WorldWideScience

Sample records for si powder mixtures

  1. Synthesis, microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti3SiC2-TiC composites pulse discharge sintered from Ti/Si/TiC powder mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Wubian; Sun Zhengming; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Du Yulei

    2009-01-01

    Ti 3 SiC 2 -TiC composites with the volume fractions of TiC from 0 to 90% were fabricated by pulse discharge sintering (PDS) technique using Ti-Si-TiC as starting powders in the sintering temperature range of 1250-1400 deg. C. Phase content and microstructure of the synthesized samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The samples sintered at 1400 deg. C are almost fully dense for all compositions with relative density higher than 98%. The phase distribution in the synthesized samples is non-uniform. The Vickers hardness increases almost linearly with the volume fraction of TiC up to a value of 20.1 ± 1.4 GPa at 90 vol.% TiC. The flexural strength increases with the volume fraction of TiC to a maximum value of 655 ± 10 MPa at 50 vol.% TiC. The relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties is discussed.

  2. New manufacturing method for Fe-Si magnetic powders using modified pack-cementation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Ji Young; Kim, Jang Won; Han, Jeong Whan; Jang, Pyungwoo

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes a new method for making Fe-Si magnetic powders using a pack-cementation process. It was found that Fe-Si alloy powders were formed by a reaction of the pack mixture of Fe, Si, NaF, and Al2O3 powders at 900 °C for 24 h under a hydrogen atmosphere. Separation of the Fe-Si alloy powders was dependent on the particle size of the Fe powders in the pack. For small Fe powders, magnetic separation in a medium of strong alkali solution was recommended. But, for relatively larger Fe powders, the Fe-Si alloy powders were easily separated from Al2O3 powders using a magnet in air atmosphere. The Si content in the Fe-Si magnetic powders were easily controlled by changing the weight ratio of Si to (Si+Fe) in the pack.

  3. Sinterability and microstructure evolution during sintering of ferrous powder mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kétner Bendo Demétrio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is focused on ferrous powder metallurgy and presents some results of a development of a suitable masteralloy for use as an additive to iron powder for the production of sintered steels. The masteralloy was produced by melting a powder mixture containing approximately Fe + 20% Ni + 20% Mn + 20% Si + 1% C (wt%, in order to obtain a cast billet that was converted into fine powder by crushing and milling. It was observed presence of SiC in the masteralloy after melting that is undesirable in the alloy. Si element should be introduced by using ferrosilicon. Sintered alloys with distinct contents of alloying elements were prepared by mixing the masteralloy powder to plain iron powder. Samples were produced by die compaction of the powder mixtures and sintering at 1200 °C in a differential dilatometer in order to record their linear dimensional behaviour during heating up and isothermal sintering, aiming at studying the sinterability of the compacts. Microstructure development during sintering was studied by SEM, XRD and microprobe analyses.

  4. Influence of powder particle injection velocity on the microstructure of Al-12Si/SiCp coatings produced by laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anandkumar, R.; Almeida, A.; Vilar, R.; Ocelik, V.; De Hosson, J. Th M.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of powder particle injection velocity on the microstructure of coatings consisting of an Al-Si matrix reinforced with SiC particles prepared by laser cladding from mixtures of powders of Al-12 wt.% Si alloy and SiC was investigated both experimentally and by modeling. At low injection

  5. Interaction in polysilazane/SiC powder systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boiteux, Y.P.

    1992-07-01

    Consolidation of ceramic precursor ceramic powder systems upon heating is investigated. A polysilazane (silicon nitride precursor) is chosen as ceramic precursor with a filler of a sub-micron SiC powder. A scheme to optimize the volume fraction of precursor is developed in order to maximize the density of the compacted samples in the green state. Different techniques are presented to improve the homogeneity of precursor distribution in the mixture. A microencapsulation technique is developed that leads to a uniform coating of precursor on individual SiC particles. Upon pyrolysis of systems with 20 wt% polysilazane, little shrinkage occurs. The SiC particles do not coarsen during the heat treatment. The precursor, upon pyrolysis, transforms into an amorphous ceramic phase that acts as a cement between SiC particles. This cement phase can remain amorphous up to 1500{degrees}C; and is best described as a siliconoxycarbide with or without traces of nitrogen. Elimination of nitrogen in the amorphous phase indicates that the filler material (SiC) has a strong influence on the pyrolysis behavior of the chosen polysilazane. The amorphous ceramic phase may crystallize between 1400 and 1500{degrees}C, and depending on the nature of the gas environment, the crystalline phases are SiC, Si or Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Mechanisms explaining the strength increase upon heat treatment are proposed. Redistribution of the precursor occurs by capillary forces or vapor phase diffusion and recondensation of volatile monomers. The confined pyrolysis of the precursor results in an increase of residual ceramic matter being decomposed inside the sample. Interfacial reaction between the native silica-rich surface layer on SiC particles and the precursor derived phase explains the high strength of the materials.

  6. Statistical Description of Segregation in a Powder Mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we apply the statistical mechanics of powders to describe a segregated state in a mixture of grains of different sizes. Variation of the density of a packing with depth arising due to changes of particle configurations is studied. The statistical mechanics of powders is generalized...

  7. A classification system for tableting behaviors of binary powder mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changquan Calvin Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to predict tableting properties of a powder mixture from individual components is of both fundamental and practical importance to the efficient formulation development of tablet products. A common tableting classification system (TCS of binary powder mixtures facilitates the systematic development of new knowledge in this direction. Based on the dependence of tablet tensile strength on weight fraction in a binary mixture, three main types of tableting behavior are identified. Each type is further divided to arrive at a total of 15 sub-classes. The proposed classification system lays a framework for a better understanding of powder interactions during compaction. Potential applications and limitations of this classification system are discussed.

  8. EFFECT OF THE Si POWDER ADDITIONS ON THE PROPERTIES OF SiC COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUOGANG XU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available By means of transient plastic phase process, the SiC silicon carbide kiln furniture materials were produced through adding Si powder to SiC materials. At the condition of the same additions of SiO2 powder, the effect of the Si powder additions on properties of silicon carbide materials after sintered at 1450°C for 3 h in air atmosphere was studied by means of SEM and other analysis methods. The results showed that silicon powder contributes to both sintering by liquid state and plastic phase combination to improve the strength of samples. When the Si powder additions is lower than 3.5 %, the density and strength of samples increase and porosity decrease with increasing Si powder additions. However when the Si powder additions is higher than 3.5 %, the density and strength of samples decrease and porosity increase with increasing Si powder additions. With increasing of Si additions, the residual strength of sample after thermal shocked increased and linear change rate decreased, and get to boundary value when Si additions is 4.5 %. The results also indicated that at the same sintering temperature, the sample with 3.5 % silicon powder has maximum strength.

  9. Analysis of Minor Component Segregation in Ternary Powder Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asachi Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many powder handling operations, inhomogeneity in powder mixtures caused by segregation could have significant adverse impact on the quality as well as economics of the production. Segregation of a minor component of a highly active substance could have serious deleterious effects, an example is the segregation of enzyme granules in detergent powders. In this study, the effects of particle properties and bulk cohesion on the segregation tendency of minor component are analysed. The minor component is made sticky while not adversely affecting the flowability of samples. The segregation extent is evaluated using image processing of the photographic records taken from the front face of the heap after the pouring process. The optimum average sieve cut size of components for which segregation could be reduced is reported. It is also shown that the extent of segregation is significantly reduced by applying a thin layer of liquid to the surfaces of minor component, promoting an ordered mixture.

  10. Synthesis of Amorphous Powders of Ni-Si and Co-Si Alloys by Mechanical Alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omuro, Keisuke; Miura, Harumatsu

    1991-05-01

    Amorphous powders of the Ni-Si and Co-Si alloys are synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) from crystalline elemental powders using a high energy ball mill. The alloying and amorphization process is examined by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy. For the Ni-Si alloy, it is confirmed that the crystallization temperature of the MA powder, measured by DSC, is in good agreement with that of the powder sample prepared by mechanical grinding from the cast alloy ingot products of the same composition.

  11. Structure and soft magnetic properties of the bulk samples prepared by compaction of the mixtures of Co-based and Fe-based powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuezer, J.; Bednarcik, J.; Kollar, P.; Roth, S.

    2007-01-01

    Ball milling of CoFeZrB ribbons and subsequent compaction of the resulting powders were used to prepare bulk amorphous samples. Further, two sets of powder samples were prepared by cryomilling of FeCuNbMoSiB alloy in amorphous and nanocrystalline state. Amorphous and nanocrystalline FeCuNbMoSiB powders were blended with CoFeZrB powder at different concentrations. Such powder mixtures were consolidated and several bulk nanocomposites have been synthesized. An addition of nanocrystalline or amorphous FeCuNbMoSiB powder to amorphous CoFeZrB powder caused a decrease of the magnetostriction of the resultant bulk samples, while the coercivity shows an opposite behavior. Our results show that the powder consolidation by hot pressing is an alternative method for the preparation of bulk metallic glasses, which are difficult to prepare by casting methods

  12. Synthesis and structural property of Si nanosheets connected to Si nanowires using MnCl{sub 2}/Si powder source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Erchao [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johuku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8561 (Japan); Ueki, Akiko [Toyota Central R& D Labs., Inc., 41-1 Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Meng, Xiang [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johuku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8561 (Japan); Suzuki, Hiroaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johuku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8561 (Japan); Itahara, Hiroshi [Toyota Central R& D Labs., Inc., 41-1 Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Tatsuoka, Hirokazu, E-mail: tatsuoka.hirokazu@shizuoka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Integrated Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johuku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8561 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Si nanosheets connected to Si nanowires synthesized using a MnCl{sub 2}/Si powder source with an Au catalyst avoid the use of air-sensitive SiH{sub 4} or SiCl{sub 4}. It was evident from these structural features of the nanosheets (leaf blade) with nanowires (petiole) that the nanosheets were formed by the twin-plane reentrant-edge mechanism. The feature of the observed lattice fringes of the Si(111) nanosheets was clearly explained by the interference with the extra diffraction spots that arose due to the reciprocal lattice streaking effect. - Highlights: • New Si nanosheets connected to Si nanowires were synthesized using MnCl{sub 2}/Si powders. • The synthesis method has benefits in terms of avoiding air sensitive SiH{sub 4} or SiCl{sub 4}. • Structural property and electron diffraction of the Si nanosheets were clarified. • Odd lattice fringes of the Si nanosheets observed by HRTEM were clearly explained. - Abstract: Si nanosheets connected to Si nanowires were synthesized using a MnCl{sub 2}/Si powder source with an Au catalyst. The synthesis method has benefits in terms of avoiding conventionally used air-sensitive SiH{sub 4} or SiCl{sub 4}. The existence of the Si nanosheets connected to the Si<111> nanowires, like sprouts or leaves with petioles, was observed, and the surface of the nanosheets was Si{111}. The nanosheets were grown in the growth direction of <211> perpendicular to that of the Si nanowires. It was evident from these structural features of the nanosheets that the nanosheets were formed by the twin-plane reentrant-edge mechanism. The feature of the observed lattice fringes, which do not appear for Si bulk crystals, of the Si(111) nanosheets obtained by high resolution transmission electron microscopy was clearly explained due to the extra diffraction spots that arose by the reciprocal lattice streaking effect.

  13. Relationships between surface coverage ratio and powder mechanics of binary adhesive mixtures for dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudén, Jonas; Frenning, Göran; Bramer, Tobias; Thalberg, Kyrre; Alderborn, Göran

    2018-04-25

    The aim of this paper was to study relationships between the content of fine particles and the powder mechanics of binary adhesive mixtures and link these relationships to the blend state. Mixtures with increasing amounts of fine particles (increasing surface coverage ratios (SCR)) were prepared using Lactopress SD as carrier and micro particles of lactose as fines (2.7 µm). Indicators of unsettled bulk density, compressibility and flowability were derived and the blend state was visually examined by imaging. The powder properties studied showed relationships to the SCR characterised by stages. At low SCR, the fine particles predominantly gathered in cavities of the carriers, giving increased bulk density and unchanged or improved flow. Thereafter, increased SCR gave a deposition of particles at the enveloped carrier surface with a gradually more irregular adhesion layer leading to a reduced bulk density and a step-wise reduced flowability. The mechanics of the mixtures at a certain stage were dependent on the structure and the dynamics of the adhesion layer and transitions between the stages were controlled by the evolution of the adhesion layer. It is advisable to use techniques based on different types of flow in order to comprehensively study the mechanics of adhesive mixtures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbothermal preparation of Si2N2O powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolech, M.; Metselaar, R.; van Dijen, F.K.; Blömer, F.; With, de G.; Ramaekers, P.P.J.; Vincenzini, P.

    1987-01-01

    At temperatures 1400 - 1450 °C silicon oxynitride powder can be produced from silica/carbon mixtures with a molar ratio 2/3 under a nitrogen flow. The conversion rate is considerably exhanced by the presence of oxide additions like CaO, BaO and SrO, which form a liquid phase with silica at the

  15. Optimization of the composition of the powdered cereal sprouts mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumbas-Šaponjac Vesna T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sprouts of cereals have received significant attention as functional food due to their nutritional and functional value. Consumption of sprouts has become increasingly popular among people interested in improving and maintaining their health status by changing dietary habits. Cereal grains contain several classes of phytochemicals, i.e. phenolics, chlorophylls, and carotenoids. However, their nutritional and chemical profile is altered and improved during germination. The purpose of this study was to find the best ratio of the powdered wheat (WS, oat (OS and barley (BS sprouts for designing the cereal sprout mixture (CSM with the highest total phenolic content (TPh and antioxidant capacity (AC, using Simplex-Centroid experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM. Single- and multi-response optimizations showed that OS did not contribute to TPh or AC values of CSM and, therefore, was not included in any of the compositions of the optimized CSM. Single-response optimizations showed that the highest TPh was found for CSM containing 82% BS and 18% WS, while the best AC was found for pure BS. The predicted ratio of cereal sprout powders in CSM obtained by multi-response optimization was: 96% BS and 4% WS. This mixture possessed the highest predicted TPh and AC (372.32 mg GAE/100 g, 549.99 μmol TE/100 g, respectively, which was confirmed to be in accordance with the experimental values. Based on the results obtained in this study, a designed CSM is proposed as a convenient ingredient of functional food products, dietary supplements and nutraceuticals.

  16. SHS synthesis of Si-SiC composite powders using Mg and reactants from industrial waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanadee, Tawat

    2017-11-01

    Si-SiC composite powders were synthesized by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) using reactants of fly ash-based silica, sawdust-based activated carbon, and magnesium. Fly ash-based silica and sawdust-based activated carbon were prepared from coal mining fly ash and Para rubber-wood sawdust, respectively. The work investigated the effects of the synthesis atmosphere (air and Ar) on the phase and morphology of the SHS products. The SHS product was leached by a two-step acid leaching processes, to obtain the Si-SiC composite powder. The SHS product and SHS product after leaching were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The results indicated that the SHS product synthesized in air consisted of Si, SiC, MgO, and intermediate phases (SiO2, Mg, Mg2SiO4, Mg2Si), whereas the SHS product synthesized in Ar consisted of Si, SiC, MgO and a little Mg2SiO4. The SiC content in the leached-SHS product was higher when Ar was used as the synthesis atmosphere. As well as affecting the purity, the synthesis atmospheres also affected the average crystalline sizes of the products. The crystalline size of the product synthesized in Ar was smaller than that of the product synthesized in air. All of the results showed that fly ash and sawdust could be effective waste-material reactants for the synthesis of Si-SiC composite powders.

  17. Microstructural Development in Al-Si Powder During Rapid Solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genau, Amber Lynn [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Powder metallurgy has become an increasingly important form of metal processing because of its ability to produce materials with superior mechanical properties. These properties are due in part to the unique and often desirable microstructures which arise as a result of the extreme levels of undercooling achieved, especially in the finest size powder, and the subsequent rapid solidification which occurs. A better understanding of the fundamental processes of nucleation and growth is required to further exploit the potential of rapid solidification processing. Aluminum-silicon, an alloy of significant industrial importance, was chosen as a model for simple eutectic systems displaying an unfaceted/faceted interface and skewed coupled eutectic growth zone, Al-Si powder produced by high pressure gas atomization was studied to determine the relationship between microstructure and alloy composition as a function of powder size and atomization gas. Critical experimental measurements of hypereutectic (Si-rich) compositions were used to determine undercooling and interface velocity, based on the theoretical models which are available. Solidification conditions were analyzed as a function of particle diameter and distance from nucleation site. A revised microstructural map is proposed which allows the prediction of particle morphology based on temperature and composition. It is hoped that this work, by providing enhanced understanding of the processes which govern the development of the solidification morphology of gas atomized powder, will eventually allow for better control of processing conditions so that particle microstructures can be optimized for specific applications.

  18. Application of permanent magnets made from NdFeB powder and from mixtures of powders in DC motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slusarek, B.; Dudzikowski, I.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the influence of magnetic properties of applied permanent magnets on the characteristics of DC motors excited with these magnets. In the factory-produced DC motors, excited with sintered ferrite magnets, authors replaced ferrite magnets with the dielectromagnets from NdFeB powder and from different mixtures of NdFeB and ferrite powders. The paper shows the increase of the power of the resultant DC motors according to the powders' content

  19. Photoacoustic study of heated binary mixtures containing whey and skimmed-milk powders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Bicanic, D.; Frankhuizen, R.

    1999-01-01

    A novel methodology is proposed to determine the amount of whey powder in a binary mixture containing whey and skimmed-milk powders. This new approach is based on measurement of the amplitude of the photoacoustic (PA) signal obtained when the mixture is exposed to a controlled thermal treatment; the

  20. Microstructure of as-fabricated UMo/Al(Si) plates prepared with ground and atomized powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungwirth, R.; Palancher, H.; Bonnin, A.; Bertrand-Drira, C.; Borca, C.; Honkimäki, V.; Jarousse, C.; Stepnik, B.; Park, S.-H.; Iltis, X.; Schmahl, W. W.; Petry, W.

    2013-07-01

    ].The UMoX powder used for the samples MAFIA-I-18 - MAFIA-I-21 has not been investigated prior to plate fabrication. However, since the grinding process is essentially the same as for the pure UMo powder, similar characteristics are assumed. Thin oxide layers with a thickness ⩽1 μm on some of the particles that were not intentionally oxidized. Although the UMo powder was stored and handled under an inert atmosphere over the whole production process, some residual oxygen has reacted with the UMo. Already this thin oxide layers exhibits cracks (Fig. 5). Thicker oxide layers with a thickness up to 5 μm on the UMo particles that were oxidized purposely. This kind of oxide layer is very brittle and shows large cracks (Fig. 6). The oxidized UMo particles tend to detach with the matrix as gaps between the UMo particles and the oxide layer could be observed (Fig. 6). This is most obvious at spots where a UMo particle has been pulled out during polishing. A part of the oxide layer remained inside the resulting hole (Fig. 7). Atomized UMo powder 2 wt%Si in Al matrix, alloyed AlSi 2 wt%Si in Al matrix, mixed AlSi 5 wt%Si in Al matrix, mixed AlSi 7 wt%Si in Al matrix, mixed AlSi Ground UMo powder 2 wt%Si in Al matrix, alloyed AlSi The influence of an oxide layer around the UMo particles on the formation of the SiRL during fuel plate production is further discussed. The growth of a Si rich layer surrounding the UMo particles in the 2 wt%Si alloyed powder (oxidized UMo), as well as the 5 wt% and 7 wt%Si mixed powder (non-oxidized UMo) during production of the miniplates. The presence of Si precipitates in the Al-matrix (large precipitates in case of mixture, small si particles in alloy). No oxide layer: If no oxide layer is present around the UMo particles a homogeneous SiRL grows at the interface UMo-Al (Fig. 15a). Brittle oxide layer: An oxide layer is present around the UMo particles, the SiRL grows always between the UMo particle and the oxide layer (Fig. 15b). In this case

  1. Fabrication of Spherical AlSi10Mg Powders by Radio Frequency Plasma Spheroidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linzhi; Liu, Ying; Chang, Sen

    2016-05-01

    Spherical AlSi10Mg powders were prepared by radio frequency plasma spheroidization from commercial AlSi10Mg powders. The fabrication process parameters and powder characteristics were investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, laser particle size analyzer, powder rheometer, and UV/visible/infrared spectrophotometer were used for analyses and measurements of micrographs, phases, granulometric parameters, flowability, and laser absorption properties of the powders, respectively. The results show that the obtained spherical powders exhibit good sphericity, smooth surfaces, favorable dispersity, and excellent fluidity under appropriate feeding rate and flow rate of carrier gas. Further, acicular microstructures of the spherical AlSi10Mg powders are composed of α-Al, Si, and a small amount of Mg2Si phase. In addition, laser absorption values of the spherical AlSi10Mg powders increase obviously compared with raw material, and different spectra have obvious absorption peaks at a wavelength of about 826 nm.

  2. Influence of Ultrafine 2CaO·SiO₂ Powder on Hydration Properties of Reactive Powder Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongfang; Li, Zishanshan; Memon, Shazim Ali; Zhang, Qiwu; Wang, Yaocheng; Liu, Bing; Xu, Weiting; Xing, Feng

    2015-09-17

    In this research, we assessed the influence of an ultrafine 2CaO·SiO₂ powder on the hydration properties of a reactive powder concrete system. The ultrafine powder was manufactured through chemical combustion method. The morphology of ultrafine powder and the development of hydration products in the cement paste prepared with ultrafine powder were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mineralogical composition were determined by X-ray diffraction, while the heat release characteristics up to the age of 3 days were investigated by calorimetry. Moreover, the properties of cementitious system in fresh and hardened state (setting time, drying shrinkage, and compressive strength) with 5% ordinary Portland cement replaced by ultrafine powder were evaluated. From SEM micrographs, the particle size of ultrafine powder was found to be up to several hundred nanometers. The hydration product started formulating at the age of 3 days due to slow reacting nature of belitic 2CaO·SiO₂. The initial and final setting times were prolonged and no significant difference in drying shrinkage was observed when 5% ordinary Portland cement was replaced by ultrafine powder. Moreover, in comparison to control reactive powder concrete, the reactive powder concrete containing ultrafine powder showed improvement in compressive strength at and above 7 days of testing. Based on above, it can be concluded that the manufactured ultrafine 2CaO·SiO₂ powder has the potential to improve the performance of a reactive powder cementitious system.

  3. Influence of Ultrafine 2CaO·SiO2 Powder on Hydration Properties of Reactive Powder Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfang Sun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we assessed the influence of an ultrafine 2CaO·SiO2 powder on the hydration properties of a reactive powder concrete system. The ultrafine powder was manufactured through chemical combustion method. The morphology of ultrafine powder and the development of hydration products in the cement paste prepared with ultrafine powder were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, mineralogical composition were determined by X-ray diffraction, while the heat release characteristics up to the age of 3 days were investigated by calorimetry. Moreover, the properties of cementitious system in fresh and hardened state (setting time, drying shrinkage, and compressive strength with 5% ordinary Portland cement replaced by ultrafine powder were evaluated. From SEM micrographs, the particle size of ultrafine powder was found to be up to several hundred nanometers. The hydration product started formulating at the age of 3 days due to slow reacting nature of belitic 2CaO·SiO2. The initial and final setting times were prolonged and no significant difference in drying shrinkage was observed when 5% ordinary Portland cement was replaced by ultrafine powder. Moreover, in comparison to control reactive powder concrete, the reactive powder concrete containing ultrafine powder showed improvement in compressive strength at and above 7 days of testing. Based on above, it can be concluded that the manufactured ultrafine 2CaO·SiO2 powder has the potential to improve the performance of a reactive powder cementitious system.

  4. Structural comparison of sintering products made of "TiC + Ti" composite powders and "Ti + C" powder mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinitcyn, Maksim G.; Pribytkov, Gennadii A.; Korosteleva, Elena N.; Firsina, Irina A.; Baranovskii, Anton V.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, powder composite materials comprised of TiC and Ti with different ratios are processed by sintering of Ti and C powder mixtures and self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) in "Ti+C" system followed by sintering. The microstructure and porosity of obtained composites are investigated and discussed. The dependence of porosity on sintering time is explained theoretically. Optimal regimes that enable to obtain the most homogeneous structure with the least porosity are described.

  5. Fabrication and Mechanical Properties of SiCw(p/SiC-Si Composites by Liquid Si Infiltration using Pyrolysed Rice Husks and SiC Powders as Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dense silicon carbide (SiC matrix composites with SiC whiskers and particles as reinforcement were prepared by infiltrating molten Si at 1550 °C into porous preforms composed of pyrolysed rice husks (RHs and extra added SiC powder in different ratios. The Vickers hardness of the composites showed an increase from 18.6 to 21.3 GPa when the amount of SiC added in the preforms was 20% (w/w, and then decreased to 17.3 GPa with the increase of SiC added in the preforms up to 80% (w/w. The values of flexural strength of the composites initially decreased when 20% (w/w SiC was added in the preform and then increased to 587 MPa when the SiC concentration reached 80% (w/w. The refinement of SiC particle sizes and the improvement of the microstructure in particle distribution of the composites due to the addition of external SiC played an effective role in improving the mechanical properties of the composites.

  6. A compressibility based model for predicting the tensile strength of directly compressed pharmaceutical powder mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gavin K; Campbell, Jacqueline I; Roberts, Ron J

    2017-10-05

    A new model to predict the compressibility and compactability of mixtures of pharmaceutical powders has been developed. The key aspect of the model is consideration of the volumetric occupancy of each powder under an applied compaction pressure and the respective contribution it then makes to the mixture properties. The compressibility and compactability of three pharmaceutical powders: microcrystalline cellulose, mannitol and anhydrous dicalcium phosphate have been characterised. Binary and ternary mixtures of these excipients have been tested and used to demonstrate the predictive capability of the model. Furthermore, the model is shown to be uniquely able to capture a broad range of mixture behaviours, including neutral, negative and positive deviations, illustrating its utility for formulation design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Lime-Stabilized Black Cotton Soil and Brick Powder Mixture as Subbase Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Srikanth Reddy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Various researchers, for the past few decades, had tried to stabilize black cotton soil using lime for improving its shrinkage and swelling characteristics. But these days, the cost of lime has increased resulting in increase in need for alternative and cost effective waste materials such as fly ash and rice husk ash. Brick powder, one among the alternative materials, is a fine powdered waste that contains higher proportions of silica and is found near brick kilns in rural areas. The objective of the study is to investigate the use of lime-stabilized black cotton soil and brick powder mixture as subbase material in flexible pavements. Black cotton soil procured from the local area, tested for suitability as subbase material, turned out to be unsuitable as it resulted in very less CBR value. Even lime stabilization of black cotton soil under study has not showed up the required CBR value specified for the subbase material of flexible pavement by MORTH. Hence the lime-stabilized black cotton soil is proportioned with brick powder to obtain optimum mixture that yields a better CBR value. The mixture of 20% brick powder and 80% lime-stabilized black cotton soil under study resulted in increase in the CBR value by about 135% in comparison with lime-stabilized black cotton soil. Thus it is promising to use the mixture of brick powder and lime-stabilized black cotton soil as subbase material in flexible pavements.

  8. Performance Characteristics of Waste Glass Powder Substituting Portland Cement in Mortar Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, P.; Csetényi, L. J.; Borosnyói, A.

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, soda-lime glass cullet (flint, amber, green) and special glass cullet (soda-alkaline earth-silicate glass coming from low pressure mercury-discharge lamp cullet and incandescent light bulb borosilicate glass waste cullet) were ground into fine powders in a laboratory planetary ball mill for 30 minutes. CEM I 42.5N Portland cement was applied in mortar mixtures, substituted with waste glass powder at levels of 20% and 30%. Characterisation and testing of waste glass powders included fineness by laser diffraction particle size analysis, specific surface area by nitrogen adsorption technique, particle density by pycnometry and chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry. Compressive strength, early age shrinkage cracking and drying shrinkage tests, heat of hydration of mortars, temperature of hydration, X-ray diffraction analysis and volume stability tests were performed to observe the influence of waste glass powder substitution for Portland cement on physical and engineering properties of mortar mixtures.

  9. Rheological properties of salep powder-milk mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Develi Işıklı, Nursel; Dönmez, Mehmet Necmi; Kozan, Nejat; Karababa, Erşan

    2015-10-01

    Rheological properties of salep-milk mixture as hot drink were evaluated using a rotational viscometer at different temperature (45, 50, 55, 60, and 65 °C) and salep concentration (0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 w/v, %). All salep-milk mixtures exhibited non-Newtonian behavior. The shear rate /shear stress data obtained from forward and backward directions were examined by common rheological models such as power law, Herschel-Bulkey, Casson and Bingham plastic models. Among the common models, the power-law model fitted the shear rate and shear stress data for 1.00 and 1.25 % salep concentration at all temperature. The Bingham plastic model described well the flow behavior of the salep-milk mixtures in 0.75 % salep concentration at all temperature. Flow behavior index (n), according to the power law and Herschel-Bulkey models decreased with an increase in salep concentration and a decrease of temperature. The consistency coefficient decreased with temperature and increased with salep concentration.

  10. Fabrication of Al-20 wt%Si powder using scrap Si by ultra high-energy milling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Won-Kyung [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering and Institute for Rare Metals, Kongju National University, 275, Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Y Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I lmaz, Fikret [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Science, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tasliciftlik Campus, 60240 Tokat (Turkey); Kim, Hyo-Seob; Koo, Jar-Myung [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering and Institute for Rare Metals, Kongju National University, 275, Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon-Jik, E-mail: hongsj@kongju.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering and Institute for Rare Metals, Kongju National University, 275, Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High energy ball milling process has been successfully employed to produce Al-20Si alloy using scrap Si powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fully finer and homogenous structure could be achieved after 60 min of milling time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si particles were not dissolved but uniformly dispersed in the Al matrix in a milled state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hardness of as-milled Al-20Si powder increased steadily with the increase of milling time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grain size and dispersion strengthening are two mechanisms being responsible for hardness increment. - Abstract: In this study, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of Al-20 wt%Si and pure Al powders fabricated by ultra high-energy ball milling technique were investigated as a function of milling time. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-milled powders were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Vickers hardness tester. SEM observation showed that the particle size increased at an early stage of milling, and then decreased drastically with further milling. XRD and cross-sectional EDS-mapping analyses revealed that Si particles were not dissolved but uniformly dispersed in the Al matrix in a milled state. Vickers hardness of both pure Al and Al-Si powder increases with milling time, which attributes to the grain size strengthening and dispersion strengthening.

  11. Investigation of the powder flow behaviour of binary mixtures of microcrystalline celluloses and paracetamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Soppela

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The flow behaviour of binary mixtures of paracetamol and different grades of microcrystalline celluloses (Avicel® PH101, PH102 and PH200 was studied using a new testing method. The effect of physical characteristics of the powder including tribocharging and the addition of lubricant on the flow properties of the different mixtures was investigated. As expected, the flowability of the samples was affected both by the amount of paracetamol and the physical properties of microcrystalline celluloses (MCC and the mixtures. The effect of lubricant varied depending on the MCC grade: magnesium stearate was able to improve the flowability of the mixtures containing PH102 and PH200 while it did not affect the flowability of PH101. Multivariate analysis showed that the flow of the binary excipient-drug mixtures through an orifice is affected by several phenomena, such as charging, surface moisture, carrier payload and particle size.

  12. Influence of preparation and storage conditions on photoluminescence of porous silicon powder with embedded Si nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychto, Leszek; Balaguer, Maria; Pastor, Ester; Chirvony, Vladimir; Matveeva, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    The time changes of photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of porous silicon (porSi) powder during storing in different ambients have been reported. A porous silicon material with embedded Si nanocrystals of size of few nanometers was prepared by an electrochemical method from 10 to 20 Ωcm p-type Si wafers, and both constant and pulse current anodization regimes were used. A powder with a submicron average particle size was obtained by simple mechanical lift-off of the porous layer followed by additional manual milling. The air, hexane, and water as storage media were used, and modification by a nonionic surfactant (undecylenic acid) of the porSi surface was applied in the latter case. Dependence of PL characteristics on preparation and storage conditions was then studied. A remarkable blue shift of a position of PL maximum was observed in time for porSi powders in each storage media. In water suspension a many-fold build-up (10-30) of PL intensity in a time scale of few days was accompanied by an observed blue shift. Photoluminescence time behavior of porSi powders was described by a known mechanism of the change of porSi PL from free exciton emission of Si nanocrystals to luminescence of localized oxidized states on the Si nanocrystal surface.

  13. Influence of preparation and storage conditions on photoluminescence of porous silicon powder with embedded Si nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bychto, Leszek, E-mail: leszek.bychto@tu.koszalin.pl; Balaguer, Maria; Pastor, Ester; Chirvony, Vladimir; Matveeva, Eugenia, E-mail: eumat@upvnet.upv.e [Technical University of Valencia, Nanophotonics Technology Center (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    The time changes of photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of porous silicon (porSi) powder during storing in different ambients have been reported. A porous silicon material with embedded Si nanocrystals of size of few nanometers was prepared by an electrochemical method from 10 to 20 {Omega}cm p-type Si wafers, and both constant and pulse current anodization regimes were used. A powder with a submicron average particle size was obtained by simple mechanical lift-off of the porous layer followed by additional manual milling. The air, hexane, and water as storage media were used, and modification by a nonionic surfactant (undecylenic acid) of the porSi surface was applied in the latter case. Dependence of PL characteristics on preparation and storage conditions was then studied. A remarkable blue shift of a position of PL maximum was observed in time for porSi powders in each storage media. In water suspension a many-fold build-up (10-30) of PL intensity in a time scale of few days was accompanied by an observed blue shift. Photoluminescence time behavior of porSi powders was described by a known mechanism of the change of porSi PL from free exciton emission of Si nanocrystals to luminescence of localized oxidized states on the Si nanocrystal surface.

  14. Influence of preparation and storage conditions on photoluminescence of porous silicon powder with embedded Si nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychto, Leszek; Balaguer, Maria; Pastor, Ester; Chirvony, Vladimir; Matveeva, Eugenia

    2008-12-01

    The time changes of photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of porous silicon (porSi) powder during storing in different ambients have been reported. A porous silicon material with embedded Si nanocrystals of size of few nanometers was prepared by an electrochemical method from 10 to 20 Ωcm p-type Si wafers, and both constant and pulse current anodization regimes were used. A powder with a submicron average particle size was obtained by simple mechanical lift-off of the porous layer followed by additional manual milling. The air, hexane, and water as storage media were used, and modification by a nonionic surfactant (undecylenic acid) of the porSi surface was applied in the latter case. Dependence of PL characteristics on preparation and storage conditions was then studied. A remarkable blue shift of a position of PL maximum was observed in time for porSi powders in each storage media. In water suspension a many-fold build-up (10-30) of PL intensity in a time scale of few days was accompanied by an observed blue shift. Photoluminescence time behavior of porSi powders was described by a known mechanism of the change of porSi PL from free exciton emission of Si nanocrystals to luminescence of localized oxidized states on the Si nanocrystal surface.

  15. Effect of Alumina Nanoparticles on the Rheological Behavior of Aluminum-Binder Mixtures for Powder Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Abdoos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of appropriate powder-binder mixtures is the crucial step of powder injection molding process. Hence, the rheological properties of powder-binder mixture are important factors in production of sound parts using powder injection molding. Nowadays, the use of nanoparticles in powder injection molding is increasing due to the improved properties and dimensional precision of the final parts. On the other hand, nanoparticles can initiate problems such as agglomeration and loss of rheological properties and homogeneity. In the present study, the rheological behavior of aluminum mixtures containing nanoalumina particles was investigated. Two powder loadings of aluminum powder (54 vol% and 60 vol%, in which 0, 3, 6 and 9 wt% of aluminum was replaced with nanoalumina, were used. The powder systems were blended with the molten binder system in a banbury internal mixer and the rheological properties of the resulting mixtures were evaluated. All feedstocks showed pseudo-plastic behavior. The presence of nanoparticles increased the viscosity of feedstocks. Due to overwhelming particles cohesion by hydrodynamic forces, the viscosity of the mixtures decreased at high shear rates. Tap density results confirmed an improvement in packing compressibility of the mentioned powders. Shear rate sensitivity decreased with incorporation of nanoparticles into the mixtures. This phenomenon improved the injection capability through further reduction in viscosity.

  16. Effect of the key mixture parameters on shrinkage of reactive powder concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shamsad; Zubair, Ahmed; Maslehuddin, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Reactive powder concrete (RPC) mixtures are reported to have excellent mechanical and durability characteristics. However, such concrete mixtures having high amount of cementitious materials may have high early shrinkage causing cracking of concrete. In the present work, an attempt has been made to study the simultaneous effects of three key mixture parameters on shrinkage of the RPC mixtures. Considering three different levels of the three key mixture factors, a total of 27 mixtures of RPC were prepared according to 3(3) factorial experiment design. The specimens belonging to all 27 mixtures were monitored for shrinkage at different ages over a total period of 90 days. The test results were plotted to observe the variation of shrinkage with time and to see the effects of the key mixture factors. The experimental data pertaining to 90-day shrinkage were used to conduct analysis of variance to identify significance of each factor and to obtain an empirical equation correlating the shrinkage of RPC with the three key mixture factors. The rate of development of shrinkage at early ages was higher. The water to binder ratio was found to be the most prominent factor followed by cement content with the least effect of silica fume content.

  17. Experimental investigation of the fatigue behaviour of asphalt concrete mixtures containing waste iron powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabani, M.; Mirabdolazimi, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → This paper presents the first model of the fatigue behaviour of iron-asphalt mixtures in the world. → This model is able to describe the fatigue behaviour of iron-asphalt under dynamic loading. → Coarse surface, high stiffness and angularity of iron powder lead to enhanced fatigue performance. → The model illustrates that the use of iron powder has a considerable effect on tensile strain of HMA. → The use of this type of waste material could be a helpful solution for less polluted environment. - Abstract: The use of additives and admixtures in the construction of asphalt concrete pavements to strengthen them against dynamic loads has increased considerably in recent years. Recent research has shown that employing desirable waste materials in hot mix asphalts (HMAs) improves their dynamic properties noticeably. The study of some special cases, such as the addition of blast furnace slag and metallic materials of waste electronic instruments to HMA, has led to a considerable increase in the ability of HMAs to tolerate fatigue phenomena and repeated loading. Based on experimental studies, a model is proposed to describe the fatigue behaviour of asphalt mixtures containing waste iron powder. The results of this research show an important increase in the strength of asphalt mixtures containing waste iron powder against fatigue phenomena in comparison to conventional HMAs.

  18. Self-standing silicon-carbon nanotube/graphene by a scalable in situ approach from low-cost Al-Si alloy powder for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hongyan; Han, Kai; Jiang, Heng; Wang, Jingwen; Liu, Hui

    2017-10-01

    Silicon/carbon (Si/C) composite shows great potential to replace graphite as lithium-ion battery (LIB) anode owing to its high theoretical capacity. Exploring low-cost scalable approach for synthesizing Si/C composites with excellent electrochemical performance is critical for practical application of Si/C anodes. In this study, we rationally applied a scalable in situ approach to produce Si-carbon nanotube (Si-CNT) composite via acid etching of commercial inexpensive micro-sized Al-Si alloy powder and CNT mixture. In the Si-CNT composite, ∼10 nm Si particles were uniformly deposited on the CNT surface. After combining with graphene sheets, a flexible self-standing Si-CNT/graphene paper was fabricated with three-dimensional (3D) sandwich-like structure. The in situ presence of CNT during acid-etching process shows remarkable two advantages: providing deposition sites for Si atoms to restrain agglomeration of Si nanoparticles after Al removal from Al-Si alloy powder, increasing the cross-layer conductivity of the paper anode to provide excellent conductive contact sites for each Si nanoparticles. When used as binder-free anode for LIBs without any further treatment, in situ addition of CNT especially plays important role to improve the initial electrochemical activity of Si nanoparticles synthesized from low-cost Al-Si alloy powder, thus resulting in about twice higher capacity than Si/G paper anode. The self-standing Si-CNT/graphene paper anode exhibited a high specific capacity of 1100 mAh g-1 even after 100 cycles at 200 mA g-1 current density with a Coulombic efficiency of >99%. It also showed remarkable rate capability improvement compared to Si/G paper without CNT. The present work demonstrates a low-cost scalable in situ approach from commercial micro-sized Al-Si alloy powder for Si-based composites with specific nanostructure. The Si-CNT/graphene paper is a promising anode candidate with high capacity and cycling stability for LIBs, especially for the

  19. Crystallization kinetics and magnetic properties of FeSiCr amorphous alloy powder cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hu-ping [School of Logistics Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430063 (China); Wang, Ru-wu, E-mail: ruwuwang@hotmail.com [National Engineering Research Center For Silicon Steel, Wuhan 430080 (China); College of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Wei, Ding [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zeng, Chun [National Engineering Research Center For Silicon Steel, Wuhan 430080 (China)

    2015-07-01

    The crystallization kinetics of FeSiCr amorphous alloy, characterized by the crystallization activation energy, Avrami exponent and frequency factor, was studied by non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) measurements. The crystallization activation energy and frequency factor of amorphous alloy calculated from Augis–Bennett model were 476 kJ/mol and 5.5×10{sup 18} s{sup −1}, respectively. The Avrami exponent n was calculated to be 2.2 from the Johnson–Mehl–Avrami (JMA) equation. Toroid-shaped Fe-base amorphous powder cores were prepared from the commercial FeSiCr amorphous alloy powder and subsequent cold pressing using binder and insulation. The characteristics of FeSiCr amorphous alloy powder and the effects of compaction pressure and insulation content on the magnetic properties, i.e., effective permeability μ{sub e}, quality factor Q and DC-bias properties of FeSiCr amorphous alloy powder cores, were investigated. The FeSiCr amorphous alloy powder cores exhibit a high value of quality factor and a stable permeability in the frequency range up to 1 MHz, showing superior DC-bias properties with a “percent permeability” of more than 82% at H=100 Oe. - Highlights: • The crystallization kinetics of FeSiCr amorphous alloy was investigated. • The FeSiCr powder cores exhibit a high value of Q and a stable permeability. • The FeSiCr powder cores exhibit superior DC-bias properties.

  20. Synthesis of SiO(x) powder using DC arc plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chan-Ok; Park, Dong-Wha

    2013-02-01

    SiO(x) was prepared by DC arc plasma and applied to the anode material of lithium ion batteries. A pellet of a mixture of Si and SiO2 was used as the raw material. The ratios of the silicon and silicon dioxide (SiO2) mixtures were varied by controlling the Si-SiO2 molar ratio (Si-SiO2 = 1-4). Hydrogen gas was used as the reduction atmosphere in the chamber. The prepared SiO(x) was collected on the chamber wall. The obtained SiO(x) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD and TEM showed that the phase composition of the prepared particles was composed of amorphous SiO(x) and crystalline Si. The prepared SiO(x) showed wire and spherical morphology. XPS indicated the bonding state and 'x' value of the prepared SiO(x), which was close to one. The result of prepared SiO(x) is discussed from thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. The electrochemical behavior of the silicon monoxide anode was investigated.

  1. Early stages of the mechanical alloying of TiC–TiN powder mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mura, Giovanna; Musu, Elodia; Delogu, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The present work focuses on the alloying behavior of TiC–TiN powder mixtures submitted to mechanical processing by ball milling. Accurate X-ray diffraction analyses indicate a progressive modification of the unit cell parameters of the TiC and TiN phases, suggesting the formation of TiC- and TiN-rich solid solutions with an increasingly larger content of solutes. Once the discrete character of the mechanical treatment is taken into due account, the smooth change of the unit cell parameters can be explained by a sequence of mutual dissolution stages related to individual collisions. At each collision, the average chemical composition of small amounts of TiC- and TiN-rich phases changes discontinuously. The discontinuous changes can be tentatively ascribed to local mass transport processes activated by the mechanical deformation of powders at collisions. -- Highlights: ► Mechanically processed TiC–TiN powder mixtures form two solid solutions. ► An analytical model was developed to describe the mechanical alloying kinetics. ► The amount of powder alloyed at collision was indirectly estimated. ► A few nanomoles of material participate in the alloying process at each collision. ► The chemical composition of the solid solutions was shown to change discontinuously.

  2. Early stages of the mechanical alloying of TiC-TiN powder mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mura, Giovanna [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica ed Elettronica, Universita degli Studi di Cagliari, via Marengo 2, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Musu, Elodia [Industrial Telemicroscopy Laboratory, Sardegna Ricerche, Polaris, Technology Park of Sardinia, Edificio 3, Loc. Piscinamanna, 09010 Pula (Italy); Delogu, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.delogu@dimcm.unica.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Chimica, e dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Cagliari, via Marengo 2, I-09123 Cagliari (Italy)

    2013-01-15

    The present work focuses on the alloying behavior of TiC-TiN powder mixtures submitted to mechanical processing by ball milling. Accurate X-ray diffraction analyses indicate a progressive modification of the unit cell parameters of the TiC and TiN phases, suggesting the formation of TiC- and TiN-rich solid solutions with an increasingly larger content of solutes. Once the discrete character of the mechanical treatment is taken into due account, the smooth change of the unit cell parameters can be explained by a sequence of mutual dissolution stages related to individual collisions. At each collision, the average chemical composition of small amounts of TiC- and TiN-rich phases changes discontinuously. The discontinuous changes can be tentatively ascribed to local mass transport processes activated by the mechanical deformation of powders at collisions. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanically processed TiC-TiN powder mixtures form two solid solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An analytical model was developed to describe the mechanical alloying kinetics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of powder alloyed at collision was indirectly estimated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A few nanomoles of material participate in the alloying process at each collision. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chemical composition of the solid solutions was shown to change discontinuously.

  3. Mixture of fuels for solution combustion synthesis of porous Fe3O4 powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnianfar, H.; Masoudpanah, S. M.; Alamolhoda, S.; Fathi, H.

    2017-06-01

    The solution combustion synthesis of porous magnetite (Fe3O4) powders by a mixture of glycine and urea fuels was investigated concerning the thermodynamic aspects and powder characteristics. The adiabatic combustion temperature and combusted species were thermodynamically calculated as a function of the fuel to oxidant molar ratio (ϕ). The combustion behavior, phase evolution, porous structure and magnetic properties were characterized by thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry, N2 adsorption-desorption, electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry techniques. Nearly single phase Fe3O4 powders were synthesized by the mixture of fuels at ϕ values of 0.75 and 1. The as-combusted Fe3O4 powders at ϕ = 1 exhibited porous structure with the specific surface area of 83.4 m2/g. The highest saturation magnetization of 75.5 emu/g and the lowest coercivity of 84 Oe were achieved at ϕ = 1, due to the high purity and large crystallite size, inducing from the highest adiabatic combustion temperature.

  4. Effect of nano Cu coating on porous Si prepared by acid etching Al-Si alloy powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chunli; Zhang, Ping; Jiang, Zhiyu

    2015-01-01

    As a promising anode material for lithium ion battery, nano-Cu coated porous Si powder was fabricated through two stages: first, preparation of porous nano Si fibers by acid-etching Al-Si alloy powder; second, modified by nano-Cu particles using an electroless plating method. The nano-Cu particles on the surface of nano-Si fibers, not only increase the conductivity of material, but also inhibit the fuse process between nano Si fibers during charge/discharge cycling process, resulting in increased cycling stability of the material. In 1 M LiPF 6 /EC: DMC (1:1) + 1.5 wt% VC solution at current density of 200 mA g −1 , the 150th discharge capacity of nano-Cu coated porous Si electrode was 1651 mAh g −1 with coulombic efficiency of 99%. As anode material for lithium ion battery, nano-Cu coated porous Si nano fiber material is easier to prepare, costs less, and produces higher performance, representing a promising approach for high energy lithium ion battery application

  5. Structure and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe75Si25 powders prepared by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, M.P.C.; Perumal, A.; Srinivasan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe 75 Si 25 powders were prepared by mechanical alloying in a planetary ball mill. The evolution of the microstructure and magnetic properties during the milling process were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and vibrating sample magnetometer measurements. The evolution of non-equilibrium solid solution Fe (Si) during milling was accompanied by refinement of crystallite size down to 10 nm and the introduction of high density of dislocations of the order of 10 17 m -2 . During the milling process, Fe sites get substituted by Si. This structural change and the resulting disorder are reflected in the lattice parameters and average magnetic moment of the powders milled for various time periods. A progressive increase of coercivity was also observed with increasing milling time. The increase of coercivity could be attributed to the introduction of dislocations and reduction of powder particle size as a function of milling time

  6. Microstructure and properties of FeSiCr/PA6 composites by injection molding using FeSiCr powders by phosphating and coupling treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lulu; Qiao, Liang; Zheng, Jingwu; Cai, Wei; Ying, Yao; Li, Wangchang; Che, Shenglei; Yu, Jing

    2018-04-01

    FeSiCr/PA6 composites were prepared by injection molding using the FeSiCr powders modified by different phosphating agents and KH550 coupling agent. The resistivity, impact strength, magnetic permeability and magnetic loss of the FeSiCr/PA6 composites were measured. The morphologies of different FeSiCr powders and the FeSiCr/PA6 composites were also observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, phytic acid and H3PO4 could improve the electrical resistivity of FeSiCr powders by forming the dense phosphating layer except diphenylphosphinic acid. However, the resistivity of FeSiCr/PA6 composites using the FeSiCr powders treated by all the four phosphating agents had no obvious increase though the phosphating layer on the surface of FeSiCr powder came into being. The nylon insulation layer had much stronger influence than the phosphating layer on electrical resistivity of the composites. After adding appropriate KH550 coupling agent, the impact strengths of FeSiCr/PA6 composites were significantly improved, which may be associated with the tiny gap between FeSiCr powder and PA6 matrix. The effects of the phosphating agents on the magnetic permeability and loss of the FeSiCr/PA6 were small and the mechanism were also discussed.

  7. Microstructure and Properties of AlSi10Mg Powder for Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Pengjun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The AlSi10Mg powder was prepared by supersonic gas atomization. After classified, the powder was fabricated into block by selective laser melting (SLM. The microstructure, phase, and evolutions of powder and block were investigated by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and X-Ray Diffraction. The tensile properties of SLM block were tested by tensile experiments at room temperature. The results show that the size distribution of AlSi10Mg powder after classified can meet the requirements of SLM technology. The powder always is spherical and spherical-like. Meanwhile, the microstructure of powders is fine and uniform, which contain α(Al matrix and (α+Si eutectic. In addition, the melt pool boundaries of SLM block are legible. The microstructure is also uniform and densified, the relative density approaches to 99.5%. On the other hand, only α(Al and few Silicon phase are detected in this condition, due to the most alloying elements are dissolved in α(Al matrix. At room temperature, the ultimate tensile strength of SLM block reaches up to 442 MPa.

  8. Ti3SiC2 Synthesis by Powder Metallurgical Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kero, Ida; Antti, Marta-Lena; Odén, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    Titanium silicon carbide MAX phase was synthesised by a powder metallurgical method from ball milled TiC/Si powders of two different compositions, with TiC/Si ratios of 3:2 and 3:2.2 respectively. The cold pressed samples were analysed by dilatometry under flowing argon or sintered under vacuum for different times. The sintered samples were evaluated using x-ray diffraction (XRD). This study showed that titanium carbide was always present as a secondary phase and silicon carbide accompanied t...

  9. Development of Metal/Polymer Mixtures Dedicated to Macro and Micro powder Injection Moulding : Experiments and Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinard, C.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.; Song, J. P.; Cheng, Z. Q.; Liu, B. S.

    2007-01-01

    Important research tasks at ENSMM/LMA are concerned for the development of mixtures of fine powders associated to polymer binders dedicated to the powder injection moulding (PIM) and to the powder injection micro-moulding (μPIM) in accordance with many works already carried out with different feedstock suppliers dedicated to the macro-components. These research tasks are completed with the simulations of injection and sintering for solid state diffusion for to validate the mumerical models

  10. A thermochemical approach to enhance hydrophobicity of SiC/SiO{sub 2} powder using γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane and octylphenol polyoxyethylene ether (7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chunxue; Feng, Dandan; Wang, Xiangke; Li, Zhihong; Zhu, Yumei, E-mail: zhuyumei@tju.edu.cn

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Through the exploration of modification mechanism, the hydrophilic properties of SiC/SiO{sub 2}-KH570-OP-7 were far superior to SiC/SiO{sub 2}-KH570. - Highlights: • A novel universal method is performed to enhance hydrophobicity of SiC/SiO{sub 2} powder. • Through pyrolysis of KH570 and OP-7, hydrophilic groups is grafted. • The hydrophobicity of SiC/SiO{sub 2}-KH570-OP-7 was far superior to SiC/SiO{sub 2}-KH570. • A possible formation mechanism of hydrophilic surface was proposed. • Surface changes on SiC/SiO{sub 2}-KH570-OP-7 powder were analyzed via SEM, FTIR, XPS. - Abstract: A thermochemical synthetic methodology for silicon carbide/silica (SiC/SiO{sub 2}) powder modified by integrating γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane (KH570) and octylphenol polyoxyethylene ether (7) (OP-7) with hydrophilic SiC/SiO{sub 2} particles is described. On account of weak hydrophobicity of SiC/SiO{sub 2} powder modified by KH570 (SiC/SiO{sub 2}-KH570), the study focuses on the improvement of hydrophobicity utilizing alkylation reaction between OP-7 and KH570 at high temperature. Compared with using KH570 alone, SiC/SiO{sub 2} powder modified by KH570 and OP-7 (SiC/SiO{sub 2}-KH570-OP-7) shows better water resistance, and also an increased contact angle from 73.8° to 136.4°, resulting thus an improved hydrophobicity. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), was utilized to characterize these surfaces, and the results indicated that KH570 and OP-7 can be covalently bonded on the surface of SiC/SiO{sub 2} powder. Furthermore, it has been deeply investigated in the paper not only the possible modes of non-oxidative thermal degradation of OP-7 and KH570, but also the formation mechanism of more hydrophobic SiC/SiO{sub 2}-KH570-OP-7 powder, which probably will have a potential utility for other inorganic materials.

  11. Numerical Analysis of the Effect of Particle Shape and Adhesion on the Segregation of Powder Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh Behjani Mohammadreza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Segregation of granules is an undesired phenomenon in which particles in a mixture separate from each other based on the differences in their physical and chemical properties. It is, therefore, crucial to control the homogeneity of the system by applying appropriate techniques. This requires a fundamental understanding of the underlying mechanisms. In this study, the effect of particle shape and cohesion has been analysed. As a model system prone to segregation, a ternary mixture of particles representing the common ingredients of home washing powders, namely, spray dried detergent powders, tetraacetylethylenediamine, and enzyme placebo (as the minor ingredient during heap formation is modelled numerically by the Discrete Element Method (DEM with an aim to investigate the effect of cohesion/adhesion of the minor components on segregation quality. Non-spherical particle shapes are created in DEM using the clumped-sphere method based on their X-ray tomograms. Experimentally, inter particle adhesion is generated by coating the minor ingredient (enzyme placebo with Polyethylene Glycol 400 (PEG 400. The JKR theory is used to model the cohesion/adhesion of coated enzyme placebo particles in the simulation. Tests are carried out experimentally and simulated numerically by mixing the placebo particles (uncoated and coated with the other ingredients and pouring them in a test box. The simulation and experimental results are compared qualitatively and quantitatively. It is found that coating the minor ingredient in the mixture reduces segregation significantly while the change in flowability of the system is negligible.

  12. Production of Al-Si-Fe-Xalloys by Powder Mettalurgy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Školáková, A.; Novák, P.; Vojtěch, D.; Kubatík, Tomáš František

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2014), s. 437-441 ISSN 1213-2489. [Mezinárodní konference „Mikroskopie a nedestruktivní zkoušení materiálů/3./. Litoměřice, 22.10.2014-24.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Aluminium alloys * powder metallurgy * NiTi * mechanical alloying * reactive sintering Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy http://journal.strojirenskatechnologie.cz/templates/obalky_casopis/XIV_2014-3.pdf

  13. Sintering by infiltration of loose mixture of powders, a method for metal matrix composite elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, V.; Orban, R.; Colan, H.

    1993-01-01

    Starting from the observation that Sintering by Infiltration of Loose Mixture of Powders confers large possibilities for both complex shaped and of large dimensions Particulate Reinforced Metal Matrix Composite components elaboration, its mechanism comparative with those of the classical melt infiltration was investigated. Appropriate measures in order to prevent an excessive hydrostatic flow of the melt and, consequently, reinforcement particle dispersion, as well as to promote wetting in both infiltration and liquid phase sintering stages of the process were established as necessary. Some experimental results in the method application to the fusion tungsten carbide and diamond reinforced metal matrix composite elaboration are, also, presented. (orig.)

  14. Laser alloying of Al with mixed Ni, Ti and SiC powders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Laser alloying of aluminium AA1200 was performed with a 4.4kW Rofin Sinar Nd:YAG laser to improve the surface hardness. Alloying was carried out by depositing Ni, Ti and SiC powders of different weight ratios on the aluminium substrate. The aim...

  15. The Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructural Characteristics and Strengthening Mechanisms of NiMo-SiC Alloys Prepared via Powder Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Muránsky, Ondrej; Zhu, Hanliang; Thorogood, Gordon J.; Avdeev, Maxim; Huang, Hefei; Zhou, Xingtai

    2017-01-01

    A new generation of alloys, which rely on a combination of various strengthening mechanisms, has been developed for application in molten salt nuclear reactors. In the current study, a battery of dispersion and precipitation-strengthened (DPS) NiMo-based alloys containing varying amounts of SiC (0.5–2.5 wt %) were prepared from Ni-Mo-SiC powder mixture via a mechanical alloying (MA) route followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and rapid cooling. Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD), Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were employed in the characterization of the microstructural properties of these in-house prepared NiMo-SiC DPS alloys. The study showed that uniformly-dispersed SiC particles provide dispersion strengthening, the precipitation of nano-scale Ni3Si particles provides precipitation strengthening, and the solid-solution of Mo in the Ni matrix provides solid-solution strengthening. It was further shown that the milling time has significant effects on the microstructural characteristics of these alloys. Increased milling time seems to limit the grain growth of the NiMo matrix by producing well-dispersed Mo2C particles during sintering. The amount of grain boundaries greatly increases the Hall–Petch strengthening, resulting in significantly higher strength in the case of 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloys compared with the 8-h-milled alloys. However, it was also shown that the total elongation is considerably reduced in the 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloy due to high porosity. The porosity is a result of cold welding of the powder mixture during the extended milling process. PMID:28772747

  16. The Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructural Characteristics and Strengthening Mechanisms of NiMo-SiC Alloys Prepared via Powder Metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of alloys, which rely on a combination of various strengthening mechanisms, has been developed for application in molten salt nuclear reactors. In the current study, a battery of dispersion and precipitation-strengthened (DPS NiMo-based alloys containing varying amounts of SiC (0.5–2.5 wt % were prepared from Ni-Mo-SiC powder mixture via a mechanical alloying (MA route followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS and rapid cooling. Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD, Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM were employed in the characterization of the microstructural properties of these in-house prepared NiMo-SiC DPS alloys. The study showed that uniformly-dispersed SiC particles provide dispersion strengthening, the precipitation of nano-scale Ni3Si particles provides precipitation strengthening, and the solid-solution of Mo in the Ni matrix provides solid-solution strengthening. It was further shown that the milling time has significant effects on the microstructural characteristics of these alloys. Increased milling time seems to limit the grain growth of the NiMo matrix by producing well-dispersed Mo2C particles during sintering. The amount of grain boundaries greatly increases the Hall–Petch strengthening, resulting in significantly higher strength in the case of 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloys compared with the 8-h-milled alloys. However, it was also shown that the total elongation is considerably reduced in the 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloy due to high porosity. The porosity is a result of cold welding of the powder mixture during the extended milling process.

