carried out because patients and their care-givers have much to gain by the development and implementation of effective care for patients on sick leave having stress-related mental disorders (SMDs). Most people having SMDs with sick leave consult

  10. Virtual reality sickness questionnaire (VRSQ): Motion sickness measurement index in a virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun K; Park, Jaehyun; Choi, Yeongcheol; Choe, Mungyeong

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to develop a motion sickness measurement index in a virtual reality (VR) environment. The VR market is in an early stage of market formation and technological development, and thus, research on the side effects of VR devices such as simulator motion sickness is lacking. In this study, we used the simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ), which has been traditionally used for simulator motion sickness measurement. To measure the motion sickness in a VR environment, 24 users performed target selection tasks using a VR device. The SSQ was administered immediately after each task, and the order of work was determined using the Latin square design. The existing SSQ was revised to develop a VR sickness questionnaire, which is used as the measurement index in a VR environment. In addition, the target selection method and button size were found to be significant factors that affect motion sickness in a VR environment. The results of this study are expected to be used for measuring and designing simulator sickness using VR devices in future studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Negotiation of the Sick Role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Roelsgaard Obling, Anne

    2012-01-01

    ’s particular circumstances in deciding whether that patient is legitimately sick. The doctor is thus a gatekeeper of legitimacy. This article presents results from a qualitative interview study conducted in Denmark with GPs concerning their approach to patients with MUS. We employ a symbolic interaction...... to which GPs are able to constitute these patients as people with social problems and problematic personality traits....

  12. Factors Associated with Long-Term Sickness Absence Due to Mental Disorders: A Cohort Study of 7.112 Patients during the Spanish Economic Crisis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Real

    Full Text Available Mental health problems are very common and often lead to prolonged sickness absence, having serious economic repercussions for most European countries. Periods of economic crisis are important social phenomena that are assumed to increase sickness absence due to mental disorders, although research on this topic remains scarce. The aim of this study was to gather data on long-term sickness absence (and relapse due to mental disorders in Spain during a period of considerable socio-economic crisis.Relationships were analyzed (using chi-squared tests and multivariate modelling via binary logistic regression between clinical, social/employment-related and demographic factors associated and long-term sickness absence (>60 consecutive days due to mental disorders in a cohort of 7112 Spanish patients during the period 2008-2012.Older age, severe mental disorders, being self-employed, having a non-permanent contract, and working in the real estate and construction sector were associated with an increased probability of long-term sickness absence (gender had a mediating role with respect to some of these variables. Relapses were associated with short-term sick leave (return to work due to 'improvement' and with working in the transport sector and public administration.Aside from medical factors, other social/employment-related and demographic factors have a significant influence on the duration of sickness absence due to mental disorders.

  13. Subjective health complaints, functional ability, fear avoidance beliefs, and days on sickness benefits after work rehabilitation - a mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øyeflaten, Irene; Opsahl, Jon; Eriksen, Hege R; Braathen, Tore Norendal; Lie, Stein Atle; Brage, Søren; Ihlebæk, Camilla M; Breivik, Kyrre

    2016-05-23

    Long-term sick leave and withdrawal from working life is a concern in western countries. In Norway, comprehensive inpatient work rehabilitation may be offered to sick listed individuals at risk of long-term absence from work. Knowledge about prognostic factors for work outcomes after long-term sick leave and work rehabilitation is still limited. The aim of this study was to test a mediation model for various hypothesized biopsychosocial predictors of continued sick leave after inpatient work rehabilitation. One thousand one hundred fifty-five participants on long-term sick leave from eight different work rehabilitation clinics answered comprehensive questionnaires at arrival to the clinic, and were followed with official register data on sickness benefits for 3 years. Structural equation models were conducted, with days on sickness benefits after work rehabilitation as the outcome. Fear avoidance beliefs for work mediated the relation between both musculoskeletal complaints and education on days on sickness benefits after work rehabilitation. The relation between musculoskeletal complaints and fear avoidance beliefs for work was furthermore fully mediated by poor physical function. Previous sick leave had a strong independent effect on continued sick leave after work rehabilitation. Fear avoidance beliefs for work did not mediate the small effect of pseudoneurological complaints on continued sick leave. Poor coping/interaction ability was neither related to continued sick leave nor fear avoidance beliefs for work. The mediation model was partly supported by the data, and provides some possible new insight into how fear avoidance beliefs for work and functional ability may intervene with subjective health complaints and days on sickness benefits after work rehabilitation.

  14. Worried sick? Sickness absence during organizational turmoil

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Espen; Monstad, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Sickness absence has risen over the past years in Norway. An explanation put forward is that a tougher labour market represents a health hazard, while a competing hypothesis predicts that loss of job security works as a disciplinary device. In this analysis we aim to trace a causal impact of organizational turmoil or job insecurity on sickness absence, applying a difference-in-difference approach. Utilizing a negative financial shock that hit specific employers and workplaces, we find that...

  15. Effect of domperidone on radiation sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakakibara, T; Sato, K [Nihon Univ., Tokyo. School of Medicine; Watari, T; Tanaka, T; Furuta, A

    1981-07-01

    Domperidone was administered to 95 patients with radiation sickness following radiotherapy for various cancers. The chest and the mediastinum were irradiated in 43 patients, the upper and lower abdomen in 40 patients, and the head, neck, and supraclavicular region in 12 patients. As to radiation source, x-ray was used for 46 patients, ..gamma..-ray for 41 patients, electron beam for 3 patients, and more than one radiation was used for 5 patients. The dose given before the onset of radiation sickness totaled 3000 rad in 20 patients, 1000 rad -- 3000 rad in 41, and less than 1000 rad in 34. Domperidone was given to the patients one tablet (5 mg or 10 mg) P.O., 3 times per day before meals, for 1 -- 2 weeks. The overall effective rate of the drug was 68.4%. The 10 mg tablets were slightly more effective than the 5 mg ones. In the patients who were given the drug in a dose of 10 mg, the ameliorating rate of subjective symptoms was 68.1% for nausea, 88.9% for vomiting, 44.6% for anorexia, 17.5% for general fatigue, and 69.2% for dizziness. Laboratory findings showed no abnormal effects of the drug. One patient had itching with eruptions, which, however, was mild and disappeared immediately after withdrawal of the medication.

  16. Health-related quality of life in patients with Burnout on sick leave: descriptive and comparative results from a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grensman, Astrid; Acharya, Bikash Dev; Wändell, Per; Nilsson, Gunnar; Werner, Sigbritt

    2016-02-01

    To explore the health-related quality of life (HRQoL), the cause of being ill, and the pharmacological treatment in patients on sick leave because of Burnout. The HRQoL among these patients was also compared with that of individuals who were working full time. HRQoL was measured using the SWED-QUAL questionnaire, comprising 67 items grouped into 13 subscales, scored from 0 (worst) to 100 (best) points, and covering aspects of physical and emotional well-being, cognitive function, sleep, general health, social, and sexual functioning. The Burnout group (n = 94), mean age 43 years, were on 50% sick leave or more. The comparison group consisted of healthy persons (n = 88) of similar age and educational level who were working full time. The Burnout group had markedly low scores in general. The cause of illness was mainly work-related. Psychotropic medication was prescribed for 55%. Significantly lower scores were found in the Burnout group than in the comparison group in all subscales, p Patients on sick leave because of Burnout rated their HRQoL as very low in general, their cause of being ill was mainly work-related, and psychotropic medication was prescribed for a majority. Their scores were markedly lower in all subscales in comparison with healthy individuals working full time. The study adds to our understanding of the situation of patients with Burnout. The results can be useful in clinical work and future research.

  17. Innate Immune Signalling Genetics of Pain, Cognitive Dysfunction and Sickness Symptoms in Cancer Pain Patients Treated with Transdermal Fentanyl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T Barratt

    Full Text Available Common adverse symptoms of cancer and chemotherapy are a major health burden; chief among these is pain, with opioids including transdermal fentanyl the mainstay of treatment. Innate immune activation has been implicated generally in pain, opioid analgesia, cognitive dysfunction, and sickness type symptoms reported by cancer patients. We aimed to determine if genetic polymorphisms in neuroimmune activation pathways alter the serum fentanyl concentration-response relationships for pain control, cognitive dysfunction, and other adverse symptoms, in cancer pain patients. Cancer pain patients (468 receiving transdermal fentanyl were genotyped for 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 19 genes: CASP1, BDNF, CRP, LY96, IL6, IL1B, TGFB1, TNF, IL10, IL2, TLR2, TLR4, MYD88, IL6R, OPRM1, ARRB2, COMT, STAT6 and ABCB1. Lasso and backward stepwise generalised linear regression were used to identify non-genetic and genetic predictors, respectively, of pain control (average Brief Pain Inventory < 4, cognitive dysfunction (Mini-Mental State Examination ≤ 23, sickness response and opioid adverse event complaint. Serum fentanyl concentrations did not predict between-patient variability in these outcomes, nor did genetic factors predict pain control, sickness response or opioid adverse event complaint. Carriers of the MYD88 rs6853 variant were half as likely to have cognitive dysfunction (11/111 than wild-type patients (69/325, with a relative risk of 0.45 (95% CI: 0.27 to 0.76 when accounting for major non-genetic predictors (age, Karnofsky functional score. This supports the involvement of innate immune signalling in cognitive dysfunction, and identifies MyD88 signalling pathways as a potential focus for predicting and reducing the burden of cognitive dysfunction in cancer pain patients.

  18. Cognitively oriented behavioral rehabilitation in combination with Qigong for patients on long-term sick leave because of burnout: REST--a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Therese; Ahlgren, Christina; Lindahl, Bernt; Burell, Gunilla; Steinholtz, Katarina; Edlund, Curt; Nilsson, Leif; Knutsson, Anders; Birgander, Lisbeth Slunga

    2009-01-01

    Despite an increase in the occurrence of burnout, there is no agreement on what kind of rehabilitation these patients should be offered. Primary aim of this study was to evaluate effects on psychological variables and sick leave rates by two different group rehabilitation programs for patients on long-term sick leave because of burnout. Rehabilitation program A (Cognitively oriented Behavioral Rehabilitation (CBR) and Qigong) was compared with rehabilitation program B (Qigong only). In a randomized clinical trial, 96 women and 40 men with a mean age of 41.6 +/- 7.4 years were allocated to one of the two rehabilitation programs. A per-protocol analysis showed no significant difference in treatment efficacy between the groups. Both groups improved significantly over time with reduced levels of burnout, self-rated stress behavior, fatigue, depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and sick leave rates. In an intention-to-treat analysis, patients in program A had fewer obsessive-compulsive symptoms and larger effect sizes in self-rated stress behavior and obsessive-compulsive symptoms compared to patients in program B. This study showed no differences in effect between CBR and Qigong compared with Qigong only in a per-protocol analysis. Both rehabilitation programs showed positive effect for patients with burnout.

  19. Sickness presenteeism among health care providers in an academic tertiary care center in Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Nuhait, Mohammed; Al Harbi, Khaled; Al Jarboa, Amjad; Bustami, Rami; Alharbi, Shmaylan; Masud, Nazish; Albekairy, Abdulkareem; Almodaimegh, Hind

    The term sickness presenteeism (SP) has been described as the act of going to work despite having a state of health that may be regarded as poor enough to justify sick leave. SP has been observed to be prevalent among three-quarters of health care providers (HCPs). Working while sick not only puts patients at risk but also decreases productivity and increases the probability of medical errors. Moreover, SP has been identified as a risk factor for many negative health outcomes among the HCPs themselves, such as depression, burnout, and serious cardiac events. The aim of this study was to identify the reasons for and prevalence of SP and perceptions of the impact of this practice on patient safety among HCPs. A cross-sectional study was conducted, including 279 purposively selected healthcare professionals (doctors, nurses, dentists, pharmacists and other health care professionals) working at the Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs-King Abdulaziz Medical City (MNGHA-KAMC). While nearly all of the participants (91%) believed that working while sick exposed patients to risk, the rate of SP during the past year was reported as 74%, and one fourth of respondents reported working while sick 3-4 times during the past year. More than half of the participants were not aware of the existence of a departmental policy regarding sick leave. The most common reasons reported for working while sick were not wanting to burden co-workers (71%), feelings of duty toward patients (67%), and avoiding an increased future workload caused by absence (59%). A lack of awareness regarding the existing rules and polices related to sick leave was reported by more than half of the participants. Several predisposing and enabling factors were reported as determinants influencing SP, e.g., observation of the practice of SP by peers and feelings of sympathy towards coworkers, including not wanting to overburden them, were reported to be determinants informing the decision of whether to work

  20. Return to work and sick leave after radical prostatectomy: a prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Sigrun; Steinsvik, Eivind A S; Dahl, Alv A; Loge, Jon Håvard; Cvancarova, Milada; Fosså, Sophie D

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate work status at three months after radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) in relation to socio-demographics, urinary incontinence and bother, medical complications health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and surgical methods. To identify pre-RP available factors that can predict the duration of immediate post-RP sick leave. This prospective questionnaire-based study included 264 men with PCaPatients' work status was defined as either "stable/improved" or "declined" at three months compared to work status at baseline. Duration of immediate post-RP sick leave was considered as prolonged when lasting >6 weeks. Associations were analyzed using logistic regression analyses. Almost 30% of the patients had declined work status three months after RP. Change of physical HRQOL was the only factor remaining significantly associated with declined work status in the multivariate analysis. Half of the patients had prolonged immediate sick leave. Having physically strenuous work was the strongest predictor for this outcome. Long periods of sick leave and reduced workforce participation after RP should be considered potential adverse effects of this treatment.

  1. The prevalence of sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Bendix, Jane

    2018-01-01

    of long-term sick leave. Method Data from 508 employed pregnant women seeking antenatal care was collected by questionnaires from August 2015 to March 2016. The questionnaires, which were filled in at 20 and 32 weeks of gestation, provided information on maternal characteristics, the number of days spent...... on sick leave and the associated reasons. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were applied. Results The prevalence of sick leave was 56% of employed pregnant women in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four reported long-term sick leave (>20 days, continuous...... was a negative predictor. Conclusions The prevalence of sick leave was 56% in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four women reported long-term sick leave. The majority of reasons for sick leave were pregnancy-related and low back pain was the most frequently given reason....

  2. Hearing difficulties, ear-related diagnoses and sickness absence or disability pension--a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Emilie; Gustafsson, Klas; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2012-09-12

    Hearing difficulties is a large public health problem, prognosticated to be the ninth leading burden of disease in 2030, and may also involve large consequences for work capacity. However, research regarding sickness absence and disability pension in relation to hearing difficulties is scarce. The aim was to gain knowledge about hearing difficulties or other ear-related diagnoses and sickness absence and disability pension through conducting a systematic literature review of published studies. Studies presenting empirical data on hearing difficulties or ear-related diagnoses and sick leave or disability pension, published in scientific peer-reviewed journals, were included. Studies were sought for in three ways: in literature databases (Pub-Med, Embase, PsycInfo, SSCI, and Cochrane) through March 2011, through scrutinising lists of references, and through contacts. Identified publications were assessed for relevance and data was extracted from the studies deemed relevant. A total of 18 studies were assessed as relevant and included in this review, regardless of scientific quality. Fourteen studies presented empirical data on hearing difficulties/ear diagnoses and sick leave and six on these conditions and disability pension. Only two studies presented rate ratios or odds ratios regarding associations between hearing difficulties and sick leave, and only two on hearing difficulties and risk of disability pension. Both measures of hearing difficulties and of sick leave varied considerable between the studies. Remarkably few studies on hearing difficulties in relation to sickness absence or disability pension were identified. The results presented in them cannot provide evidence for direction or magnitude of potential associations.

  3. Long Sick Leave after Orthopaedic Inpatient Rehabilitation: Treatment Failure or Relapse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangels, Marija; Schwarz, Susanne; Worringen, Ulrike; Holme, Martin; Rief, Winfried

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether short-term versus long-term sick leave after orthopaedic inpatient rehabilitation can be predicted by initial assessment information, the clinical status at discharge, or whether the follow-up interval is crucial for later sick leave. We examined 214 patients from an orthopaedic rehabilitation hospital at admission,…

  4. 20 CFR 218.28 - Sick pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sick pay. 218.28 Section 218.28 Employees... Beginning Date § 218.28 Sick pay. (a) From railroad employer. If the employee is carried on the payroll while sick, the annuity can begin no earlier than the day after the last day of sick pay. However, sick...

  5. Diagnosis of moderate acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shoucheng; Chen Zhijian; Chen Youxin

    1989-01-01

    Forty patients with malignant lymphoma were given 60 Co TLI. 21 cases received 6 Gy and 19 received 8 Gy. It was estimated that a single TLI of 6 and 8 Gy would correspond to TBI of 3.55 Gy and 4.25 Gy (average values) by analysing peripheral blood cell chromosome aberrations and 1.85-2.37 Gy by measuring red bone marrow stem cells clinically. Moderate acute radiation sickness with digestive tract reaction and hemopoietic and immunologic depression was observed. WBC and platelets decreased rapidly. Lymphocytes showed quantitative and qualitative changes even at early stage. All these indexes are significant for diagnosis. Besides, the degree of labial stimulation response, levels of C-reactive protein, corticoid, and urinal nucleoside and alkaloid base presented great changes both pre-and post-irradiation. Early diagnosis of moderate acute radiation sickness could be made in cancer patients subjected to 6-8 Gy TLI

  6. Sick of Taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    I estimate a price elasticity of sickness absence. Sick leave is an intensive margin of labor supply where individuals are free to adjust. I exploit variation in tax rates over two decades, which provide thousands of differential incentives across time and space, to estimate the price responsiven...... of sick leave, -0.7, with respect to the net of tax rate. Though large relative to traditional labor supply elasticities, Swedes are half as price elastic as bike messengers, and just as elastic as stadium vendors on the margin which they can adjust freely....

  7. Attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism in health and care sectors in Norway and Denmark: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krane, Line; Larsen, Eva Ladekjær; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Stapelfeldt, Christina Malmose; Johnsen, Roar; Risør, Mette Bech

    2014-08-27

    In the health and care sector, sickness absence and sickness presenteeism are frequent phenomena and constitute a field in need of exploration. Attitudes towards sickness absence involve also attitudes towards sickness presenteeism, i.e. going to work while sick, confirmed by previous studies. Sickness behavior, reflecting attitudes on work absence, could differ between countries and influence absence rates. But little is known about attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism in the health and care sectors in Norway and Denmark. The aim of the present paper is therefore to explore attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism among nursing home employees in both countries. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide, the main attention of which was attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism. FGDs were conducted in two nursing homes in Norway and two in Denmark, with different geographic locations: one in a rural area and one in an urban area in each country. FGDs were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using framework analysis to identify major themes and explanatory patterns. Four major significant themes were identified from the FGDs: a) sickness absence and sickness presenteeism, b) acceptable causes of sickness absence, c) job identity, and d) organization of work and physical aspects of the workplace. Our analyses showed that social commitment and loyalty to residents and colleagues was important for sickness absence and sickness presenteeism, as were perceived acceptable and non-acceptable reasons for sickness absence. Organization of work and physical aspects of the workplace were also found to have an influence on attitudes towards sickness absence. The general interpretation of the findings was that attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism among nursing home employees were embedded in situational patterns of moral relationships and were

  8. Early identification in primary health care of people at risk for sick leave due to work-related stress - study protocol of a randomized controlled trial (RCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Sandheimer, Christine; Mårdby, Ann-Charlotte; Larsson, Maria E H; Bültmann, Ute; Hange, Dominique; Hensing, Gunnel

    2016-11-25

    Early identification of persons at risk of sickness absence due to work-related stress is a crucial problem for society in general, and primary health care in particular. Tho date, no established method to do this exists. This project's aim is to evaluate whether systematic early identification of work-related stress can prevent sickness absence. This paper presents the study design, procedure and outcome measurements, as well as allocation and baseline characteristics of the study population. The study is a two-armed randomized controlled trial with follow-up at 3, 6 and 12 months. Non-sick-listed employed women and men, aged 18 to 64 years, who had mental and physical health complaints and sought care at primary health care centers (PHCC) were eligible to participate. At baseline work-related stress was measured by the Work Stress Questionnaire (WSQ), combined with feedback at consultation, at PHCC. The preventive intervention included early identification of work-related stress by the WSQ, GP training in the use of WSQ, GP feedback at consultation and finding suitable preventive measures. A process evaluation was used to explore how to facilitate future implementation and structural use of the WSQ at the PHCC. The primary outcome to compare the preventive sick leave intervention by the general practitioner (GP) versus treatment as usual is sick leave data obtained from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency register. Early screening for sick leave due to work-related stress makes it possible not only to identify those at risk for sick leave, but also to put focus on the patient's specific work-related stress problems, which can be helpful in finding suitable preventive measures. This study investigates if use of the WSQ by GPs at PHCCs, combined with feedback at consultation, prevents future sickness absence. ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT02480855 . Registered 20 May 2015.

  9. Cost effectiveness of an activating intervention by social workers for patients with minor mental disorders on sick leave: a randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, E.P.M.; Bruijne, M.C. de; Tiemens, B.G.; Terluin, B.; Verhaak, P.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sickness absence often occurs in patients with emotional distress or minor mental disorders. In several European countries, these patients are over-represented among those receiving illness benefits, and interventions are needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the

  10. Identifying the Subtle Presentation of Decompression Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alea, Kenneth

    2015-12-01

    Decompression sickness is an inherent occupational hazard that has the possibility to leave its victims with significant long-lasting effects that can potentially impact an aircrew's flight status. The relative infrequency of this hazard within the military flying community along with the potentially subtle presentation of decompression sickness (DCS) has the potential to result in delayed diagnosis and treatment, leading to residual deficits that can impact a patient's daily life or even lead to death. The patient presented in this work was diagnosed with a Type II DCS 21 h after a cabin decompression at 35,000 ft (10,668 m). The patient had been asymptomatic with a completely normal physical/neurological exam following his flight. The following day, he presented with excessive fatigue and on re-evaluation was recommended for hyperbaric therapy, during which his symptoms completely resolved. He was re-evaluated 14 d later and cleared to resume flight duties without further incident. The manifestation of this patient's decompression sickness was subtle and followed an evaluation that failed to identify any focal findings. A high index of suspicion with strict follow-up contributed to the identification of DCS in this case, resulting in definitive treatment and resolution of the patient's symptoms. Determination of the need for hyperbaric therapy following oxygen supplementation and a thorough history and physical is imperative. If the diagnosis is in question, consider preemptive hyperbaric therapy as the benefits of treatment in DCS outweigh the risks of treatment. Finally, this work introduces the future potential of neuropsychological testing for both the diagnosis of DCS as well as assessing the effectiveness of hyperbaric therapy in Type II DCS.

  11. [Healthier after Psychotherapy? Analysis of Claims Data (Lower Saxony, Germany) on Sickness Absence Duration before and after Outpatient Psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epping, Jelena; de Zwaan, Martina; Geyer, Siegfried

    2017-11-17

    Introduction In employed populations sickness absence can be used as a good indicator of health status. In the present study, it was examined how periods of sickness absence are developing within one year before and after psychotherapy under comparison of three types of psychotherapy (behavior therapy, psychodynamic psychotherapy, and psychoanalysis), all fully covered by statutory health insurance. Methods and data The analyses were performed with pseudonymized claims data from the AOK Niedersachsen, a statutory health insurance (N=2,900,065 insured). Certified sickness absences before and after psychotherapy were examined for 9,916 patients. Parallelized controls were used to build a comparison of the length of sickness absences. Analyses were performed separately for women and for men. Results Within one year before starting psychotherapy, patients had longer sickness absences than controls on average. There was a reduction in the length of sickness absence of 20 days (median) within one year before to 12 days (median) within one year after the psychotherapy. The obtained differences between types of psychotherapy were considerable. Discussion Differences in terms of sickness absences may in part be explained by socio-demographic differences. Patients who underwent psychoanalysis were younger and had higher educational levels. However, it remains unclear why the differences of sickness absence periods were that high. It has to be discussed whether self-selection of patients with better health into psychoanalysis had occurred. Conclusions Patients undergoing psychoanalysis differ from patients who underwent other types of psychotherapy in terms of their duration of sickness absence as well as socio-demographic profile. Thus, due to differences in the composition of patients future research in psychotherapy will have to differentiate by type of psychotherapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Expectations, perceptions, and physiotherapy predict prolonged sick leave in subacute low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reme Silje E

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brief intervention programs for subacute low back pain (LBP result in significant reduction of sick leave compared to treatment as usual. Although effective, a substantial proportion of the patients do not return to work. This study investigates predictors of return to work in LBP patients participating in a randomized controlled trial comparing a brief intervention program (BI with BI and physical exercise. Methods Predictors for not returning to work was examined in 246 patients sick listed 8-12 weeks for low back pain. The patients had participated in a randomized controlled trial, with BI (n = 122 and BI + physical exercise (n = 124. There were no significant differences between the two intervention groups on return to work. The groups were therefore merged in the analyses of predictors. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors for non return to work at 3, 12, and 24 months of follow-up. Results At 3 months of follow-up, the strongest predictors for not returning to work were pain intensity while resting (OR = 5.6; CI = 1.7-19, the perception of constant back strain when working (OR = 4.1; CI = 1.5-12, negative expectations for return to work (OR = 4.2; CI = 1.7-10, and having been to a physiotherapist prior to participation in the trial (OR = 3.3; CI = 1.3-8.3. At 12 months, perceived reduced ability to walk far due to the complaints (OR = 2.6; CI = 1.3-5.4, pain during activities (OR = 2.4; CI = 1.1-5.1, and having been to a physiotherapist prior to participation in the trial (OR = 2.1; CI = 1.1-4.3 were the strongest predictors for non return to work. At 24 months age below 41 years (OR = 2.9; CI = 1.4-6.0 was the only significant predictor for non return to work. Conclusion It appears that return to work is highly dependant on individual and cognitive factors. Patients not returning to work after the interventions were characterized by negative expectations, perceptions about pain and

  13. Trends of Sickness Certifications in Primary Health Care in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiz A’Rashdy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Sickness certification (SC is common practice in primary health care with proven implications on the health system. To assess the rate of sickness certifications in the Bowsher province and describe related demographic, occupational and medical factors. Methods: Our retrospective, cross-sectional study retrieved data for all consultations, with patients aged six to 65 years old, which ended with SC. The data from four primary health care centers in the Bowsher provice were collected during 2011 using the electronic medical record system. Collected data included patient demographics, occupation, date issued, duration of sickness certification, recorded vital signs, and clinical diagnosis. Suitable rates were calculated as percentages and important differences were compared using the chi-square test. Results: The total number of consultation visits for the targeted population was 189,275. Of these 26,096 consultations resulted in SC to a total of 15,758 patients. The overall rate of SC was 13.8 per 100 consultation-years (confidence interval (CI: 13.6–14. SC rates in males were significantly higher than females (17 and 11 per 100 consultations/year, respectively. Patients aged 19–29 years old had the highest rate of SC (18.6/100 consultations/year. School students aged six to 18 years made up 28% of patients, and 24% and 22% of patients were working in the private and public sectors, respectively. No vital signs record was found for 30% of SC visits. The highest rate of SC was in October (17% and the lowest was in August (9%. Acute respiratory infections were the most frequent diagnoses (31% resulting in certifications. The rate of SC issued for Omanis and non-Omanis was 14 and 9 per 100 consultations per year, respectively. Conclusion: Sickness certification is a burden on primary health care in the studied health centers with approximately one in seven consultations ending with SC issued. More investigations are needed to

  14. Trends of sickness certifications in primary health care in muscat, sultanate of oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A'Rashdy, Faiz; Al-Hosni, Khamis; Al-Rawahi, Abdulhakeem; Theodorsson, Thord

    2015-03-01

    Sickness certification (SC) is common practice in primary health care with proven implications on the health system. To assess the rate of sickness certifications in the Bowsher province and describe related demographic, occupational and medical factors. Our retrospective, cross-sectional study retrieved data for all consultations, with patients aged six to 65 years old, which ended with SC. The data from four primary health care centers in the Bowsher provice were collected during 2011 using the electronic medical record system. Collected data included patient demographics, occupation, date issued, duration of sickness certification, recorded vital signs, and clinical diagnosis. Suitable rates were calculated as percentages and important differences were compared using the chi-square test. The total number of consultation visits for the targeted population was 189,275. Of these 26,096 consultations resulted in SC to a total of 15,758 patients. The overall rate of SC was 13.8 per 100 consultation-years (confidence interval (CI): 13.6-14). SC rates in males were significantly higher than females (17 and 11 per 100 consultations/year, respectively). Patients aged 19-29 years old had the highest rate of SC (18.6/100 consultations/year). School students aged six to 18 years made up 28% of patients, and 24% and 22% of patients were working in the private and public sectors, respectively. No vital signs record was found for 30% of SC visits. The highest rate of SC was in October (17%) and the lowest was in August (9%). Acute respiratory infections were the most frequent diagnoses (31%) resulting in certifications. The rate of SC issued for Omanis and non-Omanis was 14 and 9 per 100 consultations per year, respectively. Sickness certification is a burden on primary health care in the studied health centers with approximately one in seven consultations ending with SC issued. More investigations are needed to identify determinates of high sickness absence. Robust guidelines

  15. Effectiveness of an intervention to reduce sickness absence in patients with emotional distress or minor mental disorders: a randomized controlled effectiveness trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, E.P.M.; Tiemens, B.G.; Terluin, B.; Verhaak, P.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an activating intervention designed to reduce sick leave duration in patients with emotional distress or minor mental disorders. METHOD: In a 1.5-year randomized controlled trial, 194 patients with minor mental disorders

  16. Postural stability in patients with decompression sickness evaluated by means of Quantitative Romberg testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedetoft, Morten; Hyldegaard, Ole

    2015-01-01

    obtained with the Quantitative Romberg test were observed in the group of DCS with vertigo relative to DCS without vertigo and healthy controls. A stepwise improvement in postural instability for DCS patients with vertigo was found following HBO2 therapy. After three treatments of HBO2, postural stability...... was found to be within the normal range of healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: The Quantitative Romberg test offers the the clinician a fast, reliable and objective set of parametrical data to document postural instability in patients with either confirmed or suspected DCS.......OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to retrospectively evaluate the use of quantitative Romberg's testing on postural stability during the course of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy in patients presenting with decompression sickness (DCS). METHODS: The Quantitative Romberg test was used...

  17. Return to work after early part-time sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Kausto, Johanna; Shiri, Rahman; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Karppinen, Jaro; Miranda, Helena; Luukkonen, Ritva; Martimo, Kari-Pekka

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of early part-time sick leave on return to work (RTW) and sickness absence among patients with musculoskeletal disorders. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in six occupational health units of medium- and large-size enterprises. Patients aged 18-60 years with musculoskeletal disorders (N=63) unable to perform their regular work were randomly allocated to part- or full-time sick leave. In the former group, workload was reduced by restricting work time by about a half. Remaining work tasks were modified when necessary, as specified in a "fit note" from the physician. The main outcomes were time to return to regular work activities and sickness absence during 12-month follow-up. Time to RTW sustained for ≥4 weeks was shorter in the intervention group (median 12 versus 20 days, P=0.10). Hazard ratio of RTW adjusted for age was 1.60 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.98-2.63] and 1.76 (95% CI 1.21-2.56) after further adjustment for pain interference with sleep and previous sickness absence at baseline. Total sickness absence during the 12-month follow-up was about 20% lower in the intervention than the control group. Compliance with the intervention was high with no discontinuations of part-time sick leave due to musculoskeletal reasons. Early part-time sick leave may provide a faster and more sustainable return to regular duties than full-time sick leave among patients with musculoskeletal disorders. This is the first study to show that work participation can be safely increased with early part-time sick leave.

  18. Sickness absence indicating depressive symptoms of working population in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Cheolmin; Ko, Young-Hoon; Yoon, Seoyoung; Jeon, Sang Won; Pae, Chi-Un; Kim, Yong-Ku; Patkar, Ashwin A; Han, Changsu

    2018-02-01

    Sickness absence has been regarded as an important indicator of workers' health and work productivity. This study is aimed to evaluate the association between depressive symptoms and sickness absence in workers of South Korea. We used nationwide cross-sectional survey data from 2889 individuals in the working population aged over 19 years in South Korea. Depressive symptoms were measured using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Those respondents who scored above 10 on PHQ-9 were regarded as having depressive symptoms. Sickness absence was considered a binary variable with an absence of at least 1 day in the past month. The survey instrument contained questions about sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, work-related factors, and chronic illnesses. Logistic regression models were used to find odds ratios and confidence intervals. The prevalence of sickness absence was found to be overall 4.6%. The adjusted odds ratio of sickness absence with depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score ≥ 10) was 3.63 (Confidence Interval: 2.13-6.20) after controlling of possible confounders. Compared to minimal depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 sickness absences were more significant. The sickness absence based on the memory of the respondent in this study may result in a recall bias. Incidence of at least 1 day of sickness absence per month increased the risk of depressive symptoms after controlling for the possible confounding factors in general working population. It may be necessary to consider strategies for assessing depression in the workers who take sick leaves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Workplace bullying and sickness absenteeism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanini, Paolo; Conway, Paul Maurice; Neri, Luca; Punzi, Silvia; Camerino, Donatella; Costa, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationship between workplace bullying and sickness absenteeism in a large sample of Italian workers. A cross-sectional study conducted by means of questionnaires. In all, 8,992 subjects filled in a questionnaire to detect workplace bullying, the presence of work stress factors and days of sickness absence in the last year. Workplace bullying and psychosocial stressor were measured by the means of the CDL 2.0 questionnaire. Days of sickness absence reported by the subjects. On average, days of sickness absence were 7.4, and 7.2% of the respondents were defined as bullied. Results from logistic regression analyses showed that a workplace bullying was associated with more days of sickness absence after controlling for gender, age, professional qualification, company sector and juridical nature and other psychosocial factors (men: OR =1.62; women: OR =2.15). The present study confirms that workers exposed to a workplace bullying reported higher sickness absenteeism as compared with non-exposed subjects, also when a potentially highly stressful work environment is considered. The results of the present study support that workplace bullying may be viewed as an extreme stressful condition. Interventions to avoid workplace bullying not only favoure workers' health, but also avoid the company costs associated with workers' sickness absenteeism.

  20. Effects of internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy and physical exercise on sick leave and employment in primary care patients with depression: two subgroup analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldo, Viktor; Lundin, Andreas; Hallgren, Mats; Kraepelien, Martin; Strid, Catharina; Ekblom, Örjan; Lavebratt, Catharina; Lindefors, Nils; Öjehagen, Agneta; Forsell, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    Depression can negatively impact work capacity, but treatment effects on sick leave and employment are unclear. This study evaluates if internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) or physical exercise (PE), with already reported positive effects on clinical outcome and short-term work ability, has better effects on employment, sick leave and long-term work ability compared with treatment as usual (TAU) for depressed primary care patients (German clinical trials: DRKS00008745). After randomisation and exclusion of patients not relevant for work-related analysis, patients were divided into two subgroups: initially unemployed (total n=118) evaluated on employment, and employed (total n=703) evaluated on long-term sick leave. Secondary outcomes were self-rated work ability and average number of sick days per month evaluated for both subgroups. Assessments (self-reports) were made at baseline and follow-up at 3 and 12 months. For the initially unemployed subgroup, 52.6% were employed after 1 year (response rate 82%). Both PE (risk ratio (RR)=0.44; 95% CI 0.23 to 0.87) and ICBT (RR=0.37; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.84) showed lower rates compared with TAU after 3 months, but no difference was found after 1 year (PE: RR=0.97; 95% CI 0.69 to 1.57; ICBT: RR=1.23; 95% CI 0.72 to 2.13). For those with initial employment, long-term sick leave (response rate 75%) decreased from 7.8% to 6.5%, but neither PE (RR=1.4; 95% CI 0.52 to 3.74) nor ICBT (RR=0.99; 95% CI 0.39 to 2.46) decreased more than TAU, although a temporary positive effect for PE was found. All groups increased self-rated work ability with no differences found. No long-term effects were found for the initially unemployed on employment status or for the initially employed on sick leave. New types of interventions need to be explored. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  1. Changes in sickness absenteeism following the introduction of a qualifying day for sickness benefit--findings from Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    AIMS: In 1993, a qualifying day without sickness benefit was introduced to the Swedish sickness benefit system. The aim of the present study is to investigate sickness absenteeism before and after the introduction of the qualifying day, in the light of conditions inside and outside working life....... METHODS: The study was based on 1,952 female and 2,229 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by sickness incidence one year before and one year after the introduction of the qualifying day (sick-leave events/person days at risk). Information about explanatory factors was collected...

  2. Impact of ankylosing spondylitis on sick leave, presenteeism and unpaid productivity, and estimation of the societal cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Annelies; Brinkhuizen, Tjinta; Landewé, Robert; van der Heijde, Désirée; Severens, Johan L

    2010-06-01

    To describe the influence of ankylosing apondylitis (AS) on sick leave, presenteeism and unpaid work restrictions and to estimate related productivity costs. 142 consecutive and unselected patients with AS under the care of rheumatologists participated in a longitudinal observational study and completed the Health and Labour Questionnaire (HLQ) assessing disease-related sick leave, presenteeism and restrictions in unpaid work over the previous 2 weeks. Logistic regressions explored which explanatory variables were associated with work outcome. Productivity loss was valued in monetary terms. Among 72 patients in paid employment, 12% had sick leave over a period of 2 weeks and 53% experienced an adverse influence of AS on work productivity while at work. Over this period they reported on average of 5.8 h sick leave and 2.4 inefficient working hours, for which they estimated an extra 1.9 h were needed to complete unfinished work. Among all patients (n=137), 71% had experienced restrictions in unpaid work during the previous 2 weeks with 42% needing help for these tasks for an average of 8 h. The annual production costs for the total group were euro1451 (95% CI 425 to 2742) per patient for sick leave, euro967 (95% CI 503 to 1496) to compensate for hours worked inefficiently while at work and euro1930 (95% CI 1404 to 2471) to substitute loss of unpaid work production. Patients with AS not only have substantial sick leave but also experience restrictions while being at work and when performing unpaid tasks. Limitations in physical functioning are strongly associated with work restrictions. Societal costs of formal and informal care are comparable with the costs of sick leave and presenteeism combined.