  17. The Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructural Characteristics and Strengthening Mechanisms of NiMo-SiC Alloys Prepared via Powder Metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Muránsky, Ondrej; Zhu, Hanliang; Thorogood, Gordon J; Avdeev, Maxim; Huang, Hefei; Zhou, Xingtai

    2017-04-06

    A new generation of alloys, which rely on a combination of various strengthening mechanisms, has been developed for application in molten salt nuclear reactors. In the current study, a battery of dispersion and precipitation-strengthened (DPS) NiMo-based alloys containing varying amounts of SiC (0.5-2.5 wt %) were prepared from Ni-Mo-SiC powder mixture via a mechanical alloying (MA) route followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and rapid cooling. Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD), Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were employed in the characterization of the microstructural properties of these in-house prepared NiMo-SiC DPS alloys. The study showed that uniformly-dispersed SiC particles provide dispersion strengthening, the precipitation of nano-scale Ni₃Si particles provides precipitation strengthening, and the solid-solution of Mo in the Ni matrix provides solid-solution strengthening. It was further shown that the milling time has significant effects on the microstructural characteristics of these alloys. Increased milling time seems to limit the grain growth of the NiMo matrix by producing well-dispersed Mo₂C particles during sintering. The amount of grain boundaries greatly increases the Hall-Petch strengthening, resulting in significantly higher strength in the case of 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloys compared with the 8-h-milled alloys. However, it was also shown that the total elongation is considerably reduced in the 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloy due to high porosity. The porosity is a result of cold welding of the powder mixture during the extended milling process.

  18. Formation of nanocrystalline and amorphous phase of Al-Pb-Si-Sn-Cu powder during mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran Guang; Zhou Jingen; Xi Shengqi; Li Pengliang

    2006-01-01

    Al-15%Pb-4%Si-1%Sn-1.5%Cu alloys (mass fraction, %) were prepared by mechanical alloying (MA). Phase transformation and microstructure characteristics of the alloy powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the nanocrystalline supersaturated solid solutions and amorphous phase in the powders are obtained during MA. The effect of ball milling is more evident to lead than to aluminum. During MA, the mixture powders are firstly fined, alloyed, nanocrystallized and then the nanocrystalline partly transforms to amorphous phase. A thermodynamic model is developed based on semi-experimental theory of Miedema to calculate the driving force for phase evolution. The thermodynamic analysis shows that there is no chemical driving force to form a crystalline solid solution from the elemental components. But for the amorphous phase, the Gibbs free energy is higher than 0 for the alloy with lead content in the ranges of 0-86.8 at.% and 98.4-100 at.% and lower than 0 in range of 86.8-98.4 at.%. For the Al-2.25 at.%Pb (Al-15%Pb, mass fraction, %), the driving force for formation of amorphization and nanocrystalline supersaturated solid solutions are provided not by the negative heat of mixing but by mechanical work

  19. The analysis of lightweight brick strength pressure with mixture of glass powder and silica fume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursyamsi; Liang, William

    2018-03-01

    Little by little the engineers research how the development of concrete that can utilize waste. In the utilization of the waste, it can be functioned as mixing material which the chemical or the physical traits of the used goods contain similarity to the mixture of concrete in general, one of them is glass powder as the substitute of cement. The glass powder that utilizes is the one that is sifted through sieve No. 200 as much as 10% of the weight of the cement. The testing specimen of the concrete brick is make of the mixture with the ratio of 1:7, then is added with the foaming agent (1:30) and silica fume (10% of the weight of the cement). Furthermore, visual examination, absorption, net weight and testing specimen compressive strength. The data analysis uses the reference of SNI 03 – 0349 – 1989 regarding Concrete Brick for the Match for the Wall. Foaming Agent is make by using modified hand drill and brace. The testing specimen uses the brick mold with the size of 40 cm x 20cm x 10 cm. Based on this research, it shows that the quality that results from brick is still qualified based on SNI 03 – 0349 – 1989.

  20. Laser alloying of AI with mixed Ni, Ti and SiC powders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available composite (MMC) is formed. The MMC layer has excellent hardness and wear resistance compared to the base alloy [9-13]. Man et al. [14] used a high power continuous wave Nd:YAG laser to alloy aluminium AA 6061 with preplaced NiTi (54 wt% Ni & 46 wt...Al, Ti3Al, SiC, Al and Si phases. The hardness increased from 75HV to 650HV due to the formation of the TiC particles and TiAl and Ti3Al intermetallics. Su and Lei [9] laser cladded Al-12wt%Si with a powder containing SiC and Al-12wt%Si in a 3...

  1. Phenolic and physicochemical stability of a functional beverage powder mixture during storage: effect of the microencapsulant inulin and food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Dalene; Pauck, Claire E; Aucamp, Marique; Liebenberg, Wilna; Stieger, Nicole; van der Rijst, Marieta; Joubert, Elizabeth

    2018-06-01

    The need for a convenience herbal iced tea product with reduced kilojoules merited investigation of the shelf-life of powder mixtures containing a green Cyclopia subternata Vogel (honeybush) extract with proven blood glucose-lowering activity and alternative sweetener mixture. Prior to long-term storage testing, the wettability of powder mixtures containing food ingredients and the compatibility of their components were confirmed using the static sessile drop method and isothermal microcalorimetry, respectively. The powders packed in semi-sealed containers remained stable during storage at 25 °C/60% relative humidity (RH) for 6 months, except for small losses of specific phenolic compounds, namely mangiferin, isomangiferin, 3-β-d-glucopyranosyliriflophenone, vicenin-2 and 3',5'-di-β-d-glucopyranosylphloretin, especially when both citric acid and ascorbic acid were present. These acids drastically increased the degradation of phenolic compounds under accelerated storage conditions (40 °C/75% RH). Accelerated storage also caused changes in the appearance of powders and the colour of the reconstituted beverage solutions. Increased moisture content and a w of the powders, as well as moisture released due to dehydration of citric acid monohydrate, contributed to these changes. A low-kilojoule honeybush iced tea powder mixture will retain its functional phenolic compounds and physicochemical properties during shelf-life storage at 25 °C for 6 months. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Mg-Si-Cu matrix composites reinforced with AINp. processed by extrusion of powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, J. L.; Amigo, V.; Salvador, M. D.; Perz, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents an experimental investigation on the structure and mechanical properties of an Al-Mg-Si-Cu P/M alloy reinforced with 5%, 10% and 15% aluminum nitride, produced by extrusion of cold compacted powders mixtures. Mechanical properties in as extruded and T6 conditions are compared. Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Dilatometric analysis were conducted to gain further insight into the precipitation process of these materials. Low cost 6061 Al/AINp composites can be produced with rate and small porosity by extrusion of cold compacted shapes without canning. The mechanical properties of the MMCs obtained by this process have limitations for high particles fractions because of clustering effects. All materials are always harder than the matrix and shows a similar behavior during aging processes but kinetics is changed. Potential applications of dilatometric techniques in the aging investigations of aluminum alloys and aluminum matrix composites have been established. (Author) 23 refs

  3. Evaluation of drug-carrier interactions in quaternary powder mixtures containing perindopril tert-butylamine and indapamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkel, Adam; Milczewska, Kasylda; Teżyk, Michał; Milanowski, Bartłomiej; Lulek, Janina

    2016-04-30

    Interactions occurring between components in the quaternary powder mixtures consisting of perindopril tert-butylamine, indapamide (active pharmaceutical ingredients), carrier substance and hydrophobic colloidal silica were examined. Two grades of lactose monohydrate: Spherolac(®) 100 and Granulac(®) 200 and two types of microcrystalline cellulose: M101D+ and Vivapur(®) 102 were used as carriers. We determined the size distribution (laser diffraction method), morphology (scanning electron microscopy) and a specific surface area of the powder particles (by nitrogen adsorption-desorption). For the determination of the surface energy of powder mixtures the method of inverse gas chromatography was applied. Investigated mixtures were characterized by surface parameters (dispersive component of surface energy, specific interactions parameters, specific surface area), work of adhesion and cohesion as well as Flory-Huggins parameter χ23('). Results obtained for all quaternary powder mixtures indicate existence of interactions between components. The strongest interactions occur for both blends with different types of microcrystalline cellulose (PM-1 and PM-4) while much weaker ones for powder mixtures with various types of lactose (PM-2 and PM-3). Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Similarities and Differences in Mechanical Alloying Processes of V-Si-B and Mo-Si-B Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manja Krüger

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available V-Si-B and Mo-Si-B alloys are currently the focus of materials research due to their excellent high temperature capabilities. To optimize the mechanical alloying (MA process for these materials, we compare microstructures, morphology and particles size as well as hardness evolution during the milling process for the model alloys V-9Si-13B and Mo-9Si-8B. A variation of the rotational speed of the planetary ball mill and the type of grinding materials is therefore investigated. These modifications result in different impact energies during ball-powder-wall collisions, which are quantitatively described in this comparative study. Processing with tungsten carbide vials and balls provides slightly improved impact energies compared to vials and balls made of steel. However, contamination of the mechanically alloyed powders with flaked particles of tungsten carbide is unavoidable. In the case of using steel grinding materials, Fe contaminations are also detectable, which are solved in the V and Mo solid solution phases, respectively. Typical mechanisms that occur during the MA process such as fracturing and comminution are analyzed using the comminution rate KP. In both alloys, the welding processes are more pronounced compared to the fracturing processes.

  5. Grinding Si3N4 Powder In Si3N4 Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbell, Thomas P.; Freedman, Marc R.; Kiser, James D.

    1989-01-01

    Three methods of grinding compared. Report based on study of grinding silicon nitride powder in preparation for sintering into solid ceramic material. Attrition, vibratory, and ball mills lined with reaction-bonded silicon nitride tested. Rates of reduction of particle sizes and changes in chemical compositions of powders measured so grinding efficiences and increases in impurity contents from wear of mills and media evaluated for each technique.

  6. Studies on the formation of aluminides in heated Nb–Al powder mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sina, H.; Iyengar, S.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Combustion initiates with NbAl{sub 3} formation above the melting point of aluminum. • Nb + 3Al samples yield almost 100% NbAl{sub 3} after combustion. • Nb-rich samples yield multi-phase products after heating to 1000 °C. • Reacted Nb-rich samples yield stable phases on reheating. • For NbAl{sub 3}, calculations show ΔH{sub formation} = −153 ± 15, E{sub activation} = 255 ± 26 kJ mol{sup −1}. - Abstract: The formation of aluminides during the heating of Nb–Al powder mixtures with different initial compositions (25, 33.3 and 75 at.% Al) has been studied using a differential scanning calorimeter. The effect of parameters like particle size, compaction and heating rate on the onset temperature of reaction has been determined. The results show that an increase in heating rate leads to an increase in onset temperature for compacted as well as loose powder samples in the particle size range considered. For Al-rich mixtures, compaction increases the onset temperature irrespective of particle size. For all samples, finer aluminum particles and slower heating rates resulted in a decrease in onset temperature while higher aluminum contents in the mixture led to a higher reaction temperature. In Nb-rich samples, compaction led to a decrease in the onset temperatures. NbAl{sub 3} was the first compound to form in all the mixtures, irrespective of the initial composition. After heating to 1000 °C, EDS and XRD analyses confirmed the formation of only NbAl{sub 3} in Al-rich samples and a mixture of NbAl{sub 3} and Nb{sub 2}Al along with unreacted niobium particles in Nb-rich samples. A subsequent heat treatment was necessary to obtain a single aluminide corresponding to the initial composition. These observations can be explained on the basis of niobium dissolution in molten aluminum and subsequent precipitation of NbAl{sub 3} in Al-rich samples and solid state diffusion through Nb{sub 3}Al and Nb{sub 2}Al phases in Nb-rich samples. For Nb

  7. The structure-property relationships of powder processed Fe-Al-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prichard, Paul D. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1998-02-23

    Iron-aluminum alloys have been extensively evaluated as semi-continuous product such as sheet and bar, but have not been evaluated by net shape P/M processing techniques such as metal injection molding. The alloy compositions of iron-aluminum alloys have been optimized for room temperature ductility, but have limited high temperature strength. Hot extruded powder alloys in the Fe-Al-Si system have developed impressive mechanical properties, but the effects of sintering on mechanical properties have not been explored. This investigation evaluated three powder processed Fe-Al-Si alloys: Fe-15Al, Fe-15Al-2.8Si, Fe-15Al-5Si (atomic %). The powder alloys were produced with a high pressure gas atomization (HPGA) process to obtain a high fraction of metal injection molding (MIM) quality powder (D84 < 32 μm). The powders were consolidated either by P/M hot extrusion or by vacuum sintering. The extruded materials were near full density with grain sizes ranging from 30 to 50 μm. The vacuum sintering conditions produced samples with density ranging from 87% to 99% of theoretical density, with an average grain size ranging from 26 μm to 104 μm. Mechanical property testing was conducted on both extruded and sintered material using a small punch test. Tensile tests were conducted on extruded bar for comparison with the punch test data. Punch tests were conducted from 25 to 550 C to determine the yield strength, and fracture energy for each alloy as a function of processing condition. The ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) was observed to increase with an increasing silicon content. The Fe-15Al-2.8Si alloy was selected for more extensive testing due to the combination of high temperature strength and low temperature toughness due to the two phase α + DO3 structure. This investigation provided a framework for understanding the effects of silicon in powder processing and mechanical property behavior of Fe-Al-Si alloys.

  8. Effect of heat treatment on Fe-B-Si-Nb alloy powder prepared by mechanical alloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Estevam Coelho

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat treatment on crystallization behavior of Fe73.5B15Si10Nb1.5 alloy powder prepared by mechanical alloying was studied. The powder samples were prepared by mechanical alloying (MA and for different milling times (1, 5, 25, 70 and 100 hours. Crystalline powders of iron, boron, silicon and niobium were sealed with tungsten carbide balls in a cylindrical vial under nitrogen atmosphere. The ball-to-powder weight ratio was 20 to 1. A Fritsch Pulverizette 5 planetary ball mill was used for MA the powders at room temperature and at 250 rpm. To study the microstructural evolution, a small amount of powder was collected after different milling times and examined by X-ray diffraction, using CuKalpha radiation (lambda = 0.15418 nm. The crystallization behavior was studied by differential thermal analysis, from 25 up to 1000 °C at a heating rate of 25 °C min-1.

  9. CONSOLIDATION AND COMPACTION OF POWDER MIXTURES .1. BINARY-MIXTURES OF SAME PARTICLE-SIZE FRACTIONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CRYSTALLINE LACTOSE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIEPMA, KA; LERK, CF; DEBOER, AH; BOLHUIS, GK; KUSSENDRAGER, KD

    1990-01-01

    Binary powder mixtures of four different types of crystalline lactose: alpha-lactose monohydrate, anhydrous alpha-lactose, roller-dried beta-lactose and crystalline beta-lactose, were compressed into tablets. The results showed a proportional intercorrelation of the crushing strength and internal

  10. Investigation of Shock-Induced Reactions in a Ni+Al Powder Mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakins, D. E.; Thadhani, N. N.

    2006-01-01

    The shock-compression and reaction response of equi-volumetric micron-scale (∼50-60% dense) spherical nickel and aluminum powder mixtures is investigated in the range of the calculated crush-up pressure (P = 0.4 GPa) and up to 6 GPa. Time resolved stress measurements (using PVDF gauges) coupled with VISAR data is used to determine the shock states. Evidence of reaction or lack thereof is inferred by comparing the measured states with calculated Hugoniot state of reaction products based on the ballotechnic model proposed by Bennett and Horie, (Shock Waves 4:127-136). Post-impact micro-structural analysis of recovered material and comparison of calculated and measured product states is used to establish the criterion for reaction occurring in the shock or post-shock states

  11. An amorphous Si-O film tribo-induced by natural hydrosilicate powders on ferrous surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Baosen; Xu, Binshi; Xu, Yi; Ba, Zhixin; Wang, Zhangzhong

    2013-01-01

    The tribological properties of surface-coated serpentine powders suspended in oil were evaluated using an Optimal SRV-IV oscillating friction and wear tester. The worn surface and the tribo-induced protective film were characterized by scanning electron microscope and focused ion beam (SEM/FIB) work station, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results indicate that with 0.5 wt% addition of serpentine powders to oil, the friction coefficient and wear rate significantly decrease referenced to those of the base oil alone. An amorphous SiO x film with amorphous SiO x particles inserted has formed on the worn surface undergoing the interactions between serpentine particles and friction surfaces. The protective film with excellent lubricating ability and mechanical properties is responsible for the reduced friction and wear.

  12. Hydrogen production from nano-porous Si powder formed by stain etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, S.; Alekseev, S.; Kuznetsov, G.; Skryshevsky, V. [Institute of High Technology of National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv, Volodymyrs' ka 64, Kyiv 01601 (Ukraine); Lysenko, V.; Barbier, D. [Lyon Institute of Nanotechnologies (INL), CNRS UMR-5270, University of Lyon, INSA de Lyon, 7 avenue Jean Capelle, Bat. Blaise Pascal, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Venturello, A.; Geobaldo, F.; Garrone, E. [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, 10129 Torino (Italy); Gulina, L.; Tolstoy, V. [St-Petersburg State University, Chemical Department (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-15

    Hydrogen reservoirs based on porous silicon (PS) nanostructures are considered. Silicon-based hydrogen tanks are believed to be applicable for portable device energy supply and compatible with micro-sources of energy of new generation. Stain etching of silicon powder to produce PS is studied as a technology alternative to conventional electrochemical etching and application of the PS powder for hydrogen production is also described. Size selection of initial Si micro-particles constituting the powders was carried out by sedimentation technique. Hydrogen content in PS was investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. Extraction of hydrogen in water environment in presence of small amount of NH{sub 3} as catalyst was shown to have advantages such as safety and tunability, additional production of hydrogen from water dissociation, and a possibility to characterize PS as a hydrogen source material in terms of hydrogen effective shell and crystalline core conception. (author)

  13. Synthesis of a TiBw/Ti6Al4V composite by powder compact extrusion using a blended powder mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Huiyang, E-mail: hl209@waikato.ac.nz [Waikato Center for Advanced Materials, School of Engineering, University of Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand); Zhang, Deliang, E-mail: zhangdeliang@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Gabbitas, Brian, E-mail: briang@waikato.ac.nz [Waikato Center for Advanced Materials, School of Engineering, University of Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand); Yang, Fei, E-mail: fyang@waikato.ac.nz [Waikato Center for Advanced Materials, School of Engineering, University of Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand); Matthews, Steven, E-mail: S.Matthews@massey.ac.nz [School of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Massey University, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • TiB/Ti6Al4V composites were prepared from extruded BE powders. • Different starting powders affected the morphologies of TiB whiskers formed in-situ. • A TiB/Ti6Al4V composite with TiB whiskers had good strength and ductility. • The strength and ductility achieved were superior to those obtained by other methods. - Abstract: A Ti–6 wt%Al–4 wt%V alloy (Ti6Al4V) matrix composite, reinforced by in situ synthesized TiB whiskers (TiBw) has been successfully fabricated by powder compact extrusion using a blended powder mixture. The microstructural characterization of the various extruded samples showed that the different starting powders, pre-alloyed powder plus boron powder or titanium plus Al–40V master alloy powder plus boron powder, had a significant effect on the morphology of the in situ synthesized TiB whiskers. It is also evident that the TiB whiskers affect the microstructural evolution of the Ti6Al4V matrix. The tensile test results indicated that the composite with a dispersion of fine TiB whiskers with high aspect ratios exhibited a high ultimate tensile stress (UTS) and yield stress (YS) of 1436 MPa and 1361 MPa, respectively, a reasonably good tensile ductility reflected by an elongation to fracture of 5.6% was also achieved. This is a significant improvement compared with as-extruded monolithic Ti6Al4V alloy produced in this study.

  14. Synthesis of a TiBw/Ti6Al4V composite by powder compact extrusion using a blended powder mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Huiyang; Zhang, Deliang; Gabbitas, Brian; Yang, Fei; Matthews, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • TiB/Ti6Al4V composites were prepared from extruded BE powders. • Different starting powders affected the morphologies of TiB whiskers formed in-situ. • A TiB/Ti6Al4V composite with TiB whiskers had good strength and ductility. • The strength and ductility achieved were superior to those obtained by other methods. - Abstract: A Ti–6 wt%Al–4 wt%V alloy (Ti6Al4V) matrix composite, reinforced by in situ synthesized TiB whiskers (TiBw) has been successfully fabricated by powder compact extrusion using a blended powder mixture. The microstructural characterization of the various extruded samples showed that the different starting powders, pre-alloyed powder plus boron powder or titanium plus Al–40V master alloy powder plus boron powder, had a significant effect on the morphology of the in situ synthesized TiB whiskers. It is also evident that the TiB whiskers affect the microstructural evolution of the Ti6Al4V matrix. The tensile test results indicated that the composite with a dispersion of fine TiB whiskers with high aspect ratios exhibited a high ultimate tensile stress (UTS) and yield stress (YS) of 1436 MPa and 1361 MPa, respectively, a reasonably good tensile ductility reflected by an elongation to fracture of 5.6% was also achieved. This is a significant improvement compared with as-extruded monolithic Ti6Al4V alloy produced in this study

  15. Elaboration of silicon carbides nano particles (SiC): from the powder synthesis to the sintered ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reau, A.

    2008-01-01

    Materials for the reactor cores of the fourth generation will need materials supporting high temperatures with fast neutrons flux. SiC f /SiC ceramics are proposed. One of the possible elaboration process is to fill SiC fiber piece with nano particles SiC powder and to strengthen by sintering. The aim of this thesis is to obtain a nano structured SiC ceramic as a reference for the SiC f /SiC composite development and to study the influence of the fabrication parameters. (A.L.B.)

  16. Morphological and Wear behaviour of new Al-SiCmicro-SiCnano hybrid nanocomposites fabricated through powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Sajjad; Tanwir Alam, Md; Aziz, Tariq; Ansari, Akhter H.

    2018-04-01

    In the present work, aluminium matrix composites reinforced with 10 wt% SiC micro particles along with x% SiC nano particles (x = 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 wt%) were fabricated through powder metallurgy. The fabricated hybrid composites were characterized by x-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) and elemental mapping. The relative density, hardness and wear behaviour of all hybrid nanocomposites were studied. The influence of various control factors like SiC reinforcement, sliding distance (300, 600, 900 and 1200 m) and applied load (20, 30 and 40 N) were explored using pin-on-disc wear apparatus. The uniform distribution of micro and nano SiC particles in aluminium matrix is confirmed by elemental maps. The hardness and wear test results showed that properties of the hybrid composite containing 5 wt% nano SiC was better than other hybrid composites. Additionally, the wear loss of all hybrid nanocomposites increases with increasing sliding distance and applied load. The identification of wear phenomenon were studied through the SEM images of worn surface.

  17. Laser Printing of Superhydrophobic Patterns from Mixtures of Hydrophobic Silica Nanoparticles and Toner Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chi-Vinh; Chun, Doo-Man

    2016-11-08

    In this work, a new and facile dry printing method was developed for the direct fabrication of superhydrophobic patterns based on silica nanoparticles. Mixtures of hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles and toner powder were printed on paper and polymer sheets using a commercial laser printer to produce the superhydrophobic patterns. The mixing ratio of the toner powder (for the laser printer) to hydrophobic silica was also investigated to optimize both the printing quality and the superhydrophobicity of the printed areas. The proper mixing ratio was then used to print various superhydrophobic patterns, including triangular, square, circular, and complex arrangements, to demonstrate that superhydrophobic surfaces with different patterns can be fabricated in a few seconds without any post-processing. The superhydrophobicity of each sample was evaluated by contact angle measurements, and all printed areas showed contact angles greater than 150°. The research described here opens the possibility of rapid production of superhydrophobic surfaces with various patterns. Ultimately, the obtained findings may have a significant impact on applications related to self-cleaning, control of water geometry and position, fluid mixing and fluid transport.

  18. Laser Printing of Superhydrophobic Patterns from Mixtures of Hydrophobic Silica Nanoparticles and Toner Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chi-Vinh; Chun, Doo-Man

    2016-11-01

    In this work, a new and facile dry printing method was developed for the direct fabrication of superhydrophobic patterns based on silica nanoparticles. Mixtures of hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles and toner powder were printed on paper and polymer sheets using a commercial laser printer to produce the superhydrophobic patterns. The mixing ratio of the toner powder (for the laser printer) to hydrophobic silica was also investigated to optimize both the printing quality and the superhydrophobicity of the printed areas. The proper mixing ratio was then used to print various superhydrophobic patterns, including triangular, square, circular, and complex arrangements, to demonstrate that superhydrophobic surfaces with different patterns can be fabricated in a few seconds without any post-processing. The superhydrophobicity of each sample was evaluated by contact angle measurements, and all printed areas showed contact angles greater than 150°. The research described here opens the possibility of rapid production of superhydrophobic surfaces with various patterns. Ultimately, the obtained findings may have a significant impact on applications related to self-cleaning, control of water geometry and position, fluid mixing and fluid transport.

  19. Joining of CBN abrasive grains to medium carbon steel with Ag-Cu/Ti powder mixture as active brazing alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, W.F.; Xu, J.H.; Shen, M.; Su, H.H.; Fu, Y.C.; Xiao, B.

    2006-01-01

    In order to develop new generation brazed CBN grinding wheels, the joining experiments of CBN abrasive grains and medium carbon steel using the powder mixture of Ag-Cu alloy and pure Ti as active brazing alloy are carried out at elevated temperature under high vacuum condition. The relevant characteristics of the special powder mixture, the microstructure of the interfacial region, which are both the key factors for determining the joining behavior among the CBN grains, the filler layer and the steel substrate, are investigated extensively by means of differential thermal analysis (DTA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersion spectrometer (EDS), as well X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The results show that, similar to Ag-Cu-Ti filler alloy, Ag-Cu/Ti powder mixture exhibits good soakage capability to CBN grains during brazing. Moreover, Ti in the powder mixture concentrates preferentially on the surface of the grains to form a layer of needlelike Ti-N and Ti-B compounds by chemical metallurgic interaction between Ti, N and B at high temperature. Additionally, based on the experimental results, the brazing and joining mechanism is deeply discussed in a view of thermodynamic criterion and phase diagram of Ti-B-N ternary system

  20. Comparison Study on Additive Manufacturing (AM) and Powder Metallurgy (PM) AlSi10Mg Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.; Moon, S. K.; Yao, X.; Bi, G.; Shen, J.; Umeda, J.; Kondoh, K.

    2018-02-01

    The microstructural and mechanical properties of AlSi10Mg alloys fabricated by additive manufacturing (AM) and powder metallurgy (PM) routes were investigated and compared. The microstructures were examined by scanning electron microscopy assisted with electron-dispersive spectroscopy. The crystalline features were studied by x-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. Room-temperature tensile tests and Vickers hardness measurements were performed to characterize the mechanical properties. It was found that the AM alloy had coarser Al grains but much finer Si precipitates compared with the PM alloy. Consequently, the AM alloy showed more than 100% increment in strength and hardness compared with the PM alloy due to the presence of ultrafine forms of Si, while exhibiting moderate ductility.

  1. Cast AlSi9Cu4 alloy with hybride strenghtened by Fe{sub x}Al{sub y}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piatkowski, J [Department of Materials Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Krasinskiego 8, 40-019 Katowice (Poland); Formanek, B, E-mail: jaroslaw.piatkowski@polsl.pl, E-mail: boleslaw.formanek@polsl.pl [Department of Materials Science, Silesian University of Technology, Krasinskiego 8, 40-019 Katowice (Poland)

    2011-05-15

    The main objective of the study was to develop a technology of dispersion strenghtened hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy. The article presented the materials and technology conception for producing aluminium matrix composite AlSi9Cu4Fe alloy with hybride reinforcement of Al{sub x}Fe{sub y} intermetallic and aluminium oxide powders. Composite powder obtained in mechanical agllomerisation mixture of elemental powders. Changes in the structure were confirmed by TA and ATD thermal analyses plotting the solidification curves, which showed a decrease in temperature T{sub liq} compared to the unmodified alloy and an exothermic effect originating from the crystallisation of eutectics with alloying elements. The examinations carried out by SEM and BSE as well as the determination of local chemical composition by EDX technique have characterised the structure of the alloy as containing some binary Al-Si-Al-Cu and Al-Fe eutectics and multicomponent eutectics.

  2. Sol-gel synthesis and structure of La2O3–CoO–SiO2 powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachezar Radev

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available LaCoO3 powders are studied because they exhibit interesting electrical, magnetic and catalytic properties. In this paper, new synthesized La2O3-CoO-SiO2 powders with different quantity of silica were prepared via solgel method in aqua media, starting from metal nitrates with different chelating agents. The relation between the reaction in solution, crystallization pathway and morphology were discussed. In LaCoO3-SiO2 powders, depending on the content of SiO2 and the treatment temperature (700–1100°C, different crystalline phases (LaCoO3, Co2SiO4 and La9.31(SiO46O2 were observed with the crystallite sizes ranging from 50 to 100 nm. It was proved that chemical composition and nature of used additives has influence on the phase formation and structure of obtained nanomaterials.

  3. Mixture of fuels for solution combustion synthesis of porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parnianfar, H.; Masoudpanah, S.M., E-mail: masoodpanah@iust.ac.ir; Alamolhoda, S.; Fathi, H.

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Mixture of glycine and urea fuels was applied for solution combustion synthesis of Fe3O4 powders. • The phase and crystallite size of the as-combusted powders depends on the fuel to oxidant ratio (ϕ). • The maximum density (0.033 cm{sup 3}/g) was observed for the as-combusted powders at ϕ = 1. • The highest Ms of 75.5 emu/g and the lowest Hc of 84 Oe were achieved at ϕ = 1. - Abstract: The solution combustion synthesis of porous magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) powders by a mixture of glycine and urea fuels was investigated concerning the thermodynamic aspects and powder characteristics. The adiabatic combustion temperature and combusted species were thermodynamically calculated as a function of the fuel to oxidant molar ratio (ϕ). The combustion behavior, phase evolution, porous structure and magnetic properties were characterized by thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry, N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption, electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry techniques. Nearly single phase Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} powders were synthesized by the mixture of fuels at ϕ values of 0.75 and 1. The as-combusted Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} powders at ϕ = 1 exhibited porous structure with the specific surface area of 83.4 m{sup 2}/g. The highest saturation magnetization of 75.5 emu/g and the lowest coercivity of 84 Oe were achieved at ϕ = 1, due to the high purity and large crystallite size, inducing from the highest adiabatic combustion temperature.

  4. Application of the laser pyrolysis to the synthesis of SiC, TiC and ZrC pre-ceramics nano-powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leconte, Y.; Maskrot, H.; Combemale, L.; Herlin-Boime, N.; Reynaud, C.

    2007-01-01

    Refractory carbide nano-structured ceramics appear to be promising materials for high temperature applications requiring hard materials such as nuclear energy industry. Such carbide materials are usually obtained with micrometric sizes from the high temperature carbo-reduction of an oxide phase in a raw mixture of C black and titania or zirconia. TiC and ZrC nano-powders were produced from an intimate mixture of oxide nano-grains with free C synthesized by laser pyrolysis from the decomposition of a liquid precursor. The temperature and the duration of the thermal treatment leading to the carburization were decreased, allowing the preservation of the nano-scaled size of the starting grains. A solution of titanium iso-prop-oxide was laser-pyrolyzed with ethylene as sensitizer in order to synthesize Ti/C/O powders. These powders were composed of crystalline TiO 2 nano-grains mixed with C. Annealing under argon enabled the formation of TiC through the carburization of TiO 2 by free C. The final TiC mean grain size was about 80 nm. Zr/O/C powders were prepared from a solution of zirconium butoxide and were composed of ZrO 2 crystalline nano-grains and free C. The same thermal treatment as for TiC, but at higher temperature, showed the formation of crystalline ZrC with a final mean grain size of about 40 nm. These two liquid routes of nano-particles synthesis are also compared to the very efficient gaseous route of SiC nano-powders synthesis from a mixture of silane and acetylene. (authors)

  5. Successive carbon- and boron saturation of KhVG steel in powder mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alimov, Yu A; Gordienko, S I

    1975-01-01

    Method of successive saturation of KhVG steel with carbon and boron in powder mixtures is described. After carbonization of steel in a charcoal carburator at 930 deg C during 3 hrs a domain of equiaxial large grains is formed there the latter representing carbides of Fe/sub 3/C and (Fe, M)/sub 3/C. The increase of duration of carbonization up to 5 hrs and above results in formation of a cement grid greatly impairing the mechanical properties of the metal. Carbonization is followed by borating in powdered technical boron carbide at 900 deg C for 4 hrs which ensures formation on the sample surface of a borated layer with depth up to 65 mkm covering the carbonized zone. As followed from metallographic and x-ray structural analysis, the borated layer consists of boride needles with complex composition (Fe, Cr, Mn)B. Oil hardening of carbonized KhVG steel from 850 deg C and low-temperature tempering at 180 deg C for 1 hr results in formation in the main metal of martensite-carbide structure and, respectively, in the decrease of the microhardness gradient between the diffusion layers, as compared with borated KhVG steel. Operation tests of strengthened matrices of preforming machines under the conditions of application of dynamic pressing forces up to 1500 kg Fce/cm/sup 2/ demonstrated that the cyclical strength of carboborated coverings is 2.0-3.0 times higher than that of borated ones. The method of carboborating is recommended for strengthening the details of stamp and press tools.

  6. Preliminary study in development of glass-ceramic based on SiO2-LiO2 system, starting of different SiO2 starting powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daguano, J.K.M.F.; Santos, F.A.; Santos, C.; Marton, L.F.M.; Conte, R.A.; Rodrigues Junior, D.; Melo, F.C.L.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, lithium disilicate glass-ceramics were developed starting of the rice ash- SiO 2 and Li 2 CO 3 powders. The results were compared with glass ceramics based on the lithium disilicate obtained by commercial SiO 2 powders. Glass were melted at 1580 deg C, and annealed at 850 deg C. X-Ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used for characterization of the materials, and hardness and fracture toughness were evaluated using Vickers indentation method. Glasses with amorphous structure were obtained in both materials. After annealing, 'rice-ash' samples presented Li 2 SiO 3 and residual SiO 2 as crystalline phases. On the other side, commercial SiO 2 - Samples presented only Li 2 Si 2 O 5 as crystalline phases and the better results of hardness and fracture toughness. (author)

  7. Powder X-ray diffraction method for the quantification of cocrystals in the crystallization mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrela, Luis; de Azevedo, Edmundo Gomes; Velaga, Sitaram P

    2012-08-01

    The solid state purity of cocrystals critically affects their performance. Thus, it is important to accurately quantify the purity of cocrystals in the final crystallization product. The aim of this study was to develop a powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) quantification method for investigating the purity of cocrystals. The method developed was employed to study the formation of indomethacin-saccharin (IND-SAC) cocrystals by mechanochemical methods. Pure IND-SAC cocrystals were geometrically mixed with 1:1 w/w mixture of indomethacin/saccharin in various proportions. An accurately measured amount (550 mg) of the mixture was used for the PXRD measurements. The most intense, non-overlapping, characteristic diffraction peak of IND-SAC was used to construct the calibration curve in the range 0-100% (w/w). This calibration model was validated and used to monitor the formation of IND-SAC cocrystals by liquid-assisted grinding (LAG). The IND-SAC cocrystal calibration curve showed excellent linearity (R(2) = 0.9996) over the entire concentration range, displaying limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values of 1.23% (w/w) and 3.74% (w/w), respectively. Validation results showed excellent correlations between actual and predicted concentrations of IND-SAC cocrystals (R(2) = 0.9981). The accuracy and reliability of the PXRD quantification method depend on the methods of sample preparation and handling. The crystallinity of the IND-SAC cocrystals was higher when larger amounts of methanol were used in the LAG method. The PXRD quantification method is suitable and reliable for verifying the purity of cocrystals in the final crystallization product.

  8. Equal channel angular pressing of powder processed Al6061/SiC nano metal matrix composites and study of its wear properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongale, Arunkumar M.; Kumar, Satish

    2018-03-01

    Nano Metal Matrix Composites were fabricated by a novel approach by combining powder metallurgy and equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) using aluminium alloy 6061 (Al6061) as matrix phase and 2, 4 and 6 wt% of silicon carbide nanoparticles (SiCnp) as reinforcements. Alloying elements of Al6061 in their elemental form are blended together using high energy planetary ball mill and calculated wt% of SiCnp were mixed with it. Thus formed composite powder mixture is compacted in a uniaxial compaction die and then subjected to ECAP up to three passes. Density and porosity of samples were estimated using Archimedes’ principle. Pin on disc setup is used to evaluate the wear properties of the composites under different speed and loading conditions. Tests revealed that increase in wt% of SiCnp reduces the wear rate of the composites whereas increasing the load and speed increases wear rate of the composite samples. SEM micrographs of worn surfaces indicated different types of wear mechanism responsible for wear of the specimens under different testing conditions. Also, wt% of SiCnp and the number of passes through ECAP were found to increase the hardness value of the composite material.

  9. Optimization of the general acceptability though affective tests and response surface methodology of a dry cacao powder mixture based beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Chau Loo Kung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research work had as main objective optimizing the general acceptability though affective tests and response surface methodology of a dry cacao powder mixture based beverage. We obtained formulations of mixtures of cacao powder with different concentrations of 15%, 17.5% and 20%, as well as lecithin concentrations of 0.1%; 0.3%; and 0.5% maintaining a constant content of sugar (25 %, Vanillin (1% that included cacao powder with different pH values: natural (pH 5 and alkalinized (pH 6.5 and pH 8 and water by difference to 100%, generating a total of fifteen treatments to be evaluated, according to the Box-Behnen design for three factors. The treatments underwent satisfaction level tests to establish the general acceptability. The treatment that included cacao powder with a concentration of 17.5 %, pH 6.5 and lecithin concentration of 0.3 % obtained the best levels of acceptability. The software Statgraphics Plus 5.1 was used to obtain the treatment with maximum acceptability that corresponded to cacao powder with pH 6.81, with a concentration of 18.24 % and soy lecithin in 0.28% with a tendency to what was obtained in the satisfaction levels tests. Finally we characterized in a physical-chemistry and microbiological way the optimum formulation as well as evaluated sensitively obtaining an acceptability of 6.17.

  10. Experimental study of detonation of large-scale powder-droplet-vapor mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, C.-H.; Wang, Y.; Xue, K.; Wang, L.-F.

    2018-05-01

    Large-scale experiments were carried out to investigate the detonation performance of a 1600-m3 ternary cloud consisting of aluminum powder, fuel droplets, and vapor, which were dispersed by a central explosive in a cylindrically stratified configuration. High-frame-rate video cameras and pressure gauges were used to analyze the large-scale explosive dispersal of the mixture and the ensuing blast wave generated by the detonation of the cloud. Special attention was focused on the effect of the descending motion of the charge on the detonation performance of the dispersed ternary cloud. The charge was parachuted by an ensemble of apparatus from the designated height in order to achieve the required terminal velocity when the central explosive was detonated. A descending charge with a terminal velocity of 32 m/s produced a cloud with discernably increased concentration compared with that dispersed from a stationary charge, the detonation of which hence generates a significantly enhanced blast wave beyond the scaled distance of 6 m/kg^{1/3}. The results also show the influence of the descending motion of the charge on the jetting phenomenon and the distorted shock front.

  11. PRODUCTION, DIELECTRIC PROPERTY AND MICROWAVE ABSORPTION PROPERTY OF SiC(Fe SOLID SOLUTION POWDER BY SOL-GEL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIAOLEI SU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available SiC(Fe solid solution powders were synthesized by sol–gel method under different reaction time, using methyltriethoxysilane as the silicon and carbon source and analytic ferric chloride as the dopant, respectively. The synthesized powders have been characterized by XRD, SEM and Raman spectra. Results show that the lattice constant decreases with increasing reaction time. The electric permittivities of SiC samples were determined in the frequency range of 8.2 ~ 12.4 GHz. Results show that the permittivity of SiC decreases with increasing reaction time. The SiC(Fe solid solution powder with reaction time of 4 h with 2 mm thickness exhibit the best microwave absorption property in X-band range (8.2 - 12.4 GHz. The microwave absorption mechanism has been discussed.

  12. Selective laser melting of hypereutectic Al-Si40-powder using ultra-short laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullsperger, T.; Matthäus, G.; Kaden, L.; Engelhardt, H.; Rettenmayr, M.; Risse, S.; Tünnermann, A.; Nolte, S.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the use of ultra-short laser pulses for the selective melting of Al-Si40-powder to fabricate complex light-weight structures with wall sizes below 100 μ {m} combined with higher tensile strength and lower thermal expansion coefficient in comparison to standard Al-Si alloys. During the cooling process using conventional techniques, large primary silicon particles are formed which impairs the mechanical and thermal properties. We demonstrate that these limitations can be overcome using ultra-short laser pulses enabling the rapid heating and cooling in a non-thermal equilibrium process. We analyze the morphology characteristics and micro-structures of single tracks and thin-walled structures depending on pulse energy, repetition rate and scanning velocity utilizing pulses with a duration of 500 {fs} at a wavelength of 1030 {nm}. The possibility to specifically change and optimize the microstructure is shown.

  13. Manufacture of hypoeutectic Al-Si metal powders for dispersion matriz in nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffaeli, H A; Harri, S; Acosta, M; Castillo Guerra, R; Rossi, G; Fabro, J O; Rubiolo, G H

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of the development of low enriched nuclear fuels for research reactors, U.Mo/Al is the most promising option that has however to be optimized. Indeed at the U.Mo/Al interfaces between U.Mo particles and the Al matrix, an interaction layer grows under irradiation inducing an unacceptable fuel swelling. Adding silicon in limited content into the Al matrix has clearly improved the in-pile fuel behaviour. This breakthrough is attributed to an U.Mo/Al.Si protective layer around U.Mo particles appeared during fuel manufacturing. The present work deals with three techniques applied to produce metal powders of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys: ball milling, centrifugal atomization and gas atomization. Size and microstructure of the particles are analyzed in the three techniques. The best result is found with the gas atomization system, flakes and rods morphology predominates in the produced powders, with particle sizes below 150 microns and the greater mass population (65%) is between 150 and 125 microns. The particle surface is smooth and the high solidification rate provides a good distribution of the α-Al primary and eutectic phase within each particle (author)

  14. Evaluation of an optimized shade guide made from porcelain powder mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wei, Jiaqiang; Li, Qing; Wang, Yining

    2014-12-01

    Color errors associated with current shade guides and problems with color selection and duplication are still challenging for restorative dentists. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an optimized shade guide for visual shade duplication. Color distributions (L*, a*, and b*) of the maxillary left central incisors of 236 participants, whose ages ranged from 20 to 60, were measured with a spectrophotometer. Based on this color map, an optimized shade guide was designed with 14 shade tabs evenly distributed within the given color range of the natural incisors. The shade tabs were fabricated with porcelain powder mixtures and conventional laboratory procedures. A comparison of shade duplication by using the optimized and Vitapan Classical shade guides was conducted. Thirty Chinese participants were involved, and the colors of the left maxillary incisors were selected by using 2 shade guides. Metal ceramic crowns were fabricated according to the results of the shade selection. The colors of the shade tabs, natural teeth, and the ceramic crowns were measured with a spectrophotometer. The color differences among the natural teeth, the shade tabs, and the corresponding metal ceramic crowns were calculated and analyzed (α=.017). Significant differences were found in both phases of shade determination and shade duplication (P<.017). The total number of color errors with the optimized shade guide was 3.5, which was significantly less than that of Vitapan, 5.1 (P<.001). The optimized shade guide system improved performance not only in the color selection phase but also in the color of the fabricated crowns. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Flow analysis of water-powder mixtures: Application to specific surface area and shape factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunger, M.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the characterization of powder materials with respect to their application in concrete. Given that powders provide by far highest percentage of specific surface area in a concrete mix, their packing behavior and water demand is of vital interest for the design of concrete. They

  16. Flow analysis of water-powder mixtures : Application to specific surface area and shape factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunger, M.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the characterization of powder materials with respect to their application in concrete. Given that powders provide by far highest percentage of specific surface area in a concrete mix, their packing behavior and water demand is of vital interest for the design of concrete. They

  17. Microwave electromagnetic properties of carbonyl iron particles and Si/C/N nano-powder filled epoxy-silicone coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qing Yuchang; Zhou Wancheng; Luo Fa; Zhu Dongmei

    2010-01-01

    The electromagnetic characteristics of carbonyl iron particles and Si/C/N nano-powder filled epoxy-silicone coatings were studied. The reflection loss of the coatings exceeds -10 dB at 8-18 GHz and -9 dB at 2-18 GHz when the coating thickness is 1 and 3 mm, respectively. The dielectric and magnetic absorbers filled coatings possess excellent microwave absorption, which could be attributed to the proper incorporate of the multi-polarization mechanisms as well as strong natural resonance. It is feasible to develop the thin and wideband microwave absorbing coatings using carbonyl iron particles and Si/C/N nano-powder.

  18. Microwave electromagnetic properties of carbonyl iron particles and Si/C/N nano-powder filled epoxy-silicone coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Yuchang; Zhou, Wancheng; Luo, Fa; Zhu, Dongmei

    2010-02-01

    The electromagnetic characteristics of carbonyl iron particles and Si/C/N nano-powder filled epoxy-silicone coatings were studied. The reflection loss of the coatings exceeds -10 dB at 8-18 GHz and -9 dB at 2-18 GHz when the coating thickness is 1 and 3 mm, respectively. The dielectric and magnetic absorbers filled coatings possess excellent microwave absorption, which could be attributed to the proper incorporate of the multi-polarization mechanisms as well as strong natural resonance. It is feasible to develop the thin and wideband microwave absorbing coatings using carbonyl iron particles and Si/C/N nano-powder.

  19. Structure and properties of ZnSxSe1-x thin films deposited by thermal evaporation of ZnS and ZnSe powder mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeev, R. G.; Romanov, E. A.; Vorobiev, V. L.; Mukhgalin, V. V.; Kriventsov, V. V.; Chukavin, A. I.; Robouch, B. V.

    2015-02-01

    Interest to ZnSxSe1-x alloys is due to their band-gap tunability varying S and Se content. Films of ZnSxSe1-x were grown evaporating ZnS and ZnSe powder mixtures onto SiO2, NaCl, Si and ITO substrates using an original low-cost method. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectroscopy, show that the lattice structure of these films is cubic ZnSe-like, as S atoms replace Se and film compositions have their initial S/Se ratio. Optical absorption spectra show that band gap values increase from 2.25 to 3 eV as x increases, in agreement with the literature. Because S atomic radii are smaller than Se, EXAFS spectra confirm that bond distances and Se coordination numbers decrease as the Se content decreases. The strong deviation from linearity of ZnSe coordination numbers in the ZnSxSe1-x indicate that within this ordered crystal structure strong site occupation preferences occur in the distribution of Se and S ions. The behavior is quantitatively confirmed by the strong deviation from the random Bernoulli distribution of the three sight occupation preference coefficients of the strained tetrahedron model. Actually, the ternary ZnSxSe1-x system is a bi-binary (ZnS+ZnSe) alloy with evanescent formation of ternary configurations throughout the x-range.

  20. High-energy ball milling of powder B-C mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Alfeu S.; Taguchi, Simone P.; Ramos, Erika C.T.; Arantes, Vera L.; Ribeiro, Sebastiao

    2006-01-01

    The present work reports on the preparation of B-10 at.% C and B-18 at.% C powders by high-energy ball milling and further heat treatment. The milling process was carried out in a planetary ball mill. Following the milling process, powder samples were heat-treated at 1200 deg. C for 4 h using inert atmosphere. The milled and heat-treated B-10C and B-18C powders were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. A reduction on the intensity of B and C peaks was noticed after milling for 2 h, probably due the fine powder particle sizes because the pronounced fracture mechanism during ball milling of brittle starting components. The XRD patterns of B-10C and B-18C powders milled for 6 h indicated the presence of other peaks, suggesting that a metastable structure could have been formed. After milling for 90 h, these unknown peaks were still present. A large amount of B 4 C was formed after heat treatment at 1200 deg. C for 4 h beside these unknown peaks

  1. Laser cladding of Al-Si/SiC composite coatings : Microstructure and abrasive wear behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anandkumar, R.; Almeida, A.; Vilar, R.; Ocelik, V.; De Hosson, J.Th.M.

    2007-01-01

    Surface coatings of an Al-Si-SiC composite were produced on UNS A03560 cast Al-alloy substrates by laser cladding using a mixture of powders of Al-12 wt.% Si alloy and SiC. The microstructure of the coatings depends considerably on the processing parameters. For a specific energy of 26 MJ/m2 the

  2. High throughput production of nanocomposite SiO x powders by plasma spray physical vapor deposition for negative electrode of lithium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichiro Homma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite Si/SiO x powders were produced by plasma spray physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD at a material throughput of 480 g h−1. The powders are fundamentally an aggregate of primary ~20 nm particles, which are composed of a crystalline Si core and SiO x shell structure. This is made possible by complete evaporation of raw SiO powders and subsequent rapid condensation of high temperature SiO x vapors, followed by disproportionation reaction of nucleated SiO x nanoparticles. When CH4 was additionally introduced to the PS-PVD, the volume of the core Si increases while reducing potentially the SiO x shell thickness as a result of the enhanced SiO reduction, although an unfavorable SiC phase emerges when the C/Si molar ratio is greater than 1. As a result of the increased amount of Si active material and reduced source for irreversible capacity, half-cell batteries made of PS-PVD powders with C/Si = 0.25 have exhibited improved initial efficiency and maintenance of capacity as high as 1000 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at the same time.

  3. High throughput production of nanocomposite SiO x powders by plasma spray physical vapor deposition for negative electrode of lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Keiichiro; Kambara, Makoto; Yoshida, Toyonobu

    2014-04-01

    Nanocomposite Si/SiO x powders were produced by plasma spray physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) at a material throughput of 480 g h -1 . The powders are fundamentally an aggregate of primary ∼20 nm particles, which are composed of a crystalline Si core and SiO x shell structure. This is made possible by complete evaporation of raw SiO powders and subsequent rapid condensation of high temperature SiO x vapors, followed by disproportionation reaction of nucleated SiO x nanoparticles. When CH 4 was additionally introduced to the PS-PVD, the volume of the core Si increases while reducing potentially the SiO x shell thickness as a result of the enhanced SiO reduction, although an unfavorable SiC phase emerges when the C/Si molar ratio is greater than 1. As a result of the increased amount of Si active material and reduced source for irreversible capacity, half-cell batteries made of PS-PVD powders with C/Si = 0.25 have exhibited improved initial efficiency and maintenance of capacity as high as 1000 mAh g -1 after 100 cycles at the same time.

  4. Characterisation of the IAEA-152 milk powder reference material for radioactivity with assigned values traceable to the SI units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altzitzoglou, T.; Bohnstedt, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) participated in a research project initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to upgrade some of its existing reference materials (RMs). The aim of the project is to improve the RM metrological status by establishing traceability of their assigned values to SI units. The purpose of the work described in this article was to establish traceability to the International System of Units (SI) of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 40 K, and 90 Sr in the IAEA-152 milk powder RM. The choice of the particular RM was based on the concern about radioactivity levels in foodstuff. The sample preparation and the assaying of the activity concentrations in the milk powder, the methods used to achieve instrument calibrations and measurements traceable to the SI units, the data reduction and analysis, and finally, the results obtained are presented

  5. Synthesis of mullite-based coatings from alumina and zircon powder mixtures by plasma spraying and laser remelting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, S.; Das, J.; Bandyopadhyay, P.P.

    2015-01-01

    A mechanical mixture of alumina and pulverized zircon sand in 3:2 M ratio has been plasma sprayed to obtain mullite coating. Thereafter, the top layer of the coating has been remelted using laser. The presence of a mullite phase in the as-sprayed and laser remelted coatings has been confirmed qualitatively using X-ray diffraction. Both as-sprayed and laser remelted coatings have been characterized for their microstructure, hardness and porosity. The ultrafine grain structure of the coating produced by rapid quenching has been analyzed using transmission electron microscope. Presence of a mullite phase in the coatings has also been confirmed using small angle electron diffraction. Laser remelting has resulted in an appreciable reduction in porosity and increase in hardness in the coatings. - Highlights: • Mullite has been produced by plasma spraying of alumina–zircon powder mixture. • As sprayed coating shows good integrity. • Laser remelting reduced porosity and increased coating hardness

  6. Synthesis of mullite-based coatings from alumina and zircon powder mixtures by plasma spraying and laser remelting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazra, S. [Integrated Test Range, Chandipur, Balasore, Odisha 756025 (India); Das, J. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Bandyopadhyay, P.P., E-mail: ppb@mech.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, 721302 (India)

    2015-03-15

    A mechanical mixture of alumina and pulverized zircon sand in 3:2 M ratio has been plasma sprayed to obtain mullite coating. Thereafter, the top layer of the coating has been remelted using laser. The presence of a mullite phase in the as-sprayed and laser remelted coatings has been confirmed qualitatively using X-ray diffraction. Both as-sprayed and laser remelted coatings have been characterized for their microstructure, hardness and porosity. The ultrafine grain structure of the coating produced by rapid quenching has been analyzed using transmission electron microscope. Presence of a mullite phase in the coatings has also been confirmed using small angle electron diffraction. Laser remelting has resulted in an appreciable reduction in porosity and increase in hardness in the coatings. - Highlights: • Mullite has been produced by plasma spraying of alumina–zircon powder mixture. • As sprayed coating shows good integrity. • Laser remelting reduced porosity and increased coating hardness.

  7. In situ Fabrication of Fe-TiB{sub 2} Nanocomposite Powder by Planetary Ball Milling and Subsequent Heat-treatment of FeB and TiH{sub 2} Powder Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, Xuan-Khoa [Hanoi Uneversity of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Bae, Sun-Woo; Kim, Ji Soon [University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Fe-TiB{sub 2} powder was synthesized in-situ by the planetary ball milling and subsequent heat-treatment of an iron boride (FeB) and titanium hydride (TiH{sub 2}) powder mixture. Mechanical activation of the (FeB+TiH{sub 2}) powder mixtures was observed after a milling time of 3 hours at 700 rpm of rotation speed, but activation was not the same after 1 hour milling time. The particle size of the (FeB+ TiH{sub 2}) powder mixture was reduced to the nanometer scale, and each constituent was homogeneously distributed. A sharp exothermic peak was observed at a lower temperature (749 ℃) on the DSC curves for the (FeB+TiH{sub 2}) powder mixture milled for 3 hours, compared to the one milled for 1 hour (774 ℃). These peaks were confirmed to have resulted from the formation reaction of the TiB{sub 2} phase, from Ti and B elements in the FeB. The Fe-TiB{sub 2} composite powder fabricated in situ exhibited only two phases of Fe and TiB{sub 2} with homogeneous distribution. The size of the TiB{sub 2} particulates in the Fe matrix was less than 5 nm.

  8. Gravimetrical and chemical characterization of SiOx structures deposited on fine powders by short plasma exposure in a plasma down stream reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spillmann, Adrian; Sonnenfeld, Axel; Rohr, Philipp Rudolf von

    2008-01-01

    The surface of lactose particles was modified by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process to improve the flow behavior of the powder. For this, the particulates were treated in a plasma down stream reactor which provides a short (50 ms) and homogeneous exposure to the capacitively coupled RF discharge. The organosilicon monomer hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) was used as a precursor for the formation of SiO x which is deposited on the substrate particle surface. For varying process gas mixtures (O 2 /Ar/HMDSO) and RF power applied, the amount of the deposited material was determined gravimetrically after dissolution of the lactose substrate particles and the chemical composition of the accumulated deposition material was investigated by means of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The concentration of the deposited SiO x relating to the substrate material was found to be in the range of 0.1 wt.%. Based on the ATR-FTIR analysis, the inorganic, i.e. oxidic SiO x fraction of the obtained deposits was shown to be controllable by varying the process parameters, whilst a relatively large amount of organic structures must be considered.

  9. Influence exothermical mixtures contents Na or B on elongation and hardness AlSi12 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lipiński

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were conducted on alloy AlSi12, following a factor design 23 for 3 independent variables. Mixtures composed of NaNO3, Na2B4O7, and Mg were used for alloy treatment. The amount of a reducing agent (Mg necessary to carry out the process was calculated on the basis of chemical reactions. The mass fraction (weight in weight concentration of individual variables is presented in Table 1. Results of study present by graphical forms. Figures 2-8 present until elongation (A5 and Brinell hardness (HB for each variable, at extreme (lower or higher levels of the other two.

  10. Two generators to produce SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for reactive compounds at atmospheric levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, C.; Guillevic, M.; Ackermann, A.; Leuenberger, D.; Niederhauser, B.

    2017-12-01

    To answer the needs of air quality and climate monitoring networks, two new gas generators were developed and manufactured at METAS in order to dynamically generate SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for reactive compounds at atmospheric concentrations. The technical features of the transportable generators allow for the realization of such gas standards for reactive compounds (e.g. NO2, volatile organic compounds) in the nmol · mol-1 range (ReGaS2), and fluorinated gases in the pmol ṡ mol-1 range (ReGaS3). The generation method is based on permeation and dynamic dilution. The transportable generators have multiple individual permeation chambers allowing for the generation of mixtures containing up to five different compounds. This mixture is then diluted using mass flow controllers, thus making the production process adaptable to generate the required amount of substance fraction. All parts of ReGaS2 in contact with the gas mixture are coated to reduce adsorption/desorption processes. Each input parameter required to calculate the generated amount of substance fraction is calibrated with SI-primary standards. The stability and reproducibility of the generated amount of substance fractions were tested with NO2 for ReGaS2 and HFC-125 for ReGaS3. They demonstrate stability over 1-4 d better than 0.4% and 0.8%, respectively, and reproducibility better than 0.7% and 1%, respectively. Finally, the relative expanded uncertainty of the generated amount of substance fraction is smaller than 3% with the major contributions coming from the uncertainty of the permeation rate and/or of the purity of the matrix gas. These relative expanded uncertainties meet then the needs of the data quality objectives fixed by the World Meteorological Organization.

  11. Investigating magnetorheological properties of a mixture of two types of carbonyl iron powders suspended in an ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodbiba, Gjergj; Park, Hyun Seo; Okaya, Katsunori; Fujita, Toyohisa

    2008-01-01

    In this work, properties of a magnetorheological (MR) fluid, prepared by dispersing a mixture of two types of carbonyl iron powders (CIPs) of different sizes, in an ionic liquid (N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium tetrafluoroborate) that is stable from 9 deg. C to ca. 300 deg. C, have been investigated. At first, the random packing density of the mixture was computed as function of mixing ratio of CIP, in order to find out the tendency of the variation. Next, several mixtures, all having the same weight, were prepared at various mixing ratios and dispersed in the ionic liquid, in order to experimentally find the most suitable mixing ratio of CIP. Then, the magnetic clusters of the synthesized MR fluids were observed by using a digital microscope equipped with two permanent magnets, whereas the MR properties were investigated by using a rotation viscometer equipped with a solenoid coil. The experimental results pointed out that the MR fluid with 60 wt% fraction of large particles exhibited the highest MR response

  12. Computational modeling of electrically-driven deposition of ionized polydisperse particulate powder mixtures in advanced manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdi, T. I.

    2017-07-01

    A key part of emerging advanced additive manufacturing methods is the deposition of specialized particulate mixtures of materials on substrates. For example, in many cases these materials are polydisperse powder mixtures whereby one set of particles is chosen with the objective to electrically, thermally or mechanically functionalize the overall mixture material and another set of finer-scale particles serves as an interstitial filler/binder. Often, achieving controllable, precise, deposition is difficult or impossible using mechanical means alone. It is for this reason that electromagnetically-driven methods are being pursued in industry, whereby the particles are ionized and an electromagnetic field is used to guide them into place. The goal of this work is to develop a model and simulation framework to investigate the behavior of a deposition as a function of an applied electric field. The approach develops a modular discrete-element type method for the simulation of the particle dynamics, which provides researchers with a framework to construct computational tools for this growing industry.

  13. POWDER INJECTION MOLDING OF SIC FOR THERMAL MANAGEMENT V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmikanathan Onbattuvelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Silicon carbide (SiC exhibits many functional properties that are relevant to applications in electronics, aerospace, defense and automotive industries. However, the successful translation of these properties into final applications lies in the net-shaping of ceramics into fully dense microstructures. Increasing the packing density of the starting powders is one effective route to achieve high sintered density and dimensional precision. The present paper presents an in-depth study on the effects of nanoparticle addition on the powder injection molding process (PIM of SiC powder-polymer mixtures. In particular, bimodal mixtures of nanoscale and sub-micrometer particles are found to have significantly increased powder packing characteristics (solids loading in the powder-polymer mixtures. The influence of nanoparticle addition on the multi-step PIM process is examined. The above results provide new perspectives which could impact a wide range of materials, powder processing techniques and applications.

  14. Agglomerate strength and dispersion of salmeterol xinafoate from powder mixtures for inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi, Handoko; Larson, Ian; Chiou, Herbert; Young, Paul; Traini, Daniela; Stewart, Peter

    2006-11-01

    The study investigated the role of agglomeration and the effect of fine lactose size on the dispersion of salmeterol xinafoate (SX) from SX-lactose mixtures for inhalation. Particle size distributions were characterised by Malvern Mastersizer S, Aerosizer and Spraytec, and imaging conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Inter-particulate adhesion was quantified by atomic force microscopy. Deposition of SX was measured using a twin stage impinger. SX was analysed using validated high-performance liquid chromatography method (r(2)=1.0, CV=0.4-1.0%). Addition of fine lactose with a volume median diameter (VMD) of 7.9 microm to a SX-lactose carrier and carrier-free mixture resulted in significantly better dispersion (16.8% for 20% added fine lactose) than fractions with VMD of 3.0, 17.7 and 33.3 microm (less than 9.1% for 20% fine lactose). Using the carrier-free mixtures, particle sizing of the aerosol cloud using the Spraytec, coupled with the application of the Aerosizer using differing dispersion energies and SEMs of the samples, indicated that an open packed, agglomerate structure improved SX dispersion. The highest extent of SX dispersion occurred when SX and fine lactose were detached from the surface, usually in the form of loose agglomerates. The outcomes of this research demonstrated how agglomerate structure influenced dispersion and the key role of fine lactose particle size in SX dispersion from mixtures for inhalation.

  15. Preparation of Mg-α SiAlON powder by carbothermal reduction-nitridation of talc and halloysite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qui, J.Y.; Zhang, C.; Komeya, K.; Meguro, T.; Tatami, J.; Cheng, Y.-B.

    2001-01-01

    Carbothermal reduction-nitridation (CRN) of talc (Mg 3 (Si 2 O 5 ) 2 (OH) 2 ) and halloysite (Al 2 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 ) clay provides a useful route for preparing low-cost Mg-α sialon powder. In this study, the chosen molecular ratios of talc to halloysite were 0.1:1, 0.2:1, 1.5:1.0 and 2.0:1. The CRN reaction was conducted at 1450 to 1520 deg C and 2 to 6h holding time using carbon black as a reducing agent in flowing N 2 (gas). The results showed the synthesized powder was composed of α-sialon, β-sialon and small amounts of SiC, 15R and AlN phases that greatly depended on the ratio of talc to halloysite, the reaction temperature and holding time. The highest content of Mg-α sialon, as much as 90wt%, was achieved at 1480 deg C for a holding time of 4h at a talc to halloysite ratio of 1.5:1.0. SiC was considered as an intermediate compound. We also discuss the evaporation loss of Mg caused by talc decomposing into MgSiN 2 intermediate phase in the CRN reaction. Copyright (2001) The Australian Ceramic Society

  16. Wear of Flame-Sprayed Ni-Cr-B-Si Powder Coating on Journal for Seal Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Sheng-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flame-sprayed techniques is used in this paper to coat Ni-Cr-B-Si powder on low-carbon steel or bearing steel materials of the journal surface. The wear tester is used to explore material properties of the binding capability, surface hardness, wear and friction within each layer depth. The normal force is applied in addition to the cladding layer by not only using bearing ball but also oil seal pieces, to explore rubber material of oil seal contact journal. In experiments to explore the material and processing conditions affect the microstructure and hardness of the cladding layer, and at the same hardness, surface roughness to affect the performance of the mill run.The results showed that spraying Ni-Cr-B-Si alloy powder in mild steel sheet to melt and run, cladding layer and the substrate has a uniform distribution of fine abrasive particles and binding effect, causing the substrate surface hardness (HRC about promotion 10 times. While, if sprayed Ni-Cr-B-Si alloy powder to steel panels bearing surface because the surface coated compact structure, can reduce the surface roughness and the coefficient of friction, and more improve the wear resistance of the cladding layer.

  17. Design of an inhalable dry powder formulation of DOTAP-modified PLGA nanoparticles loaded with siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Ditte Krohn; Jensen, Linda Boye; Koocheki, Saeid; Bengtson, Lasse; Cun, Dongmei; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Foged, Camilla

    2012-01-10

    Matrix systems based on biocompatible and biodegradable polymers like the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved polymer poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) are promising for the delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) due to favorable safety profiles, sustained release properties and improved colloidal stability, as compared to polyplexes. The purpose of this study was to design a dry powder formulation based on cationic lipid-modified PLGA nanoparticles intended for treatment of severe lung diseases by pulmonary delivery of siRNA. The cationic lipid dioleoyltrimethylammoniumpropane (DOTAP) was incorporated into the PLGA matrix to potentiate the gene silencing efficiency. The gene knock-down level in vitro was positively correlated to the weight ratio of DOTAP in the particles, and 73% silencing was achieved in the presence of 10% (v/v) serum at 25% (w/w) DOTAP. Optimal properties were found for nanoparticles modified with 15% (w/w) DOTAP, which reduced the gene expression with 54%. This formulation was spray-dried with mannitol into nanocomposite microparticles of an aerodynamic size appropriate for lung deposition. The spray-drying process did not affect the physicochemical properties of the readily re-dispersible nanoparticles, and most importantly, the in vitro gene silencing activity was preserved during spray-drying. The siRNA content in the powder was similar to the theoretical loading and the siRNA was intact, suggesting that the siRNA is preserved during the spray-drying process. Finally, X-ray powder diffraction analysis demonstrated that mannitol remained in a crystalline state upon spray-drying with PLGA nanoparticles suggesting that the sugar excipient might exert its stabilizing effect by sterical inhibition of the interactions between adjacent nanoparticles. This study demonstrates that spray-drying is an excellent technique for engineering dry powder formulations of siRNA nanoparticles, which might enable the local

  18. Mechanical properties of Mo-Si-B alloys fabricated by using core-shell powder with dispersion of yttria nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Jong Min; Bang, Su-Ryong; Choi, Won June; Kim, Min Sang; Noh, Goo Won; Kim, Young Do

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, refractory materials with excellent high-temperature properties have been in the spotlight as a next generation's high-temperature materials. Among these, Mo-Si-B alloys composed of two intermetallic compound phases (Mo5SiB2 and Mo3Si) and a ductile α-Mo phase have shown an outstanding thermal properties. However, due to the brittleness of the intermetallic compound phases, Mo-Si-B alloys were restricted to apply for the structural materials. So, to enhance the mechanical properties of Mo-Si-B alloys, many efforts to add rare-earth oxide particles in the Mo-Si-B alloy were performed to induce the improvement of strength and fracture toughness. In this study, to investigate the effect of adding nano-sized Y2O3 particles in Mo-Si-B alloy, a core-shell powder consisting of intermetallic compound phases as the core and nano-sized α-Mo and Y2O3 particles surrounding the core was fabricated. Then pressureless sintering was carried out at 1400 °C for 3 h, and the mechanical properties of sintered bodies with different amounts of Y2O3 particles were evaluated by Vickers hardness and 3-point bending test. Vickers hardness was improved by dispersed Y2O3 particles in the Mo-Si-B alloy. Especially, Mo-3Si-1B-1.5Y2O3 alloy had the highest value, 589 Hv. The fracture toughness was measured using Mo-3Si-1B-1.5Y2O3 alloy and the value indicated as 13.5 MPa·√m.

  19. Elaboration of silicon carbides nano particles (SiC): from the powder synthesis to the sintered ceramic; Elaboration de ceramiques nanostructurees en carbure de silicium (SiC): de la synthese de poudre a la ceramique frittee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reau, A. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Materiaux pour le Nucleaire (DEN/DANS/DMN/SRMA), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2008-07-01

    Materials for the reactor cores of the fourth generation will need materials supporting high temperatures with fast neutrons flux. SiC{sub f}/SiC ceramics are proposed. One of the possible elaboration process is to fill SiC fiber piece with nano particles SiC powder and to strengthen by sintering. The aim of this thesis is to obtain a nano structured SiC ceramic as a reference for the SiC{sub f}/SiC composite development and to study the influence of the fabrication parameters. (A.L.B.)

  20. Structural and magnetic properties of Co50Ni50 powder mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loudjani, N.; Bensebaa, N.; Dekhil, L.; Alleg, S.; Sunol, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, morphological, structural, thermal and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Co 50 Ni 50 alloy prepared by high energy planetary ball milling have been studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. The coercivity and the saturation magnetization of alloyed powders were measured at room temperature by a vibration sample magnetization. Morphological observations indicated a narrow distribution in the particle and homogeneous shape form with mean average particle size around 130 μm 2 . The results show that an allotropic Co transformation hcp→fcc occurs within the three first hours of milling and contrary to what expected, the Rietveld refinement method reveals the formation of two fcc solid solutions (SS): fcc Co(Ni) and Ni(Co) beside a small amount of the undissolved Co hcp. Thermal measurement, as a function of milling time was carried out to confirm the existence of the hcp phase and to estimate its amount. Magnetic measurement indicated that the 48 h milled powders with a steady state particles size have the highest saturation (105.3 emu/g) and the lowest coercivity (34.5 Oe). - Highlights: → By using the Rietveld refinement method we found that Co 50 Ni 50 alloy, milled for 48 h, contains two fcc solid solutions: fcc Co(Ni) and Ni(Co), beside a small amount of the undissolved Co hcp. DSC measurement as a function of milling time was carried out to confirm the existence of the hcp phase and to estimate its amount. → By means of imageJ we found the area distribution and not just the diameter distribution. → The coercivity is strongly related to the particles size distribution.

  1. Photoluminescence properties of powder and pulsed laser-deposited PbS nanoparticles in SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhlamini, M.S.; Terblans, J.J.; Ntwaeaborwa, O.M.; Ngaruiya, J.M.; Hillie, K.T.; Botha, J.R.; Swart, H.C.

    2008-01-01

    Thin films of lead sulfide (PbS) nanoparticles embedded in an amorphous silica (SiO 2 ) host were grown on Si(1 0 0) substrates at different temperatures by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Surface morphology and photoluminescence (PL) properties of samples were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a 458 nm Ar + laser, respectively. The PL data show a blue-shift from the normal emission at ∼3200 nm in PbS bulk to ∼560-700 nm in nanoparticulate PbS powders and thin films. Furthermore, the PL emission of the films was red-shifted from that of the powders at ∼560 to ∼660 nm. The blue-shifting of the emission wavelengths from 3200 to ∼560-700 nm is attributed to quantum confinement of charge carriers in the restricted volume of nanoparticles, while the red-shift between powders and thin-film PbS nanoparticles is speculated to be due to an increase in the defect concentration. The red-shift increased slightly with an increase in deposition temperature, which suggests that there has been a relative growth in particle sizes during the PLD of the films at higher temperatures. Generally, the PL emission of the powders was more intense than that of the films, although the intensity of some of the films was improved marginally by post-deposition annealing at 400 deg. C. This paper compares the PL properties of powder and pulsed laser-deposited thin films of PbS nanoparticles and the effects of deposition temperatures

  2. Directed laser processing of compacted powder mixtures Al2O3-TiO2-Y2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasova M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The phase formation, microstructure and surface texture of laser treated ternary powder mixtures of Al2O3-TiO2-Y2O3 had been studied. Rapid high temperature heating and subsequent rapid cooling due to the directed movement of the laser beam forms concave ceramic tracks. Phase composition and microstructure of the tracks depends on the Al2O3 content and the TiO2/Y2O3 ratio of the initial mixtures. The main phases observed are Y3Al5O12, Y2Ti2O7, Al2O3 and Al2TiO5. Due to the temperature gradient in the heating zone, complex layered structures are formed. The tracks consist of three main layers: a thin surface layer, a layer of crystallization products of eutectic alloys, and a lower sintered layer. The thickness of the crystallization layer and the shrinkage of the irradiation zone depend on the amount of Y3Al5O12 and Al2O3 crystallized from the melt.

  3. Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Aguilar Martín

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metals are ubiquitous pollutants present as mixtures. In particular, mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead is among the leading toxic agents detected in the environment. These metals have carcinogenic and cell-transforming potential. In this study, we used a two step cell transformation model, to determine the role of oxidative stress in transformation induced by a mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead. Oxidative damage and antioxidant response were determined. Metal mixture treatment induces the increase of damage markers and the antioxidant response. Loss of cell viability and increased transforming potential were observed during the promotion phase. This finding correlated significantly with generation of reactive oxygen species. Cotreatment with N-acetyl-cysteine induces effect on the transforming capacity; while a diminution was found in initiation, in promotion phase a total block of the transforming capacity was observed. Our results suggest that oxidative stress generated by metal mixture plays an important role only in promotion phase promoting transforming capacity.

  4. Tensile Properties and Fracture Behavior of a Powder-Thixoformed 2024Al/SiCp Composite at Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pubo Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the tensile properties and fracture behavior of a 2024Al composite reinforced with 10 vol % SiCp and fabricated via powder thixoforming (PT were studied at temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 300 °C with a strain rate of 0.05 s−1, as well as the PT 2024 alloy. The results indicated that the tensile strengths of both the PT materials were all decreased with increasing the temperature, but the decrease rate of the composite was smaller than that of the 2024 alloy, and the composite exhibited higher tensile strength than that of the 2024 alloy at all of the employed testing temperatures due to the strengthening role of SiCp. Increasing temperature was beneficial for enhancing the ductility of materials, and the maximum elongation was reached at 250 °C. The elongation decrease over 250 °C was attributed to the cavity formation due to the debonding of the SiCp/Al interface and the fracturing of the matrix between SiCp. The fracture of the composite at room temperature initiated from the fracture of SiCp and the debonding of the SiCp/Al interface, but that at high temperatures was dominated by void nucleation and growth in the matrix besides the interface debonding.

  5. Alternative Fillers for the Production of Bituminous Mixtures: A Screening Investigation on Waste Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Sangiorgi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a significant increase in the demand for using recycled materials in construction because of the lack and limitation of available natural resources. A number of industrial and domestic waste products are being used in the replacement of traditional materials for road construction, and many studies have been carried out in recent years on the use of different recycled materials in substitution of conventional fillers in Asphalt Concretes (AC. The aim of this laboratory research is to analyze the physical characteristics of three different recycled fillers and compare them with those of a traditional limestone filler. The alternative fillers presented in this paper are: a waste bleaching clay that comes from two consecutive stages in the industrial process for decolouring vegetable oils and producing biogas (Ud filler, a dried mud waste from a tungsten mine (MW filler and a recycled glass powder (Gl filler. Results show significant differences between the fillers, and, in particular, Rigden Voids (RV seem to have the largest potential influence on the rheology of ACs.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of β-Sialon powders from Si, halloysite clay and AlN powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li; Jones, Mark Ian

    2017-07-01

    Two β-Sialons, with z-values of 1 and 4, respectively, were successfully synthesized by silicothermal reduction and nitridation method under 0.4 MPa nitrogen pressure. The effect of firing temperatures on the phase transformations and morphologies of β-Sialons were analyzed by XRD and SEM. For β-Sialons (z = 1), the product was finally composed of targeted β-Sialon (z = 1) and secondary phase α-Si3N4; for z = 4, β-Sialon (z = 4) was the main phase, and 15R-Sialon and α-Al2O3 co-existed as secondary phases. A higher firing temperature is more beneficial for the phase transformations and crystal growth of β-Sialons, however, the most suitable firing temperature was 1400∘C.

  7. Addition of Bacillus Coagulans (Lactba cillus Esporogenes to a Powder Mixture Based Instant Cerea ls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Lucia Libreros López

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discloses the results of the application of a probiotic infant formula based instant cereals through accelerated life assessment. This process is carried out at laboratory level, based on the assay technique / error.The selected strain of probiotic, Lactobacilluis (Bacillus coagulans, must comply with the following characteristics: be of human origin, survival during gastric transit, bile salts tolerate and adhere to intestinal epithelial tissue. From the technological point of view, the probiotic must: be tolerant to oxygen and acids, have the ability to grow in milk and probiotics to metabolize and not affect the sensory characteristics of the product.The probiotic must meet the technical and production requirements and be resistant to adverse external conditions that may alter its composition or life.The process of incorporating probiotics to infant cereal mixture is performed by a theoretical calculation based. If the recommended dose is used, the presence of bacillus coagulans is ensured during the accelerated life.

  8. Solid-state 27Al and 29Si NMR characterization of hydrates formed in calcium aluminate-silica fume mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, P.; Rivas Mercury, J.M.; Aza, A.H. de; Turrillas, X.; Sobrados, I.; Sanz, J.

    2008-01-01

    Partially deuterated Ca 3 Al 2 (SiO 4 ) y (OH) 12-4y -Al(OH) 3 mixtures, prepared by hydration of Ca 3 Al 2 O 6 (C 3 A), Ca 12 Al 14 O 33 (C 12 A 7 ) and CaAl 2 O 4 (CA) phases in the presence of silica fume, have been characterized by 29 Si and 27 Al magic-angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopies. NMR spectroscopy was used to characterize anhydrous and fully hydrated samples. In hydrated compounds, Ca 3 Al 2 (OH) 12 and Al(OH) 3 phases were detected. From the quantitative analysis of 27 Al NMR signals, the Al(OH) 3 /Ca 3 Al 2 (OH) 12 ratio was deduced. The incorporation of Si into the katoite structure, Ca 3 Al 2 (SiO 4 ) 3-x (OH) 4x , was followed by 27 Al and 29 Si NMR spectroscopies. Si/OH ratios were determined from the quantitative analysis of 27 Al MAS-NMR components associated with Al(OH) 6 and Al(OSi)(OH) 5 environments. The 29 Si NMR spectroscopy was also used to quantify the unreacted silica and amorphous calcium aluminosilicate hydrates formed, C-S-H and C-A-S-H for short. From 29 Si NMR spectra, the amount of Si incorporated into different phases was estimated. Si and Al concentrations, deduced by NMR, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, and Rietveld analysis of both X-ray and neutron data, indicate that only a part of available Si is incorporated in katoite structures. - Graphical abstract: Transmission electron micrograph of CaAl 2 O 4 -microsilica mixture hydrated at 90 deg. C for 31 days showing a cubic Ca 3 Al 2.0±0.2 (SiO 4 ) 0.9±0.2 (OH) 1.8 crystal surrounded by unreacted amorphous silica spheres

  9. Crystal structure refinement of α-Si3N4 using synchrotron radiation powder diffraction data: unbiased refinement strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toraya, H.

    2000-01-01

    The crystal structure of α-silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ) was refined by the Rietveld method using synchrotron radiation powder diffraction data (wavelength = 1.2 A) collected at station BL-4B2 in the photon factory. A refinement procedure that adopted a new weight function, w = 1/Y o e (Y o is the observed profile intensity and e ≅ 2), for the least-squares fitting [Toraya (1998). J. Appl. Cryst. 31, 333-343] was studied. The most reasonable structural parameters were obtained with e = 1.7. Crystal data of α-Si 3 N 4 : trigonal, P31c, a = 7.75193 (3), c = 5.61949 (4) A, V = 292.447 (3) A 3 , Z = 4; R p = 5.08, R wp = 6.50, R B = 3.36, R F = 2.26%. The following five factors are considered equally important for deriving accurate structural parameters from powder diffraction data: (i) sufficiently large sin θ/λ range of >0.8 A -1 ; (ii) adequate counting statistics; (iii) correct profile model; (iv) proper weighting on observations to give a uniform distribution of the mean weighted squared residuals; (v) high-angular-resolution powder diffraction data. (orig.)

  10. Terahertz acoustic phonon detection from a compact surface layer of spherical nanoparticles powder mixture of aluminum, alumina and multi-walled carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelsayed, A.; Ebrahim, M. R.; El hotaby, W.; Hassan, S. A.; Al-Ashkar, Emad

    2017-10-01

    We present terahertz spectroscopy study on spherical nanoparticles powder mixture of aluminum, alumina, and MWCNTs induced by surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) of aluminum substrates. Surface alloying of AL, Al2O3 0.95% and MWCNTs 0.05% powder mixture was produced during SMAT process, where a compact surface layer of about 200 μm due to ball bombardment was produced from the mixture. Al2O3 alumina powder played a significant role in MWCNTs distribution on surface, those were held in deformation surface cites of micro-cavities due to SMAT process of Al. The benefits are the effects on resulted optical properties of the surface studied at the terahertz frequency range due to electrical isolation confinement effects and electronic resonance disturbances exerted on Al electronic resonance at the same range of frequencies. THz acoustic phonon around 0.53-0.6 THz (17-20 cm-1) were observed at ambient conditions for the spherical nanoparticles powder mixture of Al, Al2O3 and MWCNTs. These results suggested that the presence of Al2O3 and MWCNTs during SMAT process leads to the optically detection of such acoustic phonon in the THz frequency range.

  11. Synchrotron WAXS and XANES studies of silica (SiO2) powders synthesized from Indonesian natural sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchlis, Khairanissa; Fauziyah, Nur Aini; Pratapa, Suminar; Soontaranon, Siriwat; Limpirat, Wanwisa

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated polymorphic silica (SiO 2 ) powders using, Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS) and X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), laboratory X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) instruments. The WAXS and XANES spectra were collected using synchrotron radiation at Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI), Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand. The silica powders were obtained by processing silica sand from Tanah Laut, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Purification process of silica sand was done by magnetic separation and immersion with HCl. The purification step was needed to reduce impurity or undesirable non Si elements. Three polymorphs of silica were produced, i.e. amorphous phase (A), quartz (B), and cristobalite (C). WAXS profile for each phase was presented in terms of intensity vs. 2θ prior to analyses. Both XRD (λ CuKα =1.54056 Å) and WAXS (λ=1.09 Å) patttern show that (1) A sample contains no crystallites, (2) B sample is monophasic, contains only quartz, and (3) C sample contains cristobalite and trydimite. XRD quantitative analysis using Rietica gave 98,8 wt% cristobalite, while the associated WAXS data provided 98.7 wt% cristobalite. Si K-edge XANES spectra were measured at energy range 1840 to 1920 eV. Qualitatively, the pre-edge and edge features for all phases are similar, but their main peaks in the post-edge region are different. (paper)

  12. Nonvolatile RRAM cells from polymeric composites embedding recycled SiC powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Girolamo Del Mauro, Anna; Nenna, Giuseppe; Miscioscia, Riccardo; Freda, Cesare; Portofino, Sabrina; Galvagno, Sergio; Minarini, Carla

    2014-10-21

    Silicon carbide powders have been synthesized from tires utilizing a patented recycling process. Dynamic light scattering, Raman spectroscopy, SEM microscopy, and X-ray diffraction have been carried out to gather knowledge about powders and the final composite structure. The obtained powder has been proven to induce resistive switching in a PMMA polymer-based composite device. Memory effect has been detected in two-terminal devices having coplanar contacts and quantified by read-write-erase measurements in terms of level separation and persistence.

  13. Preparation of high-purity ZrSiO4 powder using sol-gel processing and mechanical properties of the sintered body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, T.; Yamamura, H.; Kobayashi, H.; Mitamura, T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that effects of the concentration of ZrOCl 2 , calcination temperature, heating rate, and the size of secondary particles after hydrolysis on the preparation of high-purity ZrSiO 4 fine powders from ZrOCl 2 :8H 2 O (0.2M to 1.7M) and equimolar colloidal SiO 2 using Sol--gel processing have been studied. Mechanical properties of the sintered ZrSiO 4 from the high-purity ZrSiO 4 powders have been also investigated. Single-phase ZrSiO 4 fine powders were synthesized at 1300 degrees C by forming ZrSiO 4 precursors having a Zr---O---Si bond, which was found in all the hydrolysis solutions, and by controlling a secondary particle size after hydrolysis. The conversion rate of ZrSiO 4 precursor gels to ZrSiO 4 powders from concentrations other than 0.4M ZrOCl 2 ·8H 2 O increased when the heating rate was high, whereupon the crystallization of unreacted ZrO 2 and SiO 2 was depressed and the propagation and increase of ZrSiO 4 nuclei in the gels were accelerated. The density of the ZrSiO 4 sintered bodies, manufactured by firing the ZrSiO 4 compacts at 1600 degrees to 1700 degrees C, was more than 95% of the theoretical density, and the grain size ranged around 2 to 4 μm. The mechanical strength was 320 MPa (room temperature to 1400 degrees C), and the thermal shock resistance was superior to that of mullite and alumina, with fairly high stability at higher temperatures

  14. Laser cladding of a Mg based Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy with Al–Si powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Erlei [School of Materials Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620 (China); Zhang, Kemin, E-mail: zhangkm@sues.edu.cn [School of Materials Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620 (China); Zou, Jianxin [National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloys Net Forming & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: A Mg based Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy was treated by laser cladding with Al–Si powders at different laser scanning speeds. The laser clad layer mainly contains Mg{sub 2}Si, Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} and Al{sub 2}(Gd,Y) phases distributed in the Mg matrix. After laser cladding, the corrosion resistance of the Mg alloy was significantly improved together with increased microhardness in the laser clad layers. - Highlights: • A Mg based Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy was laser clad with Al–Si powders. • The microstructure and morphology vary with the depth of the clad layer and the laser scanning speed. • Hardness and corrosion resistance were significantly improved after laser cladding. - Abstract: In the present work, a Mg based Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy was subjected to laser cladding with Al–Si powders at different laser scanning speeds in order to improve its surface properties. It is observed that the laser clad layer mainly contains Mg{sub 2}Si, Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} and Al{sub 2}(Gd,Y) phases distributed in the Mg matrix. The depth of the laser clad layer increases with decreasing the scanning speed. The clad layer has graded microstructures and compositions. Both the volume fraction and size of Mg{sub 2}Si, Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} and Al{sub 2}(Gd,Y) phases decreases with the increasing depth. Due to the formation of these hardening phases, the hardness of clad layer reached a maximum value of HV440 when the laser scanning speed is 2 mm/s, more than 5 times of the substrate (HV75). Besides, the corrosion properties of the untreated and laser treated samples were all measured in a NaCl (3.5 wt.%) aqueous solution. The corrosion potential was increased from −1.77 V for the untreated alloy to −1.13 V for the laser clad alloy with scanning rate of 2 mm/s, while the corrosion current density was reduced from 2.10 × 10{sup −5} A cm{sup −2} to 1.64 × 10{sup −6} A cm{sup −2}. The results show that laser cladding is an efficient method to improve

  15. Laser cladding of a Mg based Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy with Al–Si powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Erlei; Zhang, Kemin; Zou, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A Mg based Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy was treated by laser cladding with Al–Si powders at different laser scanning speeds. The laser clad layer mainly contains Mg_2Si, Mg_1_7Al_1_2 and Al_2(Gd,Y) phases distributed in the Mg matrix. After laser cladding, the corrosion resistance of the Mg alloy was significantly improved together with increased microhardness in the laser clad layers. - Highlights: • A Mg based Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy was laser clad with Al–Si powders. • The microstructure and morphology vary with the depth of the clad layer and the laser scanning speed. • Hardness and corrosion resistance were significantly improved after laser cladding. - Abstract: In the present work, a Mg based Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy was subjected to laser cladding with Al–Si powders at different laser scanning speeds in order to improve its surface properties. It is observed that the laser clad layer mainly contains Mg_2Si, Mg_1_7Al_1_2 and Al_2(Gd,Y) phases distributed in the Mg matrix. The depth of the laser clad layer increases with decreasing the scanning speed. The clad layer has graded microstructures and compositions. Both the volume fraction and size of Mg_2Si, Mg_1_7Al_1_2 and Al_2(Gd,Y) phases decreases with the increasing depth. Due to the formation of these hardening phases, the hardness of clad layer reached a maximum value of HV440 when the laser scanning speed is 2 mm/s, more than 5 times of the substrate (HV75). Besides, the corrosion properties of the untreated and laser treated samples were all measured in a NaCl (3.5 wt.%) aqueous solution. The corrosion potential was increased from −1.77 V for the untreated alloy to −1.13 V for the laser clad alloy with scanning rate of 2 mm/s, while the corrosion current density was reduced from 2.10 × 10"−"5 A cm"−"2 to 1.64 × 10"−"6 A cm"−"2. The results show that laser cladding is an efficient method to improve surface properties of Mg–Rare earth alloys.

  16. Kinetics of physico-chemical processes during intensive mechanical processing of ZnO-MnO{sub 2} powder mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakazey, M.; Vlasova, M.; Dominguez-Patino, M. [CIICAp-Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Juarez-Arellano, E.A., E-mail: eajuarez@unpa.edu.mx [Universidad del Papaloapan, Tuxtepec, Oaxaca (Mexico); Bykov, A. [Institute for Problems of Materials Science of NASU, Kyiv (Ukraine); Leon, I. [CIQ-Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Siqueiros-Diaz, A. [FCQI-Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    Experimental results of electron paramagnetic resonance spectra, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy demonstrate that the kinetic of the physical and chemical processes that takes place during prolonged intensive mechanical processing (MP, 03120min) of powder mixtures of 50%wt ZnO+50%wt MnO{sub 2} can be described as a three stage process. (1) 030min, particles destruction, formation of superficial defects, fast increment of sample average temperature (from 290 to {approx}600K) and annealing of defects with the lowest energy of activation E{sub ac}. (2) 30390min, further particle destruction, slow increment of sample average temperature (from {approx}600 to {approx}700K), formation and growth of a very disordered layer of {beta}-MnO{sub 2} around ZnO particles, dehydration of MnO{sub 2}, formation of solid solution of Mn{sup 2+} ions in ZnO, formation of nano-quasiamorphous states in the ZnO-MnO{sub 2} mixture and onset of the formation of the ZnMnO{sub 3} phase. (3) 3903120min, the sample average temperature remains constant ({approx}700K), the reaction is completed and the spinel ZnMnO{sub 3} phase with a unit cell a=8.431(1) A and space group Fd3-barm is the only phase present in the sample. No ferromagnetism at room temperature was detected in this study. - Highlights: > The kinetics during mechanical processing of ZnO-MnO{sub 2} samples is a three stage process. > First stage, reduction of crystallites size and accumulation of defects. > Second stage, nano-quasiamorphous states formation and onset of the ZnMnO{sub 3} phase. > Third stage, complete reaction to the spinel ZnMnO{sub 3} phase.

  17. Kinetics of physico-chemical processes during intensive mechanical processing of ZnO-MnO2 powder mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakazey, M.; Vlasova, M.; Dominguez-Patino, M.; Juarez-Arellano, E.A.; Bykov, A.; Leon, I.; Siqueiros-Diaz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental results of electron paramagnetic resonance spectra, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy demonstrate that the kinetic of the physical and chemical processes that takes place during prolonged intensive mechanical processing (MP, 0 MP >3120min) of powder mixtures of 50%wt ZnO+50%wt MnO 2 can be described as a three stage process. (1) 0 MP >30min, particles destruction, formation of superficial defects, fast increment of sample average temperature (from 290 to ∼600K) and annealing of defects with the lowest energy of activation E ac . (2) 30 MP >390min, further particle destruction, slow increment of sample average temperature (from ∼600 to ∼700K), formation and growth of a very disordered layer of β-MnO 2 around ZnO particles, dehydration of MnO 2 , formation of solid solution of Mn 2+ ions in ZnO, formation of nano-quasiamorphous states in the ZnO-MnO 2 mixture and onset of the formation of the ZnMnO 3 phase. (3) 390 MP >3120min, the sample average temperature remains constant (∼700K), the reaction is completed and the spinel ZnMnO 3 phase with a unit cell a=8.431(1) A and space group Fd3-barm is the only phase present in the sample. No ferromagnetism at room temperature was detected in this study. - Highlights: → The kinetics during mechanical processing of ZnO-MnO 2 samples is a three stage process. → First stage, reduction of crystallites size and accumulation of defects. → Second stage, nano-quasiamorphous states formation and onset of the ZnMnO 3 phase. → Third stage, complete reaction to the spinel ZnMnO 3 phase.

  18. EFFECT OF FLY ASHES AND SEWAGE SLUDGE ON Fe, Mn, Al, Si AND Co UPTAKE BY GRASS MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Antonkiewicz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of sewage sludge for environmental management of fly ashes landfill site affects chemical composition of plants. The aim of the present investigations was learning the effect of growing doses of municipal sewage sludge on the yield and uptake of Fe, Mn, Al, Si and Co by grass mixture used for environmental management of fly ashes landfill. The experimental design comprised of 5 objects differing by a dose of municipal sewage sludge supplied per 1 hectare: I. control, II. 25 t d.m., III. 50 t d.m., IV. 75 t d.m. and V. 100 t d.m. Application of sewage sludge resulted in the increase in yield. The content of analyzed elements in the grass mixture depended significantly on sewage sludge dose. Increasing doses of sewage sludge caused marked increase in Mn and Co contents, while they decreased Fe, Al and Si contents in the grass mixture. It was found that growing doses of sewage sludge caused an improvement of Fe to Mn ratio value in the grass mixture. Assessing the element content in the grass mixture in the view of forage value, it was found that Fe and Mn content did not meet the optimal value. Si content in plants was below the optimal value.

  19. Synthesis of Al4SiC4 powders from kaolin grog, aluminum and carbon black by carbothermal reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenjie; Yu, Chao; Deng, Chengji; Zhu, Hongxi

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the synthesis of Al4SiC4 used as natural oxide materials by carbothermal reduction was investigated in order to explore the synthesis route with low costs. The samples were calcined by using kaolin grog, aluminum and carbon black as raw materials with the selected proportion at the temperature from 1500 to 1800 ° C for 2 hours under flow argon atmosphere. The phase composition of reaction products were determined by X-ray diffraction. The microstructure and elemental composition of different phases were observed and identified by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The mechanism of reaction processing was discussed. The results show that Al4SiC4 powders composed of hexagonal plate-like particulates with various sizes and the thickness of less than 20 μm are obtained when the temperature reaches 1800 °C.

  20. Synthesis of Al4SiC4 powders from kaolin grog, aluminum and carbon black by carbothermal reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Wenjie; Yu, Chao; Deng, Chengji; Zhu, Hongxi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the synthesis of Al 4 SiC 4 used as natural oxide materials by carbothermal reduction was investigated in order to explore the synthesis route with low costs. The samples were calcined by using kaolin grog, aluminum and carbon black as raw materials with the selected proportion at the temperature from 1500 to 1800 ° C for 2 hours under flow argon atmosphere. The phase composition of reaction products were determined by X-ray diffraction. The microstructure and elemental composition of different phases were observed and identified by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The mechanism of reaction processing was discussed. The results show that Al 4 SiC 4 powders composed of hexagonal plate-like particulates with various sizes and the thickness of less than 20 μm are obtained when the temperature reaches 1800 °C

  1. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-05

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of ternary mixtures consisting of: Ni powder, Cu powder, and Al powder, Ni powder, Cr powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, W powder and Al powder; Ni powder, V powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, Mo powder, and Al powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  2. Synthesis, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of powder metallurgy processed Fe/Mg2Si composites for biodegradable implant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora-Jasinska, M; Paternoster, C; Mostaed, E; Tolouei, R; Casati, R; Vedani, M; Mantovani, D

    2017-12-01

    Recently, Fe and Fe-based alloys have shown their potential as degradable materials for biomedical applications. Nevertheless, the slow corrosion rate limits their performance in certain situations. The shift to iron matrix composites represents a possible approach, not only to improve the mechanical properties, but also to accelerate and tune the corrosion rate in a physiological environment. In this work, Fe-based composites reinforced by Mg 2 Si particles were proposed. The initial powders were prepared by different combinations of mixing and milling processes, and finally consolidated by hot rolling. The influence of the microstructure on mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of Fe/Mg 2 Si was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for the assessment of the composite structure. Tensile and hardness tests were performed to characterize the mechanical properties. Potentiodynamic and static corrosion tests were carried out to investigate the corrosion behavior in a pseudo-physiological environment. Samples with smaller Mg 2 Si particles showed a more homogenous distribution of the reinforcement. Yield and ultimate tensile strength increased when compared to those of pure Fe (from 400MPa and 416MPa to 523MPa and 630MPa, respectively). Electrochemical measurements and immersion tests indicated that the addition of Mg 2 Si could increase the corrosion rate of Fe even twice (from 0.14 to 0.28mm·year -1 ). It was found that the preparation method of the initial composite powders played a major role in the corrosion process as well as in the corrosion mechanism of the final composite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Mechanical Activation on the In Situ Formation of TiB2 Particulates in the Powder Mixture of TiH2 and FeB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huynh X.-K.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The in situ formation of TiB2 particulates via an interface reaction between Ti and FeB powders was studied. The effects of mechanical activation by high-energy milling on the decomposition of TiH2 and the interface reactions between Ti and FeB powders to form TiB2 were investigated. Powder mixtures were fabricated using planetary ball-milling under various milling conditions. The specific ball-milling energy was calculated from the measured electrical power consumption during milling process. High specific milling energy (152.6 kJ/g resulted in a size reduction and homogeneous dispersion of constituent powders. This resulted in a decrease in the decomposition temperature of TiH2 and an increase in the formation reaction of TiB2 particulates in the Fe matrix, resulting in a homogeneous microstructure of nanoscale TiB2 evenly distributed within the Fe matrix. In contrast, the powder mixture milled with low specific milling energy (36.5 kJ/g showed an inhomogeneous microstructure composed of relatively large Fe-Fe2B particles surrounded by a thin layer of Fe-TiB2 within a finely dispersed Fe-TiB2 matrix region.

  4. Microstructural Evolution, Thermodynamics, and Kinetics of Mo-Tm2O3 Powder Mixtures during Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Luo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The microstructural evolution, thermodynamics, and kinetics of Mo (21 wt % Tm2O3 powder mixtures during ball milling were investigated using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Ball milling induced Tm2O3 to be decomposed and then dissolved into Mo crystal. After 96 h of ball milling, Tm2O3 was dissolved completely and the supersaturated nanocrystalline solid solution of Mo (Tm, O was obtained. The Mo lattice parameter increased with increasing ball-milling time, opposite for the Mo grain size. The size and lattice parameter of Mo grains was about 8 nm and 0.31564 nm after 96 h of ball milling, respectively. Ball milling induced the elements of Mo, Tm, and O to be distributed uniformly in the ball-milled particles. Based on the semi-experimental theory of Miedema, a thermodynamic model was developed to calculate the driving force of phase evolution. There was no chemical driving force to form a crystal solid solution of Tm atoms in Mo crystal or an amorphous phase because the Gibbs free energy for both processes was higher than zero. For Mo (21 wt % Tm2O3, it was mechanical work, not the negative heat of mixing, which provided the driving force to form a supersaturated nanocrystalline Mo (Tm, O solid solution.

  5. Mechanochemical synthesis of magnetically hard anisotropic RFe{sub 10}Si{sub 2} powders with R representing combinations of Sm, Ce and Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabay, A.M., E-mail: gabay@udel.edu; Hadjipanayis, G.C.

    2017-01-15

    Alloy synthesis consisting of mechanical activation followed by annealing was explored as a method of manufacturing medium-grade permanent magnet materials with a reduced content of the critical rare earth elements. Four R{sub x}Fe{sub 10}Si{sub 2} alloys with R=Sm, Sm{sub 0.7}Zr{sub 0.3}, Sm{sub 0.3}Ce{sub 0.3}Zr{sub 0.4} and Ce{sub 0.6}Zr{sub 0.4} (nominal compositions) were prepared from mixtures of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Si powders in the presence of a reducing agent Ca and a CaO dispersant. The collected alloy particles typically consisted of few joined submicron crystals. For R=Sm, X-ray diffraction analysis reveals a significant amount of the unwanted Th{sub 2}Zn{sub 17}-type compound forming alongside the desired ThMn{sub 12}-type 1:12 compound. A more pure 1:12 phase could be obtained for R=Ce{sub 0.6}Zr{sub 0.4}, but it exhibited a room-temperature coercivity of less than 1 kOe. The most pure 1:12 phase and the highest values of the coercivity (10.8 kOe) and calculated maximum energy product (13.8 MGOe) were obtained for R=Sm{sub 0.7}Zr{sub 0.3} processed at 1150 °C. The calculated maximum energy products of the Sm{sub 0.3}Ce{sub 0.3}Zr{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 10}Si{sub 2} particles, with half of their rare earths constituents represented by the relatively abundant Ce, was 10.1 MGOe. - Highlights: • 30% Zr substitution for Sm improves prospects of the alloys as permanent magnets. • Pure ThMn{sub 12}-type structure could only be obtained in the Zr-substituted alloys. • Obtained powders exhibit better properties than nanocrystalline Sm(Fe,M){sub 12} alloys. • If fully dense, alloy containing only 2.3 at% Sm would energy product of 10 MGOe.

  6. Synthesis of high-performance Li2FeSiO4/C composite powder by spray-freezing/freeze-drying a solution with two carbon sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yukiko; Iwase, Hiroaki; Shida, Kenji; Liao, Jinsun; Fukui, Takehisa; Matsuda, Motohide

    2017-09-01

    Li2FeSiO4 is a promising cathode active material for lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity. Spray-freezing/freeze-drying, a practical process reported for the synthesis of various ceramic powders, is applied to the synthesis of Li2FeSiO4/C composite powders and high-performance Li2FeSiO4/C composite powders are successfully synthesized by using starting solutions containing both Indian ink and glucose as carbon sources followed by heating. The synthesized composite powders have a unique structure, composed of Li2FeSiO4 nanoparticles coated with a thin carbon layer formed by the carbonization of glucose and carbon nanoparticles from Indian ink. The carbon layer enhances the electrochemical reactivity of the Li2FeSiO4, and the carbon nanoparticles play a role in the formation of electron-conducting paths in the cathode. The composite powders deliver an initial discharge capacity of 195 and 137 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and 1 C, respectively, without further addition of conductive additive. The discharge capacity at 1 C is 72 mAh g-1 after the 100th cycle, corresponding to approximately 75% of the capacity at the 2nd cycle.

  7. The antidiabetic effects of a dry powder of dietary vegetable and fruit mixtures in diabetic db/db mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Man Yeung

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chung-Man Yeung1, Yi Tan1, Sidney Tam2, Liwei Lu3, King-Hung Ko3, Pai-Hao Yang1,4, Hsiang-Fu Kung4, Marie C Lin11Department of Chemistry, Open Laboratory of Chemical Biology of the Institute of Molecular Technology, 2Clinical Biochemistry Unit, 3Department of Pathology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; 4Centre of Emerging Infectious Diseases, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong, ChinaAbstract: We evaluated the antidiabetic effects of a mixed vegetable powder-formula I (MVP-FI, which is a dry powder mixture of over 65 kinds of vegetables and fruits, using the db/db type 2 diabetes mouse model. The db/db mice at 8–10 weeks of age were randomly divided into three groups: vehicle treatment, 1.575 g/kg MVP-FI treatment, and 3.15 g/kg MVP-FI treatment. During 12 days of treatment, we measured food intake and body weight changes, fasting blood glucose levels, and plasma lipid levels. Our results showed that the food intake and the body weight of MVP-FI-treated group were decreased gradually. Moreover, the fasting blood glucose level of the treated group was significantly dropped to a normal level comparable to that of the lean mice. Furthermore, we also found that the plasma triglyceride level in the treated group was dropped, whereas the high-density lipoprotein (HDL level was increased and total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio was decreased. Taken together, these results suggest that the diabetic conditions of the db/db mice have been improved after 12 days treatment with MVP-FI. The antihyperglycemic and antiobese activities of the MVP-FI, as demonstrated in the present study, may have important clinical implications for improving the management of type 2 diabetic patients.Keywords: traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, db/db mice, diabetes

  8. A comparative study of the use of powder X-ray diffraction, Raman and near infrared spectroscopy for quantification of binary polymorphic mixtures of piracetam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Denise M; Hennigan, Michelle C; Maher, Anthony; Hu, Yun; Ryder, Alan G; Hodnett, Benjamin K

    2012-04-07

    Diffraction and spectroscopic methods were evaluated for quantitative analysis of binary powder mixtures of FII(6.403) and FIII(6.525) piracetam. The two polymorphs of piracetam could be distinguished using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that Raman and NIR spectroscopy are most suitable for quantitative analysis of this polymorphic mixture. When the spectra are treated with the combination of multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and second derivative data pretreatments, the partial least squared (PLS) regression model gave a root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.94 and 0.99%, respectively. FIII(6.525) demonstrated some preferred orientation in PXRD analysis, making PXRD the least preferred method of quantification. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitation of polymorphic impurity in entecavir polymorphic mixtures using powder X-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yanlei; Shao, Zhanying; Wang, Qiang; Hu, Xiurong; Yu, Dongdong

    2018-05-26

    Entecavir was used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B through inhibiting hepatitis B virus. The anhydrous form of entecavir (ENT-A) often appeared as impurity polymorph in the manufacturing process of entecavir monohydrate (ENT-H) such as granulation, drying and compression. Since different crystal forms might affect drug bioavailability and therapeutic effect, it was vital to control the ENT-A content of the drug product. The work aimed to develop useful methods to assess ENT-A weight percentage in ENT-H. Powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) and Raman spectrometric methods were applied. Binary mixtures with different ratios of pure ENT-H and pure ENT-A were scanned using PXRD and Raman to obtain spectra. Then peak heights and peak areas versus weight percentage were used to construct calibration curves. The best linear regression analysis data for PXRD and Raman method were found to be R 2  = 0.9923 and R 2  = 0.9953, in the weight ratio range of 2.1-20.2% w/w% of ENT-A in binary mixtures. Limit of detection (LOD) of ENT-A was 0.38% and limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 1.15% for PXRD method. LOD and LOQ for Raman method were 0.48% and 1.16%. The results showed that PXRD and Raman methods: both were precise and accurate, and could be used for measurement of ENT-A content in the selected weight percentage range. Partial least squares (PLS) algorithm with four data pre-processing methods: including multiplicative scatter correlation (MSC), standard normal variate (SNV), first and second derivatives were applied and evaluated using prediction errors. The best performance of PLS was R 2  = 0.9958 with RMSEC (0.44%) and RMSEP (0.65%). Multivariate analysis for Raman spectra showed similar good results with univariate analysis, and would be an advantageous method when there were overlapped peaks in the spectra. In summary, the proposed PXRD and Raman method could be developed for the quality control of ENT-H. And Raman was a more promising method in

  10. HIP (hot isostatic pressing) sintering of Tantalum (Ta) and tantalum carbide (TaC) powder mixture: relations between microstructure and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valin, F.; Schnedecker, M.

    1994-01-01

    HIP sintering at 1630 C and 195 MPa, during 2 hours, can be used for complete densification of mixtures of commercial tantalum carbide and tantalum powders. HIPed material properties are depending upon initial compositions. For C/Ta ratios inferior to 80%, the monocarbide structure is preserved. A partial ordering of the carbon vacancies will result, for TaC(0.80), in microhardness maximization. The microstructurally homogenous TaC(0.45) shows an excellent toughness. 2 figs., 2 refs

  11. Study of twinning behavior of powder metallurgy Ti-Si alloy by interrupted in-situ tensile tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, X.X., E-mail: ye-xiaoxin@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Joining and Welding Institute (JWRI), Osaka University (Japan); Imai, H.; Shen, J.H.; Chen, B. [Joining and Welding Institute (JWRI), Osaka University (Japan); Han, G.Q. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology (China); Umeda, J.; Kondoh, K. [Joining and Welding Institute (JWRI), Osaka University (Japan)

    2017-01-02

    Twinning mechanism of powder metallurgy Ti-Si alloy was investigated by interrupted in-situ tensile tests. Extension twins {10−12}<10-1-1> in the fine-grained Ti-Si alloy were found in the uniform deformation period, but no twinning in the coarse pure Ti. Three deformation twinning nucleation mechanisms were proposed: i) local stress concentration by neighboured slip incompatibility, ii) slip/twin oriented relationship in the parent grain and iii) slip/twin transfer by high Luster-Morris oriented relationship. The interior back-stress state, grains rotation and dislocations pile-up drove the occurrence of detwinning phenomenon. Silicon-facilitation twinning verified the hypothesis that the substitutional Si solutes affected the core structures and thus the mobility of screw dislocations. Enhanced driving force and decreased energy barrier of nucleation in the micro/atomic scale were further proposed in the twinning activation. It was expected to deepen the understanding of twinning/detwinning behaviors and supply direct evidences building immature twinning mechanism. In-depth understanding about the relationship among the processing, mechanical properties and microstructure of Ti alloy was facilitated in the present work.

  12. Detonation wear-resistant coatings, alloy powders based on Cr-Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.Г. Довгаль

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available  Coatings from composition material Cr-Si-B on steel by detonation spraying method are obtained. Composition, structure and tribotechnical characteristics of coatings in comparison with traditional materials on the basis of Ni-Cr and alloy of tungsten and cobalt are investigated.

  13. Synthesis of Bi4Si3O12 powders by a sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Huidong; Jia Caixia; Jiang Yuanru; Wang Xiaochang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bi 4 Si 3 O 12 were synthesized by a sol–gel method, using stoichiometric materials. ► The calcining process of the as-dried gel was studied by different analyses. ► Phase separation in the sol–gel process was found during the calcination. - Abstract: Micro-crystals of bismuth orthosilicate (Bi 4 Si 3 O 12 ) were synthesized by a sol–gel method, using stoichiometric Si(OC 2 H 5 ) 4 , Bi(NO 3 ) 3 ·5H 2 O as the precursors and acetic acid as the solvent. The calcining process of the as-dried gel was studied by total gravity/differential scanning calory (TG/DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (IR) spectra. Experiments showed that single phase of Bi 4 Si 3 O 12 could be obtained by sol–gel method at a calcining temperature of 900 °C. Phase separation in the sol–gel process was found during the calcination.

  14. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al10SiMg fabricated by pulsed laser powder bed fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, R.; Ghosh, A.; Chou, S.C. [Aluminum Research Centre – REGAL, Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada H3A 0C5 (Canada); Paliwal, M. [Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Materials Science and Engineering, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Brochu, M., E-mail: mathieu.brochu@mcgill.ca [Aluminum Research Centre – REGAL, Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada H3A 0C5 (Canada)

    2017-03-24

    A series of high-density Al10SiMg specimens were fabricated using a custom built pulsed laser powder bed fusion unit operating with a pulsed-laser source. The fabricated components were analyzed using optical microscopy, computerized tomography (CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) mapping, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A significantly refined cellular microstructure was observed, where Al cell diameter refinement upto ~210 nm was obtained throughout the component. Age hardening T6 treatment was also performed to investigate the heat treatment response of this fine microstructure. The mechanical properties in the as-built condition were assessed by microhardness testing (136 HV) and compressive tests (true compressive yield strength of 380 MPa and true ultimate compressive strength of 485 MPa). On the other hand, the mechanical responses of T6 specimens displayed strength reduction while demonstrating enhanced ductility.

  15. Numerical investigation of FAST powder consolidation of Al2O3 and additive free β-SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J B; Cornwell, C F; Carlson, T; Marsh, C P

    2015-01-01

    In this work we examine ceramic synthesis through powder consolidation and the field assisted sintering technique. In particular, we investigate the sintering of Al 2 O 3 and additive free β−SiC from both an experimental and numerical perspective. For the numerical model, the continuum theory of sintering model is employed, and the densification mechanisms corresponding to power law creep and grain boundary diffusion are considered. Experiments are used for comparison and validation purposes. The results indicate that in general, the densification kinetics simulated by the numerical model compare favorably with the experimental results. Parametric studies involving initial grain size, heating rate, and applied stress are also examined using the numerical model, and confirm many of the expected results from previous research, including increased densification due to higher heating rates, smaller grain sizes, and increased applied loading conditions. (paper)

  16. Synthesis and characterization of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} nano-powders by a water-based sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Xiangwei [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Wen Zhaoyin, E-mail: zywen@mail.sic.ac.c [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Xu Xiaogang; Wang Xiuyan; Lin Jiu [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2009-08-01

    The water-based sol-gel process for the synthesis of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} nano-powders was reported for the first time. LiOH.H{sub 2}O and aerosil SiO{sub 2} were used as the starting materials with citric acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 7}.H{sub 2}O) as the chelating agent. Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} powders with particle size as small as 100 nm were successfully synthesized at the temperature as low as 675 deg. C. Phase analysis, morphology, sintering behavior of the powders and ionic conductivity of the sintered bodies were investigated systematically. The experimental results showed that the powders obtained by the water-based sol-gel process (SG) possessed excellent sinterability, exhibiting a linear shrinkage of 5.2% while sintered to 900 deg. C, more than 3 times that of the powders obtained by solid state reaction (SSR). The bulk conductivity of the SG sintered bodies was much higher than that of the SSR samples at the same testing temperature.

  17. Efficiency of Lu2SiO5:Ce (LSO) powder phosphor as X-ray to light converter under mammographic imaging conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, S.; Michail, C.; Valais, I.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Liaparinos, P.; Kalivas, N.; Kalatzis, I.; Toutountzis, A.; Efthimiou, N.; Loudos, G.; Sianoudis, I.; Cavouras, D.; Dimitropoulos, N.; Nomicos, C.D.; Kandarakis, I.; Panayiotakis, G.S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the light emission efficiency of Lu 2 SiO 5 :Ce (LSO) powder scintillator under X-ray mammographic imaging conditions. Powder LSO scintillator has never been used in X-ray imaging. For the purposes of the present study, a 25 mg/cm 2 thick scintillating screen was prepared in our laboratory, by sedimentation of Lu 2 SiO 5 :Ce powder. Absolute luminescence efficiency measurements were performed within the range of X-ray tube voltages (22-49 kVp) used in mammographic applications. Parameters related to X-ray detection, i.e. the energy absorption efficiency (EAE) and the quantum detection efficiency (QDE) were calculated. A theoretical model, describing radiation and light transfer, was employed to fit experimental data and to estimate values of the intrinsic conversion efficiency and the light attenuation coefficients of the screen. The spectral compatibility of the LSO powder scintillator to mammographic X-ray films and to various electronic optical detectors was determined by performing light emission spectrum measurements and by taking into account the spectral sensitivity of the optical detectors. Results in the voltage range used in mammography showed that Lu 2 SiO 5 :Ce powder scintillator has approximately 10% higher values of QDE and 4.5% higher values of EAE than Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb

  18. Melting of SiC powders preplaced duplex stainless steel using TIG welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleque, M. A.; Afiq, M.

    2018-01-01

    TIG torch welding technique is a conventional melting technique for the cladding of metallic materials. Duplex stainless steels (DSS) show decrease in performance under aggressive environment which may lead to unanticipated failure due to poor surface properties. In this research, surface modification is done by using TIG torch method where silicon carbide (SiC) particles are fused into DSS substrate in order to form a new intermetallic compound at the surface. The effect of particle size, feed rate of SiC preplacement, energy input and shielding gas flow rate on surface topography, microstructure, microstructure and hardness are investigated. Deepest melt pool (1.237 mm) is produced via TIG torch with highest energy input of 1080 J/mm. Observations of surface topography shows rippling marks which confirms that re-solidification process has taken place. Melt microstructure consist of dendritic and globular carbides precipitate as well as partially melted silicon carbides (SiC) particles. Micro hardness recorded at value ranging from 316 HV0.5 to 1277 HV0.5 which shows increment from base hardness of 260 HV0.5kgf. The analyzed result showed that incorporation of silicon carbide particles via TIG Torch method increase the hardness of DSS.

  19. The percolation effect and optimization of soft magnetic properties of FeSiAl magnetic powder cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Ruru [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, Jiangxi (China); Zhu, Zhenghou, E-mail: z00708@sina.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, Jiangxi (China); Zhao, Hui, E-mail: candyzhaohui@126.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, Jiangxi (China); Institute of Space Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, Jiangxi (China); Mao, Shenghua [Jiangxi Aite magnetic materials Co. Ltd., Yichun 336000, Jiangxi (China); Zhong, Qi [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, Jiangxi (China)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • A new magnetic percolation phenomenon of ρ-μe in MPCs was discovered. • The soft magnetic properties of FeSiAl MPCs were studied. • The comprehensive magnetic properties of MPCs were optimized. • The formation mechanism of magnetic conductive path was explained. - Abstract: In this paper, a new magnetic percolation phenomenon between the green compact density ρ and effective permeability μe in FeSi{sub 9.6}Al{sub 6.5} magnetic powder cores, was discovered. The Magnetic Percolation Area of ρ is the range of 5.6 g/cm{sup 3} ∼ 5.78 g/cm{sup 3}, and the percolation threshold is 5.78 g/cm{sup 3}. As a result of the guidance of the percolation theory, the best comprehensive magnetic properties have been optimized through adjusting the distribution of powders. The special distribution of the magnetic powder cores with the best comprehensive magnetic properties was as follows: the content 60% with the particle size distribution of 100–200 mesh, the content 20% with the particle size distribution of 200–325 mesh and the content 20% with the particle size distribution of ≥400 mesh. When the green compact density ρ of cores was 5.79 g/cm{sup 3}, and the frequency was in the range of 1 kHz ∼ 100 kHz, the best comprehensive magnetic properties were as follows: μe = 91, ∆μ = 0.61%, μe(H80 Oe) = 43, μe(H100 Oe) = 33, μe(H120 Oe) = 26, Pc(50 mT/20 kHz) = 30.58 kW/m{sup 3}, Pc(50 mT/50 kHz) = 76.85 kW/m{sup 3}, Pc(50 mT/100 kHz) = 178 kW/m{sup 3}. Not only have those cores the excellent constant magnetic properties with frequency, the excellent DC superposition characteristic and the lower loss at high frequency, but also the effective permeability outstandingly goes up, which has important significance for the miniaturization of inductance components.