  3. Healthy change processes - Relations with job insecurity, sickness absenteeism, sickness presenteeism and turnover intention

    OpenAIRE

    Bødal, Åshild

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of a healthy change process (HCPI) could predict negative outcomes that normally follow organisational change, such as qualitative job insecurity, total sickness (sickness absenteeism and -presenteesim) and turnover intention. It was hypothesised that negative relationships existed between a healthy change process and qualitative job insecurity, total sickness and turnover intention. In addition, it was believed that experienced st...

  4. Effectiveness of Multimedia for Transplant Preparation for Kidney Transplant Waiting List Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenthanakit, C; Junchotikul, P; Sittiudomsuk, R; Saiyud, A; Pratumphai, P

    2016-04-01

    A multimedia program could effectively advise patients about preparing for transplantation while on the waiting list for a kidney transplant. This study aimed to compare knowledge about transplant preparation for patients on a kidney transplant waiting list before and after participating in a multimedia program, and to evaluate patient satisfaction with the multimedia program. Research design was quasiexperimental with the use of 1 group. Subjects were 186 patients on the kidney transplant waiting list after HLA matching in Ramathibodi Hospital. The questionnaires were developed by the researchers. The statistical tools used were basic statistics, percentage, average, standard deviation, and the difference of score between before and after participation in the multimedia program (t test). The evaluation knowledge for transplant preparation for kidney transplant waiting list patients after participating in the multimedia program averaged 85.40%, and there was an increased improvement of score by an average 3.27 out of a possible full score of 20 (P multimedia program had good average, 4.58. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Paid Sick Leave as a Means to Reduce Sickness Presenteeism Among Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Steen Rostad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent international data show that physicians often attend work while ill, termed sickness presenteeism. The current study investigated if sickness presenteeism scores among European physicians varied according to national paid sick leave legislation. We hypothesized that prevalence of presenteeism was higher in countries with lower levels of paid sick leave. We used repeated cross-sectional survey data, phase I (2004/2005, N = 1326 and phase II (2012/2013, N = 1403, among senior consultants at university hospitals in Sweden, Norway, and Italy. Analyses of variances assessed cross-country differences in presenteeism. To assess the impact of country on presenteeism, we used multiple regression analyses controlled for sex, age, family status, work hours, and work content. The results from phase I supported the initial hypothesis. At phase II, presenteeism scores had decreased among the Italian and Swedish sample. The results are discussed with regard to changes in legislation on workhours and medical liability in Italy and Sweden between phase I and II.

  6. Alcohol use disorder-related sick leave and mortality: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedegaertner, Felix; Geyer, Siegfried; Arnhold-Kerri, Sonja; Sittaro, Nicola-Alexander; te Wildt, Bert

    2013-01-30

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are associated with the highest all-cause mortality rates of all mental disorders. The majority of patients with AUDs never receive inpatient treatment for their AUD, and there is lack of data about their mortality risks despite their constituting the majority of those affected. Absenteeism from work (sick leave) due to an AUD likely signals worsening. In this study, we assessed whether AUD-related sick leave was associated with mortality in a cohort of workers in Germany. 128,001 workers with health insurance were followed for a mean of 6.4 years. We examined the associations between 1) AUD-related sick leave managed on an outpatient basis and 2) AUD-related psychiatric inpatient treatment, and mortality using survival analysis, and Cox proportional hazard regression models (separately by sex) adjusted for age, education, and job code classification. We also stratified analyses by sick leave related to three groups of alcohol-related conditions (all determined by International Classification of Diseases 9th ed. (ICD-9) codes): alcohol abuse and dependence; alcohol-induced mental disorder; and alcohol-induced medical conditions. Outpatient-managed AUD-related sick leave was significantly associated with higher mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 2.90 (95% Confidence interval (CI) 2.24-3.75) for men, HR 5.83 (CI 2.90-11.75) for women). The magnitude of the association was similar for receipt of AUD-related psychiatric inpatient treatment (HR 3.2 (CI 2.76-3.78) for men, HR 6.5 (CI 4.41-9.47) for women). Compared to those without the conditions, higher mortality was observed consistently for outpatients and inpatients across the three groups of alcohol-related conditions. Those with alcohol-related medical conditions who had AUD-related psychiatric inpatient treatment appeared to have the highest mortality. Alcohol use disorder-related sick leave as documented in health insurance records is associated with higher mortality. Such sick leave does

  7. Sick leave and disability pension before and after initiation of antirheumatic therapies in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neovius, M; Simard, J F; Klareskog, L; Askling, J

    2011-08-01

    To investigate sick leave and disability pension in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in relation to the initiation of biological and non-biological antirheumatic therapies in clinical practice. Patients aged 19-60 years initiating non-biological mono (n=2796) or combination disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy (n=973), or biological agents (n=4787) were identified in the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Register between 1999 and 2007. Sick leave and disability pension data (1995-2010) were retrieved from national registers. During the year before the start of mono DMARD, combination DMARD and biological treatment, 10%, 12% and 43% of patients received disability pension benefits, respectively. The corresponding combined annual sick leave and disability pension days were 78 (54+25), 132 (105+27) and 190 (79+111). Irrespective of treatment type, initiators were characterised by a history of increasing sick leave and disability pension. Treatment start was associated with a break in this trajectory: sick leave decreased while disability pension increased, resulting in a net stabilisation of total days. Higher levels of days on sick leave and disability pension at treatment start were observed in patients initiating biologics in 1999 (236 days/year) compared with 2007 (150 days/year; ppension increased rapidly before the initiation of antirheumatic therapy, which was associated with a halt but not a reversal of this development. Work ability is a metric of importance for clinical practice, signalling large remaining needs in the RA population, and the need for intervention earlier in the disease process.

  8. Employment is maintained and sick days decreased in psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis patients with etanercept treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boggs, Robert L; Kárpáti, Sarolta; Li, Wenzhi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) impair quality of life, including reduction in employment or job duties. The PRESTA (Psoriasis Randomized Etanercept STudy in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis) study, a randomized, double-blind, two-dose trial, examined the efficacy of etanerce...... at baseline, week 12 and week 24 of treatment. The questionnaire included employment status and changing job responsibilities and sick time taken due to psoriasis or PsA. The statistical methods included analysis of covariance, t-test, Fisher's exact test and McNemar's test. Last...

  9. Heart failure in patients with sick sinus syndrome treated with single lead atrial or dual-chamber pacing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riahi, Sam; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Hjortshøj, Søren

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: Previous studies indicate that ventricular pacing may precipitate heart failure (HF). We investigated occurrence of HF during long-term follow-up among patients with sick sinus syndrome (SSS) randomized to AAIR or DDDR pacing. Furthermore, we investigated effects of percentage of ventricular...... patients (17%) with the leads in a non-apical position, HR 0.67, CI 0.45-1.00, P = 0.05. After adjustments this difference was non-significant. The incidence of HF was not associated with %VP (P = 0.57).CONCLUSION: In patients with SSS, HF was not associated with pacing mode, %VP, or ventricular lead...... localization. This suggests that DDDR pacing is safe in patients with SSS without precipitating HF....

  10. Changes in reticulocyte in 2 patients with acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yuan; Chen Jiankui; Zheng Naxin; Kang Shuwei; Jin Xin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of routine blood and reticulocyte parameters in acute radiation sickness(ARS). Methods: Two patients with ARS were analyzed. White blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), platelet count (Plt), reticulocyte count (RET), absolute reticulocyte count, immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF), high fluorescence reticulocytes (HFR), middle fluorescence reticulocytes (MFR), and low fluorescence reticulocytes (LFR) were measured using Sysmex XT-2000i automatic hematology analyzer. Results: During early days after exposure, an increase in WBC, decrease in lymphocyte count, RET and absolute RET were observed, HFR and IRF were zero. After hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, HFR and IRF recovered at first, 1 day before the rise in WBC, 2 days before the rise in RET and absolute RET, and 3 days before the rise in Plt. Conclusion: During early days, WBC, lymphocyte count, RET and absolute RET are related to radiation dose. The rises of WBC, HFR and IRF can reflect marrow recovery after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in ARS. (authors)

  11. Quality of sickness certification in primary health care: a retrospective database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skånér, Ylva; Arrelöv, Britt; Backlund, Lars G; Fresk, Magdalena; Aström, Amanda Waleh; Nilsson, Gunnar H

    2013-04-12

    In the period 2004-2009, national and regional initiatives were developed in Sweden to improve the quality of sickness certificates. Parameters for assessing the quality of sickness certificates in primary health care have been proposed. The aim of this study was to measure the quality of sickness certification in primary health care by means of assessing sickness certificates issued between 2004 and 2009 in Stockholm. This was a retrospective study using data retrieved from sickness certificates contained in the electronic patient records of 21 primary health care centres in Stockholm County covering six consecutive years. A total number of 236 441 certificates were used in the current study. Seven quality parameters were chosen as outcome measures. Descriptive statistics and regression models with time, sex and age group as explanatory variables were used. During the study period, the quality of the sickness certification practice improved as the number of days on first certification decreased and the proportion of duly completely and acceptable certificates increased. Assessment of need for vocational rehabilitation and giving a prognosis for return to work were not significantly improved during the same period. Time was the most influential variable. The quality of sickness certification practice improved for most of the parameters, although additional efforts to improve the quality of sickness certificates are needed. Measures, such as reminders, compulsory certificate fields and structured guidance, could be useful tools to achieve this objective.

  12. Sickness absence and disability pension following breast cancer - A population-based matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Marie Høyer; Lampic, Claudia; Nordin, Karin; Ahlgren, Johan; Bergkvist, Leif; Lambe, Mats; Berglund, Anders; Johansson, Birgitta

    2014-12-01

    To compare sickness absence and disability pension in a population-based cohort of women with breast cancer (n = 463) from 1 year pre-diagnosis until 3 years post-diagnosis with a matched control group (n = 2310), and to investigate predictors of sickness absence during the 2nd and 3rd year post-diagnosis. Following breast cancer, the proportion of disease-free women with sickness absence decreased post-diagnosis (1st-3rd year; 78%-31%-19%), but did not reach the pre-diagnostic level (14%; P pension post-diagnosis (P > 0.05). Among patients, chemotherapy, baseline fatigue and pre-diagnosis sick days predicted sickness absence during the 2nd, 3rd, and 2nd and 3rd year post-diagnosis, respectively (P < 0.05). Breast cancer is associated with increased sickness absence 3 years post-diagnosis. In a clinical setting, prevention and treatment of side effects are important in reducing long-term consequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A prospective study of prognostic factors for duration of sick leave after endoscopic carpal tunnel release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalsgaard Jesper

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endoscopic carpal tunnel release with a single portal technique has been shown to reduce sick leave compared to open carpal tunnel release, claiming to be a less invasive procedure and reducing scar tenderness leading to a more rapid return to work, and the purpose of this study was to identify prognostic factors for prolonged sick leave after endoscopic carpal tunnel release in a group of employed Danish patients. Methods The design was a prospective study including 75 employed patients with carpal tunnel syndrome operated with ECTR at two hospitals. The mean age was 46 years (SD 10.1, the male/female ratio was 0.42, and the mean preoperative duration of symptoms 10 months (range 6-12. Only 21 (28% were unable to work preoperatively and mean sick leave was 4 weeks (range 1-4. At base-line and at the 3-month follow-up, a self-administered questionnaire was collected concerning physical, psychological, and social circumstances in relation to the hand problem. Data from a nerve conduction examination were collected at baseline and at the 3-month follow-up. Significant prognostic factors were identified through multiple logistic regression analysis. Results After the operation, the mean functional score was reduced from 2.3 to 1.4 (SD 0.8 and the mean symptom score from 2.9 to 1.5 (SD 0.7. The mean sick leave from work after the operation was 19.8 days (SD 14.3. Eighteen patients (24% had more than 21 days of sick leave. Two patients (3% were still unable to work after 3 months. Significant prognostic factors in the multivariate analysis for more than 21 days of postoperative sick leave were preoperative sick leave, blaming oneself for the hand problem and a preoperative distal motor latency. Conclusion Preoperative sick leave, blaming oneself for the hand problem, and a preoperative distal nerve conduction motor latency were prognostic factors for postoperative work absence of more than 21 days. Other factors may be important

  14. Presenteeism among sick workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2003-01-01

    Much attention has been focused on absenteeism. However, ‘presenteeism’ is also an issue, i.e. staying at work even when feeling sick. Analyses have shown that, the greater the work pressure, the higher the percentage of people who keep working when feeling sick.

  15. Reducing the time until psychotherapy initiation reduces sick leave duration in participants diagnosed with anxiety and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Sandra; Marco, José H; Andani, Joaquín

    2018-01-01

    Sick leave in patients with a mental disorder is characterized by having a long duration. Studies suggest that the time until a patient on sick leave for a common mental health disorder initiates evaluation and treatment by a healthcare professional is an important factor in the duration of the sick leave. However, in these studies, the intervention was not performed by a mental health specialist. The aim of this study was to find out whether the length of sick leave was associated with the time before initiating psychotherapy, age, time until returning to work after psychotherapy ends, and duration of psychotherapy. In a further analysis, we examined whether the model composed of age, duration of psychotherapy, and time before initiating psychotherapy predicted the length of sick leave. The sample consisted of 2,423 participants, 64.1% (n = 1,554) women and 35.9% (n = 869) men, who were on sick leave for anxiety disorders or depressive disorder. The total duration of the sick leave of participants diagnosed with depression and anxiety was positively associated with the time before beginning psychotherapy. Time before beginning psychotherapy predicted the length of sick leave when the variables age and duration of psychotherapy were controlled. It is necessary to reduce the time until beginning psychotherapy in people on sick leave for common mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Redefining Lumpectomy Using a Modification of the Sick Lobe Hypothesis and Ductal Anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, W.; Bong, J.; Parker, J

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The Sick Lobe hypothesis states that breast cancers evolve from entire lobes or portions of lobes of the breast where initiation events have occurred early in development. The implication is that some cancers are isolated events and others are truly multi-focal but limited to single lobar-ductal units. Methods. This is a single surgeon retrospective review of early stage breast cancer lumpectomy patients treated from 1/2000 to 2/2005. Ductal endoscopy was used direct lumpectomy surgical margins by defining ductal anatomy and mapping proliferative changes within the sick lobe for complete excision. Results. Breast conservation surgery for stage 02 breast cancer with an attempt to perform endoscopy in association with therapeutic lumpectomy was performed in 554 patients (successful endoscopy in 465 cases). With an average followup of >5 years for the entire group, annual hazard rate for local failure in traditional lumpectomy without ductal mapping was 0.97%/yr. and for lumpectomy with ductal mapping and excision of entire sick lobe was 0.18%/yr. With endoscopy, 42% of patients were found to have extensive disease within their sick lobe. Conclusions. Targeting breast cancer lumpectomy using endoscopy and excision of regional associated proliferation seems associated with lower recurrence in this non-randomized series

  17. Office design's impact on sick leave rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin Danielsson, Christina; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Wulff, Cornelia; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The effect of office type on sickness absence among office employees was studied prospectively in 1852 employees working in (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Sick leaves were self-reported two years later as number of (a) short and (b) long (medically certified) sick leave spells as well as (c) total number of sick leave days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used, with adjustment for background factors. A significant excess risk for sickness absence was found only in terms of short sick leave spells in the three open-plan offices. In the gender separate analysis, this remained for women, whereas men had a significantly increased risk in flex-offices. For long sick leave spells, a significantly higher risk was found among women in large open-plan offices and for total number of sick days among men in flex-offices. A prospective study of the office environment's effect on employees is motivated by the high rates of sick leaves in the workforce. The results indicate differences between office types, depending on the number of people sharing workspace and the opportunity to exert personal control as influenced by the features that define the office types.

  18. Encounters between workers sick-listed with common mental disorders and return-to-work stakeholders. Does workers' gender matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Bultmann, Ute; Christensen, Ulla; Diderichsen, Finn; Rugulies, Reiner

    Introduction: The aims of this paper were to examine how disabled workers assess encounters with return-to-work (RTW) stakeholders during sickness absence due to common mental disorders (CMD) and to investigate gender differences in these assessments. Method: Data on contact with and assessment of

  19. Analyses of Sickness Absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, S.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Sickness absence is an empirical phenomenon of all time. Generally, it has a medical cause. However, other factors also appear to have an impact on the actual rate of sickness absence, such as the institutional setting, the business cycle and the economic structure. Many questions on the different

  20. Focus on health, motivation, and pride: A discussion of three theoretical perspectives on the rehabilitation of sick-listed people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Tommy; Björklund, Anita

    2010-01-01

    During the last decades sickness absence from work has become a great societal problem. Questions of how rehabilitation processes should become successful and how peoples' ability to work can be improved have become of great public interest. In this paper we discuss three well-known theoretical perspectives regarding their usefulness when it comes to research on rehabilitation for return to work. The three perspectives are: Antonovsky's salutogenic model of health, Kielhofner's model of human occupation and Scheff's sociological theory of "shame and pride". Each of these can be applied to increase understanding and knowledge concerning sickness absence and return to work. We discuss points of affinity among the three perspectives, as well as significant differences, and we propose that a very essential common denominator is the importance of self-experience.

  1. Experiences of sickness absence, marginality and Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms - A focus group study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E.L., Werner; A, Aamland; Malterud, Kirsti

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) form a major cause of sickness absence. The purpose of this study was to explore factors which may influence further marginalization among patients with MUPS on long-term sickness absence. METHODS: Two focus-group discussions were conducted...... of objective findings were perceived as an additional burden to the sickness absence itself. Factors that could counteract further marginalization were a supportive social network, positive coping strategies such as keeping to the daily schedule and physical activity, and positive attention and confidence from...

  2. Positive and negative consequences of sick leave for the individual, with special focus on part-time sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieurin, Leif; Josephson, Malin; Vingård, Eva

    2009-01-01

    To describe the consequences of long-term sick leave (>28 days) on working situation, health and lifestyle among employees from the public sector in Sweden. Employees in four county councils and two municipalities on long term sick leave on 1 November 2005 (n = 1,128) answered a questionnaire in February 2006. The response rate was 71.7%. Eighty seven per cent were still on sick leave when the questionnaire was answered: 54% part time and 33% full time. Reporting positive consequences was rare but reporting negative consequences, such as effects on the development of salary, the possibilities of pursuing a career or to change to another job were common. Sick leave seemed to lead to a considerable loss of zest for work, even if the respondents were back in work full time. Regardless of the negative consequences at work, 92% of those on part-time sick leave believed that the part-time sick leave was good for them even if many thought it had negative consequences for employer and colleagues. Long-term sick leave has negative consequences for the individual in work situations, even for those back at work full time. The development of salary and career seem to be most affected. The attitude towards part-time sick leave was positive and this result indicates that there is a potential for an increased degree of partial return to work in the group of people on long-term sick leave.

  3. Sickness absence at a young age and later sickness absence, disability pension, death, unemployment and income in native Swedes and immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Bo; Nordqvist, Tobias; Lundberg, Ingvar; Vingård, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sickness absence with cash benefits from the sickness insurance gives an opportunity to be relieved from work without losing financial security. There are, however, downsides to taking sickness absence. Periods of sickness absence, even short ones, can increase the risk for future spells of sickness absence and unemployment. The sickness period may in itself have a detrimental effect on health. The aim of the study was to investigate if there is an association between exposure to sickness absence at a young age and later sickness absence, disability pension, death, unemployment and income from work. Methods: Our cohort consisted of all immigrants aged 21–25 years in Sweden in 1993 (N = 38 207) and a control group of native Swedes in the same age group (N = 225 977). We measured exposure to sickness absence in 1993 with a follow-up period of 15 years. We conducted separate analyses for men and women, and for immigrants and native Swedes. Results: Exposure to ≥60 days of sickness absence in 1993 increased the risk of sickness absence [hazard ratio (HR) 1.6–11.4], unemployment (HR 1.1–1.2), disability pension (HR 1.2–5.3) and death (HR 1.2–3.5). The income from work, during the follow-up period, among individuals with spells of sick leave for ≥60 days in 1993 was around two-thirds of that of the working population who did not take sick leave. Conclusions: Individuals on sickness absence had an increased risk for work absence, death and lower future income. PMID:25634955

  4. The understanding of Norwegian women’s sickness absence: towards a holistic approach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Johanne Solheim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Vanlig tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: In Norway men's sickness absence from work has been stable or reduced over the last decades while women's sickness-absence ratio has increased, but the reasons for these developments are complex and unclear. There have been considerable efforts introduced and implemented to reduce sickness absence, but they have not succeeded. One reason for this may be the insufficient knowledge about the reasons for sick leave, and especially for women's sick leave. The aim: This article aims to examine how social factors influence sickness absence and how long-term absentees interpret and explain their ill health and sickness absence. Method: In one Norwegian county in 2010 we performed individual in-depth interviews with 20 women and ten men between the ages of 25-60 years who had been or were sick-listed for more than 30 days during the last year with a mental illness or musculoskeletal diagnoses. Results: The study illustrates how social factors influence sickness absence in different ways. The women indicated complex causes for their sickness absence, and often described an interaction between work-related and domestic-related aspects. Some accounts illustrate that their ill health might have roots in life occurrences from childhood

  5. Alcohol use disorder-related sick leave and mortality: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Wedegaertner, Felix; Geyer, Siegfried; Arnhold-Kerri, Sonja; Sittaro, Nicola-Alexander; te Wildt, Bert

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are associated with the highest all-cause mortality rates of all mental disorders. The majority of patients with AUDs never receive inpatient treatment for their AUD, and there is lack of data about their mortality risks despite their constituting the majority of those affected. Absenteeism from work (sick leave) due to an AUD likely signals worsening. In this study, we assessed whether AUD-related sick leave was associated with mortality in a cohort of...

  6. The Sickness Impact Profile: Potential Use of a Health Status Instrument for Physician Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Diane P.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) is designed to measure health status in terms of sickness-related changes in behavior. Its content incorporates the perspectives of clinicians, patients, and the apparently healthy, and consists of 235 items. Its reliability and validity were supported in a study with both experienced physicians and residents.…

  7. Health care management of sickness certification tasks: results from two surveys to physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Christina; von Knorring, Mia; Arrelöv, Britt; Nilsson, Gunnar; Hinas, Elin; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2013-05-23

    Health care in general and physicians in particular, play an important role in patients' sickness certification processes. However, a lack of management within health care regarding how sickness certification is carried out has been identified in Sweden. A variety of interventions to increase the quality of sickness certification were introduced by the government and County Councils. Some of these measures were specifically aimed at strengthening health care management of sickness certification; e.g. policy making and management support. The aim was to describe to what extent physicians in different medical specialties had access to a joint policy regarding sickness certification in their clinical settings and experienced management support in carrying out sickness certification. A descriptive study, based on data from two cross-sectional questionnaires sent to all physicians in the Stockholm County regarding their sickness certification practice. Criteria for inclusion in this study were working in a clinical setting, being a board-certified specialist, sickness certification consultations at least a few times a year. These criteria were met by 2497 physicians in 2004 and 2204 physicians in 2008. Proportions were calculated regarding access to policy and management support, stratified according to medical specialty. The proportions of physicians working in clinical settings with a well-established policy regarding sickness certification were generally low both in 2004 and 2008, but varied greatly between different types of medical specialties (from 6.1% to 46.9%). Also, reports of access to substantial management support regarding sickness certification varied greatly between medical specialties (from 10.5% to 48.8%). More than one third of the physicians reported having no such management support. Most physicians did not work in a clinical setting with a well-established policy on sickness certification tasks, nor did they experience substantial support from

  8. CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc score to assess risk of stroke and death in patients paced for sick sinus syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Darkner, Stine

    2013-01-01

    The risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) can be assessed by use of the CHADS2 and the CHA2DS2-VASc score system. We hypothesised that these risk scores and their individual components could also be applied to patients paced for sick sinus syndrome (SSS) to evaluate risk of str...

  9. Clinical characteristics of subacute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Benrong; Ye Genyao; Huang Shimin

    1991-01-01

    The clinical characteristics, diagnosis and differential diagnosis of subacute radiation sickness are analysed and discussed in this paper on the basis of clinical data from cases in a 137 Cs source accident in Mudanjiang and of a review of the literature. We consider that the subacute radiation sickness is a whole body disease caused by comparatively large dose of continuous or intermittent external irradiation in several weeks or months. it must be differentiated from acute radiation sickness, chronic radiation sickness, idiopathic aplastic anemia and other hematological diseases, such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome

  10. Euthyroid sick syndrome in patients with acute renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic Slobodan; Vlajkovic Marina; Rajic Milena; Bogicevic Momcilo

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate serum thyroid hormone profile in acute renal failure (ARF) patients according to the initial 131I-OIH clearance value as a predictor of ARF outcome. Patients and methods: Radioimmuno-assays of T4, T3, FT4, FT3, rT3 and TSH were performed in 32 ARF patients within 7 days and 6 months after ARF onset. The patients were divided into three groups according to the kidney function recovery potential measured by 131I-OIH clearance as follows: Group I: high probability for kidney recovery (131I-OIH clearance >250 ml/min), Group II: intermediate probability for kidney recovery (131I-OIH clearance 151-250 ml/min) and Group III: low probability for kidney recovery (131I-OIH clearance <150 ml/min). The results were compared with those obtained in 20 healthy patients. Results: Total thyroid hormone and TSH values are displayed in the table, Values of total T4 and TSH were slightly declined in the Group I but without reaching the statistical significance, while total T3 value was significantly decreased seven days after ARF onset. In the groups with intermediate and low probability for kidney recovery both T3 and T4 values were significantly dropped, being most prominent in the III group. After six months, the most severe fall of thyroid hormone levels without reaching the normalization was found only in the Group III while in the Group I and II normalization of total thyroid hormone levels was achieved. At the end of the observation period ARF patients with low probability for kidney recovery were found significantly lower values of TSH. Conclusion: Acute renal failure affects thyroid function leading to euthyroid sick syndrome characterized by declined serum T3 and T4 without TSH elevation. Thyroid hormone a disturbance is in accordance with the impairment of renal function being the most pronounced in patient with low probability for kidney recovery. This pattern of altered thyroid hormone levels could be a result of

  11. Influenza in workplaces: transmission, workers' adherence to sick leave advice and European sick leave recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christina Hansen; Tomba, Gianpaolo Scalia; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge about influenza transmission in the workplace and whether staying home from work when experiencing influenza-like illness can reduce the spread of influenza is crucial for the design of efficient public health initiatives. This review synthesizes current literature on sickness presenteeism and influenza transmission in the workplace and provides an overview of sick leave recommendations in Europe for influenza. A search was performed on Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cinahl, Web of Science, Scopus and SweMed to identify studies related to workplace contacts, -transmission, -interventions and compliance with recommendations to take sick leave. A web-based survey on national recommendations and policies for sick leave during influenza was issued to 31 European countries. Twenty-two articles (9 surveys; 13 modelling articles) were eligible for this review. Results from social mixing studies suggest that 20-25% of weekly contacts are made in the workplace, while modelling studies suggest that on average 16% (range 9-33%) of influenza transmission occurs in the workplace. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce workplace presenteeism is largely unknown. Finally, estimates from studies reporting expected compliance with sick leave recommendations ranged from 71 to 95%. Overall, 18 countries participated in the survey of which nine (50%) had issued recommendations encouraging sick employees to stay at home during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, while only one country had official recommendations for seasonal influenza. During the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, many European countries recommended ill employees to take sick leave. Further research is warranted to quantify the effect of reduced presenteeism during influenza illness. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  12. Influenza in workplaces: transmission, workers’ adherence to sick leave advice and European sick leave recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomba, Gianpaolo Scalia; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben

    2016-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about influenza transmission in the workplace and whether staying home from work when experiencing influenza-like illness can reduce the spread of influenza is crucial for the design of efficient public health initiatives. Aim: This review synthesizes current literature on sickness presenteeism and influenza transmission in the workplace and provides an overview of sick leave recommendations in Europe for influenza. Methods: A search was performed on Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cinahl, Web of Science, Scopus and SweMed to identify studies related to workplace contacts, -transmission, -interventions and compliance with recommendations to take sick leave. A web-based survey on national recommendations and policies for sick leave during influenza was issued to 31 European countries. Results: Twenty-two articles (9 surveys; 13 modelling articles) were eligible for this review. Results from social mixing studies suggest that 20–25% of weekly contacts are made in the workplace, while modelling studies suggest that on average 16% (range 9–33%) of influenza transmission occurs in the workplace. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce workplace presenteeism is largely unknown. Finally, estimates from studies reporting expected compliance with sick leave recommendations ranged from 71 to 95%. Overall, 18 countries participated in the survey of which nine (50%) had issued recommendations encouraging sick employees to stay at home during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, while only one country had official recommendations for seasonal influenza. Conclusions: During the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, many European countries recommended ill employees to take sick leave. Further research is warranted to quantify the effect of reduced presenteeism during influenza illness. PMID:27060594

  13. Motion sickness: a negative reinforcement model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowins, Brad

    2010-01-15

    Theories pertaining to the "why" of motion sickness are in short supply relative to those detailing the "how." Considering the profoundly disturbing and dysfunctional symptoms of motion sickness, it is difficult to conceive of why this condition is so strongly biologically based in humans and most other mammalian and primate species. It is posited that motion sickness evolved as a potent negative reinforcement system designed to terminate motion involving sensory conflict or postural instability. During our evolution and that of many other species, motion of this type would have impaired evolutionary fitness via injury and/or signaling weakness and vulnerability to predators. The symptoms of motion sickness strongly motivate the individual to terminate the offending motion by early avoidance, cessation of movement, or removal of oneself from the source. The motion sickness negative reinforcement mechanism functions much like pain to strongly motivate evolutionary fitness preserving behavior. Alternative why theories focusing on the elimination of neurotoxins and the discouragement of motion programs yielding vestibular conflict suffer from several problems, foremost that neither can account for the rarity of motion sickness in infants and toddlers. The negative reinforcement model proposed here readily accounts for the absence of motion sickness in infants and toddlers, in that providing strong motivation to terminate aberrant motion does not make sense until a child is old enough to act on this motivation.

  14. Examining paid sickness absence by shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catano, V M; Bissonnette, A B

    2014-06-01

    Shift workers are at greater risk than day workers with respect to psychological and physical health, yet little research has linked shift work to increased sickness absence. To investigate the relationship between shift work and sickness absence while controlling for organizational and individual characteristics and shift work attributes that have confounded previous research. The study used archive data collected from three national surveys in Canada, each involving over 20000 employees and 6000 private-sector firms in 14 different occupational groups. The employees reported the number of paid sickness absence days in the past 12 months. Data were analysed using both chi-squared statistics and hierarchical regressions. Contrary to previous research, shift workers took less paid sickness absence than day workers. There were no differences in the length of the sickness absence between both groups or in sickness absence taken by female and male workers whether working days or shifts. Only job tenure, the presence of a union in the workplace and working rotating shifts predicted sickness absence in shift workers. The results were consistent across all three samples. In general, shift work does not seem to be linked to increased sickness absence. However, such associations may be true for specific industries. Male and female workers did not differ in the amount of sickness absence taken. Rotating shifts, regardless of industry, predicted sickness absence among shift workers. Consideration should be given to implementing scheduled time off between shift changes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Return to work after lumbar disc surgery is related to the length of preoperative sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Ø; Ernst, Carsten; Rasmussen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    % returned to work if surgically treated within three months. In contrast, only 50% of those whose sick leave exceeded three months returned to work. CONCLUSION: The present analysis suggests that the return-to-work rate after lumbar disc herniation surgery is affected by the length of sick leave. FUNDING......INTRODUCTION: Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is associated with high morbidity and significant socio-economic impact as the majority of the patients are of working age. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of length of sick leave on the return-to-work rate after lumbar disc...... herniation surgery. METHODS: This was a single-centre study of LDH patients who underwent surgery from 18 May 2009 through 28 November 2014. Data were collected prospectively from the DaneSpine database. Questions in DaneSpine include preoperative length of sick leave and working status one year post...

  16. [Influence of the working conditions on sickness absence due to common diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Álvarez, Manuel; Álvarez-Theurer, Esther; Romero Saldaña, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    To estimate the importance of the working environment in sickness absence, as well as to show possible relationships with clinical-work variables. A descriptive observational study. SITE: Medical Inspection of an Andalusian province. A total of 1016 workers on certified sick leave due to a common illness. A self-report questionnaire was used to collect demographic data, profession, activity, risk assessment, and perceived occupational cause, on patients who voluntarily gave their consent when they were reviewed during 2015. The illness that caused certified sickness absences was verified in the computerised medical records. Using criteria applied by experts, the role of working conditions in each episode of certified sick leave was assessed. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine any relationships between the variables. An inadequate work environment was found in 17.1% of the sickness processes. Health and hospitality services activities have a significant association with working conditions as a cause of sick leave (P<.001). With respect to diagnosis, anxiety-depressive disorders (P<.01) and low back pain (P<.05) were associated with working conditions. The factors related to certified sickness absence and work environment were: residence (OR=0.34, 0.21-0.6), normal/higher education (OR=1.7, 1.2-2.4), (OR=2.0 1.3-3.1), large companies (OR=1.97, 1.3-2.9), and job (OR=2.7, 1.6-3, 2). Sickness absence is affected by factors related to the work environment. Specific preventive actions for workers at their workplace could reduce work related diseases classified as a common illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Parental availability for the care of sick children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, S J; Earle, A; Egleston, B

    1996-08-01

    Parents have always played a critical role in the care of sick children. Although parents' roles remain crucial to children's health, parental availability has declined during the past half century. The percentage of women with preschool children who work has risen almost fivefold in 45 years from 12% in 1947 to 58% in 1992. The percentage of women in the paid work force with school-aged children has almost tripled in the same period, from 27.3% to 75.9%. Research has examined the effects of a variety of parental work conditions on children. However, past research has not examined how working conditions affect the ability of parents to care for their sick children. In this article, we examine how often the children of working parents get sick and whether parents receive enough paid leave to care for their sick children. This analysis makes use of two national surveys, which provide complementary information regarding the care of sick children. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth is a longitudinal survey of a nationally representative probability sample of 12,686 men and women; the National Medical Expenditure Survey is a panel survey of 34,459 people. First, we estimated the family illness burden. Second, we looked in detail at the number of days of sick leave mothers had. Third, we examined whether mothers who had sick leave had it consistently during a 5-year period. Finally, we conducted a logistic regression to determine what factors were significant predictors of both lacking sick leave. More than one in three families faced a family illness burden of 2 weeks or more each year. Yet, 28% of mothers had sick leave none of the time they were employed between 1985 and 1990. Employed mothers of children with chronic conditions had less sick leave than other employed mothers. Thirty-six percent of mothers whose children had chronic conditions had sick leave none of the time they were employed. Although 20% of working parents who did not live in poverty lacked

  18. Industrial Sickness in Indian Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Rahel

    2005-01-01

    In India, the term ‘sick units’ refers to economically unviable firms which are kept alive ‘in the public interest’ by means of subsidies of various kinds. Since this practice is common, and large parts of the industrial sector are affected, this phenomenon is referred to as industrial sickness. As of March 2001, the Reserve Bank of India counted over a quarter of a million of sick units with outstanding credit worth more than a quarter of a trillion of Indian Rupees, i.e. about 1.2 percent o...

  19. Employment status and sick-leave following obesity surgery: a five-year prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, John Roger; Hernæs, Ulrikke J V; Hufthammer, Karl Ove; Våge, Villy

    2015-01-01

    Background. Severe obesity is a risk factor for lower participation in paid work, but whether employment increases and sick leave decreases after obesity surgery is not well documented. Methods. We assessed 224 Norwegian patients with severe obesity (mean age: 40; mean BMI: 49; 61% female) regarding employment status (working versus not working) and the number of days of sick leave during the preceding 12 months, before and five years after obesity surgery (75% follow-up rate). Logistic regression analysis was used to study preoperative predictors of employment status after surgery. Results. There were no change in the employment rate over time (54% versus 58%), but the number of days of sick leave per year was significantly reduced, from a mean of 63 to a mean of 26, and from a median of 36 to a median of 4. Most of this change was attributable to patients with zero days of sick leave, which increased from 25% to 41%. Being female, older, having low education level, receiving disability pension and not being employed before obesity surgery were important risk factors for not being employed after obesity surgery. The type of obesity surgery, BMI and marital status were not useful predictors. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that undergoing obesity surgery is not associated with a higher rate of employment, although it may reduce the number of days of sick leave. Additional interventions are likely needed to influence the employment status of these patients. The significant preoperative predictors of not being employed in this study provide suggestions for further research.

  20. Employment status and sick-leave following obesity surgery: a five-year prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Roger Andersen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Severe obesity is a risk factor for lower participation in paid work, but whether employment increases and sick leave decreases after obesity surgery is not well documented.Methods. We assessed 224 Norwegian patients with severe obesity (mean age: 40; mean BMI: 49; 61% female regarding employment status (working versus not working and the number of days of sick leave during the preceding 12 months, before and five years after obesity surgery (75% follow-up rate. Logistic regression analysis was used to study preoperative predictors of employment status after surgery.Results. There were no change in the employment rate over time (54% versus 58%, but the number of days of sick leave per year was significantly reduced, from a mean of 63 to a mean of 26, and from a median of 36 to a median of 4. Most of this change was attributable to patients with zero days of sick leave, which increased from 25% to 41%. Being female, older, having low education level, receiving disability pension and not being employed before obesity surgery were important risk factors for not being employed after obesity surgery. The type of obesity surgery, BMI and marital status were not useful predictors.Conclusions. Our findings suggest that undergoing obesity surgery is not associated with a higher rate of employment, although it may reduce the number of days of sick leave. Additional interventions are likely needed to influence the employment status of these patients. The significant preoperative predictors of not being employed in this study provide suggestions for further research.