  20. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-07-29

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  1. Sintering Behavior of Spark Plasma Sintered SiC with Si-SiC Composite Nanoparticles Prepared by Thermal DC Plasma Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yeon-Tae; Naik, Gautam Kumar; Lim, Young-Bin; Yoon, Jeong-Mo

    2017-11-01

    The Si-coated SiC (Si-SiC) composite nanoparticle was prepared by non-transferred arc thermal plasma processing of solid-state synthesized SiC powder and was used as a sintering additive for SiC ceramic formation. Sintered SiC pellet was prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) process, and the effect of nano-sized Si-SiC composite particles on the sintering behavior of micron-sized SiC powder was investigated. The mixing ratio of Si-SiC composite nanoparticle to micron-sized SiC was optimized to 10 wt%. Vicker's hardness and relative density was increased with increasing sintering temperature and holding time. The relative density and Vicker's hardness was further increased by reaction bonding using additional activated carbon to the mixture of micron-sized SiC and nano-sized Si-SiC. The maximum relative density (97.1%) and Vicker's hardness (31.4 GPa) were recorded at 1800 °C sintering temperature for 1 min holding time, when 0.2 wt% additional activated carbon was added to the mixture of SiC/Si-SiC.

  2. Sintering Behavior of Spark Plasma Sintered SiC with Si-SiC Composite Nanoparticles Prepared by Thermal DC Plasma Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yeon-Tae; Naik, Gautam Kumar; Lim, Young-Bin; Yoon, Jeong-Mo

    2017-11-25

    The Si-coated SiC (Si-SiC) composite nanoparticle was prepared by non-transferred arc thermal plasma processing of solid-state synthesized SiC powder and was used as a sintering additive for SiC ceramic formation. Sintered SiC pellet was prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) process, and the effect of nano-sized Si-SiC composite particles on the sintering behavior of micron-sized SiC powder was investigated. The mixing ratio of Si-SiC composite nanoparticle to micron-sized SiC was optimized to 10 wt%. Vicker's hardness and relative density was increased with increasing sintering temperature and holding time. The relative density and Vicker's hardness was further increased by reaction bonding using additional activated carbon to the mixture of micron-sized SiC and nano-sized Si-SiC. The maximum relative density (97.1%) and Vicker's hardness (31.4 GPa) were recorded at 1800 °C sintering temperature for 1 min holding time, when 0.2 wt% additional activated carbon was added to the mixture of SiC/Si-SiC.

  3. Foundations of powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libenson, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Consideration is being given to physicochemical foundations and technology of metal powders, moulding and sintering of bars, made of them or their mixtures with nonmetal powders. Data on he design of basic equipment used in the processes of powder metallurgy and its servicing are presented. General requirements of safety engineering when fabricating metal powders and products of them are mentioned

  4. Synthesis and characterization of Yb and Er based monosilicate powders and durability of plasma sprayed Yb2SiO5 coatings on C/C–SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Zuhair S.; Zou Binglin; Huang Wenzhi; Fan Xizhi; Gu Lijian; Chen Xiaolong; Zeng Shuibing; Wang Chunjie; Cao Xueqiang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ultra-pure rare-earth monosilicate powders based on Er and Yb have been fabricated by solid-state reaction. ► Spray-drying treatment results in powders with free flowing characteristics and rounded surface morphologies. ► CTEs are found to be 7.1 ppm/°C for Yb 2 SiO 5 and 7.5 ppm/°C for Er 2 SiO 5 . ► Plasma spraying has been used to deposit Yb 2 SiO 5 coatings on C/C–SiC substrate. ► Coatings remain strongly intact with the substrate on thermal cycling between ∼400 °C and 1500 °C in gas burner rig experiment. - Abstract: Rare-earth silicates such as Yb 2 SiO 5 and Er 2 SiO 5 are promising environmental barrier coating materials for ceramic matrix composites. In this work, Yb 2 SiO 5 and Er 2 SiO 5 ceramic powders have been synthesized by solid-state reaction using Yb 2 O 3 , Er 2 O 3 and SiO 2 as starting materials. The fabricated powders were subjected to spray drying treatment for subsequent synthesis of coatings by plasma spraying. The spray drying resulted in well-dispersed and spherical powder particles with good flowability. Analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC) and dilatometry were applied to study the microstructural and thermal characteristics of the powders. Ultra-high purity monosilicate powders formed as a result of heating treatments at 1400 °C in a box furnace for 20 h. TG/DSC revealed the genesis temperatures of the silicate formation (low temperature polymorphs) and also showed that the solid-state reactions to form Yb and Er based monosilicates proceeded without any weight-loss in the tested temperature range. The values of coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of the fabricated compounds are found to be 7.1 ppm/°C for Yb 2 SiO 5 and 7.5 ppm/°C for Er 2 SiO 5 by dilatometric measurements. Besides these studies, coating formation by plasma spraying of spray-dried Yb 2 SiO 5 powders on the ceramic

  5. Low power loss and field-insensitive permeability of Fe-6.5%Si powder cores with manganese oxide-coated particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Junnan, E-mail: junnanli1991@163.com, E-mail: rzhgong@hust.edu.cn; Wang, Xian; Xu, Xiaojun; Gong, Rongzhou, E-mail: junnanli1991@163.com, E-mail: rzhgong@hust.edu.cn; Feng, Zekun [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Yajie; Harris, V. G. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Center for Microwave Magnetic Materials and Integrated Circuits, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    Fe-6.5%Si alloy powders coated with manganese oxides using an innovative in situ process were investigated. The in-situ coating of the insulating oxides was realized with a KMnO{sub 4} solution by a chemical process. The insulating manganese oxides with mixed valance state were verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The thickness of the insulating layer on alloy particles was determined to be in a range of 20–210 nm, depending upon the KMnO{sub 4} concentration. The powder core loss and the change in permeability under a DC-bias field were measured at frequencies ranging from 50 to 100 kHz. The experiments indicated that the Fe-6.5%Si powder cores with a 210 nm-thick manganese oxide layer not only showed a low core loss of 459 mW/cm{sup 3} at 100 kHz but also showed a small reduction in permeability (μ(H)/μ(0) = 85% for μ = 42) at a DC-bias field of 80 Oe. This work has defined a novel pathway to realizing low core loss and field-insensitive permeability for Fe-Si powder cores.

  6. CONSOLIDATION AND COMPACTION OF POWDER MIXTURES .2. BINARY-MIXTURES OF DIFFERENT PARTICLE-SIZE FRACTIONS OF ALPHA-LACTOSE MONOHYDRATE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIEPMA, KA; VEENSTRA, J; DEBOER, AH; BOLHUIS, GK; ZUURMAN, K; LERK, CF; VROMANS, H

    1991-01-01

    Binary mixtures of different particle size fractions of alpha-lactose monohydrate were compacted into tablets. The results showed decreased crushing strengths and decreased internal specific surface areas of the tablets as compared with the values calculated by linear interpolation of the data

  7. Rietveld refinement of the orthorhombic Pbca structures of Rb2CdSi5O12, Cs2MnSiO5O12, Cs2CoSi5O12 and Cs2NiSi5O12 leucites by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, A.M.T.; Henderson, C.M.B.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of high-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction patterns for hydrothermally synthesized Rb 2 CdSi 5 O 12 and Cs 2 MnSi 5 O 12 leucite analogues, and dry-synthesized Cs 2 CoSi 5 O 12 and Cs 2 NiSi 5 O 12 leucite analogues showed that they have an orthorhombic Pbca structure. The structures have been refined by the Rietveld method, showing that the tetrahedrally coordinated atoms (Si, Cd, Mn, Co and Ni) are ordered on separate sites. The Cs 2 MnSi 5 O 12 , Cs 2 CoSi 5 O 12 and Cs 2 NiSi 5 O 12 leucite samples are unusual in containing SiO 4 tetrahedra which are more distorted, on average, than the larger MnO 4 , CoO 4 and NiO 4 tetrahedra. The JCPDS file numbers for Rb 2 CdSi 5 O 12 , Cs 2 MnSi 5 O 12 and Cs 2 CoSi 5 O 12 are 46-1491, 46-1492 and 46-1493, respectively. (orig.)

  8. The effect of SiC powder mixing electrical discharge machining on white layer thickness, heat flux and fatigue life of AISI D2 die steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Khazraji

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with studying the effect of powder mixing electrical discharge machining (PMEDM parameters using copper and graphite electrodes on the white layer thickness (WLT, the total heat flux generated and the fatigue life. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to plan and design the experimental work matrices for two groups of experiments: for the first EDM group, kerosene dielectric was used alone, whereas the second was treated by adding the SiC micro powders mixing to dielectric fluid (PMEDM. The total heat flux generated and fatigue lives after EDM and PMEDM models were developed by FEM using ANSYS 15.0 software. The graphite electrodes gave a total heat flux higher than copper electrodes by 82.4%, while using the SiC powder and graphite electrodes gave a higher total heat flux than copper electrodes by 91.5%. The lowest WLT values of 5.0 µm and 5.57 µm are reached at a high current and low current with low pulse on time using the copper and graphite electrodes and the SiC powder, respectively. This means that there is an improvement in WLT by 134% and 110%, respectively, when compared with the use of same electrodes and kerosene dielectric alone. The graphite electrodes with PMEDM and SiC powder improved the experimental fatigue safety factor by 7.30% compared with the use of copper electrodes and by 14.61% and 18.61% compared with results using the kerosene dielectric alone with copper and graphite electrodes, respectively.

  9. Sintered powder cores of high Bs and low coreloss Fe84.3Si4B8P3Cu0.7 nano-crystalline alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nano-crystalline Fe-rich Fe84.3Si4B8P3Cu0.7 alloy ribbon with saturation magnetic flux density (Bs close to Si-steel exhibits much lower core loss (Wt than Si-Steels. Low glass forming ability of this alloy limits fabrication of magnetic cores only to stack/wound types. Here, we report on fabrication, structural, thermal and magnetic properties of bulk Fe84.3Si4B8P3Cu0.7 cores. Partially crystallized ribbons (obtained after salt-bath annealing treatment were crushed into powdered form (by ball milling, and were compacted to high-density (∼88% bulk cores by spark plasma sintering (SPS. Nano-crystalline structure (consisting of α-Fe grain in remaining amorphous matrix similar to wound ribbon cores is preserved in the compacted cores. At 50 Hz, cores sintered at Ts = 680 K show Wt 1 kHz. A trade-off between porosity and electrical resistivity is necessary to get low Wt at higher f. In the f range of ∼1 to 100 kHz, we have shown that the cores mixed with SiO2 exhibit much lower Wt than Fe-powder cores, non-oriented Si-steel sheets and commercially available sintered cores. We believe our core material is very promising to make power electronics/electrical devices much more energy-efficient.

  10. From Powders to Dense Metal Parts: Characterization of a Commercial AlSiMg Alloy Processed through Direct Metal Laser Sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Diego; Calignano, Flaviana; Krishnan, Manickavasagam; Canali, Riccardo; Ambrosio, Elisa Paola; Atzeni, Eleonora

    2013-03-06

    In this paper, a characterization of an AlSiMg alloy processed by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is presented, from the analysis of the starting powders, in terms of size, morphology and chemical composition, through to the evaluation of mechanical and microstructural properties of specimens built along different orientations parallel and perpendicular to the powder deposition plane. With respect to a similar aluminum alloy as-fabricated, a higher yield strength of about 40% due to the very fine microstructure, closely related to the mechanisms involved in this additive process is observed.

  11. From Powders to Dense Metal Parts: Characterization of a Commercial AlSiMg Alloy Processed through Direct Metal Laser Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Atzeni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a characterization of an AlSiMg alloy processed by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS is presented, from the analysis of the starting powders, in terms of size, morphology and chemical composition, through to the evaluation of mechanical and microstructural properties of specimens built along different orientations parallel and perpendicular to the powder deposition plane. With respect to a similar aluminum alloy as-fabricated, a higher yield strength of about 40% due to the very fine microstructure, closely related to the mechanisms involved in this additive process is observed.

  12. Thermal shock properties of 2D-SiCf/SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Pill; Lee, Jin Kyung; Son, In Soo; Bae, Dong Su; Kohyama, Akira

    2012-01-01

    This paper dealt with the thermal shock properties of SiC f /SiC composites reinforced with two dimensional SiC fabrics. SiC f /SiC composites were fabricated by a liquid phase sintering process, using a commercial nano-size SiC powder and oxide additive materials. An Al 2 O 3 –Y 2 O 3 –SiO 2 powder mixture was used as a sintering additive for the consolidation of SiC matrix region. In this composite system, Tyranno SA SiC fabrics were also utilized as a reinforcing material. The thermal shock test for SiC f /SiC composites was carried out at the elevated temperature. Both mechanical strength and microstructure of SiC f /SiC composites were investigated by means of optical microscopy, SEM and three point bending test. SiC f /SiC composites represented a dense morphology with a porosity of about 8.2% and a flexural strength of about 160 MPs. The characterization of SiC f /SiC composites was greatly affected by the history of cyclic thermal shock. Especially, SiC f /SiC composites represented a reduction of flexural strength at the thermal shock temperature difference higher than 800 °C.

  13. Effect of complex alloying of powder materials on properties of laser melted surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesker, E.I.; Gur'ev, V.A.; Elistratov, V.S.; Savchenko, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    Quality and properties of laser melted surface layers produced using self-fluxing powder mixture of Ni-Cr-B-Si system and the same powders with enhanced Fe content alloyed with Co, Ti, Nb, Mo have been investigated. Composition of powder material is determined which does not cause of defect formation under laser melting and makes possible to produce a good mechanical and tribological properties of treated surface [ru

  14. Corrosion Behavior of Heat-Treated AlSi10Mg Manufactured by Laser Powder Bed Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Cabrini

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This experimental work is aimed at studying the effect of microstructural modifications induced by post-processing heat treatments on the corrosion behavior of silicon-aluminum alloys produced by means of laser powder bed fusion (LPBF. The manufacturing technique leads to microstructures characterized by the presence of melt pools, which are quite different compared to casting alloys. In this study, the behavior of an AlSi10Mg alloy was evaluated by means of intergranular corrosion tests according to ISO 11846 standard on heat-treated samples ranging from 200 to 500 °C as well as on untreated samples. We found that temperatures above 200 °C reduced microhardness of the alloy, and different corrosion morphologies occurred due to the modification of both size and distribution of silicon precipitates. Selective penetrating attacks occurred at melt pool borders. The intergranular corrosion phenomena were less intense for as-produced specimens without heat treatments compared to the heat-treated specimens at 200 and 300 °C. General corrosion morphologies were noticed for specimens heat treated at temperatures exceeding 400 °C.

  15. Mixtures of bioethanol and gasoline as a fuel for SI engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Dragoslava D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of alternative fuels, especially bioethanol and biodiesel, rises due to the limited oil sources, secure supply, prices changes, and environment pollution. Bioethanol is an alternative fuel which will be important in future, as a fuel produced from different crops and lignocelluloses materials. The quality of bioethanol has significant influence on the characteristics of mixtures with gasoline and engine performance. The investigations were performed with the bioethanol obtained as by-product from sugar industry, which is not denaturated and produced according the requests prescribed by standards for ethanol used in mixtures with gasoline. Main target was to examine the possibility of utilisation of bioethanol obtained as by-product and without additional technologies for purification and additional costs. The results of standard and non-standard investigations and engine tests of bioethanol and gasoline mixtures are presented.

  16. Chip-based molecularly imprinted monolithic capillary array columns coated GO/SiO2 for selective extraction and sensitive determination of rhodamine B in chili powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haiyun; Huang, Lu; Chen, Zuanguang; Su, Zihao; Yuan, Kaisong; Liang, Guohuan; Pan, Yufang

    2017-01-01

    A novel solid-phase extraction chip embedded with array columns of molecularly imprinted polymer-coated silanized graphene oxide (GO/SiO2-MISPE) was established to detect trace rhodamine B (RB) in chili powder. GO/SiO2-MISPE monolithic columns for RB detection were prepared by optimizing the supporting substrate, template, and polymerizing monomer under mild water bath conditions. Adsorption capacity and specificity, which are critical properties for the application of the GO/SiO2-MISPE monolithic column, were investigated. GO/SiO2-MIP was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. The recovery and the intraday and interday relative standard deviations for RB ranged from 83.7% to 88.4% and 2.5% to 4.0% and the enrichment factors were higher than 110-fold. The chip-based array columns effectively eliminated impurities in chili powder, indicating that the chip-based GO/SiO2-MISPE method was reliable for RB detection in food samples using high-performance liquid chromatography. Accordingly, this method has direct applications for monitoring potentially harmful dyes in processed food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phase transitions of Cu.sub.3+x./sub.Si observed by temperature-dependent x-ray powder diffraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Correa, Cinthia Antunes; Poupon, Morgane; Kopeček, Jaromír; Král, Robert; Zemenová, Petra; Lecourt, J.; Barrier, N.; Brázda, Petr; Klementová, Mariana; Palatinus, Lukáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 91, Dec (2017), s. 129-139 ISSN 0966-9795 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC15-08842J Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : X-ray powder diffraction * differential scanning calorimetry * phase transitions * Cu3+xSi Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.140, year: 2016

  18. Synthesis and Cell Seeding Assessment of Novel Biphasic Nano Powder in the CaO–MgO–SiO2 System for Bone Implant Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Marzban

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: CaO–MgO–SiO2 system bioceramics possess good characteristics for hard tissue engineering applications. The aim of the study was to synthesize the nano powder by using a sol-gel method and evaluate of bioactivity in the cells culture. Methods: To characterize of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and to evaluate the bioactivity sample cell seeding and methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT assay were performed. Results: X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis showed that the biphasic powder was obtained at 1300°C for 2 h by using a sol-gel method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM image showed that powder particle size was about 45 nm. Besides, cell culture results indicated that the percentage of viability values was increased by the extension of period. Conclusions: found that the sample is cytocompatible and has cell proliferation potential in culture medium. The present study demonstrates that, the biphasic CaO–MgO–SiO2 system can be used to achieve novel bioactive materials for bone implant application.

  19. Direct synthesis of La9.33Si6O26 ultrafine powder via sol-gel self-combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Changan; Liu Junliang; Cai Jun; Zeng Yanwei

    2008-01-01

    Single phase La 9.33 Si 6 O 26 ultrafine powder, as a kind of highly activated precursor to prepare medium-to-low temperature electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), has been successfully synthesized via a non-aqueous sol-gel and self-combustion approach from the starting materials: lanthanum nitrate (La(NO 3 ) 3 .6H 2 O), citric acid, ethylene glycol (EG), tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and ammonium nitrate. The details of gel's self-combustion were investigated by DTA-TG and the structural characterization of as-synthesized powder from self-combustion was performed by XRD and SEM. The results show that La 9.33 Si 6 O 26 single phase of apatite-type crystal structure can be directly synthesized by sol-gel self-combustion method without further calcinations on the condition that the molar ratio (R) of NO 3 - to citric acid and ethylene glycol being 6:1. Such powders composed of well-dispersed particles with an average size of 200 nm and a specific surface area of 5.54 m 2 /g. It can be sintered to 90% of its theoretical density at 1500 deg. C for 10 h, about 200 deg. C lower than the sintering temperature for the powder derived from traditional solid reactions. The sintered material has a thermal expansion coefficient of 9.2 x 10 -6 K -1 between room temperature and 800 deg. C

  20. Solution combustion synthesis of strontium aluminate, SrAl2O4, powders: single-fuel versus fuel-mixture approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianoş, Robert; Istratie, Roxana; Păcurariu, Cornelia; Lazău, Radu

    2016-01-14

    The solution combustion synthesis of strontium aluminate, SrAl2O4, via the classic single-fuel approach and the modern fuel-mixture approach was investigated in relation to the synthesis conditions, powder properties and thermodynamic aspects. The single-fuel approach (urea or glycine) did not yield SrAl2O4 directly from the combustion reaction. The absence of SrAl2O4 was explained by the low amount of energy released during the combustion process, in spite of the highly negative values of the standard enthalpy of reaction and standard Gibbs free energy. In the case of single-fuel recipes, the maximum combustion temperatures measured by thermal imaging (482 °C - urea, 941 °C - glycine) were much lower than the calculated adiabatic temperatures (1864 °C - urea, 2147 °C - glycine). The fuel-mixture approach (urea and glycine) clearly represented a better option, since (α,β)-SrAl2O4 resulted directly from the combustion reaction. The maximum combustion temperature measured in the case of a urea and glycine fuel mixture was the highest one (1559 °C), which was relatively close to the calculated adiabatic temperature (1930 °C). The addition of a small amount of flux, such as H3BO3, enabled the formation of pure α-SrAl2O4 directly from the combustion reaction.

  1. Influence of annealing temperature on structural and optical properties of SiO{sub 2}:RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} [RE = Y, Gd] powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlawat, Rachna, E-mail: rachnaahlawat2003@yahoo.com

    2015-07-25

    Highlights: • Sol–gel process is used to obtain spherical nanocrystallites of SiO{sub 2}:RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} [RE = Y, Gd] powder. • Effect of four steps annealing is studied on micro strain, nanocrystallite size and dislocation density. • Optical properties are examined by absorption spectra and PL. • SiO{sub 2}:RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} [RE = Y, Gd] binary oxides are promising materials for high temperature structural applications. - Abstract: SiO{sub 2}:RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} [RE = Y, Gd] powder were prepared by wet chemical technique and the prepared binary oxides annealed at 500 °C and 900 °C. The crystalline structure, phase transformation, and surface morphologies of as-prepared and annealed samples were investigated by XRD and TEM. The normal transmission was measured using FTIR spectroscopy. Optical properties have been studied with UV–Vis spectroscopy and PL study. XRD results shows that the as prepared samples of SiO{sub 2}:RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} [RE = Y, Gd] powder has mixed phases of RE(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and Si(OH){sub 3}. However, cubic rare earth oxide phase alone is found for annealed samples. The strain values are calculated from W–H plot for annealed samples. TEM micrograph shows that the samples are composed of individual spherical nanocrystallites at 500 °C and aggregated nanocrystallites at 900 °C. From the UV–Vis spectra, it is found that the position of the absorption peak is shifted toward the higher wavelength side when annealing temperature is increased. In the PL spectra, the broad emission bands are observed between 570–600 nm and the presence of O–Si–O (silica) and metal oxide is confirmed by FTIR spectra.

  2. Equations of state of SiO2 and H2O mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ree, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    Equations of state (EOS) of silicon dioxide--water mixutes were developed to allow realistic computer simulations of surface and underground nuclear explosions of different yields to be conducted. Beacuse the amount of water contained in silicate rocks affects the size of craters and cavities formed by nuclear explosions, this factor must therefore be included in calculations of the EOS data of silicon cioxide--water mixtures. EOS were tabulated for mixtures containing three different concentrations of water at densities between 10 -5 and 140 Mg/m 3 and temperatures between 0.025 and 25,000 eV. The calculations were performed by using an improved mixture model based on earlier EOS data of silicon dioxide and water. The improved model makes allowances for a nonequilibrium dynamic effect that occurs more slowly than does the polymorphic phase change of silicate rocks. These data were used in an attempt to simulate the behavior of water-containing rocks during nuclear explosions. 17 figures, and 7 tables

  3. Electromagnetic microwave absorption of Fe–Si flakes with different mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, N.; You, C.Y.; Liu, J.; Qu, F.; Wang, C.H.; Lu, Z.X.

    2013-01-01

    Flakes of Fe–Si alloy were fabricated to get a relatively high permeability. Additives of graphene, TiO 2 and ZnO were mixed with the Fe–Si flakes. The magnetic properties of the Fe–Si alloy flakes were slightly affected by mixing, causing little decrease of the complex permeability. But the complex permittivity was significantly reduced due to the enhanced interfacial resistivity after mixing with graphene, TiO 2 or ZnO, resulting in a better electromagnetic impedance matching. The best microwave absorption performance was achieved by mixing TiO 2 : for an absorber thickness of 1.5 mm, a minimum reflection loss (RL) of −14.1 dB was obtained at 7.1 GHz with a large width of 3.6 GHz in which the RL is lower than −10 dB; with the absorber thickness of 2.4 mm, the minimum RL reaches −35.3 dB at 4.2 GHz. The different effects among graphene, TiO 2 and ZnO additives on the electromagnetic properties are mainly related to the morphology of the additives rather than their intrinsic characteristics. - Highlights: ► The relative permittivity of pure Fe–Si flakes was reduced by mixing graphene, TiO 2 and ZnO. ► Microwave absorption was improved by physically mixing without permeability loss. ► Sample with TiO 2 shows good microwave absorption with a minimum RL of −35.3 dB at 4.2 GHz

  4. A novel method of modifying immune responses by vaccination with lipiodol-siRNA mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijian Li

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The dendritic cell (DC possesses the ability to stimulate both T helper 1 (Th1 and Th2 responses depending on activation stimuli. Although it is known that chemically or genetically modified DC can be used therapeutically to steer immune responses towards either Th1 or Th2, cellular therapy with ex vivo manipulated DC is clinically difficult. Here we demonstrate a novel method of switching immune responses from Th1 to Th2 through in vivo immune modulation by administration of siRNA. We demonstrate that siRNA targeting of the IL-12p35 gene leads to a Th2 bias in vitro through an IL-10 dependent mechanism. In vivo administration of siRNA admixed with the oil-based contrast agent lipiodol in the presence of antigen and adjuvant induced a deviation in recall response to reduced production of IFN-γ and augmented IL-4 response using either KLH or ovalbumin. This simple method of in vivo modification of immune response possesses therapeutic potential in Th1-mediated diseases such as multiple sclerosis and autoimmune diabetes.

  5. The measurement of mixture homogeneity and dissolution to predict the degree of drug agglomerate breakdown achieved through powder mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, M M; Van der Watt, J G

    1994-11-01

    Interactive mixing of agglomerates of small, cohesive particles with coarse carrier particles facilitate the deaggregation of agglomerates. In this study dispersion of agglomerates of microfine furosemide particles by such a mixing process was followed by measuring changes in the content uniformity and area under the dissolution curve. Interactive mixtures between agglomerates of different sized furosemide particles and coarse sodium chloride particles were prepared using different mixers, mixing times and mixer speeds. The dissolution rate of the drug from and content uniformity of the mixtures were measured, and degrees of dispersion were calculated. These degrees of dispersion were compared to the dispersion values obtained from the decrease in agglomerate size after mixing. An increase in mixing time led to an increase in dispersion. An initial fast deagglomeration, indicated by an increase in dissolution, increase in content uniformity and a decrease in particle size, was followed by substantially slower deaggregation of remaining agglomerates and smaller aggregates. For all mixtures studied the degree of dispersion estimated from dissolution measurements, when compared to equivalent content uniformity measurements, agreed closely with the degree of dispersion as indicated by the decrease in particle size. The use of the area under the dissolution curve to predict agglomerate breakdown proved useful and may find application in situations where it is impossible to follow directly deagglomeration through particle size measurements.

  6. Fabrication of an Fe80.5Si7.5B6Nb5Cu Amorphous-Nanocrystalline Powder Core with Outstanding Soft Magnetic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongyang; Liu, Xiansong; Feng, Shuangjiu; Rehman, Khalid Mehmood Ur

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the melt spinning method was used to develop Fe80.5Si7.5B6Nb5Cu amorphous ribbons in the first step. Then, the Fe80.5Si7.5B6Nb5Cu amorphous-nanocrystalline core with a compact microstructure was obtained by multiple processes. The main properties of the magnetic powder core, such as micromorphology, thermal behavior, permeability, power loss and quality factor, have been analyzed. The obtained results show that an Fe80.5Si7.5B6Nb5Cu amorphous-nanocrystalline duplex core has high permeability (54.8-57), is relatively stable at different frequencies and magnetic fields, and the maximum power loss is only 313 W/kg; furthermore, it has a good quality factor.

  7. Bioactivity of gel-glass powders in the CaO-SiO2 system: a comparison with ternary (CaO-P2O5-SiO2) and quaternary glasses (SiO2-CaO-P2O5-Na2O).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanapavan, Priya; Jones, Julian R; Pryce, Russell S; Hench, Larry L

    2003-07-01

    Bioactive glasses react chemically with body fluids in a manner that is compatible with the repair processes of the tissues. This results in the formation of an interfacial bond between the glasses and living tissue. Bioactive glasses also stimulate bone-cell proliferation. This behavior is dependent on the chemical composition as well as the surface texture of the glasses. It has been recently reported that gel-derived monolith specimens in the binary SiO2 - CaO are bioactive over a similar molar range of SiO2 content as the previously studied ternary CaO-P2O5-SiO2 system. In this report, the preparation and bioactivity of the binary gel-glass powder with 70 mol % SiO2 is discussed and its bioactivity is compared with the melt-derived 45S5 (quaternary) Bioglass and sol-gel-derived 58S (ternary) bioactive gel-glass compositions. Dissolution kinetic parameters K(1) and K(2) were also computed based on the silicon release for all glass powders. It was shown that the simple two-component SiO2-CaO gel-glass powder is bioactive with comparable dissolution rates as the clinically used melt-derived 45S5 Bioglass powder and extensively studied sol-gel-derived 58S gel-glass powder. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Kinetics of moisture-induced hydrolysis in powder blends stored at and below the deliquescence relative humidity: investigation of sucrose-citric acid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Kaho; Mauer, Lisa J; Taylor, Lynne S

    2010-11-24

    Previous studies have shown that deliquescent organic compounds frequently exhibit chemical instability when stored in environmental conditions above their deliquescence relative humidity (RH). The goal of the current study was to investigate the effect of atmospheric moisture on the long-term chemical stability of crystalline sucrose-citric acid mixtures following storage at RHs at and below the mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH). Interestingly, it was found that sucrose hydrolysis can occur below the MDRH of 64% and was observed for samples stored at 54% RH. However, hydrolysis was not seen for samples stored at 33 or 43% RH. The rate of sucrose hydrolysis could be modeled by taking into account the rate and extent of moisture uptake, which in turn was dependent on the composition of the powder and the storage RH. A reaction mechanism initiated by capillary condensation and involving additional deliquescence lowering by the degradation products formed as a result of sucrose hydrolysis (glucose and fructose) was proposed.

  9. Production of succinic acid from sugarcane molasses supplemented with a mixture of corn steep liquor powder and peanut meal as nitrogen sources by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, N; Qin, Y; Wang, Q; Liao, S; Zhu, J; Zhu, Q; Mi, H; Adhikari, B; Wei, Y; Huang, R

    2015-06-01

    The potential of using corn steep liquor powder (CSLP), peanut meal (PM), soybean meal (SM), cotton meal (CM) and urea as the substitute of yeast extract (YE) as the nitrogen source was investigated for producing succinic acid (SA). Actinobacillus succinogenes GXAS137 was used as the fermenting bacterium and sugarcane molasses was used as the main substrate. None of these materials were able to produce SA as high as YE did. The CSLP could still be considered as a feasible and inexpensive alternate for YE as the yield of SA produced using CSLP was second only to the yield of SA obtained by YE. The use of CSLP-PM mixed formulation (CSLP to PM ratio = 2·6) as nitrogen source produced SA up to 59·2 g l(-1) with a productivity of 1·2 g l(-1) h(-1). A batch fermentation using a stirred bioreactor produced up to 60·7 g l(-1) of SA at the same formulation. Fed-batch fermentation that minimized the substrate inhibition produced 64·7 g l(-1) SA. These results suggest that sugarcane molasses supplemented with a mixture of CSLP and PM as the nitrogen source could be used to produce SA more economically using A. succinogenes. Significance and impact of the study: Succinic acid (SA) is commonly used as a platform chemical to produce a number of high value derivatives. Yeast extract (YE) is used as a nitrogen source to produce SA. The high cost of YE is currently the limiting factor for industrial production of SA. This study reports the use of a mixture of corn steep liquor powder (CSLP) and peanut meal (PM) as an inexpensive nitrogen source to substitute YE. The results showed that this CSLP-PM mixed formulation can be used as an effective and economic nitrogen source for the production of SA. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Blue-emitting LaSi3N5:Ce3+ fine powder phosphor for UV-converting white light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, Takayuki; Hirosaki, Naoto; Xie, Rong-Jun; Sato, Tsugio

    2009-08-01

    We have synthesized the pure ternary nitride phosphor, LaSi3N5:Ce3+ from the multicomponent oxide system La2O3-CeO2-SiO2, by using the gas-reduction-nitridation method. Highly pure, single-phase LaSi3N5:Ce3+ powders possessing particle sizes of ˜0.4-0.6 μm were obtained with the processing temperature ≤1500 °C. The synthesized LaSi3N5:Ce3+ exhibits tunable blue broadband emission with the dominant wavelength of 464-475 nm and the external quantum efficiency of ˜34%-67% under excitation of 355-380 nm. A high thermal stability of LaSi3N5:Ce3+ compared to the existing La-Si-O-N hosts was demonstrated, indicating the promising applicability as a blue-emitting phosphor for UV-converting white light-emitting diodes.

  11. Phase evolution during early stages of mechanical alloying of Cu–13 wt.% Al powder mixtures in a high-energy ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudina, Dina V.; Lomovsky, Oleg I.; Valeev, Konstantin R.; Tikhov, Serguey F.; Boldyreva, Natalya N.; Salanov, Aleksey N.; Cherepanova, Svetlana V.; Zaikovskii, Vladimir I.; Andreev, Andrey S.; Lapina, Olga B.; Sadykov, Vladislav A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase formation during early stages of Cu–Al mechanical alloying was studied. • The products of mechanical alloying are of highly non-equilibrium character. • X-ray amorphous phases are present in the products of mechanical alloying. • An Al-rich X-ray amorphous phase is distributed between the crystallites. - Abstract: We report the phase and microstructure evolution of the Cu–13 wt.% Al mixture during treatment in a high-energy planetary ball mill with a particular focus on the early stages of mechanical alloying. Several characterization techniques, including X-ray diffraction phase analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, differential dissolution, thermal analysis, and electron microscopy/elemental analysis, have been combined to study the evolution of the phase composition of the mechanically alloyed powders and describe the microstructure of the multi-phase products of mechanical alloying at different length scales. The following reaction sequence has been confirmed: Cu + Al → CuAl 2 (+Cu) → Cu 9 Al 4 + (Cu) → Cu(Al). The phase evolution was accompanied by the microstructure changes, the layered structure of the powder agglomerates disappearing with milling time. This scheme is further complicated by the processes of copper oxidation, reduction of copper oxides by metallic aluminum, and by variation of the stoichiometry of Cu(Al) solid solutions with milling time. Substantial amounts of X-ray amorphous phases were detected as well. Differential dissolution technique has revealed that a high content of aluminum in the Cu(Al) solid solution-based powders is due to the presence of Al-rich phases distributed between the Cu(Al) crystallites

  12. Remarkable enhancement on elimination reaction of side groups in excimer laser ablation of mixture targets of perylene derivatives with metal powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Satoru; Tamura, Kazuyuki; Tsujine, Yukari; Fukao, Tomoko; Nakano, Masayoshi; Matsuzaki, Akiyoshi; Sato, Hiroyasu

    2002-01-01

    Films are deposited on substrates at 20 deg.C by excimer laser ablation (ELA) of mixture targets of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) with metal powder, PTCDA/M (M=Co, Ni, Fe, W, Cu and Ag) using XeCl and ArF beams. Large amount of fragments with ''naked'' perylene skeletons can be produced owing to effective elimination of carboxylic dianhydride groups by ELA of PTCDA/Co both with XeCl and ArF beams under optimized ablation conditions. Elimination reaction of side groups of PTCDA is observed for ELA of the targets with metal powder of the iron group, Co, Fe and Ni, especially remarkable for Co and Fe. The film from PTCDA/Ni consists of small particles with the various diameters ranging from 10 to 100 nm as well as that from PTCDA/Co. Morphology like petal of rose can be seen everywhere for the film from PTCDA/Fe

  13. Nitrogen versus helium: effects of the choice of the atomizing gas on the structures of Fe50Ni30Si10B10 and Fe32Ni36Ta7Si8B17 powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambon, A.

    2004-01-01

    Gas atomization can produce, besides a possible significant degree of undercooling, high cooling rates, whose extent depends on the size of the droplets, on their velocity with respect to the surrounding medium, on the thermo-physical properties of both the alloy and the gas, and of course on the operating conditions such as melt overheating and gas-to-metal flow ratio. In this respect it is well-known that the atomizing gas can play a significant role in determining both the powder size distribution and the kind and mix of phases which result from the solidification and cooling processes. The microstructures and solidification morphologies of powders obtained from nitrogen and helium sonic gas atomization of two iron-nickel base glass forming alloys, Fe 50 Ni 30 Si 10 B 10 and Fe 32 Ni 36 Ta 7 Si 8 B 17 , were investigated by means of light microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The Fe 32 Ni 36 Ta 7 Si 8 B 17 alloy exhibits a higher proneness to the development of amorphous phase than the Fe 50 Ni 30 Si 10 B 10 alloy, while the effect of the higher speed attainable by the stream of helium with respect to that of nitrogen, affords not only to obtain a larger amount of particles in the finer size ranges, but also to affect the relative amounts of phases within the different size fractions

  14. Development of a Rational Design Space for Optimizing Mixing Conditions for Formation of Adhesive Mixtures for Dry-Powder Inhaler Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Saurabh; Minatovicz, Bruna; Thalberg, Kyrre; Chaudhuri, Bodhisattwa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop guidance toward rational choice of blenders and processing conditions to make robust and high performing adhesive mixtures for dry-powder inhalers and to develop quantitative experimental approaches for optimizing the process. Mixing behavior of carrier (LH100) and AstraZeneca fine lactose in high-shear and low-shear double cone blenders was systematically investigated. Process variables impacting the mixing performance were evaluated for both blenders. The performance of the blenders with respect to the mixing time, press-on forces, static charging, and abrasion of carrier fines was monitored, and for some of the parameters, distinct differences could be detected. A comparison table is presented, which can be used as a guidance to enable rational choice of blender and process parameters based on the user requirements. Segregation of adhesive mixtures during hopper discharge was also investigated. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Magnetic ordering in the monoclinic structure of Nd5Si1.45Ge2.55 and Pr5Si1.5Ge2.5 studied by means of neutron powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magen, C; Ritter, C; Morellon, L; Algarabel, P A; Ibarra, M R

    2004-01-01

    The compounds Nd 5 Si 1.45 Ge 2.55 and Pr 5 Si 1.5 Ge 2.5 have been investigated by means of magnetization measurements and neutron powder diffraction techniques. These alloys present a room-temperature monoclinic Gd 5 Si 2 Ge 2 -type crystallographic structure and, on cooling, both systems order ferromagnetically, at T C = 56 and 32 K, respectively, from a high-temperature paramagnetic to a low-temperature complex canted ferromagnetic state. The monoclinic crystallographic structure remains unchanged upon cooling down to 4 K, demonstrating the existence of a monoclinic ferromagnetic phase, and the possibility of a full decoupling of magnetic and crystallographic degrees of freedom in the 5:4 lanthanide intermetallic compounds

  16. Effect of Pre-Oxidation Treatment of Nano-SiC Particulates on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of SiC/Mg-8Al-1Sn Composites Fabricated by Powder Metallurgy Combined with Hot Extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan-Peng; Wang, Zhi-Guo; Zha, Min; Wang, Cheng; Yu, Hong-Chen; Wang, Hui-Yuan; Jiang, Qi-Chuan

    2016-11-26

    Nano-SiC particulates (n-SiC p ) reinforced Mg-8Al-1Sn (AT81) composites with different pre-oxidation parameters were fabricated by powder metallurgy (P/M) process combined with hot extrusion. The effects of pre-oxidization treatment of n-SiC p on the microstructure and tensile properties of 0.5 vol % n-SiC p /AT81 composites were investigated accordingly. The distribution of n-SiC p with different pre-oxidation parameters was homogeneous in the composites. Moreover, it was found that a thin MgAl₂O₄ layer formed at the interface when the n-SiC p were pre-oxidized at 1073 K for 2 h, while the MgAl₂O₄ layer became much thicker with pre-oxidization temperature increasing to 1273 K for 2 h. After an appropriate pre-oxidization treatment of n-SiC p at 1073 K for 2 h, the as-extruded 0.5 vol % n-SiC p /AT81 composites exhibited an enhanced strength. It was found that the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) increased from 168 MPa and 311 MPa to 255 MPa and 393 MPa compared with the as-extruded AT81 alloy, reflecting 51.8% and 26.4% increments, respectively. The improvement of mechanical properties should be mainly attributed to the grain refinement and homogeneous distribution of n-SiC p in the composites. Moreover, a well-bonded interface and the formation of an appropriate amount of interfacial product (MgAl₂O₄) benefited the material's mechanical properties.

  17. Magnetization reversal processes in bonded magnets made from a mixture of Nd-(Fe,Co)-B and strontium ferrite powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dospial, M.; Plusa, D.

    2013-03-01

    Isotropic epoxy-resin bonded magnets composed of different amounts of Magnequench MQP-B and strontium ferrite powders have been prepared using a compression molding technique. The magnetic parameters for magnets with different amounts of strontium ferrite and magnetization reversal processes have been studied by the measurement of the initial magnetization curves, the major hysteresis loops measured at a field up to 14 T and sets of recoil loops. The enhancement of μ0MR and μ0HC is observed in comparison with the calculated values. From the recoil loops the field dependences of the reversible, irreversible and total magnetization components and the differential susceptibilities were derived. From the dependence of the irreversible magnetization component versus an applied field it was deduced that the main mechanism of magnetization reversal process is the pinning of domain walls in MQP-B and strontium ferrite grains. The interactions between the magnetic particles and grains have been examined by the analysis of the δM plot. The δM behavior of magnets with ferrite has been interpreted as being composed of magnetizing exchange coupling and demagnetizing dipolar interactions.

  18. Powder metallurgy and mechanical alloying effects on the formation of thermally induced martensite in an FeMnSiCrNi SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pricop Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By ingot metallurgy (IM, melting, alloying and casting, powder metallurgy (PM, using as-blended elemental powders and mechanical alloying (MA of 50 % of particle volume, three types of FeMnSiCrNi shape memory alloy (SMA specimens were fabricated, respectively. After specimen thickness reduction by hot rolling, solution treatments were applied, at 973 and 1273 K, to thermally induce martensite. The resulting specimens were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, in order to reveal the presence of ε (hexagonal close-packed, hcp and α’ (body centred cubic, bcc thermally induced martensites. The reversion of thermally induced martensites, to γ (face centred cubic, fcc austenite, during heating, was confirmed by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, which emphasized marked increases of storage modulus and obvious internal friction maxima on DMA thermograms. The results proved that the increase of porosity degree, after PM processing, increased internal friction, while MA enhanced crystallinity degree.

  19. NOx emission control in SI engine by adding argon inert gas to intake mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moneib, Hany A.; Abdelaal, Mohsen; Selim, Mohamed Y.E.; Abdallah, Osama A.

    2009-01-01

    The Argon inert gas is used to dilute the intake air of a spark ignition engine to decrease nitrogen oxides and improve the performance of the engine. A research engine Ricardo E6 with variable compression was used in the present work. A special test rig has been designed and built to admit the gas to the intake air of the engine for up to 15% of the intake air. The system could admit the inert gas, oxygen and nitrogen gases at preset amounts. The variables studied included the engine speed, Argon to inlet air ratio, and air to fuel ratio. The results presented here included the combustion pressure, temperature, burned mass fraction, heat release rate, brake power, thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency, exhaust temperature, brake specific fuel consumption and emissions of CO, CO 2 , NO and O 2 . It was found that the addition of Argon gas to the intake air of the gasoline engine causes the nitrogen oxide to reduce effectively and also it caused the brake power and thermal efficiency of the engine to increase. Mathematical program has been used to obtain the mixture properties and the heat release when the Argon gas is used.

  20. Synergetic Effect of Ni2P/SiO2 and γ-Al2O3 Physical Mixture in Hydrodeoxygenation of Methyl Palmitate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Shamanaev

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ni2P/SiO2 catalyst, which was prepared by in situ temperature-programmed reduction and in the mixture with the inert (SiC, SiO2 or acidic (γ-Al2O3 material was studied in methyl palmitate hydrodeoxygenation (HDO. Methyl palmitate HDO was carried out at temperatures of 270–330 °C, H2/feed volume ratio of 600 Nm3/m3, and H2 pressure of 3.0 MPa. Ni2P/SiO2 catalyst, diluted with γ-Al2O3 showed a higher activity than Ni2P/SiO2 catalyst diluted with SiC or SiO2. The conversion of methyl palmitate increased significantly in the presence of γ-Al2O3 most probably due to the acceleration of the acid-catalyzed reaction of ester hydrolysis. The synergism of Ni2P/SiO2 and γ-Al2O3 in methyl palmitate HDO can be explained by the cooperation of the metal sites of Ni2P/SiO2 and the acid sites of γ-Al2O3 in consecutive metal-catalyzed and acid-catalyzed reactions of HDO. The obtained results let us conclude that the balancing of metal and acid sites plays an important role in the development of the efficient catalyst for the HDO of fatty acid esters over supported phosphide catalysts.

  1. Microstructural Evolution of AlCoCrFeNiSi High-Entropy Alloy Powder during Mechanical Alloying and Its Coating Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lihui; Fu, Ming; Xiong, Wei

    2018-02-23

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are promising structural materials due to their excellent comprehensive performances. The use of mechanically alloyed powders to deposit HEA coatings through atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) is an effective approach that can broaden the application areas of the HEAs. In this paper, a ductility-brittleness AlCoCrFeNiSi system was chosen as an object of study, and the detailed evolution of the surface morphology, particle size distribution, and microstructure of the powder during mechanical alloying was investigated. An AlCoCrFeNiSi HEA coating was deposited using powder milled for 10 h, which can be used as an ideal feedstock for APS. The surface morphology, microstructure, microhardness, and wear behavior of the coating at room temperature were investigated. The results showed that as the milling time increased, the particle size first increased, and then decreased. At the milling time of 10 h, simple body-centered cubic (BCC) and face-centered cubic (FCC) solid solution phases were formed. After spraying, the lamellar structure inside a single particle disappeared. An ordered BCC phase was detected, and the diffraction peaks of the Si element also disappeared, which indicates that phase transformation occurred during plasma spraying. A transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that nanometer crystalline grains with a grain size of about 30 nm existed in the APS coating. For the coating, an average microhardness of 612 ± 41 HV was obtained. Adhesive wear, tribo-oxidation wear, and slight abrasion wear took place during the wear test. The coating showed good wear resistance, with a volume wear rate of 0.38 ± 0.08 × 10 -4 mm³·N -1 ·m -1 , which makes it a promising coating for use in abrasive environments.

  2. Hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination in Sm2Fe16M (M=Al, Ga and Si) and magnetic properties of their carburized powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, M.; Rave, W.; Cao, L.; Gebel, B.; Mueller, K.-H.; Schultz, L.

    1998-01-01

    The application of the hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination (HDDR) process in Sm 2 Fe 16 M (M=Al,Ga and Si) was investigated. The hydrogen absorption behaviour was studied by temperature-pressure analysis (TPA). In the temperature range between 500 and 800 C, Sm 2 Fe 16 M samples with M=Ga and Si show a weaker hydrogen absorption than Sm 2 Fe 16 Al. This was confirmed by X-ray diffraction which showed a complete disproportionation of Sm 2 Fe 16 Al into SmH z (1.9 2 Fe 16 Ga and Sm 2 Fe 16 Si exhibit a fraction of undecomposed material with the Th 2 Zn 17 -type structure after the disproportionation procedure. These results point to a stabilization of Sm 2 Fe 16 M against disproportionation by hydrogen for M=Ga and Si. The magnetization processes of carburized HDDR powders were studied by VSM measurements and Kerr microscopy. The demagnetization curve of our HDDR processed Sm 2 Fe 16 AlC y is well shaped, whereas those of Sm 2 Fe 16 GaC y and Sm 2 Fe 16 SiC y show a large decrease of the polarization at low fields. The favourable behaviour of Sm 2 Fe 16 AlC y is due to a homogeneous submicron grain structure. In Sm 2 Fe 16 GaC y and Sm 2 Fe 16 SiC y samples, an additional, magnetically soft phase with larger domains was observed which causes the low coercivity. As a consequence, HDDR was only favourable for the preparation of Sm 2 Fe 16 MC y hard magnets with M=Al but not for M=Ga and Si. Optimization of the HDDR process in Sm 2 Fe 16 Al and subsequent nitrogenation or carburization led to coercivities of μ 0j H c =2.9 and 2.5 T, respectively. (orig.)

  3. Development and Characterisation of Aluminium Matrix Nanocomposites AlSi10Mg/MgAl2O4 by Laser Powder Bed Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Marchese

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, additive manufacturing techniques have been gaining attention for the fabrication of parts from aluminium alloys to composites. In this work, the processing of an AlSi10Mg based composite reinforced with 0.5% in weight of MgAl2O4 nanoparticles through laser powder bed fusion (LPBF process is presented. After an initial investigation about the effect of process parameters on the densification levels, the LPBF materials were analysed in terms of microstructure, thermo-mechanical and mechanical properties. The presence of MgAl2O4 nanoparticles involves an increment of the volumetric energy density delivered to the materials, in order to fabricate samples with high densification levels similar to the AlSi10Mg samples. However, the application of different building parameters results in modifying the size of the cellular structures influencing the mechanical properties and therefore, limiting the strengthening effect of the reinforcement.

  4. Atomization of U3Si2 for research reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.K.; Kim, K.H.; Lee, C.T.; Kuk, I.H.

    1995-01-01

    Rotating disk atomization technique is applied to KMRR (Korea Multi-purpose Research Reactor) fuel fabrication. A rotating disk atomizer is designed and manufactured locally and U-4.0 wt. % Si alloy powders are produced. The atomized powders are heat-treated to transform into U 3 Si and the mixture of U 3 Si and Al are extruded to fuel meat. Most of the atomized powders are spherical in shape. The microstructure of the powder is fine due to the rapid solidification. The time required for peritectoid reaction is reduced due to the fine microstructures and the resultant U 3 Si grain size is finer than ever obtained from ingot process. The mechanical properties of the fuel meat are improved: yield strength about 30 %, tensile strength 10% and elongation 250 % increased. (author)

  5. TPP-dendrimer nanocarriers for siRNA delivery to the pulmonary epithelium and their dry powder and metered-dose inhaler formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielski, Elizabeth; Zhong, Qian; Mirza, Hamad; Brown, Matthew; Molla, Ashura; Carvajal, Teresa; da Rocha, Sandro R P

    2017-07-15

    The regulation of genes utilizing the RNA interference (RNAi) mechanism via the delivery of synthetic siRNA has great potential in the treatment of a variety of lung diseases. However, the delivery of siRNA to the lungs is challenging due to the poor bioavailability of siRNA when delivered intraveneously, and difficulty in formulating and maintaining the activity of free siRNA when delivered directly to the lungs using inhalation devices. The use of non-viral vectors such as cationic dendrimers can help enhance the stability of siRNA and its delivery to the cell cytosol. Therefore, in this work, we investigate the ability of a triphenylphosphonium (TPP) modified generation 4 poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer (G4NH 2 -TPP) to enhance the in vitro transfection efficiency of siRNA in a model of the pulmonary epithelium and their aerosol formulations in pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) and dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Complexes of siRNA and G4NH 2 -TPP were prepared with varying TPP densities and increasing N/P ratios. The complexation efficiency was modulated by the presence of the TPP on the dendrimer surface, allowing for a looser complexation compared to unmodified dendrimer as determined by gel electrophoresis and polyanion competition assay. An increase in TPP density and N/P ratio led to an increase in the in vitro gene knockdown of stably green fluorescent protein (eGFP) expressing lung alveolar epithelial (A549) cells. G4NH 2 -12TPP dendriplexes (G4NH 2 PAMAM dendrimers containing 12 TPP molecules on the surface complexed with siRNA) at N/P ratio 30 showed the highest in vitro gene knockdown efficiency. To assess the potential of TPP-dendriplexes for pulmonary use, we also developed micron particle technologies for both pMDIs and DPIs and determined their aerosol characteristics utilizing an Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI). Mannitol microparticles encapsulating 12TPP-dendriplexes were shown to be effective in producing aerosols suitable for deep lung

  6. Mechanoactivation of chromium silicide formation in the SiC-Cr-Si system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasova M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The processes of simultaneous grinding of the components of a SiC-Cr-Si mixture and further temperature treatment in the temperature range 1073-1793 K were studied by X-ray phase analysis, IR spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and X-ray microanalysis. It was established that, during grinding of the mixture, chromium silicides form. A temperature treatment completes the process. Silicide formation proceeds within the framework of the diffusion of silicon into chromium. In the presence of SiO2 in the mixture, silicide formation occurs also as a result of the reduction of silica by silicon and silicon carbide. The sintering of synthesized composite SiC-chromium silicides powders at a high temperature under a high pressure (T = 2073 K, P = 5 GPa is accompanied by the destruction of cc-SiC particles, the cc/3 transition in silicon carbide and deformation distortions of the lattices of chromium silicides.

  7. Physicochemical and in vitro deposition properties of salbutamol sulphate/ipratropium bromide and salbutamol sulphate/excipient spray dried mixtures for use in dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Deirdre O; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2006-09-28

    The physicochemical and aerodynamic properties of spray dried powders of the drug/drug mixture salbutamol sulphate/ipratropium bromide were investigated. The in vitro deposition properties of spray dried salbutamol sulphate and the spray dried drug/excipient mixtures salbutamol sulphate/lactose and salbutamol sulphate/PEG were also determined. Spray drying ipratropium bromide monohydrate resulted in a crystalline material from both aqueous and ethanolic solution. The product spray dried from aqueous solution consisted mainly of ipratropium bromide anhydrous. There was evidence of the presence of another polymorphic form of ipratropium bromide. When spray dried from ethanolic solution the physicochemical characterisation suggested the presence of an ipratropium bromide solvate with some anhydrous ipratropium bromide. Co-spray drying salbutamol sulphate with ipratropium bromide resulted in amorphous composites, regardless of solvent used. Particles were spherical and of a size suitable for inhalation. Twin impinger studies showed an increase in the fine particle fraction (FPF) of spray dried salbutamol sulphate compared to micronised salbutamol sulphate. Co-spray dried salbutamol sulphate:ipratropium bromide 10:1 and 5:1 systems also showed an increase in FPF compared to micronised salbutamol sulphate. Most co-spray dried salbutamol sulphate/excipient systems investigated demonstrated FPFs greater than that of micronised drug alone. The exceptions to this were systems containing PEG 4000 20% or PEG 20,000 40% both of which had FPFs not significantly different from micronised salbutamol sulphate. These two systems were crystalline unlike most of the other spray dried composites examined which were amorphous in nature.

  8. Fine-structured aluminium products with controllable texture by selective laser melting of pre-alloyed AlSi10Mg powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thijs, Lore; Kempen, Karolien; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Van Humbeeck, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Abstract: This study shows that AlSi10Mg parts with an extremely fine microstructure and a controllable texture can be obtained through selective laser melting (SLM). Selective laser melting creates complex functional products by selectively melting powder particles of a powder bed layer after layer using a high-energy laser beam. The high-energy density applied to the material and the additive character of the process result in a unique material structure. To investigate this material structure, cube-shaped SLM parts were made using different scanning strategies and investigated by microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscattered diffraction. The experimental results show that the high thermal gradients occurring during SLM lead to a very fine microstructure with submicron-sized cells. Consequently, the AlSi10Mg SLM products have a high hardness of 127 ± 3 Hv0.5 even without the application of a precipitation hardening treatment. Furthermore, due to the unique solidification conditions and the additive character of the process, a morphological and crystallographic texture is present in the SLM parts. Thanks to the knowledge gathered in this paper on how this texture is formed and how it depends on the process parameters, this texture can be controlled. A strong fibrous 〈1 0 0〉 texture can be altered into a weak cube texture along the building and scanning directions when a rotation of 90° of the scanning vectors within or between the layers is applied

  9. Processes of microstructural evolution during high-energy mechanical treatment of ZnO and black NiO powder mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakazey, M., E-mail: kakazey@hotmail.com [Centro de Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Vlasova, M. [Centro de Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Vorobiev, Y. [Unidad Querétaro del Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Querétaro (Mexico); Leon, I. [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Cabecera Gonzalez, M. [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Chávez Urbiola, Edgar Arturo [Unidad Querétaro del Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Querétaro (Mexico)

    2014-11-15

    Kinetics of microstructural evolution in ZnO and NiO black powder mixture during prolonged high-energy mechanical ball milling were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Laser Particle Sizer, X-ray diffraction, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and UV–vis Diffuse Reflection methods. The use of these methods allows us to control the macrostructural processes (ZnO particles and NiO granules grinding, the deagglomeration and “secondary agglomeration”), the microstructural processes (formation and annealing of different native defects in ZnO [V{sub Zn}{sup −}:Zn{sub i}{sup 0} (I), V{sub Zn}{sup −} (II), and (V{sub Zn}{sup −}){sub 2}{sup −} (III) centers] and NiO black) and the mechanothermal processes in samples. This allows to establish the relationship between microstructural evolution and the properties of the samples depending on the duration of the mechanical processing.

  10. Effect of the Ti/B4C mole ratio on the reaction products and reaction mechanism in an Al–Ti–B4C powder mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Lee, Jung-Moo; Cho, Young-Hee; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Yu, Huashun

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the Ti/B 4 C mole ratio on the fabrication behavior of Al composites is investigated using Al–Ti–B 4 C powder mixtures as reactants. The quick spontaneous infiltration (QSI) process combined with the combustion reaction and DTA analysis were used. According to the thermodynamic predictions, which are verified in the experimental results, TiB 2 is formed in all the samples whereas TiC is only formed in reactants with a Ti/B 4 C mole ratio of more than two. The C atoms from the reacted B 4 C do not move into TiC but instead they move into Al 3 BC or Al 4 C 3 when the Ti/B 4 C mole ratio is less than two. In addition, the reaction mechanism with a Ti/B 4 C mole ratio of 0.75 is investigated extensively. - Highlights: • The critical role of the Ti/B 4 C mole ratio on the reaction products of Al–Ti–B 4 C was studied using experiments. • The experimental results are also supported by thermodynamic calculations presented in this paper. • The reaction mechanism with a Ti/B 4 C mole ratio of 0.75 is investigated extensively

  11. Luminescence of one dimensional ZnO, GeO{sub 2}–Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} nanostructure through thermal evaporation of Zn and Ge powder mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Vuong-Hung, E-mail: vuong.phamhung@hust.edu.vn; Kien, Vu Trung; Tam, Phuong Dinh; Huy, Pham Thanh

    2016-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ZnO and GeO{sub 2}–ZnGeO{sub 4} nanowires were fabricated by thermal evaporation of Zn and Ge powder mixture. • Morphology of specimens were observed to have a nanowire structure to rod-like morphology. • Strong NBE emission band with suppressed visible green emission band were observed on the dominant ZnO nanowires. • Strong emission of ∼530 nm were observed on the GeO{sub 2}–Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} nanowires. - Abstract: This paper reports the first attempt for fabrication of thermal evaporated Zn–Ge powder mixture to achieve near-band-edge (NBE) emission of ZnO and visible emission of GeO{sub 2}–Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} nanowires with controllable intensities. The nanowires were fabricated by thermal evaporation of Zn and Ge powder mixture, particularly, by using different Zn:Ge ratio, temperature and evaporated times. The morphology of nanowires was depended on the Zn and Ge ratio that was observed to have a nanowire structure to rod-like morphology. The thermal evaporation of Zn:Ge powder mixture resulted in formation of dominant ZnO or GeO{sub 2}–Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} nanowires as a function of evaporated parameters. These results suggest that the application of thermal evaporation of Zn and Ge mixture for potential application in synthesis of ZnO or GeO{sub 2}–Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} nanowires for optoelectronic field.

  12. Effect of Remelting Duration on Microstructure and Properties of SiCp/Al Composite Fabricated by Powder-Thixoforming for Electronic Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyu Cai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a novel processing method called powder thixoforming was proposed to prepare composites reinforced with 50 vol % of SiC particles (SiCp that were used for electronic packaging in order to investigate the effects of remelting duration on its microstructure and properties. Optical Microscope (OM, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, X-ray Diffraction (XRD and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM methods were applied for the material characterization and the corresponding physical and mechanical properties were examined in detail. The obtained results indicate that the remelting duration exerted a large effect on the microstructure as well as the SiCp/Al interfacial reaction. The density and hardness of the composite continuously increased with increasing remelting duration. The thermal conductivity (TC and bending strength (BS first increased during the initial 90 min and then decreased. The remelting duration exerted a limited influence on the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE. The optimal TC, BS, and hardness of these composites were up to 135.79 W/(m·K, 348.53 MPa, and 105.23 HV, respectively, and the CTE was less than 6.5 ppm/K after the composites were remelted at 600 °C for 90 min. The properties of the composites could thus be controlled to conform to the application requirements for electronic packaging materials.

  13. Photocatalytic and Escherichia antibacterial activities of Ag-TiO2-SiO2 nanocomposite powder under simulated solar light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dang, Han; Le, Vien Minh; Hoang, Hoang Anh

    2017-09-01

    The photocatalytic nanocomposite powder TiO2, TiO2-SiO2 and Ag-TiO2-SiO2 (ATS) were synthesized by sol-gel method assisted with hydrothermal treatment and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RAMAN), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), Transmission electron microscope (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and UV-Vis absorption spectra analysis. The Escherichia coli (E. coli) antibacterial activity of synthesized photo-catalysts under simulated solar light have been also investigated. The heterogeneous A4TS10 with the 4 wt.% Ag and 10 wt.% SiO2 had anatase and rutile phase, spherical in shape with the particle size about 20 - 30 nm, specific surface area (SSA) of 218.4 m2/g, the band gap of 3.06 eV. The E. coli antibacterial activities of the synthesized samples under simulated solar light were also investigated under simulated solar light with 25 W of light intensity. The E. coli antibacterial ability of A4TS10 performed the highest photo-activity. E. coli bacteria was entirely killed after 30-minute irradiation and no bacterial regrowth was observed after 24 hours. The research results demonstrated that the photocatalytic A4TS10 is a promising green material to treatment wastewater infected bacteria application.

  14. Hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination in Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}M (M=Al, Ga and Si) and magnetic properties of their carburized powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubis, M.; Rave, W.; Cao, L.; Gebel, B.; Mueller, K.-H.; Schultz, L. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany)

    1998-11-20

    The application of the hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination (HDDR) process in Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}M (M=Al,Ga and Si) was investigated. The hydrogen absorption behaviour was studied by temperature-pressure analysis (TPA). In the temperature range between 500 and 800 C, Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}M samples with M=Ga and Si show a weaker hydrogen absorption than Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}Al. This was confirmed by X-ray diffraction which showed a complete disproportionation of Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}Al into SmH{sub z} (1.9Si exhibit a fraction of undecomposed material with the Th{sub 2}Zn{sub 17}-type structure after the disproportionation procedure. These results point to a stabilization of Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}M against disproportionation by hydrogen for M=Ga and Si. The magnetization processes of carburized HDDR powders were studied by VSM measurements and Kerr microscopy. The demagnetization curve of our HDDR processed Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}AlC{sub y} is well shaped, whereas those of Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}GaC{sub y} and Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}SiC{sub y} show a large decrease of the polarization at low fields. The favourable behaviour of Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}AlC{sub y} is due to a homogeneous submicron grain structure. In Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}GaC{sub y} and Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}SiC{sub y} samples, an additional, magnetically soft phase with larger domains was observed which causes the low coercivity. As a consequence, HDDR was only favourable for the preparation of Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}MC{sub y} hard magnets with M=Al but not for M=Ga and Si. Optimization of the HDDR process in Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}Al and subsequent nitrogenation or carburization led to coercivities of {mu}{sub 0j}H{sub c}=2.9 and 2.5 T, respectively. (orig.) 11 refs.

  15. Preliminary study in development of glass-ceramic based on SiO{sub 2}-LiO{sub 2} system, starting of different SiO{sub 2} starting powders; Um estudo preliminar do desenvolvimento de materiais vitroceramicos do sistema SiO{sub 2}-LiO{sub 2} obtidos a partir de diferentes fontes de silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daguano, J.K.M.F.; Santos, F.A.; Santos, C.; Marton, L.F.M.; Conte, R.A.; Rodrigues Junior, D. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia de Lorena. Dept. de Materiais; Melo, F.C.L. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (AMR/CTA/IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco. Div. de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    In this work, lithium disilicate glass-ceramics were developed starting of the rice ash- SiO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} powders. The results were compared with glass ceramics based on the lithium disilicate obtained by commercial SiO{sub 2} powders. Glass were melted at 1580 deg C, and annealed at 850 deg C. X-Ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used for characterization of the materials, and hardness and fracture toughness were evaluated using Vickers indentation method. Glasses with amorphous structure were obtained in both materials. After annealing, 'rice-ash' samples presented Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} and residual SiO{sub 2} as crystalline phases. On the other side, commercial SiO{sub 2}- Samples presented only Li{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5} as crystalline phases and the better results of hardness and fracture toughness. (author)

  16. Effects of carrot pomace powder and a mixture of pectin and xanthan on the quality of gluten-free batter and cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoobi, Mahsa; Vosooghi Poor, Zahra; Mesbahi, Gholamreza; Jamalian, Jalal; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2017-12-01

    Carrot pomace powder (CPP) is a valuable by-product of carrot processing containing nutrients and fiber and can be utilized for enrichment of gluten-free products. The main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of various levels of CPP (0, 10, 20, and 30%) and a mixture of hydrocolloids (HC) including pectin and xanthan (1.5% of each) on the quality of batter and gluten-free cakes. With increasing the level of CPP and inclusion of HC the viscosity of the batter increased significantly from 87 mPa s for the control to >7000 mPa s for 30%CCP + HC sample. The density of the control batter was 1.2 g/cm 3 which reduced significantly to 0.899 g/cm 3 for HC sample. The pH of the cake reduced from 7.23 to 6.78 with addition of CPP but increased slightly with inclusion of HC. The density of the cake reduced from 0.510 g/cm 3 for the control to 0.395 g/cm 3 for 20%CCP + C sample. The texture of the cakes became softer, more springy and chewable with addition of CPP, CPP + HC, and HC. The control sample had the lowest uniformity index (0.178) which improved with addition of CPP and CPP + HC and a highly uniform cake with a uniformity index of 0.045 was obtained for the 30%CCP + HC cake. Addition of CPP increased the dark color of the cakes while inclusion of HC had no effect on the appearance of the cake and color. It was concluded that inclusion of maximum 30%CCP and 20%CPP + HC promoted the quality and sensory attributes of gluten-free cakes. Although different types of gluten-free products are available in the market, most of them contain insufficient amount of fiber and nutrients. Despite popularity, gluten-free cakes are poor in fiber and nutrient contents. Therefore, improving the nutritional value of these products has received an increasing attention by the food industry. Carrot pomace powder (CPP) is an available source of fiber and nutrients and hence can be utilized for enrichment of gluten-free products. This study showed that

  17. The influence of the long time milling on the structure and magnetic properties of the Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fechova, E.; Kollar, P.; Fuezer, J.; Kovac, J.; Petrovic, P.; Kavecansky, V.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the influence of milling on the structure and magnetic properties of Fe 73.5 Cu 1 Nb 3 Si 13.5 B 9 powder prepared in a vibratory micro-mill as a function of long milling time. Three powder samples have been prepared and investigated (the first one was prepared by the milling of amorphous ribbon, the second one by milling of the same ribbon in a partially nanocrystallized state and the third one by milling of pure elements). Structural analysis shows the decrease of the grain size with the increasing time of milling. The coercivity of the samples prepared from pure elements increases almost linearly up to 1700 h of milling while further milling leads to the saturation at 25 kA/m (at the milling time of 3500 h). The coercivity of the samples milled from ribbons increases to its maximum of 8 kA/m for the milling time of 800 h and then decreases

  18. Experimental investigation on densification behavior and surface roughness of AlSi10Mg powders produced by selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-zhi; Wang, Sen; Wu, Jiao-jiao

    2017-11-01

    Effects of laser energy density (LED) on densities and surface roughness of AlSi10Mg samples processed by selective laser melting were studied. The densification behaviors of the SLM manufactured AlSi10Mg samples at different LEDs were characterized by a solid densitometer, an industrial X-ray and CT detection system. A field emission scanning electron microscope, an automatic optical measuring system, and a surface profiler were used for measurements of surface roughness. The results show that relatively high density can be obtained with the point distance of 80-105 μm and the exposure time of 140-160 μs. The LED has an important influence on the surface morphology of the forming part, too high LED may lead to balling effect, while too low LED tends to produce defects, such as porosity and microcrack, and then affect surface roughness and porosities of the parts finally.

  19. Imaging of Magnetic Domains and Domain Walls in Spherical Fe-Si Powder Using Magnetic Force Microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strečková, M.; Baťková, M.; Baťko, I.; Hadraba, Hynek; Bureš, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 1 (2014), s. 92-93 ISSN 0587-4246. [CSMAG Czech and Slovak Conference on Magnetism /15./. Košice, 17.06.2013-21.06.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : soft magnetic material * Fe-Si * magnetic force microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2014

  20. Characterization and electrochemical properties of Ni(Si)/Ni5Si2 multiphase coatings prepared by HVOF spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdian, M. M.; Raeissi, K.; Salehi, M.

    2012-11-01

    Ni(Si)/Ni5Si2 powders were produced by mechanical alloying (MA) of Ni-25 at.% Si powder mixture. Then, the as-milled powders were sprayed onto copper substrate using high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process. The phase composition and microstructure of the coatings were examined by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. Polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were also employed to study corrosion performance of the coatings in 3.5% NaCl solution. The results showed that although single phase Ni3Si was formed during annealing of Ni(Si)/Ni5Si2 powders, but, only Ni(Si) and Ni5Si2 are present in HVOF coatings and no new phase has been formed during spraying. The coatings had microhardness up to 746 HV0.05. Further investigations showed the corrosion performance of multiphase coatings in 3.5% NaCl solution was better than that of copper substrate. The phase transitions during MA, HVOF and annealing processes were discussed in association with Ni-Si phase diagram and nature of each process.

  1. The role of silicon on the microstructure and magnetic behaviour of nanostructured (Fe{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.3}){sub 100−x}Si{sub x} powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hocine, M. [Département de Génie Mécanique, Faculté de Technologies, Université de M' sila, B.P 166 Ichbelia, M' sila (Algeria); UR-MPE, M' hamed Bougara University, Boumerdes, 35000 Algeria (Algeria); Guittoum, A., E-mail: aguittoum@gmail.com [Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers, 02Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 399, Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Hemmous, M. [Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers, 02Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 399, Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Martínez-Blanco, D. [SCTs, University of Oviedo, EPM, Mieres, 33600 Spain (Spain); Gorria, P. [Department of Physics, EPI, University of Oviedo, Gijón, 33203 Spain (Spain); Rahal, B. [Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers, 02Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 399, Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Blanco, J.A. [Department of Physics, University of Oviedo, CalvoSotelo St., Oviedo, 330 07 Spain (Spain); Sunol, J.J. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de Girona, Campus de Montillivi, Girona, 17071 Spain (Spain); Laggoun, A. [UR-MPE, M' hamed Bougara University, Boumerdes, 35000 Algeria (Algeria)

    2017-01-15

    Single-phase(Fe{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.3}){sub 100−x}Si{sub x} nanostructured powders (x=0,5, 10, 15 and 20) have been elaborated by mechanical alloying in order to investigate the effect of silicon on the microstructure and magnetic properties of these alloys. A disordered Fe(Co, Si) solid solution with body centred cubic (bcc) crystal structure is formed after 72 h of milling for all the compositions. The addition of Si gives rise to a progressive decrease of the lattice parameter, from about 2.865 Å for the binary Fe{sub 70}Co{sub 30} compound down to 2.841 Å for the powder with x=20. The sample with the uppermost Si content exhibits the lowest value for the mean grain size (≈10 nm) as well as the largest microstrain (above 1.1%). All the samples are ferromagnetic at room temperature, although the saturation magnetization value reduces almost linearly by adding Si to the composition. A similar trend is observed for the hyperfine magnetic field obtained from the analysis of the room temperature Mössbauer spectra. The hyperfine field distributions show a broad double-peak shape for x>0, which can be ascribed to multiple local environments for the Fe atoms inside a disordered solid solution. - Highlights: • Single-phase (Fe{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.3}){sub 100−x}Si{sub x} nanostructured powders (x=0, 5, 10, 15 and 20) have been elaborated by mechanical alloying. • The sample with the uppermost Si content exhibits the lowest value for the mean grain size. • The magnetic and hyperfine parameters of (Fe{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.3}){sub 100−x}Si{sub x} depended intimately on Si content.

  2. Absolute determination by X-ray diffraction of a binary or ternary mixture: nickel oxide and fluoride in a nickel powder (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpin, P.; Hauptman, A.

    1960-01-01

    The method employed is based upon the comparison between computed and measured intensities for conveniently selected X-Ray diffraction lines of each component of the powder. Care must be taken to allow for absorption, both inside each grain and in overall sample. This method has been applied to the determination of nickel oxide and fluoride in a nickel powder. (author) [fr

  3. Improvement of deposition efficiency and control of hardness for cold-sprayed coatings using high carbon steel/mild steel mixture powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kazuhiro; Amao, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Nobuyuki; Ootaki, Kousuke

    2011-01-01

    In this study, in order to make high carbon steel coating by cold spray technique, spray conditions such as carrier gas temperature and pressure etc. were investigated. And also, in order to improve deposition efficiency and control coating hardness of cold-sprayed high carbon steel, high carbon and mild steel mixed powder and its mechanical milled powder were developed and were optimized. By using the cold-spray technique, particle deposition of a high carbon steel was successful. Moreover, by applying mixed and mechanical milled powders, the porosity ratio was decreased and deposition efficiency was improved. Furthermore, using these powders, it is possible to control the hardness value. Especially, when using mechanical milled powder, it is very difficult to identify the interface between the coating and the substrate. The bonding between the coating and the substrate is thus considered to be excellent. (author)

  4. SiC/C composite sheets produced from polycarbosilane/resin/bonder mixtures. Polycarbosilane/jushi/bonder kongokei kara sakuseishita SiC/C fukugo sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, K. (The National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)); Koga, J.; Iwata, T.; Yamanaka, S.; Ono, M. (Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Saitama (Japan))

    1992-02-01

    In a course of work to improve anti-oxidative property and strength of sheets of carbonic composite materials with resins, and further to produce those sheets in an industrial scale, it was tried to prepare two types of 0.4 {approximately} 0.6 m thickness SiC / C composite sheets by heat treatment of two green sheets polycarbosilane ( PCS ) / fran resin / binder type and PCS / (phenol-formaldehyde resin / binder type ) at temperature of 1200 {approximately} 1400{degree}C in an atmosphere of nitrogen. The sheets thus made were subjected to SEM observation, X-ray diffraction, measurement of density and electric resistance, and to tests on weight loss by heating and on bending. The texture of them were as tight as that of their resin carbon ( glassy carbon ). The structural feature is formation of amorphous SiO{sub 2} as a secondary product, This indicates that Si in PCS reacts with oxygen in resin during pyrolysis. The bending strength and anti-oxidative property depend on the SiC content from PCS and that the mixing effect of SiC on them are feasible when a mixing ratio of PCS / resin is higher than (2/1). 13 ref., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} thin films and powders by one-step soft-solution method: Synthesis and characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ennaoui, A.; Sankapal, B.R.; Skryshevsky, V.; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch. [Division Solar Energy Research, Department Heterogeneous Material Systems, Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    Simple soft-solution method has been developed to synthesize films and powders of TiO{sub 2} and mixed TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} at relatively low temperatures. This method is simple and inexpensive. Furthermore, reactor can be designed for large-scale applications as well as to produce large quantities of composite powders in a single step. For the preparation of TiO{sub 2}, we used aqueous acidic medium containing TiOSO{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which results in a peroxo-titanium precursor while colloidal SiO{sub 2} has been added to the precursor for the formation of TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2}. Post annealing at 500{sup o}C is necessary to have anatase structure. Resulting films and powders were characterized by different techniques. TiO{sub 2} (anatase) phase with (101) preferred orientation has been obtained. Also in TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} mixed films and powders, TiO{sub 2} (anatase) phase was found. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results for TiO{sub 2} and mixed TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} films have been presented and discussed. The method developed in this paper allowed obtaining compact and homogeneous TiO{sub 2} films. These compact films are highly photoactive when TiO{sub 2} is used as photo anode in an photoelectrochemical cell. Nanoporous morphology is obtained when SiO{sub 2} colloids are added into the solution. (author)

  6. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Wear Properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu/In-Situ Al-9Si-SiCp/Pure Al Composite by Powder Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Byung Chul; Bae, Ki-Chang; Jung, Je Ki; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Park, Yong Ho

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and wear properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu/in-situ Al-9Si-SiCp/pure Al composites. Pure Al powder was used to increase densification but it resulted in heterogeneous precipitation as well as differences in hardness among the grains. Heat treatment was conducted to solve this problem. The heat treatment process consisted of three stages: solution treatment, quenching, and aging treatment. After the solution treatment, the main dissolved phases were η'(Mg4Zn7), η(MgZn2), and Al2Cu phase. An aging treatment was conducted over the temperature range, 100-240 °C, for various times. The GP zone and η'(Mg4Zn7) phase precipitated at a low aging temperature of 100-160 °C, whereas the η(MgZn2) phase precipitated at a high aging temperature of 200-240 °C. The hardness of the sample aged at 100-160 °C was higher than that aged at 200-240 °C. The wear test was conducted under various linear speeds with a load of 100 N. The aged composite showed a lower wear rate than that of the as-sintered composite under all conditions. As the linear speed was increased to 1.0 m/s, the predominant wear behavior changed from abrasive to adhesive wear in all composites.

  7. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Wear Properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu/In-Situ Al-9Si-SiCp/Pure Al Composite by Powder Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Byung Chul; Bae, Ki-Chang; Jung, Je Ki; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Park, Yong Ho

    2018-05-01

    This study examined the effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and wear properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu/in-situ Al-9Si-SiCp/pure Al composites. Pure Al powder was used to increase densification but it resulted in heterogeneous precipitation as well as differences in hardness among the grains. Heat treatment was conducted to solve this problem. The heat treatment process consisted of three stages: solution treatment, quenching, and aging treatment. After the solution treatment, the main dissolved phases were η'(Mg4Zn7), η(MgZn2), and Al2Cu phase. An aging treatment was conducted over the temperature range, 100-240 °C, for various times. The GP zone and η'(Mg4Zn7) phase precipitated at a low aging temperature of 100-160 °C, whereas the η(MgZn2) phase precipitated at a high aging temperature of 200-240 °C. The hardness of the sample aged at 100-160 °C was higher than that aged at 200-240 °C. The wear test was conducted under various linear speeds with a load of 100 N. The aged composite showed a lower wear rate than that of the as-sintered composite under all conditions. As the linear speed was increased to 1.0 m/s, the predominant wear behavior changed from abrasive to adhesive wear in all composites.

  8. Method to blend separator powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Ronald A.; Andazola, Arthur H.; Reinhardt, Frederick W.

    2007-12-04

    A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

  9. High damping Al-Fe-Mo-Si/Zn-Al composites produced by rapidly solidified powder metallurgy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, P.Y.; Dai, S.L.; Chai, S.C.; Li, Y.R.

    2000-01-01

    The metallic materials commonly used in aircraft and aerospace fields, such as aluminum and titanium alloys, steels, etc., show extremely low damping capacity (usually of the order of or less than 10 -3 ). Thus, some problems related to vibration may emerge and influence the reliability, safety and life of airplanes, satellites, etc. It has been reported that almost two thirds of errors for rockets and satellites are related to vibration and noise. One effective way to solve these vibration-related problems is to adopt high damping metallic materials. Conventional high damping alloys exhibit damping capacity above 10 -2 , however, their densities are usually great than 5 x 10 3 kg m -3 , or their strengths are less than 200 MPa (for alloys based on dislocation damping), making them impossible to be applied to aircraft and aerospace areas. Recently, some low-density high-damping metal/metal composites based on aluminum and high damping alloys have been developed in Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials (BIAM) by the rapidly solidified power metallurgy process. This paper aims to report the properties of the composites based on a high temperature Al-Fe-Mo-Si alloy and a high damping Zn-Al alloy, and compare them with that of 2618-T61 alloy produced by the ingot metallurgy process

  10. A range of newly developed mobile generators to dynamically produce SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for reactive compounds at atmospheric concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Daiana; Pascale, Céline; Guillevic, Myriam; Ackermann, Andreas; Niederhauser, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Three new mobile facilities have been developed at METAS to dynamically generate SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for a variety of reactive compounds at atmospheric amount of substance fractions and at very low levels of uncertainty (Ux balance. The carrier gas is previously purified from the compounds of interest using commercially available purification cartridges. The permeation chambers of ReGaS2 and ReGaS3 have multiple individual cells allowing for the generation of mixtures containing up to 5 different components if required. ReGaS1 allows for the generation of one-component mixtures only. These primary mixtures are then diluted to the required amount of substance fractions using thermal mass flow controllers for full flexibility and adaptability of the generation process over the entire range of possible concentrations. In order to considerably reduce adsorption/desorption processes and thus stabilisation time, all electro-polished stainless steel parts of ReGaS1 and ReGaS2 in contact with the reference gas mixtures are passivated with SilcoNert2000® surface coating. These three state-of-the-art mobile reference gas generators are applicable under both, laboratory and field conditions. Moreover the dynamic generation method can be adapted and applied to a large variety of molecules (e.g. BTEX, CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs and other refrigerants) and is particularly suitable for reactive gas species and/or at concentration ranges which are unstable when stored in pressurised cylinders. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union

  11. Performance and emission characteristics of the thermal barrier coated SI engine by adding argon inert gas to intake mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeya Sharma, T

    2015-11-01

    Dilution of the intake air of the SI engine with the inert gases is one of the emission control techniques like exhaust gas recirculation, water injection into combustion chamber and cyclic variability, without scarifying power output and/or thermal efficiency (TE). This paper investigates the effects of using argon (Ar) gas to mitigate the spark ignition engine intake air to enhance the performance and cut down the emissions mainly nitrogen oxides. The input variables of this study include the compression ratio, stroke length, and engine speed and argon concentration. Output parameters like TE, volumetric efficiency, heat release rates, brake power, exhaust gas temperature and emissions of NOx, CO2 and CO were studied in a thermal barrier coated SI engine, under variable argon concentrations. Results of this study showed that the inclusion of Argon to the input air of the thermal barrier coated SI engine has significantly improved the emission characteristics and engine's performance within the range studied.

  12. Consolidation of mechanically milled powder mixture of aluminum and quasicrystalline particle; Mechanical milling shita junkessho ryushi / aluminium gokin funmatsu no koka seikeisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuasa, E.; Kawamura, C.; Sugiyama, T. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-15

    A quasi-crystalline Al65Cu20Fe15 powder prepared from alloy cast rapidly solidified by metal-mold casting, and then it was mixed to aluminum powder with various volume fractions by mechanical milling. The powder milled for above 50ks made homogeneous dispersion of quasi-crystalline phase with particle size less than 1{mu}m. The powder was hot-pressed under various conditions and then its features of consolidation were examined by the observation of microstructure and fracture strength in 3-point-bending of the compacts. When the milled powder was hot-pressed at higher compacting temperature than 673K for 3.6ks under pressure of 600MPa, the compact became to dense. Hardness of the obtained compact increases and its fracture strength decreases with increasing volume fraction of quasi-crystalline particles. Intermetallic compound Al7Cu2Fe forms in the interface of aluminum matrix and quasi-crystalline particle. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  13. The Static and Fatigue Behavior of AlSiMg Alloy Plain, Notched, and Diamond Lattice Specimens Fabricated by Laser Powder Bed Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Soul

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of engineered lattice structures has recently gained momentum due to the development of novel additive manufacturing techniques. Interest in lattice structures resides not only in the possibility of obtaining efficient lightweight materials, but also in the functionality of pre-designed architectured structures for specific applications, such as biomimetic implants, chemical catalyzers, and heat transfer devices. The mechanical behaviour of lattice structures depends not only the composition of the base material, but also on the type and size of the unit cells, as well as on the material microstructure resulting from a specific fabrication procedure. The present work focuses on the static and fatigue behavior of diamond cell lattice structures fabricated from an AlSiMg alloy by laser powder bed fusion technology. In particular, the specimens were fabricated with three different orientations of lattice cells—[001], [011], [111]—and subjected to static tensile testing and force-controlled pull–pull fatigue testing up to 1 × 107 cycles. In parallel, the mechanical behavior of dense tensile plain and notched specimens was also studied and compared to that of their lattice counterparts. Results showed a significant effect of the cell orientation on the fatigue lives: specimens oriented at [001] were ~30% more fatigue-resistant than specimens oriented at [011] and [111].

  14. Luminescent and scintillation properties of Sc3+and La3+doped Y2SiO5 powders and single crystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Gorbenko, V.; Zorenko, T.; Voznyak, T.; Voloshynovskii, A.; Vistovskiy, V.; Paprocki, K.; Mosińska, L.; Bilski, P.; Twardak, A.; Fedorov, A.; Nikl, M.; Mares, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is dedicated to the investigation of the luminescence of Sc 3+ and La 3+ isoelectronic impurities in Y 2 SiO 5 (YSO) single crystalline films (SCF), grown by the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) method, and in the powder analogs of these compounds prepared using the ceramic technology. The Sc 3+ and La 3+ dopants replacing the Y 3+ cations in Y1and Y2 positions of YSO host introduce the strong complex emission bands in the UV range peaked at 330 and 345 nm, respectively. The Sc 3+ and La 3+ dopant in YSO matrix yields also the strong TSL peaks at 400 and 405 K related to the ScY and ScLa centers formation, respectively. The luminescence and scintillation properties of YSO SCFs doped with Sc 3+ and La 3+ ions and co-doped with Ce 3+ ions on the trace impurity level have been also studied in our work. We have found that the light yield (LY) of these YSO:Sc and YSO:La SCFs can reach 50–65% of LY in reference YSO:Ce SCF due to strong quenching influence of Pb 2+ ions. Finally, the potential of Sc 3+ and La 3+ doped SCF of orthosilicates for creation of heavy scintillation screens, emitting in the UV range, is discussed.

  15. On the role of heat and mass transfer into laser processability during selective laser melting AlSi12 alloy based on a randomly packed powder-bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianfeng; Yan, Biao; Guo, Lijie; Gu, Dongdong

    2018-04-01

    A newly transient mesoscopic model with a randomly packed powder-bed has been proposed to investigate the heat and mass transfer and laser process quality between neighboring tracks during selective laser melting (SLM) AlSi12 alloy by finite volume method (FVM), considering the solid/liquid phase transition, variable temperature-dependent properties and interfacial force. The results apparently revealed that both the operating temperature and resultant cooling rate were obviously elevated by increasing the laser power. Accordingly, the resultant viscosity of liquid significantly reduced under a large laser power and was characterized with a large velocity, which was prone to result in a more intensive convection within pool. In this case, the sufficient heat and mass transfer occurred at the interface between the previously fabricated tracks and currently building track, revealing a strongly sufficient spreading between the neighboring tracks and a resultant high-quality surface without obvious porosity. By contrast, the surface quality of SLM-processed components with a relatively low laser power notably weakened due to the limited and insufficient heat and mass transfer at the interface of neighboring tracks. Furthermore, the experimental surface morphologies of the top surface were correspondingly acquired and were in full accordance to the calculated results via simulation.

  16. Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH Mixtures Using Diffusion-Ordered NMR Spectroscopy and Adsorption by Powdered Activated Carbon and Biochar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong An

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in air and water sources is a key part of environmental chemistry research, since most PAHs are well known to be associated with negative health impacts on humans. This study explores an approach for analyzing PAH mixtures with advanced nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopic techniques including high-resolution one-dimensional (1D NMR spectroscopy and diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY NMR. With this method, different kinds of PAHs can be detected and differentiated from a mixture with high resolution. The adsorption process of PAH mixtures by PAC and biochar was studied to understand the mechanism and assess the method.

  17. Performance and emission characteristics of the thermal barrier coated SI engine by adding argon inert gas to intake mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karthikeya Sharma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dilution of the intake air of the SI engine with the inert gases is one of the emission control techniques like exhaust gas recirculation, water injection into combustion chamber and cyclic variability, without scarifying power output and/or thermal efficiency (TE. This paper investigates the effects of using argon (Ar gas to mitigate the spark ignition engine intake air to enhance the performance and cut down the emissions mainly nitrogen oxides. The input variables of this study include the compression ratio, stroke length, and engine speed and argon concentration. Output parameters like TE, volumetric efficiency, heat release rates, brake power, exhaust gas temperature and emissions of NOx, CO2 and CO were studied in a thermal barrier coated SI engine, under variable argon concentrations. Results of this study showed that the inclusion of Argon to the input air of the thermal barrier coated SI engine has significantly improved the emission characteristics and engine’s performance within the range studied.

  18. Synthesis of Ti3AlC2 by spark plasma sintering of mechanically milled 3Ti/xAl/2C powder mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chen; Jin Songzhe; Liang Baoyan; Liu Guojun; Duan Lianfeng; Jia Shusheng

    2009-01-01

    Elemental powders of Ti, Al and C were mechanically milled as starting materials for the fabrication of ternary carbide Ti 3 AlC 2 by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The effect of Al content in the starting materials on the Ti 3 AlC 2 synthesis was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to determine the phase identification and observe the microstructure of the synthesized samples. With increasing proper Al content, it was found that the purity of Ti 3 AlC 2 increased and the sintering temperature reduced. The dense and high-purity Ti 3 AlC 2 could be successfully fabricated from 3Ti/1.2Al/2C powders at a lower sintering temperature of 1050 deg. C, holding for 10 min. In addition, the reaction path for the formation of Ti 3 AlC 2 in the present study was proposed

  19. Compositional dependence of absorption coefficient and band-gap for Nb2O5-SiO2 mixture thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sancho-Parramon, Jordi; Janicki, Vesna; Zorc, Hrvoje

    2008-01-01

    The absorption coefficient of composite films consisting of niobia (Nb 2 O 5 ) and silica (SiO 2 ) mixtures is studied for photon energies around the band gap. The films were deposited by co-evaporation and their composition was varied by changing the ratio of deposition rates of the two materials. Both, as-deposited and thermally annealed films were characterized by different techniques: the absorption coefficient was determined by spectrophotometric measurements and the structural properties were investigated using infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The correlation between the variations of absorption properties and film composition and structure is established. The absorption coefficients determined experimentally are compared with the results derived from effective medium theories in order to evaluate the suitability of these theories for the studied composites

  20. Improved thermal conductivity of TiO2-SiO2 hybrid nanofluid in ethylene glycol and water mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, K. A.; Azmi, W. H.; Nabil, M. F.; Mamat, R.

    2017-10-01

    The need to study hybrid nanofluid properties such as thermal conductivity has increased recently in order to provide better understanding on nanofluid thermal properties and behaviour. Due to its ability to improve heat transfer compared to conventional heat transfer fluids, nanofluids as a new coolant fluid are widely investigated. This paper presents the thermal conductivity of TiO2-SiO2 nanoparticles dispersed in ethylene glycol (EG)-water. The TiO2-SiO2 hybrid nanofluids is measured for its thermal conductivity using KD2 Pro Thermal Properties Analyzer for concentration ranging from 0.5% to 3.0% and temperature of 30, 50 and 70°C. The results show that the increasing in concentration and temperature lead to enhancement in thermal conductivity at range of concentration studied. The maximum enhancement is found to be 22.1% at concentration 3.0% and temperature 70°C. A new equation is proposed based on the experiment data and found to be in good agreement where the average deviation (AD), standard deviation (SD) and maximum deviation (MD) are 1.67%, 1.66% and 5.13%, respectively.

  1. Fabrication and properties of high-strength extruded brass using elemental mixture of Cu-40% Zn alloy powder and Mg particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atsumi, Haruhiko, E-mail: atsumi-h@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Imai, Hisashi; Li, Shufeng; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Kousaka, Yoshiharu; Kojima, Akimichi [San-etsu Metals Co. Ltd., 1892 Ohta, Tonami, Toyama 939-1315 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    In this paper, high-strength brass (Cu-40% Zn) alloy with magnesium (Mg) element was fabricated via powder technology process, and the effect of the additive Mg element on microstructural and mechanical properties of extruded brass alloys with {alpha}-{beta} duplex phases was investigated. Pre-mixed Cu-40% Zn alloy powder with 0.5-1.5 mass% pure Mg powder (Cu-40% Zn + Mg) was consolidated using a spark plasma sintering (SPS) equipment. SPSed Cu-40% Zn + Mg specimens consisted of {alpha}-{beta} duplex phases containing Mg(Cu{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}){sub 2} intermetallic compounds (IMCs) with a mean particle size of 10-30 {mu}m in diameter. The IMCs were completely dissolved in the {alpha}-{beta} duplex phases by a heat-treatment at 973 K for 15 min; thus, in order to disperse fine IMCs on {alpha}-{beta} duplex phase matrix, the SPSed Cu-40% Zn + Mg specimens were pre-heated at the solid solutionizing condition, and immediately extruded. The extruded specimen exhibited fine {alpha}-{beta} duplex phases, containing very fine precipitates of the above Mg(Cu{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}){sub 2} IMCs with 0.5-3.0 {mu}m in diameter. In particular, a mean grain size of the extruded Cu-40% Zn + 1.0% Mg specimen was 3.32 {mu}m analyzed using an electron back-scattered diffraction. Tensile properties of the extruded Cu-40% Zn + 1.0% Mg specimen were an average value of yield strength (YS): 328 MPa, ultimate tensile strength (UTS): 553 MPa, and 25% elongation. This indicated that the extruded Cu-40% Zn + 1.0% Mg specimen revealed the significantly high-strength properties compared to a conventional binary brass alloy with 229 MPa YS and 464 MPa UTS. A high strengthening mechanism of this wrought brass alloy was mainly due to the grain refinement because of a pinning effect by the fine Mg(Cu{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}){sub 2} precipitates at the boundaries of each phase. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New high-strength extruded brass alloy with Mg was fabricated via powder metallurgy. Black

  2. Porous SiC/SiC composites development for industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeta, S.; Hinoki, T.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is promising structural materials in nuclear fields due to an excellent irradiation resistance and low activation characteristics. Conventional SiC fibers reinforced SiC matrix (SiC/SiC composites) fabricated by liquid phase sintering (LPS-SiC/SiC composites) have been required high cost and long processing time. And microstructure and mechanical property data of finally obtained LPS-SiC/SiC composites are easily scattered, because quality of the composites depend on personal skill. Thus, conventional LPS-SiC/SiC composites are inadequate for industrial use. In order to overcome these issues, the novel “porous SiC/SiC composites” have been developed by means of liquid phase sintering fabrication process. The composites consist of porous SiC matrix and SiC fibers without conventional carbon interfacial layer. The composites don’t have concerns of the degradation interfacial layer at the severe accident. Porous SiC/SiC composites preform was prepared with a thin sheet shape of SiC, sintering additives and carbon powder mixture by tape casting process which was adopted because of productive and high yielding rate fabrication process. The preform was stacked with SiC fibers and sintered in hot-press at the high temperature in argon environment. The sintered preform was decarburized obtain porous matrix structure by heat-treatment in air. Moreover, mechanical property data scattering of the obtained porous SiC/SiC composites decreased. In the flexural test, the porous SiC/SiC composites showed pseudo-ductile behavior with sufficient strength even after heat treatment at high temperature in air. From these conclusions, it was proven that porous SiC/SiC composites were reliable material at severe environment such as high temperature in air, by introducing tape casting fabrication process that could produce reproducible materials with low cost and simple way. Therefore development of porous SiC/SiC composites for industrial application was

  3. Characterization of SiCf/SiC and CNT/SiC composite materials produced by liquid phase sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.K.; Lee, S.P.; Cho, K.S.; Byun, J.H.; Bae, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper dealt with the microstructure and mechanical properties of SiC based composites reinforced with different reinforcing materials. The composites were fabricated using reinforcing materials of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and Tyranno Lox-M SiC chopped fibers. The volume fraction of carbon nanotubes was also varied in this composite system. An Al 2 O 3 -Y 2 O 3 powder mixture was used as a sintering additive in the consolidation of the SiC matrix. The characterization of the composites was investigated by means of SEM and three point bending tests. These composites showed a dense morphology of the matrix region, by the creation of a secondary phase. The composites reinforced with SiC chopped fibers possessed a flexural strength of about 400 MPa at room temperature. The flexural strength of the carbon nanotubes composites had a tendency to decrease with increased volume fraction of the reinforcing material.

  4. Synthesis of Mo5SiB2 based nanocomposites by mechanical alloying and subsequent heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, A.R.; Shamanian, M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → α-Mo-Mo 5 SiB 2 nanocomposite was produced after 20 h milling of Mo-Si-B powders. → Heat treatment of 5 h MAed powders led to the formation of boride phases. → Heat treatment of 10 h MAed powders led to the formation of Mo 5 SiB 2 phase. → By increasing heat treatment time, quantity of Mo 5 SiB 2 phase increased. → 5 h heat treatment of 20 h MAed powders led to the formation of Mo 5 SiB 2 -based composite. - Abstract: In this study, systematic investigations were conducted on the synthesis of Mo 5 SiB 2 -based alloy by mechanical alloying and subsequent heat treatment. In this regard, Mo-12.5 mol% Si-25 mol% B powder mixture was milled for different times. Then, the mechanically alloyed powders were heat treated at 1373 K for 1 h. The phase transitions and microstructural evolutions of powder particles during mechanical alloying and heat treatment were studied by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the phase evolutions during mechanical alloying and subsequent heat treatment are strongly dependent on milling time. After 10 h of milling, a Mo solid solution was formed, but, no intermetallic phases were detected at this stage. However, an α-Mo-Mo 5 SiB 2 nanocomposite was formed after 20 h of milling. After heat treatment of 5 h mechanically alloyed powders, small amounts of MoB and Mo 2 B were detected and α-Mo-MoB-Mo 2 B composite was produced. On the other hand, heat treatment of 10 h and 20 h mechanically alloyed powders led to the formation of an α-Mo-Mo 5 SiB 2 -MoSi 2 -Mo 3 Si composite. At this point, there is a critical milling time (10 h) for the formation of Mo 5 SiB 2 phase after heat treatment wherein below that time, boride phase and after that time, Mo 5 SiB 2 phase are formed. In the case of 20 h mechanically alloyed powders, by increasing heat treatment time, not only the quantity of α-Mo was reduced and the quantity of Mo 5 SiB 2 was increased, but also new boride

  5. Characterization of nano-powder grown ultra-thin film p-CuO/n-Si hetero-junctions by employing vapour-liquid-solid method for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sultana, Jenifar; Das, Anindita [Centre for Research in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CRNN), Kolkata 700098 (India); Das, Avishek [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700009 (India); Saha, Nayan Ranjan [Department of Polymer Science and Technology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700009 (India); Karmakar, Anupam [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700009 (India); Chattopadhyay, Sanatan, E-mail: scelc@caluniv.ac.in [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700009 (India)

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the CuO nano-powder has been synthesized by employing chemical bath deposition technique for its subsequent use to grow ultrathin film (20 nm) of p-CuO on n-Si substrate for the fabrication of p-CuO/n-Si hetero-junction diodes. The thin CuO film has been grown by employing vapour-liquid-solid method. The crystalline structure and chemical phase of the film are characterized by employing field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. Chemical stoichiometry of the film has been confirmed by using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The potential for photovoltaic applications of such films is investigated by measuring the junction current-voltage characteristics and by extracting the relevant parameters such as open circuit photo-generated voltage, short circuit current density, fill-factor and energy conversion efficiency. - Highlights: • Synthesis of CuO nano-powder by CBD method • Growth of ultra-thin film of CuO by employing VLS method for the first time • Physical and electrical characterization of such films for photovoltaic applications • Estimation of energy conversion efficiency of the p-CuO/n-Si p-n junction solar cell.

  6. Application of Powder Diffraction Methods to the Analysis of Short- and Long-Range Atomic Order in Nanocrystalline Diamond and SiC: The Concept of the Apparent Lattice Parameter (alp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosz, B.; Grzanka, E.; Gierlotka, S.; Stelmakh, S.; Pielaszek, R.; Bismayer, U.; Weber, H.-P.; Palosz, W.

    2003-01-01

    Two methods of the analysis of powder diffraction patterns of diamond and SiC nanocrystals are presented: (a) examination of changes of the lattice parameters with diffraction vector Q ('apparent lattice parameter', alp) which refers to Bragg scattering, and (b), examination of changes of inter-atomic distances based on the analysis of the atomic Pair Distribution Function, PDF. Application of these methods was studied based on the theoretical diffraction patterns computed for models of nanocrystals having (i) a perfect crystal lattice, and (ii), a core-shell structure, i.e. constituting a two-phase system. The models are defined by the lattice parameter of the grain core, thickness of the surface shell, and the magnitude and distribution of the strain field in the shell. X-ray and neutron experimental diffraction data of nanocrystalline SiC and diamond powders of the grain diameter from 4 nm up to micrometers were used. The effects of the internal pressure and strain at the grain surface on the structure are discussed based on the experimentally determined dependence of the alp values on the Q-vector, and changes of the interatomic distances with the grain size determined experimentally by the atomic Pair Distribution Function (PDF) analysis. The experimental results lend a strong support to the concept of a two-phase, core and the surface shell structure of nanocrystalline diamond and SiC.

  7. Self-Consolidation and Surface Modification of Mechanical Alloyed Ti-25.0 at.% Al Powder Mixture by Using an Electro-Discharge Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang S.Y.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical discharges using a capacitance of 450 μF at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kJ input energies were applied in a N2 atmosphere to obtain the mechanical alloyed Ti3Al powder without applying any external pressure. A solid bulk of nanostructured Ti3Al was obtained as short as 160 μsec by the Electrical discharge. At the same time, the surface has been modified into the form of Ti and Al nitrides due to the diffusion process of nitrogen to the surface. The input energy was found to be the most important parameter to affect the formation of a solid core and surface chemistry of the compact.

  8. Magnetization reversal processes in bonded magnets made from a mixture of Nd–(Fe,Co)–B and strontium ferrite powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dospial, M.; Plusa, D.

    2013-01-01

    Isotropic epoxy-resin bonded magnets composed of different amounts of Magnequench MQP-B and strontium ferrite powders have been prepared using a compression molding technique. The magnetic parameters for magnets with different amounts of strontium ferrite and magnetization reversal processes have been studied by the measurement of the initial magnetization curves, the major hysteresis loops measured at a field up to 14 T and sets of recoil loops. The enhancement of μ 0 M R and μ 0 H C is observed in comparison with the calculated values. From the recoil loops the field dependences of the reversible, irreversible and total magnetization components and the differential susceptibilities were derived. From the dependence of the irreversible magnetization component versus an applied field it was deduced that the main mechanism of magnetization reversal process is the pinning of domain walls in MQP-B and strontium ferrite grains. The interactions between the magnetic particles and grains have been examined by the analysis of the δM plot. The δM behavior of magnets with ferrite has been interpreted as being composed of magnetizing exchange coupling and demagnetizing dipolar interactions. - Highlights: ► SrFe 12 O 19 addition causes a decrease in the H c , J R and (BH) max . ► H c and J R changes are not in agreement with dilution law. ► Main mechanism of the coercivity is the pinning of domain walls. ► In both magnets from pure powders dominant role plays long range dipolar interactions. ► Dipolar and exchange interaction are simultaneously present in hybrids but the dipolar are weaker.

  9. Thermal behavior and phase transformation of ZrO2–10%SiO2 precursor powder prepared by a co-precipitation route without adding stability agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Hwang, Weng-Sing; Wang, Cheng-Li; Wang, Moo-Chin; Lee, Kuen-Chan; Huang, Hong-Hsin; Lee, Huey-Er

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The precursor powders contained about 68.3 wt% ZrO 2 , which corresponds to ZrO 2 ·1/8 H 2 O. • The exothermic peak temperature of tetragonal ZrO 2 formation occurred at 1014 K. • The activation energy of ZrO 2 –10%SiO 2 precursors crystallization is 993.7 kJ/mol. • Only the tetragonal ZrO 2 formed when the precursor calcined at 1173–1373 K for 2 h. • As calcined at 1473 K for 2 h, tetragonal ZrO 2 fully converted to monoclinic ZrO 2 . - Abstract: Thermal behavior and phase transformation of ZrO 2 –10%SiO 2 precursor powder prepared by a co-precipitation route without adding stability agent has been studied using different thermal analysis/thermogravimetry (DTA/TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), nano beam electron diffraction (NBED), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The TG results show that four weight loss regions were from 298 to 443 K, 443 to 743 K, 743 to 793 K and 793 to 1400 K. The DTA result shows that the ZrO 2 freeze-dried precursor powders crystallization at 1014 K. The activation energy of 993.7 kJ/mol was obtained for tetragonal ZrO 2 crystallization using a non-isothermal process. The XRD result shows that only a single phase of tetragonal ZrO 2 appears when the freeze-dried precursor powders after calcination between 1173 and 1373 K for 2 h. Moreover, when calcined at 1473 K for 2 h, the phase transformation from tetragonal ZrO 2 fully converted to monoclinic ZrO 2 occurred

  10. Synthesis of whiskers of SiC microwave assisted; Sintesis de whiskers de SiC asistida por microondas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garza-Mendez, F. J.; Vanegas, A. J.; Vazquez, B. A.; Garza-Paz, J.

    2013-06-01

    We developed a new process for the synthesis of SiC whiskers assisted by microwaves; this is based on the mixture of silica xerogels and graphite powder. As energy source were used microwaves of 2.45 GHz and 1.0 kW of power RMS. On the other hand, mesoporous silica was synthesized via sol-gel, the precursors used were TEOS/H{sub 2}O and ethanol. Through analysis of the BET is determined the value of average pore size (3.0 nm) and the surface area (1090 m2/g).By mean of X-Ray diffraction it was demonstrated that the silica obtained is an amorphous solid and, the powders obtained in the microwave synthesis are {beta}-SiC. Synthesized SiC powders were observed using a SEM in secondary electron mode, it was observed that this powders consists of SiC whiskers. The effect of microwaves on the synthesis of whiskers of SiC is discussed in the present work. (Author) 19 refs.

  11. Bioactivity and cell proliferation in radiopaque gel-derived CaO-P2O5-SiO2-ZrO2 glass and glass-ceramic powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazerian, Maziar; Yekta, Bijan Eftekhari; Marghussian, Vahak Kaspari; Bellani, Caroline Faria; Siqueira, Renato Luiz; Zanotto, Edgar Dutra

    2015-10-01

    In this study, 10 mol% ZrO2 was added to a 27CaO-5P2O5-68SiO2 (mol%) base composition synthesized via a simple sol-gel method. This composition is similar to that of a frequently investigated bioactive gel-glass. The effects of ZrO2 on the in vitro bioactivity and MG-63 cell proliferation of the glass and its derivative polycrystalline (glass-ceramic) powder were investigated. The samples were characterized using thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Release of Si, Ca, P and Zr into simulated body fluid (SBF) was determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Upon heat treatment at 1000 °C, the glass powder crystallized into an apatite-wollastonite-zirconia glass-ceramic powder. Hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) formation on the surface of the glass and glass-ceramic particles containing ZrO2 was confirmed by FTIR and SEM. Addition of ZrO2 to the base glass composition decreased the rate of HCA formation in vitro from one day to three days, and hence, ZrO2 could be employed to control the rate of apatite formation. However, the rate of HCA formation on the glass-ceramic powder containing ZrO2 crystal was equal to that in the base glassy powder. Tests with a cultured human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells revealed that the glass and glass-ceramic materials stimulated cell proliferation, indicating that they are biocompatible and are not cytotoxic in vitro. Moreover, zirconia clearly increased osteoblast proliferation over that of the Zr-free samples. This increase is likely associated with the lower solubility of these samples and, consequently, a smaller variation in the media pH. Despite the low solubility of these materials, bioactivity was maintained, indicating that these glassy and polycrystalline powders are potential candidates for bone graft substitutes and bone cements with

  12. Method and apparatus for blending fine and cohesive powders in a fluidized bed with gas injection through ball valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed blender is described, suitable for blending powders including a mixture of fine and cohesive powders and in particular for converting a heterogeneous mixture of fine and cohesive UO 2 into a homogeneous mixture. (U.K.)

  13. Pulsed current activated synthesis and rapid consolidation of a nanostructured Mg2Al4Si5O18 and its mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, In-Jin; Kang, Hyun-Su; Doh, Jung-Mann; Yoon, Jin-Kook

    2015-03-01

    Nanocrystalline materials have received much attention as advanced engineering materials, with improved mechanical properties. Attention has been directed to the application of nanomaterials, as they possess excellent mechanical properties (high strength, high hardness, excellent ductility and toughness). A singlestep synthesis and consolidation of nanostructured Mg2Al4Si5O18 was achieved by pulsed current heating, using the stoichiometric mixture of MgO, Al2O3 and SiO2 powders. Before sintering, the powder mixture was high-energy ball milled for 10 h. From the milled powder mixture, a highly dense nanostructured Mg2Al4Si5O18 compound could be obtained within one minute, under the simultaneous application of 80 MPa pressure, and a pulsed current. The advantage of this process is that it allows an instant densification to the near theoretical density, while sustaining the nanosized microstructure of raw powders. The sintering behavior, microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg2Al4Si5O18 were evaluated. The fracture toughness of a nanostructured Mg2Al4Si5O18 compound was higher than that of sub-micron Mg2Al4Si5O18 compound.

  14. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pospiskova, Kristyna, E-mail: kristyna.pospiskova@upol.cz [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 11, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Safarik, Ivo, E-mail: ivosaf@yahoo.com [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 11, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute of Nanobiology and Structural Biology of GCRC, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2015-04-15

    Powdered enzymes were transformed into their insoluble magnetic derivatives retaining their catalytic activity. Enzyme powders (e.g., trypsin and lipase) were suspended in various liquid media not allowing their solubilization (e.g., saturated ammonium sulfate and highly concentrated polyethylene glycol solutions, ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol) and subsequently cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Magnetic modification was successfully performed at low temperature in a freezer (−20 °C) using magnetic iron oxides nano- and microparticles prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis from ferrous sulfate. Magnetized cross-linked enzyme powders were stable at least for two months in water suspension without leakage of fixed magnetic particles. Operational stability of magnetically responsive enzymes during eight repeated reaction cycles was generally without loss of enzyme activity. Separation of magnetically modified cross-linked powdered enzymes from reaction mixtures was significantly simplified due to their magnetic properties. - Highlights: • Cross-linked enzyme powders were prepared in various liquid media. • Insoluble enzymes were magnetized using iron oxides particles. • Magnetic iron oxides particles were prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis. • Magnetic modification was performed under low (freezing) temperature. • Cross-linked powdered trypsin and lipase can be used repeatedly for reaction.

  15. Multielement trace determination in SiC powders: assessment of interlaboratory comparisons aimed at the validation and standardization of analytical procedures with direct solid sampling based on ETV ICP OES and DC arc OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matschat, Ralf; Hassler, Jürgen; Traub, Heike; Dette, Angelika

    2005-12-01

    The members of the committee NMP 264 "Chemical analysis of non-oxidic raw and basic materials" of the German Standards Institute (DIN) have organized two interlaboratory comparisons for multielement determination of trace elements in silicon carbide (SiC) powders via direct solid sampling methods. One of the interlaboratory comparisons was based on the application of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry with electrothermal vaporization (ETV ICP OES), and the other on the application of optical emission spectrometry with direct current arc (DC arc OES). The interlaboratory comparisons were organized and performed in the framework of the development of two standards related to "the determination of mass fractions of metallic impurities in powders and grain sizes of ceramic raw and basic materials" by both methods. SiC powders were used as typical examples of this category of material. The aim of the interlaboratory comparisons was to determine the repeatability and reproducibility of both analytical methods to be standardized. This was an important contribution to the practical applicability of both draft standards. Eight laboratories participated in the interlaboratory comparison with ETV ICP OES and nine in the interlaboratory comparison with DC arc OES. Ten analytes were investigated by ETV ICP OES and eleven by DC arc OES. Six different SiC powders were used for the calibration. The mass fractions of their relevant trace elements were determined after wet chemical digestion. All participants followed the analytical requirements described in the draft standards. In the calculation process, three of the calibration materials were used successively as analytical samples. This was managed in the following manner: the material that had just been used as the analytical sample was excluded from the calibration, so the five other materials were used to establish the calibration plot. The results from the interlaboratory comparisons were summarized and

  16. Characteristics of SiO{sub 2} etching with a C{sub 4}F{sub 8}/Ar/CHF{sub 3}/O{sub 2} gas mixture in 60-MHz/2-MHz dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, M. H.; Kang, S. K.; Park, J. Y.; Yeom, G. Y. [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Nanoscale SiO{sub 2} contact holes were etched by using C{sub 4}F{sub 8}/CHF{sub 3}/O{sub 2}/Ar gas mixtures in dual frequency capacitively coupled plasmas (DF-CCPs) where a 60-MHz source power was applied to the top electrode while a 2-MHz bias power was applied to the bottom electrode. The initial increase in the CHF{sub 3} gas flow rate at a fixed CHF{sub 3}+O{sub 2} flow rate increased the SiO{sub 2} etch rate as well as SiO{sub 2} etch selectivity over that of the amorphous carbon layer (ACL). When the high-frequency (HF) power was increased both SiO{sub 2} etch rate and the etch selectivity over ACL were increased. For a 300 W/500 W power ratio of 60-MHz HF power/ 2-MHz low-freqeuncy (LF) and a gas mixture of Ar (140 sccm) /C{sub 4}F{sub 8} (30 sccm) /CHF{sub 3} (25 sccm) /O{sub 2} (5 sccm) while maintaining 20 mTorr, an anisotropic etch profile with an SiO{sub 2} etch rate of 3350 A/min and an etch selectivity of higher than 6 over ACL could be obtained.

  17. Prospects for the Development of Innovative Technology of Supersonic Gas-Powder Surfacing Coatings from Alloys of the System Ni-Cr-B-Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, Mikhail V.; Kiselev, Vadim S.; Shevtsov, Yuri O.; Radchenko, Tatyana B.

    2017-10-01

    The article is devoted to the research and development of technological recommendations of supersonic gas-powder surfacing, an example of the practical use of the developed technology is given. Market research indicates that demand for these products is stable due to the growing quality requirements of components and parts produced by the largest machine-building enterprises of Russia.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of (Lu{sub 1−x−y}Y{sub x}Ce{sub y}){sub 2}SiO{sub 5} luminescent powders with fast decay time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aburto-Crespo, M. [Programa de Posgrado en Física de Materiales CICESE-UNAM, Km. 107 Carretera Tij-Ens, Ensenada, B. C. 22860, México (Mexico); Hirata, G.A., E-mail: hirata@cnyn.unam.mx [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, B. C. 22860, México (Mexico); McKittrick, J. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0411 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The structural and luminescent properties of blue-emitting (Lu{sub 1−x−y}Y{sub x}Ce{sub y}){sub 2}SiO{sub 5} (0.1≤x≤0.4, y=0.05, 0.005) phosphors prepared by combustion synthesis and post-annealed at 1200 °C for different annealing times are reported. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the formation of a (Lu,Y){sub 2}SiO{sub 5} solid solution as a majority phase with small traces of a residual phase that was identified as Lu{sub 2}SiO{sub 7}. Under long-UV excitation, the powders yield a very bright blue-emission consisting of two bands with maximum emissions located at λ=405 nm and λ=440 nm, both corresponding to the Ce{sup 3+} allowed transitions {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}→{sup 2}F{sub 5/2} and {sup 2}D{sub 5/2}→{sup 2}F{sub 7/2}, respectively. Moreover, luminescence decay times of 38–45 ns were measured, which depend on the composition, making these powders excellent candidates for application as scintillators in medical imaging. -- Highlights: ► A facile technique to fabricate (Lu,Y)-oxyorthosilicate nanophosphors is presented. ► The structural and excellent luminescent properties including excitation, emission and short decay times are reported. ► The Ce-doped oxyorthosilicates nanophosphors present a fast decay time of the order of 38–45 ns.