  1. Effect of Rheumatoid Arthritis on Longterm Sickness Absence in 1994-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Mandrup; Hetland, Merete Lund; Pedersen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Objective. By linkage of national registries, we investigated the risk of longterm sickness absence (LTSA) ≥ 3 weeks in a large cohort of Danish patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and non-patients. The study aimed to (1) estimate the risk of LTSA for patients with RA compared with the general...

  2. Motion sickness, stress and the endocannabinoid system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Choukèr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A substantial number of individuals are at risk for the development of motion sickness induced nausea and vomiting (N&V during road, air or sea travel. Motion sickness can be extremely stressful but the neurobiologic mechanisms leading to motion sickness are not clear. The endocannabinoid system (ECS represents an important neuromodulator of stress and N&V. Inhibitory effects of the ECS on N&V are mediated by endocannabinoid-receptor activation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the activity of the ECS in human volunteers (n = 21 during parabolic flight maneuvers (PFs. During PFs, microgravity conditions (<10(-2 g are generated for approximately 22 s which results in a profound kinetic stimulus. Blood endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2-AG were measured from blood samples taken in-flight before start of the parabolic maneuvers, after 10, 20, and 30 parabolas, in-flight after termination of PFs and 24 h later. Volunteers who developed acute motion sickness (n = 7 showed significantly higher stress scores but lower endocannabinoid levels during PFs. After 20 parabolas, blood anandamide levels had dropped significantly in volunteers with motion sickness (from 0.39+/-0.40 to 0.22+/-0.25 ng/ml but increased in participants without the condition (from 0.43+/-0.23 to 0.60+/-0.38 ng/ml resulting in significantly higher anandamide levels in participants without motion sickness (p = 0.02. 2-AG levels in individuals with motion sickness were low and almost unchanged throughout the experiment but showed a robust increase in participants without motion sickness. Cannabinoid-receptor 1 (CB1 but not cannabinoid-receptor 2 (CB2 mRNA expression in leucocytes 4 h after the experiment was significantly lower in volunteers with motion sickness than in participants without N&V. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that stress and motion sickness in humans are associated with impaired endocannabinoid

  3. Subjective memory complaints among patients on sick leave are associated with symptoms of fatigue and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Kristine Aasvik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to identify symptoms associated with subjective memory complaints among subjects who are currently on sick leave due to symptoms of chronic pain, fatigue, depression, anxiety and insomnia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, subjects (n = 167 who were currently on sick leave were asked to complete an extensive survey consisting of the following: items addressing their sociodemographics, one item from the SF-8 health survey measuring pain, Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Insomnia Severity Index and Everyday Memory Questionnaire – Revised. General linear modeling (GLM was used to analyze variables associated with SMCs. Results: Symptoms of fatigue (p-value <= 0.001 and anxiety (p-value = 0.001 were uniquely and significantly associated with perceived memory failures. The associations with symptoms of pain, depression and insomnia were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Subjective memory complaints should be recognized as part of the complex symptomatology among patients who report multiple symptoms, especially in cases of fatigue and anxiety. Self-report questionnaires measuring perceived memory failures may be a quick and easy way to incorporate and extend this knowledge into clinical practice.

  4. [The sick individual as a concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejerizo López, Luis Carlos

    2011-01-01

    We start from the premise, shared by some current philosophical movements and by the author, which states that philosophy is not contemplation, or reflection, or introspection or communication. Philosophy is the art of shaping, inventing and creating concepts. It is an explicit way of introducing new differences in life, a different reading level, a specific jargon, which may imply revealing the flip side of the coin, or a dissimilar view of the side facing us. The philosopher is the friend of the concept, he holds it in his power, which means, basically and in all honesty, that philosophy is the discipline of creating concepts. Let us remember the brilliant idea of the Russian director Tarkovsky, who announced his greatest ambition as an artist: "To capture time". At the same time, we must recall one of the sayings of this director: "Every film I have directed and I intend to direct is always tied to characters who have something to overcome". The healthy individual lives in a specific time, with precise coordinates, aware that his life consists only of living that time. That is, living as defined by Josep María Esquirol: "Then we could also see that the best way of living the present is not to run after the fleeing time, but to see and live the opportunity that appears before us". One of the many circumstances that can intercept the way we see and live the opportunity that appears before us is sickness, one of those inescapable experiences we have not been taught how to pay an adequate attention to, and the meaning of which can, in a way, go unnoticed. As "time" goes by, the circumstance that we consider to be the basis on which existence is founded, sickness can appear, thus introducing a new dimension in the time of the healthy individual. For this reason we, as doctors and professionals, know that sickness "is tied to characters who have something to overcome". In view of the fact that a sickness invades a healthy individual and transforms him into a sick one

  5. Explaining the gender gap in sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østby, K A; Mykletun, A; Nilsen, W

    2018-04-17

    In many western countries, women have a much higher rate of sickness absence than men. To what degree the gender differences in sickness absence are caused by gender differences in health is largely unknown. To assess to what degree the gender gap in sickness absence can be explained by health factors and work- and family-related stressors. Norwegian parents participating in the Tracking Opportunities and Problems (TOPP) study were asked about sickness absence and a range of factors possibly contributing to gender differences in sickness absence, including somatic and mental health, sleep problems, job control/demands, work-home conflicts, parent-child conflicts and stressful life events. Using a cross-sectional design, we did linear regression analyses, to assess the relative contribution from health and stressors. There were 557 study participants. Adjusting for health factors reduced the gender difference in sickness absence by 24%, while adjusting for stressors in the family and at work reduced the difference by 22%. A simultaneous adjustment for health factors and stressors reduced the difference in sickness absence by about 28%. Despite adjusting for a large number of factors, including both previously well-studied factors (e.g. health, job control/demands) and lesser-studied factors (parent-child conflict and sexual assault), this study found that most of the gender gap in sickness absence remains unexplained. Gender differences in health and stressors account for only part of the differences in sickness absence. Other factors must, therefore, exist outside the domains of health, work and family stressors.

  6. Part-Time Sick Leave as a Treatment Method?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén D; Andrén T

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of being on part-time sick leave compared to full-time sick leave on the probability of recovering (i.e., returning to work with full recovery of lost work capacity). Using a discrete choice one-factor model, we estimate mean treatment parameters and distributional treatment parameters from a common set of structural parameters. Our results show that part-time sick leave increases the likelihood of recovering and dominates full-time sick leave for sickness spel...

  7. What factors are most relevant to the assessment of work ability of employees on long-term sick leave? The physicians' perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers-Sánchez, Patricia M.; Wind, Haije; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2013-01-01

    To reach insurance physician (IPs) consensus on factors that must be taken into account in the assessment of the work ability of employees who are sick-listed for 2 years. A Delphi study using online questionnaires was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011. One hundred and two insurance

  8. 77 FR 25179 - Patient Safety Organizations: Expired Listing for Medkinetics, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety... Medkinetics, LLC of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 (Patient Safety Act) authorizes the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component...

  9. Brain Endothelial- and Epithelial-Specific Interferon Receptor Chain 1 Drives Virus-Induced Sickness Behavior and Cognitive Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blank, Thomas; Detje, Claudia N.; Spiess, Alena; Hagemeyer, Nora; Brendecke, Stefanie M.; Wolfart, Jakob; Staszewski, Ori; Zoeller, Tanja; Papageorgiou, Ismini; Schneider, Justus; Paricio-Montesinos, Ricardo; Eisel, Ulrich L. M.; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise; Jansen, Stephan; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Lu, Bao; Imai, Yumiko; Mueller, Marcus; Goelz, Susan E.; Baker, Darren P.; Schwaninger, Markus; Kann, Oliver; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Kalinke, Ulrich; Prinz, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Sickness behavior and cognitive dysfunction occur frequently by unknown mechanisms in virus-infected individuals with malignancies treated with type I interferons (IFNs) and in patients with autoimmune disorders. We found that during sickness behavior, single-stranded RNA viruses, double-stranded

  10. Managerial leadership is associated with self-reported sickness absence and sickness presenteeism among Swedish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Anna; Westerlund, Hugo; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between managerial leadership and self-reported sickness absence/presenteeism among Swedish men and women. Five thousand one hundred and forty-one Swedish employees, 56% of the participants in a nationally representative sample of the Swedish working population, were included in this cross-sectional questionnaire study. The leadership dimensions measured were five subscales of a standardized leadership questionnaire (Global Leadership and Organizational Behaviour Effectiveness Programme): Integrity, Team integration, Inspirational leadership, Autocratic leadership, and Self-centred leadership. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for factors in private life, employment category, labour-market sector, working conditions, self-reported general health, and satisfaction with life in general. Inspirational leadership was associated with a lower rate of short spells of sickness absence (women. Autocratic leadership was related to a greater amount of total sick days taken by men. Sometimes showing integrity was associated with higher rate of sickness absence >1 week among men, and seldom showing integrity was associated with more sickness presenteeism among women. Managers performing Team integration were sometimes associated with women taking fewer short (1 week) spells of sickness absence. Adjustment for self-reported general health did not alter these associations for men, but did so to some extent for women. Managerial leadership was found to be relevant for the understanding of sickness absence in the Swedish working population. There were distinctive gender differences.

  11. Increase in sickness absence with psychiatric diagnosis in Norway: a general population-based epidemiologic study of age, gender and regional distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brage Sören

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses from 1994–2000, and the distribution across gender, age groups, diagnostic groups and regions in a general population. Methods The population at risk was defined as all individuals aged 16–66 years who were entitled to sickness benefits in 1994, 1996, 1998 and 2000 (n = 2,282,761 in 2000. All individuals with a full-time disability pension were excluded. The study included approximately 77% of the Norwegian population aged 16–66 years. For each year, the study base started on 1 January and ended on 31 December. Individuals that were sick-listed for more than 14/16 consecutive days with a psychiatric diagnosis on their medical certificate were selected as cases. Included in this study were data for Norway, the capital city Oslo and five regions in the southeast of the country. Results Sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses increased in all age groups, in women and men, and in all regions. At the national level, the cumulative incidence increased in women from 1.7% in 1994 to 4.6% in 2000, and in men from 0.8% in 1994 to 2.2% in 2000. The highest cumulative incidence was found in middle-aged women and men (30–59 years. Women had a higher incidence than men in all stratification groups. The cumulative incidences in 2000 varied between 4.6% to 5.6% in women in the different regions, and for men the corresponding figures were 2.1% to 3.2%. Throughout the four years studied, women in Oslo had more than twice as high incidence levels of sickness absence with alcohol and drug diagnoses as the country as a whole. There were some differences between regions in sickness absence with specific psychiatric diagnoses, but they were small and most comparisons were non-significant. Conclusion Sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses increased between 1994 and 2000 in Norway. The increase was highest in the middle-aged, and in women

  12. Sickness benefit cuts mainly affect blue-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaviksoo, E; Kiivet, R-A

    2014-08-01

    To analyse the impact of sick-pay cuts on the use of sickness absence by employees of different socioeconomic groups. In 2009 cuts in sick pay were implemented in reaction to an economic crisis in Estonia. Nationwide health survey data from the years 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010 were used to evaluate sickness absence among blue-collar and white-collar workers. The dataset comprised 7,449 employees of 20-64 years of age. Difference in prevalence of absentees before and after the reform was assessed using the chi-squared test. Odds ratios (OR) for sickness absence were calculated in a multivariate logistic regression model. After the reform, the proportion of blue-collar workers who had been on sick leave decreased from 51% to 40% (pgender, age, self-rated health, and presence of chronic disease, especially among those with low incomes; in white-collar employees it reached statistical significance only in those with good self-rated health (p=0.033). In a multivariate model the odds of having lower sickness absence were highly significant only in blue-collar employees (OR 0.63; 95% confidence interval 0.51-0.77, p<0.001). The cuts in sickness benefits had a major impact on the use of sickness absence by blue-collar employees with low salaries. This indicates that lower income was a major factor hindering the use of sick leave as these employees are most vulnerable to the loss of income. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  13. Cinerama sickness and postural instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Jelte E; Ledegang, Wietse D; Lubeck, Astrid J A; Stins, John F

    2013-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms and increased postural instability induced by motion pictures have been reported in a laboratory, but not in a real cinema. We, therefore, carried out an observational study recording sickness severity and postural instability in 19 subjects before, immediately and 45 min after watching a 1 h 3D aviation documentary in a cinema. Sickness was significantly larger right after the movie than before, and in a lesser extent still so after 45 min. The average standard deviation of the lateral centre of pressure excursions was significantly larger only right afterwards. When low-pass filtered at 0.1 Hz, lateral and for-aft excursions were both significantly larger right after the movie, while for-aft excursions then remained larger even after 45 min. Speculating on previous findings, we predict more sickness and postural instability in 3D than in 2D movies, also suggesting a possible, but yet unknown risk for work-related activities and vehicle operation. Watching motion pictures may be sickening and posturally destabilising, but effects in a cinema are unknown. We, therefore, carried out an observational study showing that sickness then is mainly an issue during the exposure while postural instability is an issue afterwards.

  14. Sick-visit immunizations and delayed well-baby visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Steve G

    2013-07-01

    Giving recommended immunizations during sick visits for minor and acute illness such as acute otitis media has long been an American Academy of Pediatrics/Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice recommendation. An addition to the American Academy of Pediatrics policy in 2010 advised considering whether giving immunizations at the sick visit would discourage making up missed well-baby visits. This study quantifies the potential tradeoff between sick-visit immunizations and well-baby visits. This study was a retrospective cohort analysis with a case-control component of sick visits for acute otitis media that supplanted normal well-baby visits at age 2, 4, or 6 months. Infants were stratified for sick-visit immunization, no sick-visit immunization but quick makeup well-baby visits, or no sick-visit immunizations or quick makeup visits. Immunization rates and well-baby visit rates were assessed through 24 months of age. For 1060 study cases, no significant difference was detected in immunization rates or well-baby visits through 24 months of age between those with or without sick-visit immunizations. Thirty-nine percent of infants without a sick-visit shot failed to return for a quick makeup well-baby visit; this delayed group was significantly less likely to be up-to-date for immunizations (relative risk: 0.66) and had fewer well-baby visits (mean: 3.8) from 2 through 24 months of age compared with those with sick-visit shots (mean: 4.7). The substantial risk that infants will not return for a timely makeup well-baby visit after a sick visit should be included in any consideration of whether to delay immunizations.

  15. Innate Immune Signalling Genetics of Pain, Cognitive Dysfunction and Sickness Symptoms in Cancer Pain Patients Treated with Transdermal Fentanyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Daniel T.; Klepstad, Pål; Dale, Ola; Kaasa, Stein; Somogyi, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    Common adverse symptoms of cancer and chemotherapy are a major health burden; chief among these is pain, with opioids including transdermal fentanyl the mainstay of treatment. Innate immune activation has been implicated generally in pain, opioid analgesia, cognitive dysfunction, and sickness type symptoms reported by cancer patients. We aimed to determine if genetic polymorphisms in neuroimmune activation pathways alter the serum fentanyl concentration-response relationships for pain control, cognitive dysfunction, and other adverse symptoms, in cancer pain patients. Cancer pain patients (468) receiving transdermal fentanyl were genotyped for 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 19 genes: CASP1, BDNF, CRP, LY96, IL6, IL1B, TGFB1, TNF, IL10, IL2, TLR2, TLR4, MYD88, IL6R, OPRM1, ARRB2, COMT, STAT6 and ABCB1. Lasso and backward stepwise generalised linear regression were used to identify non-genetic and genetic predictors, respectively, of pain control (average Brief Pain Inventory fentanyl concentrations did not predict between-patient variability in these outcomes, nor did genetic factors predict pain control, sickness response or opioid adverse event complaint. Carriers of the MYD88 rs6853 variant were half as likely to have cognitive dysfunction (11/111) than wild-type patients (69/325), with a relative risk of 0.45 (95% CI: 0.27 to 0.76) when accounting for major non-genetic predictors (age, Karnofsky functional score). This supports the involvement of innate immune signalling in cognitive dysfunction, and identifies MyD88 signalling pathways as a potential focus for predicting and reducing the burden of cognitive dysfunction in cancer pain patients. PMID:26332828

  16. Electrophysiological studies in thyrotoxicosis with and without associated sick sinus syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talwar, K.K.; Gupta, V.; Kaul, U.; Ahuja, M.M.; Bhatia, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies in 13 patients with thyrotoxicosis (5 men and 8 women, aged 17 to 76 years) are reported. Five patients presented with features of sick sinus syndrome (SSS) (Group A) while the remaining 8 patients (Group B) had no detectable cardiovascular abnormality. Sinus node function (corrected sinus node recovery and sinoatrial conduction time) was abnormal in all Group A but normal in Group B patients. Intra-atrial, artioventricular (AV) nodal, and infranodal conduction time and effective refractory period of atrium were normal in all patients in both groups. Effective refractory period of AV node was decreased in 6 patients (3 in each group). All Group A patients received radioiodine with complete clinical remission of sick sinus state in 4 subjects. Repeat electrophysiological studies in two of these patients, 6 and 12 months after treatment, showed complete normalization of sinus node function. This is the first reported electrophysiological study documenting the occurrence of SSS in thyrotoxicosis reversed by effective antithyroid treatment. We suggest that attempts should be made to identify underlying thyrotoxicosis in all patients with SSS, especially in the older age group. Appropriate medical treatment may prevent unnecessary implantation of permanent pacemakers in such patients

  17. Anti-infection treatment of iatrogenic acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shulan; Ke Xiaoyan; Jia Tengzhen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To occumulatle experience of anti-infection treatment in acute radiation sickness (ARS) induced by medical treatment in order to provide beneficial help for victims of accidental of acute radiation sickness. Methods: The changes of peripheral blood indices, body temperature and clinical symptoms of 17 cases who were clinically irradiated with 6.0-7.2 Gy X-rays were observed both before peripheral blood stem cell transplantation(PBSCT) and after anti-infection treatment. Results: WBC count began to decrease to below 1 x 10 9 /L from the 8th to 10th days after irradiation and maintained at row level for 4 days or for 13.3 days if the patients had not received rhG-CSF treatment. In 29.4% of patients the body temperature was higher than 38.5 degree C. After comprehensive enviromental protection and anti-infection treatment, all patients could successfully tide over the period of bone marrow depression without appearance of the typical critical phase of ARS. Conclusion: PBSCT and rhG-CSF treatment can reduce the time span for reconstruction of bone marrow. Comprehensive enviromental protection and combined anti-infection treatment are key points fm successful treatment. (authors)

  18. Sequence analysis to assess labour market participation following vocational rehabilitation: an observational study among patients sick-listed with low back pain from a randomised clinical trial in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholdt, Louise; Labriola, Merete; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Horsbøl, Trine Allerslev; Lund, Thomas

    2017-07-20

    The return-to-work (RTW) process after long-term sickness absence is often complex and long and implies multiple shifts between different labour market states for the absentee. Standard methods for examining RTW research typically rely on the analysis of one outcome measure at a time, which will not capture the many possible states and transitions the absentee can go through. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential added value of sequence analysis in supplement to standard regression analysis of a multidisciplinary RTW intervention among patients with low back pain (LBP). The study population consisted of 160 patients randomly allocated to either a hospital-based brief or a multidisciplinary intervention. Data on labour market participation following intervention were obtained from a national register and analysed in two ways: as a binary outcome expressed as active or passive relief at a 1-year follow-up and as four different categories for labour market participation. Logistic regression and sequence analysis were performed. The logistic regression analysis showed no difference in labour market participation for patients in the two groups after 1 year. Applying sequence analysis showed differences in subsequent labour market participation after 2 years after baseline in favour of the brief intervention group versus the multidisciplinary intervention group. The study indicated that sequence analysis could provide added analytical value as a supplement to traditional regression analysis in prospective studies of RTW among patients with LBP. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Sickness and love: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, S.; Vandamme, S.

    2008-01-01

    Love is a neglected topic in anthropology, for good reasons: it has always resisted scientific definition and analysis. By associating love with sickness seven authors attempt to capture various meanings and experiences of love. Two broad concepts arise: love as sickness and love in response to

  20. Exploring factors relevant in the assessment of the return-to-work process of employees on long-term sickness absence due to a depressive disorder: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muijzer Anna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts undertaken during the Return-to-Work (RTW process need to be sufficient in order to optimize the quality of the RTW process. The purpose of this study was to explore factors relevant to Return-to-Work Effort Sufficiency (RTW-ES in cases of sick-listed employees with a Depressive Disorder (DD. Method A case of a long-term sick-listed employee with a DD applying for disability benefits was used to gather arguments and grounds relevant to the assessment of RTW-ES. Two focus group meetings were held, consisting of Labor Experts working at the Dutch Social Insurance Institute. Factors were collected and categorized using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model. Results Sixteen factors relevant to RTW-ES assessment in a case of DD were found, categorized in the ICF-model under activities (e.g. functional capacity, personal (e.g. competencies, attitude and environmental domain (e.g. employer-employee relationship, or categorized under interventions, job accommodations and measures. Conclusions This study shows that 16 factors are relevant in the assessment of RTW-ES in employees sick-listed due to DD. Further research is necessary to expand this knowledge to other health conditions, and to investigate the impact of these results on the quality of the RTW-ES assessment.

  1. Sickness presenteeism: The prevalence of coming to work while ill among paediatric resident physicians in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kevin J; Vayalumkal, Joseph V

    2017-05-01

    Sickness presenteeism is defined as the act of attending one's job despite ill-health. Recently, physicians and other health care workers have become the focus of sickness presenteeism research, because presenteeism in this population can put patients at risk of infection. There are currently no data on this topic among physicians in Canada. The aim of this study was to investigate sickness presenteeism in paediatric resident physicians in Canada. We conducted an anonymous, online, cross-sectional survey study in which all paediatric residents in Canada were eligible. Outcomes of interest included prevalences of sickness presenteeism, sickness during the study period and voluntary self-appointed personal protective equipment use when engaging in sickness presenteeism. Response rate was 56.5% (N=323). During the previous 2 months, 61% (95% confidence interval [CI] 55.7 to 66.3) of respondents reported having experienced an illness and 59% (95% CI 53.7 to 64.5) of respondents had come to work sick. Of those who reported becoming ill during the study period, 97.0% (95% CI 94.6 to 99.4) reported coming to work while sick. There was no difference in prevalence when comparing across post-graduate year training levels. Extra personal protective equipment was used by 86% (95% CI 82.1 to 91.7) when engaging in sickness presenteeism. Sickness presenteeism is a common phenomenon among paediatric resident physicians. Our results should influence residents and supervising staff physicians to encourage appropriate self-care at home, rather than presenteeism.

  2. A participatory supportive return to work program for workers without an employment contract, sick-listed due to a common mental disorder: an economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammerts, Lieke; van Dongen, Johanna M; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; van Mechelen, Willem; Anema, Johannes R

    2017-02-02

    Mental disorders are associated with high costs for productivity loss, sickness absence and unemployment. A participatory supportive return to work (RTW) program was developed in order to improve RTW among workers without an employment contract, sick-listed due to a common mental disorder. The program contained a participatory approach, integrated care and direct placement in a competitive job. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of this new program, compared to usual care. In addition, its return on investment was evaluated. An economic evaluation was conducted alongside a 12-month randomized controlled trial. A total of 186 participants was randomly allocated to the new program (n = 94) or to usual care (n = 92). Effect measures were the duration until sustainable RTW in competitive employment and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Costs included intervention costs, medical costs and absenteeism costs. Registered data of the Dutch Social Security Agency were used to assess the duration until sustainable RTW, intervention costs and absenteeism costs. QALYs and medical costs were assessed using three- or six-monthly questionnaires. Missing data were imputed using multiple imputations. Cost-effectiveness analysis and cost-utility analysis were conducted from the societal perspective. A return on investment analysis was conducted from the social insurer's perspective. Various sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the robustness of the results. The new program had no significant effect on the duration until sustainable RTW and QALYs gained. Intervention costs and medical costs were significantly higher in the intervention group. From the societal perspective, the maximum probability of cost-effectiveness for duration until sustainable RTW was 0.64 at a willingness to pay of about €10 000/day, and 0.27 for QALYs gained, regardless of the willingness to pay. From the social insurer's perspective, the

  3. Risk of sick leave and disability pension in working-age women and men with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubertsson, Jenny; Petersson, Ingemar F; Thorstensson, Carina A; Englund, Martin

    2013-03-01

    To investigate sick leave and disability pension in working-age subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) compared with the general population. Population-based cohort study: individual-level inpatient and outpatient Skåne Health Care Register data were linked with data from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency. In 2009 all working-age (16-64 years) Skåne County residents who in 1998-2009 had been diagnosed with knee OA (International Classification of Diseases-10 code M17) were identified and their sick leave and disability pension in 2009 related to those of the general working-age population (n=789 366) standardised for age. 15 345 working-age residents (49.6% women) with knee OA were identified. Compared with the general population, the RR (95% CI) of having had one or more episodes of sick leave during the year was 1.82 (1.73 to 1.91) for women and 2.03 (1.92 to 2.14) for men with knee OA. The corresponding risk for disability pension was 1.54 (1.48 to 1.60) for women and 1.36 (1.28 to 1.43) for men with knee OA. The annual mean number of sick days was 87 for each patient with knee OA and 57 for the general population (age- and sex-standardised). Of all sick leave and disability pension in the entire population, 2.1% of days were attributable to knee OA or associated comorbidity in the patients with knee OA (3.1% for sick leave and 1.8% for disability pension). Subjects with doctor-diagnosed knee OA have an almost twofold increased risk of sick leave and about 40-50% increased risk of disability pension compared with the general population. About 2% of all sick days in society are attributable to knee OA.

  4. A protocol improves GP recording of long-term sickness absence risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Paul C. M.; Hogervorst, Wouter; ter Riet, Gerben; van Dijk, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Background If general practitioners (GPs) were better informed about patients' risks of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), they could incorporate these risk assessments into their patient management plans and cooperate more with occupational physicians to prevent LTSA. Aim To evaluate the

  5. Medically certified sickness absence among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Rajab Ali; Sikander, Raheel; Khawaja, Asad Ali; Jareno, Rechel Joy Macadaan; Halepota, Aurangzeb Taj

    2012-09-01

    To compare the days and spells of sickness absence among males versus females and Saudi nationals versus expatriate employees of King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, and to identify the cause of sickness absence. The cross-sectional, descriptive study comprised 3117 King Khalid University Hospital employees. Records of physician-certified sickness absence from January 1 to June 30, 2009, were obtained from the employee health clinic's register. Absence rate, frequency, duration and severity were assessed and compared between genders and nationalities, and causes were noted. SPSS version 16 and student's t test were used for statistical analyses and comparison. A total of 377 (12.1 %) employees had 416 spells of sickness absence with 639 sick-off days (mean: 1.54 +/- 0.85). The probability of sickness absence was higher among Saudi (OR=1.33) and female (OR=1.39) employees. The association of sickness absence was not found among the absentees with either gender (p= 0.335) or nationality (p = 0.086). Almost all spells of sick-off days were of short duration. Longer spells were mainly due to chicken pox which was found to be more among the expatriates. Heavy absenteeism was found only among the Saudis. The most common causes of sickness absence were acute upper respiratory infection, diseases of musculoskeletal system and the digestive system. The rate, frequency and duration of absence due to sickness in the study were higher among Saudi and female employees. The rate of absence, with passage of time, has increased significantly among Saudi nationals.

  6. ACUTE MOUNTAIN SICKNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krzeszowiak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the most likely pathophysiological causes of the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS, also known as altitude sickness, its pulmonary form i.e. high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE, and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE. These diseases constitute extraordinary environmental hazards because they are directly connected with low atmospheric pressure, and thus low partial oxygen pressure. The above adverse atmospheric conditions start to affect humans already at an altitude of 2,500 meters above the sea level and, coupled with extreme physical exertion, can quickly lead to respiratory alkalosis, which is not present under any other conditions in the lowlands. Mountaineering above 4,500 m a.s.l. leads to hypoxia of internal organs and, primarily, reduced renal perfusion with all its consequences. The above adverse changes, combined with inadequate acclimatization, can lead to a situation of imminent danger to life and health. This paper describes in detail the consequences of acute mountain sickness, which can ultimately lead to the development of AMS and one of severe forms of HACE and/or HAPE.

  7. Changes in alcohol drinking and subsequent sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonsalmi, Aino; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Laaksonen, Mikko

    2015-06-01

    The aim was to examine whether changes in alcohol drinking are associated with sickness absence. Repeated postal questionnaires on alcohol drinking were conducted among employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000-2 and 2007 to assess changes in drinking habits between these two time points. Data on the number of self-certified and medically confirmed sickness absences were derived from the employer's register. Sickness absences were followed from 2007 until the end of 2010 among employees participating in both questionnaire surveys. The study includes 3252 female and 682 male employees 40-60 years old at baseline. Poisson regression was used in the data analysis and population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated. Alcohol drinking was associated especially with self-certified sickness absence. Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for increasing weekly average drinking were 1.38, 1.18-1.62 among women and 1.58, 1.18-2.12 among men. Also stable problem drinking (for women 1.39, 1.26-1.54, for men 1.44, 1.10-1.87) and among women stable heavy drinking (1.53, 1.20-1.94) increased self-certified sickness absence. There were associations between alcohol drinking and medically confirmed sickness absence but these were mainly explained by health and health behaviours. Also, a decrease in weekly average drinking was associated with sickness absence among women whereas among men former problem drinking increased sickness absence. According to the PAF values, problem drinking had a stronger contribution to sickness absence than weekly average drinking. Alcohol drinking is particularly associated with self-certified sickness absence. Reducing adverse drinking habits is likely to prevent sickness absence. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  8. Demographic, clinical and treatment characteristics among Meuhedet sick fund mental health referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Arie; Cohen-Hadad, Gerard; Lang, Michal; Kofler, Esther; Vardi, Yoel; Schrira, Samuel; Heresco-Levy, Uriel

    2003-01-01

    The role of the sick funds in the delivery of mental health outpatient services is expected to increase in Israel in the near future. Consequently there is an urgent need for assessing relevant parameters of the patient populations and treatment patterns presently characterizing sick fund's mental health delivery frameworks. During a random census month all patients who referred to Kupat Holim Meuhedet mental health services in Jerusalem district completed structured questionnaires including demographic, medical and mental health history data, and the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). The professionals who performed the screening assessments filled in a structured questionnaire referring to clinical status parameters, diagnosis and treatment decisions. Eighty-three new referrals were screened during the period studied, out of which 54 (65%) were absorbed within the treatment framework of the sick fund. Women patients were twice as numerous as men. The sample was heterogeneous in terms of demographic characteristics and included relatively high rates of recent physical injury and medical hospitalization. Only approximately 10% of the patients had been referred by their family doctor and only approximately 3% had psychotic disorders. The symptom profile reported was characterized by mild to moderate severity and the most common DSM-IV diagnoses made were depressive, anxiety adjustment and personality disorders. About 50% of the sample was recommended individual psychotherapy and though not mutually exclusive approximately 40% psychotropic medication. Relatively small sample size and catchment area. Before generalization of the findings, larger scale studies are warranted. This pilot study offers a rigorous examination of the content of care of a small sick fund mental health delivery system. Our findings may be instrumental in the development of new services and adaptations to changes in mental health policies.

  9. Prediction of sickness absenteeism, disability pension and sickness presenteeism among employees with back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Gunnar; Hagberg, Jan; Busch, Hillevi; Jensen, Irene; Björklund, Christina

    2014-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive ability of the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (ÖMPSQ) concerning long-term sick leave, sickness presenteeism and disability pension during a follow-up period of 2 years. The study group consisted of 195 employees visiting the occupational health service (OHS) due to back pain. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, the area under the curve (AUC) varied from 0.67 to 0.93, which was from less accurate for sickness presenteeism to highly accurate for the prediction of disability pension. For registered sick leave during 6 months following the baseline the AUC from the ROC analyses was moderately accurate (0.81) and a cut off score of 90 rendered a high sensitivity of 0.89 but a low specificity of 0.46 whereas a cut off score of 105 improves the specificity substantially but at the cost of some sensitivity. The predictive ability appears to decrease with time. Several workplace factors beyond those included in the ÖMPSQ were considered but only social support at the workplace was significantly related to future long-term sick leave besides the total score of the ÖMPSQ. The results of this study extend and confirm the findings of earlier research on the ÖMPSQ. Assessment of psychosocial risk factors among employees seeking help for back pain at the OHS could be helpful in the prevention of work disabling problems.

  10. Psychoeducation against depression, anxiety, alexithymia and fibromyalgia: a pilot study in primary care for patients on sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Eva O; Svensson, Ralph; Thulesius, Hans O

    2018-06-01

    Feasibility testing of a psychoeducational method -The Affect School and Script Analyses (ASSA) - in a Swedish primary care setting. Exploring associations between psychological, and medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS). Pilot study. Three Swedish primary care centers serving 20,000 people. 8 weekly 2-hour sessions with a 5-7 participant group led by two instructors - followed by 10 individual hour-long sessions. Thirty-six patients, 29 women (81%), on sick-leave due to depression, anxiety, or fibromyalgia. Feasibility in terms of participation rates and expected improvements of psychological symptoms and MUPS, assessed by self-report instruments pre-, one-week post-, and 18 months post-intervention. Regression coefficients between psychological symptoms and MUPS. The entire 26-hour psychoeducational intervention was completed by 30 patients (83%), and 33 patients (92%) completed the 16-hour Affect School. One-week post-intervention median test score changes were significantly favorable for 27 respondents, with p 80% participation rates, and clear improvements of self-assessed psychological symptoms and MUPS. The ASSA intervention thus showed adequate feasibility in a Swedish primary care setting. Key Points  A pilot study of a psychoeducational intervention - The Affect School and Script Analyses (ASSA) - was performed in primary care   • The intervention showed feasibility for patients on sick-leave due to depression, anxiety, or fibromyalgia   • 92% completed the 8 weeks/16 hours Affect School and 83% completed the entire 26-hour ASSA intervention   • 9 of 11 self-reported measures improved significantly one-week post intervention   • 7 of 11 self-reported measures improved significantly 18 months post-intervention.

  11. A prediction rule for shoulder pain related sick leave: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Heijden Geert JMG

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder pain is common in primary care, and has an unfavourable outcome in many patients. Information about predictors of shoulder pain related sick leave in workers is scarce and inconsistent. The objective was to develop a clinical prediction rule for calculating the risk of shoulder pain related sick leave for individual workers, during the 6 months following first consultation in general practice. Methods A prospective cohort study with 6 months follow-up was conducted among 350 workers with a new episode of shoulder pain. Potential predictors included the results of a physical examination, sociodemographic variables, disease characteristics (duration of symptoms, sick leave in the 2 months prior to consultation, pain intensity, disability, comorbidity, physical activity, physical work load, psychological factors, and the psychosocial work environment. The main outcome measure was sick leave during 6 months following first consultation in general practice. Results Response rate to the follow-up questionnaire at 6 months was 85%. During the 6 months after first consultation 30% (89/298 of the workers reported sick leave. 16% (47 reported 10 days sick leave or more. Sick leave during this period was predicted in a multivariable model by a longer duration of sick leave prior to consultation, more shoulder pain, a perceived cause of strain or overuse during regular activities, and co-existing psychological complaints. The discriminative ability of the prediction model was satisfactory with an area under the curve of 0.70 (95% CI 0.64–0.76. Conclusion Although 30% of all workers with shoulder pain reported sick leave during follow-up, the duration of sick leave was limited to a few days in most workers. We developed a prediction rule and a score chart that can be used by general practitioners and occupational health care providers to calculate the absolute risk of sick leave in individual workers with shoulder pain, which

  12. Job satisfaction and sickness absence: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Corné A M; Koopmans, Petra C; Notenbomer, Annette; Groothoff, Johan W

    2008-12-01

    When dissatisfaction with work precedes sickness absence, screening for satisfaction levels might usefully detect workers at risk of sickness absence. To investigate whether job satisfaction was associated with subsequent sickness absence days or episodes. A sample of workers was randomly drawn from a population of employees who had an episode of absence between January and April 2003. Job satisfaction was measured using a validated single question with a Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). Job satisfaction levels were linked to the number of recorded sickness absence days and episodes in 2003, distinguishing between short (1-7 days) episodes and long (>7 days) episodes. Of 898 questionnaires distributed, 518 (58%) were returned. The mean+/-standard deviation job satisfaction level was 5.1+/-1.4 and negatively related to the number of sickness absence days. Job satisfaction was also negatively related to the number of short episodes and long episodes of absence, but these associations were not significant. Job satisfaction was significantly related to total sickness absence duration. The association with the number of sickness absence episodes was weak and just below the level of statistical significance. Assessing work satisfaction levels might usefully identify those workers most likely to have the greatest sickness absence duration.

  13. General Automatic Components of Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, S.; Toscano, W. B.; Kamiya, J.; Naifeh, K.

    1985-01-01

    A body of investigations performed in support of experiments aboard the space shuttle, and designed to counteract the symptoms of Space Adaptation Syndrome, which resemble those of motion sickness on Earth is reviewed. For these supporting studies, the automatic manifestations of earth-based motion sickness was examined. Heart rate, respiration rate, finger pulse volume and basal skin resistance were measured on 127 men and women before, during and after exposure to nauseogenic rotating chair tests. Significant changes in all autonomic responses were observed across the tests. Significant differences in autonomic responses among groups divided according to motion sickness susceptibility were also observed. Results suggest that the examination of autonomic responses as an objective indicator of motion sickness malaise is warranted and may contribute to the overall understanding of the syndrome on Earth and in Space.

  14. System for analysing sickness absenteeism in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indulski, J A; Szubert, Z

    1997-01-01

    The National System of Sickness Absenteeism Statistics has been functioning in Poland since 1977, as the part of the national health statistics. The system is based on a 15-percent random sample of copies of certificates of temporary incapacity for work issued by all health care units and authorised private medical practitioners. A certificate of temporary incapacity for work is received by every insured employee who is compelled to stop working due to sickness, accident, or due to the necessity to care for a sick member of his/her family. The certificate is required on the first day of sickness. Analyses of disease- and accident-related sickness absenteeism carried out each year in Poland within the statistical system lead to the main conclusions: 1. Diseases of the musculoskeletal and peripheral nervous systems accounting, when combined, for 1/3 of the total sickness absenteeism, are a major health problem of the working population in Poland. During the past five years, incapacity for work caused by these diseases in males increased 2.5 times. 2. Circulatory diseases, and arterial hypertension and ischaemic heart disease in particular (41% and 27% of sickness days, respectively), create an essential health problem among males at productive age, especially, in the 40 and older age group. Absenteeism due to these diseases has increased in males more than two times.

  15. Serum sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem should be stopped. Avoid using that medicine or antiserum in the future. ... Call your provider if you received medicine or antiserum in the last 4 weeks and have symptoms of serum sickness.

  16. Impact of anti-tumour necrosis factor α treatment on admissions to hospital and days of sick leave in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    OpenAIRE

    Listing, J; Brandt, J; Rudwaleit, M; Zink, A; Sieper, J; Braun, J

    2004-01-01

    Methods: The data of a 2 year open extension study of a 12 week, double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial, in which all patients with AS were treated with 5 mg/kg infliximab, were used to investigate the effect of anti-TNF treatment on admissions to hospital and days of sick leave. All patients were interviewed at baseline and at regular intervals during the study to collect this information by questionnaires. Patients who completed 2 years of treatment (n = 49) and those who did no...

  17. A qualitative study of caregivers' expectations and communication desires during medical consultation for sick children in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguli, Sarah; Mafigiri, David; Nakigudde, Janet; van Dalen, Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2011-08-01

    Little data exist on patients' expectations and communication desires during medical consultation in Non-Western settings. We conducted a qualitative study to compare expectations and communication desires of sick children's caregivers at Mulago Hospital, Uganda, to those of patients in Western countries. Three Focus Group Interviews and three Key Informant Interviews were conducted with 24 caregivers of sick children in Mulago Hospital Kampala, Uganda. An interview guide adapted from the Calgary-Cambridge Guide was used to conduct focus group and Key Informant Interviews. Two investigators worked independently to review transcripts and analyse them for content and emerging themes. Caregivers of sick children in Mulago Hospital expect attending doctors to build a relationship with them, by demonstrating the verbal and nonverbal skills outlined in the CCG including maintaining eye contact, using appropriate gestures and voice during communication, and being nonjudgmental. The communication needs and expectations of caregivers of sick children in Mulago Hospital are similar to those of patients and caregivers in Western countries. The CCG can be used as a training guide to enhance the communication skills of current and future doctors in Mulago Hospital. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Teacher sick leave: Prevalence, duration, reasons and covariates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercambre-Jacquot, M-N; Gilbert, F; Billaudeau, N

    2018-02-01

    Absences from work have considerable social and economic impact. In the education sector, the phenomenon is particularly worrying since teacher sick leave has an impact on the overall performance of the education system. Yet, available data are scarce. In April-June 2013, 2653 teachers responded to a population-based postal survey on their quality of life (enquête Qualité de vie des enseignants, MGEN Foundation/Ministry of education, response rate 53 %). Besides questions on work environment and health, teachers were asked to describe their eventual sick leave(s) since the beginning of the school year: duration, type and medical reasons. Self-reported information was reinforced by administrative data from ministerial databases and weighted to be extrapolated to all French teachers. Tobit models adjusted for individual factors of a private nature were used to investigate different occupational risk factors of teacher sick leave, taking into account both the estimated effect on the probability of sick leave and the length of it. More than one in three teachers (36 %) reported having had at least one day of sick leave since the beginning of the school year. Respiratory/ENT diseases were the leading reason for sick leave (37 %). However, and because sick leave duration depended on the underlying health problem, such diseases came in third place among justifications of sick leave days (14 %), far behind musculoskeletal problems (27 %) and neurological and psychological disorders (25 %). Tobit models suggested that some occupational factors significantly associated with the risk of sick leave may represent promising preventive targets, including high psychological demand, workplace violence and unfavorable socio-environmental context. Our study provides objective evidence about the issue of sick leave among French teachers, highlighting the usefulness of implementing actions to minimize its weight. To this end, the study findings point-out the importance of

  19. Relative deprivation and sickness absence in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgertz, Jonas; Hess, Wolfgang; Scott, Kirk

    2013-08-29

    A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual's degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual's career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Altering individual's health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies.

  20. Relationship between motion sickness, migraine and menstruation in crew members of a "round the world" yacht race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunfeld, E; Gresty, M A

    1998-11-15

    The similarities between the symptoms reported by patients with migraine and those experienced by severely motion sick individuals raises the question of whether the two conditions involve common mechanisms. In women, attacks of migraine may follow the menstrual cycle, and anecdote suggests this may also be true of motion sickness. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was a cyclical pattern in the occurrence of migraine/headache and motion sickness among crew members of a "round the world" yacht race. The participants were asked to complete pre- and postrace questionnaires that related to their susceptibility to motion sickness and headache/migraine; additionally, the female subjects were asked for details about their menstrual cycle. During the race the subjects completed a logbook to record the occurrence of motion sickness (using a four-point scale), migraine/headache (including the type of headache), menstruation, medication consumption and duties aboard the yacht. Female sailors were found to be more prone to motion sickness than the males. Motion sickness was also found to be linked to time at sea, and subjects who suffered migraine during the race were also more susceptible to motion sickness. A distinct pattern was found in the occurrence of motion sickness and headache that related to the menstrual cycle, although motion sickness and headache did not generally occur together in most of the subjects. A cyclical pattern was not obvious for the male subjects.

  1. Challenges in the diagnosis and management of sleeping sickness in Tanzania: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindato, C; Kibona, S N; Nkya, G M; Mbilu, T J N K; Manga, C; Kaboya, J S; Rawille, F

    2008-07-01

    In Tanzania sleeping sickness presents a serious threat to human health with a country-wide average of 400 cases reported annually. Both wild and domestic animals have been found to play a significant role in the epidemiology of sleeping sickness. Serengeti National Park in northern Tanzania, has experienced a number of sleeping sickness epidemics since 1922. The epidemics were associated with abundant game animals in the areas and Glossina swynnertoni was incriminated as the main vector. However since 2001 there has been no case of sleeping sickness reported from the park. This case report highlights on the possibility of resurgence and challenges in the diagnosis and management of sleeping sickness in Serengeti. A 38 years old Tanzanian man working in the Serengeti National Park who had experienced various tsetse bites was presented with a febrile condition and history of unsuccessful case management at different health facilities. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were examined for the presence oftrypanosomes using wet film, Field's stain and concentration techniques. Typanosoma brucei rhodesiense were detected in both the blood and CSF samples. The patient was treated successfully with melarsoprol. The results of this case study highlight the possibility of resurgence of sleeping sickness in the park hence calls for the need to create more awareness among the community and clinicians. There is need for early reporting to health facility and strengthening the diagnostic capacity of healthcare facilities in and around national parks endemic for sleeping sickness.

  2. Development of a workplace intervention for sick-listed employees with stress-related mental disorders: Intervention Mapping as a useful tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, S.H. van; Anema, J.R.; Terluin, B.; Venema, A.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Mechelen, W. van

    2007-01-01

    Background. To date, mental health problems and mental workload have been increasingly related to long-term sick leave and disability. However, there is, as yet, no structured protocol available for the identification and application of an intervention for stress-related mental health problems at

  3. Motion sickness and postural sway in console video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffregen, Thomas A; Faugloire, Elise; Yoshida, Ken; Flanagan, Moira B; Merhi, Omar

    2008-04-01

    We tested the hypotheses that (a) participants might develop motion sickness while playing "off-the-shelf" console video games and (b) postural motion would differ between sick and well participants, prior to the onset of motion sickness. There have been many anecdotal reports of motion sickness among people who play console video games (e.g., Xbox, PlayStation). Participants (40 undergraduate students) played a game continuously for up to 50 min while standing or sitting. We varied the distance to the display screen (and, consequently, the visual angle of the display). Across conditions, the incidence of motion sickness ranged from 42% to 56%; incidence did not differ across conditions. During game play, head and torso motion differed between sick and well participants prior to the onset of subjective symptoms of motion sickness. The results indicate that console video games carry a significant risk of motion sickness. Potential applications of this research include changes in the design of console video games and recommendations for how such systems should be used.

  4. Measures of work-family conflict predict sickness absence from work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clays, Els; Kittel, France; Godin, Isabelle; Bacquer, Dirk De; Backer, Guy De

    2009-08-01

    To examine the relation between work-family conflict and sickness absence. The BELSTRESS III study comprised 2983 middle-aged workers. Strain-based work-home interference (WHI) and home-work interference (HWI) were assessed by means of self-administered questionnaires. Prospective data of registered sickness absence during 12-months follow-up were collected. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted. HWI was positively and significantly related to high sickness absence duration (at least 10 sick leave days) and high sickness absence frequency (at least 3 sick leave episodes) in men and women, also after adjustments were made for sociodemographic variables, health indicators, and environmental psychosocial factors. In multivariate analysis, no association between WHI and sickness absence was found. HWI was positively and significantly related to high sickness absence duration and frequency during 12-months follow-up in male and female workers.

  5. Do work-place initiated measures reduce sickness absence? Preventive measures and sickness absence among older workers in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtsundstad, Tove I; Nielsen, Roy A

    2014-03-01

    The article examines whether preventive measures and work adjustments at the establishment level affects sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. We combine survey data from a representative sample of 713 Norwegian companies, mapping the prevalence of preventive health measures in the work place in 2005, with register data on sickness absence and demographic variables for workers aged 50 years or older in 2001 and 2007. By means of a difference-in-differences approach, we compare changes and differences in the likelihood of sickness absence among the sample group, with and without the various measures/ instruments in 2005 respectively. In general, work-place preventive measures at the establishment level have not contributed to reducing the probability for sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. However, analyses comparing differences between industries find that the work-place measures have had a positive effect on public administration employees. Whether work-place preventive initiatives influence levels of sickness absence seems to be contingent on sector and industry. Therefore, work-place measures may be more effective in the public administration sector where most employees have office jobs compared to sectors such as manufacturing, construction and transportation, where many employees have manual work and more physical demanding jobs. Work-place initiatives thus seem to have less effect on preventing sickness absence in sectors dominated by manual labour.

  6. Relative Deprivation and Sickness Absence in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Helgertz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. Methods: 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual’s degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. Results: The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual’s career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Conclusions: Altering individual’s health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies.

  7. Fever and sickness behavior: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, L M; Kent, S; Pittman, Q J; Roth, J

    2015-11-01

    Fever has been recognized as an important symptom of disease since ancient times. For many years, fever was treated as a putative life-threatening phenomenon. More recently, it has been recognized as an important part of the body's defense mechanisms; indeed at times it has even been used as a therapeutic agent. The knowledge of the functional role of the central nervous system in the genesis of fever has greatly improved over the last decade. It is clear that the febrile process, which develops in the sick individual, is just one of many brain-controlled sickness symptoms. Not only will the sick individual appear "feverish" but they may also display a range of behavioral changes, such as anorexia, fatigue, loss of interest in usual daily activities, social withdrawal, listlessness or malaise, hyperalgesia, sleep disturbances and cognitive dysfunction, collectively termed "sickness behavior". In this review we consider the issue of whether fever and sickness behaviors are friend or foe during: a critical illness, the common cold or influenza, in pregnancy and in the newborn. Deciding whether these sickness responses are beneficial or harmful will very much shape our approach to the use of antipyretics during illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sickness Absence and Disability Pension After Breast Cancer Diagnosis: A 5-Year Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvillemo, Pia; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Bränström, Richard; Nilsson, Kerstin; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2017-06-20

    Purpose To explore future diagnosis-specific sickness absence and disability pension among women with breast cancer compared with women without breast cancer. Also, to examine associations with disease-related and sociodemographic factors among those with breast cancer. Methods Longitudinal register data on 3,547 women living in Sweden (age 20 to 65 years) who were first diagnosed with breast cancer in 2005, and a matched comparison cohort (n = 14,188), were analyzed for the annual prevalence of diagnosis-specific sickness absence and disability pension over 5 years. Logistic regressions were used to explore associations of disease-related and sociodemographic factors with future sickness absence and disability pension among women with breast cancer. Results Immediately after being diagnosed with breast cancer, the proportion of women with sickness absence was high but decreased continuously from the 1st through 5th year after diagnosis (71%, 40%, 30%, 22%, and 19%, respectively). In comparison, the range for women without breast cancer was 17% to 11%, respectively. The higher prevalence of sickness absence after breast cancer was mainly a result of breast cancer diagnosis, not a mental diagnosis, or other somatic diagnoses. Advanced cancer at diagnosis, > 90 days sickness absence before diagnosis, low education, and being born outside Sweden were associated with higher odds ratios for sickness absence and disability pension (odds ratio range, 1.40 to 6.45). Conclusion The level of sickness absence increased substantially in women with breast cancer during the first year after diagnosis and approached the level of breast cancer-free women in the following years; however, even in the first year, most women were not on sickness absence for a substantial time, and even in high-risk groups, many were not on sickness absence or disability pension in the following years. Information about relatively low future sickness absence and disability pension levels can be used by

  9. Association between smoking and the risk of acute mountain sickness: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Lu, Hong-Xiang; Wang, Yu-Xiao; Chen, Yu; Yang, Sheng-Hong; Luo, Yong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    People rapidly ascending to high altitudes (>2500 m) may suffer from acute mountain sickness (AMS). The association between smoking and AMS risk remains unclear. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between smoking and AMS risk. The association between smoking and AMS risk was determined according to predefined criteria established by our team. Meta-analysis was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. We included all relevant studies listed in the PubMed and Embase databases as of September 2015 in this meta-analysis and performed systemic searches using the terms "smoking", "acute mountain sickness" and "risk factor". The included studies were required to provide clear explanations regarding their definitions of smoking, the final altitudes reached by their participants and the diagnostic criteria used to diagnose AMS. Odds ratios ( ORs ) were used to evaluate the association between smoking and AMS risk across the studies, and the Q statistic was used to test OR heterogeneity, which was considered significant when P  smoking patients and 1986 non-smoking controls to analyze the association between smoking and AMS risk. We observed a significant association between AMS and smoking ( OR  = 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.96, P  = 0.03). We determined that smoking may protect against AMS development. However, we do not advise smoking to prevent AMS. More studies are necessary to confirm the role of smoking in AMS risk.

  10. Protocol for the effect evaluation of independent medical evaluation after six months sick leave: a randomized controlled trial of independent medical evaluation versus treatment as usual in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Husabo, Elisabeth; Monstad, Karin; Holm?s, Tor Helge; Oyeflaten, Irene; Werner, Erik L.; Maeland, Silje

    2017-01-01

    Background It has been discussed whether the relationship between a patient on sick leave and his/her general practitioner (GP) is too close, as this may hinder the GP’s objective evaluation of need for sick leave. Independent medical evaluation involves an independent physician consulting the patient. This could lead to new perspectives on sick leave and how to follow-up the patient. Methods/design T...

  11. Artificial horizon effects on motion sickness and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Dror; Gonen, Adi; Wiener, Guy; Bar, Ronen; Gil, Amnon; Nachum, Zohar; Shupak, Avi

    2012-07-01

    To investigate whether the projection of Earth-referenced scenes during provocative motion can alleviate motion sickness severity and prevent motion sickness-induced degradation of performance. Exposure to unfamiliar motion patterns commonly results in motion sickness and decreased performance. Thirty subjects with moderate-to-severe motion sickness susceptibility were exposed to the recorded motion profile of a missile boat under moderate sea conditions in a 3-degrees-of-freedom ship motion simulator. During a 120-minute simulated voyage, the study participants were repeatedly put through a performance test battery and completed a motion sickness susceptibility questionnaire, while self-referenced and Earth-referenced visual scenes were projected inside the closed simulator cabin. A significant decrease was found in the maximal motion sickness severity score, from 9.83 ± 9.77 (mean ± standard deviation) to 7.23 ± 7.14 (p pitch, and heave movements of the simulator. Although there was a significant decrease in sickness severity, substantial symptoms still persisted. Decision making, vision, concentration, memory, simple reasoning, and psychomotor skills all deteriorated under the motion conditions. However, no significant differences between the projection conditions could be found in the scores of any of the performance tests. Visual information regarding the vessel's movement provided by an artificial horizon device might decrease motion sickness symptoms. However, although this device might be suitable for passive transportation, the continued deterioration in performance measures indicates that it provides no significant advantage for personnel engaged in the active operation of modern vessels.

  12. Morning sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not predict how you will feel in future pregnancies. Causes The exact cause of morning sickness is unknown. It may be caused by hormone changes or lower blood sugar during early pregnancy. Emotional stress, fatigue, traveling, or some foods can ...

  13. Low job satisfaction does not identify nurses at risk of future sickness absence : Results from a Norwegian cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Mageroy, N.; van Rhenen, W.; Groothoff, J. W.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; Pallesen, S.; Bjorvatn, B.; Moen, B. E.

    Background: Sickness absence is high in healthcare and contributes to nursing staff shortages reducing the efficiency and quality of patient care. Assessing the risk of sickness absence in working nurses opens opportunities for preventive strategies. Job satisfaction has attracted much attention in

  14. Low job satisfaction does not identify nurses at risk of future sickness absence: results from a Norwegian cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Magerøy, N.; van Rhenen, W.; Groothoff, J. W.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; Pallesen, S.; Bjorvatn, B.; Moen, B. E.

    2013-01-01

    Sickness absence is high in healthcare and contributes to nursing staff shortages reducing the efficiency and quality of patient care. Assessing the risk of sickness absence in working nurses opens opportunities for preventive strategies. Job satisfaction has attracted much attention in healthcare

  15. Low job satisfaction does not identify nurses at risk of future sickness absence : Results from a Norwegian cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Magerøy, B.; Rhenen, van W.; Groothoff, J.W.; Klink, van der J.J.L.; Pallesen, S.

    2013-01-01

    Sickness absence is high in healthcare and contributes to nursing staff shortages reducing the efficiency and quality of patient care. Assessing the risk of sickness absence in working nurses opens opportunities for preventive strategies. Job satisfaction has attracted much attention in healthcare

  16. Predictors of sickness absence in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cohort study was to investigate associations between parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), assisted reproductive therapy (ART), time to pregnancy (TTP), and engagement in physical exercise and the risk of sickness absence in pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy...... with higher HR of sickness absence. Physical exercise of >120 minutes per week was associated with lower HR 0.84 (95% CI 0.75-0.95). CONCLUSION: Risk for sickness absence was higher among women who were multiparous, overweight, obese, received ART, and had prolonged TTP, and lower among women engaged...

  17. Motion sickness incidence during a round-the-world yacht race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M; Griffin, M J

    1995-09-01

    Motion sickness experiences were obtained from participants in a 9 month, round the world yacht race. Race participants completed questionnaires on their motion sickness experience 1 week prior to the start of the race, during the race, and following the race. Yacht headings, sea states, and wind directions were recorded throughout the race. Illness and the occurrence of vomiting were related to the duration at sea and yacht encounter directions relative to the prevailing wind. Individual crewmember characteristics, the use of anti-motion sickness drugs, activity while at sea, and after-effects of yacht motion were also examined with respect to sickness occurrence. Sickness was greatest among females and younger crewmembers, and among crewmembers who used anti-motion sickness drugs. Sickness varied as a function of drug type and activity while at sea. Crewmembers who reported after-effects of yacht motion also reported greater sickness while at sea. The primary determinants of motion sickness were the duration of time spent at sea and yacht encounter direction to the prevailing wind.

  18. Work health determinants in employees without sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, E; Theorell, T; Nilsson, B; Saraste, H

    2013-01-01

    Working ability is known to be related to good physical condition, clear work tasks, positive feedback and other occupational, organizational and psychosocial factors. In Sweden, high levels of sickness absence are due to stress-related disorders and musculoskeletal pain. To identify work health characteristics in a working population with a large variety of professional skills and occupational tasks. Employers' data on occupation, sickness absence, age and gender in a working population of 11 occupational groups and questionnaire responses regarding work-organization, environment, work stress, pain, health, and socio-demographic factors were collected. Employees with no history of sick-leave were compared with those with a history of sick-leave (1-182 days, mean 25 days). Of 2641 employees, 1961 participated. Those with no history of sick-leave reported less work-related pain, work-related stress, sleep disturbances, worry about their health, 'sick-presenteeism', monotonous work, bent and twisted working positions and exposure to disturbing noise than those with a history of sick-leave (P health, support from superiors, having influence on their working hours and evening and week-end working, longer working hours per week (P health and less neck, shoulder and back pain and more support from their superiors and influence on their working hours.

  19. Motion sickness history, food neophobia, and sensation seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Thomas R; Willet, Kathleen A; Muth, Eric R

    2006-06-01

    Motion sickness is believed to be caused by conflicting sensory signals, a situation that mimics the effects of ingesting certain toxins. Thus, one might suspect that individuals who have experienced a relatively high frequency of motion sickness may be particularly vigilant about avoiding anything that produces nausea, induding potentially nauseating toxins. Consequently, they may be more resistant to trying new foods, i.e., be more food neophobic, since unfamiliar foods can have unexpected adverse effects due to toxins or allergens. Likewise, many highly stimulating experiences can trigger motion sickness, so individuals who are more susceptible may be more prone to avoid such experiences, i.e., be less sensation seeking. Finally, it was expected that food neophobia would be more frequent in individuals low on sensation seeking tendencies. Self-reported motion sickness history in 308 adults (M= 18.8 yr.; SD = 1.6) was correlated with scores on the Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking and the Food Neophobia Scale. As predicted, greater history of motion sickness was associated with lower Sensation Seeking scores. Food Neophobia was not correlated with motion sickness history but, as expected, was negatively correlated (r = -.42) with scores on Sensation Seeking. Further research is recommended that measures actual sensitivity to motion sickness.

  20. 77 FR 32975 - Patient Safety Organizations: Expired Listing for The American Cancer Biorepository, Inc. d/b/a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety... Biorepository or ``ACB'' as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO) due to its failure to seek continued listing. The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 (Patient Safety Act) authorizes the listing of...

  1. Health-related behaviours and sickness absence from work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, M; Piha, K; Martikainen, P; Rahkonen, O; Lahelma, E

    2009-12-01

    To compare associations of health-related behaviours with self-certified and medically confirmed sickness absence, and to examine whether these associations can be explained by psychosocial and physical working conditions and occupational social class. The study included 5470 female and 1464 male employees of the City of Helsinki surveyed in 2000-2002. These data were linked to sickness absence records until the end of 2005, providing a mean follow-up time of 3.9 years. Poisson regression analysis was used to examine associations of smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, dietary habits and relative weight (body mass index) with self-certified (1-3 days) and medically confirmed (> or =4 days) absence spells. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated to quantify the sickness absence burden related to the behaviours. Smoking and high relative weight were most strongly associated with sickness absence, while the associations of other studied health-related behaviours were weaker. The associations were stronger for medically confirmed sickness absence spells for which heavy smoking and obesity more than doubled the risk of sickness absence in men and nearly doubled it in women. Adjusting for psychosocial working conditions had little or no effect on the associations. Physical working conditions and social class somewhat attenuated the associations, especially for smoking and relative weight. In self-certified sickness absence the PAF for smoking (16.4 in men, 10.3 in women) was largest, while in medically confirmed absence relative weight had the largest PAF (23.5 in men, 15.0 in women). Health-related behaviours, smoking and high relative weight in particular, were associated with subsequent sickness absence independently of psychosocial and physical working conditions and social class. Decreasing smoking and relative weight is likely to provide important gains in work ability and reduce sickness absence.

  2. Physicians' messages in problematic sickness certification: a narrative analysis of case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudebeck Carl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many physicians find sickness certification tasks problematic. There is some knowledge about situations that are experienced as problematic, whereas less is understood about how physicians respond to the problems they face. One way to acquire such knowledge is to consider "reflection-in-action", aspects of which are expressed in the physician's interpretation of the patient's story. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge about the meaning content of case reports about problematic sickness certification. Specifically, we looked for possible messages to the colleagues intended to read the reports. Methods A narrative approach was used to analyse reports about problematic sickness certification cases that had been written by GPs and occupational health service physicians as part of a sickness insurance course. The analysis included elements from both thematic and structural analysis. Nineteen case reports were used in the actual analysis and 25 in the validation of the results. Main narrative qualities and structural features of the written case reports were explored. Results Five types of messages were identified in the case reports, here classified as "a call for help", "a call for understanding", "hidden worries", "in my opinion", and "appearing neutral". In the reports, the physicians tried to achieve neutrality in their writing, and the patients' stories tended to be interpreted within a traditional biomedical framework. In some cases there was an open request for help, in others it was not obvious that the physician had any problems. Overall, the messages were about having problems as such, rather than the specific features of the problems. Conclusions The case reports clearly demonstrated different ways of writing about problems that arise during sickness certification, from being neutral and not mentioning the problems to being emotionally involved and asking for help. The general character of the messages suggests

  3. Does self-efficacy predict return-to-work after sickness absence? A prospective study among 930 employees with sickness absence for three weeks or more

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl B

    2007-01-01

    follows a cohort of 5357 working employees and 106 long-term sickness absent employees in Denmark. They were interviewed in 2000 regarding self-efficacy and various co-variates, and followed for 78 weeks in a national sickness absence register. Cox regression analysis was performed in order to assess...... or with Return-to-Work. CONCLUSION: The results may suggest that lower self-efficacy among employees with sickness absence is a result of the sickness absence itself rather than a precursor of it. This indicates a need to investigate the potential change in self-efficacy in relation to the employee's change......AIM: To compare levels of self-efficacy among the general working population and employees with sickness absence from work, and to examine if general self-efficacy measured before occurrence of sickness absence predicted subsequent onset of sickness absence and Return-to-Work. METHODS: The study...

  4. A participatory supportive return to work program for workers without an employment contract, sick-listed due to a common mental disorder: an economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke Lammerts

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental disorders are associated with high costs for productivity loss, sickness absence and unemployment. A participatory supportive return to work (RTW program was developed in order to improve RTW among workers without an employment contract, sick-listed due to a common mental disorder. The program contained a participatory approach, integrated care and direct placement in a competitive job. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of this new program, compared to usual care. In addition, its return on investment was evaluated. Methods An economic evaluation was conducted alongside a 12-month randomized controlled trial. A total of 186 participants was randomly allocated to the new program (n = 94 or to usual care (n = 92. Effect measures were the duration until sustainable RTW in competitive employment and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs gained. Costs included intervention costs, medical costs and absenteeism costs. Registered data of the Dutch Social Security Agency were used to assess the duration until sustainable RTW, intervention costs and absenteeism costs. QALYs and medical costs were assessed using three- or six-monthly questionnaires. Missing data were imputed using multiple imputations. Cost-effectiveness analysis and cost-utility analysis were conducted from the societal perspective. A return on investment analysis was conducted from the social insurer’s perspective. Various sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the robustness of the results. Results The new program had no significant effect on the duration until sustainable RTW and QALYs gained. Intervention costs and medical costs were significantly higher in the intervention group. From the societal perspective, the maximum probability of cost-effectiveness for duration until sustainable RTW was 0.64 at a willingness to pay of about €10 000/day, and 0.27 for QALYs gained, regardless of the

  5. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals

  6. [Sickness absence associated with major life events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markussen, Simen; Røgeberg, Ole

    2012-05-29

    Sickness absence in the Norwegian workplace doubled in the period 1993-2003. However, the extent to which the driving factors were medical or non-medical remains unclear, as does the extent to which the cause may be found in the composition of the workforce. A differences-in-differences regression model was used to estimate the added sickness absence associated with major life events such as separation, death of spouse and pregnancy in the period 1993-2005. The data were obtained from administrative registers covering the entire Norwegian population, and include all absence periods of 16 days' duration or more reported by a doctor's medical certificate. The primary outcome measures were incidence (the proportion of absentees in a given time window) and absence (the proportion of sick days in a given time window). The level of absence among employees exposed to the specified life events was compared to control groups matched for gender, age, education and income. In 1993, people in each of the three groups exposed to major life events had more frequent and longer periods of absence than people in the control groups. This added sickness absence increased between 1993 and 2005. The changes in added sickness absence were at times significant, particularly for pregnant women. While sickness absence among pregnant women in 1993 was 15.4 percentage points higher than in the control group, the difference had increased to 24.8 percentage points in 2005. We find it improbable for the increase in added sickness absence to be caused by changes in the medical impact of life events or alterations in the workforce composition. We believe the increase is caused by changing attitudes among the working population and in the medical profession towards sickness absence on grounds that are not strictly medical, combined with improved social acceptance and diagnosis of mental health issues, and/or a medicalisation of natural health variations (pregnancy) and emotional distress (grief).

  7. Reducing sick leave of Dutch vocational school students: adaptation of a sick leave protocol using the intervention mapping process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kroon, Marlou L A; Bulthuis, Jozien; Mulder, Wico; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; Anema, Johannes R

    2016-12-01

    Since the extent of sick leave and the problems of vocational school students are relatively large, we aimed to tailor a sick leave protocol at Dutch lower secondary education schools to the particular context of vocational schools. Four steps of the iterative process of Intervention Mapping (IM) to adapt this protocol were carried out: (1) performing a needs assessment and defining a program objective, (2) determining the performance and change objectives, (3) identifying theory-based methods and practical strategies and (4) developing a program plan. Interviews with students using structured questionnaires, in-depth interviews with relevant stakeholders, a literature research and, finally, a pilot implementation were carried out. A sick leave protocol was developed that was feasible and acceptable for all stakeholders. The main barriers for widespread implementation are time constraints in both monitoring and acting upon sick leave by school and youth health care. The iterative process of IM has shown its merits in the adaptation of the manual 'A quick return to school is much better' to a sick leave protocol for vocational school students.

  8. Workplace phobia--a first explorative study on its relation to established anxiety disorders, sick leave, and work-directed treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschalla, Beate; Linden, Michael

    2009-10-01

    Workplace phobia is defined as a phobic anxiety reaction with symptoms of panic occurring when thinking of or approaching the workplace. People suffering from workplace phobia regularly avoid confrontation with the workplace and are often on sick leave. The specific characteristics of workplace phobia are investigated empirically in comparison to established anxiety disorders. Two hundred thirty patients from an inpatient psychosomatic rehabilitation hospital were interviewed concerning workplace phobia and established anxiety disorders. Additionally, the patients filled in self-rating questionnaires on general and workplace phobic symptom load. Subjectively perceived degree of work load, sick leave, and therapy participation were assessed. Participants with workplace phobia reached significantly higher scores in workplace phobia self-rating than did participants with established anxiety disorders. A similar significant difference was not found concerning the general psychosomatic symptom load. Workplace phobics were more often on sick leave than patients with established anxiety disorders. Workplace phobia can occur as an alonestanding anxiety disorder. It has an own clinical value due to its specific consequences for work participation. Workplace phobia requires special therapeutic attention and treatment instead of purely 'sick leave' certification.

  9. Late stage infection in sleeping sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartwig Wolburg

    Full Text Available At the turn of the 19(th century, trypanosomes were identified as the causative agent of sleeping sickness and their presence within the cerebrospinal fluid of late stage sleeping sickness patients was described. However, no definitive proof of how the parasites reach the brain has been presented so far. Analyzing electron micrographs prepared from rodent brains more than 20 days after infection, we present here conclusive evidence that the parasites first enter the brain via the choroid plexus from where they penetrate the epithelial cell layer to reach the ventricular system. Adversely, no trypanosomes were observed within the parenchyma outside blood vessels. We also show that brain infection depends on the formation of long slender trypanosomes and that the cerebrospinal fluid as well as the stroma of the choroid plexus is a hostile environment for the survival of trypanosomes, which enter the pial space including the Virchow-Robin space via the subarachnoid space to escape degradation. Our data suggest that trypanosomes do not intend to colonize the brain but reside near or within the glia limitans, from where they can re-populate blood vessels and disrupt the sleep wake cycles.

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation and patients' judgments of a Question Prompt List for Italian-speaking cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annunziata Maria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Question Prompt Lists (QPLs have proven very effective in encouraging cancer patients to ask questions, allowing them to take up a more active role during visits with the oncologist. As no such tool has yet been validated for Italian-speaking users, we carried out the cross-cultural adaptation and evaluation of an existing Australian Question Prompt List. Methods Cross-cultural adaptation was performed in accordance with the five steps described by Guillemin and Beaton. Forward and back translations of the original tool were carried out, and the products discussed by an Expert Committee who agreed on a prefinal version of the Italian QPL, which was submitted to 30 volunteer patients for evaluation. They rated each question's adequacy of content, clarity of wording, usefulness, and generated anxiety, on a 3-point Likert scale. Based on the analysis of patient ratings, the final version of the Italian QPL was produced. Results Few discrepancies between the two back translations and the original version of the instrument were noted, indicating that the Italian translation (synthesis of the 2 forward translations was substantially accurate. Most volunteer patients felt that the questionnaire was adequate, easy to understand and useful. Only a few minor criticisms were expressed. Certain questions on diagnosis and prognosis generated the highest level of anxiety. Patient comments and ratings on clarity highlighted the need to clarify common health care terms which are not widely used by the public (i.e. guideline, multidisciplinary team and clinical trial Conclusions This cross-cultural adaptation has produced an Italian Question Prompt List that is now available for multi-center international studies and can be safely used with Italian-speaking cancer patients.

  11. Economic evaluation of a participatory return-to-work intervention for temporary agency and unemployed workers sick-listed due to musculoskeletal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, S.; Heijmans, M.W.; Anema, J.R.; Schellart, A.J.M.; van Mechelen, W.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to identify the hazard functions that describe the occurrence patterns of new and recurrent sick leave (SL) episodes for mental, respiratory, and musculoskeletal diagnoses. Methods The data come from a cohort of workers in the Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal

  12. Various anti-motion sickness drugs and core body temperature changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Bob; Nakashima, Ann M; Hofer, Kevin D

    2011-04-01

    Blood flow changes and inactivity associated with motion sickness appear to exacerbate the rate of core temperature decrease during subsequent body cooling. We investigated the effects of various classes of anti-motion sickness drugs on core temperature changes. There were 12 healthy male and female subjects (20-35 yr old) who were given selected classes of anti-motion sickness drugs prior to vestibular Coriolis cross coupling induced by graded yaw rotation and periodic pitch-forward head movements in the sagittal plane. All subjects were then immersed in water at 18 degrees C for a maximum of 90 min or until their core temperature reached 35 degrees C. Double-blind randomized trials were administered, including a placebo, a non-immersion control with no drug, and six anti-motion sickness drugs: meclizine, dimenhydrinate, chlorpheniramine, promethazine + dexamphetamine, promethazine + caffeine, and scopolamine + dexamphetamine. A 7-d washout period was observed between trials. Core temperature and the severity of sickness were monitored throughout each trial. A repeated measures design was performed on the severity of sickness and core temperature changes prior to motion provocation, immediately after the motion sickness end point, and throughout the period of cold-water immersion. The most effective anti-motion sickness drugs, promethazine + dexamphetamine (with a sickness score/duration of 0.65 +/- 0.17) and scopolamine + dexamphetamine (with a sickness score/duration of 0.79 +/- 0.17), significantly attenuated the decrease in core temperature. The effect of this attenuation was lower in less effective drugs. Our results suggest that the two most effective anti-motion sickness drugs are also the most effective in attenuating the rate of core temperature decrease.

  13. Autogenic feedback training experiment: A preventative method for space motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.

    1993-01-01

    Space motion sickness is a disorder which produces symptoms similar to those of motion sickness on Earth. This syndrome has affected approximately 50 percent of all astronauts and cosmonauts exposed to microgravity in space, but it differs from what is commonly known as motion sickness in a number of critical ways. There is currently no ground-based method for predicting susceptibility to motion sickness in space. Antimotion sickness drugs have had limited success in preventing or counteracting symptoms in space, and frequently caused debilitating side effects. The objectives were: (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of Autogenic-Feedback Training as a countermeasure for space motion sickness; (2) to compare physiological data and in-flight symptom reports to ground-based motion sickness data; and (3) to predict susceptibility to space motion sickness based on pre-flight data of each treatment group crew member.

  14. Health care worker decompression sickness: incidence, risk and mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Inadvertent exposure to radiation, chemical agents and biological factors are well recognized hazards associated with the health care delivery system. Less well appreciated yet no less harmful is risk of decompression sickness in those who accompany patients as inside attendants (IAs) during provision of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Unlike the above hazards where avoidance is practiced, IA exposure to decompression sickness risk is unavoidable. While overall incidence is low, when calculated as number of cases over number of exposures or potential for a case during any given exposure, employee cumulative risk, defined here as number of cases over number of IAs, or risk that an IA may suffer a case, is not. Commonly, this unique occupational environmental injury responds favorably to therapeutic recompression and a period of recuperation. There are, however, permanent and career-ending consequences, and at least two nurses have succumbed to their decompression insults. The intent of this paper is to heighten awareness of hyperbaric attendant decompression sickness. It will serve as a review of reported cases and reconcile incidence against largely ignored individual worker risk. Mitigation strategies are summarized and an approach to more precisely identify risk factors that might prompt development of consensus screening standards is proposed. Copyright© Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society.

  15. Hyperventilation in a motion sickness desensitization program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mert, A.; Bles, W.; Nooij, S.A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: In motion sickness desensitization programs, the motion sickness provocative stimulus is often a forward bending of the trunk on a rotating chair, inducing Coriolis effects. Since respiratory relaxation techniques are applied successfully in these courses, we investigated whether these

  16. [Disability leave and sick leave in Spain. 2016 legislative update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, María Teófila; Terradillos-García, María Jesús; Capdevila-García, Luisa M; Ramírez-Íñiguez de la Torre, María Victoria; Aguilar-Jiménez, Encarna; Aguado-Benedí, María José; López-González, Angel Arturo; Torres-Alberich, José Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    In Spanish, the concepts of discapacidad (disability leave) and incapacidad (sick leave) jointly refer to the impairment of a person due to injuries, diseases or deficiencies that limit their activity in a social, personal or occupational field. However, this common link does not imply that both concepts are the same. Statistical data from INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadística: Statistic National Institute) show that Spain had in 2015 3.85 million persons with a disability (59.8% were women). Statistical data from 2015 from INSS (Instituto Nacional de Seguridad Social: Social Security National Institute) show high levels in the number of processes and in workers affected by temporary sick leave, with social costs to the social security system. Both concepts have been updated: about disability leave, Law 39/2006 adjusted terminology by avoiding the use of concepts with discriminating or pejorative connotation. Regarding sick leave, the Ley General de Seguridad Social (General Social Security Law)has been amended and came into effect in January, 2016. It is necessary to know and distinguish these aspects for a better administrative management, and a more oriented information to the affected patient.