  19. Effect of the Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio on the reaction products and reaction mechanism in an Al–Ti–B{sub 4}C powder mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jingjing [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Light Metal Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Moo, E-mail: jmoolee@kims.re.kr [Light Metal Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young-Hee; Kim, Su-Hyeon [Light Metal Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Huashun [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2014-10-15

    The effect of the Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio on the fabrication behavior of Al composites is investigated using Al–Ti–B{sub 4}C powder mixtures as reactants. The quick spontaneous infiltration (QSI) process combined with the combustion reaction and DTA analysis were used. According to the thermodynamic predictions, which are verified in the experimental results, TiB{sub 2} is formed in all the samples whereas TiC is only formed in reactants with a Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio of more than two. The C atoms from the reacted B{sub 4}C do not move into TiC but instead they move into Al{sub 3}BC or Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} when the Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio is less than two. In addition, the reaction mechanism with a Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio of 0.75 is investigated extensively. - Highlights: • The critical role of the Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio on the reaction products of Al–Ti–B{sub 4}C was studied using experiments. • The experimental results are also supported by thermodynamic calculations presented in this paper. • The reaction mechanism with a Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio of 0.75 is investigated extensively.

  20. New processing route for ZrSiO{sub 4} by powder injection moulding using an eco-friendly binder system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abajo, C.; Jimenez-Morales, A.; Torralba, J. M.

    2015-10-01

    New processing route has been developed for zircon based on powder injection moulding (PIM). Raw zircon powders, obtained from mineral sands, have been processed using a new water soluble binder system composed of PEG and CAB. Water solvent debinding stage has been studied in depth. On one hand, influence of some debinding parameters (temperature, debinding rate, additives and the use of climate chamber) has been tested. On the other hand, new binder systems were tested and compared with previous studied ones. The full PIM process has been carried out. Mixing, injection molding, solvent and thermal debinding and finally sintering, have been performed with the optimal binder system composition. Homogeneity along the process has been assessed by thermo-gravimetric analysis and by density measurements. After sintering, dimensional variation, density and fracture surface obtained after flexural strength test, have been analyzed. A competitive flexural strength has been achieved for injected zircon samples. (Author)

  1. Dry and coating of powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, M.; Alguacil, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a review on the mixing and coating of powders by dry processes. The reviews surveys fundamental works on mixture characterization (mixing index definitions and sampling techniques), mixing mechanisms and models, segregation with especial emphasis on free-surface segregation, mixing of cohesive powders and interparticle forces, ordered mixing (dry coating) including mechanism, model and applications and mixing equipment selection. (Author) 180 refs

  2. Thermal behavior and phase transformation of ZrO{sub 2}–10%SiO{sub 2} precursor powder prepared by a co-precipitation route without adding stability agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Hsueh-Liang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Weng-Sing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Wang, Cheng-Li [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Wang, Moo-Chin, E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Lee, Kuen-Chan [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Huang, Hong-Hsin [Department of Electrical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, 840 Cheng Ching Road, Niaosong, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Lee, Huey-Er, E-mail: huerle@kmu.edu.tw [School of Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Tzyou 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The precursor powders contained about 68.3 wt% ZrO{sub 2}, which corresponds to ZrO{sub 2}·1/8 H{sub 2}O. • The exothermic peak temperature of tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} formation occurred at 1014 K. • The activation energy of ZrO{sub 2}–10%SiO{sub 2} precursors crystallization is 993.7 kJ/mol. • Only the tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} formed when the precursor calcined at 1173–1373 K for 2 h. • As calcined at 1473 K for 2 h, tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} fully converted to monoclinic ZrO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Thermal behavior and phase transformation of ZrO{sub 2}–10%SiO{sub 2} precursor powder prepared by a co-precipitation route without adding stability agent has been studied using different thermal analysis/thermogravimetry (DTA/TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), nano beam electron diffraction (NBED), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The TG results show that four weight loss regions were from 298 to 443 K, 443 to 743 K, 743 to 793 K and 793 to 1400 K. The DTA result shows that the ZrO{sub 2} freeze-dried precursor powders crystallization at 1014 K. The activation energy of 993.7 kJ/mol was obtained for tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} crystallization using a non-isothermal process. The XRD result shows that only a single phase of tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} appears when the freeze-dried precursor powders after calcination between 1173 and 1373 K for 2 h. Moreover, when calcined at 1473 K for 2 h, the phase transformation from tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} fully converted to monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} occurred.

  3. Properties of P/M forged Al-Si alloys made by premixed powders. 1. Influences of dispersion and sizes of proeutectic Si on wear resistance; Kongoho ni yotte sakuseishita Al-Si kei shoketsu tanzo gokin no tokusei. 1. Taimamosei ni oyobosu shosho Si no bunsan jotai to ryukei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishijima, Z.; Ichikawa, J.; Sasaki, s.; Shikata, H. [Hitachi Powdered Metals Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-10-15

    Influences of dispersion and sizes of proeutectic Si on wear resistance of P/M Al-Si alloys using the prealloying method and premixing method have been investigated. As a result, discretely dispersed proeutectic Si showed excellent wear resistance in compassion with uniformly dispersed one. The cause is considered to be the unclosed Si soft phase which has been preferentially worn away, consequently acting on forming oil grooves and burying worn particles. Further more the existence of the optimum size of proeutectic Si on wear resistance was confirmed. In the case of finer particles, only Al-Si alloy (pin) was warned away substantially. On the other handgun the case of larger particles, both the Al-Si alloy (pin) and the mating malarial (steel disc) were excessively warned away. It is assumed therefore that the finer proeutectic Si particles are not effective as hard particles, on the contrary, larger proeutectic Si particles increase the abrasive wear against the mating material, and those buried into the mating material initiate wear of Al-Si alloy at the same time. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Investigation on powder metallurgy Cr-Si-Ta-Al alloy target for high-resistance thin film resistors with low temperature coefficient of resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.Y.; Zhang, Z.S.; Bai, T.

    2010-01-01

    The sputtering target for high-resistance thin film resistors plays a decisive role in temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). Silicon-rich chromium (Cr)-silicon (Si) target was designed and smelted for high-resistance thin film resistors with low TCR. Valve metal tantalum (Ta) and aluminum (Al) were introduced to the Cr-Si target to improve the performance of the target prepared. The measures for grain refining in smelting Cr-Si-Ta-Al target were taken to improve the performance of the prepared target. The mechanism and role of grain refinement were discussed in the paper. The phase structure of the prepared target was detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Rate of temperature drop was studied to reduce the internal stress of alloy target and conquer the easy cracking disadvantage of silicon-rich target. The electrical properties of sputtered thin film resistors were tested to evaluate the performance of the prepared target indirectly.

  5. Effect of MoSi2 addition and particle size of SiC on pressureless sintering behavior and mechanical properties of ZrB2–SiC–MoSi2 composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Mashhadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, ZrB2–SiC–MoSi2 composites were prepared by pressureless sintering at temperatures of 2050, 2100 and 2150 °C for 1 h under argon atmosphere. In order to prepare composite samples, ZrB2 powder was milled for 2 h, then the reinforcing particles including of micron and nano-sized SiC powder were added. MoSi2 was added to ZrB2 from 0 to 5 wt.% as sintering aid. The mixtures were formed and, after the pyrolysis, they were sintered. Densification, microstructure and mechanical properties of ZrB2–SiC composites were investigated. The shrinkage of samples was measured, and the microstructure of samples was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, equipped with EDS spectroscopy. In order to examine the oxidation behavior, the samples were heat treated at 1500 °C in air and then their weight changes were measured. Room temperature mechanical properties were examined. Mass fraction of MoSi2, particle size of SiC powder and sintering temperature have a great effect on relative density, porosity, shrinkage, hardness, fracture toughness, oxidation resistance and microstructure of these composites. The highest relative density, hardness, fracture toughness and weight changes of 98.7%, 16.17 GPa, 3 MPa m1/2 and 0.28%, respectively, were obtained in ZrB2–10 wt.%SiCnano–4 wt.%MoSi2 composites sintered at 2150 °C.

  6. Development and characterization of Powder Metallurgy (PM) 2XXX series Al alloy products and Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) 2XXX Al/SiC materials for high temperature aircraft structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellman, D. J.; Gurganus, T. B.; Walker, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a series of material studies performed by the Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company over the time period from 1980 to 1991 are discussed. The technical objective of these evaluations was to develop and characterize advanced aluminum alloy materials with temperature capabilities extending to 350 F. An overview is given of the first five alloy development efforts under this contract. Prior work conducted during the first five modifications of the alloy development program are listed. Recent developments based on the addition of high Zr levels to an optimum Al-Cu-Mg alloy composition by powder metallurgy processing are discussed. Both reinforced and SiC or B4C ceramic reinforced alloys were explored to achieve specific target goals for high temperature aluminum alloy applications.

  7. Composition dependency of the glass forming ability (GFA) in Mg-Ni-Si system by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Haowen; Lin Jianguo; Li Yuncang; Hodgson, Peter D.; Wen Cuie

    2007-01-01

    The pure elemental powder mixtures with the compositions of Mg 65 Ni x Si 35-x (x = 10, 20, 25, 33 at.%) were subject to high-energy ball mill, and the structures of the mixtures at different intervals of milling were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The compositional dependency of the glass forming ability (GFA) in Mg-Ni-Si system was evaluated based on the experimental results and the theoretical calculation. The compositional dependency of GFA in Mg-Ni-Si system can be understood well by comparing the enthalpies of the crystalline and amorphous phases based on the Miedema's theory for the formation enthalpy of alloys. Increasing the Ni/Mg ratio and/or decreasing Si content can improve the amorphous formability. The calculation results might be of great help in optimising the composition with high GFA in Mg-Ni-Si system

  8. (YSZ) powders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    109–114. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 109 ... Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India .... pensions of 900°C calcined YSZ powders. .... The sintered density data of the compacts (sintered at.

  9. Synthesis of ceramic powders of La9,56 (SiO4)6O2,34 and La9,8Si5,7MgO,3O26,4 by modified sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira, Sabrina Lopes; Paiva, Mayara Rafaela Soares; Misso, Agatha Matos; Elias, Daniel Ricco; Yamagata, Chieko

    2012-01-01

    Lanthanum silicate oxyapatite materials are promising for application as electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells because of high ionic conductivity at temperatures between 600 deg C and 800 deg C. In this work, oxyapatites with the composition La 9,56 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2,34 , and La 9,8 Si 5,7 Mg 0,3 O 26,4 were synthesized by using the sol-gel method, followed by precipitation. Initially, the gel of silica was synthesized from sodium silicate solution, by acid catalysis using lanthanum and magnesium chloride solution. Then, the La and Mg hydroxides were precipitated with NaOH in the gel. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and measurements of specific surface area. The crystalline oxyapatite phase of La 9,56 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2,34 , and was La 9,8 Si 5,7 Mg 0,3 O 26,4 obtained by calcination at 900 deg C for 2 and 1h respectively (author)

  10. Impact strength of sintered astaloy CrM powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazior, J.; Ploszczak, J.; Nykiel, M.; Pieczonka, T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper results of a series of impact tests on sintered Astaloy CrM powders alloys modified by boron are presented and discussed. Boron in different forms, i.e. as elemental boron powder, boron carbide B 4 C powder or mixture of boron and carbon elemental powders, was used in different weight percentage to activate sintering of Astaloy CrM powder and to increase hardenability, with aim of increasing impact strength in view of structural applications. (author)

  11. Development and evaluation of mathematical model to predict disintegration time of fast disintegrating tablets using powder characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, H; Arora, A; Tiwary, A K; Rana, V

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a mathematical model for predicting the disintegration time of fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) by estimating the powder characteristics of powder blend prior to compression. A combination of chitosan-alginate complex and glycine in the ratio of 50:50 was used for preparing FDTs. The developed mathematical model allowed water sorption time (WST), effective pore radius (R(eff.p)) and swelling Index (SI) of powder mixture as well as tablet crushing strength to be successfully correlated with disintegration time (DT) of FDTs. The predicted model showed that disintegration time of FDTs to be directly correlated with powder characteristics and inversely correlated with tablet crushing strength. Furthermore, a correlation of 0.97 was obtained when DT of FDTs was compared with SI/(WST * R(eff.p)). This correlation was not affected by inclusion of water soluble (ondansetron hydrochloride or metaclopramide hydrochloride) or water insoluble (domperidone) drugs in the powder blend or FDTs. These observations indicated the versatility of the mathematical model in predicting the disintegration time of FDTs by evaluating the selected characteristics of the powder blends without actually preparing the FDTs.

  12. Synthesis of silicon carbide coating on diamond by microwave heating of diamond and silicon powder: A heteroepitaxial growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leparoux, S. [Empa, Department of Materials Technology, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland)], E-mail: susanne.leparoux@empa.ch; Diot, C. [Consultant, allee de Mozart 10, F-92300 Chatillon (France); Dubach, A. [Empa, Department of Materials Technology, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Vaucher, S. [Empa, Department of Materials Technology, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland)

    2007-10-15

    When a powder mixture of diamond and silicon is heated by microwaves, heteroepitaxial growth of SiC is observed on the (1 1 1) as well as on the (1 0 0) faces of the diamond. The SiC over-layer was characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy shows the presence of triangular silicon carbide on the (1 1 1) faces of diamond while prismatic crystals are found on the (1 0 0) faces. The crystal growth seems to be favored in the plane parallel to the face (1 1 1)

  13. Synthesis of silicon carbide coating on diamond by microwave heating of diamond and silicon powder: A heteroepitaxial growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leparoux, S.; Diot, C.; Dubach, A.; Vaucher, S.

    2007-01-01

    When a powder mixture of diamond and silicon is heated by microwaves, heteroepitaxial growth of SiC is observed on the (1 1 1) as well as on the (1 0 0) faces of the diamond. The SiC over-layer was characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy shows the presence of triangular silicon carbide on the (1 1 1) faces of diamond while prismatic crystals are found on the (1 0 0) faces. The crystal growth seems to be favored in the plane parallel to the face (1 1 1)

  14. Pós de Al2O3/SiC obtidos a partir de reação de redução carbotérmica Al2O3/SiC powders from carbothermal reduction reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Spiandorello

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram utilizadas matérias-primas naturais para a obtenção de pós Al2O3/SiC através da redução carbotérmica das mesmas por um agente rico em carbono. Os aluminossilicatos estudados foram caulim, cianita e ilita-moscovita, sendo que os mesmos foram reduzidos ou por negro de fumo ou por grafite. Os pós resultantes da reação foram caracterizados por microscopia eletrônica de varredura e transmissão, difração de raios X e picnometria de hélio. Durante a reação, as diferenças existentes tanto na estrutura das matérias-primas quanto na composição química produziram pós com morfologia diversa. Foram encontradas estruturas como grandes aglomerados esféricos, whiskers, partículas e aglomerados fibrosos.In this work natural raw materials were used to obtain Al2O3/SiC powders by carbothermal reduction. The aluminosilicates studied were kaolin, kyanite and illite-muscovite and the reductor agents were carbon black or graphite. The reaction powders were characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and helium picnometry. During the reaction, the differences among the raw materials structures as well as into the chemical composition produced powders with several morphologies. Big spherical agglomerates, whiskers, particles and fibrous clusters were found.

  15. THERMODYNAMIC AND KINETIC PARAMETERS OF MIXTURES DESULFURIZING THE MADE WITH CaO, MgO, SiO2 AND CaF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Nylo de Aguiar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the kinetics and thermodynamics of marble residue mixtures utilisation on desulfurization of pig iron. The desulfurization was carried out using lime, marble residue, fluorite and pig iron. Different mixtures of these materials were added into a bath of pig iron at 1,450°C. Metal samples were collected via vacuum samplers at times of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes, in order to check the variation of sulfur content. Based on the results of chemical analysis of the metal and the desulfurizer mixture, the sulfide capacity of mixtures, the sulfur partition coefficient and the sulfur mass transport coefficient values were calculated.The results show the technical feasibility of using marble waste as desulfurizer agent.

  16. Low pressure powder injection moulding of stainless steel powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zampieron, J.V.; Soares, J.P.; Mathias, F.; Rossi, J.L. [Powder Processing Center CCP, Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Filho, F.A. [IPEN, Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Cidade Univ., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    Low-pressure powder injection moulding was used to obtain AISI 316L stainless steel parts. A rheological study was undertaken using gas-atomised powders and binders. The binders used were based on carnauba wax, paraffin, low density polyethylene and microcrystalline wax. The metal powders were characterised in terms of morphology, particle size distribution and specific surface area. These results were correlated to the rheological behaviour. The mixture was injected in the shape of square bar specimens to evaluate the performance of the injection process in the green state, and after sintering. The parameters such as injection pressure, viscosity and temperature were analysed for process optimisation. The binders were thermally removed in low vacuum with the assistance of alumina powders. Debinding and sintering were performed in a single step. This procedure shortened considerably the debinding and sintering time. (orig.)

  17. Air classifier technology (ACT) in dry powder inhalation. Part 1 : Introduction of a novel force distribution concept (FDC) explaining the performance of a basic air classifier on adhesive mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, A H; Hagedoorn, P; Gjaltema, D; Goede, J; Frijlink, H W

    2003-01-01

    Air classifier technology (ACT) is introduced as part of formulation integrated dry powder inhaler development (FIDPI) to optimise the de-agglomeration of inhalation powders. Carrier retention and de-agglomeration results obtained with a basic classifier concept are discussed. The theoretical

  18. Room temperature mechanosynthesis and microstructure characterization of nanocrystalline Si{sub 0.9}Al{sub 0.1}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, S. [Department of Physics, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan, 713104, West Bengal (India); Dutta, H. [Department of Physics, Vivekananda College, Burdwan, 713103, West Bengal (India); Kar, T. [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata, 700032, West Bengal (India); Pradhan, S.K., E-mail: skp_bu@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan, 713104, West Bengal (India)

    2016-02-01

    This article reports the synthesis and microstructure characterization of nanocrystalline Si{sub 0.9}Al{sub 0.1}C powder obtained by mechanical milling the mixture of Si, Al and graphite powders at room temperature under inert atmosphere. XRD patterns of ball-milled powders clearly reveal the nucleation of Si{sub 0.9}Al{sub 0.1}C phase after 5 h of milling and the stoichiometric cubic Si{sub 0.9}Al{sub 0.1}C is formed after 10 h of milling with crystallite size of ∼3 nm. Microstructure of ball-milled powders in terms of different lattice imperfections is characterized by employing both Rietveld's method of structure refinement using XRD data and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). HRTEM micrographs of 10 h milled powder substantiate the formation of nanocrystalline Si{sub 0.9}Al{sub 0.1}C compound without any contamination and confirm the findings of Rietveld analysis using XRD data. - Highlights: • Cubic Si{sub 0.9}Al{sub 0.1}C is formed after 5 h of milling of Si, Al and graphite powders. • Nanocrystalline Si{sub 0.9}Al{sub 0.1}C with particle size ∼3 nm is obtained after 10 h milling. • Average particle size of Si{sub 0.9}Al{sub 0.1}C from XRD analysis and HRTEM is very close.

  19. Synthesis of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:(Li,Eu) films using phosphor powders coated with SiO{sub 2} nano particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In-Gyu; Park, Sangmoon [Center for Green Fusion Technology and Department of Engineering in Energy and Applied Chemistry, Silla University, Busan 617-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Seong-Gu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hoseo University, Chungnam 336-795 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung-Chul, E-mail: parkjc@silla.ac.k [Center for Green Fusion Technology and Department of Engineering in Energy and Applied Chemistry, Silla University, Busan 617-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Y{sub 1.9-x}Li{sub 0.1}Eu{sub x}O{sub 3} (x=0.02, 0.05, 0.08, and 0.12) films were fabricated by spin-coating method. A colloidal silica suspension with Y{sub 1.9-x}Li{sub 0.1}Eu{sub x}O{sub 3} phosphor powder was exploited to obtain the highly stable and effective luminescent films onto the glass substrate. After heating as-prepared Y{sub 1.9-x}Li{sub 0.1}Eu{sub x}O{sub 3} films at 700 {sup o}C for 1 h, the phosphor films exhibit a high luminescent brightness as well as a strong adhesiveness on the glass substrate. The emission spectra of spin-coated and pulse-laser deposited Y{sub 1.82}Li{sub 0.1}Eu{sub 0.08}O{sub 3} films were compared. The cathodoluminescence of the phosphor films was carried out at the anode voltage 1 kV.

  20. Powder diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M.

    1995-12-31

    the importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940`s, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments.

  1. Powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, M.

    1995-01-01

    The importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940's, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments

  2. Powder diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, J.

    1983-01-01

    The new possibilities openned by the synchrotron radiation in the powder diffractometry techniques are presented. This technique is described in a general manner and some aspects which can be developed with the use of the synchrotron radiation are analyzed. (L.C.) [pt

  3. Pressureless sintering behavior and mechanical properties of ZrB2–SiC composites: effect of SiC content and particle size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Mashhadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, ZrB2–SiC composites were prepared by pressureless sintering at temperatures of 2000–2200 °C for 1 h under argon atmosphere. In order to prepare composite samples, ZrB2 powder was milled for 2 h, then the reinforcing particles including of micron and nano-sized SiC powder were added. The mixtures were formed and, after the pyrolysis, they were sintered. Densification, microstructural and mechanical properties of ZrB2–SiC composites were investigated. The shrinkage of samples was measured both before and after the sintering, and the microstructure of samples was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, equipped with EDS spectroscopy. Both mass fraction and size of SiC powder have a great effect on relative density, porosity, shrinkage, hardness and microstructure of these composites. The highest relative density and hardness were 98.12% and 15.02 GPa, respectively, in ZrB2–10 wt% SiCnano composite sintered at 2200 °C.

  4. Influence of Conductivity and Dielectric Constant of Water–Dioxane Mixtures on the Electrical Response of SiNW-Based FETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mescher, M.; Brinkman, A.G.M.; Bosma, D.; Klootwijk, J.H.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; De Smet, L.C.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we report on the electrical response of top-down, p-type silicon nanowire field-effect transistors exposed to water and mixtures of water and dioxane. First, the capacitive coupling of the back gate and the liquid gate via an Ag/AgCl electrode were compared in water. It was found that

  5. Synthesis of protective Mo-Si-B coatings in molten salts and their oxidation behavior in an air-water mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuznetsov, S.A.; Rebrov, E.V.; Mies, M.J.M.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Schouten, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The formation of various phases during boronizing of silicided molybdenum substrates (MoSi2/Mo) was investigated. Boronizing treatments were conducted in molten salts under an inert gas atmosphere in the 700–1000 °C temperature range for 3–7 h. Depending on the process type (non-current or

  6. Fabrication of metal matrix composite by semi-solid powder processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yufeng [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Various metal matrix composites (MMCs) are widely used in the automotive, aerospace and electrical industries due to their capability and flexibility in improving the mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of a component. However, current manufacturing technologies may suffer from insufficient process stability and reliability and inadequate economic efficiency and may not be able to satisfy the increasing demands placed on MMCs. Semi-solid powder processing (SPP), a technology that combines traditional powder metallurgy and semi-solid forming methods, has potential to produce MMCs with low cost and high efficiency. In this work, the analytical study and experimental investigation of SPP on the fabrication of MMCs were explored. An analytical model was developed to understand the deformation mechanism of the powder compact in the semi-solid state. The densification behavior of the Al6061 and SiC powder mixtures was investigated with different liquid fractions and SiC volume fractions. The limits of SPP were analyzed in terms of reinforcement phase loading and its impact on the composite microstructure. To explore adoption of new materials, carbon nanotube (CNT) was investigated as a reinforcing material in aluminum matrix using SPP. The process was successfully modeled for the mono-phase powder (Al6061) compaction and the density and density distribution were predicted. The deformation mechanism at low and high liquid fractions was discussed. In addition, the compaction behavior of the ceramic-metal powder mixture was understood, and the SiC loading limit was identified by parametric study. For the fabrication of CNT reinforced Al6061 composite, the mechanical alloying of Al6061-CNT powders was first investigated. A mathematical model was developed to predict the CNT length change during the mechanical alloying process. The effects of mechanical alloying time and processing temperature during SPP were studied on the mechanical, microstructural and

  7. PRODUCTION OF POROUS POWDER MATERIALS OF SPHERICAL POWDERS OF CORROSION-RESISTANT STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kovalevskij

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of porous powder materials from spherical powders of corrosion-resistant steel 12Х18н10Т with formation at low pressures 120–140 mpa in the mold with the subsequent activated sintering became possible due to increase of duration of process of spattering and formation of condensate particles (Si–C or (Mo–Si on surface.

  8. Absolute determination by X-ray diffraction of a binary or ternary mixture: nickel oxide and fluoride in a nickel powder (1960); Dosage absolu par diffraction X d'un melange binaire ou ternaire: oxyde et fluorure de nickel dans une poudre de nickel (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charpin, P; Hauptman, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The method employed is based upon the comparison between computed and measured intensities for conveniently selected X-Ray diffraction lines of each component of the powder. Care must be taken to allow for absorption, both inside each grain and in overall sample. This method has been applied to the determination of nickel oxide and fluoride in a nickel powder. (author) [French] La methode utilisee, dite 'absolue' est basee sur le calcul des intensites theoriques de raies de diffraction convenablement choisies. Elle n'est applicable que si l'absorption est negligeable a travers chaque grain constituant l'echantillon et a travers l'echantillon total. Elle a ete employee pour doser, ensemble ou separement, de l'oxyde et du fluorure de nickel dans une poudre de nickel. (auteur)

  9. Quantitative X-ray methods of amorphous content and crystallinity determination of SiO2, in Quartz and Opal mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketabdari, M.R.; Ahmadi, K.; Esmaeilnia Shirvani, A.; Tofigh, A.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray diffraction technique is commonly used for qualitative analysis of minerals, and has also been successfully used for quantitative measurements. In this research, the matrix flushing and a new X-ray diffraction method have been used for the determination of crystallinity and amorphous content of Opal and Quartz mixture. The PCAPD is used to determine the quantitative analysis of these two minerals

  10. Obtenção de substratos cerâmicos no sistema Si-Al-O-N-C empregando polissiloxanos e carga de Si e Al2O3 Ceramic tapes of Si-Al-O-N-C compounds using mixtures of polyssiloxane and Si-Al2O3 fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Rocha

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de processamento de colagem por fita (tape casting tem sido amplamente utilizada na obtenção de cerâmicas para diferentes aplicações: substratos cerâmicos e estruturas planares em multicamadas para circuitos integrados e capacitores; eletrólitos sólidos para células a combustível e sensores; cerâmicas piezoelétricas para atuadores e transdutores; membranas de separação para micro-filtragem; compósitos estruturais e trocadores de calor. Neste trabalho, a técnica convencional de colagem por fita foi adaptada com a utilização do processo de pirólise controlada de misturas de polímeros e carga, empregando-se polissiloxanos e cargas de silício e alumina nas suspensões. Foram preparadas suspensões com 60% vol. de fase polimérica (polissiloxanos e metil-trietoxi-silano e 40% vol. de carga (Si e Al2O3, com diferentes concentrações dos polímeros e das cargas. As amostras na forma de substratos foram pirolisadas em atmosfera de nitrogênio a 1400 °C/2 h e 1500 °C/2 h, sendo convertidas em materiais cerâmicos no sistema Si-Al-O-N-C. O processo de pirólise foi caracterizado até a temperatura de 1000 ºC por análise termogravimétrica. As cerâmicas foram caracterizadas quanto às fases formadas, microestrutura, massa específica aparente e condutividade térmica. Os substratos cerâmicos apresentaram porosidade relativamente alta (entre 12 e 22% e baixa condutividade térmica (entre 3 e 8 W/m.K, sendo constituídos por fases cristalinas de beta-SiC, Si2ON2, O'-SiAlON, Al2O3, mulita e fase amorfa de SiOC; o Si foi observado nas amostras pirolisadas a 1400 ºC.The tape casting technique has been widely used to prepare ceramic tapes for different applications: ceramic substrates and multilayer planar structures for integrated circuits and capacitors, solid electrolytes for fuel cells and sensors, piezoelectric ceramics for actuators and transducers, membrane systems for micro-filtration, structural composites and

  11. Powder technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueda, Horacio

    1989-01-01

    Powder technology is experiencing nowadays a great development and has broad application in different fields: nuclear energy, medicine, new energy sources, industrial and home artifacts, etc. Ceramic materials are of daily use as tableware and also in the building industry (bricks, tiles, etc.). However, in machine construction its utilization is not so common. The same happens with metals: powder metallurgy is employed less than traditional metal forming techniques. Both cases deal with powder technology and the forming techniques as far as the final consolidation through sintering processes are very similar. There are many different methods and techniques in the forming stage: cold-pressing, slip casting, injection molding, extrusion molding, isostatic pressing, hot-pressing (which involves also the final consolidation step), etc. This variety allows to obtain almost any desired form no matter how complex it could be. Some applications are very specific as in the case of UO 2 pellets (used as nuclear fuels) but with the same technique and other materials, it is possible to manufacture a great number of different products. This work shows the characteristics and behaviour of two magnetic ceramic materials (ferrites) fabricated in the laboratory of the Applied Research Division of the Bariloche Atomic Center for different purposes. Other materials and products made with the same method are also mentioned. Likewise, densities and shrinkage obtained by different methods of forming (cold-pressing, injection molding, slip casting and extrusion molding) using high-purity alumina (99.5% Al 2 O 3 ). Finally, different applications of such methods are given. (Author) [es

  12. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of Ti3SiC2-TiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, WuBian; Sun, ZhengMing; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Du, YuLei

    2010-01-01

    Ti 3 SiC 2 -TiC composites were fabricated by pulse discharge sintering technique using three different sets of powder mixtures, i.e. Ti/Si/TiC (TC30), Ti/Si/C/TiC (SI30) and Ti/Si/C (TSC30). Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and microstructural observations, starting powder reactants were found to have little effect on phase content but strong influence on the microstructure in terms of phase distribution. The phase distribution mainly relies on the heat released from reaction and the liquid phase content formed during sintering. The mechanical properties of the fabricated dense samples demonstrate that more homogeneous phase distribution, available by choosing the starting reactants of SI30, results in higher flexural strength, whereas the Vickers hardness is almost independent of the microstructure. The enhanced flexural strength in sample SI30 sintered at 1400 o C is mainly attributed to the homogeneous TiC distribution in the microstructure.

  13. Modeling of wear behavior of Al/B_4C composites produced by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Ismail; Bektas, Asli; Guel, Ferhat; Cinci, Hanifi

    2017-01-01

    Wear characteristics of composites, Al matrix reinforced with B_4C particles percentages of 5, 10,15 and 20 produced by the powder metallurgy method were studied in this study. For this purpose, a mixture of Al and B_4C powders were pressed under 650 MPa pressure and then sintered at 635 C. The analysis of hardness, density and microstructure was performed. The produced samples were worn using a pin-on-disk abrasion device under 10, 20 and 30 N load through 500, 800 and 1200 mesh SiC abrasive papers. The obtained wear values were implemented in an artificial neural network (ANN) model having three inputs and one output using feed forward backpropagation Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Thus, the optimum wear conditions and hardness values were determined.

  14. Modeling of wear behavior of Al/B{sub 4}C composites produced by powder metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Ismail; Bektas, Asli [Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Industrial Design Engineering; Guel, Ferhat; Cinci, Hanifi [Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgy Engineering

    2017-06-01

    Wear characteristics of composites, Al matrix reinforced with B{sub 4}C particles percentages of 5, 10,15 and 20 produced by the powder metallurgy method were studied in this study. For this purpose, a mixture of Al and B{sub 4}C powders were pressed under 650 MPa pressure and then sintered at 635 C. The analysis of hardness, density and microstructure was performed. The produced samples were worn using a pin-on-disk abrasion device under 10, 20 and 30 N load through 500, 800 and 1200 mesh SiC abrasive papers. The obtained wear values were implemented in an artificial neural network (ANN) model having three inputs and one output using feed forward backpropagation Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Thus, the optimum wear conditions and hardness values were determined.

  15. Synthesis of ceramic powders of La{sub 9,56} (SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2,34} and La{sub 9,8}Si{sub 5,7}Mg{sub O,3}O{sub 26,}4 by modified sol-gel process; Sintese de pos ceramicos de La{sub 9,56} (SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2,34} e La{sub 9,8}Si{sub 5,7}Mg{sub O,3}O{sub 26,}4 por processo sol-gel modificado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lira, Sabrina Lopes; Paiva, Mayara Rafaela Soares; Misso, Agatha Matos; Elias, Daniel Ricco; Yamagata, Chieko, E-mail: yamagata@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCTM/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    Lanthanum silicate oxyapatite materials are promising for application as electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells because of high ionic conductivity at temperatures between 600 deg C and 800 deg C. In this work, oxyapatites with the composition La{sub 9,56}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2,34}, and La{sub 9,8}Si{sub 5,7}Mg{sub 0,3}O{sub 26,4} were synthesized by using the sol-gel method, followed by precipitation. Initially, the gel of silica was synthesized from sodium silicate solution, by acid catalysis using lanthanum and magnesium chloride solution. Then, the La and Mg hydroxides were precipitated with NaOH in the gel. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and measurements of specific surface area. The crystalline oxyapatite phase of La{sub 9,56}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2,34}, and was La{sub 9,8}Si{sub 5,7}Mg{sub 0,3}O{sub 26,4} obtained by calcination at 900 deg C for 2 and 1h respectively (author)

  16. Facilely scraping Si nanoparticles@reduced graphene oxide sheets onto nickel foam as binder-free electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Suyuan; Xie, Wenhe; Gu, Lili; Liu, Zhengjiao; Hou, Xiaoyi; Liu, Boli; Wang, Qi; He, Deyan

    2016-01-01

    Binder-free electrodes of Si nanoparticles@reducedgrapheneoxidesheets(Si@rGO) for lithium ion batteries were facilely fabricated by scraping the mixture of commercial Si powder, graphene oxide and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) onto nickel foam and following a heat treatment. It was shown that the Si@rGO electrode performs an excellent electrochemical behavior. Even at a current density as high as 4 A/g, a reversible capacity of 792 mAh/g was obtained after 100 cycles. A small amount of PVP additive plays important roles, it not only increases the viscosity of the mixture paint in the coating process, but also improves the conductivity of the overall electrode after carbonization.

  17. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-12Si produced by selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fefelov, A. S.; Merkushev, A. G.; Chikova, O. A.

    2017-10-01

    Al-12Si specimens are produced by selective laser melting (SLM) from gas atomized powders. Installation for the production of powder is original. All specimens were prepared using the EOSINT M 280 device. A fine cellular structure is observed with residual free Si along the cellular boundaries. Room temperature tensile tests reveal remarkable mechanical behavior: the samples show yield and tensile strengths of about 102 MPa and 425 MPa, respectively, along with fracture strain of 12%. The study of crack surface morphology was shown by the example of a sample. Except the spherical pores, the interface of the molten pool also appears on the fracture surface, which indicates a mixture of fragile and ductile fracture. Additionally, the agglomerated silicon group appears also on the fracture surface.

  18. Radiotreated cocoa powder for frozen elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Jorge, M.; Alvarez Gil, M.; Prieto Miranda, E.; Morales Valladares, M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present papers is to study the possibilities of 2.0 kGy gamma radiotreated cocoa powder to be used in the elaboration of powder mixture for the preparation of chocolate frozen. Three industrial productions were carried out. Microbiological and organoleptic evaluations of the final product were performed. The results showed that the use of radurized cocoa powder in the frozen elaboration is feasible. A good hygienic quality of this product was obtained and no organoleptic alterations were detected [es

  19. Plasma metallization of refractory carbide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroleva, E.B.; Klinskaya, N.A.; Rybalko, O.F.; Ugol'nikova, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of treatment conditions in plasma on properties of produced metallized powders of titanium, tungsten and chromium carbides with the main particle size of 40-80 μm is considered. It is shown that plasma treatment permits to produce metallized powders of carbide materials with the 40-80 μm particle size. The degree of metallization, spheroidization, chemical and phase composition of metallized carbide powders are controlled by dispersivity of the treated material, concentration of a metal component in the treated mixtures, rate of plasma flow and preliminary spheroidization procedure

  20. Injection system used into SI engines for complete combustion and reduction of exhaust emissions in the case of alcohol and petrol alcohol mixtures feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispas, N.; Cofaru, C.; Aleonte, M.

    2017-10-01

    Internal combustion engines still play a major role in today transportation but increasing the fuel efficiency and decreasing chemical emissions remain a great goal of the researchers. Direct injection and air assisted injection system can improve combustion and can reduce the concentration of the exhaust gas pollutes. Advanced air-to-fuel and combustion air-to-fuel injection system for mixtures, derivatives and alcohol gasoline blends represent a major asset in reducing pollutant emissions and controlling combustion processes in spark-ignition engines. The use of these biofuel and biofuel blending systems for gasoline results in better control of spark ignition engine processes, making combustion as complete as possible, as well as lower levels of concentrations of pollutants in exhaust gases. The main purpose of this paper was to provide most suitable tools for ensure the proven increase in the efficiency of spark ignition engines, making them more environmentally friendly. The conclusions of the paper allow to highlight the paths leading to a better use of alcohols (biofuels) in internal combustion engines of modern transport units.

  1. Cheese powder as an ingredient in emulsion sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiang; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2017-01-01

    Different types of cheese powder were added to meat emulsion sausages in order to address its influence on chemical composition, volatile compounds profile and sensory properties, and its potential to reduce salt content through boosting saltiness. Addition of cheese powder to emulsion sausages...... modified their profile of volatile compounds. Blue cheese increased some ketones, alcohols, and esters, while brown cheese brought typical Maillard reaction compounds. Overall, addition of cheese powders to sausages enhanced the intensity of flavour traits. A mixture of hard and blue cheese powder showed...... the highest effect on boosting saltiness, while brown cheese powder showed the strongest umami and meat flavour boosting effect, and sausages with added blue cheese powder showed a more intense aftertaste. Hardness significantly increased due to the addition of blue cheese powder. Addition of cheese powder...

  2. Preparation of amorphous-crystalline SiO{sub 2} composite by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). 2; HIP ho ni yoru SiO{sub 2} kei hishoshitsu-kesshoshitsu fukugo zairyo no sakusei. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S.; Nishii, J.; Fujii, T.; Akashi, K. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Tecnology

    2000-08-15

    The composites consisting of {alpha}-quartz crystallites and amorphous SiO{sub 2} were prepared by HIP technique, imitating the structure of natural agate. In the previous study, the K{sub IC} of the composite prepared from the mixed powder of crystallites and amorphous SiO{sub 2} was comparable to that of the natural agate (0.56MN/m{sup 1.5}). In this study, to increase the toughness of the composite, (1) the mixture of silica sol and {alpha}-quartz powder and (2) silica sol including nucleation promoter were examined as starting materials respectively. These starting materials were pressed into powder compacts with {phi} 10 multiplied 50mm in size. The Pyrex glass capsule containing the compact was hipped at 800-1,200 degrees C for 0-120 minutes under the pressure of 200 MPa. The K{sub IC} of the composite obtained from the mixture of silica sol and {alpha}-quartz powder was equivalent to that obtained in the previous study, while the maximum K{sub IC} (0.63 MN/m{sup 1.5}) was obtained when PbCl{sub 2} was used as a nucleation promoter. The nucleation promoter having low solubility in water was useful for the homogeneous generation of the crystallites. (author)

  3. Peculiarities of formation and sintering of fine dispersed molybdenum powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalamazov, R.U.; Pak, V.I.; Tsvetkov, Yu.V.; Lem, I.N.

    1989-01-01

    Pressing of fine dispersed Mo powders sintering of compacts in H 2 and vacuum is studied. It is shown that powder preannealing at 600 deg C in H 2 for 2 hours is necessary for formation of dense sintered compacts. Qualitatively choice of pressing conditions is possible when using electron-positron annihilation method. Peculiarities of compacting and sintering of fine- and coarse-dispersed powder mixtures are considered. The obtained results are discussed from the view point of sintering recrystallization mechanism

  4. Fundamentals of powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.H.; Qureshi, K.A.; Minhas, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    This book is being presented to introduce the fundamentals of technology of powder metallurgy. An attempt has been made to present an overall view of powder metallurgy technology in the first chapter, whereas chapter 2 to 8 deal with the production of metal powders. The basic commercial methods of powder production are briefly described with illustrations. Chapter 9 to 12 describes briefly metal powder characteristics and principles of testing, mixing, blending, conditioning, compaction and sintering. (orig./A.B.)

  5. Milling Behavior of Matrix Graphite Powders with Different Binder Materials in HTGR Fuel Element Fabrication: I. Variation in Particle Size Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Woo; Cho, Moon Sung

    2011-01-01

    The fuel element for HTGR is manufactured by mixing coated fuel particles with matrix graphite powder and forming into either pebble type or cylindrical type compacts depending on their use in different HTGR cores. The coated fuel particle, the so-called TRISO particle, consists of 500-μm spherical UO 2 particles coated with the low density buffer Pyrolytic Carbon (PyC) layer, the inner and outer high density PyC layer and SiC layer sandwiched between the two inner and outer PyC layers. The coated TRISO particles are mixed with a matrix graphite powder properly prepared and pressed into a spherical shape or a cylindrical compact finally heat-treated at about 1900 .deg. C. These fuel elements can have different sizes and forms of compact. The basic steps for manufacturing a fuel element include preparation of graphite matrix powder, overcoating the fuel particles, mixing the fuel particles with a matrix powder, carbonizing green compact, and the final high-temperature heat treatment of the carbonized fuel compact. In order to develop a fuel compact fabrication technology, it is important to develop a technology to prepare the matrix graphite powder (MGP) with proper characteristics, which has a strong influence on further steps and the material properties of fuel element. In this work, the milling behavior of matrix graphite powder mixture with different binder materials and their contents was investigated by analyzing the change in particle size distribution with different milling time

  6. Weldability of powder-metallurgy molybdenum with low oxygen content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Yutaka; Okada, Masatoshi

    1987-01-01

    Relationships between the formation of weld pores and the chemical compositions in powder-metallurgy molybdenum were investigated. It is suggested that almost 100% of Ca and Mg form oxides. In contrast, Fe, Ni, Cr and Al, Si only partly form oxides. A powder-metallurgy molybdenum containing less than 84 at.ppm oxygen did not show any large weld pores. The reduction of the oxygen content was achieved by purifying the molybdenum powder. (orig.) [de

  7. Influence of relation CaO/SiO{sub 2} mixtures of anhydrous cement and mineral additives on the formation of CSH and combat the retrogression; Influencia da relacao CaO/SiO{sub 2} de misturas anidras de cimento e aditivos minerais na formacao do C-S-H e no combate a retrogressao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, Marcos A.S. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Martinelli, Antonio E.; Melo, Dulce M.A.; Souza, Pablo P.D. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Renovato, Tiago

    2012-07-01

    Temperatures above de 110 deg C cause cracks in the cement placed on the annular, and lost of hydraulic insulation; this crack is occasioned by the phenomenon of retrogression of the compressive resistance due to the conversion of the hydrated calcium silicate in phases calcium-rich, caused by the high temperatures in the wells. This paper presents the results of an experimental study aimed to investigate the influence of the molar ratio of different mixtures CaO/SiO{sub 2} Portland cement (CP) and minerals additives in the formation of CSH and retrogression of cement slurries subjected to high temperature and pressure. For both cement slurries were formulated with the addition of sugarcane biomass waste, silica flour and metakaolin in different concentrations of additives. The results of compressive strength and XRD showed that the use of cement slurries with molar ratio CaO/SiO{sub 2} near one can minimize the effect of retrogression when pulps are subjected to temperatures of 280 deg C and 17.2 MPa. (author)

  8. Development and cytotoxicity evaluation of SiAlONs ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, C.; Ribeiro, S.; Daguano, J.K.M.F.; Rogero, S.O.; Strecker, K.; Silva, C.R.M.

    2007-01-01

    SiAlONs are ceramics with high potential as biomaterials due to their chemical stability, associated with suitable mechanical properties, such as high fracture toughness and fracture resistance. The objective of this work was to investigate the mechanical properties and the cytotoxicity of these ceramic materials. Three different compositions were prepared, using silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and a rare earth oxide mixture as starting powders, yielding Si 3 N 4 -SiAlON composites or pure SiAlON ceramics, after hot-pressing at 1750 deg. C, for 30 min. The sintered samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, hardness and fracture toughness were determined using the Vicker's indentation method. The biological compatibility was evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity tests. Ceramic with elevated hardness, ranging between 17 and 21 GPa, and high fracture toughness of 5 to 6 MPa m 1/2 were obtained. Since a nontoxic behavior was observed in the cytotoxicity tests, it may be assumed that SiAlON-based ceramics are viable materials for clinical applications

  9. Grouting mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klyusov, A A; Bakshutov, V S; Kulyavtsev, V A

    1980-10-23

    A grouting mixture is proposed for low-temperature boreholes. The mixture contains cement, beta gypsum polyhydrate, and calcium chloride, so as to increase the water resistance and strength properties of expanding brick at conditions from 20 to -5/sup 0/ C, the components are in the following ratios: (by wt.-%): cement, 77.45-88.06; beta gypsum polyhydrate, 9.79-19.36; calcium chloride, 2.15-3.19. Grouting mortar for cold boreholes serves as the cement.

  10. Minimum ignition energy of nano and micro Ti powder in the presence of inert nano TiO₂ powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunmiao, Yuan; Amyotte, Paul R; Hossain, Md Nur; Li, Chang

    2014-06-15

    The inerting effect of nano-sized TiO2 powder on ignition sensitivity of nano and micro Ti powders was investigated with a Mike 3 apparatus. "A little is not good enough" is also suitable for micro Ti powders mixed with nano-sized solid inertants. MIE of the mixtures did not significantly increase until the TiO2 percentage exceeded 50%. Nano-sized TiO2 powders were ineffective as an inertant when mixed with nano Ti powders, especially at higher dust loadings. Even with 90% nano TiO2 powder, mixtures still showed high ignition sensitivity because the statistic energy was as low as 2.1 mJ. Layer fires induced by ignited but unburned metal particles may occur for micro Ti powders mixed with nano TiO2 powders following a low level dust explosion. Such layer fires could lead to a violent dust explosion after a second dispersion. Thus, additional attention is needed to prevent metallic layer fires even where electric spark potential is low. In the case of nano Ti powder, no layer fires were observed because of less flammable material involved in the mixtures investigated, and faster flame propagation in nanoparticle clouds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Graphite powder as an alternative or supplement to reversed-phase material for desalting and concentration of peptide mixtures prior to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Røssel; Cordwell, Stuart J; Roepstorff, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The success attributed to identification and characterization of gel separated proteins by mass spectrometry (MS) is highly dependent on the percentage of an entire sequence covered by matching peptides derived from enzymatic digestion. Desalting and concentration of peptide mixtures on reversed......-phase (RP) microcolumns prior to mass spectrometric analysis have resulted in increased signal-to-noise ratio and sensitivity, and consequently higher sequence coverage. A large proportion of peptides, however, remains undetected by MS presumably because they are lost during sample preparation...

  12. Shock-induced modification of inorganic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.A.; Morosin, B.; Venturini, E.L.; Beauchamp, E.K.; Hammetter, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    The results of studies performed to quantify the characteristics of TiO2, ZrO2 and Si3N4 powders exposed to explosive loading and post-shock analysis are reported. The shocks were produced with plane wave generators and explosive pads impinging on steel disks, a copper recovery fixture, and then the samples. Peak pressures of 13 and 17 GPa were attained, along with 40 GPz at the center of the powder cavity. Data are provided on the changes occurring during the explosive densification and X-ray and paramagnetic studies of the products. Only fractured disks were obtained in the trials. The shock-treated materials were more free flowing than the original powders, which were fluffy. Post-shock annealing was a significant feature of the treated powders

  13. Composite with a metallic matrix Al-AlN: from the powder to the material; Composite a matrice metallique A1-A1N: de la poudre au materiau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troadec, C.

    1996-05-09

    Two types of powders are used: a `composite` powder synthesized by direct nitridation of aluminium by nitrogen, and a `mixed` powder obtained by a mixture of Al and AlN powders. These two powders types are crushed in a high energetic planetary crusher under an Ar atmosphere, then they are sintered under solid phase hot pressure. Microstructure of these materials, studied by Tem and XED, is relatively heterogenous, with high density polycrystalline area and high porous nano-crystals area. Size of these porous area are higher in `mixed` powders, and is linked to AlN percentage and to the crushing time. High density area are composed of Al grains surrounded by AlN nano-crystals with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} needles and few aluminium oxynitride crystals. Physicochemical and mechanical properties, wear and corrosion comportment differ in function of the initial powders (`mixed` or `composite`) and with the AlN percentage. These new materials have, at similar reinforcement concentration, equivalent properties to Al/SiC or Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} materials. (A.B.) 112 refs.

  14. The combined effect of titanic carbide and aluminum phosphide on the refinement of primary silicon in Al-50Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Hongshang [Key Lab. of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong Univ., Jinan (China); Liu Xiangfa [Key Lab. of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong Univ., Jinan (China); Shandong Binzhou Bohai Piston Co., Ltd., Binzhou, SD (China)

    2008-12-15

    Two refinement methods for Al-50Si alloy are presented in this article: one way is using a newly developed Si-20P alloy at 1573 K: another technique is using the Si-20P alloy in company with Al-TiO{sub 2}-C mixture powder at 1473 K. Compared to the first method, the second one not only has better refinement effect on primary Si but also lower refinement temperature. These results are due to the combined effect of TiC and AlP on the refinement process, and the duplex TiC/AlP nucleus of primary silicon has been demonstrated using electron probe micro-analysis. Moreover, the reaction of Al-TiO{sub 2}-C mixture powder with increasing temperature was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, which shows that the TiC particles are produced at about 1473 K. AlP particles combine with the in-situ TiC particles in the melt, which is the main reason for the formation of a duplex nucleus, and the disregistry between TiC and AlP in low-index planes is also discussed. (orig.)

  15. A novel yellow-emitting SrAlSi4N7:Ce3+ phosphor for solid state lighting: Synthesis, electronic structure and photoluminescence properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jian; Xie, Rong-Jun; Funahashi, Shiro; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Takeda, Takashi; Suehiro, Takayuki; Hirosaki, Naoto; Li, Yuan-Qiang

    2013-12-01

    Ce3+-doped and Ce3+/Li+-codoped SrAlSi4N7 phosphors were synthesized by gas pressure sintering of powder mixtures of Sr3N2, AlN, α-Si3N4, CeN and Li3N. The phase purity, electronic crystal structure, photoluminescence properties of SrAlSi4N7:Ce3+(Ce3+/Li+) were investigated in this work. The band structure calculated by the DMol3 code shows that SrAlSi4N7 has a direct band gap of 3.87 eV. The single crystal analysis of Ce3+-doped SrAlSi4N7 indicates a disordered Si/Al distribution and nitrogen vacnacy defects. SrAlSi4N7 was identified as a major phase of the fired powders, and Sr5Al5Si21N35O2 and AlN as minor phases. Both Ce3+ and Ce3+/Li+ doped SrAlSi4N7 phosphors can be efficiently excited by near-UV or blue light and show a broadband yellow emission peaking around 565 nm. A highest external quantum efficiency of 38.3% under the 450 nm excitation was observed for the Ce3+/Li+-doped SrAlSi4N7 (5 mol%). A white light LED lamp with color temperature of 6300 K and color rendering index of Ra=78 was achieved by combining Sr0.97Al1.03Si3.997N\\94\\maccounttest14=t0005_18193 7:Ce3+0.03 with a commercial blue InGaN chip. It indicates that SrAlSi4N7:Ce3+ is a promising yellow emitting down-conversion phosphor for white LEDs.

  16. PAC study in the HfO2-SiO2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chain, C.Y.; Damonte, L.C.; Ferrari, S.; Munoz, E.; Torres, C. Rodriguez; Pasquevich, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    A high-k HfO 2 /SiO 2 gate stack is taking the place of SiO 2 as a gate dielectric in field effect transistors. This fact makes the study of the solid-state reaction between these oxides very important. Nanostructure characterization of a high-energy ball milled and post-annealed equimolar HfO 2 and amorphous SiO 2 powder mixture has been carried out by perturbed angular correlations (PAC) technique. The study was complemented with X-ray diffraction and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The experimental results revealed that the ball milling of equimolar mixtures increases the defects concentration in hafnium oxide. No solid-state reaction occurred even after 8 h of milling. The formation of HfSiO 4 (hafnon) was observed in the milled blends annealed at high temperatures.The PAC results of the milled samples are compared with those obtained for pure m-ZrO 2 subjected to high-energy ball milling and with reported microstructure data for the system ZrO 2 -SiO 2 .

  17. Effects of Processing Parameters on the Fabrication of in-situ Al/TiC Composites by Thermally Activated Combustion Reaction Process in an Aluminium Melt using Al-TiO_2-C Powder Mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hwa-Jung; Lee, Jung-Moo; Cho, Young-Hee; Kim, Jong-Jin; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Lee, Jae-Chul

    2012-01-01

    A feasible way to fabricate in-situ Al/TiC composites was investigated. An elemental mixture of Al-TiO_2-C pellet was directly added into an Al melt at 800-920°C to form TiC by self-combustion reaction. The addition of CuO initiates the self-combustion reaction to form TiC in 1-2 um at the melt temperature above 850°C. Besides the CuO addition, a diluent element of excess Al plays a significant role in the TiC formation by forming a precursor phase, Al_3Ti. Processing parameters such as CuO content, the amount of excess Al and the melt temperature, have affected the combustion reaction and formation of TiC, and their influences on the microstructures of in-situ Al/TiC composites are examined.

  18. Effect of SiO2 addition in the zirconia stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, R.C.; Lima, U.R.; Nasar, M.C.; Nasar, R.S.; Yoshida, I.V.P.; Acchar, W.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this work was investigated the zirconia stabilization with a mixture of resins based on silico nas promoting the Zr O 2 /Si O 2 formation. The powder was heated and characterized by TGA, DTA, FTIR, XRD and SEM/EDS. The results indicated the tetragonal and cubic phase formation stabilized at 1000 deg C/2 h. The increase of calcing temperature promoted decrease of stabilization. The amorphous silica calcined at 1000 deg C induced defects into the zirconia structure and favour the formation of more stable phases. The decrease of stabilization at high temperatures are related to growth of crystallite above of critical value. (author)

  19. Solid state reaction synthesis of Ba0.75Sr0.25AlSi2O8 - Al2O3 ceramic composites from mechanically activated precursor mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos-Ramírez, M. V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic composites with Ba0.75Sr0.25AlSi2O8 (SBAS/Al2O3 mass ratios of: 1 90/10, 2 70/30, and 3 50/50, were in situ synthesized at 900-1500 °C/5 h from mixtures of fly ash, BaCO3, SrCO3 and Al2O3. The green mixtures were mechanically activated for 0, 4 and 8 h in an attrition mill. As a result, the solid state reactions were faster and occurred at lower temperatures. Only the SBAS and Al2O3 phases were obtained at 1300-1500°C, with the SBAS present in composition 1 achieving full conversion from its hexagonal (Hexacelsian into its monoclinic (Celsian form, with or without milling. The higher nominal SBAS content of composition 1 facilitated in it the mentioned conversion, in comparison with the other two studied compositions, which required to be mechanically activated for times that increased with increasing Al2O3 content, in order to attain in them similarly high Hexacelsian to Celsian conversions. The mechanical properties of the synthesized materials increased with increasing milling time, sintering temperature and Al2O3 content. Thus, the best mechanical properties were obtained for composition 3 milled for 8 h and sintered at 1500 °C.Compósitos cerámicos con relaciones Ba0.75Sr0.25AlSi2O8 (SBAS/Al2O3 en masa de: 1 90/10, 2 70/30, y 3 50/50, fueron sintetizados in situ a 900-1500 °C/5 h usando mezclas de cenizas volantes, BaCO3, SrCO3 y Al2O3 . Las mezclas en verde fueron activadas mecánicamente por 0, 4 y 8 h en un molino de atrición. Como resultado, las reacciones en el estado sólido fueron más rápidas y ocurrieron a menores temperaturas. A 1300-1500°C sólo se obtuvo las fases SBAS y Al2O3 , con el SBAS presente en la composición 1 transformado completamente de su forma hexagonal (Hexacelsiana a la monoclínica (Celsiana, con o sin molienda. El mayor contenido nominal de SBAS en esa composición facilitó dicha conversión, en comparación con las otras dos composiciones estudiadas, las cuales requirieron ser activadas mec

  20. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  1. Investigation of the Dependences of the Attenuation Properties of Cryogenic Metal-Powder Filters on the Preparation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hoon; Lee, Soon-Gul

    2018-04-01

    We fabricated low-pass metal powder filters for use in low-noise measurements at cryogenic temperatures and investigated their attenuation characteristics for different wire-turn densities, metalpowder shapes, and preparation methods at frequencies up to 20 GHz. We used nominally 30-μmsized stainless-steel 304L powder and mixed it with low-temperature binders. The low-temperature binders used were Stycast 2850FT (Emerson and Cumming) with catalyst 23LV and GE-7031 varnish. A 0.1-mm insulated copper wire was wound on preformed powder-mixture bobbins in the shape of a circular rod and was encapsulated in metal tubes with the powder mixture. All the fabricated powder filters showed a large attenuation at high frequencies with a cut-off frequency near 1 GHz. For filters of the same wire length, a lower wiring density showed a larger attenuation, which implies that the amount of powder in close contact with the wire determines the attenuation. Filters made of a powder/varnish mixture showed significantly larger attenuations than those of a powder/stycast mixture, and the attenuation improved with increasing powder ratio in the mixture. The low-temperature thermal conductivities of a 2 : 1 powder/Stycast mixture and a 5 : 1 powder/varnish mixture showed similar values at temperatures up to 4.2 K.

  2. Combustion of powdery tungsten in pyrotechnic mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, G.V.; Reshetov, A.A.; Viktorenko, A.M.; Surkov, V.G.; Karmadonov, L.N.

    1982-01-01

    The basic regularities of tungsten burning (powder 2-5 μm) with oxidizers most typical for pyrotechnics: nitrates, lead and barium peroxides (powder, 2-8 μm) and potassium perchlorate (powder, 2-8 μm) are studied. Dependences of burning rate as a function of pressure and ratio of components are established. It is supposed that tungsten burning in mixtures with the mentioned nitrates is a complex and multistage process the rate of which is determined by tungsten dissolution in nitrate melts. Analysis of burning products using available methods is complex

  3. Desensitizing nano powders to electrostatic discharge ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steelman, Ryan; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a main cause for ignition in powder media ranging from grain silos to fireworks. Nanoscale particles are orders of magnitude more ESD ignition sensitive than their micron scale counterparts. This study shows that at least 13 vol. % carbon nanotubes (CNT) added to nano-aluminum and nano-copper oxide particles (nAl + CuO) eliminates ESD ignition sensitivity. The CNT act as a conduit for electric energy and directs electric charge through the powder to desensitize the reactive mixture to ignition. For nanoparticles, the required CNT concentration for desensitizing ESD ignition acts as a diluent to quench energy propagation.