  17. Chemoembolization Decreases Drop-Off Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients on the Liver Transplant List

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangakis, Constantine; Geschwind, Jean-Francois; Kim, Daniel; Chen, Yong; Koteish, Ayman; Hong, Kelvin; Liapi, Eleni; Georgiades, Christos S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The drop-off risk for patients awaiting liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is 22%. Transplant liver availability is expected to worsen, resulting in longer waiting times and increased drop-off rates. Our aim was to determine whether chemoembolization can decrease this risk. Patients and Methods: Eighty-seven consecutive HCC patients listed for liver transplant (Milan criteria) underwent statistical comparability adjustments using the propensity score (Wilcoxon, Fisher’s, and chi-square tests). Forty-three nonchemoembolization patients and 22 chemoembolization patients were comparable for Child-Pugh and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores, tumor size and number, alpha fetoprotein (AFP) levels, and cause of cirrhosis. We calculated the risk of dropping off the transplant list by assigning a transplant time to those who dropped off (equal probability with patients who were on the list longer than the patient in question). The significance level was obtained by calculating the simulation distribution of the difference compared with the permutations of chemoembolization versus nonchemoembolization assignment of the patients. Kaplan–Meier estimators (log-rank test) were used to determine survival rates. Results: Median follow-up was 187 ± 110 weeks (range 38 to 435, date of diagnosis). The chemoembolization group had an 80% drop-off risk decrease (15% nonchemoembolization versus 3% chemoembolization, p = 0.04). Although survival was better for the chemoembolization group, it did not reach statistical significance. Two-year survival for the nonchemoembolization and chemoembolization group was 57.3% ± 7.1% and 76.0% ± 7.9%, respectively (p = 0.078). Conclusions: Chemoembolization appears to result in a significant decrease in the risk of dropping off liver transplant list for patients with HCC and results in a tendency toward longer survival.

  18. Sick leave as a predictor of job loss in patients with chronic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Buck, Petronella D. M.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; van Dijk, Frank; van den Hout, Wilbert B.; Vandenbroucke, Jan P.; Vlieland, Theodora P. M. Vliet

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To study the occurrence and duration of sick leave as potential risk factors for permanent job loss after 24 months among 112 individuals with chronic arthritis and a disease related problem at work. Methods: Data collection was embedded in a multicentre randomised controlled trial in

  19. Sick leave as a predictor of job loss in patients with chronic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Buck, Petronella D. M.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; van Dijk, Frank; van den Hout, Wilbert B.; Vandenbroucke, Jan P.; Vliet Vlieland, Theodora P. M.

    2006-01-01

    To study the occurrence and duration of sick leave as potential risk factors for permanent job loss after 24 months among 112 individuals with chronic arthritis and a disease related problem at work. Data collection was embedded in a multicentre randomised controlled trial in which the

  20. Sick leave as a predictor of job loss in patients with chronic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Buck, Petronella D. M.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; van Dijk, Frank; van den Hout, Wilbert B.; Vandenbroucke, Jan P.; Vlieland, Theodora P. M. Vliet

    Objectives: To study the occurrence and duration of sick leave as potential risk factors for permanent job loss after 24 months among 112 individuals with chronic arthritis and a disease related problem at work. Methods: Data collection was embedded in a multicentre randomised controlled trial in

  1. Gambiense Sleeping Sickness In The Abraka Region Of Delta State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gambiense Sleeping Sickness In The Abraka Region Of Delta State, Nigeria: Passive Case Detection (Pcd) At The Baptist Medical Centre (BMC) Eku 1999 – 2004. ... The highest prevalence of infection was among patients aged between 26-35 years with 35.6% infection rate, 23.3 percent was recorded among those aged ...

  2. Determinants of sick-leave duration : A tool for managers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, P.A.; Krol, B.; Groothoff, J.W.

    AIMS: To provide managers with tools to manage episodes of sick-leave of their employees, the influence of factors such as age, gender, duration of tenure, working full-time or part-time, cause and history of sick-leave, salary and education on sick-leave duration was studied. METHOD: In a

  3. The relationship of sick leave benefits, employment patterns, and individual characteristics to radiation therapy-related fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Patricia

    2006-05-03

    To examine the relationship among sick leave benefits, employment patterns, individual characteristics, and fatigue in patients receiving radiation therapy. Prospective, longitudinal design. A community hospital radiation oncology department. 77 patients receiving radiation therapy to the breast, chest, head and neck, pelvis, or prostate. All were employed at the time of diagnosis. The Piper Integrated Fatigue Model guided the study. The Revised Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS), Brief Fatigue Inventory, and a single-item scale were used to measure five dimensions of subjective fatigue. Sick leave, employment, individual characteristics, and fatigue were measured at baseline, weekly during treatment, and at one month post-treatment. Employment patterns, availability of sick leave benefits, and fatigue. Mean total fatigue scores on the PFS ranged from 0-4.77 at baseline (mean = 0.46, SD = 0.93), 0-8.77 at the completion of treatment (mean = 2.84, SD = 2.40), and 0-4.82 at one month post-treatment (mean = 0.77, SD = 1.20). Side effects, education, living situation, age, treatment site, and work were associated with fatigue along the trajectory of radiation therapy. Study participants who were working at the end of radiation had lower fatigue scores than those who were not. Availability of sick leave benefits was associated with employment patterns during treatment. Work may have benefits during radiation therapy but may be affected by radiation therapy-related fatigue. Management of treatment side effects, including fatigue, may help patients remain in the workforce during radiation.

  4. Effectiveness of early part-time sick leave in musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martimo, Kari-Pekka; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Kausto, Johanna; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Ketola, Ritva; Riihimäki, Hilkka; Luukkonen, Ritva; Karppinen, Jaro; Miranda, Helena; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2008-02-25

    The importance of staying active instead of bed rest has been acknowledged in the management of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). This emphasizes the potential benefits of adjusting work to fit the employee's remaining work ability. Despite part-time sick leave being an official option in many countries, its effectiveness has not been studied yet. We have designed a randomized controlled study to assess the health effects of early part-time sick leave compared to conventional full-day sick leave. Our hypothesis is that if work time is temporarily reduced and work load adjusted at the early stages of disability, employees with MSDs will have less disability days and faster return to regular work duties than employees on a conventional sick leave. The study population will consist of 600 employees, who seek medical advice from an occupational physician due to musculoskeletal pain. The inclusion requires that they have not been on a sick leave for longer than 14 days prior to the visit. Based on the physician's judgement, the severity of the symptoms must indicate a need for conventional sick leave, but the employee is considered to be able to work part-time without any additional risk. Half of the employees are randomly allocated to part-time sick leave group and their work time is reduced by 40-60%, whereas in the control group work load is totally eliminated with conventional sick leave. The main outcomes are the number of days from the initial visit to return to regular work activities, and the total number of sick leave days during 12 and 24 months of follow-up. The costs and benefits as well as the feasibility of early part-time sick leave will also be evaluated. This is the first randomised trial to our knowledge on the effectiveness of early part-time sick leave compared to conventional full-time sick leave in the management of MSDs. The data collection continues until 2011, but preliminary results on the feasibility of part-time sick leave will be available

  5. Indoor air pollution and sick building syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J P

    1997-12-31

    The topics discussed in this paper are accept that SBS (Sick building syndrome) is a reality ; understand the dimensions of the problem ; differentiate between sick building syndrome and building related illness ; introduce standards ; understanding the economics ; act pro-actively not re-actively.

  6. Job demands, health perception and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Koopmans, P.C.; de Graaf, J.H.; van Zandbergen, J.W.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background Investigation of the relations between job demands, health and sickness absence is required to design a strategy for the prevention of absence and disability. Aim To study the relationships between (physical and psychological) job demands, health perception and sickness absence. Methods

  7. Indoor air pollution and sick building syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The topics discussed in this paper are accept that SBS (Sick building syndrome) is a reality ; understand the dimensions of the problem ; differentiate between sick building syndrome and building related illness ; introduce standards ; understanding the economics ; act pro-actively not re-actively

  8. The use of the waiting list in a fair selection of patients for nursing home care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiland, F. J.; Danse, J. A.; Hoos, A. M.; Wendte, J. F.; Gunning-Schepers, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    When health care resources are scarce, waiting lists may be used as a distribution measure in order to enhance the fair allocation of resources through selection of patients. In this study, the structure and use of a waiting list for a fair selection of patients for nursing home admission was

  9. How Safe Is Measles Immunization Of Sick Children? | Ogbonna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective study to ascertain how safe is maeales immunization of sick children was carried out in Jos University Teaching Hospital, Family Health Centre. Out of 125 children who were vaccinated against measles 17(16%) were sick at the time of vaccination. Two (12%) of the sick children had post vaccination reaction.

  10. Are environmental characteristics in the municipal eldercare, more closely associated with frequent short sick leave spells among employees than with total sick leave: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that frequent-, short-term sick leave is associated with work environment factors, whereas long-term sick leave is associated mainly with health factors. However, studies of the hypothesis of an association between a poor working environment and frequent short spells of sick leave are few and results are inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to explore associations between self-reported psychosocial work factors and workplace-registered frequency and length of sick leave in the eldercare sector. Methods Employees from the municipal eldercare in Aarhus (N = 2,534) were included. In 2005, they responded to a work environment questionnaire. Sick leave records from 2005 were dichotomised into total sick leave days (0–14 and above 14 days) and into spell patterns (0–2 short, 3–9 short, and mixed spells and 1–3 long spells). Logistic regression models were used to analyse associations; adjusted for age, gender, occupation, and number of spells or sick leave length. Results The response rate was 76%; 96% of the respondents were women. Unfavourable mean scores in work pace, demands for hiding emotions, poor quality of leadership and bullying were best indicated by more than 14 sick leave days compared with 0–14 sick leave days. For work pace, the best indicator was a long-term sick leave pattern compared with a non-frequent short-term pattern. A frequent short-term sick leave pattern was a better indicator of emotional demands (1.62; 95% CI: 1.1-2.5) and role conflict (1.50; 95% CI: 1.2-1.9) than a short-term non-frequent pattern. Age (= 40 years) statistically significantly modified the association between the 1–3 long-term sick leave spell pattern and commitment to the workplace compared with the 3–9 frequent short-term pattern. Conclusions Total sick leave length and a long-term sick leave spell pattern were just as good or even better indicators of unfavourable work factor scores than a frequent short-term sick leave

  11. Some problems of antibiotic therapy in radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalnova, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Data on the application of antibiotics and the mechanism of their action in radiation sickness are reviewed. Questions are discussed, such as the effect of antibiotics on the course and outcome of radiation sickness, the development of dysbacteriosis following irradiation, the effect of antibiotics on endogenic infection, the development of resistance of autoflora microbes to antibiotics in an irradiated organism and various aspects of the mechanism of action of antibiotics in radiation sickness. (author)

  12. Probiotics Improve Inflammation-Associated Sickness Behavior by Altering Communication between the Peripheral Immune System and the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Mello, Charlotte; Ronaghan, Natalie; Zaheer, Raza; Dicay, Michael; Le, Tai; MacNaughton, Wallace K; Surrette, Michael G; Swain, Mark G

    2015-07-29

    Patients with systemic inflammatory diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic liver disease) commonly develop debilitating symptoms (i.e., sickness behaviors) that arise from changes in brain function. The microbiota-gut-brain axis alters brain function and probiotic ingestion can influence behavior. However, how probiotics do this remains unclear. We have previously described a novel periphery-to-brain communication pathway in the setting of peripheral organ inflammation whereby monocytes are recruited to the brain in response to systemic TNF-α signaling, leading to microglial activation and subsequently driving sickness behavior development. Therefore, we investigated whether probiotic ingestion (i.e., probiotic mixture VSL#3) alters this periphery-to-brain communication pathway, thereby reducing subsequent sickness behavior development. Using a well characterized mouse model of liver inflammation, we now show that probiotic (VSL#3) treatment attenuates sickness behavior development in mice with liver inflammation without affecting disease severity, gut microbiota composition, or gut permeability. Attenuation of sickness behavior development was associated with reductions in microglial activation and cerebral monocyte infiltration. These events were paralleled by changes in markers of systemic immune activation, including decreased circulating TNF-α levels. Our observations highlight a novel pathway through which probiotics mediate cerebral changes and alter behavior. These findings allow for the potential development of novel therapeutic interventions targeted at the gut microbiome to treat inflammation-associated sickness behaviors in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases. This research shows that probiotics, when eaten, can improve the abnormal behaviors (including social withdrawal and immobility) that are commonly associated with inflammation. Probiotics are able to cause this effect within the body by changing how

  13. Low job satisfaction does not identify nurses at risk of future sickness absence: results from a Norwegian cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, C A M; Magerøy, N; van Rhenen, W; Groothoff, J W; van der Klink, J J L; Pallesen, S; Bjorvatn, B; Moen, B E

    2013-03-01

    Sickness absence is high in healthcare and contributes to nursing staff shortages reducing the efficiency and quality of patient care. Assessing the risk of sickness absence in working nurses opens opportunities for preventive strategies. Job satisfaction has attracted much attention in healthcare research and has been associated with sickness absence among nurses. To investigate if job satisfaction scores are useful to identify working nurses at risk of future sickness absence. Prospective cohort study with a baseline period from November 2008 to March 2009 and 1-year follow-up. Hospitals, nursing homes, and ambulant care settings in Norway. 2059 Norwegian nurses, of whom 1582 (77%) could be followed-up. Nurses received a questionnaire at baseline and after 1-year follow-up. The questionnaire contained the Job Satisfaction Index (JSI), a 5-item scale measuring overall job satisfaction, and asked for sickness absence in the last 12 months. Baseline JSI scores were included in a logistic regression model with self-rated sickness absence at 1-year follow-up as outcome variable. Predictions of sickness absence were calibrated by the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test. The ability of JSI scores to discriminate between nurses with and without sickness absence was examined by receiver operating characteristic analysis and expressed as area under the curve (AUC). Low job satisfaction was associated with higher odds of sickness absence (odds ratio [OR]=1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.09) and high (≥ 31 days) sickness absence (OR=1.10; 95% CI 1.06-1.14). Calibration was acceptable, but job satisfaction neither discriminated between nurses with and without sickness absence (AUC=0.54; 95% CI 0.51-0.58) nor between nurses with and without high (≥ 31 days) sickness absence (AUC=0.58; 95% CI 0.54-0.63). The results of this study indicated that job satisfaction was associated with sickness absence, though job satisfaction scores as measured with the JSI did not

  14. Sick leave patterns as predictors of disability pension or long-term sick leave: a 6.75-year follow-up study in municipal eldercare workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelfeldt, Christina Malmose; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Krane, Line; Borg, Vilhelm; Fleten, Nils; Jensen, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to study whether a workplace-registered frequent short-term sick leave spell pattern was an early indicator of future disability pension or future long-term sick leave among municipal eldercare workers. Setting The municipal healthcare sector in the city of Aarhus, which is the second largest city in Denmark. Participants All elder care employees who worked the entire year of 2004 in the municipality of Aarhus, Denmark (N=2774). The employees’ sick leave days during 2004 were categorised into: 0–2 and 3–17 short (1–7 days) spells, 2–13 mixed short and long (8+ days) spells and long spells only. Student workers (n=180), employees who were absent due to maternal/paternal leave (n=536) and employees who did not work the entire year of 2004 (n=1218) were not included. Primary outcome Disability pension and long-term sick leave (≥8 weeks) were subsequently identified in a National register. The cumulative incidence proportion as a function of follow-up weeks was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier curve. The relative cumulative incidence (RR) of experiencing events within 352 weeks was analysed in a generalised linear regression model using the pseudo values method adjusted for age, occupation, unfavourable work factors and sick leave length. Results A frequent short-term and a mixed sick leave pattern showed RRs of being granted a disability pension of 2.08 (95% CI 1.00 to 4.35) and 2.61 (95% CI 1.33 to 5.12) compared with 0–2 short spells. The risk of long-term sick leave was significantly increased for all sick leave patterns compared with 0–2 short spells. Adding sick leave length to the models attenuated all RRs and they became non-significant. Conclusions Sick leave length was a better indicator of future workability than spell frequency. Preventive actions should target employees engaged in homecare. The more sick leave days the greater the preventive potential seems, irrespective of spell frequency. PMID:24508850

  15. Identifying factors relevant in the assessment of return-to-work efforts in employees on long-term sickness absence due to chronic low back pain : a focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijzer, Anna; Geertzen, Jan H.; de Boer, Wout E.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Background: Efforts undertaken during the return to work (RTW) process need to be sufficient to prevent unnecessary applications for disability benefits. The purpose of this study was to identify factors relevant to RTW Effort Sufficiency (RTW-ES) in cases of sick-listed employees with chronic low

  16. “Parenteral Nutrition Supplementation in Biliary Atresia Patients Listed for Liver Transplantation”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jillian S; Sundaram, Shikha S; Pan, Zhaoxing; Sokol, Ronald J

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of parenteral nutrition (PN) on outcomes in biliary atresia (BA) patients listed for liver transplantation (LTx). Study Design We retrospectively reviewed charts of all BA patients from 1990 through 2010 at our institution, s/p hepatoportoenterostomy, ≤ 36 months old, and listed for LTx. Initiation of PN was based on clinical indications. Results 25 PN and 22 non-PN subjects (74% female) were studied. Median PN initiation age was 7.7 months, mean duration 86 days, and mean PN energy supplied 77 kcal/kg/day. Prior to PN, triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) and mid-arm circumference (MAC) Z-scores were decreasing. After PN, TSF (p=0.003) and MAC (pnutritional status in malnourished BA patients awaiting LTx, which is associated with post-LTx outcomes comparable to those not requiring PN. PMID:21987426

  17. Occupational health physicians have better work conditions for handling sickness certification compared with general practitioners: results from a nationwide survey in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungquist, Therese; Alexanderson, Kristina; Kjeldgård, Linnea; Arrelöv, Britt; Nilsson, Gunnar H

    2015-02-01

    To study whether occupational health physicians (OPs) have a better work situation regarding handling of sickness certification compared with other physicians, in particular general practitioners (GPs), and to analyze associations between OPs' experiences of assessing and providing a long-term prognosis of patients' work capacity and some potentially interrelated factors. Answers to a nationwide survey from physicians who had sickness certification consultations at least once monthly were analyzed. Differences among OPs (n=481), GPs (n=4257) and physicians working in other clinical settings (n=9452) were estimated by chi square tests. Associations between OPs' experiences as above and potentially interrelated factors were estimated using logistic regression analyses. Among OPs, a lower proportion experienced clinical work situations related to sickness certifications as 'very problematic', compared with the other physicians, and especially so compared with GPs. A higher proportion of OPs also had organizational support for handling sickness certifications. For OPs, experience of sickness certification consultations as problematic once a month or less often, not experiencing sickness certification tasks as a work environment problem, and having a well-established workplace policy regarding sickness certification matters were significantly positively associated with finding assessing and providing a long-term prognosis of work capacity as 'not at all/somewhat problematic'. OPs' work situation regarding sickness certifications was favorable compared with that of other physicians, and especially compared with that of GPS. Our results underline the importance of organizational support for ensuring physicians' experience of having professional competence in handling assessments of patients' work capacity. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  18. Health-related effects of early part-time sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Rahman; Kausto, Johanna; Martimo, Kari-Pekka; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2013-01-01

    Previously we reported that early part-time sick leave enhances return to work (RTW) among employees with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). This paper assesses the health-related effects of this intervention. Patients aged 18-60 years who were unable to perform their regular work due to MSD were randomized to part- or full-time sick leave groups. In the former, workload was reduced by halving working time. Using validated questionnaires, we assessed pain intensity and interference with work and sleep, region-specific disability due to MSD, self-rated general health, health-related quality of life (measured via EuroQol), productivity loss, depression, and sleep disturbance at baseline, 1, 3, 8, 12, and 52 weeks. We analyzed the repeated measures data (171-356 observations) with the generalized estimating equation approach. The intervention (part-time sick leave) and control (full-time sick leave) groups did not differ with regard to pain intensity, pain interference with work and sleep, region-specific disability, productivity loss, depression, or sleep disturbance. The intervention group reported better self-rated general health (adjusted P=0.07) and health-related quality of life (adjusted P=0.02) than the control group. In subgroup analyses, the intervention was more effective among the patients whose current problem began occurring part-time sick leave did not exacerbate pain-related symptoms and functional disability, but improved self-rated general health and health-related quality of life in the early stage of work disability due to MSD.

  19. Return to work in sick-listed cancer survivors with job loss: design of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Egmond, Martine P; Duijts, Saskia F A; Vermeulen, Sylvia J; van der Beek, Allard J; Anema, Johannes R

    2015-02-18

    Despite long-term or permanent health problems, cancer survivors are often motivated to return to work. For cancer survivors who have lost their job, return to work can be more challenging compared to employed survivors, as they generally find themselves in a more vulnerable social and financial position. Cancer survivors with job loss may therefore be in need of tailored return to work support. However, there is a lack of return to work intervention programs specifically targeting these cancer survivors. The number of cancer survivors with job loss in developed countries is rising due to, amongst others, increases in the incidence and survivor rate of cancer, the retirement age and the proportion of flexible employment contracts. Hence, we consider it important to develop a tailored return to work intervention program for cancer survivors with job loss, and to evaluate its effectiveness compared to usual care. This study employs a two-armed randomised controlled trial with a follow-up period of 12 months. The study population (n = 164) will be recruited from a national sample of cancer survivors (18-60 years), who have been sick-listed for 12-36 months. Participants will be randomised by using computerized blocked randomisation (blocks of four). All participants will receive usual care as provided by the Dutch Social Security Agency. Additionally, participants in the intervention group will receive a tailored return to work intervention program, which includes vocational rehabilitation and supportive psychosocial components, as well as (therapeutic) placement at work. The primary outcome measure is duration until sustainable return to work; the secondary outcome measure is rate of return to work. Other parameters include, amongst others, fatigue, coping strategy and quality of life. We will perform Cox regression analyses to estimate hazard ratios for time to sustainable return to work. The hypothesis of this study is that a tailored approach for cancer

  20. Acute mountain sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Acute mountain sickness URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  1. The dimensional structure of the functional abilities in cases of long-term sickness absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulders Henny PG

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health problems that working people suffer can affect their functional abilities and, consequently, can cause a mismatch between those abilities and the demands of the work, leading to sickness absence. A lasting decrease in functional abilities can lead to long-term sickness absence and work disability, with negative consequences for both the worker and the larger society. The objective of this study was to identify common disability characteristics among large groups of long-term sick-listed and disabled employees. Methods As part of the disability benefit entitlement procedure in the Netherlands, an insurance physician assesses the functional abilities of the claimant in a standardised form, known as the List of Functional Abilities (LFA, which consists of six sections containing a total of 106 items. For the purposes of this study, we compiled data from 50,931 assessments. These data were used in an exploratory factor analyses, and the results were then used to construct scales. The stability of dimensional structure of the LFA and of the internal consistency of the scales was studied using data from 80,968 assessments carried out earlier, under a slightly different legislation. Results Three separate factor analyses carried out on the functional abilities of five sections of the LFA resulted in 14 scale variables, and one extra scale variable was based on the items from the sixth section. The resulting scale variables showed Cronbach's Alphas ranging from 0.59 to 0.97, with the exception of one of 0.54. The dimensional structure of the LFA in the verification population differed in some aspects. The Cronbach's Alphas of the verification population ranged from 0.58 to 0.97, again with the exception of the same scale: Alpha = 0.49. Conclusion The differences between the dimensional structures of the primary data and the earlier data we found in this study restrict the possibilities to generalise the results. The scales

  2. [Developing traditional Chinese medicine injection is the need for curing sickness to save patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Li, Feng-Jie; Li, Lian-da; Li, Yi-Kui

    2017-03-01

    Safety issues of traditional Chinese medicine injections has been heated debate. There are two diametrically opposed views: it should be used reasonable and developed healthily or be forbidden to use. Some people have many misunderstandings and prejudices about the safety of traditional Chinese medicine injections. Compared with western medicine,traditional Chinese medicine has its own particularity. Traditional Chinese medicine has complex components. Its research and clinical application is different from western medicine. Adverse reactions of traditional Chinese medicine injections are related to many factors,such as a large number of irrational use,blind use of traditional Chinese medicine injections and western medicine injections,counterfeit and substandard drugs,incorrect methods of intravenous infusion,toxicity of supplementary materials,drug ingredients. Developing traditional Chinese medicine injection is the need for curing sickness to save patients. The purposeful, targeted, organized and planned systematic research of traditional Chinese medicine injections should be strengthened,especially the safety of traditional Chinese medicine. Strengthen supervision and control of rational drug use.Strengthen the examination and approval,supervision and management of all aspects to ensure the safety of patients. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Analyzing sickness absence with statistical models for survival data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang; Andersen, Per Kragh; Smith-Hansen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sickness absence is the outcome in many epidemiologic studies and is often based on summary measures such as the number of sickness absences per year. In this study the use of modern statistical methods was examined by making better use of the available information. Since sickness...... absence data deal with events occurring over time, the use of statistical models for survival data has been reviewed, and the use of frailty models has been proposed for the analysis of such data. METHODS: Three methods for analyzing data on sickness absences were compared using a simulation study...... involving the following: (i) Poisson regression using a single outcome variable (number of sickness absences), (ii) analysis of time to first event using the Cox proportional hazards model, and (iii) frailty models, which are random effects proportional hazards models. Data from a study of the relation...

  4. Decompression sickness in breath-hold divers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaitre, Frederic; Fahlman, Andreas; Gardette, Bernard; Kohshi, Kiyotaka

    2009-12-01

    Although it has been generally assumed that the risk of decompression sickness is virtually zero during a single breath-hold dive in humans, repeated dives may result in a cumulative increase in the tissue and blood nitrogen tension. Many species of marine mammals perform extensive foraging bouts with deep and long dives interspersed by a short surface interval, and some human divers regularly perform repeated dives to 30-40 m or a single dive to more than 200 m, all of which may result in nitrogen concentrations that elicit symptoms of decompression sickness. Neurological problems have been reported in humans after single or repeated dives and recent necropsy reports in stranded marine mammals were suggestive of decompression sickness-like symptoms. Modelling attempts have suggested that marine mammals may live permanently with elevated nitrogen concentrations and may be at risk when altering their dive behaviour. In humans, non-pathogenic bubbles have been recorded and symptoms of decompression sickness have been reported after repeated dives to modest depths. The mechanisms implicated in these accidents indicate that repeated breath-hold dives with short surface intervals are factors that predispose to decompression sickness. During deep diving, the effect of pulmonary shunts and/or lung collapse may play a major role in reducing the incidence of decompression sickness in humans and marine mammals.

  5. Associations between work stress, alcohol consumption and sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasse, R M; Nijhuis, F J; Kok, G

    1998-02-01

    To test an interactional model on the associations between work stressors, perceived stress, alcohol consumption and sickness absence. Cross-sectional survey. The study was part of a Worksite Health Project including an Employee Assistance Programme and a Health Promotion Programme in the Netherlands. Participants were blue-collar workers from two Municipal Garbage Collecting Departments and white-collar workers from a Pharmaceutical Company (N = 471). Measurements included socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, education, marital status), work stressors, perceived stress, alcohol consumption and sickness absence. Type of work-site (blue- or white-collar) and smoking behaviour were used as covariates. Regression analyses resulted in three major findings. First, in the presence of stress, abstinence increased the risk of sickness absence compared with moderate drinking. We failed to find a significant relationship between excessive drinking and sickness absence. Secondly, stress mediated the associations between stressor and alcohol consumption, and between stressor and sickness absence, although stressors also directly predicted sickness absence. The association between abstinence and sickness absence could reflect medical problems of abstainers or a lack of skills for coping with stress. The failure to find a significant detrimental effect of excessive drinking may have been due to use of a low threshold for excessive drinking and/or low power. Prospective studies are needed to gain insight in causal relationships between the variables concerned.

  6. Effectiveness of early part-time sick leave in musculoskeletal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karppinen Jaro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of staying active instead of bed rest has been acknowledged in the management of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs. This emphasizes the potential benefits of adjusting work to fit the employee's remaining work ability. Despite part-time sick leave being an official option in many countries, its effectiveness has not been studied yet. We have designed a randomized controlled study to assess the health effects of early part-time sick leave compared to conventional full-day sick leave. Our hypothesis is that if work time is temporarily reduced and work load adjusted at the early stages of disability, employees with MSDs will have less disability days and faster return to regular work duties than employees on a conventional sick leave. Methods/Design The study population will consist of 600 employees, who seek medical advice from an occupational physician due to musculoskeletal pain. The inclusion requires that they have not been on a sick leave for longer than 14 days prior to the visit. Based on the physician's judgement, the severity of the symptoms must indicate a need for conventional sick leave, but the employee is considered to be able to work part-time without any additional risk. Half of the employees are randomly allocated to part-time sick leave group and their work time is reduced by 40–60%, whereas in the control group work load is totally eliminated with conventional sick leave. The main outcomes are the number of days from the initial visit to return to regular work activities, and the total number of sick leave days during 12 and 24 months of follow-up. The costs and benefits as well as the feasibility of early part-time sick leave will also be evaluated. Conclusion This is the first randomised trial to our knowledge on the effectiveness of early part-time sick leave compared to conventional full-time sick leave in the management of MSDs. The data collection continues until 2011, but preliminary

  7. GENETIC PREDICTORS OF IDIOPATHIC SICK SINUS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Chernova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Published data demonstrating genetic determination of sick sinus syndrome is presented. The definition of this pathology is presented; the main symptoms are described, as well as genes that influence the development of idiopathic sick sinus syndrome, their polymorphisms and role in disorders of the cardiovascular system.

  8. Go to work or report sick? A focus group study on decisions of sickness presence among offshore catering section workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohne, Kariann; Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2011-03-18

    To identify and explore the factors promoting sickness presenteeism among offshore catering section workers. Twenty men and women, working in the offshore catering section onboard three offshore oil and gas production platforms on the Norwegian Continental Shelf, participated in three focus groups. Data from the focus groups were analysed according to a phenomenological approach, and supported by theories on presenteeism. The results show that the decision to attend work despite illness, first and foremost, was based on the severity of the health complaint. Other factors identified were; the individual's location once the health complaint occurred, job satisfaction, the norms of the team, and experiences of how company policies on sickness absenteeism were implemented by the catering section leaders. Offshore working conditions may promote sickness presenteeism. The factors promoting sickness presenteeism onboard the platforms reflected experiences of a healthy work environment.

  9. Long-term follow-up observation of patients with chronic radiation sickness due to external irradiation treated with thymopeptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shenyong; Sun Wenji; Zhang Aizhen; Ye Anfang

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To provide the clinical data and prognosis judgement, the authors observed the results and progression of 11 cases of chronic radiation sickness due to external irradiation treated with thymopeptide. Methods: The clinical symptoms, hematopoiesis, T lymphocyte percentage and chromosome aberration rate were used as the judgement indexes for recovery from the chronic radiation sickness. Results: Thymopeptide treatment greatly improved the neurasthenic syndrome and increased the T lymphocyte percentage (P 0.05), and improvement of neurasthenic syndrome occurred 3.5 years after they left radiation work or diminished the exposure level. 5 to 8 years after, bone marrow hematopoiesis also restored to the normal level. However, the chromosome aberration rate restored to the normal level 10 years after. Conclusion: According to the judgement criteria, the chronic radiation sickness due to external radiation exposure can recover and thymopeptide is a helpful and simple means to treat it

  10. Part-time sick leave as a treatment method for individuals with musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrén, Daniela; Svensson, Mikael

    2012-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that staying active is an important part of a recovery process for individuals on sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). It has been suggested that using part-time sick-leave rather than full-time sick leave will enhance the possibility of full recovery to the workforce, and several countries actively favor this policy. The aim of this paper is to examine if it is beneficial for individuals on sick leave due to MSDs to be on part-time sick leave compared to full-time sick leave. A sample of 1,170 employees from the RFV-LS (register) database of the Social Insurance Agency of Sweden is used. The effect of being on part-time sick leave compared to full-time sick leave is estimated for the probability of returning to work with full recovery of lost work capacity. A two-stage recursive bivariate probit model is used to deal with the endogeneity problem. The results indicate that employees assigned to part-time sick leave do recover to full work capacity with a higher probability than those assigned to full-time sick leave. The average treatment effect of part-time sick leave is 25 percentage points. Considering that part-time sick leave may also be less expensive than assigning individuals to full-time sick leave, this would imply efficiency improvements from assigning individuals, when possible, to part-time sick leave.

  11. How often does the operating list follow the planned order? An analysis of elective maxillofacial operating lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Shofiq; Taylor, Christopher J; Ahmed, Siddiq; Ormiston, Ian W; Hayter, Jonathan P

    2015-12-01

    The authors explored consistency of the observed running order in operating sequence compared with prior scheduled listing. We analysed potential variables felt to be predictive in the chances of a patient having their procedure as previously scheduled. Data were retrospectively collected for a consecutive group of patients who underwent elective maxillofacial procedures over a four week period. The consistency of scheduled and observed running order was documented. We considered four independent variables (original list position, day of week, morning or afternoon list, seniority of surgeon) and analysed their relationship to the probability of a patient undergoing their operation as per listing. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine significant associations between predictor variables with an altered list order. Data were available for 35 lists (n = 133). 49% of lists were found to run according to prior given order, the remainder subject to some alteration. Logistic regression analysis showed a statistically significant association between original scheduled position and day of week, with list position consistency. Patients listed first were twelve times more likely to have their operation as listed compared to those placed fourth (OR 12.7, 95% CI 3.7-43, p lists at the start of a week were subject to less alteration (p lists showed some alteration to the previously printed order. It appears that being first on an elective list offers the greatest guarantee that a patient will have their operation as per prior schedule. It may be reasonable for clinicians to be mindful of potential operating list alterations when preparing their patients for elective surgery. Copyright © 2014 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Go to work or report sick? A focus group study on decisions of sickness presence among offshore catering section workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krohne Kariann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify and explore the factors promoting sickness presenteeism among offshore catering section workers. Methods Twenty men and women, working in the offshore catering section onboard three offshore oil and gas production platforms on the Norwegian Continental Shelf, participated in three focus groups. Data from the focus groups were analysed according to a phenomenological approach, and supported by theories on presenteeism. Results The results show that the decision to attend work despite illness, first and foremost, was based on the severity of the health complaint. Other factors identified were; the individual's location once the health complaint occurred, job satisfaction, the norms of the team, and experiences of how company policies on sickness absenteeism were implemented by the catering section leaders. Conclusions Offshore working conditions may promote sickness presenteeism. The factors promoting sickness presenteeism onboard the platforms reflected experiences of a healthy work environment.

  13. Long-term stability of return to work after a workplace-oriented intervention for patients on sick leave for burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Björn; Jönsson, Peter; Österberg, Kai

    2014-08-09

    The period from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s saw a rapid increase in long-term sick leave in Sweden, primarily due to mental illness and often related to job burnout. This led to an urge for effective treatment programs that could prevent the often long sick leaves. In 2010 we presented a newly developed work-place intervention method, showing that 89% of the intervention group had returned to work at a 1.5 year follow-up, compared to 73% of the control group. The main aim of this study was to assess the long-term stability of these promising results. Sick leave registry data from the Regional Social Insurance Office were analyzed for an additional year (50 weeks) beyond the original 1.5 year period (80 weeks). Data from 68 matched pairs of intervention participants (IP) and controls were available. The proportions of participants being on full-time sick leave versus having returned to work to any extent were computed for every 10th week. Generalized estimating equations were used with GROUP (IP versus controls) as between-subjects factor, WEEKS and AGE as covariates, and return-to-work (RTW) as dependent variable. Significant differences (Wald χ2 with α ≤ .05) was followed up with polynomial contrasts. Individual relapses to higher degrees of sick leave (e.g. from 50% to 100%) and whether partial RTW led to later full-time RTW, were also analyzed. The omnibus test over all 130 weeks showed a GROUP*WEEKS interaction effect (p = .02), indicating differential group developments in RTW, though similarly high at week 130 in both groups with 82.4% of the IP and 77.9% of the controls having RTW (p = .22; χ2-test). A significant interaction with age led to separate analyses of the younger and older subgroups, indicating a stable pattern of superior RTW only among younger IP (week 130: 88.6% vs. 69.7%, p = .054; χ2-test). There was no group difference in relapses into increased degree of sick leave. Part-time sick leave did not predict a later

  14. Entitlement to Sickness Benefits in Sweden: The Social Insurance Officers Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Müssener

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social insurance offices (SIOs handle a wide range of complex assessments of the entitlement to sickness benefits for an increasing number of clients on sick leave and consequently, the demands on the SIOs have increased considerably.Aim: To gain deeper knowledge of the problems experienced by the SIOs in their work associated with entitlement to sickness benefits.Method: A descriptive and explorative qualitative approach was used to analyse data from two focus-group interviews, including six participants in each group.Results: The participants discussed different dilemmas in regard to; physicians’ responsibility for issuing sickness certificates, interactions with the insured individuals, disclosure of decisions, communications with medical consultants, documentation of sickness benefit claims, threats in the workplace, as well as their own competence. The SIOs regarded incomplete information on sickness certificates as a main problem, because they frequently had to contact the client and the physicians who issued the certificates in order to obtain further details, leading to delays in the decision-making whether to grant sickness benefits.Conclusions: More knowledge regarding SIOs work is required to improve the methods used in the sickness insurance system and to ensure adequate training of new staff members.

  15. Exploring factors relevant in the assessment of the return-to-work process of employees on long-term sickness absence due to a depressive disorder : a focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijzer, Anna; Brouwer, Sandra; Geertzen, Jan H.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Efforts undertaken during the Return-to-Work (RTW) process need to be sufficient in order to optimize the quality of the RTW process. The purpose of this study was to explore factors relevant to Return-to-Work Effort Sufficiency (RTW-ES) in cases of sick-listed employees with a

  16. Systematic review of active workplace interventions to reduce sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeen, M; Magnussen, L H; Maeland, S; Larun, L; Eriksen, H R; Tveito, T H

    2013-01-01

    The workplace is used as a setting for interventions to prevent and reduce sickness absence, regardless of the specific medical conditions and diagnoses. To give an overview of the general effectiveness of active workplace interventions aimed at preventing and reducing sickness absence. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Psych-info, and ISI web of knowledge on 27 December 2011. Inclusion criteria were (i) participants over 18 years old with an active role in the intervention, (ii) intervention done partly or fully at the workplace or at the initiative of the workplace and (iii) sickness absence reported. Two reviewers independently screened articles, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A narrative synthesis was used. We identified 2036 articles of which, 93 were assessed in full text. Seventeen articles were included (2 with low and 15 with medium risk of bias), with a total of 24 comparisons. Five interventions from four articles significantly reduced sickness absence. We found moderate evidence that graded activity reduced sickness absence and limited evidence that the Sheerbrooke model (a comprehensive multidisciplinary intervention) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) reduced sickness absence. There was moderate evidence that workplace education and physical exercise did not reduce sickness absence. For other interventions, the evidence was insufficient to draw conclusions. The review found limited evidence that active workplace interventions were not generally effective in reducing sickness absence, but there was moderate evidence of effect for graded activity and limited evidence for the effectiveness of the Sheerbrooke model and CBT.

  17. Ventilation in day-care centres and sick leave among nursery children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Ibfelt, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    ventilation in DCCs and sick leave among nursery children. Data on child sick leave within an 11 week period was obtained for 635 children attending 20 DCCs. Ventilation measurements included three proxies of ventilation: air exchange rate (ACR) measured with the decay method, ACR measured...... inverse relationship between the number of sick days and ACR measured with the decay method was found for crude and adjusted analysis, with a 12% decrease in number of sick days per 1 h(-1) increase in ACR measured with the decay method. This study suggests a relationship between sick leave among nursery...

  18. Paid sick leave is associated with fewer ED visits among US private sector working adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Soumitra S; Wang, Yang; Bhatt, Jay; Dismuke, S Edward; Carlton, Erik L; Gentry, Dan; LaGrange, Chad; Chang, Cyril F

    2016-05-01

    The United States (US) is the only developed country that does not guarantee short-term or longer-term paid sick leave. This study used a multiyear nationally representative database to examine the association between availability of paid sick leave and frequency of emergency department (ED) use among US private sector employees. We used the National Health Interview Survey data (2012-2014). The final study sample consists of 42,460 US adults between 18 and 64years of age and working in nongovernmental private sector. Our results suggest that availability of paid sick leave is significantly associated with lower likelihood of ED use, for both moderate (1-3 times/year) and repeated users (4 or more times/year). After controlling for confounding factors, respondents with paid sick leave are 14% less likely to be moderate ED users (adjusted odds ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.79-0.93) and 32% less likely to be repeated ED users (adjusted odds ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.50-0.91). Although expansion of health insurance coverage under the Affordable Care Act has not been shown to reduce utilization of high cost health care services such as the ED, our study suggests other factors such as the availability of paid sick leave may do so, by allowing patients to seek care through other more cost-effective mechanisms (eg, primary care providers). To reduce ED utilization, health policymakers should consider alternative reforms including paid sick leave. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. New records of chewing lice (Insecta, Phthiraptera from Brazilian birds (Aves collected by Helmut Sick (1910-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila M.D. Kuabara

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We list the genera and species of chewing lice collected from birds by Helmut Sick, mainly from central Brazil, and particularly during the Roncador-Xingu Expedition, between 1943 and 1949. From the 123 samples studied, a wide variety of chewing louse genera and species were found, including 34 species as new records for Brazil, 37 species recorded from new Brazilian localities and 23 new host records. All material is deposited in the ectoparasite collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo.

  20. Effectiveness of a Minimal Intervention for Stress-related mental disorders with Sick leave (MISS; study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial in general practice [ISRCTN43779641

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Marwijk Harm WJ

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main aims of this paper are to describe the setting and design of a Minimal Intervention in general practice for Stress-related mental disorders in patients on Sick leave (MISS, as well as to ascertain the study complies with the requirements for a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT. The potential adverse consequences of sick leave due to Stress-related Mental Disorders (SMDs are extensive, but often not recognised. Since most people having SMDs with sick leave consult their general practitioner (GP at an early stage, a tailored intervention given by GPs is justified. We provide a detailed description of the MISS; that is more accurate assessment, education, advice and monitoring to treat SMDs in patients on sick leave. Our hypothesis is that the MISS will be more effective compared to the usual care, in reducing days of sick leave of these patients. Methods The design is a pragmatic RCT. Randomisation is at the level of GPs. They received the MISS-training versus no training, in order to compare the MISS vs. usual care at patient level. Enrolment of patients took place after screening in the source population, that comprised 20–60 year old primary care attendees. Inclusion criteria were: moderately elevated distress levels, having a paid job and sick leave for no longer than three months. There is a one year follow up. The primary outcome measure is lasting full return to work. Reduction of SMD- symptoms is one of the secondary outcome measures. Forty-six GPs and 433 patients agreed to participate. Discussion In our study design, attention is given to the practical application of the requirements for a pragmatic trial. The results of this cluster RCT will add to the evidence about treatment options in general practice for SMDs in patients on sick leave, and might contribute to a new and appropriate guideline. These results will be available at the end of 2006.

  1. Sick building syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baechler, M.C.; Hadley, D.L.; Marseille, T.J.; Stenner, R.D.; Peterson, M.R.; Naugle, D.F.; Berry, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses the aspect of indoor air pollution referred to as sick building syndrome. Covered are sources and health effects of various indoor air pollutants, and methods for mitigation of the problem, plus suggested analytical methods for environmental carcinogens found in indoor air

  2. Stroboscopic Goggles for Reduction of Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Somers, Jeffrey T.

    2005-01-01

    A device built around a pair of electronic shutters has been demonstrated to be effective as a prototype of stroboscopic goggles or eyeglasses for preventing or reducing motion sickness. The momentary opening of the shutters helps to suppress a phenomenon that is known in the art as retinal slip and is described more fully below. While a number of different environmental factors can induce motion sickness, a common factor associated with every known motion environment is sensory confusion or sensory mismatch. Motion sickness is a product of misinformation arriving at a central point in the nervous system from the senses from which one determines one s spatial orientation. When information from the eyes, ears, joints, and pressure receptors are all in agreement as to one s orientation, there is no motion sickness. When one or more sensory input(s) to the brain is not expected, or conflicts with what is anticipated, the end product is motion sickness. Normally, an observer s eye moves, compensating for the anticipated effect of motion, in such a manner that the image of an object moving relatively to an observer is held stationary on the retina. In almost every known environment that induces motion sickness, a change in the gain (in the signal-processing sense of gain ) of the vestibular system causes the motion of the eye to fail to hold images stationary on the retina, and the resulting motion of the images is termed retinal slip. The present concept of stroboscopic goggles or eyeglasses (see figure) is based on the proposition that prevention of retinal slip, and hence, the prevention of sensory mismatch, can be expected to reduce the tendency toward motion sickness. A device according to this concept helps to prevent retinal slip by providing snapshots of the visual environment through electronic shutters that are brief enough that each snapshot freezes the image on each retina. The exposure time for each snapshot is less than 5 ms. In the event that a higher

  3. Prognostic factors for disability and sick leave in patients with subacute non-malignant pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Gitte H.; Pilegaard, Marc S; Vaegter, Henrik B

    2016-01-01

    . The quality of evidence was presented according to the GRADE WG recommendations. Several factors were found to be associated with disability at follow-up for at least two different pain symptoms. However, owing to insufficient studies, no generic risk factors for sick leave were identified. CONCLUSIONS...

  4. Inflammatory fatigue and sickness behaviour - lessons for the diagnosis and management of chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, S V; Clark, I A

    2012-12-10

    Persistent and severe fatigue is a common part of the presentation of a diverse range of disease processes. There is a growing body of evidence indicating a common inflammatory pathophysiology underlying many conditions where fatigue is a primary patient concern, including chronic fatigue syndrome. This review explores current models of how inflammatory mediators act on the central nervous system to produce fatigue and sickness behaviour, and the commonality of these processes in conditions as diverse as surgical trauma, infection, various cancers, inflammatory bowel disease, connective tissue diseases and autoimmune diseases. We also discuss evidence indicating chronic fatigue syndrome may have important pathophysiological similarities with cytokine mediated sickness behaviour, and what lessons can be applied from sickness behaviour to chronic fatigue syndrome with regards to the diagnosis and management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Chronic fatigue syndrome after Giardia enteritis: clinical characteristics, disability and long-term sickness absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naess Halvor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A waterborne outbreak of Giardia lamblia gastroenteritis led to a high prevalance of long-lasting fatigue and abdominal symptoms. The aim was to describe the clinical characteristics, disability and employmentloss in a case series of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS after the infection. Methods Patients who reported persistent fatigue, lowered functional capacity and sickness leave or delayed education after a large community outbreak of giardiasis enteritis in the city of Bergen, Norway were evaluated with the established Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS. Fatigue was self-rated by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. Physical and mental health status and functional impairment was measured by the Medical Outcome Severity Scale-short Form-36 (SF-36. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to measure co-morbid anxiety and depression. Inability to work or study because of fatigue was determined by sickness absence certified by a doctor. Results A total of 58 (60% out of 96 patients with long-lasting post-infectious fatigue after laboratory confirmed giardiasis were diagnosed with CFS. In all, 1262 patients had laboratory confirmed giardiasis. At the time of referral (mean illness duration 2.7 years 16% reported improvement, 28% reported no change, and 57% reported progressive course with gradual worsening. Mean FSS score was 6.6. A distinctive pattern of impairment was documented with the SF-36. The physical functioning, vitality (energy/fatigue and social functioning were especially reduced. Long-term sickness absence from studies and work was noted in all patients. Conclusion After giardiasis enteritis at least 5% developed clinical characteristics and functional impairment comparable to previously described post-infectious fatigue syndrome.

  6. Avoidable sickness absence in a dutch working population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, A.M.; Steenbeek, R.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Sickness absence has an important impact on employers (e.g. reduced productivity, high costs) and employees (e.g. replacement, job loss). Therefore, we investigated possible reduction by exploring avoidable sickness absence. Methods A questionnaire was filled out by 2,954 Dutch workers

  7. Sick leave among home-care personnel: a longitudinal study of risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmström Eva B

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sick leave due to neck, shoulder and back disorders (NSBD is higher among health-care workers, especially nursing aides/assistant nurses, compared with employees in other occupations. More information is needed about predictors of sick leave among health care workers. The aim of the study was to assess whether self-reported factors related to health, work and leisure time could predict: 1 future certified sick leave due to any cause, in nursing aides/assistant nurses (Study group I and 2 future self-reported sick leave due to NSBD in nursing aides/assistant nurses (Study group II. Methods Study group I, comprised 443 female nursing aides/assistant nurses, not on sick leave at baseline when a questionnaire was completed. Data on certified sick leave were collected after 18 months. Study group II comprised 274 of the women, who at baseline reported no sick leave during the preceding year due to NSBD and who participated at the 18 month follow-up. Data on sick leave due to NSBD were collected from the questionnaire at 18 months. The associations between future sick leave and factors related to health, work and leisure time were tested by logistic regression analyses. Results Health-related factors such as previous low back disorders (OR: 1.89; 95% CI 1.20–2.97 and previous sick leave (OR 6.40; 95%CI 3.97–10.31, were associated with a higher risk of future sick leave due to any cause. Factors related to health, work and leisure time, i.e. previous low back disorders (OR: 4.45; 95% CI 1.27–15.77 previous sick leave, not due to NSBD (OR 3.30; 95%CI 1.33–8.17, high strain work (OR 2.34; 95%CI 1.05–5.23 and high perceived physical exertion in domestic work (OR 2.56; 95%CI 1.12–5.86 were associated with a higher risk of future sick leave due to NSBD. In the final analyses, previous low back disorders and previous sick leave remained significant in both study groups. Conclusion The results suggest a focus on previous low

  8. Sickness absence, moral hazard, and the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The procyclical nature of sickness absence has been documented by many scholars in literature. So far, explanations have been based on labor force composition and reduced moral hazard caused by fear of job loss during recessions. In this paper, we propose and test a third mechanism caused by reduced moral hazard during booms and infections. We suggest that the workload is higher during economic booms and thus employees have to go to work despite being sick. In a theoretical model focusing on infectious diseases, we show that this will provoke infections of coworkers leading to overall higher sickness absence during economic upturns. Using state-level aggregated data from 112 German public health insurance funds (out of 145 in total), we find that sickness absence due to infectious diseases shows the largest procyclical pattern, as predicted by our theoretical model. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effects of Autonomic Conditioning on Motion Sickness Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, P. S.; Toscano, W. B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents case-studies of 9 shuttle crewmembers (prime and alternates) and one U.S. Navy F-18 pilot, as they participated in all preflight training and testing activities in support of a life sciences flight experiment aboard Spacelab-J, and Spacelab-3. The primary objective of the flight experiment was to determine if Autogenic-feedback training (AFT), a physiological self-regulation training technique would be an effective treatment for motion sickness and space motion sickness in these crewmembers. Additional objectives of this study involved the examining human Physiological- responses to motion sickness on Earth and in space, as well as developing predictive criteria for susceptibility to space motion sickness based on ground-based data. Comparisons of these crewmembers are made to a larger set of subjects from previous experiments (treatment and test-only controls subjects). This paper describes all preflight methods, results and proposed changes for future tests.

  10. Motion control, motion sickness, and the postural dynamics of mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffregen, Thomas A; Chen, Yi-Chou; Koslucher, Frank C

    2014-04-01

    Drivers are less likely than passengers to experience motion sickness, an effect that is important for any theoretical account of motion sickness etiology. We asked whether different types of control would affect the incidence of motion sickness, and whether any such effects would be related to participants' control of their own bodies. Participants played a video game on a tablet computer. In the Touch condition, the device was stationary and participants controlled the game exclusively through fingertip inputs via the device's touch screen. In the Tilt condition, participants held the device in their hands and moved the device to control some game functions. Results revealed that the incidence of motion sickness was greater in the Touch condition than in the Tilt condition. During game play, movement of the head and torso differed as a function of the type of game control. Before the onset of subjective symptoms of motion sickness, movement of the head and torso differed between participants who later reported motion sickness and those that did not. We discuss implications of these results for theories of motion sickness etiology.

  11. Psychological benefits of virtual reality for patients in rehabilitation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Hung; Jeng, Ming-Chang; Fung, Chin-Ping; Doong, Ji-Liang; Chuang, Tien-Yow

    2009-05-01

    Whether virtual rehabilitation is beneficial has not been determined. To investigate the psychological benefits of virtual reality in rehabilitation. An experimental group underwent therapy with a virtual-reality-based exercise bike, and a control group underwent the therapy without virtual-reality equipment. Hospital laboratory. 30 patients suffering from spinal-cord injury. A designed rehabilitation therapy. Endurance, Borg's rating-of-perceived-exertion scale, the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD-ACL), and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. The differences between the experimental and control groups were significant for AD-ACL calmness and tension. A virtual-reality-based rehabilitation program can ease patients' tension and induce calm.

  12. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Notenbomer

    Full Text Available Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves.We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD-R model as theoretical framework.Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence.The JD-R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance.

  13. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notenbomer, Annette; Roelen, Corné A M; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W

    2016-01-01

    Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year) is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves. We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD-R) model as theoretical framework. Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills) were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence. The JD-R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance.

  14. Subjective health complaints in relation to sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Dutch population is healthy in terms of living and working conditions, but the levels of subjective health complaints (SHC) and sickness absence are high in the Dutch workforce. Are SHC related to sickness absence? Participants: The study population included the personnel of four

  15. Pharmacological and neurophysiological aspects of space/motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucot, James B.; Crampton, George H.

    1991-01-01

    A motorized motion testing device modeled after a Ferris wheel was constructed to perform motion sickness tests on cats. Details of the testing are presented, and some of the topics covered include the following: xylazine-induced emesis; analysis of the constituents of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during motion sickness; evaluation of serotonin-1A (5-HT sub 1A) agonists; other 5HT receptors; antimuscarinic mechanisms; and antihistaminergic mechanisms. The ability of the following drugs to reduce motion sickness in the cats was examined: amphetamines, adenosinergic drugs, opioid antagonists, peptides, cannabinoids, cognitive enhancers (nootropics), dextromethorphan/sigma ligands, scopolamine, and diphenhydramine.

  16. Motion Sickness: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... com. Accessed July 29, 2017. Priesol AJ. Motion sickness. https://www.uptodate.com/content/search. Accessed July 29, 2017. Brunette GW, et al. CDC Health Information for International Travel 2018. New York, N. ...

  17. The work ability index and single-item question: associations with sick leave, symptoms, and health--a prospective study of women on long-term sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Linda; Grimby-Ekman, Anna; Hagberg, Mats; Dellve, Lotta

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated the association between the work ability index (WAI) and the single-item question on work ability among women working in human service organizations (HSO) currently on long-term sick leave. It also examined the association between the WAI and the single-item question in relation to sick leave, symptoms, and health. Predictive values of the WAI, the changed WAI, the single-item question and the changed single-item question were investigated for degree of sick leave, symptoms, and health. This cohort study comprised 324 HSO female workers on long-term (>60 days) sick leave, with follow-ups at 6 and 12 months. Participants responded to questionnaires. Data on work ability, sick leave, health, and symptoms were analyzed with regard to associations and predictability. Spearman correlation and mixed-model analysis were performed for repeated measurements over time. The study showed a very strong association between the WAI and the single-item question among all participants. Both the WAI and the single-item question showed similar patterns of associations with sick leave, health, and symptoms. The predictive value for the degree of sick leave and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was strong for both the WAI and the single-item question, and slightly less strong for vitality, neck pain, both self-rated general and mental health, and behavioral and current stress. This study suggests that the single-item question on work ability could be used as a simple indicator for assessing the status and progress of work ability among women on long-term sick leave.

  18. Associations of work ability with frequent and long-term sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notenbomer, A.; Groothoff, J. W.; van Rhenen, W.; Roelen, C. A. M.

    Background Reduced work ability is related to long-term sickness absence. The relationship between work ability and frequent sickness absence has not previously been investigated. It is important to distinguish between frequent and long-term sickness absence as they are outcomes of different

  19. Travelers' Health: Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sickness, especially when pregnant, menstruating, or on hormones. Race/ethnicity—Asians may be more susceptible to motion ... it, sitting in the front seat of a car or bus, sitting over the wing of an ...

  20. Console video games, postural activity, and motion sickness during passive restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hui; Pan, Wu-Wen; Chen, Fu-Chen; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2013-08-01

    We examined the influence of passive restraint on postural activity and motion sickness in individuals who actively controlled a potentially nauseogenic visual motion stimulus (a driving video game). Twenty-four adults (20.09 ± 1.56 years; 167.80 ± 7.94 cm; 59.02 ± 9.18 kg) were recruited as participants. Using elastic bands, standing participants were passively restrained at the head, shoulders, hips, and knees. During restraint, participants played (i.e., controlled) a driving video game (a motorcycle race), for 50 min. During game play, we recorded the movement of the head and torso, using a magnetic tracking system. Following game play, participants answered a forced choice, yes/no question about whether they were motion sick, and were assigned to sick and well groups on this basis. In addition, before and after game play, participants completed the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire, which provided numerical ratings of the severity of individual symptoms. Five of 24 participants (20.83 %) reported motion sickness. Participants moved despite being passively restrained. Both the magnitude and the temporal dynamics of movement differed between the sick and well groups. The results show that passive restraint of the body can reduce motion sickness when the nauseogenic visual stimulus is under participants' active control and confirm that motion sickness is preceded by distinct patterns of postural activity even during passive restraint.

  1. Tight or sick building syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, P; Shanmuganadan, S [Madurai Kamaraj Univ. (India). Dept. of Geography; Uma, A [Madurai Medical Coll. (India). Dept. of Medicine and Microbiology

    1991-01-01

    Modern buildings are designed with the usual heating, air-conditioning and ventilation equipment. In most of these buildings, air is continuously recirculated and, as a result, workers suffer from tight or sick building syndrome. This syndrome is discussed with reference to symptoms of air contamination, ventilation system standards and research needs. The most common symptoms of tight building syndrome are eye, nose and throat irritation, headache, fatigue, sneezing, difficulty in wearing contact lenses, chest tightness, nausea, dizziness and dermatitis. Symptoms experienced by 50 doctors and 50 paramedical personnel working in an air-conditioned intensive care unit and operating theatres of the Government Rajaji Hospital, Madurai in India were studied by means of a questionnaire survey. In the present study, respiratory and ocular symptoms were observed more in those working in operating theatres and were believed to be due to excessive use of formaldehyde used for sterilization. Various suggestions were made to prevent sick building syndrome. Moreover, the physicians treating sick individuals should be aware of the symptoms caused by indoor air pollutants as sufferers invariably require a change of environment rather than drugs. (orig.).

  2. Social inequalities in "sickness"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    In comparative studies of health inequalities, public health researchers have usually studied only disease and illness. Recent studies have also examined the sickness dimension of health, that is, the extent to which ill health is accompanied by joblessness, and how this association varies...... consistent results. They analyze data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC); health was measured by limiting longstanding illness (LLSI). Results show that for both men and women reporting LLSI in combination with low educational level, the probabilities of non......-employment were particularly high in the Anglo-Saxon and Eastern welfare regimes, and lowest in the Scandinavian regime. For men, absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness were lowest in the Southern regime; for women, inequalities were lowest in the Scandinavian regime. The authors conclude...

  3. A qualitative study of caregivers' expectations and communication desires during medical consultation for sick children in Uganda.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiguli, S.; Mafigiri, D.; Nakigudde, J.; Dalen, J. Van; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Little data exist on patients' expectations and communication desires during medical consultation in Non-Western settings. We conducted a qualitative study to compare expectations and communication desires of sick children's caregivers at Mulago Hospital, Uganda, to those of patients in

  4. Sick leave analysis among self-employed Dutch farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Background Agriculture is one of the most physically demanding and risky industries. Aim The objective of this study was to provide baseline data on the diagnoses, occurrence and duration of sick leave of self-employed Dutch farmers. Method A database of 22807 sick leave claims of 12627 farmers

  5. Sickness Behaviour: Causes and Effects | Viljoen | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses sickness behaviour as a central motivational state. It deals with the adaptational value and underlying mechanisms of sickness behaviour and with the consequences of the body's failure to terminate the activity of the symptoms-producing cytokines. SA Fam Pract 2003;45(10):15-18 ...

  6. Sleeping sickness surveys: game reserve adjacent villages in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sleeping sickness surveys: game reserve adjacent villages in Malawi. ... Sera from 160 game ranger volunteers and from 82 suspected cases_of Rhodesian sleeping sickness were tested by use of ELISA, ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Effect of Miradol (Sulpiride) on radiation sickness studied by a double-blind test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Yuko; Morita, Shinroku

    1981-01-01

    Effect of Miradol on radiation sickness was investigated by a double-blind test. The rate of ''effective'' was 66.7% of the patients given Miradol and 20.1% of those given placebo (p < 0.01). The drug was especially effective on the patients chiefly complaining of nausea and vomiting. Placebo was also effective in some of the cases with appetite loss etc. (Ueda, J.)

  8. Does evening work predict sickness absence among female carers of the elderly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to predict the risk ratio of sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks due to shift work among Danish workers caring for the elderly during the evening and at night. METHODS: A sample of Danish carers of the elderly were interviewed in 2005. The response...... rate was 78%. A cohort of 5627 shift and day workers was followed for sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks and for sickness absence lasting > or = 8 weeks in a sickness compensation register covering all social transfer payments in Denmark. RESULTS: Among the evening workers, the rate ratio (RR......) of sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks was 1.29 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.10-1.52). The rate ratio for sickness absence lasting > or = 8 weeks was 1.24 (95% CI 0.99-1.56). CONCLUSIONS: Evening work may cause long-term sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks....

  9. Searching for consensus among physicians involved in the management of sick-listed workers in the Belgian health care sector: a qualitative study among practitioners and stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanmeerbeek, Marc; Govers, Patrick; Schippers, Nathalie; Rieppi, Stéphane; Mortelmans, Katrien; Mairiaux, Philippe

    2016-02-17

    In Belgium, the management of sick leave involves general practitioners (GPs), occupational health physicians (OPs) and social insurance physicians (SIPs). A dysfunctional relationship among these physicians can impede a patient's ability to return to work. The objective of this study was to identify ways to improve these physicians' mutual collaboration. Two consensus techniques were successively performed among the three professional groups. Eight nominal groups (NGs) gathered 74 field practitioners, and a two-round Delphi process involved 32 stakeholders. From the results, it appears that two areas (reciprocal knowledge and evolution of the legal and regulatory framework) are objects of consensus among the three medical group that were surveyed. Information transfer, particularly electronic transfer, was stressed as an important way to improve. The consensual proposals regarding interdisciplinary collaboration indicate specific and practical changes to be implemented when professionals are managing workers who are on sick leave. The collaboration process appeared to be currently more problematic, but the participants correctly identified the need for common training. The three physician groups all agree regarding several inter-physician collaboration proposals. The study also revealed a latent conflict situation among the analysed professionals that can arise from a lack of mutual recognition. Practical changes or improvements must be included in an extended framework that involves the different determinants of interdisciplinary collaboration that are shown by theoretical models. Collaboration is a product of the actions and behaviours of various partners, which requires reciprocal knowledge and trust; collaboration also implies political and economic structures that are led by public health authorities.

  10. Sickness absence and return to work rates in women with breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Koopmans, Petra C.; de Graaf, Jan H.; Balak, Fulya; Groothoff, Johan W.

    Most women are diagnosed with breast cancer when they are of working age. How long are breast cancer patients absent? How many of them return to work? ArboNed Occupational Health Services documents sickness absence data of 1 million workers of whom 40% were women. Between 2001 and 2005, 2,259 women

  11. Sickness absence in student nursing assistants following a preventive intervention programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, A L; Marott, J L; Suadicani, P

    2011-01-01

    reduced SF-36 scores for general health perception [general health (GH)], psychological well-being [mental health (MH)] and energy/fatigue [vitality (VT)] compared with the intervention group, which remained at the baseline level for all three measures. AIMS: To ascertain whether this effect remained......BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that a multidimensional programme combining physical training, patient transfer techniques and stress management significantly reduced sickness absence rates in student nurse assistants (NAs) after 14 months of follow-up. At follow-up, the control group had...... after a further 36 months of follow-up and to analyse the association of GH, MH and VT scores with sickness absence. METHODS: This was a cluster randomized prospective study. The original study involved assessment at baseline and follow-up at 14 months (the duration of the student NA course). Of 568...

  12. The effect of graded activity on patients with subacute low back pain: a randomized prospective clinical study with an operant-conditioning behavioral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, I; Ohlund, C; Eek, C; Wallin, L; Peterson, L E; Fordyce, W E; Nachemson, A L

    1992-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether graded activity restored occupational function in industrial blue-collar workers who were sick-listed for 8 weeks because of subacute, nonspecific, mechanical low back pain (LBP). Patients with LBP, who had been examined by an orthopedic surgeon and a social worker, were randomly assigned to either an activity group (n = 51) or a control group (n = 52). Patients with defined orthopedic, medical, or psychiatric diagnoses were excluded before randomization. The graded activity program consisted of four parts: (1) measurements of functional capacity; (2) a work-place visit; (3) back school education; and (4) an individual, submaximal, gradually increased exercise program, with an operant-conditioning behavioral approach, based on the results of the tests and the demands of the patient's work. Records of the amount of sick leave taken over a 3-year period (ie, the 1-year periods before, during, and after intervention) were obtained from each patient's Social Insurance Office. The patients in the activity group returned to work significantly earlier than did the patients in the control group. The median number of physical therapist appointments before return to work was 5, and the average number of appointments was 10.7 (SD = 12.3). The average duration of sick leave attributable to LBP during the second follow-up year was 12.1 weeks (SD = 18.4) in the activity group and 19.6 weeks (SD = 20.7) in the control group. Four patients in the control group and 1 patient in the activity group received permanent disability pensions. The graded activity program made the patients occupationally functional again, as measured by return to work and significantly reduced long-term sick leave.

  13. Evaluation of the sickness rate for acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenova, Y. V.; Litvinenko, T. M.; Takhanov, R. M.; Karpov, A. B.

    2004-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases seem to be the main cause of people's death in industrial developed countries. That is why the active study of factors and conditions affecting the sickness and death rate for this group of diseases is being continued at present. Apart from the well-known risk factors, there is a group of technogenic factors the contribution of which to genesis of the examined group of diseases is not clear enough and requires a detailed study. One of such factors appears to be ionizing radiaiton, especially in case of a prolonged effect with the so-called small doses. The sickness rate due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the period 1999-2001 has been studied in the closed population ZATO Seversk. To conduct examinations there was created the towns AMI register to be a structural component of the regional medico-dosimetric register (RMDR) of the Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises (SGCE) personnel and population of ZATO Seversk. Information on coronary disasters among adult population above 20 is being collected according to the program AMI Register created by WHO in 1968 with our additional results of modern methods of examining patients with ischemic heart disease and prospective observation. The analysis of data obtained testifies to the tendency towards the sickness rate increase in the period under study both among residents of the town (2,011-2,014-2,238 per 1000 people in 1999, 2000 and 2001, respectively) and among SGCE workers (4,354-4,572-5,006 per 1000) that corresponds to general tendencies of AMI sickness rate on the territory of Russian Federation. it is noted that in the group of workers at the main production the AMI sickness rate exceeds similar indices by the plant as a whole (6,205-7, 176-6,518 per 1000). Great prevalence of this AMI form among workers of a large industrial enterprise can be conditioned by a predominance of male contingent high emotional mental load (shift work on complex technological equipment with

  14. Evaluation of the sickness rate for acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenova, Y. V.; Litvinenko, T. M.; Takhanov, R. M.; Karpov, A. B.

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases seem to be the main cause of people's death in industrial developed countries. That is why the active study of factors and conditions affecting the sickness and death rate for this group of diseases is being continued at present. Apart from the well-known risk factors, there is a group of technogenic factors the contribution of which to genesis of the examined group of diseases is not clear enough and requires a detailed study. One of such factors appears to be ionizing radiaiton, especially in case of a prolonged effect with the so-called small doses. The sickness rate due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the period 1999-2001 has been studied in the closed population ZATO Seversk. To conduct examinations there was created the towns AMI register to be a structural component of the regional medico-dosimetric register (RMDR) of the Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises (SGCE) personnel and population of ZATO Seversk. Information on coronary disasters among adult population above 20 is being collected according to the program AMI Register created by WHO in 1968 with our additional results of modern methods of examining patients with ischemic heart disease and prospective observation. The analysis of data obtained testifies to the tendency towards the sickness rate increase in the period under study both among residents of the town (2,011-2,014-2,238 per 1000 people in 1999, 2000 and 2001, respectively) and among SGCE workers (4,354-4,572-5,006 per 1000) that corresponds to general tendencies of AMI sickness rate on the territory of Russian Federation. it is noted that in the group of workers at the main production the AMI sickness rate exceeds similar indices by the plant as a whole (6,205-7, 176-6,518 per 1000). Great prevalence of this AMI form among workers of a large industrial enterprise can be conditioned by a predominance of male contingent high emotional mental load (shift work on complex technological equipment with

  15. Dizziness and Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that extends into the inner ear can completely destroy both the hearing and equilibrium function of that ... motion sickness: •Do not read while traveling •Avoid sitting in the rear seat •Do not sit in ...

  16. SICKNESS PRESENCE AND STRESSFUL LIFE EVENTS OF HEALTH CARE WORKERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škerjanc, Alenka; Fikfak, Metoda Dodič

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between sickness presence and stressful life events among health care workers. Data were gathered from all health care workers at the University Medical Centre Ljubljana employed there in the period between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2010. Each employee obtained a questionnaire composed of two standardized international questionnaires. There were 57% of sickness present health care workers among the participants. The sickness present reported to have more diseases of family member than the non-sickness present (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.2-2.0), loan (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1-1.6), their partner lost job (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0-1.8), or they changed the place of living (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0-2.0). The results of the study indicate that stressful life events with economic consequences might have an important influence on sickness presence.

  17. Explanation of diagnosis criteria for radiation sickness from internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhiwei; Jiang Enhai; Du Jianying; Bai Guang

    2012-01-01

    A revised edition of the Diagnostic Criteria for Radiation Sickness from Internal Exposure has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. It is necessary to research the internal radiation sickness to adapt to the current serious anti-terrorism situation. This standard was enacted based on the extensive research of related literature, from which 12 cases with internal radiation sickness and screened out were involving 7 types of radionuclide. The Development of Emergency Response Standard Extension Framework: Midterm Evaluation Report is the main reference which approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency and World Health Organization. This amendment contains many new provisions such as internal radiation sickness effects models and threshold dose, and the appendix added threshold dose of serious deterministic effects induced by radionuclide intake and radiotoxicology parameters of some radionuclides. In order to understand and implement this standard, and to diagnose and treat the internal radiation sickness correctly, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  18. Significance of sciatic scoliotic list in operated patients with lumbar disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, H; Ohmori, K; Kanamori, M; Ishihara, H; Tsuji, H

    1998-02-01

    The authors retrospectively reviewed the relation between the location of disc herniation and pre- and postoperative changes in sciatic scoliotic list in 40 patients with surgically confirmed lumbar disc herniation who had sciatic scoliotic list with postoperative recovery. Clinical factors associated with scoliosis also were included. To evaluate the significance and pathomechanism of sciatic scoliotic list. The proposed causes of lumbar sciatic scoliosis mainly imply an alleviation of nerve root irritation in relation to the anatomic location of disc herniation relative to the nerve root. The pre- and postoperative serial Cobb angle between L1 and L5 in anteroposterior lumbar radiographs in the standing position were measured. The relation between the convex side of scoliosis and clinical parameters in terms of the side of symptoms, age, gender, duration of low back pain or leg pain, the angle of a positive straight leg raising test, and the time required for recovery of sciatic scoliosis were investigated. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging also was performed in five recent cases from 40 patients. The average Cobb angle decreased from 10.7 degrees to 2.7 degrees within an average of 7.5 months after surgery. The preoperative Cobb angle of patients with disc herniation medial to the nerve root was significantly higher than that just beneath or lateral to the nerve root. Thirty-two of 40 patients (80.0%) had a lumbar disc herniation at the convex side of scoliosis, irrespective of the transverse location of the herniation. The time required for scoliosis disappearance in disc herniation located lateral to the nerve root tended to be longer than that for other types of disc herniation. Magnetic resonance imaging through the paramedian planes showed enlargement of the intervertebral foramen at the convex side of scoliosis, compared with that at the concave side in five recent cases from the current study. These results suggest that sciatic scoliotic list is not

  19. Trends in sickness absence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kristina; Bihrmann, Kristine; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2009-01-01

    's Authority, and the Labor Force Survey indicated a stable and largely unaltered pattern of sickness absence during the last 20 years. Findings from Statistics Denmark showed an increase in the cumulative incidence proportion from 6.6 to 7.5% among employed people between 2000 and 2007. CONCLUSION: Our data...... a linear regression analysis to analyze time trends in sickness absence based on datasets from the Danish Employers Confederation, the State Employer's Authority, the Labour Force Survey, and Statistics Denmark. RESULTS: The findings from the Confederation of Danish Employers, the State Employer...

  20. A Kink that Makes you Sick: the Effect of Sick Pay on Absence in a Social Insurance System

    OpenAIRE

    Petri Bockerman; Ohto Kanninen; Ilpo Suoniemi

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of the replacement rule of a social insurance system on sickness absence. The elasticity of absence with respect to the benefit level is a critical parameter in defining the optimal sickness insurance scheme. A pre-determined, piecewise linear policy rule in which the replacement rate is determined by past earnings allows identification of the causal effect using a regression kink design. Using a large administrative dataset, we find a substantial and robust behavioral r...

  1. Demonstrating the potential for dynamic auditory stimulation to contribute to motion sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrang Keshavarz

    Full Text Available Auditory cues can create the illusion of self-motion (vection in the absence of visual or physical stimulation. The present study aimed to determine whether auditory cues alone can also elicit motion sickness and how auditory cues contribute to motion sickness when added to visual motion stimuli. Twenty participants were seated in front of a curved projection display and were exposed to a virtual scene that constantly rotated around the participant's vertical axis. The virtual scene contained either visual-only, auditory-only, or a combination of corresponding visual and auditory cues. All participants performed all three conditions in a counterbalanced order. Participants tilted their heads alternately towards the right or left shoulder in all conditions during stimulus exposure in order to create pseudo-Coriolis effects and to maximize the likelihood for motion sickness. Measurements of motion sickness (onset, severity, vection (latency, strength, duration, and postural steadiness (center of pressure were recorded. Results showed that adding auditory cues to the visual stimuli did not, on average, affect motion sickness and postural steadiness, but it did reduce vection onset times and increased vection strength compared to pure visual or pure auditory stimulation. Eighteen of the 20 participants reported at least slight motion sickness in the two conditions including visual stimuli. More interestingly, six participants also reported slight motion sickness during pure auditory stimulation and two of the six participants stopped the pure auditory test session due to motion sickness. The present study is the first to demonstrate that motion sickness may be caused by pure auditory stimulation, which we refer to as "auditorily induced motion sickness".