  4. Larnite powders and larnite/silica aerogel composites as effective agents for CO{sub 2} sequestration by carbonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A., E-mail: alberto.santos@uca.es [Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad de Cadiz, Puerto Real, 11510 Cadiz (Spain); Ajbary, M.; Morales-Florez, V. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Cadiz, Puerto Real, 11510 Cadiz (Spain); Kherbeche, A. [Universite Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Ecole Superieure de Technologie, Fes (Morocco); Pinero, M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Cadiz, Puerto Real, 11510 Cadiz (Spain); Esquivias, L. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Fisica, Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC), Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    This paper presents the results of the carbonation reaction of two sample types: larnite (Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) powders and larnite/silica aerogel composites, the larnite acting as an active phase in a process of direct mineral carbonation. First, larnite powders were synthesized by the reaction of colloidal silica and calcium nitrate in the presence of ethylene glycol. Then, to synthesize the composites, the surface of the larnite powders was chemically modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), and later this mixture was added to a silica sol previously prepared from tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS). The resulting humid gel was dried in an autoclave under supercritical conditions for the ethanol. The textures and chemical compositions of the powders and composites were characterized.The carbonation reaction of both types of samples was evaluated by means of X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. Both techniques confirm the high efficiency of the reaction at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. A complete transformation of the silicate into carbonate resulted after submitting the samples to a flow of pure CO{sub 2} for 15 min. This indicates that for this reaction time, 1 t of larnite could eliminate about 550 kg of CO{sub 2}. The grain size, porosity, and specific surface area are the factors controlling the reaction.

  5. Spherical rhenium metal powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, T.; Moore, N.; Hamister, M.

    2001-01-01

    The development of a high-density, spherical rhenium powder (SReP) possessing excellent flow characteristics has enabled the use of advanced processing techniques for the manufacture of rhenium components. The techniques that were investigated were vacuum plasma spraying (VPS), direct-hot isostatic pressing (D-HIP), and various other traditional powder metallurgy processing methods of forming rhenium powder into near-net shaped components. The principal disadvantages of standard rhenium metal powder (RMP) for advanced consolidation applications include: poor flow characteristics; high oxygen content; and low and varying packing densities. SReP will lower costs, reduce processing times, and improve yields when manufacturing powder metallurgy rhenium components. The results of the powder characterization of spherical rhenium powder and the consolidation of the SReP are further discussed. (author)

  6. Preparation of SiC Compacts by the Rapid Proto typing Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelrahman, A.A.M.; Ahmed, A.Z.; Elmasry, M.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    The preparation of ceramic green bodies from powders by the rapid proto typing is a promising technique. In this work SiC green bodies were prepared from black SiC powder mixed with 10 wt % organic binder namely Ave be SP G20 starch. Different liquid binders were investigated and were successful in producing strong green bodies such as NH 4 OH in the ph range 9-10 or 1 % HCl solution in water and or a mixture of 1% NH 4 Cl and NH 4 OH in the ph range of 8.5 to 9. The green bodies were then preheated at 200 degree C to eliminate the starch by thermal decomposition. After that these parts were infiltrated using molten silicon at 1450 degree C in Argon atmosphere. Unfortunately it was impossible to infiltrate the green bodies using liquid silicon. Another technique was followed which is dipping of the green bodies in liquid silicon. This method was successful. The densities of the green and dipped bodies were determined and they were examined under the metallo graph and SEM. It was found that no SiC dissolved in the silicon after dipping. This was concluded from the presence of sharp corners of SiC grains

  7. High-energy X-ray powder diffraction and atomic-pair distribution-function studies of charged/discharged structures in carbon-hybridized Li2MnSiO4 nanoparticles as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Maki; Miyahara, Masahiko; Hokazono, Mana; Sasaki, Hirokazu; Nemoto, Atsushi; Katayama, Shingo; Akimoto, Yuji; Hirano, Shin-ichi; Ren, Yang

    2014-10-01

    The stable cycling performance with a high discharge capacity of ∼190 mAh g-1 in a carbon-hybridized Li2MnSiO4 nanostructured powder has prompted an experimental investigation of the charged/discharged structures using synchrotron-based and laboratory-based X-rays and atomic-pair distribution-function (PDF) analyses. A novel method of in-situ spray pyrolysis of a precursor solution with glucose as a carbon source enabled the successful synthesis of the carbon-hybridized Li2MnSiO4 nanoparticles. The XRD patters of the discharged (lithiated) samples exhibit a long-range ordered structure characteristic of the (β) Li2MnSiO4 crystalline phase (space group Pmn21) which dissipates in the charged (delithiated) samples. However, upon discharging the long-range ordered structure recovers in each cycle. The disordered structure, according to the PDF analysis, is mainly due to local distortions of the MnO4 tetrahedra which show a mean Mn-O nearest neighbor distance shorter than that of the long-range ordered phase. These results corroborate the notion of the smaller Mn3+/Mn4+ ionic radii in the Li extracted phase versus the larger Mn2+ ionic radius in Li inserted phase. Thus Li extraction/insertion drives the fluctuation between the disordered and the long-range ordered structures.

  8. Viscosities of corium-concrete mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, J.M.; Ganzhorn, J.

    1997-01-01

    Severe accidents on nuclear reactors involve many situations such as pools of molten core material, melt spreading, melt/concrete interactions, etc. The word 'corium' designates mixtures of materials issued from the molten core at high temperature; these mixtures involve mainly: UO2, ZrO2, Zr and, in small amounts, Ni, Cr, Ag, In, Cd. These materials, when flowing out of the reactor vessel, may interact with the concrete of the reactor building thus introducing decomposition products of concrete into the original mixture. These decomposition products are mainly: SiO 2 , FeO, MgO, CaO and Al 2 O 3 in different amounts depending on the nature of the concrete being considered. Siliceous concrete is rich in SiO 2 , limestone concrete contains both SiO 2 and CaO. Liquidus temperatures of such mixtures are generally obove 2300 K whereas solidus temperatures are ∝1400 K. (orig.)

  9. Powder processing and spheroidizing with thermal inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutsch, G.; Linke, P.; Zakharian, S.; Dzur, B.; Weiss, K.-H.

    2001-01-01

    Processing of advanced powder materials for the spraying industry is one of the most promising applications of the thermal RF inductively coupled plasma. By selecting the feedstock carefully and adjusting the RF plasma parameters, unique materials with high quality can be achieved. Powders injected in the hot plasma core emerge with modified shapes, morphology, crystal structure and chemical composition. Ceramic oxide powders such as Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , SiO 2 are spheroidized with a high spheroidization rate. By using the RF induction plasma spheroidizing process tungsten melt carbide powders are obtained with a high spheroidization rate at high feeding rates by densification of agglomerated powders consisting of di-tungsten carbide and monocarbide with a definite composition. This kind of ball-like powders is particularly suited for wear resistant applications. (author)

  10. Simple process to fabricate nitride alloy powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Ho; Kim, Dong-Joo; Kim, Keon Sik; Rhee, Young Woo; Oh, Jang-Soo; Kim, Jong Hun; Koo, Yang Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Uranium mono-nitride (UN) is considered as a fuel material [1] for accident-tolerant fuel to compensate for the loss of fissile fuel material caused by adopting a thickened cladding such as SiC composites. Uranium nitride powders can be fabricated by a carbothermic reduction of the oxide powders, or the nitriding of metal uranium. Among them, a direct nitriding process of metal is more attractive because it has advantages in the mass production of high-purity powders and the reusing of expensive 15 N 2 gas. However, since metal uranium is usually fabricated in the form of bulk ingots, it has a drawback in the fabrication of fine powders. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has a centrifugal atomisation technique to fabricate uranium and uranium alloy powders. In this study, a simple reaction method was tested to fabricate nitride fuel powders directly from uranium metal alloy powders. Spherical powder and flake of uranium metal alloys were fabricated using a centrifugal atomisation method. The nitride powders were obtained by thermal treating the metal particles under nitrogen containing gas. The phase and morphology evolutions of powders were investigated during the nitriding process. A phase analysis of nitride powders was also part of the present work. KAERI has developed the centrifugal rotating disk atomisation process to fabricate spherical uranium metal alloy powders which are used as advanced fuel materials for research reactors. The rotating disk atomisation system involves the tasks of melting, atomising, and collecting. A nozzle in the bottom of melting crucible introduces melt at the center of a spinning disk. The centrifugal force carries the melt to the edge of the disk and throws the melt off the edge. Size and shape of droplets can be controlled by changing the nozzle size, the disk diameter and disk speed independently or simultaneously. By adjusting the processing parameters of the centrifugal atomiser, a spherical and flake shape

  11. Preparation of aluminum nitride-silicon carbide nanocomposite powder by the nitridation of aluminum silicon carbide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itatani, K.; Tsukamoto, R.; Delsing, A.C.A.; Hintzen, H.T.J.M.; Okada, I.

    2002-01-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN)-silicon carbide (SiC) nanocomposite powders were prepared by the nitridation of aluminum-silicon carbide (Al4SiC4) with the specific surface area of 15.5 m2·g-1. The powders nitrided at and above 1400°C for 3 h contained the 2H-phases which consisted of AlN-rich and SiC-rich

  12. Mixing of zeolite powders and molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.; Zyryanov, V.N.; Lewis, M.A.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Transuranics and fission products in a molten salt can be incorporated into zeolite A by an ion exchange process and by a batch mixing or blending process. The zeolite is then mixed with glass and consolidated into a monolithic waste form for geologic disposal. Both processes require mixing of zeolite powders with molten salt at elevated temperatures (>700 K). Complete occlusion of salt and a uniform distribution of chloride and fission products are desired for incorporation of the powders into the final waste form. The relative effectiveness of the blending process was studied over a series of temperature, time, and composition profiles. The major criteria for determining the effectiveness of the mixing operations were the level and uniformity of residual free salt in the mixtures. High operating temperatures (>775 K) improved salt occlusion. Reducing the chloride levels in the mixture to below 80% of the full salt capacity of the zeolite significantly reduced the free salt level in the final product

  13. Effect of Mg and Si co-substitution on microstructure and strength of tricalcium phosphate ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Páez, Ismael H; Carrodeguas, Raúl García; De Aza, Antonio H; Baudín, Carmen; Pena, Pilar

    2014-02-01

    Magnesium and silicon co-doped tricalcium phosphate (TCP) ceramics with compositions corresponding to 0, 5 and 10wt% CaMg(SiO3)2 in the system Ca3(PO4)2-CaMg(SiO3)2 were obtained by conventional sintering of compacted mixtures of Ca3(PO4)2, MgO, SiO2 and CaCO3 powders at temperatures between 1100 and 1450°C. Microstructural analyses were performed by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Major phases in the obtained ceramics were β- or α+β-tricalcium phosphate containing Mg and Si in solid solution. Certain amounts of liquid were formed during sintering depending on composition and temperature. There were found significant differences in distributions of strength determined by the diametral compression of disc tests (DCDT). Failure strengths were controlled by microstructural defects associated with phase development. Mg and Si additions were found to be effective to improve densification and associated strength of TCP bioceramics due to the enhancement of sintering by the low viscosity liquids formed. The highest density and strength were obtained for the TCP ceramic containing 5wt% CaMg(SiO3)2 sintered at 1300°C. Cracking and porosity increased at higher temperatures due to grain growth and swelling. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Liquid phase sintered SiC. Processing and transformation controlled microstructure tailoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Izhevskyi

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure development and phase formation processes during sintering of silicon carbide based materials with AlN-Y2O3, AlN-Yb2O3, and AlN-La2O3 sintering additives were investigated. Densification of the materials occurred by liquid-phase sintering mechanism. Proportion of alpha- and beta-SiC powders in the initial mixtures was a variable parameter, while the molar ratio of AlN/RE2O3, and the total amount of additives (10 vol. % were kept constant. Shrinkage behavior during sintering in interrelation with the starting composition of the material and the sintering atmosphere was investigated by high temperature dilatometry. Kinetics of b-SiC to a-SiC phase transformation during post-sintering heat treatment at temperatures 1900-1950 °C was studied, the degree of phase transformation being determined by quantitative x-ray analysis using internal standard technique. Evolution of microstructure resulting from beta-SiC to alpha-SiC transformation was followed up by scanning electron microscopy on polished and chemically etched samples. Transformation-controlled grain growth mechanism similar to the one observed for silicon nitride based ceramics was established. Possibility of in-situ platelet reinforced dense SiC-based ceramics fabrication with improved mechanical properties by means of sintering was shown.

  15. Structure dependent luminescence characterization of green-yellow emitting Sr{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphors for near UV LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, J.K. [University of California, San Diego, Materials Science and Engineering Program, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Hannah, M.E.; Piquette, A. [Central Research, OSRAM SYLVANIA, 71 Cherry Hill Drive Beverly, MA 01915 (United States); Hirata, G.A. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnolgia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada Apdo, Ensenada, MX CP 22860 (Mexico); Talbot, J.B. [University of California, San Diego, Materials Science and Engineering Program, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Mishra, K.C. [Central Research, OSRAM SYLVANIA, 71 Cherry Hill Drive Beverly, MA 01915 (United States); McKittrick, J., E-mail: jmckittrick@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, Materials Science and Engineering Program, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    This paper reports on the luminescence properties of mixtures of {alpha}- and {beta}-(Sr{sub 0.97}Eu{sub 0.03}){sub 2}SiO{sub 4} phosphors. These phosphors were prepared by 3 different synthesis techniques: a modified sol-gel/Pechini method, a co-precipitation method and a combustion method. The structural and optical properties of these phosphors were compared to those of solid state synthesized powders. The emission spectra consist of a weak broad blue band centered near 460 nm and a strong broad green-yellow band centered between 543 and 573 nm depending on the crystal structure. The green-yellow emission peak blue-shifts as the amount of {beta} phase increases and the photoluminescence emission intensity and quantum efficiency of the mixed phase powders is greater than those of predominant {alpha}-phase powders when excited between 370 and 410 nm. Thus, (Sr{sub 1-x}Eu{sub x}){sub 2}SiO{sub 4} with larger proportion of the {beta} phase are more promising candidates than single {alpha}-phase powders for use as a green-yellow emitting phosphor for near UV LED applications. Finally the phosphors prepared by the sol-gel/Pechini method, which have larger amount of {beta} phase, have a higher emission intensity and quantum efficiency than those prepared by co-precipitation or combustion synthesis. - Highlights: > Mixtures of {alpha}- and {beta}-Sr{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphors were prepared by 3 different synthesis methods. > Emission peak blue-shifts as the amount of {beta} phase increases. > Emission intensity and QE of the {alpha}+{beta} powders are greater than those of single {alpha} phase. > Phosphors prepared by sol-gel/Pechini have the highest emission intensity and QE.

  16. Spark-plasma sintering and mechanical property of mechanically alloyed NiAl powder compact and ball-milled (Ni+Al) mixed powder compact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.S.; Jang, Y.I.; Kwon, Y.S.; Kim, Y.D.; Ahn, I.S.

    2001-01-01

    Mechanically-alloyed NiAl powder and (Ni+Al) powder mixture prepared by ball-milling were sintered by spark-plasma sintering (SPS) process. Densification behavior and mechanical property were determined from the experimental results and analysis such as changes in linear shrinkage, shrinkage rate, microstructure, and phase during sintering process, Vicker's hardness and transverse rupture strength tests. Densification mechanisms for MA-NiAl powder compact and (Ni+Al) powder mixture were different from each other. While the former showed a rapid increase in densification rate only at higher temperature region of 800-900 o C, the latter revealed firstly a rapid increase in densification rate even at low temperature of 300 o C and a subsequent increase up to 500 o C. Densities of both powder compact (MA and mixture) sintered at 1150 o C for 5 min were 98 and above 99 %, respectively. Sintered bodies were composed mainly of NiAl phase with Ni 3 Al as secondary phase for both powders. Sintered body of MA-NiAl powder showed a very fine grain structure. Crystallite size determined by XRD result and the Sherrer's equation was approximately 80 nm. Vicker's hardness for the sintered bodies of (Ni+Al) powder mixture and MA-NiAl powder were 410±12 H v and 555±10 H v , respectively, whereas TRS values 1097±48 MPa and 1393±75 MPa. (author)

  17. SAF line powder operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederickson, J.R.; Horgos, R.M.

    1983-10-01

    An automated nuclear fuel fabrication line is being designed for installation in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) near Richland, Washington. The fabrication line will consist of seven major process systems: Receiving and Powder Preparation; Powder Conditioning; Pressing and Boat Loading; Debinding, Sintering, and Property Adjustment; Boat Transport; Pellet Inspection and Finishing; and Pin Operations. Fuel powder processing through pellet pressing will be discussed in this paper

  18. Two layer powder pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, H.

    1979-01-01

    First, significance and advantages of sintered materials consisting of two layers are pointed out. By means of the two layer powder pressing technique metal powders are formed resulting in compacts with high accuracy of shape and mass. Attributes of basic powders, different filling methods and pressing techniques are discussed. The described technique is supposed to find further applications in the field of two layer compacts in the near future

  19. Operation whey powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, E.

    1987-01-01

    The odyssey of the contaminated whey powder finally has come to an end, and the 5000 tonnes of whey now are designated for decontamination by means of an ion exchange technique. The article throws light upon the political and economic reasons that sent the whey powder off on a chaotic journey. It is worth mentioning in this context that the natural radioactivity of inorganic fertilizers is much higher than that of the whey powder in question. (HP) [de

  20. Method of producing homogeneous mixed metal oxides and metal--metal oxide mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinby, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    Metal powders, metal oxide powders, and mixtures thereof of controlled particle size are provided by reacting an aqueous solution containing dissolved metal values with excess urea. Upon heating, urea reacts with water from the solution to leave a molten urea solution containing the metal values. The molten urea solution is heated to above about 180 0 C, whereupon metal values precipitate homogeneously as a powder. The powder is reduced to metal or calcined to form oxide particles. One or more metal oxides in a mixture can be selectively reduced to produce metal particles or a mixture of metal and metal oxide particles

  1. Pharmaceutical powder compaction technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Çelik, Metin

    2011-01-01

    ... through the compaction formulation process and application. Compaction of powder constituents both active ingredient and excipients is examined to ensure consistent and reproducible disintegration and dispersion profiles...

  2. Investigation on fabrication of SiC/SiC composite as a candidate material for fuel sub-assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-Kwang; Naganuma, Masayuki; Park, Joon-Soo; Kohyama, Akira

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of SiC/SiC (Silicon carbide fiber reinforced Silicon carbide) composites application for fuel sub-assembly of Fast Breeder Reactor was investigated. To select a raw material of SiC/SiC composites, a few kinds of SiC nano powder was estimated by SEM observation and XRD analysis. Furthermore, SiC monolithic was sintered from them and estimated by flexural test. SiC nano-powder which showed good sinterability, it was used for fabrication of SiC/SiC composites by Hot Pressing method. From the sintering condition of 1800, 1820degC temperature and 15, 20 MPa pressure, SiC/SiC composite was fabricated and then estimated by tensile test. SiC/SiC composite, which made by 1820degC and 20 MPa condition, showed the highest mechanical strength by the monotonic tensile test. SiC/SiC composite, which made by 1800degC and 15 MPa condition, showed a stable fracture behavior at the monotonic and cyclic tensile test. And then, the hoop stress of ideal model of SiC/SiC composites was discussed. It was confirmed that applicability of SiC/SiC composites by Hot Pressing method for fuel sub-assembly structural material. To make it real attractive one, to maintain the reliability and safety as a high temperature structural material, the design and process study on SiC/Sic composites material will be continued. (author)

  3. Structural-microstructural characteristics and its correlations with the superconducting properties of in situ PIT-processed MgB{sub 2} tapes with ethyltoluene and SiC powder added

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asthana, Anjana; Matsumoto, A; Kitaguchi, H; Kumakura, H [Superconducting Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1-2 Sengen, Tsukuba, 305-0047 (Japan); Matsui, Y; Hara, T; Watanabe, K [Advanced Electron Microscopy Group, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, 305-0044 (Japan); Yamada, H; Uchiyama, N [Maglev System Development Division, Central Japan Railways Company, 1545-33, Ooyama, Komaki, Aichi 485-0801 (Japan)], E-mail: anjana.ASTHANA@nims.go.jp

    2008-11-15

    We performed structural-microstructural investigations of pure MgB{sub 2}, ethyltoluene and both ethyltoluene- and SiC-added MgB{sub 2}/Fe tapes. The analysis of the microstructure shows that the grain size for the pure and ethyltoluene-added MgB{sub 2} tape sample is in the range of 10-100 nm. However, with the addition of both ethyltoluene and SiC, the grain size decreases to about 5-80 nm. The a-axis length of the ethyltoluene-added tape samples is slightly decreased, whereas for both ethyltoluene- and SiC-added samples, the a-axis length is decreased by 0.4% as compared to the pure MgB{sub 2} tape sample, showing the amount of carbon substitution is less in ethyltoluene-added tape samples. The reason for the higher J{sub c} values of the ethyltoluene-added MgB{sub 2} tape sample as compared to the pure MgB{sub 2} tapes is the presence of a lesser amount of the impurity phase, MgO. The large improvement in J{sub c}-B properties for the ethyltoluene- and SiC-added MgB{sub 2} tape sample is attributed to (1) the enhancement of upper critical field, B{sub c2}, by the substitution of carbon for boron, (2) pinning by nanosized (5-20 nm) particles of Mg{sub 2}Si and other silicides, (3) enhanced grain boundary pinning due to the smaller grain size and (4) the presence of a lesser amount of impurity phase, MgO, as compared to the pure sample.

  4. Joining technique of silicon nitride and silicon carbide in a mixture and/or in contact with high-melting metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Zell, A.

    1980-01-01

    The following work gives a survey on possible joining techniques of silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ) and silicon carbide (SiC) in a mixture and/or in contact with high-melting metals and alloys. The problem arose because special ceramic materials such as Si 3 N 4 and SiC are to be used in gas turbines. The special ceramics in use may unavoidably come into contact with metals or the one hand, or form intended composite systems with them on the other hand, like e.g. the joining of a Si 3 N 4 disc with a metallic drive axis or ceramic blades with a metal wheel. The mixed body of X% ceramic (Si 3 N 4 , SiC) and Y% metal powder were prepared depending on the material combination at 1200 0 C-1750 0 C by hot-pressing or at 1200 0 C-2050 0 C by hot-pressing or pressureless sintering. The following possible ways were chosen as interlaminar bonding ceramic/metal/ceramic: on the one hand pressure welding (composite hot pressing) and the solid-state bonding in direct contact and by means of artificially included transition mixed layers, as well as material intermediate layers between metal and ceramic and on the other hand, soldering with active solder with molten phase. (orig./RW) [de

  5. A method of eliminating the surface defect in low-temperature oxidation powder added UO2 pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, H. S.; Lee, S. J.; Kim, J. I.; Jeon, K. R.; Kim, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    A study on methods to eliminate surface defect shown in low-temperature oxidation powder added UO 2 pellet has been performed. Powders oxidized at 350 .deg. C for 4 hrs were prepared and mixed with UO 2 powder after crushing them. After being sintered, surfaces of the pellet were inspected both visually and optically. A large number of defects were observed on the surface of the specimens in which low-temperature oxidation powders were directly mixed or master mixed with UO 2 powder while both specimens produced from mixed powders including milled oxidation powders and powders that were milled totally after mixing had clean surfaces. However, optical examination showed considerably large defected pores in the milled oxidation powder added pellet and it was confirmed that the inner defects can be eliminated completely only when milling the entire mixture on UO 2 and low-temperature oxidation powder, but not by crushing only oxidation powder

  6. Fe-based nanocrystalline powder cores with ultra-low core loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiangyue, E-mail: wangxiangyue1986@163.com [China Iron and Steel Research Institute Group, Beijing 100081 (China); Center of Advanced Technology and Materials Co., Ltd., Beijing 100081 (China); Lu, Zhichao; Lu, Caowei; Li, Deren [China Iron and Steel Research Institute Group, Beijing 100081 (China); Center of Advanced Technology and Materials Co., Ltd., Beijing 100081 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Melt-spun amorphous Fe{sub 73.5}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 15.5}B{sub 7} alloy strip was crushed to make flake-shaped fine powders. The passivated powders by phosphoric acid were mixed with organic and inorganic binder, followed by cold compaction to form toroid-shaped bonded powder-metallurgical magnets. The powder cores were heat-treated to crystallize the amorphous structure and to control the nano-grain structure. Well-coated phosphate-oxide insulation layer on the powder surface decreased the the core loss with the insulation of each powder. FeCuNbSiB nanocrystalline alloy powder core prepared from the powder having phosphate-oxide layer exhibits a stable permeability up to high frequency range over 2 MHz. Especially, the core loss could be reduced remarkably. At the other hand, the softened inorganic binder in the annealing process could effectively improve the intensity of powder cores. - Highlights: • Fe-based nanocrystalline powder cores were prepared with low core loss. • Well-coated phosphate-oxide insulation layer on the powder surface decreased the core loss. • Fe-based nanocrystalline powder cores exhibited a stable permeability up to high frequency range over 2 MHz. • The softened inorganic binder in the annealing process could effectively improve the intensity of powder cores.

  7. Sintered aluminium powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanova, M.G.; Matveev, B.I.

    1974-01-01

    The mechanical and physical properties of aluminium powder alloys and the various methods employed to produce them are considered. Data are given on the hardening of the alloys SAP and SPAK-4, as well as the powder-alloy system Al-Cr-Zr. (L.M.)

  8. Fabrication of mullite-bonded porous SiC ceramics from multilayer-coated SiC particles through sol-gel and in-situ polymerization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimpour, Omid

    second part of the project. Alumina sol was synthesized by the hydrolysis of Aluminum isopropoxide using the Yoldas method. Alumina sol was homogenous and had a needle-like shape with a thickness of 2--3 nm. Crystalline changes during the heating process of alumina sol were studied using XRD. In addition, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was performed to identify the functional groups on the alumina sol surface as a function of temperature. In the third part of the project, the feasibility of the in-situ polymerization technique was investigated to fabricate porous SiC ceramics. In this part, the mixture of SiC and calcined alumina powders were coated by polyethylene via in-situ polymerizing referred to as the polymerization compounding process in a slurry phase. The polymerization was conducted under very moderate operational conditions using the Ziegler-Natta catalyst system. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and TGA analysis and morphological studies (SEM and TEM) revealed the presence of a high density of polyethylene on the surface of SiC and alumina powders. The amount of polymer was controlled by the polymerization reaction time. Most parts of particles were coated by a thin layer of polyethylene and polymer. The porous SiC ceramics, which were fabricated by these treated particles showed higher mechanical and physical properties compared to the samples made without any treatment. The relative intensity of mullite was higher compared to the samples prepared by the traditional process. The effects of the sintering temperature, forming pressure and polymer content were also studied on the physical and mechanical properties of the final product. In the last phase of this research work, the focus of the investigation was to take advantage of both the sol-gel processing and in-situ polymerization method to develop a new process to manufacture mullite-bonded porous SiC ceramic with enhanced mechanical and physical properties. Therefore, first the Si

  9. Effect of Powder-Suspended Dielectric on the EDM Characteristics of Inconel 625

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talla, Gangadharudu; Gangopadhyay, S.; Biswas, C. K.

    2016-02-01

    The current work attempts to establish the criteria for powder material selection by investigating the influence of various powder-suspended dielectrics and machining parameters on various EDM characteristics of Inconel 625 (a nickel-based super alloy) which is nowadays regularly used in aerospace, chemical, and marine industries. The powders include aluminum (Al), graphite, and silicon (Si) that have significant variation in their thermo-physical characteristics. Results showed that powder properties like electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, density, and hardness play a significant role in changing the machining performance and the quality of the machined surface. Among the three powders, highest material removal rate was observed for graphite powder due to its high electrical and thermal conductivities. Best surface finish and least radial overcut (ROC) were attained using Si powder. Maximum microhardness was found for Si due to its low thermal conductivity and high hardness. It is followed by graphite and aluminum powders. Addition of powder to the dielectric has increased the crater diameter due to expansion of plasma channel. Powder-mixed EDM (PMEDM) was also effective in lowering the density of surface cracks with least number of cracks obtained with graphite powder. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated possible formation of metal carbides along with grain growth phenomenon of Inconel 625 after PMEDM.

  10. Potential of advanced ceramics elaborated from laser-synthetized powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lihrmann, J.M.; Luce, M.; Croix, O.; Cauchetier, M.

    1987-01-01

    Use of ultrafine powders obtained by pyrolysis of gaseous reagents with a CO 2 laser gives high tech ceramics. Initiated by Haggerty from MIT, this new method is in use at the CEA since 1985. Conditions for synthesis with a 1KW laser are presented. Lab production is nearly 40g/hr of SiC with yields of 99%. Methods for powder treatment and results of mechanical and chemical properties of the compact materials obtained are given [fr

  11. Method for forming biaxially textured articles by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2002-01-01

    A method of preparing a biaxially textured alloy article comprises the steps of preparing a mixture comprising Ni powder and at least one powder selected from the group consisting of Cr, W, V, Mo, Cu, Al, Ce, YSZ, Y, Rare Earths, (RE), MgO, CeO.sub.2, and Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; compacting the mixture, followed by heat treating and rapidly recrystallizing to produce a biaxial texture on the article. In some embodiments the alloy article further comprises electromagnetic or electro-optical devices and possesses superconducting properties.

  12. Measurement of loose powder density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, S.; Ali, A.; Haider, A.; Farooque, M.

    2011-01-01

    Powder metallurgy is a conventional technique for making engineering articles from powders. Main objective is to produce final products with the highest possible uniform density, which depends on the initial loose powder characteristics. Producing, handling, characterizing and compacting materials in loose powder form are part of the manufacturing processes. Density of loose metallic or ceramic powder is an important parameter for die design. Loose powder density is required for calculating the exact mass of powder to fill the die cavity for producing intended green density of the powder compact. To fulfill this requirement of powder metallurgical processing, a loose powder density meter as per ASTM standards is designed and fabricated for measurement of density. The density of free flowing metallic powders can be determined using Hall flow meter funnel and density cup of 25 cm/sup 3/ volume. Density of metal powders like cobalt, manganese, spherical bronze and pure iron is measured and results are obtained with 99.9% accuracy. (author)

  13. Study of non-isothermal crystallization of Eu{sup 3+} doped Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} powders through the application of various macrokinetic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janković, Bojan, E-mail: bojanjan@ffh.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, Department of the Dynamics and Structure of Matter, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, P.O. Box 137, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Marinović-Cincović, Milena; Dramićanin, Miroslav D. [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Mike Petrovića Alasa 12-14, P.O. Box 552, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-02-25

    Highlights: • Europium (Eu{sup 3+}) doped zinc silicate powders. • Sol–gel method. • Stochastic geometric and semi-empirical models. • The interface controlled growth with an increasing nucleation rate. • The improved Nakamura’s model. -- Abstract: Various macrokinetic models (Avrami, Evans, Tobin, Malkin, Dietz, Nakamura, and modified first-order models) were applied to describe non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of Eu{sup 3+} doped zinc silicate powders prepared via the sol–gel method. Analysis of the experimental data was carried out using a direct-fitting method such that the experimental data were fitted directly to each macrokinetic model using a non-linear multivariable regression computation procedure. Comparison of kinetic parameters obtained from the non-linear computation approach to those obtained from the traditional analytical procedure suggested that applicability and reliability of the direct-fitting method were satisfactory. Judging from the quality of the fit, only Nakamura’s model properly describe the temperature dependence of the relative crystallinity, which resulted in the total rejection of the Tobin model in describing the crystallization. With detailed kinetic examination it was concluded that crystallization mechanism of α-willemite doped samples combusted in a microwave oven (MW) follows interface controlled growth with an increasing nucleation rate, attached with geometric process-rate function obeying the improved (corrected) Nakamura’s model. It was found that the presence of non integer Avrami exponent values may indicate that crystallization occurs by more than one reaction mechanism, including the occurrence of autocatalytic behavior of a given system.

  14. Effect of additives on the orientation of magnetic Sr-ferrite powders in powder injection molded compacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, T.S. [Sangju National Unviersity, Sangju (Korea); Jeung, W.Y. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    The effect of additives on the orientation of magnetic Sr-ferrite powders has been studied during powder injection molding under applied magnetic field for fabricating multi=pole anisotropic sintered Sr-ferrite magnets. The orientation of the Sr-ferrite powders depends sensitively on the fluidity of powder-binder mixture, related to the binder additives and the injection molding temperature, and the magnetic field intensity. The orientation of Sr-ferrite powders is good for the compacts with stearic acid added in the binder system of paraffin wax/ carnauba wax/HDPE, but it is poor of the compacts with silane coupling agent added. The orientation of sr-ferrites higher than 80% is achieved at the following useful conditions; apparent viscosity lower than 2500 poise in 1000 sec {sup -1} shear rate and applied magnetic field higher than 4 kOe. (author). 15 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  15. Properties of magnetic nickel/porous-silicon composite powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Nakamura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic and photoluminescence (PL properties of nickel/porous-silicon (Ni/PSi composite powders are investigated. Ni/PSi composite powders are prepared by stain etching of Si powder in a HF/HNO3 solution followed by electroless plating of Ni nanoparticles on the stain-etched PSi powder in a NiCl2 solution. The Ni/PSi powders exhibit hydrophillicity, superparamagnetism caused by the deposited Ni nanoparticles, and orange-red PL owing to the nanostructured PSi surface. The degree of magnetization decreases with increasing Ni plating time, indicating its dependence on the size of the Ni nanoparticles. The Ni/PSi composite powders also show a stronger magnetization as compared to that of the Ni-particle-plated Si powder. The stronger magnetization results from the larger surface area of PSi. The PL intensity, peak wavelength, and lifetime of Ni/PSi are strongly dependent on the NiCl2 concentration. This dependence is due to the different thickness of the oxide overlayer on the PSi surface formed during the Ni plating process. The existence of the oxide overlayer also results in a small change in the PL intensity against excitation time.

  16. WxC-β-SiC Nanocomposite Catalysts Used in Aqueous Phase Hydrogenation of Furfural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Rogowski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of the addition of tungsten on the structure, phase composition, textural properties and activities of β-SiC-based catalysts in the aqueous phase hydrogenation of furfural. Carbothermal reduction of SiO2 in the presence of WO3 at 1550 °C in argon resulted in the formation of WxC-β-SiC nanocomposite powders with significant variations in particle morphology and content of WxC-tipped β-SiC nano-whiskers, as revealed by TEM and SEM-EDS. The specific surface area (SSA of the nanocomposite strongly depended on the amount of tungsten and had a notable impact on its catalytic properties for the production of furfuryl alcohol (FA and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA. Nanocomposite WxC-β-SiC catalysts with 10 wt % W in the starting mixture had the highest SSA and the smallest WxC crystallites. Some 10 wt % W nanocomposite catalysts demonstrated up to 90% yield of THFA, in particular in the reduction of furfural derived from biomass, although the reproducible performance of such catalysts has yet to be achieved.

  17. WxC-β-SiC Nanocomposite Catalysts Used in Aqueous Phase Hydrogenation of Furfural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, Jacek; Andrzejczuk, Mariusz; Berlowska, Joanna; Binczarski, Michal; Kregiel, Dorota; Kubiak, Andrzej; Modelska, Magdalena; Szubiakiewicz, Elzbieta; Stanishevsky, Andrei; Tomaszewska, Jolanta; Witonska, Izabela Alina

    2017-11-22

    This study investigates the effects of the addition of tungsten on the structure, phase composition, textural properties and activities of β-SiC-based catalysts in the aqueous phase hydrogenation of furfural. Carbothermal reduction of SiO₂ in the presence of WO₃ at 1550 °C in argon resulted in the formation of W x C-β-SiC nanocomposite powders with significant variations in particle morphology and content of W x C-tipped β-SiC nano-whiskers, as revealed by TEM and SEM-EDS. The specific surface area (SSA) of the nanocomposite strongly depended on the amount of tungsten and had a notable impact on its catalytic properties for the production of furfuryl alcohol (FA) and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA). Nanocomposite W x C-β-SiC catalysts with 10 wt % W in the starting mixture had the highest SSA and the smallest W x C crystallites. Some 10 wt % W nanocomposite catalysts demonstrated up to 90% yield of THFA, in particular in the reduction of furfural derived from biomass, although the reproducible performance of such catalysts has yet to be achieved.

  18. Water-powder mixtures at the onset of flowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunger, M.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Al-Mattarneh, H.; Mustapha, K.N.; Nuruddin, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    The knowledge of water demands of the manifold concrete ingredients is of vital interest for the design of concrete mixes. Physical properties like workability or strength and durability in hardened state are controlled by the total water content. Water demand is defined as the volumetric ratio of

  19. POWDER COAT APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses an investigation of critical factors that affect the use of powder coatings on the environment, cost, quality, and production. The investigation involved a small business representative working with the National Defense Center for Environmental Excellence (ND...

  20. OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical product bulletin: aka OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER, SPILL GREEN LS, this miscellaneous oil spill control agent used in cleanups initially behaves like a synthetic sorbent, then as a solidifier as the molecular microencapsulating process occurs.

  1. Treatment of refractory powders by a novel, high enthalpy dc plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershin, L.; Mitrasinovic, A.; Mostaghimi, J.

    2013-06-01

    Thermophysical properties of CO2-CH4 mixtures at high temperatures are very attractive for materials processing. In comparison with argon, at the same temperature, such a mixture possesses much higher enthalpy and higher thermal conductivity. At high temperatures, CO2-CH4 mixture has a complex composition with strong presence of CO which, in the case of powder treatment, could reduce oxidation. In this work, a dc plasma torch with graphite cathode was used to study the effect of plasma gas composition on spheroidization of tungsten carbide and alumina powders. Two different gas compositions were used to generate the plasma while the torch current was kept at 300 A. Various techniques were employed to assess the average concentration of carbides and oxides and the final shape of the treated powders. Process parameters such as input power and plasma gas composition allow controlling the degree of powder oxidation and spheroidization of high melting point ceramic powders.

  2. Treatment of refractory powders by a novel, high enthalpy dc plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershin, L; Mitrasinovic, A; Mostaghimi, J

    2013-01-01

    Thermophysical properties of CO 2 –CH 4 mixtures at high temperatures are very attractive for materials processing. In comparison with argon, at the same temperature, such a mixture possesses much higher enthalpy and higher thermal conductivity. At high temperatures, CO 2 –CH 4 mixture has a complex composition with strong presence of CO which, in the case of powder treatment, could reduce oxidation. In this work, a dc plasma torch with graphite cathode was used to study the effect of plasma gas composition on spheroidization of tungsten carbide and alumina powders. Two different gas compositions were used to generate the plasma while the torch current was kept at 300 A. Various techniques were employed to assess the average concentration of carbides and oxides and the final shape of the treated powders. Process parameters such as input power and plasma gas composition allow controlling the degree of powder oxidation and spheroidization of high melting point ceramic powders. (paper)

  3. Effect of Ti and Si interlayer materials on the joining of SiC ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yang Il; Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Hyun Gil; Park, Dong Jun; Park, Jeong Yong; Kim, Weon Ju [LWR Fuel Technology Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    SiC-based ceramic composites are currently being considered for use in fuel cladding tubes in light-water reactors. The joining of SiC ceramics in a hermetic seal is required for the development of ceramic-based fuel cladding tubes. In this study, SiC monoliths were diffusion bonded using a Ti foil interlayer and additional Si powder. In the joining process, a very low uniaxial pressure of ∼0.1 MPa was applied, so the process is applicable for joining thin-walled long tubes. The joining strength depended strongly on the type of SiC material. Reaction-bonded SiC (RB-SiC) showed a higher joining strength than sintered SiC because the diffusion reaction of Si was promoted in the former. The joining strength of sintered SiC was increased by the addition of Si at the Ti interlayer to play the role of the free Si in RB-SiC. The maximum joint strength obtained under torsional stress was ∼100 MPa. The joint interface consisted of TiSi{sub 2}, Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2}, and SiC phases formed by a diffusion reaction of Ti and Si.

  4. Atomization of U3Si2/U3Si for research reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuk, Il Hiun

    2004-01-01

    Instead of comminuting, U 3 Si 2 /U 3 Si powders are produced by atomizating directly from the molten alloys. Many benefits are introduced by applying the atomization technique: reduction of the process, homogeneous alloy composition within a particle and between particles, increase of the thermal conductivity and decrease of the chemical reactivity with aluminium due to particle's spherical shape. (author)

  5. Characterization of fuel miniplates fabricated with U(Mo) particles dispersed in Al-Si matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arico, S F; Mirandou, M I; Balart, S N; Fabro, J O

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 ECRI facility (Depto. ECRI, GCCN, CNEA) restarted the development for the fabrication of dispersion miniplates fuel elements in Al-Si matrix. This miniplates are fabricated with atomized U-7wt%Mo particles dispersed in a matrix formed by a mixture of pure Al and pure Si powders. The first results for an Al-4wt%Si matrix were presented at the AATN 2011 Annual Meeting. In this work, new results from the microstructural characterization of the meat in Al- 2wt%Si and pure Al miniplates are presented and compared with the previous ones. It is the intention to study the influence of the fabrication parameters as well as different Si concentration in the matrix, on the formation and characteristics of the interaction layer formed between the particles and the matrix at the end of the fabrication process. According to the results presented in this work an improvement can be observed on miniplates with Al-Si matrix respect to the one with pure Al. On the miniplates with Al- Si matrix, almost 100 % of the U(Mo) particles presented, at least in some fraction of its surface, an interaction layer composed by phases that contain Si. Moreover its morphological characteristics are independent of the crystallographic state of the U(Mo) particles. However, the oxide layer formed on the U(Mo) during the hot rolling acts as a barrier to the formation of the interaction layer. As a consequence, it is then mandatory to introduce some changes on the fabrication parameters to avoid, or at least minimize, this oxide layer (author)

  6. Irradiation effect on Nite-SiC/SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinoki, T.; Choi, Y.B.; Kohyama, A.; Ozawa, K.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Silicon carbide (SiC) and SiC composites are significantly attractive materials for nuclear application in particular due to exceptional low radioactivity, excellent high temperature mechanical properties and chemical stability. Despite of the excellent potential of SiC/SiC composites, the prospect of industrialization has not been clear mainly due to the low productivity and the high material cost. Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) method can produce the excellent SiC/SiC composites with highly crystalline and excellent mechanical properties. It has been reported that the high purity SiC/SiC composites reinforced with highly crystalline fibers and fabricated by CVI method is very stable to neutron irradiation. However the production cost is high and it is difficult to fabricate thick and dense composites by CVI method. The novel processing called Nano-powder Infiltration and Transient Eutectic Phase (NITE) Processing has been developed based on the liquid phase sintering (LPS) process modification. The NITE processing can achieve both the excellent material quality and the low processing cost. The productivity of the processing is also excellent, and various kinds of shape and size of SiC/SiC composites can be produced by the NITE processing. The NITE processing can form highly crystalline matrix, which is requirement for nuclear application. The objective of this work is to understand irradiation effect of the NITESiC/SiC composites. The SiC/SiC composites used were reinforced with high purity SiC fibers, Tyranno TM SA and fabricated by the NITE method. The NITE-SiC/SiC composite bars and reference monolithic SiC bars fabricated by CVI and NITE were irradiated at up to 1.0 dpa and 600-1000 deg. C at JMTR, Japan. Mechanical properties of non-irradiated and irradiated NITESiC/ SiC composites bars were evaluated by tensile tests. Monolithic SiC bars were evaluated by flexural tests. The fracture surface was examined by SEM. Ultimate

  7. A novel yellow-emitting SrAlSi4N7:Ce3+ phosphor for solid state lighting: Synthesis, electronic structure and photoluminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, Jian; Xie, Rong-Jun; Funahashi, Shiro; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Takeda, Takashi; Suehiro, Takayuki; Hirosaki, Naoto; Li, Yuan-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Ce 3+ -doped and Ce 3+ /Li + -codoped SrAlSi 4 N 7 phosphors were synthesized by gas pressure sintering of powder mixtures of Sr 3 N 2 , AlN, α-Si 3 N 4 , CeN and Li 3 N. The phase purity, electronic crystal structure, photoluminescence properties of SrAlSi 4 N 7 :Ce 3+ (Ce 3+ /Li + ) were investigated in this work. The band structure calculated by the DMol 3 code shows that SrAlSi 4 N 7 has a direct band gap of 3.87 eV. The single crystal analysis of Ce 3+ -doped SrAlSi 4 N 7 indicates a disordered Si/Al distribution and nitrogen vacnacy defects. SrAlSi 4 N 7 was identified as a major phase of the fired powders, and Sr 5 Al 5 Si 21 N 35 O 2 and AlN as minor phases. Both Ce 3+ and Ce 3+ /Li + doped SrAlSi 4 N 7 phosphors can be efficiently excited by near-UV or blue light and show a broadband yellow emission peaking around 565 nm. A highest external quantum efficiency of 38.3% under the 450 nm excitation was observed for the Ce 3+ /Li + -doped SrAlSi 4 N 7 (5 mol%). A white light LED lamp with color temperature of 6300 K and color rendering index of Ra=78 was achieved by combining Sr 0.97 Al 1.03 Si 3.997 N/94/maccounttest14=t0005 1 8193 7 :Ce 3+ 0.03 with a commercial blue InGaN chip. It indicates that SrAlSi 4 N 7 :Ce 3+ is a promising yellow emitting down-conversion phosphor for white LEDs. - Graphical abstract: One-phosphor converted white light-emitting diode (LED) was fabricated by combining a blue LED chip and a yellow-emitting SrAlSi4N7:Ce 3+ phosphor (see inset), which has the color rendering index of 78 and color temperature of 6300 K. - Highlights: • We reported a new yellow nitride phosphor suitable for solid state lighting. • We solved the crystal structure and evidenced a disordered Si/Al distribution. • We fabricated a high color rendering white LEDs by using a single SrAlSi4N7:Ce

  8. Characteristics of Inconel Powders for Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quy Bau Nguyen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the flow characteristics and behaviors of virgin and recycled Inconel powder for powder-bed additive manufacturing (AM were studied using different powder characterization techniques. The results revealed that the particle size distribution (PSD for the selective laser melting (SLM process is typically in the range from 15 μm to 63 μm. The flow rate of virgin Inconel powder is around 28 s·(50 g−1. In addition, the packing density was found to be 60%. The rheological test results indicate that the virgin powder has reasonably good flowability compared with the recycled powder. The inter-relation between the powder characteristics is discussed herein. A propeller was successfully printed using the powder. The results suggest that Inconel powder is suitable for AM and can be a good reference for researchers who attempt to produce AM powders.

  9. TiC/Ti3SiC2复合材料的制备及其性能研究%Preparation and properties of TiC/Ti3SiC2 composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾换; 尹洪峰; 袁蝴蝶; 杨祎诺

    2012-01-01

    以粉末Ti,Si,TiC和炭黑为原料,采用反应热压烧结法制备TiC/Ti3SiC2复合材料.借助XRD和SEM研究TiC含量对TiC/Ti3SiC2复合材料相组成、显微结构及力学特性的影响.结果表明:通过热压烧结可以得到致密度较高的TiC/Ti3SiC2复合材料;引入TiC可以促进Ti3SiC2的生成,当引入TiC的质量分数达30%,TiC/Ti3SiC2复合材料的弯曲强度和断裂韧性分别为406.9 MPa,3.7 MPa·m1/2;复合材料中Ti3SiC2相以穿晶断裂为主,TiC晶粒易产生拔出.%TiC/Ti3SiC2 composites were fabricated by reactive hot pressing sintering method using the mixture powder of Ti, Si, C and TiC as raw material. The effect of TiC content on phase composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of TiC/Ti3SiC2 composites was investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that dense TiC/ Ti3SiC2 composites can be obtained by hot pressing. The addition of TiC into composites can enhance the formation of TisSiC2. When the additional content of TiC reaches 30% (mass fraction) , the flexural strength and fracture toughness of TiC/Ti3SiC2 composite are 406.9 MPa and 3.7 MPa·m-2, respectively. Ti3SiC2 phase displays intergranular fracture and TiC grain pulls out from Ti3SiC2 matrix when TiC/Ti3SiC2 composite fractures.

  10. Fabrication and Analysis of the Wear Properties of Hot-Pressed Al-Si/SiCp + Al-Si-Cu-Mg Metal Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jeongil; Oak, Jeong-Jung; Park, Yong Ho

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize microstructures and mechanical properties of aluminum metal matrix composites (MMC's) prepared by powder metallurgy method. Consolidation of mixed powder with gas atomized Al-Si/SiCp powder and Al-14Si-2.5Cu-0.5Mg powder by hot pressing was classified according to sintering temperature and sintering time. Sintering condition was optimized using tensile properties of sintered specimens. Ultimate tensile strength of the optimized sintered specimen was 228 MPa with an elongation of 5.3% in longitudinal direction. In addition, wear properties and behaviors of the sintered aluminum-based MMC's were analyzed in accordance with vertical load and linear speed. As the linear speed and vertical load of the wear increased, change of the wear behavior occurred in order of oxidation of Al-Si matrix, formation of C-rich layer, Fe-alloying to matrix, and melting of the specimen

  11. Control of the Nano-Particle Weight Ratio in Stainless Steel Micro and Nano Powders by Radio Frequency Plasma Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Yeol Yang; Youngja Kim; Min Young Hur; Hae June Lee; Yong-Jin Kim; Tae-Soo Lim; Ki-Bong Kim; Sangsun Yang

    2015-01-01

    This study describes how to make stainless steel hybrid micro-nano-powders (a mixture of micro-powder and nano-powder) using an in situ one-step process via radio frequency (RF) thermal plasma treatment. Nano-particles attached to micro-powders were successfully prepared by RF thermal plasma treatment of stainless steel powder with an average size of 35 μm. The ratio of nano-powders is estimated with a two-dimensional fluid simulation that calculates the temperature profile influencing the r...

  12. Study on Quality Aggregate Construction Powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myat Ko; Kyaw Naing; Thazin Lwin; Khin Mar Tun

    2008-03-01

    This research work deals with a view to promote cement replacement materials i-e aggregate construction powder, also known as building powder or construction powder . It has been used as lime substituent in construction work in Myanmar since 1990's. It is mixed with other construction materials such as cement, sand, etc. and used in plastering, tiling, arranging bricks and smoothing the face of the buildings.This work also deals with some aspects in physical properties of four different aggregate construction powder samples such as Moe Hein, Man Thiri, Shwe Taung and Kyauk Sue. In addition, these four different samples were characterized by using spectroscopic methods such as ED-XRF, AAS, FT-IR and XRD. In support of the finding by the analytical assays of Moe Hein aggregate construction powder, it indicated the percent composition of the presence of SiO2 12.13%, Al2O3 7.40%, Fe2O3 0.94%, CaO 41.00%,MgO 1.50% total sulphur 1.15%, chloride 1.49%, carbonate 43.63% and sulphate 3.44%. The analytical assays of Sin Min cement, Kyant cement, brick powder and pozzolan were also carried out in this research work. The mixing between various ratios of Moe Hein and Kyant cement as well as Sin Min II cement were done and their mechanical strengths such as setting time, tensile strength and compressive strength of each sample were studied. The quality of mixing ratio 50:50 of Moe Hein and Kyant cement was found to be comparable to the ASTM standard type II Protland cement which is for general use.

  13. Preparation of copper and silicon/copper powders by a gas ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    aCentre for Materials Research, Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, ... Copper powder; Si/Cu composite particle; gas evaporation–condensation method; characteriza- tion. .... from the liquid metal surface, the mixed vapour of copper.

  14. Multifunctional hollow superhydrophobic SiO2 microspheres with robust and self-cleaning and separation of oil/water emulsions properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Wen, Qiuying; Peng, Yubing; Guo, Zhiguang

    2017-05-15

    Superhydrophobic materials have drawn great attention due to its' remarkable non-wetting properties and applications in many fields. In this paper, we synthesize a hollow superhydrophobic SiO 2 powder by typical template method and self-assembly functionalization. Robustness of many superhydrophobic surfaces has become the development bottleneck for industrial applications. Aiming at this problem, the adhesive epoxy resin is specially taken to use as the binding layer between superhydrophobic SiO 2 powder and substrates to create robust superhydrophobic coating. The mechanical durability of the obtained superhydrophobic coating is evaluated by a cyclic sandpaper abrasion. Also, the chemical stability of this superhydrophobic coating is assessed by exposuring it to different pH conditions and UV irradiation, respectively. Significantly, because of the special structure and superhydrophobicity/superoleophilicity of the hollow microspheres, these hollow superhydrophobic SiO 2 powders manifest great oil-adsorbing capacity, which thus can be used to separate oil/water mixtures and remove oil from oil-in-water emulsions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of Ni ferrites powders prepared by plasma arc discharge process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gheisari, Kh., E-mail: khgheisari@scu.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farbod, M. [Physics Department, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to synthesize a single-phase spinel structure from a mixture of zinc, iron and nickel powders by plasma arc discharge method. A mixture of zinc, iron and nickel powders with the appropriate molar ratio was prepared and formed into a cylindrical shape. The synthesis process was performed in air, oxygen and argon atmospheres with the applied arc current of 400 A and pressure of 1 atm. After establishing an arc between the electrodes, the produced powders were collected and their structure and magnetic properties were examined by XRD and VSM, respectively. ZnO as an impurity was appeared in the as-produced powders owing to the high reactivity of zinc atoms, preventing the formation of Ni–Zn ferrite. A pure spinel structure with the highest saturation magnetization (43.8 emu/g) was observed as zinc powders removed completely from the initial mixture. Morphological evaluations using field emission scanning electron microscopy showed that the mean size of fabricated nanoparticles was in the range 100–200 nm and was dependent on the production conditions. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline Ni ferrite powders are prepared by plasma arc discharge process. • The mean particle size of the as-synthesized ceramic powders is about 100 nm. • The highest saturation magnetization is observed as zinc powders removed completely from the initial mixture.

  16. Effect of powder compaction on radiation-thermal synthesis of lithium-titanium ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surzhikov, A. P.; Lysenko, E. N.; Vlasov, V. A.; Malyshev, A. V.; Korobeynikov, M. V.; Mikhailenko, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Effect of powder compaction on the efficiency of thermal and radiation-thermal synthesis of lithium-substituted ferrites was investigated by X-Ray diffraction and specific magnetization analysis. It was shown that the radiation-thermal heating of compacted powder reagents mixture leads to an increase in efficiency of lithium-titanium ferrites synthesis.

  17. Mn"4"+-activated BaSiF_6 red phosphor: Hydrothermal synthesis and dependence of its luminescent properties on reaction conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Qiang; Zhou, Yayun; Lu, Fengqi; Liu, Yong; Wang, Qin; Luo, Lijun; Wang, Zhengliang

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a series of BaSiF_6:Mn"4"+ red phosphors were synthesized through a hydrothermal route. The crystal structure and morphology were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) with Rietveld refinement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) in detail. The influence of reaction conditions, including the concentration of KMnO_4 and HF, reaction temperature and time, on the photoluminescence properties were investigated systematically. It can emit intense red light (∼636 nm) under blue light (∼458 nm) illumination. The white LED device based on YAG:Ce–BaSiF_6:Mn"4"+ mixture shows warm white light with low color temperature and high correlated color index, which reveals its potential application in WLED. - Highlights: • The crystal structure of BaSiF_6:Mn"4"+ has been verified using Rietveld refinement. • The optimum hydrothermal reaction condition for BaSiF_6:Mn"4"+ has been confirmed. • The white LED based on YAG:Ce–BaSiF_6:Mn"4"+ mixture presents warmer white light than that only with YAG:Ce.

  18. Mn{sup 4+}-activated BaSiF{sub 6} red phosphor: Hydrothermal synthesis and dependence of its luminescent properties on reaction conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qiang; Zhou, Yayun [Key Laboratory of Comprehensive Utilization of Mineral Resources in Ethnic Regions, Joint Research Centre for International Cross-border Ethnic Regions Biomass Clean Utilization in Yunnan, School of Chemistry & Environment, Yunnan Minzu University, Kunming, 650500 (China); Lu, Fengqi [MOE Key Laboratory of New Processing Technology for Nonferrous Metals and Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, 541004 (China); Liu, Yong [Key Laboratory of Comprehensive Utilization of Mineral Resources in Ethnic Regions, Joint Research Centre for International Cross-border Ethnic Regions Biomass Clean Utilization in Yunnan, School of Chemistry & Environment, Yunnan Minzu University, Kunming, 650500 (China); Wang, Qin [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan, 650500 (China); Luo, Lijun [Key Laboratory of Comprehensive Utilization of Mineral Resources in Ethnic Regions, Joint Research Centre for International Cross-border Ethnic Regions Biomass Clean Utilization in Yunnan, School of Chemistry & Environment, Yunnan Minzu University, Kunming, 650500 (China); Wang, Zhengliang, E-mail: wangzhengliang@foxmail.com [Key Laboratory of Comprehensive Utilization of Mineral Resources in Ethnic Regions, Joint Research Centre for International Cross-border Ethnic Regions Biomass Clean Utilization in Yunnan, School of Chemistry & Environment, Yunnan Minzu University, Kunming, 650500 (China)

    2016-02-15

    In this work, a series of BaSiF{sub 6}:Mn{sup 4+} red phosphors were synthesized through a hydrothermal route. The crystal structure and morphology were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) with Rietveld refinement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) in detail. The influence of reaction conditions, including the concentration of KMnO{sub 4} and HF, reaction temperature and time, on the photoluminescence properties were investigated systematically. It can emit intense red light (∼636 nm) under blue light (∼458 nm) illumination. The white LED device based on YAG:Ce–BaSiF{sub 6}:Mn{sup 4+} mixture shows warm white light with low color temperature and high correlated color index, which reveals its potential application in WLED. - Highlights: • The crystal structure of BaSiF{sub 6}:Mn{sup 4+} has been verified using Rietveld refinement. • The optimum hydrothermal reaction condition for BaSiF{sub 6}:Mn{sup 4+} has been confirmed. • The white LED based on YAG:Ce–BaSiF{sub 6}:Mn{sup 4+} mixture presents warmer white light than that only with YAG:Ce.

  19. Study of the main parameters involved in carbothermal reduction reaction of silica aiming to obtain silicon nitride powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, J.C. da; Greca, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of main parameters involved in the method of silicon nitride attainment by carbothermal reduction of silica followed by nitridation were studied in isothermal experiments of fine powder mixtures of silica and graphite in a nitrogen gas flow. The time, temperature, rate C/SiO 2 and flow of nitrogen were varied since they are the main parameters involved in this kind of reaction. The products of reaction were analysed by X-ray diffraction to identify the crystalline phases and as a result was obtained the nucleation of silicon nitride phase. Meanwhile, corroborating prior results, we verified to be difficult the progress of the reaction and the inhibition of formation of silicon carbide phase, the last one being associated to the formation of silicon nitride phase due to thermodynamic matters [pt

  20. Powder agglomeration in a microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, James D.

    1994-01-01

    This is the final report for NASA Grant NAG3-755 entitled 'Powder Agglomeration in a Microgravity Environment.' The research program included both two types of numerical models and two types of experiments. The numerical modeling included the use of Monte Carlo type simulations of agglomerate growth including hydrodynamic screening and molecular dynamics type simulations of the rearrangement of particles within an agglomerate under a gravitational field. Experiments included direct observation of the agglomeration of submicron alumina and indirect observation, using small angle light scattering, of the agglomeration of colloidal silica and aluminum monohydroxide. In the former class of experiments, the powders were constrained to move on a two-dimensional surface oriented to minimize the effect of gravity. In the latter, some experiments involved mixture of suspensions containing particles of opposite charge which resulted in agglomeration on a very short time scale relative to settling under gravity.