  2. Standing body sway in women with and without morning sickness in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yawen; Chung, Hyun Chae; Hemingway, Lauren; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Morning sickness typically is attributed to hormonal changes in pregnancy. We asked whether morning sickness is associated with changes in standing postural equilibrium, as occurs in research on visually induced motion sickness. Twenty-one pregnant women (mean age=30 years, mean height=163cm; mean weight=63kg) were tested during the first trimester. Laboratory-based balance measures were collected, along with perceived postural stability, the presence of morning sickness, and the severity of subjective symptoms. We varied the distance between the feet and the visual task performed during stance. Participants were classified as either experiencing (Sick, n=12) or not experiencing (Well, n=9) morning sickness. Perceived balance stability was lower for Sick than for Well women. The positional variability of sway was reduced for the Sick group, relative to the Well group. Positional variability decreased with wider stance width, and was reduced during performance of a more demanding visual task. Stance width and visual task also influenced the temporal dynamics of sway. Effects of stance width and visual task on postural sway were similar to effects in non-pregnant adults, suggesting that sensitive tuning of posture is maintained during the first trimester. The findings suggest that women with morning sickness may attempt to stabilize their bodies by reducing overall body sway. It may be useful to recommend that women adopt wider stance early in pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cholelithiasis in patients on the kidney transplant waiting list

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, André Thiago Scandiuzzi; Azevedo, Luiz Sergio; Nahas, Willian Carlos; Matheus, André Siqueira; Jukemura, José

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate the prevalence of cholecystopathy in chronic renal patients awaiting kidney transplants. INTRODUCTION The prevalence and management of cholelithiasis in renal transplant patients is not well established. METHODS A total of 342 chronic renal failure patients on the waiting list for a kidney transplant were studied. Patients were evaluated for the presence of cholelithiasis and related symptoms, previous cholecystectomies and other abdominal surgeries, time on dialysis, and general data (gender, age, number of pregnancies, and body mass index). RESULTS Cholelithiasis was found in 41 out of 342 patients (12%). Twelve of these patients, all symptomatic, had previously undergone cholecystectomies. Five out of 29 patients who had not undergone surgery were symptomatic. Overall, 17 patients (41.5%) were symptomatic. Their mean age was 54 (range 32–74) years old; 61% were female, and their mean body mass index was 25.4. Nineteen (76%) out of 25 women had previously been pregnant, with an average of 3.6 pregnancies per woman. CONCLUSIONS The frequency of cholelithiasis was similar to that reported in the literature for the general population. However, the high frequency of symptomatic patients points toward an indication of routine pre-transplant cholecystectomy to avoid serious post-transplant complications. PMID:20454496

  4. A randomized controlled trial of support group intervention after breast cancer treatment: results on sick leave, health care utilization and health economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björneklett, Helena Granstam; Rosenblad, Andreas; Lindemalm, Christina; Ojutkangas, Marja-Leena; Letocha, Henry; Strang, Peter; Bergkvist, Leif

    2013-01-01

    More than 50% of breast cancer patients are diagnosed before the age of 65. Returning to work after treatment is, therefore, of interest for both the individual and society. The aim was to study the effect of support group intervention on sick leave and health care utilization in economic terms. Of 382 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer, 191 + 191 patients were randomized to an intervention group or to a routine control group, respectively. The intervention group received support intervention on a residential basis for one week, followed by four days of follow-up two months later. The support intervention included informative-educational sections, relaxation training, mental visualization and non-verbal communication. Patients answered a questionnaire at baseline, two, six and 12 months about sick leave and health care utilization. There was a trend towards longer sick leave and more health care utilization in the intervention group. The difference in total costs was statistically significantly higher in the intervention group after 12 months (p = 0.0036). Costs to society were not reduced with intervention in its present form.

  5. Part-time sick leave as a treatment method for individuals with musculoskeletal disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén, Daniela; Svensson, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that staying active is an important part of a recovery process for individuals on sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). It has been suggested that using part-time sick-leave rather than full-time sick leave will enhance the possibility of full recovery to the workforce, and several countries actively favor this policy. However, to date only few studies have estimated the effect of using part-time sick leave in contrast to full-time sick leave. In thi...

  6. Identifying workers at risk of sickness absence by questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; van der Pol, Tjepke R.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2006-01-01

    Background Sickness absence is an important economic problem, because of high costs and lost productivity. Determining factors associated with increased risk of sickness absence may lead to the development of preventive measures. Aims To determine whether self-report questionnaires can identify

  7. Sickness absence frequency among women working in hospital care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Moen, Bente E.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Frequent short sickness absences result in understaffing and interfere with work processes. We need more knowledge about factors associated with this type of absence. Aims To investigate associations between the frequency of previous sickness absence and self-reported perceptions of

  8. Control of a virtual ambulation influences body movement and motion sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagstrom Jens

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Drivers typically are less susceptible to motion sickness than passengers. The influence of vehicle control has theoretical implications for the etiology of motion sickness, and has practical implications for the design of virtual environments. In the present study, participants either controlled or did not control a nonvehicular virtual avatar (i.e., an ambulatory character in a console video game. We examined the incidence of motion sickness and patterns of movement of the head and torso as participants either played or watched the game. Motion sickness incidence was lower when controlling the virutal avatar than when watching an avatar that was controlled by someone else. Patterns of head and torso movement differed between particpants who did and did not control the avatar. Indepenently, patterns of movement differed between participants who reported motion sickness and those who did not. The results suggest that motion sickness is influenced by control of stimulus motion, whether that motion arises from a vehicle or from any other source. We consider implications for the design of humancomputer interfaces.

  9. Multidisciplinary outpatient care program for patients with chronic low back pain: design of a randomized controlled trial and cost-effectiveness study [ISRCTN28478651

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anema Johannes R

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic low back pain (LBP is a major public and occupational health problem, which is associated with very high costs. Although medical costs for chronic LBP are high, most costs are related to productivity losses due to sick leave. In general, the prognosis for return to work (RTW is good but a minority of patients will be absent long-term from work. Research shows that work related problems are associated with an increase in seeking medical care and sick leave. Usual medical care of patients is however, not specifically aimed at RTW. The objective is to present the design of a randomized controlled trial, i.e. the BRIDGE-study, evaluating the effectiveness in improving RTW and cost-effectiveness of a multidisciplinary outpatient care program situated in both primary and outpatient care setting compared with usual clinical medical care for patients with chronic LBP. Methods/Design The design is a randomized controlled trial with an economic evaluation alongside. The study population consists of patients with chronic LBP who are completely or partially sick listed and visit an outpatient clinic of one of the participating hospitals in Amsterdam (the Netherlands. Two interventions will be compared. 1. a multidisciplinary outpatient care program consisting of a workplace intervention based on participatory ergonomics, and a graded activity program using cognitive behavioural principles. 2. usual care provided by the medical specialist, the occupational physician, the patient's general practitioner and allied health professionals. The primary outcome measure is sick leave duration until full RTW. Sick leave duration is measured monthly by self-report during one year. Data on sick leave during one-year follow-up are also requested form the employers. Secondary outcome measures are pain intensity, functional status, pain coping, patient satisfaction and quality of life. Outcome measures are assessed before randomization and 3, 6

  10. Long working hours and sickness absence-a fixed effects design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstrøm, Vilde Hoff

    2018-05-02

    While long working hours seem to lead to impaired health, several studies have also shown that long working hours are related to lower levels of sickness absence. Previous studies on the relationship between long working hours and sickness absence have compared those who work long hours to those who do not, looking only at between-individual correlations. Those results might therefore reflect relatively stable differences between employees who typically work long hours and employees who typically do not. The aim of the present study is to examine within-individual correlations between long working hours and sickness absence. Records from the Human Resources department in a large Norwegian hospital from 2012 to 2015 provided objective data on both working hours and sickness absence. Two analyses were performed: a prospective cohort analysis to replicate the results from previous between-individual analyses and a second analysis of within-individual correlations using a fixed effect design. In line with existing research, both between-individual and within-individual analyses showed a negative relationship between long working hours (> 48 h/week) and short-term sickness absence (1-8 days) and no significant difference in incidence of long-term sickness absence (> 8 days). The results indicate that the negative relationship between long working hours and sickness absence is not due only to relatively stable individual differences between those who typically work long hours and those who do not. The results from both analyses therefore still contrast with previous research showing a negative relationship between long working hours and other health indicators.

  11. [Risk factors for absenteeism due to sick leave in the petroleum industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oenning, Nágila Soares Xavier; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Lima, Veronica Maria Cadena

    2014-02-01

    To identify risk factors for absenteeism among workers with sick leave in an oil company. A case-control study (120 cases and 656 controls) nested in a retrospective cohort study following up all employees of an oil company in the North-Northeast of Brazil from 2007 to 2009. The response variable used to represent absenteeism with sick leave was the average incidence of sick leave, defined as the ratio between total sick days and potential working days in the period. Logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the association between average incidence of sick leave > 5.0% over the period and the variables sex, position, age, time at work, shift work, smoking, arterial hypertension, body mass index, physical activity, coronary risk, sleep, glycemia, non-managed diabetes, cardiovascular, digestive, musculoskeletal, neurological and neoplastic diseases, straining body positioning during work, satisfaction at work, relationship with management, and concentrated attention at work. Average incidence of sick leave higher than 5.0% in the cohort period was 15.5%. The logistic model revealed that workers with average incidence of sick leave higher than 5.0% were 2.6 times more likely to be female; 2.0 time more likely to be smokers; 1.8 time more likely to be former smokers; 2.2 times more likely to report abnormal sleep and 10.5 times more likely to report dissatisfaction with their than workers with average incidence of sick leave ≤ 5.0% in the period. In this population, female gender, being a smoker or a former smoker, reporting dissatisfaction with the job and reporting abnormal sleep are good predictors of occupational absenteeism with sick leave. To identify risk factors for absenteeism among workers with sick leave in an oil company. A case-control study (120 cases and 656 controls) nested in a retrospective cohort study following up all employees of an oil company in the North-Northeast of Brazil from 2007 to 2009. The response variable used to

  12. Nifurtimox plus Eflornithine for late-stage sleeping sickness in Uganda: a case series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Checchi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We report efficacy and safety outcomes from a prospective case series of 31 late-stage T.b. gambiense sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, HAT patients treated with a combination of nifurtimox and eflornithine (N+E in Yumbe, northwest Uganda in 2002-2003, following on a previously reported terminated trial in nearby Omugo, in which 17 patients received the combination under the same conditions.Eligible sequential late-stage patients received 400 mg/Kg/day eflornithine (Ornidyl, Sanofi-Aventis for seven days plus 15 mg/Kg/day (20 mg for children <15 years old nifurtimox (Lampit, Bayer AG for ten days. Efficacy (primary outcome was monitored for 24 months post discharge. Clinical and laboratory adverse events (secondary outcome were monitored during treatment. All 31 patients were discharged alive, but two died post-discharge of non-HAT and non-treatment causes, and one was lost to follow-up. Efficacy ranged from 90.3% to 100.0% according to analysis approach. Five patients experienced major adverse events during treatment, and neutropenia was common (9/31 patients.Combined with the previous group of 17 trial patients, this case series yields a group of 48 patients treated with N+E, among whom no deaths judged to be treatment- or HAT-related, no treatment terminations and no relapses have been noted, a very favourable outcome in the context of late-stage disease. N+E could be the most promising combination regimen available for sleeping sickness, and deserves further evaluation.

  13. Do gastrointestinal complaints increase the risk for subsequent medically certified long-term sickness absence? The HUSK study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øverland Simon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal complaints are very common in the general population and very often co-occur with common mental disorders. We aimed to study the prospective impact of gastrointestinal complaints on long term sickness absence, and address the contribution from co-occurring common mental disorders and other somatic symptoms. Method Health data on 13 880 40-45 year olds from the Hordaland Health Study (1997-99 were linked to national registries on sickness absence. As part of a wider health screening, gastrointestinal complaints were ascertained. Participant's anxiety and depression, and the presence of other somatic symptoms were evaluated. In Cox regression models, we predicted sickness absences over an average 5.4 years follow-up, with adjustment for confounders, anxiety and depression and other somatic symptoms. Results After adjusting for gender, level of education and smoking, those reporting GI complaints had higher risk for later sickness absence (HR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.34-1.51. GI complaints were associated with both anxiety (OR = 3.66, 95% CI 3.31-4.04 and depression (OR = 3.28, 95% CI 2.89-3.72, and a high level of other somatic symptoms (OR = 8.50, 95% CI 7.69-9.40. The association of GI complaints was still independently associated with future sickness absence (HR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.10-1.16 adjusting for mental illness and other somatic symptoms. Discussion Sickness absence is a complex behavioural outcome, but our results suggest GI complaints contribute by increasing the risk of long term sickness absence independently of comorbid mental illness and presence of other somatic symptoms. Occupational consequences of illness are important, and should also be addressed clinically with patients presenting with GI complaints.

  14. Sickness absence in a municipal public service of Goiânia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Ana Lúcia de Melo; Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh; Rassi Neto, Elias; Ribeiro, Cristina Aparecida Neves; Turchi, Marília Dalva

    2015-01-01

    Sickness absence, as work absenteeism justified by medical certificate, is an important health status indicator of the employees and, overall, sociodemographic and occupational characteristics are among the main factors associated with sickness absence. Public administration accounts for 21.8% of the formal job positions in Brazil. This population allows the study of a wide range of professional categories. To assess the profile and indicators of sickness absence among public workers from the municipality of Goiania, in the State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional study on certified sick leaves, lasting longer than three days, of all civil servants from January 2005 to December 2010. Prevalence rates were calculated using as main criteria the number of individuals, episodes and sick days. 40,578 certified sick leaves were granted for health treatment among 13,408 public workers, in an annual average population of 17,270 people, which resulted in 944,722 days of absenteeism. The cumulative prevalence of sick leave for the period was of 143.7%, with annual average of 39.2% and duration of 23 days per episode. The cumulative prevalence of sickness absence was higher among women (52.0%), older than 40 years old (55.9%), with a partner (49.9%), low schooling (54.4%), education professionals (54.7%), > 10 years of service (61.9%), and with multiple work contracts (53.7%). Diagnoses groups (ICD-10) with higher cumulative prevalence of sick leaves were those with mental disorders (26.5%), musculoskeletal diseases (25.1%), and injuries (23.6%). Indicators of sickness absence express the magnitude of this phenomenon in the public sector and can assist in planning health actions for the worker, prioritizing the most vulnerable occupational groups.

  15. [Assistance and care of the sick in early Christianity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritano, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Christianity presents a new vision of man (personalistic anthropology) and refers to the example and words of Jesus, highlighting the inseparable relationship between the love of God and the love of man. The article describes the assistance and care of the sick in the East and West in the early Christian centuries; the 'places of care'- nosokomia for the sicks, gerontokomia for the olders, brephotropia for abandoned children, orphanage structures; the managers of hospitals, ecclesistical dignitaries, lay personnel, monks, operators and employees. Christianity gave dignity to the sick and opportunity to serve humanity to the healthy.

  16. Continuity of care for patients on a waiting list for institutional long-term care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caris-Verhallen, W.M.C.M.; Kerkstra, A.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine patients' satisfaction with continuity of care while on a waiting list for residential care or nursing home care. Two hundred and seventy-eight patients participated in the study, all living in the community setting of two cities in the Netherlands. These

  17. WORRIED SICK? WORKER RESPONSES TO ORGANIZATIONAL TURMOIL

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Espen; Monstad, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Sickness absence has risen over the past years in Norway. One explanation put forward is that a tougher labor market represents a health hazard, while a competing hypothesis predicts that loss of job security works as a disciplinary device. In this analysis we aim to trace a causal impact of organizational turmoil or job insecurity on sickness absence, applying a difference-in-difference approach. Utilizing a negative financial shock that hit specific employers and workplaces, we find that si...

  18. Pleasant music as a countermeasure against visually induced motion sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Hecht, Heiko

    2014-05-01

    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known side-effect in virtual environments or simulators. However, effective behavioral countermeasures against VIMS are still sparse. In this study, we tested whether music can reduce the severity of VIMS. Ninety-three volunteers were immersed in an approximately 14-minute-long video taken during a bicycle ride. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups, either including relaxing music, neutral music, stressful music, or no music. Sickness scores were collected using the Fast Motion Sickness Scale and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Results showed an overall trend for relaxing music to reduce the severity of VIMS. When factoring in the subjective pleasantness of the music, a significant reduction of VIMS occurred only when the presented music was perceived as pleasant, regardless of the music type. In addition, we found a gender effect with women reporting more sickness than men. We assume that the presentation of pleasant music can be an effective, low-cost, and easy-to-administer method to reduce VIMS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. METHODS: Data from 51 874 pregnancies...... in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected between 1996-2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on telephone interviews. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by Cox regression analysis, using time of first...... episode of sick leave as the primary outcome. RESULTS: We found statistically significant associations between all the predictors and risk of sick leave; for non-sitting work postures (HRrange 1.55-2.79), cumulative lifting HRtrend 1.29, 95% CI 1.26-1.31, shift work (HRevening 1.90, 95% CI 1...

  20. Sensitization of the nociceptive system in patients with low back pain and sickness absence: Disc degeneration disease or pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Kudsk; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian

    SENSITIZATION OF THE NOCICEPTIVE SYSTEM IN PATIENTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN AND SICKNESS ABSENCE O.K. Jensen1, C.V. Nielsen2, K. Stengaard-Pedersen3 1The Spine Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Region Hospital Silkeborg, 2Department of Clinical Social Medicine, University of Aarhus, and 3...... characterized by sensitization of the nociceptive system. Purpose: To assess sensitization of the nociceptive system in low back pain (LBP) patients by means of TP examination and measure of Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) on the thumb nails. To search for associations between the number of TPs and structural...... = 1.35, p = 0.017) and mental distress (anxiety) in men (OR = 1.39, p = 0.003). After adjustment for age and sex, a positive association between LBP score and DDS was found only in patients with less than six TPs (OR = 1.21 (1.0-1.47), p = 0.043). Low PPT on the thumb nails was associated with DDS...

  1. Ownership and use of mobile phones among health workers, caregivers of sick children and adult patients in Kenya: cross-sectional national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurovac, Dejan; Otieno, Gabriel; Kigen, Samuel; Mbithi, Agneta M; Muturi, Alex; Snow, Robert W; Nyandigisi, Andrew

    2013-05-14

    The rapid growth in mobile phone penetration and use of Short Message Service (SMS) has been seen as a potential solution to improve medical and public health practice in Africa. Several studies have shown effectiveness of SMS interventions to improve health workers' practices, patients' adherence to medications and availability of health facility commodities. To inform policy makers about the feasibility of facility-based SMS interventions, the coverage data on mobile phone ownership and SMS use among health workers and patients are needed. In 2012, a national, cross-sectional, cluster sample survey was undertaken at 172 public health facilities in Kenya. Outpatient health workers and caregivers of sick children and adult patients were interviewed. The main outcomes were personal ownership of mobile phones and use of SMS among phone owners. The predictors analysis examined factors influencing phone ownership and SMS use. The analysis included 219 health workers and 1,177 patients' respondents (767 caregivers and 410 adult patients). All health workers possessed personal mobile phones and 98.6% used SMS. Among patients' respondents, 61.2% owned phones and 71.4% of phone owners used SMS. The phone ownership and SMS use was similar between caregivers of sick children and adult patients. The respondents who were male, more educated, literate and living in urban area were significantly more likely to own the phone and use SMS. The youngest respondents were less likely to own phones, however when the phones were owned, younger age groups were more likely to use SMS. Respondents living in wealthier areas were more likely to own phones; however when phones are owned no significant association between the poverty and SMS use was observed. Mobile phone ownership and SMS use is ubiquitous among Kenyan health workers in the public sector. Among patients they serve the coverage in phone ownership and SMS use is lower and disparities exist with respect to gender, age, education

  2. Changes in multidimensional pain inventory profile after a pain rehabilitation programme indicate the risk of receiving sick leave benefits one year later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Vanja E; Novo, Mehmed; Sjölund, Bengt H.

    2014-01-01

    ,784 patients (709 men and 2,075 women) collected from the Swedish Quality Register for Pain Rehabilitation (SQRP) before and at the end of rehabilitation and compared with independent sick leave data for 1 year later. RESULTS: After rehabilitation there was a significantly decreased share of Dysfunctional...... profiles (DYS) among both men (44% before, 31% after) and women (39% before, 26% after), but an increased share of Adaptive Coper profiles (men 15% before, 24% after, women 14% before, 24% after). The number of patients on full-time sick leave decreased significantly among men (from 57% to 46%) and women......OBJECTIVES: To determine whether coping profile changes after rehabilitation, assessed with the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI), can predict which persons disabled by chronic musculoskeletal pain will be in receipt of sick leave benefits in the long term. METHODS: Study of MPI data from 2...

  3. Reliability of provocative tests of motion sickness susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, D. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Kennedy, R. S.; Dunlop, W. P.

    1987-01-01

    Test-retest reliability values were derived from motion sickness susceptibility scores obtained from two successive exposures to each of three tests: (1) Coriolis sickness sensitivity test; (2) staircase velocity movement test; and (3) parabolic flight static chair test. The reliability of the three tests ranged from 0.70 to 0.88. Normalizing values from predictors with skewed distributions improved the reliability.

  4. Interaction of Physical Exposures and Occupational Factors on Sickness Absence in Automotive Industry Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valirad, Fateme; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Mircheraghi, Seyed Farzin; Mohammadi, Saber

    2015-04-23

    Increased sickness absence in recent years has been a trouble making issue in industrial society. Identify the causes of sickness absence and its influencing factors, is an important step to control and reduce its associated complications and costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate main factors associated with the incidence of sickness absence. In 2012, a cross-sectional study on 758 employees of a car accessories producing company was applied and relevant information about the number of days and episodes of sickness absence, Disease resulting in absence from work, personal features, occupational factors and physical exposures were collected. To determine risk factors associated with sickness absence, Logistic regression analysis was used. The most common diseases leading to sickness absence in order of frequency were Respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, gastrointestinal diseases and injuries at work. Musculoskeletal disorders increased the danger of long term absence by 4/33 times. Blue collar and shift works were the most important occupational factors associated with the incidence of sickness absence. The main physical factors that affect incidence of sickness absence were frequent bending-twisting and heavy lifting. Identifying controllable factors of sickness absence and trying to prevent and modify them such as compliance of ergonomic principals to decrease physical can be effective in reducing sickness absence.

  5. Optimising radiation outcomes, scheduling patient waiting lists for maximum population tumour control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, M.A.; Jennings, L.; Kearvell, R.; Bydder, S.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Delays in the commencement of radiotherapy, possibly due to resource constraints, are known to impact on control-related outcomes. We sought an objective solution for patient prioritisation based on tumour control probability (TCP). With a utilitarian objective for maximising TCP in a population of M patients, with patient i waiting a time between diagnosis and treatment of Ti and a mean wait time of TMean, the optimisation problem is as shown. A linear-quadratic/Poissonian model for cell survival/TCP was considered including cell doubling during the wait time. Solutions to several distributions of patient population characteristics were examined together with the expected change in TCP for the population and individuals. An analytical solution to the optimisation problem was found which gives the optimal wait time for each patient as a function of the distribution of radiobiological characteristics in the population. This solution does not allow a negativity constraint on an individual's optimised waiting time so a waiting list simulation was developed to enforce that. Optimal wait time distributions were calculated for situations where patients are allocated distinct diagnostic groups (sharing radiobiological parameters) and for a (log-normal) distribution of doubling times in the population. In order to meet the utilitarian objective, the optimal solutions require patients with rapid cell doubling times to be accelerated up the waiting list at the expense of those with slowly proliferating tumours. The net population benefit however is comparable to or greater then the expected benefit from beam intensity modulation or dose escalation.

  6. The impact of effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation on teachers' sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derycke, Hanne; Vlerick, Peter; Van de Ven, Bart; Rots, Isabel; Clays, Els

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of the effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation on sickness absence duration and sickness absence frequency among beginning teachers in Flanders (Belgium). A total of 603 teachers, who recently graduated, participated in this study. Effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation were assessed by means of self-administered questionnaires. Prospective data of registered sickness absence during 12 months follow-up were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. An imbalance between high efforts and low rewards (extrinsic hypothesis) was associated with longer sickness absence duration and more frequent absences. A low level of learning motivation (intrinsic hypothesis) was not associated with longer sickness absence duration but was significantly positively associated with sickness absence frequency. No significant results were obtained for the interaction hypothesis between imbalance and learning motivation. Further research is needed to deepen our understanding of the impact of psychosocial work conditions and personal resources on both sickness absence duration and frequency. Specifically, attention could be given to optimizing or reducing efforts spent at work, increasing rewards and stimulating learning motivation to influence sickness absence. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Clinical Presentation and Treatment Outcome of Sleeping Sickness in Sudanese Pre-School Children.

    OpenAIRE

    Eperon, G; Schmid, C; Loutan, L; Chappuis, F

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Existing data on human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense among children are limited. Here, we described the demographic, clinical, diagnostic, treatment and outcome characteristics of HAT in pre-school children from Kajo-Keji County, South Sudan in comparison with older patients. METHODS: We did a retrospective analysis of HAT patients treated at the Kiri Sleeping Sickness Treatment Centre (SSTC), Kajo-Keji County, from June 2000 to December 2002. R...

  8. Associations between partial sickness benefit and disability pensions: initial findings of a Finnish nationwide register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausto, Johanna; Virta, Lauri; Luukkonen, Ritva; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2010-06-23

    Timely return to work after longterm sickness absence and the increased use of flexible work arrangements together with partial health-related benefits are tools intended to increase participation in work life. Although partial sickness benefit and partial disability pension are used in many countries, prospective studies on their use are largely lacking. Partial sickness benefit was introduced in Finland in 2007. This register study aimed to investigate the use of health-related benefits by subjects with prolonged sickness absence, initially on either partial or full sick leave. Representative population data (13 375 men and 16 052 women either on partial or full sick leave in 2007) were drawn from national registers and followed over an average of 18 months. The registers provided information on the study outcomes: diagnoses and days of payment for compensated sick leaves, and the occurrence of disability pension. Survival analysis and multinomial regression were carried out using sociodemographic variables and prior sickness absence as covariates. Approximately 60% of subjects on partial sick leave and 30% of those on full sick leave had at least one recurrent sick leave over the follow up. A larger proportion of those on partial sick leave (16%) compared to those on full sick leave (1%) had their first recurrent sick leave during the first month of follow up. The adjusted risks of the first recurrent sick leave were 1.8 and 1.7 for men and women, respectively, when subjects on partial sick leave were compared with those on full sick leave. There was no increased risk when those with their first recurrent sick leave in the first month were excluded from the analyses. The risks of a full disability pension were smaller and risks of a partial disability pension approximately two-fold among men and women initially on partial sick leave, compared to subjects on full sick leave. This is the first follow up study of the newly adopted partial sickness benefit in

  9. Associations between partial sickness benefit and disability pensions: initial findings of a Finnish nationwide register study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luukkonen Ritva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Timely return to work after longterm sickness absence and the increased use of flexible work arrangements together with partial health-related benefits are tools intended to increase participation in work life. Although partial sickness benefit and partial disability pension are used in many countries, prospective studies on their use are largely lacking. Partial sickness benefit was introduced in Finland in 2007. This register study aimed to investigate the use of health-related benefits by subjects with prolonged sickness absence, initially on either partial or full sick leave. Methods Representative population data (13 375 men and 16 052 women either on partial or full sick leave in 2007 were drawn from national registers and followed over an average of 18 months. The registers provided information on the study outcomes: diagnoses and days of payment for compensated sick leaves, and the occurrence of disability pension. Survival analysis and multinomial regression were carried out using sociodemographic variables and prior sickness absence as covariates. Results Approximately 60% of subjects on partial sick leave and 30% of those on full sick leave had at least one recurrent sick leave over the follow up. A larger proportion of those on partial sick leave (16% compared to those on full sick leave (1% had their first recurrent sick leave during the first month of follow up. The adjusted risks of the first recurrent sick leave were 1.8 and 1.7 for men and women, respectively, when subjects on partial sick leave were compared with those on full sick leave. There was no increased risk when those with their first recurrent sick leave in the first month were excluded from the analyses. The risks of a full disability pension were smaller and risks of a partial disability pension approximately two-fold among men and women initially on partial sick leave, compared to subjects on full sick leave. Conclusions This is the first follow

  10. The effect of mild motion sickness and sopite syndrome on multitasking cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsangas, Panagiotis; McCauley, Michael E; Becker, William

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of mild motion sickness and sopite syndrome on multitasking cognitive performance. Despite knowledge on general motion sickness, little is known about the effect of motion sickness and sopite syndrome on multitasking cognitive performance. Specifically, there is a gap in existing knowledge in the gray area of mild motion sickness. Fifty-one healthy individuals performed a multitasking battery. Three independent groups of participants were exposed to two experimental sessions. Two groups received motion only in the first or the second session, whereas the control group did not receive motion. Measurements of motion sickness, sopite syndrome, alertness, and performance were collected during the experiment Only during the second session, motion sickness and sopite syndrome had a significant negative association with cognitive performance. Significant performance differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic participants in the second session were identified in composite (9.43%), memory (31.7%), and arithmetic (14.7%) task scores. The results suggest that performance retention between sessions was not affected by mild motion sickness. Multitasking cognitive performance declined even when motion sickness and soporific symptoms were mild. The results also show an order effect. We postulate that the differential effect of session on the association between symptomatology and multitasking performance may be related to the attentional resources allocated to performing the multiple tasks. Results suggest an inverse relationship between motion sickness effects on performance and the cognitive effort focused on performing a task. Even mild motion sickness has potential implications for multitasking operational performance.

  11. Sickness absence among municipal workers in a Brazilian municipality: a secondary data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leao, Ana Lucia M; Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh; Turchi, Marília D; Steenstra, Ivan A; Cole, Donald C

    2017-12-28

    Sickness absence, work disability associated with illness or injury, is a major public health problem worldwide. Some studies have investigated determinants of sickness absence among workers with shorter job tenure, but have only focused on certain diagnostic groups. Although it is well established that job tenure has an inverse relationship with work injury rate, less is known about its association with sickness absence for other disorders. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the risk factors for incidence and duration of sickness absence according to diagnosis over a 7-year period. A dynamic cohort consisting of all permanent civil servants hired from 2005 to 2011 by the Goiania municipality-Brazil. Data of certified sickness absences longer than 3 days were analyzed. The incidence density was calculated per 1000 person-years in each ICD-10 category. The association between sickness absence and socio-demographic and occupational characteristics was examined using negative binomial regression models. 18,450 workers, mean age of 32 years, accumulated 14,909 episodes of sickness absence. Overall, the incidence density was 234.6 episodes per 1000 person years. Diagnostic groups with the highest incidence density of sickness absences were injuries (49.1), musculoskeletal disorders (31.3) and mental disorders (29.2). Factors predicting any sickness absence were female gender, older age, low education, being a health professional, multiple jobs and full-time employment. Mental health disorders were more common among education professionals, musculoskeletal disorders among blue collar workers and injuries among inspection workers. Prolonged time on sick leave was associated with male gender, older age groups, low education and income, blue-collar workers, more than one job contract and full time employment. These findings demonstrate a substantial sickness absentee burden and they provide relevant information for targeting prevention and health promotion

  12. Melarsoprol sensitivity profile of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense isolates from cured and relapsed sleeping sickness patients from the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patient Pyana Pati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sleeping sickness caused by Trypanosoma brucei (T.b. gambiense constitutes a serious health problem in sub-Sahara Africa. In some foci, alarmingly high relapse rates were observed in patients treated with melarsoprol, which used to be the first line treatment for patients in the neurological disease stage. Particularly problematic was the situation in Mbuji-Mayi, East Kasai Province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo with a 57% relapse rate compared to a 5% relapse rate in Masi-Manimba, Bandundu Province. The present study aimed at investigating the mechanisms underlying the high relapse rate in Mbuji-Mayi using an extended collection of recently isolated T.b. gambiense strains from Mbuji-Mayi and from Masi-Manimba.Forty five T.b. gambiense strains were used. Forty one were isolated from patients that were cured or relapsed after melarsoprol treatment in Mbuji-Mayi. In vivo drug sensitivity tests provide evidence of reduced melarsoprol sensitivity in these strains. This reduced melarsoprol sensitivity was not attributable to mutations in TbAT1. However, in all these strains, irrespective of the patient treatment outcome, the two aquaglyceroporin (AQP 2 and 3 genes are replaced by chimeric AQP2/3 genes that may be associated with resistance to pentamidine and melarsoprol. The 4 T.b. gambiense strains isolated in Masi-Manimba contain both wild-type AQP2 and a different chimeric AQP2/3. These findings suggest that the reduced in vivo melarsoprol sensitivity of the Mbuji-Mayi strains and the high relapse rates in that sleeping sickness focus are caused by mutations in the AQP2/AQP3 locus and not by mutations in TbAT1.We conclude that mutations in the TbAQP2/3 locus of the local T.b. gambiense strains may explain the high melarsoprol relapse rates in the Mbuji-Mayi focus but other factors must also be involved in the treatment outcome of individual patients.

  13. The associations between workplace bullying, salivary cortisol, and long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Lange, Theis

    2017-01-01

    two Danish cohort studies, the "Psychosocial RIsk factors for Stress and MEntal disease" (PRISME) cohort and the "Workplace Bullying and Harassment" (WBH) cohort (n = 5418). Information about exposure to workplace bullying and morning and evening salivary cortisol was collected at three time points......BACKGROUND: Workplace stressors, such as bullying, are strongly related to subsequent long-term sickness absence, but little is known of the possible physiological mechanisms linking workplace stressors and sickness absence. The primary aim of this study was to investigate to what extent cortisol...... levels were associated with subsequent sickness absence and if cortisol mediated the association between workplace bullying and sickness absence. We additionally investigated possible bidirectional associations between bullying, cortisol, and long-term sickness absence. METHODS: Participants came from...

  14. Risk factors for absenteeism due to sick leave in the petroleum industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oenning, Nágila Soares Xavier; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Lima, Veronica Maria Cadena

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors for absenteeism among workers with sick leave in an oil company. METHODS A case-control study (120 cases and 656 controls) nested in a retrospective cohort study following up all employees of an oil company in the North-Northeast of Brazil from 2007 to 2009. The response variable used to represent absenteeism with sick leave was the average incidence of sick leave, defined as the ratio between total sick days and potential working days in the period. Logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the association between average incidence of sick leave > 5.0% over the period and the variables sex, position, age, time at work, shift work, smoking, arterial hypertension, body mass index, physical activity, coronary risk, sleep, glycemia, non-managed diabetes, cardiovascular, digestive, musculoskeletal, neurological and neoplastic diseases, straining body positioning during work, satisfaction at work, relationship with management, and concentrated attention at work. RESULTS Average incidence of sick leave higher than 5.0% in the cohort period was 15.5%. The logistic model revealed that workers with average incidence of sick leave higher than 5.0% were 2.6 times more likely to be female; 2.0 time more likely to be smokers; 1.8 time more likely to be former smokers; 2.2 times more likely to report abnormal sleep and 10.5 times more likely to report dissatisfaction with their than workers with average incidence of sick leave ≤ 5.0% in the period. CONCLUSIONS In this population, female gender, being a smoker or a former smoker, reporting dissatisfaction with the job and reporting abnormal sleep are good predictors of occupational absenteeism with sick leave. PMID:24789643

  15. Separate and combined associations of pain and emotional exhaustion with sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saastamoinen, Peppiina; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2016-01-01

    Pain and emotional exhaustion are prevalent conditions with consequences for sickness absence. Although they often co-occur, their combined associations with sickness absence are poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the separate and combined associations of pain and emotional exhaustion with subsequent sickness absence. The data were derived from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey sent to 40 to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000 to 2002 (n = 6457) linked with the City of Helsinki personnel register information on sickness absence (3 years on from the survey). Self-certified (1-3 days) and medically certified sickness absence spells (4-14 days, more than 14 days) were used as outcomes. Acute and chronic pain and emotional exhaustion were measured in a questionnaire survey. For the purposes of this study, sickness absence and pain variables were merged to form a new variable with 6 mutually exclusive categories. The main statistical method was negative binomial regression analysis. The synergy index was used to estimate the interaction. Among women, acute and chronic pain with and without emotional exhaustion predicted sickness absence, particularly absence lasting for more than 2 weeks, whereas emotional exhaustion alone did not. The associations persisted when further adjusted for socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviors, and somatic and mental health. A synergistic interaction effect was found for co-occurring pain and emotional exhaustion on medically certified sickness absence. The results for men were mainly similar, but less stable. In order to tackle sickness absence, special attention should be paid to the prevention and treatment of employees with co-occurring pain and emotional exhaustion.

  16. Changes in cognitive functioning in sick-listed participants in occupational rehabilitation: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Thomas; Skjerve, Arvid; Jensen, Chris; Dittrich, Winand H; Øyeflaten, Irene

    2016-11-01

    Individuals on long-term sick leave attending occupational rehabilitation often complain about impairments in cognitive functions such as memory and attention. Knowledge of cognitive functioning in these individuals is limited. Such knowledge is clinically relevant for improving occupational rehabilitation programmes. The aims of this feasibility study were to assess the methodological design and to investigate changes in memory and attention on participants during occupational rehabilitation. Individuals attending occupational rehabilitation (n = 28) and individuals working full time (n = 25) matched for age, gender, and education participated. The two groups were administered cognitive tests targeting memory and attention and self-reported questionnaires at pre-test and post-test. Outcome measures were speed and accuracy of responses on the cognitive tests and self-reported work ability, subjective health complaints, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. In total, 35% of all invited participants agreed to take part and 93% of these also completed the second test. The mean gain scores in the intervention group were significantly higher than in the control group in response latency on simple and choice reaction time and errors in spatial working memory. The results of this study indicate that the motivation of participants to complete testing was high. Improvements in memory and attention were evident in rehabilitation participants indicating that rehabilitation may have an effect on cognitive functions.

  17. Comparison of treatment strategies for Space Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. R.; Jennings, R. T.; Beck, B. G.

    1992-01-01

    Treatment strategies for Space Motion Sickness were compared using the results of postflight oral debriefings. Standardized questionnaires were administered to all crewmembers immediately following Space Shuttle flights by NASA flight surgeons. Cases of Space Motion Sickness were graded as mild, moderate or severe based on published criteria, and medication effectiveness was judged based on subjective reports of symptom relief. Since October 1989, medication effectiveness is reported inflight through Private Medical Conferences with the crew. A symptom matrix was analyzed for 19 crewmembers treated with an oral combination of scopolamine and dextroamphetamine (scopdex) and 15 crewmembers treated with promethazine delivered by intramuscular (IM) or suppository routes. Scopdex has been given preflight as prophaxis for Space Motion Sickness but analysis showed delayed symptom presentation in 9 crewmembers or failed to prevent symptoms in 7. Only three crewmembers who took scopdex had no symptoms inflight. Fourteen out of 15 crewmembers treated with IM promethazine and 6 of 8 treated with promethazine suppositories after symptom development had immediate (within 12 h) symptom relief and required no additional medication. There were no cases of delayed symptom presentation in the crewmembers treated with promethazine. This response is in contrast to untreated crewmembers who typically have slow symptom resolution over 72-96 h. We conclude that promethazine is an effective treatment of Space Motion Sickness symptoms inflight. NASA policy currently recommends treating crewmembers with Space Motion Sickness after symptom development, and no longer recommends prophylaxis with scopdex due to delayed symptom development and apparent variable absorption of oral medications during early flight days.

  18. Leisure sickness: a pilot study on its prevalence, phenomenology, and background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingerhoets, Ad J J M; Van Huijgevoort, Maaike; Van Heck, Guus L

    2002-01-01

    To explore the prevalence, phenomenology, and background of leisure sickness, i.e., the condition of people developing symptoms of sickness during weekends and/or vacations. In order to obtain an estimate of its prevalence, a representative Dutch sample consisting of 1,128 men and 765 women was asked to indicate to what extent they recognized themselves in our description of weekend and vacation sickness. For the investigation of the phenomenology and background of this condition and the characteristics of the patients suffering from it, questionnaire data were collected in new samples consisting of 114 cases and 56 controls. Questions referred to symptoms, onset, duration, appreciation of weekend and vacation activities, and appraisal of work and workload. In the case of male respondents, 3.6 and 3.2% recognized themselves in the description of the weekend and the vacation syndrome, respectively, compared with 2.7 and 3.2% women. Most frequently reported symptoms were headache/migraine, fatigue, muscular pains, and nausea. In addition, viral infections (flue-like, common cold) were often reported in relation to vacations. Cases had generally suffered from leisure sickness for over 10 years and the onset was associated with stressful conditions. They attributed their condition to difficulties with the transition from work to nonwork, stress associated with travel and vacation, as well as workload and personality characteristics. There were no significant group differences in the appreciation of weekend and leisure activities or lifestyle during days off. Most striking differences were found with respect to experienced workload, sense of responsibility, and inability to relax. Leisure sickness is a relatively common condition. Specific lifestyle factors or leisure activities seem to be less relevant for its development. Concerning risk factors, the data tend to point to high workload and person characteristics, namely, the inability to adapt to the nonworking

  19. Cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence: associations in a five-year historic cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwin van Drongelen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to shift work has been associated with negative health consequences, although the association between shift work and sickness absence remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence among ground staff employees of an airline company. Methods This study used data from the MORE (Monitoring Occupational Health Risks in Employees cohort, which is a 5-year historic cohort. The population of the present study consisted of 7562 ground staff employees. For each employee, work schedules and sickness absence days between 2005 and 2009 were obtained from company records. For the exposure to different shift schedule types and to the cumulative number of night shifts, the association with long-term sickness absence (>7 consecutive sickness absence days and the number of sickness absence episodes during 2009, was calculated using logistic and Poisson regression analyses. Socio-demographic variables, work-related variables, job classification variables, and previous sickness absence days were regarded as confounders. Results After adjusting for previous sickness absence and job classification variables, only the group of employees that switched into working in a three-shift schedule, showed a significantly increased risk for long-term sickness absence (OR = 1.31, 95%CI 1.02–1.69. Night shift exposure was not significantly associated with long-term sickness absence. Exposure to shift work was negatively associated with more sickness absence episodes. Employees who were exposed to more than 46 night shifts also showed a lower risk for more sickness absence episodes. Subgroup analyses showed that single employees and employees without children had an increased risk for long-term sickness absence when exposed to a three-shift schedule, and when they had changed between shift schedule types. Conclusions Cumulative exposure to shift work proved to

  20. Cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence: associations in a five-year historic cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drongelen, Alwin; Boot, Cécile R L; Hlobil, Hynek; van der Beek, Allard J; Smid, Tjabe

    2017-01-11

    Exposure to shift work has been associated with negative health consequences, although the association between shift work and sickness absence remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence among ground staff employees of an airline company. This study used data from the MORE (Monitoring Occupational Health Risks in Employees) cohort, which is a 5-year historic cohort. The population of the present study consisted of 7562 ground staff employees. For each employee, work schedules and sickness absence days between 2005 and 2009 were obtained from company records. For the exposure to different shift schedule types and to the cumulative number of night shifts, the association with long-term sickness absence (>7 consecutive sickness absence days) and the number of sickness absence episodes during 2009, was calculated using logistic and Poisson regression analyses. Socio-demographic variables, work-related variables, job classification variables, and previous sickness absence days were regarded as confounders. After adjusting for previous sickness absence and job classification variables, only the group of employees that switched into working in a three-shift schedule, showed a significantly increased risk for long-term sickness absence (OR = 1.31, 95%CI 1.02-1.69). Night shift exposure was not significantly associated with long-term sickness absence. Exposure to shift work was negatively associated with more sickness absence episodes. Employees who were exposed to more than 46 night shifts also showed a lower risk for more sickness absence episodes. Subgroup analyses showed that single employees and employees without children had an increased risk for long-term sickness absence when exposed to a three-shift schedule, and when they had changed between shift schedule types. Cumulative exposure to shift work proved to be negatively associated with more sickness absence episodes, and

  1. Stress-related sickness absence and return to labour market in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Lars-Gunnar; Janson, Staffan

    2007-03-15

    To analyse factors influencing chances of returning to work after long-term sickness absence with a stress-related psychiatric diagnosis. Primary focus is on employer- and occupational categories as explanatory variables. Data was collected from the regional social insurance office in the county of Värmland for 911 individuals, all with stress-related sickness absences during November in the year 2000. Logistic regressions were carried out on outcome states from long-term sickness absence on two follow-up occasions after two and three years. The results indicate that the employer- and occupational categories only had a minor effect on return to work after the long-term sickness absence. Age and health-related factors together with time factors seem to be more relevant in explaining return to work. The findings suggest that individual labour market position, as occupation, employer, branch etc, seems to be less important than expected in explaining return to work from sickness absence due to stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  2. Approaches for predicting long-term sickness absence. Re: Schouten et al. "Screening manual and office workers for risk of long-term sickness absence: cut-off points for the Work Ability Index".

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amelsvoort, Ludovic Gpm; Jansen, Nicole W H; Kant, I Jmert

    2015-05-01

    We read with much interest the article of Schouten et al (1) on identifying workers with a high risk for future long-term sickness absence using the Work Ability Index (WAI). The ability to identify high-risk workers might facilitate targeted interventions for such workers and, consequently, can reduce sickness absence levels and improve workers' health. Earlier studies by both Tamela et al (2), Kant et al (3), and Lexis et al (4) have demonstrated that such an approach, based on the identification of high-risk workers and a subsequent intervention, can be effectively applied in practice to reduce sickness absence significantly. The reason for our letter on Schouten et al's article is twofold. First, by including workers already on sick leave in a study predicting long-term sick leave will result in an overestimation of the predictive properties of the instrument and biased predictors, especially when also the outcome of interest is included as a factor in the prediction model. Second, we object to the use of the term "screening" when subjects with the condition screened for are included in the study. Reinforced by the inclusion of sickness absence in the prediction model, including workers already on sick leave will shift the focus of the study findings towards the prediction of (re)current sickness absence and workers with a below-average return-to-work rate, rather than the identification of workers at high risk for the onset of future long-term sickness absence. The possibilities for prevention will shift from pure secondary prevention to a mix of secondary and tertiary prevention. As a consequence, the predictors of the model presented in the Schouten et al article can be used as a basis for tailoring neither preventive measures nor interventions. Moreover, including the outcome (sickness absence) as a predictor in the model, especially in a mixed population including workers with and without the condition (on sick leave), will result in biased predictors and

  3. Post-transplant survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients concurrently listed for single and double lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Dhaval; Karanam, Ashwin B; Merlo, Aurelie; Tom Bozzay, P A; Zucker, Mark J; Seethamraju, Harish; Shariati, Nazly; Russo, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    Lung transplantation is a widely accepted treatment for patients with end-stage lung disease related to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, there are conflicting data on whether double lung transplant (DLT) or single lung transplant (SLT) is the superior therapy in these patients. The purpose of this study was to determine whether actuarial post-transplant graft survival among IPF patients concurrently listed for DLT and SLT is greater for recipients undergoing the former or the latter. The United Network for Organ Sharing provided de-identified patient-level data. Analysis included lung transplant candidates with IPF listed between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2009 (n = 3,411). The study population included 1,001 (29.3%) lung transplant recipients concurrently listed for DLT and SLT, all ≥18 years of age. The primary outcome measure was actuarial post-transplant graft survival, expressed in years. Among the study population, 433 (43.26%) recipients underwent SLT and 568 (56.74%) recipients underwent DLT. The analysis included 2,722.5 years at risk, with median graft survival of 5.31 years. On univariate (p = 0.317) and multivariate (p = 0.415) regression analyses, there was no difference in graft survival between DLT and SLT. Among IPF recipients concurrently listed for DLT and SLT, there is no statistical difference in actuarial graft survival between recipients undergoing DLT vs SLT. This analysis suggests that increased use of SLT for IPF patients may increase the availability of organs to other candidates, and thus increase the net benefit of these organs, without measurably compromising outcomes. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sickness absence among health workers in belo horizonte, brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Iara; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Benavides, Fernando G; Ubalde-Lopez, Monica

    2016-05-25

    To describe the prevalence of sickness absence and to analyze factors associated with the outcome according to gender in a sample of healthcare workers at the Belo Horizonte Health Department. This study was based on a Belo Horizonte Health Department survey carried out between September 2008 and January 2009. From a randomly selected sample of 2,205 workers, 1,808 agreed to participate. Workers were classified into Health Staff or Health Care. Other explanatory variables were social and demographic data, work characteristics, and personal health. The Poisson regression was applied to analyze factors associated with sickness absence by the prevalence ratio (PR). The overall prevalence of sickness absence was 31.5% (23.8% for men and 34.6% for women). In the final model, we found higher rates of sickness absence in both male and female workers involved in tasks with high psychosocial demands (PR=1.86 men; PR=1.38 women) and in those that reported using medication for treating chronic diseases (PR=1.96 men; PR=1.50 women). Women having a permanent job contract had a higher prevalence of sickness absence than those having a temporary job contract (PR=1.71). Our findings suggest a paradox in how healthcare is organized: good results in terms of its global objective of providing healthcare for citizens contrast with lack of effective measures for protecting healthcare workers.

  5. sick: The Spectroscopic Inference Crank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Andrew R.

    2016-03-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  6. SICK: THE SPECTROSCOPIC INFERENCE CRANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Andrew R., E-mail: arc@ast.cam.ac.uk [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambdridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  7. SICK: THE SPECTROSCOPIC INFERENCE CRANK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  8. Does paternity leave affect mothers’ sickness absence

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Espen; Naz, Ghazala

    2009-01-01

    Female labour force participation is high in Norway but sickness absence rates are higher for women than for men. This may be partly a result of unequal sharing of childcare in the family. In this paper, we consider the effect of paternity leave on sickness absence among women who have recently given birth. We draw on a six-year panel taken from full population data from administrative sources. We find that in the 6% of families where fathers take out leave more than the standard quota (gende...

  9. Job demands, job resources, and behavior in times of sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Daniel; Winter, Vera; Schreyögg, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The concept of presenteeism, that is, employees coming to work despite being sick, has recently received more attention in the literature. Presenteeism not only threatens employees' health but also substantially drains productivity and drives considerable costs. When they are sick......, employees have the choice of whether to go to work or to stay at home. Therefore, determinants of (sickness) absenteeism and presenteeism should be examined simultaneously. Nursing homes are faced with a particularly high prevalence of both absenteeism and presenteeism and are therefore a relevant object...... of investigation. PURPOSE: The aim of our study is to analyze the effect of job demands and job resources on absenteeism, presenteeism, and the tendency to choose one behavior (being absent or being present in times of sickness) rather than the other over the last 12 months. To do so, we identify the determinants...

  10. Psychosocial work conditions associated with sickness absence among hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Olesen, K; Bonde, J P

    2014-01-01

    's salary database. RESULTS: A total of 1809 hospital employees took part with a response rate of 65%. The mean age was 43 (range: 20-69) and 75% were female. Totally, 363 study participants (20%) had at least 14 days sickness absence (defined as high absence) during the preceding year. Associations between...... essential covariates of sickness absence. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study of hospital employees which sought information on elements of the psychosocial work environment, general health status, life style, age, gender and profession. Data on sickness absence were obtained from the employer...

  11. Does muscle strength predict future musculoskeletal disorders and sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, A; Sell, L; Hansen, J V

    2012-01-01

    High muscle strength is considered relevant for preventing musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence. However, prospective studies on the association between muscle strength and future musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence are few and show contrasting results....

  12. Twenty Years of Research on Cytokine-Induced Sickness Behavior*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzer, Robert; Kelley, Keith W.

    2007-01-01

    Cytokine-induced sickness behavior was recognized within a few years of the cloning and expression of interferon-α, IL-1 and IL-2, which occurred around the time that the first issue of Brain, Behavior, and Immunity was published in 1987. Phase I clinical trials established that injection of recombinant cytokines into cancer patients led to a variety of psychological disturbances. It was subsequently shown that physiological concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines that occur after infection act in the brain to induce common symptoms of sickness, such as loss of appetite, sleepiness, withdrawal from normal social activities, fever, aching joints and fatigue. This syndrome was defined as sickness behavior and is now recognized to be part of a motivational system that reorganizes the organism's priorities to facilitate recovery from the infection. Cytokines convey to the brain that an infection has occurred in the periphery, and this action of cytokines can occur via the traditional endocrine route via the blood or by direct neural transmission via the afferent vagus nerve. The finding that sickness behavior occurs in all mammals and birds indicates that communication between the immune system and brain has been evolutionarily conserved and forms an important physiological adaptive response that favors survival of the organism during infections. The fact that cytokines act in the brain to induce physiological adaptations that promote survival has led to the hypothesis that inappropriate, prolonged activation of the innate immune system may be involved in a number of pathological disturbances in the brain, ranging from Alzheimers' disease to stroke. Conversely, the newly-defined role of cytokines in a wide variety of systemic co-morbid conditions, ranging from chronic heart failure to obesity, may begin to explain changes in the mental state of these subjects. Indeed, the newest findings of cytokine actions in the brain offer some of the first clues about the

  13. Identifying employees at risk for job loss during sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, Peter A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Bultmann, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the associations between medical, work-related, organizational and sociodemographic factors and job loss during sick leave in a Dutch population of 4132 employees on sick leave. Methods: Data were assessed by occupational health physicians (OHPs) on sociodemographic, medical,

  14. Return to work following sickness absence due to infectious mononucleosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P.C.; Bakhtali, R.; Katan, A.A.; Groothoff, J.W.; Roelen, C.A.

    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis among adults is notorious because of the prolonged incapacitating fatigue it causes. AIMS: To investigate the duration of sickness absence and return to work following infectious mononucleosis. METHODS: Episodes of sickness absence due to

  15. Evaluation of adaptation to visually induced motion sickness based on the maximum cross-correlation between pulse transmission time and heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiba Shigeru

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer graphics and virtual reality techniques are useful to develop automatic and effective rehabilitation systems. However, a kind of virtual environment including unstable visual images presented to wide field screen or a head mounted display tends to induce motion sickness. The motion sickness induced in using a rehabilitation system not only inhibits effective training but also may harm patients' health. There are few studies that have objectively evaluated the effects of the repetitive exposures to these stimuli on humans. The purpose of this study is to investigate the adaptation to visually induced motion sickness by physiological data. Methods An experiment was carried out in which the same video image was presented to human subjects three times. We evaluated changes of the intensity of motion sickness they suffered from by a subjective score and the physiological index ρmax, which is defined as the maximum cross-correlation coefficient between heart rate and pulse wave transmission time and is considered to reflect the autonomic nervous activity. Results The results showed adaptation to visually-induced motion sickness by the repetitive presentation of the same image both in the subjective and the objective indices. However, there were some subjects whose intensity of sickness increased. Thus, it was possible to know the part in the video image which related to motion sickness by analyzing changes in ρmax with time. Conclusion The physiological index, ρmax, will be a good index for assessing the adaptation process to visually induced motion sickness and may be useful in checking the safety of rehabilitation systems with new image technologies.

  16. Psychosocial work factors and sickness absence in 31 countries in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, Isabelle; Chastang, Jean-François; Sultan-Taïeb, Hélène; Vermeylen, Greet; Parent-Thirion, Agnès

    2013-08-01

    The studies on the associations between psychosocial work factors and sickness absence have rarely included a large number of factors and European data. The objective was to examine the associations between a large set of psychosocial work factors following well-known and emergent concepts and sickness absence in Europe. The study population consisted of 14,881 male and 14,799 female workers in 31 countries from the 2005 European Working Conditions Survey. Psychosocial work factors included the following: decision latitude, psychological demands, social support, physical violence, sexual harassment, discrimination, bullying, long working hours, shift and night work, job insecurity, job promotion and work-life imbalance. Covariates were as follows: age, occupation, economic activity, employee/self-employed status and physical, chemical, biological and biomechanical exposures. Statistical analysis was performed using multilevel negative binomial hurdle models to study the occurrence and duration of sickness absence. In the models, including all psychosocial work factors together and adjustment for covariates, high psychological demands, discrimination, bullying, low-job promotion and work-life imbalance for both genders and physical violence for women were observed as risk factors of the occurrence of sickness absence. Bullying and shift work increased the duration of absence among women. Bullying had the strongest association with sickness absence. Various psychosocial work factors were found to be associated with sickness absence. A less conservative analysis exploring each factor separately provided a still higher number of risk factors. Preventive measures should take psychosocial work environment more comprehensively into account to reduce sickness absence and improve health at work at European level.

  17. [Sick teachers? --Analysis of disability data from Mecklenburg-Vorpommern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierjürgen, R; Paulus, P

    2002-11-01

    Based on a review of the latest research results on teachers' health, the review shows the extent as well as the structure of sick-leave of people working in schools in the Bundesland Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Data concerning diseases of more than 7,000 employees who are insured by the Barmer Ersatzkasse were analysed. The results show that teachers are more often sick than all the persons insured by the Barmer Ersatzkasse. Differences between sexes show disadvantages for women. The sick-leave rates increase with age. Dominant diseases reflect very well the job routine of people working in schools: The most frequent diseases concern the respiratory organs, the skeleton, muscles and the connective tissue and mental illness issues; mental illnesses cause the longest periods of disablement. The conclusion refers to the restrictions of sick-leave statistics. It is argued that it is necessary to combine different data sources (e. g. work-place health reports) in order to get a more differentiated picture of factors of demand and strain on teachers' health.

  18. Leadership styles of nurse managers and registered sickness absence among their nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Jolanda A H; Roelen, Corné A M; van Zweeden, Nely F; Jongsma, Dianne; van der Klink, Jac J L; Groothoff, Johan W

    2011-01-01

    Sickness absence leads to understaffing and interferes with nursing efficiency and quality. It has been reported in literature that managerial leadership is associated with self-reported sickness absence in the working population. This study investigated the relationship between managerial leadership and sickness absence in health care by associating nurse managers' leadership styles with registered sickness absence among their nursing staff. The cross-sectional study included 699 nurses working in six wards (staff range = 91-140 employees) of a Dutch somatic hospital employing a total of 1,153 persons. The nurse managers heading the wards were asked to complete the Leadership Effectiveness and Adaptability Description questionnaire for situational leadership. The Leadership Effectiveness and Adaptability Description scores were linked to employer-registered nursing staff sickness absence. High relationship-high task behavior (odds ratio [OR] = 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.65-0.85) and high relationship-low task behavior (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.14 -0.98) were inversely related to the number of short (one to seven consecutive days) episodes of sickness absence among the staff. Low relationship-high task styles (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.14-5.22) as well as low relationship-low task styles (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.26-4.71) were positively associated with the number of short episodes of sickness absence. However, the leadership styles only explained 10% of the variance in short episodes of sickness absence. Leadership styles are associated with registered sickness absence. The nursing staff of relationship-oriented nurse managers has fewer short episodes of sickness absence than the staff of task-oriented managers. Training nurse managers in relational leadership styles may reduce understaffing and improve nursing efficiency and quality.

  19. Predicting the duration of sickness absence for patients with common mental disorders in occupational health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; Verbeek, J.H.A.M.; Boer, A.G.E.M. de; Blonk, R.W.B.; Dijk, F.J.H. van

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This study attempted to determine the factors that best predict the duration of absence from work among employees with common mental disorders. Methods: A cohort of 188 employees, of whom 102 were teachers, on sick leave with common mental disorders was followed for 1 year. Only

  20. Predicting the duration of sickness absence for patients with common mental disorders in occupational health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Verbeek, Jos H. A. M.; de Boer, Angela G. E. M.; Blonk, Roland W. B.; van Dijk, Frank J. H.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study attempted to determine the factors that best predict the duration of absence from work among employees with common mental disorders. METHODS: A cohort of 188 employees, of whom 102 were teachers, on sick leave with common mental disorders was followed for 1 year. Only

  1. Workplace bullying and sickness absence: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the research literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Indregard, Anne-Marthe Rustad; Øverland, Simon

    2016-09-01

    The association between workplace bullying and sickness absence remains unclear. This paper presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of research on the association. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published primary studies on workplace bullying and sickness absence. Studies based on prospective design or registry data on sickness absence were included. Cross-sectional studies with self-reported sickness absence were excluded. Seventeen primary studies were included in the review, sixteen originated from the Nordic countries and fifteen included registry data on sickness absence. All but one study found that exposure to workplace bullying was associated with increased risk of sickness absence. A meta-analysis of ten independent studies showed that exposure to bullying increased the risk of sickness absence (odds ratio 1.58, 95% CI 1.39-1.79). Five studies included variables that moderated the association between bullying and absenteeism. None of the studies included mediating variables. No studies examined sickness absence as a risk factor for later exposure to bullying. Following the GRADE guidelines, the evidence for an association between bullying and sickness absence is moderate. Workplace bullying is a risk factor for sickness absence, but the mechanisms to explain this relationship are not sufficiently described. It is unclear whether sickness absence predicts later exposure to bullying. While, the methodological quality of the reviewed studies was high, the knowledge base is small. There is a need for more research on how and when bullying is related to sickness absence and the possible bidirectional relationships involved.

  2. Autogenic-Feedback Training for the Control of Space Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, W. B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents case-studies of 9 shuttle crewmembers (prime and alternates) and one U.S. Navy F-18 pilot, as they participated in all preflight training and testing activities in support of a life sciences flight experiment aboard Spacelab-J, and Spacelab-3. The primary objective of the flight experiment was to determine if Autogenic-feedback training (AFT), a physiological self-regulation training technique would be an effective treatment for motion sickness and space motion sickness in these crewmembers. Additional objectives of this study involved the examining human physiological responses to motion sickness on Earth and in space, as well as developing predictive criteria for susceptibility to space motion sickness based on ground-based data. Comparisons of these crewmembers are made to a larger set of subjects from previous experiments (treatment and "test-only" controls subjects). This paper describes all preflight methods, results and proposed changes for future tests.

  3. Short-term and long-term sick-leave in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, N; Diderichsen, Finn

    1995-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to analyse similarities and differences between repeated spells of short-term sick-leave (more than 3 spells of less than 7 days' duration in a 12-month period) and long-term absence through sickness (at least 1 spell of more than 59 days' duration in a 12-month p...

  4. Does Perceived Stress Mediate the Association Between Workplace Bullying and Long-Term Sickness Absence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynderup, Matias Brdsgaard; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Lange, Theis; Conway, Paul Maurice; Bonde, Jens Peter; Francioli, Laura; Garde, Anne Helene; Kaerlev, Linda; Rugulies, Reiner; Vammen, Marianne Agergaard; Hgh, Annie; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2016-06-01

    To examine if perceived stress mediated the association between workplace bullying and subsequent long-term sickness absence. The PRISME cohort was established in 2007 and re-examined in 2009. Questionnaire data about workplace bullying and perceived stress were obtained from 4114 individuals. Participants were followed in registers on long-term sickness absence (≥30 consecutive days of sickness absence). Workplace bullying was associated with subsequent sickness absence (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.57 to 2.65) and concurrent high perceived stress levels (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.86 to 2.96). A high perceived stress level was also associated with subsequent sickness absence (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.56). Perceived stress explained 13% (95% CI: 6 to 23%) of the total association between bullying and sickness absence. The association between workplace bullying and subsequent long-term sickness absence may be partially mediated by perceived stress.

  5. A comparison of single-lead atrial pacing with dual-chamber pacing in sick sinus syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Thomsen, Poul Erik B; Højberg, Søren

    2011-01-01

    In patients with sick sinus syndrome, bradycardia can be treated with a single-lead pacemaker or a dual-chamber pacemaker. Previous trials have revealed that pacing modes preserving atrio-ventricular synchrony are superior to single-lead ventricular pacing, but it remains unclear if there is any ...

  6. Mortality on the Waiting List for Lung Transplantation in Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Single-Centre Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David; Fossi, Antonella; Bargagli, Elena; Refini, Rosa Metella; Pieroni, Maria; Luzzi, Luca; Ghiribelli, Claudia; Paladini, Piero; Voltolini, Luca; Rottoli, Paola

    2015-10-01

    Lung transplantation (LTX) is nowadays accepted as a treatment option for selected patients with end-stage pulmonary disease. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by the radiological and histologic appearance of usual interstitial pneumonia. It is associated with a poor prognosis, and LTX is considered an effective treatment to significantly modify the natural history of this disease. The aim of the present study was to analyse mortality during the waiting list in IPF patients at a single institution. A retrospective analysis on IPF patients (n = 90) referred to our Lung Transplant Program in the period 2001-2014 was performed focusing on patients' characteristics and associated risk factors. Diagnosis of IPF was associated with high mortality on the waiting list with respect to other diagnosis (p Pulmonary function tests failed to predict mortality and no other medical conditions were associated with survival. Patients newly diagnosed with IPF, especially in small to medium lung transplant volume centres and in Countries where a long waiting list is expected, should be immediately referred to transplantation, delay results in increased mortality. Early identification of IPF patients with a rapid progressive phenotype is strongly needed.

  7. Single lead atrial vs. dual chamber pacing in sick sinus syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Niels H; Kirkfeldt, Rikke Esberg; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis

    2017-01-01

    Aims The DANPACE trial randomized patients with sick sinus syndrome (SSS) to single lead atrial (AAIR) or dual chamber (DDDR) pacemaker (PM). After 5 years follow-up, no difference in overall survival, stroke or heart failure (HF) was observed, whereas risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) and PM...... This register-based long-term follow-up study indicates that there is no difference in mortality among patients with SSS randomized to AAIR or DDDR pacing, even with very long follow-up. Nor is there any difference in risk of AF hospitalization, stroke or HF. The higher rate of pacing mode-change to DDDR...

  8. The associations between workplace bullying, salivary cortisol, and long-term sickness absence: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Lange, Theis; Conway, Paul Maurice; Bonde, Jens Peter; Garde, Anne Helene; Gullander, Maria; Kaerlev, Linda; Persson, Roger; Rugulies, Reiner; Vammen, Marianne Agergaard; Høgh, Annie; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2017-09-16

    Workplace stressors, such as bullying, are strongly related to subsequent long-term sickness absence, but little is known of the possible physiological mechanisms linking workplace stressors and sickness absence. The primary aim of this study was to investigate to what extent cortisol levels were associated with subsequent sickness absence and if cortisol mediated the association between workplace bullying and sickness absence. We additionally investigated possible bidirectional associations between bullying, cortisol, and long-term sickness absence. Participants came from two Danish cohort studies, the "Psychosocial RIsk factors for Stress and MEntal disease" (PRISME) cohort and the "Workplace Bullying and Harassment" (WBH) cohort (n = 5418). Information about exposure to workplace bullying and morning and evening salivary cortisol was collected at three time points with approximately two years in between. After each data collection, all participants were followed for two years in registers, and cases with long-term sickness absence lasting 30 or more consecutive days were identified. The association between cortisol levels and subsequent sickness absence was assessed by logistic regression, while the extent to which the association between bullying and sickness absence was mediated by cortisol was quantified through natural direct and indirect effects. High evening cortisol was associated with a decreased risk of sickness absence (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68-0.99), but we did not find that high morning cortisol levels (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.81-1.18) or high morning-to-evening slope (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.82-1.18) were associated with subsequent sickness absence. We also tested for reverse causation and found that long-term sickness absence, but not salivary cortisol, was a strong risk factor for subsequent workplace bullying. There was no indication that cortisol mediated the association between workplace bullying and sickness absence. We found no

  9. Sensory conflict in motion sickness: An observer theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Charles M.

    1989-01-01

    Motion sickness is the general term describing a group of common nausea syndromes originally attributed to motion-induced cerebral ischemia, stimulation of abdominal organ afferent, or overstimulation of the vestibular organs of the inner ear. Sea-, car-, and airsicknesses are the most commonly experienced examples. However, the discovery of other variants such as Cinerama-, flight simulator-, spectacle-, and space sickness in which the physical motion of the head and body is normal or absent has led to a succession of sensory conflict theories which offer a more comprehensive etiologic perspective. Implicit in the conflict theory is the hypothesis that neutral and/or humoral signals originate in regions of the brain subversing spatial orientation, and that these signals somehow traverse to other centers mediating sickness symptoms. Unfortunately, the present understanding of the neurophysiological basis of motion sickness is far from complete. No sensory conflict neuron or process has yet been physiologically identified. To what extent can the existing theory be reconciled with current knowledge of the physiology and pharmacology of nausea and vomiting. The stimuli which causes sickness, synthesizes a contemporary Observer Theory view of the Sensory Conflict hypothesis are reviewed, and a revised model for the dynamic coupling between the putative conflict signals and nausea magnitude estimates is presented. The use of quantitative models for sensory conflict offers a possible new approach to improving the design of visual and motion systems for flight simulators and other virtual environment display systems.

  10. The association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Isabella G; Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Jørgensen, Marie B; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Olesen, Kasper; Madeleine, Pascal; Ekner, Dorte; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark. This study is based on a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 2007 to 2008. The study population includes 276 cleaners, 144 Danish and 132 non-Western immigrant cleaners. Cumulative sickness absences during a 6-month period from administrative records were subdivided into no sickness absence (0 days), low occurrence of sickness absence (1-10 days) and high occurrence of sickness absence (over 10 days). Measures of health consisted of self-report and objective assessments. The relationship between sickness absence and health was analyzed through multinomial logistic regression, stratified by immigrant status. For both Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners, poor self-reported health was significantly related to high occurrence of sickness absence. Among Danish cleaners, high blood pressure was related to high occurrence of sickness absence. Among non-Western immigrant cleaners, total body pain and having one or more diagnosed chronic disease were related to high occurrence of sickness absence. No association between health and low occurrence of sickness absence was found. The findings confirm the importance of health for high occurrence of sickness absence, in both ethnic groups. Moreover, low occurrence of sickness absence was not related to the health conditions investigated.

  11. Long-term sick leave and its risk factors during pregnancy among Danish hospital employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Jacobsen, Lene B; Olsen, Jørn; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2004-01-01

    The authors sought to describe risk indicators of long-term sick leave during pregnancy among hospital employees. A register-based study was undertaken of 4,852 female hospital employees aged 20-45 years from the second largest hospital in Denmark during 1995-99 based on job titles, working time, sick leave, and births combined with a survey among a total of 773 women who had been pregnant during their employment (response rate 85%). Altogether 236 (31%) were on sick leave for at least 10% of their scheduled work time during their latest pregnancy and 169 (22%) had been absent at least 20% of the time. The pregnant women had an average sickness absence of 6.1 days per month, non-pregnant women 0.95 days per month. Sick leave was more frequent in late than in early gestation. Women employed as nursing aides or hospital orderlies, launderers, and nurses had more sick leave days than other hospital employees. Part-time work, previous sickness absence not related to pregnancy, and previous chronic back pain were risk factors for long-term sick leave as were much walking or standing, long working days, high work level, little practical support from supervisors and colleagues, low job control, much lifting and night or shift work. Sick leave was unrelated to family size, support from the family and number of working years. Long-term sick leave during pregnancy was frequent and to some extent predictable. Efforts should be made to organize work for pregnant women in a manner that optimizes their health and well-being.

  12. Effect of traditional yoga, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy, on health related quality of life: a randomized controlled trial on patients on sick leave because of burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grensman, Astrid; Acharya, Bikash Dev; Wändell, Per; Nilsson, Gunnar H; Falkenberg, Torkel; Sundin, Örjan; Werner, Sigbritt

    2018-03-06

    To explore if health related quality of life(HRQoL) increased after traditional yoga(TY), mindfulness based cognitive therapy(MBCT), or cognitive behavioral therapy(CBT), in patients on sick leave because of burnout. Randomized controlled trial, blinded, in ninety-four primary health care patients, block randomized to TY, MBCT or CBT (active control) between September 2007 and November 2009. Patients were living in the Stockholm metropolitan area, Sweden, were aged 18-65 years and were on 50%-100% sick leave. A group treatment for 20 weeks, three hours per week, with homework four hours per week. HRQoL was measured by the SWED-QUAL questionnaire, comprising 67 items grouped into 13 subscales, each with a separate index, and scores from 0 (worse) to 100 (best). SWED-QUAL covers aspects of physical and emotional well-being, cognitive function, sleep, general health and social and sexual functioning. Statistics: Wilcoxon's rank sum and Wilcoxon's sign rank tests, Bonett-Price for medians and confidence intervals, and Cohen's D. Twenty-six patients in the TY (21 women), and 27 patients in both the MBCT (24 women) and in the CBT (25 women), were analyzed. Ten subscales in TY and seven subscales in MBCT and CBT showed improvements, p cognitive function and sleep. The median improvement ranged from 0 to 27 points in TY, from 4 to 25 points in CBT and from 0 to 25 points in MBCT. The effect size was mainly medium or large. Comparison of treatments showed no statistical differences, but better effect (small) of both TY and MBCT compared to CBT. When comparing the effect of TY and MBCT, both showed a better effect (small) in two subscales each. A 20 week group treatment with TY, CBT or MBCT had equal effects on HRQoL, and particularly on main domains affected in burnout. This indicates that TY, MBCT and CBT can be used as both treatment and prevention, to improve HRQoL in patients on sick leave because of burnout, reducing the risk of future morbidity. July 22, 2012

  13. The effect of community-acquired bacteraemia on return to workforce, risk of sick leave, permanent disability pension and death: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalager-Pedersen, Michael; Koch, Kristoffer; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Nielsen, Henrik

    2014-01-29

    Little is known about the prognosis of community-acquired bacteraemia (CAB) in workforce adults. We assessed return to workforce, risk for sick leave, disability pension and mortality within 1 year after CAB in workforce adults compared with blood culture-negative controls and population controls. Population-based cohort study. North Denmark, 1996-2011. We used population-based healthcare registries to identify all patients aged 20-58 years who had first-time blood cultures obtained within 48 h of medical hospital admission, and who were part of the workforce (450 bacteraemia exposed patients and 6936 culture-negative control patients). For each bacteraemia patient, we included up to 10 matched population controls. Return to workforce, risk of sick leave, permanent disability pension and mortality within 1 year after bacteraemia. Regression analyses were used to compute adjusted relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs. One year after admission, 78% of patients with CAB, 85.7% of culture-negative controls and 96.8% of population controls were alive and in the workforce, and free from sick leave or disability pension. Compared with culture-negative controls, bacteraemia was associated with an increased risk for long-term sick leave (4-week duration, 40.2% vs 23.9%, adjusted RR, 1.51; CI 1.34 to 1.70) and an increased risk for mortality (30-day mortality, 4% vs 1.4%, adjusted RR, 2.34, CI 1.22 to 4.50; 1-year mortality, 8% vs 3.9%, adjusted RR, 1.73; CI 1.18 to 2.55). Bacteraemia patients had a risk for disability pension similar to culture-negative controls (2.7% vs 2.6%, adjusted RR, 0.99, CI 0.48 to 2.02) but greater than population controls (adjusted RR, 5.20; 95% CI 2.16 to 12.50). CAB is associated with long duration of sick leave and considerable mortality in working-age adults when compared with blood culture-negative controls, and an increased 1-year risk for disability pension when compared with population controls.

  14. Reliability of psychophysiological responses across multiple motion sickness stimulation tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, C. S.; Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.

    1995-01-01

    Although there is general agreement that a high degree of variability exists between subjects in their autonomic nervous system responses to motion sickness stimulation, very little evidence exists that examines the reproducibility of autonomic responses within subjects during motion sickness stimulation. Our objectives were to examine the reliability of autonomic responses and symptom levels across five testing occasions using the (1) final minute of testing, (2) change in autonomic response and the change in symptom level, and (3) strength of the relationship between the change in symptom level and the change in autonomic responses across the entire motion sickness test. The results indicate that, based on the final minute of testing, the autonomic responses of heart rate, blood volume pulse, and respirat