  1. Design of the ME-I powder mixer. Report of the design and construction of the powder mixer, according to the safety requisites of the pellets fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano H, E.

    1991-03-01

    In order to fulfill the requirements of preparation of powder of UO 2 ; according to procedure P-M-PP-01, rev. 0, for the process of production of pellets, it was designed and manufactured a powders mixer to incorporate the lubricant one (zinc stearate) to the powder of UO 2 . This equipment allows to mix the powder of UO 2 evenly with the one zinc stearate, without forming considerable quantities of fine of UO 2 , besides a sure control for the operators of the process and an easy access to the mixer to inspect the mixture. (Author)

  2. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  3. Obtention of the TiFe compound by high-energy milling of Ti+Fe and TiH{sub 2}+Fe powder mixtures; Obtencao do composto TiFe a partir da moagem de alta energia de misturas Ti+Fe e TiH{sub 2}+Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcao, R.B.; Dammann, E.D.C.C.; Rocha, C.J.; Leal Neto, R.M., E-mail: railson.falcao@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Materiais. Lab. de Intermetalicos

    2010-07-01

    In this work TiFe compound was obtained by two process routes involving high-energy ball milling: mechanical alloying from Ti and Fe powders (route 1) and mechanical milling from TiH{sub 2} and Fe powders, both followed by an annealing heat treatment. Shaker and planetary ball mills were utilized for times varying from 1-25 hours. Milled and annealed powders were characterized by SEM and X-ray diffraction analyses. TiFe compound was formed in both routes. A strong powder adherence in the milling vial and balls occurred with route 1 in both mills. Powder adherence was significantly reduced by using TiH{sub 2} (route 2) mainly in the planetary mill, in spite of TiFe formation has only occurred after the annealing treatment. (author)

  4. [Theoretical modeling and experimental research on direct compaction characteristics of multi-component pharmaceutical powders based on the Kawakita equation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Guo-Ning; Chen, Lan; Li, Bao-Guo

    2014-04-01

    Base on the Kawakita powder compression equation, a general theoretical model for predicting the compression characteristics of multi-components pharmaceutical powders with different mass ratios was developed. The uniaxial flat-face compression tests of powder lactose, starch and microcrystalline cellulose were carried out, separately. Therefore, the Kawakita equation parameters of the powder materials were obtained. The uniaxial flat-face compression tests of the powder mixtures of lactose, starch, microcrystalline cellulose and sodium stearyl fumarate with five mass ratios were conducted, through which, the correlation between mixture density and loading pressure and the Kawakita equation curves were obtained. Finally, the theoretical prediction values were compared with experimental results. The analysis showed that the errors in predicting mixture densities were less than 5.0% and the errors of Kawakita vertical coordinate were within 4.6%, which indicated that the theoretical model could be used to predict the direct compaction characteristics of multi-component pharmaceutical powders.

  5. Weighing fluidized powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomitis, J.T.; Larson, R.I.

    1980-01-01

    Fluidized powder is discharged from a fluidizing vessel into a container. Accurate metering is achieved by opening and closing the valve to discharge the powder in a series of short-duration periods until a predetermined weight is measured by a load cell. The duration of the discharge period may be increased in inverse proportion to the amount of powder in the vessel. Preferably the container is weighed between the discharge periods to prevent fluctuations resulting from dynamic effects. The gas discharged into the container causes the pressures in the vessel and container to equalize thereby decreasing the rate of discharge and increasing the accuracy of metering as the weight reaches the predetermined value. (author)

  6. Baking Powder Wars

    OpenAIRE

    Civitello, Linda

    2017-01-01

    How did a mid-nineteenth century American invention, baking powder, replace yeast as a leavening agent and create a culinary revolution as profound as the use of yeast thousands of years ago?The approach was two-pronged and gendered: business archives, U.S. government records and lawsuits revealed how baking powder was created, marketed, and regulated. Women’s diaries and cookbooks—personal, corporate, community, ethnic—from the eighteenth century to internet blogs showed the use women made o...

  7. Borax as a lubricant in powder metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Geovanny Ariza-Suarez

    2014-12-01

    were compacted at 700 MPa in a uniaxial press of 15 tons. DSC-TGA analysis of the mixture with borax was realized. The specimens were sintered in a plasma reactor at 1000 for 30 minutes, with a combined atmosphere of hydrogen and argon. Microhardness and density of the sintered samples was haracterized. XRD analysis was realized to detect possible compounds formation by interaction of borax. This paper shows that borax can be used as a lubricant in powder metallurgy.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical performance of core/shell structured carbon coated silicon powders for lithium ion battery negative electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğrul Çetinkaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface of nano silicon powders were coated with amorphous carbon by pyrolysis of polyacronitrile (PAN polymer. Microstructural characterization of amorphous carbon coated silicon powders (Si-C were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thickness of carbon coating is defined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Elemental analyses of Si-C powders were performed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. Structural and phase characterization of Si-C composite powders were investigated using X-ray diffractometer (XRD and Raman spectroscopy. Produced Si-C powders were prepared as an electrode on the copper current collector and electrochemical tests were carried out using CR2016 button cells at 200 mA/g constant current density. According to electrochemical test results, carbon coating process enhanced the electrochemical performance by reducing the problems stem from volume change and showed 770 mAh/g discharge capacity after 30 cycles.

  9. Novel Fe-based nanocrystalline powder cores with excellent magnetic properties produced using gas-atomized powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Liang; Xie, Lei; Liu, Min; Li, Qiang; Dong, Yaqiang; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Xin-Min; Inoue, Akihisa

    2018-04-01

    FeSiBPNbCu nanocrystalline powder cores (NPCs) with excellent magnetic properties were fabricated by cold-compaction of the gas-atomized amorphous powder. Upon annealing at the optimum temperature, the NPCs showed excellent magnetic properties, including high initial permeability of 88, high frequency stability up to 1 MHz with a constant value of 85, low core loss of 265 mW/cm3 at 100 kHz for Bm = 0.05 T, and superior DC-bias permeability of 60% at a bias field of 100 Oe. The excellent magnetic properties of the present NPCs could be attributed to the ultrafine α-Fe(Si) phase precipitated in the amorphous matrix and the use of gas-atomized powder coated with a uniform insulation layer.

  10. 3Y-TZP/Si2N2O composite obtained by pressureless sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Carlos Augusto Xavier

    2006-01-01

    Zirconia 3YTZP presents excellent properties at room temperature. These properties decrease as the temperature increases because high temperature acts negatively over the stress induced transformation toughening in the matrix. The addition of Si 3 N 4 and SiC in a Y-TZP matrix is very interesting because leads to formation of silicon oxynitride and it increases the mechanical properties like toughness and hardness. Certainly the mechanical properties increment is limited by several difficulties which have appeared during processing and heating of these materials. This paper studies the Y-TZP/Si 2 N 2 0 pressureless sintered composite, under different temperatures, showing the behavior of 20 vol %Si 3 N 4 -SiC when added in YTZP matrix and heated under no pressure system. Al 2 O 3 and Y 2 O 3 were used as sintering aids. The mixture was milled and molded by cold isostatic pressure. Samples were heated at 1500 deg, 1600 deg and 17000 deg C x 2h without pressure under atmospheric conditions using Si 3 N 4 bed-powder. Samples were characterized by XRD and density, hardness, toughness, bending strength were measured. The structure of the material was observed in SEMITEM/EPMA to verify the distribution and composition of the materials in the composite and the contact between filler surface and the matrix. The formation of SiON 2 was observed in the sintered material due to reaction between both nitride and carbide with Y - TZP matrix. Furthermore the material showed an increment of both hardness and toughness as temperature increases. The samples presented considerable resistance to oxidation below 1000 deg C. (author)

  11. SGC Tests for Influence of Material Composition on Compaction Characteristic of Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Compaction characteristic of the surface layer asphalt mixture (13-type gradation mixture was studied using Superpave gyratory compactor (SGC simulative compaction tests. Based on analysis of densification curve of gyratory compaction, influence rules of the contents of mineral aggregates of all sizes and asphalt on compaction characteristic of asphalt mixtures were obtained. SGC Tests show that, for the mixture with a bigger content of asphalt, its density increases faster, that there is an optimal amount of fine aggregates for optimal compaction and that an appropriate amount of mineral powder will improve workability of mixtures, but overmuch mineral powder will make mixtures dry and hard. Conclusions based on SGC tests can provide basis for how to adjust material composition for improving compaction performance of asphalt mixtures, and for the designed asphalt mixture, its compaction performance can be predicted through these conclusions, which also contributes to the choice of compaction schemes.

  12. Characterization of ceramic powder compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, K.; Ishimoto, S.; Kubo, T.; Ito, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Hayashi, H.

    1995-01-01

    UO 2 and Al 2 O 3 powder packing structures in cylindrical powder compacts are observed by scanning electron microscopy using polished cross sections of compacts fixed by low viscosity epoxy resin. Hard aggregates which are not destroyed during powder compaction are observed in some of the UO 2 powder compacts. A technique to measure local density in powder compacts is developed based on counting characteristic X-ray intensity by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The local density of the corner portion of the powder compact fabricated by double-acting dry press is higher than that of the inner portion. ((orig.))

  13. Si/C composite lithium-ion battery anodes synthesized using silicon nanoparticles from porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung-Bae; Lee, Kwan-Hee; Jeon, Young-Jun; Lim, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Man

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of Si nanoparticles by ultrasonication processing of porous Si powder and a novel method for preparing a high-capacity Si/C composite using this technique is reported. The porous Si powder is prepared by selectively etching the silicide phase of a Ti 24 Si 76 alloy consisting of Si and silicide phases. The particle size of the nanocrystalline Si is determined by the crystallite size of the Si and silicide phases in the alloy powder. Ultrasonication of the porous Si obtained from the mechanically alloyed Ti 24 Si 76 alloy generates nanocrystalline Si particles of size about 5 nm. Growth of the Si and silicide phases in the alloy is induced by annealing of the mechanically alloyed sample, with a consequent increase in the size of the Si particles obtained after ultrasonication. Application of the ultrasonication process to the fabrication of Si/C composite anode materials generates nanometer-scale Si particles in situ that are distributed in the matrix. Analysis of the phases obtained and evaluation of the distribution of the nanometer-scale Si particles in the composites via XRD/TEM measurements show that the nanometer-scale Si particles are effectively synthesized and uniformly distributed in the carbon matrix, leading to enhanced electrochemical performance of the Si/C composites

  14. Specific features of laser selective sintering of loose powder layers of metal-polymer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolochko, N.K.; Sobolenko, N.V.; Mozzharov, S.E.; Yadrojtsev, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental study was carried out into laser sintering of metal and polymer powder mixtures containing 75 vol.% of nickel base alloy (spherical particles 60-70 μm in diameter) and 25 vol.% of PEP-219 polymer (angular isometric particles 50-100 μm in size). The powder mixture was deposited on a stainless steel substrate and heated by continuous laser beam directed normally to powder layer. Geometrical and structural parameters of single and multilayer sintered products are shown to depend on both laser processing conditions and heat transfer. Some recommendations are given aimed at manufacturing articles of required shape, surface properties and material strength. 6 refs.; 4 figs

  15. Milling uranium silicide powder for dispersion nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, E.; Silva, D.G.; Souza, J.A.B.; Durazzo, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Riella, H.G. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Uranium silicide (U3Si2) is presently considered the best fuel qualified so far in terms of uranium loading and performance. Stability of the U3Si2 fuel with uranium density of 4.8 g/cm3 was confirmed by burnup stability tests performed during the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. This fuel was chosen to compose the first core of the new Brazilian Multipurpose Research Reactor (RMB), planned to be constructed in the next years. This new reactor will consume bigger quantities of U3Si2 powder, when compared with the small consumption of the IEA-R1 research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP, the unique MTR type research reactor operating in the country. At the present time, the milling operation of U3Si2 ingots is made manually. In order to increase the powder production capacity, the manual milling must be replaced by an automated procedure. This paper describes a new milling machine and procedure developed to produce U3Si2 powder with higher efficiency. (author)

  16. The Experiment Production And Examination Of The U3Si2-AI Mini plates For Irradiation Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supardjo; Boybul; Yowono; Susworo; Permana, S.

    1998-01-01

    The fuel plates containing U 3 Si 2 -AI dispersion fuel having respective loading of 3.55; 4.20; and 4.80 g/cm 3 were prepared by dispersing certain amount of U 3 Si 2 powder in the AI powder as matrix. The weight ratio of U 3 Si 2 and AI at different loading was chosen based on the 19.23 cm 3 volume basis fuel core calculation. Each fuel mixture was pressed into a fuel core having dimension of 100.20 x 60.35 x 3.15 +- (0.05) mm, which was then cut into mini fuel core having dimension of 16 x 8 x 3.15 +- (0.05) mm. The mini plates were prepared by picture and frame technique using AIMg2 as cladding material. The mini plates have been tested for blister, homogeneity, white spots, surface defects and their cladding thickness, revealing that out of 74 mini plates, they are ten (10) mini plates that have to be rejected due to blisters and white spots, thus of 64 mini plates can be further fabricated as samples for irradiation test

  17. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospišková, K.; Šafařík, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 380, APR 2015 (2015), s. 197-200 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13021 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : enzyme powders * cross-linking * magnetic modification * magnetic separation * magnetic iron oxides particles * microwave-assisted synthesis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.357, year: 2015

  18. Powder neutron diffractometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.

    2002-01-01

    Basic properties and applications of powder neutron Diffractometers are described for optimum use of the continuous neutron beams. These instruments are equipped with position sensitive detectors, neutron guide tubes, and both high intensity and high resolution modes of operation are possible .The principles of both direct and Fourier reverse time-of-flight neutron Diffractometers are also given

  19. Low Temperature Powder Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) • Legacy primers contain hexavalent chrome • Conventional powder coatings...coatings both in laboratory and field service evaluations • LTCPC allows environmental cost reductions through VOC/HAP elimination and hexavalent ... chrome reduction. • The LTCPC process greatly shortens the coating operation (LTCPC cures much more rapidly then conventional wet coatings) resulting in

  20. Laser cladding with powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, M.F.; Schneider, Marcel Fredrik

    1998-01-01

    This thesis is directed to laser cladding with powder and a CO2 laser as heat source. The laser beam intensity profile turned out to be an important pa6 Summary rameter in laser cladding. A numerical model was developed that allows the prediction of the surface temperature distribution that is

  1. Formation and characterization of solid-solution (V,W,Ti)CN composite powder

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bolokang, Amogelang S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on the synthesis of a mixture of vanadium (V), tungsten (W), titanium (Ti) and carbon (C) mixture using ball milling in argon atmosphere. Thermal analysis of the milled powder showed an exothermic reaction at approximately 700°C...

  2. Producing tantalum or columbium powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rerat, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for the production of tantalum or columbium powder with a high yield within a desired range of particle sizes. A molten salt bath of a double salt comprising either an alkali metal tantalum fluoride or an alkali metal columbium fluoride and a relatively large amount of alkali metal halide diluent salt to act as a heat sink is initially maintained at a temperature a little above the liquidus temperature of the salt mixture. A liquid alkali metal at a comparatively low temperature is added to the continuously stirred bath at a high mass flow rate, and reduces the double salt, producing tantalum or columbium. The reaction is exothermic and causes the temperature to rise rapidly to a desired final reaction temperature within the range 760 to 1000 0 . The liquid alkali metal is thereafter fed at a high mass flow rate to complete the reaction quickly at the final reaction temperature. Forced cooling at a heat extraction rate not less than 42 kilojoules/min./kg. of double salt is used during at least a portion of the reaction cycle at a rate sufficient to maintain the final reaction temperature within a desired range. (author)

  3. Microstructure of rapidly solidified Nb-based pre-alloyed powders for additive manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yueling; Jia, Lina, E-mail: jialina@buaa.edu.cn; Kong, Bin; Zhang, Shengnan; Zhang, Fengxiang; Zhang, Hu

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Sphere shaped Nb-37Ti-13Cr-2Al-1Si pre-alloyed powders were prepared by PREP. • An oxide layer with a thickness of 9.39 nm was generated on the powder surface. • The main phases of the pre-alloyed powders were Nbss and Cr{sub 2}Nb. • SDAS increased and microhardness decreased with the increase of powder size. • Microstructure of powders evolved into large grains from dendrite structures after HT. - Abstract: For powder-based additive manufacturing, sphere-shaped Nb-37Ti-13Cr-2Al-1Si pre-alloyed powders were prepared by plasma rotating electrode processing (PREP). The microstructure, surface oxidation and microhardness of the pre-alloyed powders were systematically investigated. Results showed that the main phases were Nb solid solution (Nbss) and Cr{sub 2}Nb. The Cr{sub 2}Nb phases were further determined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fine dendrite structures were observed in the as-fabricated pre-alloyed powders, which transformed to large grains after heat treatment (HT) at 1450 °C for 3 h. With the increase of powder size, the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) increased and the microhardness (HV) decreased. A clean powder surface free of oxide particles was obtained by PREP and an oxide layer with 9.39 nm in thickness was generated on the powder surface. Compared with Cr- and Nb-oxides, more Ti-oxides were formed on outmost powder surface with a higher content of Ti (up to 47.86 at.%). The differences upon the microstructure and microhardness of the pre-alloyed powders with different sizes were discussed.

  4. Sandia National Laboratories Small-Scale Sensitivity Testing (SSST) Report: Calcium Nitrate Mixtures with Various Fuels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Jason Joe [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Based upon the presented sensitivity data for the examined calcium nitrate mixtures using sugar and sawdust, contact handling/mixing of these materials does not present hazards greater than those occurring during handling of dry PETN powder. The aluminized calcium nitrate mixtures present a known ESD fire hazard due to the fine aluminum powder fuel. These mixtures may yet present an ESD explosion hazard, though this has not been investigated at this time. The detonability of these mixtures will be investigated during Phase III testing.

  5. Hydrogen solubility in FLiNaK mixed with titanium powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Juro; Sagara, Akio; Watanabe, Takashi; Tanaka, Teruya; Takayama, Sadatsugu; Muroga, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The hydrogen solubility in a FLiNaK mixed with Ti powder was investigated. • A significant increase in hydrogen solubility was observed. • Controlling the purity of the molten salt was found to be one of the key issues. • A vanadium alloy would be compatible with the Ti powder/molten salt mixture. - Abstract: The hydrogen solubility in a FLiNaK molten salt mixed with Ti powder was investigated. A hydrogen-soluble metal powder mixed with a molten salt can increase the effective hydrogen solubility of the molten salt, which is currently a major disadvantage of molten salts. A significant increase in hydrogen solubility was observed, even with a mass fraction of Ti powder of only 0.1 wt%. The increase of hydrogen solubility was so large that a vanadium alloy would be compatible with the Ti powder/molten salt mixture, unlike typical molten salts that result in an unacceptably large tritium inventory in the vanadium alloy. In addition, contamination of the Ti powder by oxidation suppressed the hydrogen uptake and release capability. Controlling the purity of the molten salt was found to be one of the key issues for the metal powder mixture concept.

  6. Improving Settling Dynamics of Activated Sludge by Adding Fine Talc Powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Larsen, Torben; Clauss, F.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of adding varying mixtures of talc and chlorite powder to activated sludge in order to improve the settling characteristic has been studied. The powder is found to improve the settling velocity of the sludge, strictly by increasing the average density of the sludge floc aggregate. The ....... The settling velocity was measured with a recirculated settling column under different concentrations and turbulence levels. Numerical simulation of a secondary settling tank indicates that adding fine powder will improve the overall performance considerably.......The effect of adding varying mixtures of talc and chlorite powder to activated sludge in order to improve the settling characteristic has been studied. The powder is found to improve the settling velocity of the sludge, strictly by increasing the average density of the sludge floc aggregate...

  7. Optimal mixture experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, B K; Pal, Manisha; Das, P

    2014-01-01

    The book dwells mainly on the optimality aspects of mixture designs. As mixture models are a special case of regression models, a general discussion on regression designs has been presented, which includes topics like continuous designs, de la Garza phenomenon, Loewner order domination, Equivalence theorems for different optimality criteria and standard optimality results for single variable polynomial regression and multivariate linear and quadratic regression models. This is followed by a review of the available literature on estimation of parameters in mixture models. Based on recent research findings, the volume also introduces optimal mixture designs for estimation of optimum mixing proportions in different mixture models, which include Scheffé’s quadratic model, Darroch-Waller model, log- contrast model, mixture-amount models, random coefficient models and multi-response model.  Robust mixture designs and mixture designs in blocks have been also reviewed. Moreover, some applications of mixture desig...

  8. Structure, mechanical and corrosion properties of powdered stainless steel Kh13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radomysel'skij, I.D.; Napara-Volgina, S.G.; Orlova, L.N.; Apininskaya, L.M.

    1982-01-01

    Structure, mechanical and corrosion properties are studied for compact powdered stainless steel, Grade Kh13, produced from prealloyed powder and a mixture of chromium and iron powders by hot vacuum pressing (HVP) following four schemes: HVP of unsintered billets; HVP of presintered billets; HVP of unsintered billets followed by diffusion annealing; HVP of sintered billets followed by diffusion annealing. Analysis of the structure, mechanical and corrosion properties of Kh13 steel produced according to the four schemes confirmed that production of this steel by the HVP method without presintering of porous billets and diffusion annealing of compact stampings is possible only when prealloyed powder of particular composition is used as a starting material

  9. Al/ B4C Composites with 5 and 10 wt% Reinforcement Content Prepared by Powder Metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof Abdullah; Mohd Reusmaazran Yusof; Azali Muhammad; Nadira Kamarudin; Wilfred Sylvester Paulus; Roslinda Shamsudin; Nasrat Hannah Shudin; Nurazila Mat Zali

    2012-01-01

    The preparation, physical and mechanical properties of Al/ B 4 C composites with 5 and 10 wt.% reinforcement content were investigated. In order to obtain the feedstock with a low powder loading, B 4 C mixtures containing fine powders were investigated to obtain the optimal particle packing. The experimental results indicated that the fine containing 5 and 10 wt.% particles are able to prepare the feedstock with a good flowability. The composites fabricated by powder metallurgy have low densities and homogeneous microstructures. Additionally there is no interface reaction observed between the reinforcement and matrix by XRD analysis. The hardness of Al/ B 4 C composites prepared by powder metallurgy was high. (Author)

  10. Plasma technology for powder particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranz, E. (Technische Hochschule, Ilmenau (German Democratic Republic))

    1983-03-01

    A survey is given of principles and applications of plasma spraying and of powder transformation and generation in plasma considering spheroidization, grain size transformation, powder particle formation, powder reduction, and melting within the power range of 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 7/ W. The products are applied in many industrial fields such as nuclear engineering, hard metal production, metallurgy, catalysis, and semiconductor techniques.

  11. Synthesis of Uranium nitride powders using metal uranium powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Ho; Kim, Dong Joo; Oh, Jang Soo; Rhee, Young Woo; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Keon Sik

    2012-01-01

    Uranium nitride (UN) is a potential fuel material for advanced nuclear reactors because of their high fuel density, high thermal conductivity, high melting temperature, and considerable breeding capability in LWRs. Uranium nitride powders can be fabricated by a carbothermic reduction of the oxide powders, or the nitriding of metal uranium. The carbothermic reduction has an advantage in the production of fine powders. However it has many drawbacks such as an inevitable engagement of impurities, process burden, and difficulties in reusing of expensive N 15 gas. Manufacturing concerns issued in the carbothermic reduction process can be solved by changing the starting materials from oxide powder to metals. However, in nitriding process of metal, it is difficult to obtain fine nitride powders because metal uranium is usually fabricated in the form of bulk ingots. In this study, a simple reaction method was tested to fabricate uranium nitride powders directly from uranium metal powders. We fabricated uranium metal spherical powder and flake using a centrifugal atomization method. The nitride powders were obtained by thermal treating those metal particles under nitrogen containing gas. We investigated the phase and morphology evolutions of powders during the nitriding process. A phase analysis of nitride powders was also a part of the present work

  12. SI Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses legislation related to SI (International Systems of Units) in the United States. Indicates that although SI metric units have been officially recognized by law in the United States, U.S. Customary Units have never received a statutory basis. (JN)

  13. Single step synthesis of GdAlO3 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Amit; Nair, S.R.; Sinha, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → First report on direct formation of GdAlO 3 powder using a novel combustion process. → Study of combustion characteristics of Gd(NO 3 ) 3 and Al(NO 3 ) 3 towards three fuels. → Preparation of highly sinterable GdAlO 3 powders through fuel-mixture approach. → Significant reduction in energy consumption for production of GdAlO 3 sintered body. - Abstract: A novel method for preparation of nano-crystalline gadolinium aluminate (GdAlO 3 ) powder, based on combustion synthesis, is reported. It was observed that aluminium nitrate and gadolinium nitrate exhibit different combustion characteristics with respect to urea, glycine and β-alanine. While urea was proven to be a suitable fuel for direct formation of crystalline α-Al 2 O 3 from its nitrate, glycine and β-alanine are suitable fuels for gadolinium nitrate for preparation of its oxide after combustion reaction. Based on the observed chemical characteristics of gadolinium and aluminium nitrates with respect to above mentioned fuels for the combustion reaction, the fuel mixture composition could be predicted that could lead to phase pure perovskite GdAlO 3 directly after the combustion reaction without any subsequent calcination step. The use of single fuel, on the other hand, leads to formation of amorphous precursor powders that call for subsequent calcination for the formation of crystalline GdAlO 3 . The powders produced directly after combustion reactions using fuel mixtures were found to be highly sinterable. The sintering of the powders at 1550 o C for 4 h resulted in GdAlO 3 with sintered density of more than 95%. T.D.

  14. Dispersing powders in liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, RD

    1988-01-01

    This book provides powder technologists with laboratory procedures for selecting dispersing agents and preparing stable dispersions that can then be used in particle size characterization instruments. Its broader goal is to introduce industrial chemists and engineers to the phenomena, terminology, physical principles, and chemical considerations involved in preparing and handling dispersions on a commercial scale. The book introduces novices to: - industrial problems due to improper degree of dispersion; - the nomenclature used in describing particles; - the basic physica

  15. Low temperature spark plasma sintering of YIG powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Garcia, L.; Suarez, M.; Menendez, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    A transition from a low to a high spin state in the magnetization saturation between 1000 and 1100 o C calcination temperature is observed in YIG powders prepared by oxides mixture. Spark plasma sintering of these powders between 900 and 950 o C leads to dense samples with minimal formation of YFeO 3 , opening the way to co-sintering of YIG with metals or metallic alloys. The optical properties depend on the sintering stage: low (high) density samples show poor (bulk) optical absorption.

  16. Container for nuclear fuel powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etheredge, B.F.; Larson, R.I.

    1982-01-01

    A critically safe container is disclosed for the storage and rapid discharge of enriched nuclear fuel material in powder form is disclosed. The container has a hollow, slab-shaped container body that has one critically safe dimension. A powder inlet is provided on one side wall of the body adjacent to a corner thereof and a powder discharge port is provided at another corner of the body approximately diagonal the powder inlet. Gas plenum for moving the powder during discharge are located along the side walls of the container adjacent the discharge port

  17. Effect of composition and heat treatment on the phase formation of mechanically alloyed Cr-B and Mo-B powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H M; Hu, C J; Pai, K Y

    2009-01-01

    Blended elemental Cr-B and Mo-B powders in atomic ratio of 67:33, 50:50, and 20:80 were subjected to mechanical alloying up to 60 h and subsequent heat treatment to investigate effect of composition and heat treatment on the phase formation of Cr-B and Mo-B powders. It was studied by X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis. Mechanical alloying these powder mixtures for 60 h leads essentially to a amorphous structure except for the Mo 20 B 80 powder, which creates a partially amorphous MoB 4 structure. Annealing at lower temperatures relieves the strains cumulative in the milled powders and creates no new phase. The structures obtained after annealing the milled powders at higher temperature vary and depend on the overall composition of the powder mixtures. Annealing the milled Mo-B powders having greater Mo content ends up with a dissociation reaction at higher temperature.

  18. Deposition of titanium coating on SiC fiber by chemical vapor deposition with Ti-I{sub 2} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xian, E-mail: luo_shenfan@hotmail.com; Wu, Shuai; Yang, Yan-qing; Jin, Na; Liu, Shuai; Huang, Bin

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • The transformation paths of (Ti + I{sub 2}) powder to Ti coating is: Ti + I{sub 2} → (TiI{sub 2}, TiI{sub 3}) → Ti. • Uniform coating was obtained on SiC fiber, but it contained Si and C elements. • Deposition rate of the coating increased with the increase of temperature. • Deposition thickness increased with time and achieved the maximum at 90 min. - Abstract: Titanium coating was prepared on SiC fiber using titanium-iodine (Ti-I{sub 2}) mixture by hot-wall chemical vapor deposition. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental observation were carried out in this work. The thermodynamic analysis of the reactions in the Ti-I{sub 2} system indicates that Ti and I{sub 2} raw powder materials transform to titanium coating as follows: Ti + I{sub 2} → (TiI{sub 2}, TiI{sub 3}), and (TiI{sub 2}, TiI{sub 3}) → Ti. In theory, the conversions of TiI{sub 3} and TiI{sub 2} reach the maximum when Ti:I{sub 2} is 1:1.5, while in actual experiment that reached the maximum when Ti:I{sub 2} was 1:2, as there existed the waste of I{sub 2} due to sublimation. Typical deposited coating is relatively flat and uniform. However, as SiC is prone to react with Ti at high temperatures, the obtained coating contained some Si and C elements except for Ti. So the coating was not a pure Ti coating but contained some carbides and silicides. Deposition rate of the coating increased with the increase of temperature. The deposited thickness increased with the increase of heat preservation time, and achieved the maximum thickness at 90 min.

  19. Changes in UO2 powder properties during processing via BNFL's binderless route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromely, A.P.; Logsdon, R.; Roberts, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Short Binderless Route (SBR) has been developed for Mixed Oxide fuel production in BNFL's MOX Demonstration Facility (MDF) and the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP). It is a compact process which enables good homogenisation of the Pu/U mixture and production of free flowing press feed materials. The equipment used to achieve this consists of an attritor mill to provide homogenization and a spheroidiser to provide press feed granules. As for other powder processes, the physical properties of the UO 2 powder can affect the different process stages and consequently a study of some of these effects has been carried out. The aim of the work were to gain a better understanding of the process, to consequently optimize press feed material quality and to also maintain powder hold-up levels in the equipment at a minimum. The paper considers the effects of milling processes on powder morphology and powder surface effects, on the granulation process and also on powder and granule bulk properties such as pour, tap and compaction densities. Results are discussed in terms of powder properties such as powder cohesivity, morphology and particle size. UO 2 powder derived from both the Integrated Dry Route (IDR) and the Ammonium Di-Uranate (ADU) Route are considered. Small (1 kg) scale work has been carried out which has been confirmed by larger (25 kg) scale trials. The work shows that IDR powder with differing morphologies and ADU powder can be successfully processed via the SBR route. (author). 4 figs, 4 tabs

  20. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  1. Synthesis of Si, N co-Doped Nano-Sized TiO2 with High Thermal Stability and Photocatalytic Activity by Mechanochemical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peisan Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Τhe photocatalytic activity in the range of visible light wavelengths and the thermal stability of the structure were significantly enhanced in Si, N co-doped nano-sized TiO2, and synthesized through high-energy mechanical milling of TiO2 and SiO2 powders, which was followed by calcination at 600 °C in an ammonia atmosphere. High-energy mechanical milling had a pronounced effect on the mixing and the reaction between the starting powders and greatly favored the transformation of the resultant powder mixture into an amorphous phase that contained a large number of evenly-dispersed nanocrystalline TiO2 particles as anatase seeds. The experimental results suggest that the elements were homogeneously dispersed at an atomic level in this amorphous phase. After calcination, most of the amorphous phase was crystallized, which resulted in a unique nano-sized crystalline-core/disordered-shell morphology. This novel experimental process is simple, template-free, and provides features of high reproducibility in large-scale industrial production.

  2. Complex-shaped ceramic composites obtained by machining compact polymer-filler mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria da Rocha

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Research in the preparation of ceramics from polymeric precursors is giving rise to increased interest in ceramic technology because it allows the use of several promising polymer forming techniques. In this work ceramic composite pieces were obtained by pyrolysis of a compacted mixture of a polysiloxane resin and alumina/silicon powder. The mixture consists of 60 vol% of the polymer phase and 40 vol% of the filler in a 1:1 ratio for alumina/silicon, which was hot pressed to crosslink the polymer, thus forming a compact body. This green body was trimmed into different geometries and pyrolised in nitrogen atmosphere at temperatures up to 1600 °C. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the formation of phases such as mullite and Si2ON2 during pyrolysis, that result from reactions between fillers, polymer decomposition products and nitrogen atmosphere. The porosity was found to be less than 20% and the mass loss around 10%. The complex geometry was maintained after pyrolysis and shrinkage was approximately 8%, proving pyrolisis to be a suitable process to form near-net-shaped bulk ceramic components.

  3. Processing of tungsten csrap into powders by electroerosion dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fominskij, L.P.; Myuller, A.S.; Levchuk, M.V.; Tarabrina, V.P.

    1985-01-01

    A powder produced by electroerosion dispersion in water from tungsten chips and rod cuttings is studied for its properties and structure. Powder particles are mainly of spherical shape, their predominant size is 2-4 μm. A fraction of -63 μm comprises a basic mass of the powder (up to 80%), an ultrafine (to 40 μm) phase of WO which is isolated by decantation comprises about 3.5% of its mass. The powder particles are low oxidized, have a fine-grain microstructure and consist of tungsten with admixture of β-W (to 30%). A fraction of total oxygen mass in the mixture of fractio s 0.74%. The powder containing less than 0.25% of oxygen is produced by decantation of the oxide phase. The product purity is determined exclusively by the purity of the raw material. Prior to producing articles it is recommended to anneal the powder either in the inert atmosphere or in the reduced medium at 750 deg C for β-W to transfer into common tungsten

  4. Three Crystalline Polymorphs of KFeSi04, Potassium Ferrisilicate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Janet Jonna

    1983-01-01

    Orthorhombic α-KFeSi04 ( a =0.5478, b =0.9192, c =0.8580 nm), hexagonal β-KFeSiO4 (a =0.5309, c =0.8873 nm), and hexagonal γ-KFeSi04 (a =0.5319, c =0.8815 nm) were synthesized by devitrification of KFeSiO4 glass. Powder X-ray diffraction data are given for all three polymorphs. Alpha KFeSiO4, the......, and synthetic kaliophilite, KAISiO4, respectively, and it is proposed that β- and λ-KFeSiO4 are linked by Si-Fe order-disorder. Beta KFeSiO4 transforms slowly into α-KFeSi04 above 910°C but the transformation was not shown to be reversible in the present dry-heating experiments....

  5. Tailoring of K0.8Al0.7Fe0.15Si2.25O6 Leucite Based Dental Ceramic Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Kremenović

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Potassium based ceramic materials composed from leucite in which 5 % of Al is exchanged with Fe and 4 % of hematite was synthesized by mechanochemical homogenization and annealing of K2O-SiO2-Al2O3-Fe2O3 mixtures. Synthesized material was characterized by X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX. The two methods are in good agreement in regard to the specimen chemical composition suggesting that a leucite chemical formula is K0.8Al0.7Fe0.15Si2.25O6. Rietveld structure refinement results reveal that about 20 % of vacancies exist in the position of K atoms. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  6. Ni-Si oxide as an inducing crystallization source for making poly-Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Zhiguo; Liu, Zhaojun; Li, Juan; Wu, Chunya; Xiong, Shaozhen [Institute of Photo-electronics, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Zhao, Shuyun; Wong, Man; Kwok, Hoi Sing [Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-04-15

    Nickel silicon oxide mixture was sputtered on a-Si with Ni-Si alloy target with Ni:Si weight ratio of 1:9 and used as a new inducing source for metal induced lateral crystallization (MILC). The characteristics of the resulted poly-Si materials induced by Ni-Si oxide with different thickness were nearly the same. This means the metal induced crystallization with this new inducing source has wide processing tolerance to make MILC poly-Si. Besides, it reduced the residual Ni content in the resulted poly-Si film. The transfer characteristic curve of poly-Si TFT and a TFT-OLED display demo made with this kind of new inducing source were also presented in this paper. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S

    2013-01-01

    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  8. MECHANICAL ALLOYING SYNTHESIS OF FORSTERITE-DIOPSIDE NANOCOMPOSITE POWDER FOR USING IN TISSUE ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorour Sadeghzade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In present study the pure forsterite-diopside nanocomposite powder was successfully synthesized by the economical method of mechanical alloying and subsequence sintering, for the first time. The starting economical materials were talc (Mg3Si4H2O12, magnesium carbonate (MgCO3 and calcium carbonate (CaCO3 powders. The prepared powder was characterized by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results showed preparation of forsterite- diopside nanocomposite powder after 10 h mechanical alloying and sintering at 1200oC for 1 h. The powder crystallite sizes and agglomerated particle sizes were measured about 73 +/- 4 nm and 0.3 - 4 μm, respectively. Absence of enstatite that causes a reduction in mechanical and bioactivity properties of forsterite ceramic, is an important feature of produced powder.

  9. Photochemical modification of diamond powder with sulfur functionalities and its behavior on gold surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T; Ohana, T; Hagiwara, Y; Tsubota, T

    2010-01-01

    A useful method of modifying the surface of diamond powders with sulfur-containing functionalities was developed by the use of the photolysis of elemental sulfur. The introduction of sulfur-containing functional groups on the diamond surfaces was confirmed by means of XPS, DRIFT and mass spectroscopy analyses. The sulfur-modified diamond powders exhibited surface-attachment behavior to gold surfaces through the sulfur-containing linkage. In brief, exposure of the modified diamond powders to gold colloids resulted in gold nanoparticles being attached to the diamond powders. Treatment of the modified diamond powders with gold thin film on Si substrate afforded alignment of surface-attached diamond powders through sulfur linkages by self-assembly.

  10. Diffraction. Powder, amorphous, liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnowska, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron powder diffraction is a unique tool to observe all possible diffraction effects appearing in crystal. High-resolution neutron diffractometers have to be used in this study. Analysis of the magnetic structure of polycrystalline materials requires the use of high-resolution neutron diffraction in the range of large interplanar distances. As distinguished from the double axis diffractometers (DAS), which show high resolution only at small interplanar distances, TOF (time-of-flight) diffractometry offers the best resolution at large interplanar distances. (K.A.)

  11. LARC powder prepreg system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucom, Robert M.; Marchello, Joseph M.

    1990-01-01

    Thermoplastic prepregs of LARC-TPI have been produced in a fluidized bed unit on spread continuous fiber tows. The powders are melted on the fibers by radiant heating to adhere the polymer to the fiber. This process produces tow prepreg uniformly without imposing severe stress on the fibers or requiring long high temperature residence times for the polymer. Unit design theory and operating correlations have been developed to provide the basis for scale up to commercial operation. Special features of the operation are the pneumatic tow spreader, fluidized bed and resin feed systems.

  12. Avaliação da qualidade protéica de uma dieta estabelecida em Quissamã, Rio de Janeiro, adicionada ou não de multimistura e de pó de folha de mandioca Protein quality evaluation of a diet established in Quissamã, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, added or not with multi-mixture and powder of cassava leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Teles BOAVENTURA

    2000-12-01

    multimistura ou do pó de folha de mandioca não causou impacto sobre a qualidade da dieta estabelecida em Quissamã, não tendo melhorado sua capacidade de recuperar a desnutrição.The following experiment tested the quality of proteins present in the diet of undernourished children in the city of Quissamã, Rio de Janeiro, and then conducted the same tests adding variables: multi-mixture or powder of cassava leaf. The subjects used were 48 Rattus norvergicus, Wistar, males, 24 days old, and weighing 58.95 g. They were fed water and ration ad libitum. In the first phase, called Undernourishment, the animals were divided into three groups: control group, Quissamã group and no proteins group. The control group was fed a ration based on casein and the Quissamã group was fed a ration based on the Quissamã diet. Both of these groups had 8 rats. The no proteins group, with 32 animals, was fed during 10 days a diet with no proteins. In the second phase, called Recovery, which lasted for 18 days, the control group and Quissamã group were fed the same diet. The no proteins group was subdivided into four groups: the undernourished control group, which was fed the same diet as that of the control group; the undernourished Quissamã group, which was fed the same diet as that of the Quissamã group; the undernourished Quissamã group plus powder of cassava leaf; and the undernourished Quissamã group plus multi-mixture. Then, the Protein Efficiency Ratio and the Net Protein Retention were determined for both the control group and the Quissamã group. The results showed significant statiscal differences between these two groups, with the Quissamã Group reaching relative Net Protein Retention and Protein Efficiency Ratio of 71.54% and 66.04 respectively, in relation to the control Group. The Protein Efficiency Ratio Modified was determined for the undernourished groups. The undernourished control group showed significant statiscal differences in relation to the other groups. In this

  13. The Strength of Moulding Sand Consisting of a Mixture of Bentonite, Tapioca Flour, and Sago Flour as a New Binder Formula to Improve the Quality of Al-Si Cast Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andoko Andoko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The major factors determining the quality of sand casting products are the base sand and the composition of the sand mould and the binding material. In the foundry industry, the most commonly used binder for creating sand moulds is bentonite. However, the price of bentonite is likely to keep rising. This study aimed at discovering a new binder formula associated with the effect of binder composition i.e. bentonite, tapioca flour, and sago flour on the basis of its mechanical and physical properties. The new formula was expected to be a better binder in the production of sand moulds, resulting in high-quality casting products with minimal defects. Moreover, it is probable to be much more economical than bentonite. This research focused on testing the moulding sand composition with a number of different binders, i.e. bentonite, tapioca flour, and sago flour, each in a different proportion. The mixture of the moulding sand with each of the three binders will be tested in terms of its mechanical properties including compressive, shear, and tensile strength. Based on the test results, sago flour has the highest dry compressive strength of 28.6 N/cm2, whereas bentonite has the highest wet compressive strength, i.e. 11.83 N/cm2 and the highest wet shear strength i.e. 3.16 N/cm2. The binder with the highest dry shear strength is tapioca flour with 18.16 N/cm2. Regarding the tensile strength value, bentonite has the highest wet tensile strength of 0.85 N/cm2, while sago flour has the highest dry tensile strength of 1.73 N/cm2.

  14. [Blending powdered antineoplastic medicine in disposable ointment container].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yasunori; Uchino, Tomonobu; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    On dispensing powdered antineoplastic medicines, it is important to prevent cross-contamination and environmental exposure. Recently, we developed a method for blending powdered medicine in a disposable ointment container using a planetary centrifugal mixer. The disposable container prevents cross-contamination. In addition, environmental exposure associated with washing the apparatus does not arise because no blending blade is used. In this study, we aimed to confirm the uniformity of the mixture and weight loss of medicine in the blending procedure. We blended colored lactose powder with Leukerin(®) or Mablin(®) powders using the new method and the ordinary pestle and mortar method. Then, the blending state was monitored using image analysis. Blending variables, such as the blending ratio (1:9-9:1), container size (35-125 mL), and charging rate (20-50%) in the container were also investigated under the operational conditions of 500 rpm and 50 s. At a 20% charging rate in a 35 mL container, the blending precision of the mixtures was not influenced by the blending ratio, and was less than 6.08%, indicating homogeneity. With an increase in the charging rate, however, the blending precision decreased. The possible amount of both mixtures rose to about 17 g with a 20% charging rate in a 125 mL container. Furthermore, weight loss of medicines with this method was smaller than that with the pestle and mortar method, suggesting that this method is safer for pharmacists. In conclusion, we have established a precise and safe method for blending powdered medicines in pharmacies.

  15. Yttrium orthoferrite powder obtained by the mechanochemical synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Zorica Ž.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Yttrium orthoferrite (YFeO3 powder was prepared by a mechanochemical synthesis from a mixture of Y2O3 and α-Fe2O3 powders in a planetary ball mill for 2.5 h. The obtained YFeO3 powder sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The average crystallite size calculated by the Scherrer equation was 12 nm. The Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature confirms the superparamagnetic character of YFeO3 orthoferrite sample. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III 45003, Grant no. III 45015, Grant no. III 45018

  16. Crystallization of mordenite zeolite with seed addition in reaction mixtures with different SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios; Cristalizacao da zeolita mordenita com adicao de sementes em meio reacionais com diferentes razoes SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cysneiros, O.M.S.; Silva, B.J.B.; Silva, A.O.S.; Alencar, S.L.; Santos, R.B.; Soares, P.F.M.; Mendonca, T.R.D.; Sousa Junior, L.V.; Santos, J.R., E-mail: brunojbarros@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Quimica. Laboratorio de Sintese de Catalisadores

    2016-04-15

    The synthesis of samples of mordenite were performed using the hydrothermal method using two different types of crystallization seed (mordenite and ferrierite), where they were exploited to change some parameters of the synthesis, such as SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} = 20, 60 and 100 and the ratio OH/SiO{sub 2} = 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4, at different times of crystallization, at a temperature of 170 °C. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTA), nitrogen adsorption at -196 °C (BET) and temperature programmed desorption of ammonia (NH{sub 3}-TPD). It was found that the use of the ratio OH/SiO{sub 2} = 0.4, together with the seeds of the most MOR and FER crystalline samples were obtained, demonstrating the critical role of mineralizing agent OH{sup -} in the middle. (author)

  17. The use of glass powder in making batako

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursyamsi, N.; Indrawan, I.

    2018-02-01

    Along with the increase in construction materials, innovation is needed to lessen the use of them, and one of them is by using cement [1]. In this research, it is reduced by glass powder; the reason for using it as the substitution of cement is that some chemical elements in cement are similar to those in glass powder such as SiO2, A12o3, Fe2O3, and CaO. The glass powder used was the one who passed sieve no. 100 and was hampered in sieve no. 200. It passed sieve no. 200 with its composition of 0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% from the volume of the use of cement. The specimen would treat within 28 days before the testing of compressive strength, water absorption, and tensile strength [2]. The variation which produced optimum result would mix with the foaming agent as the material for reducing the weight of the specimen. After that, the test of compressive strength, water absorption, and tensile strength on the installment of batako walls were done. The data analyzed by using SNI 02-0349-1989[3] reference about concrete brick for wall installment. The variation of 20% of glass powder passing sieve no. 200 gave optimum result. A specimen of the variation on glass powder of 20% which passed sieve no. 200 and the foaming agent was higher than the compressive strength of the specimen which used glass powder substitution of 0% of passing sieve no. 200 and foaming agent. The compressive strength of batako walls which used the batako construction with glass powder substitution of 20% of passing sieve no. 200 and the foaming agent was also higher than the compressive strength of the assaying object which used glass powder substitution of 0% of passing sieve no. 200 and foaming agent.

  18. Control of the Nano-Particle Weight Ratio in Stainless Steel Micro and Nano Powders by Radio Frequency Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Yeol Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study describes how to make stainless steel hybrid micro-nano-powders (a mixture of micro-powder and nano-powder using an in situ one-step process via radio frequency (RF thermal plasma treatment. Nano-particles attached to micro-powders were successfully prepared by RF thermal plasma treatment of stainless steel powder with an average size of 35 μm. The ratio of nano-powders is estimated with a two-dimensional fluid simulation that calculates the temperature profile influencing the rate of surface evaporation. The simulation is conducted to determine the variation of the input power and the distance from the plasma torch to the feeding nozzle. It was demonstrated experimentally that the nano-powder ratio in the micro-nano-powder mixture can be controlled by adjusting the feeding rate, plasma power, feeding position and quenching effect during plasma treatment. The ratio of nano-particles in the micro-nano-powder mixture was controlled in a range from 0.1 (wt. % to 30.7 (wt. %.

  19. High density thermite mixture for shaped charge ordnance disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Elshenawy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermite mixture based on aluminum and ferric oxides for ammunition neutralization has been studied and tested. Thermochemical calculations have been carried out for different percentage of Al using Chemical Equilibrium Code to expect the highest performance thermite mixture used for shaped charge ordnance disposal. Densities and enthalpy of different formulations have been calculated and demonstrated. The optimized thermite formulation has been prepared experimentally using cold iso-static pressing technique, which exhibited relatively high density and high burning rate thermite mixture. The produced green product compacted powder mixture was tested against small caliber shaped charge bomblet for neutralization. Theoretical and experimental results showed that the prepared thermite mixture containing 33% of aluminum as a fuel with ferric oxide can be successfully used for shaped charge ordnance disposal.

  20. Standard specification for nuclear-grade zirconium oxide powder

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification defines the physical and chemical requirements for zirconium oxide powder intended for fabrication into shapes, either entirely or partially of zirconia, for use in a nuclear reactor core. 1.2 The material described herein shall be particulate in nature. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  1. Mullite and Mullite/ZrO2-7wt.%Y2O3 Powders for Thermal Spraying of Environmental Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, E.; Mesquita-Guimarães, J.; Miranzo, P.; Osendi, M. I.; Wang, Y.; Lima, R. S.; Moreau, C.

    2010-01-01

    Mullite and mullite/ZrO2-7wt.%Y2O3 coatings could be thought among the main protective layers for environment barrier coatings (EBCs) to protect Si-based substrates in future gas turbine engines. Considering that feedstock of the compound powder is not commercially available, two powder processing routes Spray Drying (SD) and Flame Spheroidization (FS) were implemented for both types of powders. For each method the particle size, the morphology, and microstructure of the powder particles was determined. In addition, the effect of the heat treatment on the powder crystallinity and microstructure of FS powders was also investigated. To evaluate their suitability as feedstock materials, the powders were plasma sprayed and their in-flight particle characteristics monitored for coatings production. The powder morphology was correlated to the in-flight particle characteristics and splat morphology to gain insight about into the influence of powder characteristics on the coating formation.

  2. Influence of the milling time in the microstructural parameters of TA2O5-Al powder refined by Rietveld method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, R.A.; Mendes, M.W.D.; Alves Junior, C.; Costa, F.A. da; Gomes, U.U.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical alloying (MA) is a solid-state powder processing technique involving repeated welding, fracturing, and re-welding of powder particles in a high energy mill. This process is used for producing of fine powders containing unique microstructures. The process starts with mixing of the powders in the desired proportion. Then, the mixture is milled using the established time in the high-energy mill. The powder particles are submitted to repeated cycles of cold working and fracture, and the final product correspond to a composite powder, containing characteristics different of the initial constituents. Ta 2 O 5 -Al powders were milled in a planetary ball mill for different times in order to evaluate the influence of the milling time in their microstructural parameters like crystallite size and micro deformation. The microstructural parameters were obtained by the Rietveld Method. The results showed that the microstructural parameters were influenced by the increase of the milling time. (author)

  3. Low-temperature synthesis of silicon carbide powder using shungite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubernat, A.; Pichor, W.; Lach, R.; Zientara, D.; Sitarz, M.; Springwald, M.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation the novel and simple method of synthesis of silicon carbide. As raw material for synthesis was used shungite, natural mineral rich in carbon and silica. The synthesis of SiC is possible in relatively low temperature in range 1500–1600°C. It is worth emphasising that compared to the most popular method of SiC synthesis (Acheson method where the temperature of synthesis is about 2500°C) the proposed method is much more effective. The basic properties of products obtained from different form of shungite and in wide range of synthesis temperature were investigated. The process of silicon carbide formation was proposed and discussed. In the case of synthesis SiC from powder of raw materials the product is also in powder form and not requires any additional process (crushing, milling, etc.). Obtained products are pure and after grain classification may be used as abrasive and polishing powders. (Author)

  4. Low-temperature synthesis of silicon carbide powder using shungite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubernat, A.; Pichor, W.; Lach, R.; Zientara, D.; Sitarz, M.; Springwald, M.

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation the novel and simple method of synthesis of silicon carbide. As raw material for synthesis was used shungite, natural mineral rich in carbon and silica. The synthesis of SiC is possible in relatively low temperature in range 1500–1600°C. It is worth emphasising that compared to the most popular method of SiC synthesis (Acheson method where the temperature of synthesis is about 2500°C) the proposed method is much more effective. The basic properties of products obtained from different form of shungite and in wide range of synthesis temperature were investigated. The process of silicon carbide formation was proposed and discussed. In the case of synthesis SiC from powder of raw materials the product is also in powder form and not requires any additional process (crushing, milling, etc.). Obtained products are pure and after grain classification may be used as abrasive and polishing powders. (Author)

  5. Geometric structure of thin SiO xN y films on Si(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, K.-M.; Klinkenberg, E.-D.; Finster, J.; Meiwes-Broer, K.-H.

    1998-05-01

    Thin films of amorphous stoichometric SiO xN y are deposited on radiation-heated Si(100) by rapid thermal low-pressure chemical vapour deposition. We studied the whole range of possible compositions. In order to determine the geometric structure, we used EXAFS and photoelectron spectroscopy. Tetrahedrons constitute the short-range units with a central Si atom connected to N and O. The distribution of the possible tetrahedrons can be described by a mixture of the Random Bonding Model and the Random Mixture Model. For low oxygen contents x/( x+ y)≤0.3, the geometric structure of the film is almost the structure of a-Si 3N 4, with the oxygen preferably on top of Si-N 3 triangles. Higher oxygen contents induce changes in the bond lengths, bond angles and coordination numbers.

  6. Silicon Effects on Properties of Melt Infiltrated SiC/SiC Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Hurst, Janet B.

    2000-01-01

    Silicon effects on tensile and creep properties, and thermal conductivity of Hi-Nicalon SiC/SiC composites have been investigated. The composites consist of 8 layers of 5HS 2-D woven preforms of BN/SiC coated Hi-Nicalon fiber mats and a silicon matrix, or a mixture of silicon matrix and SiC particles. The Hi-Nicalon SiC/silicon and Hi-Nicalon SiC/SiC composites contained about 24 and 13 vol% silicon, respectively. Results indicate residual silicon up to 24 vol% has no significant effect on creep and thermal conductivity, but does decrease the primary elastic modulus and stress corresponding to deviation from linear stress-strain behavior.

  7. Nuclear fuel powder transfer device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komono, Akira

    1998-01-01

    A pair of parallel rails are laid between a receiving portion to a molding portion of a nuclear fuel powder transfer device. The rails are disposed to the upper portion of a plurality of parallel support columns at the same height. A powder container is disposed while being tilted in the inside of the vessel main body of a transfer device, and rotational shafts equipped with wheels are secured to right and left external walls. A nuclear powder to be mixed, together with additives, is supplied to the powder container of the transfer device. The transfer device engaged with the rails on the receiving side is transferred toward the molding portion. The wheels are rotated along the rails, and the rotational shafts, the vessel main body and the powder container are rotated. The nuclear powder in the tilted powder container disposed is rotated right and left and up and down by the rotation, and the powder is mixed satisfactory when it reaches the molding portion. (I.N.)

  8. Superconductors by powder metallurgy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickus, M.R.; Wang, J.L.F.

    1976-05-01

    Fabrication methods for Nb 3 Sn type compounds are described. Information is included on the Bell Telephone process, the General Electric tape process, superconductor stability, the bronze process, powder metallurgy multifilamentary tapes and wires, and current assessment of powder metallurgy superconducting wire

  9. Effect of Pressing Parameters on the Structure of Porous Materials Based on Cobalt and Nickel Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shustov, V. S.; Rubtsov, N. M.; Alymov, M. I.; Ankudinov, A. B.; Evstratov, E. V.; Zelensky, V. A.

    2018-03-01

    Porous materials with a bulk porosity of more than 68% were synthesized by powder metallurgy methods from a cobalt-nickel mixture. The effect of the ratio of nickel and cobalt powders used in the synthesis of this porous material (including cases when either nickel or cobalt alone was applied) and the conditions of their compaction on structural parameters, such as open and closed porosities and pose size, was established.

  10. Si quantum dot structures and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbyna, L.; Torchynska, T.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents briefly the history of emission study in Si quantum dots (QDs) in the last two decades. Stable light emission of Si QDs and NCs was observed in the spectral ranges: blue, green, orange, red and infrared. These PL bands were attributed to the exciton recombination in Si QDs, to the carrier recombination through defects inside of Si NCs or via oxide related defects at the Si/SiOx interface. The analysis of recombination transitions and the different ways of the emission stimulation in Si QD structures, related to the element variation for the passivation of surface dangling bonds, as well as the plasmon induced emission and rare earth impurity activation, have been presented. The different applications of Si QD structures in quantum electronics, such as: Si QD light emitting diodes, Si QD single union and tandem solar cells, Si QD memory structures, Si QD based one electron devices and double QD structures for spintronics, have been discussed as well. Note the significant worldwide interest directed toward the silicon-based light emission for integrated optoelectronics is related to the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor compatibility and the possibility to be monolithically integrated with very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. The different features of poly-, micro- and nanocrystalline silicon for solar cells, that is a mixture of both amorphous and crystalline phases, such as the silicon NCs or QDs embedded in a α-Si:H matrix, as well as the thin film 2-cell or 3-cell tandem solar cells based on Si QD structures have been discussed as well. Silicon NC based structures for non-volatile memory purposes, the recent studies of Si QD base single electron devices and the single electron occupation of QDs as an important component to the measurement and manipulation of spins in quantum information processing have been analyzed as well.

  11. Energetic prediction on the stability of A2Mg12Si7, A2Mg4Si3, and AMgSi in the A2Si–Mg2Si system (A = Ca, Sr and Ba) and their calculated electronic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Yoji; Mori, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Shigeyuki; Takarabe, Ken-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Formation energies of A 2 Mg 4 Si 3 , A 2 Mg 12 Si 7 , and AMgSi (A = Ca,Sr,Ba) were calculated. • All AMgSi are quite stable compared to mixture of A 2 Si and Mg 2 Si. • Ba 2 Mg 4 Si 3 and Sr 2 Mg 4 Si 3 are predicted to be stable, but Ca 2 Mg 4 Si 3 is not. • Ca 2 Mg 12 Si 7 and Sr 2 Mg 12 Si 7 are energetically unstable. • Stability of Ba 2 Mg 12 Si 7 is a tender subject. -- Abstract: In order to evaluate the relative stability of A 2 Mg 4 Si 3 , A 2 Mg 12 Si 7 , and AMgSi (A = Ca, Sr, and Ba) in the A 2 Si–Mg 2 Si system, electronic energy changes in the formation of these compounds were calculated using a density-functional theory with the Perdew–Wang generalized gradient approximations. It was found that (1) AMgSi’s are quite stable compared to equi-molar mixture of A 2 Si and Mg 2 Si, (2) Ba 2 Mg 4 Si 3 and Sr 2 Mg 4 Si 3 are also stable, (3) Ca 2 Mg 4 Si 3 and Ca 2 Mg 12 Si 7 are less stable than the mixture of CaMgSi and Mg 2 Si, and (4) Stability of Ba 2 Mg 12 Si 7 is a tender subject and Sr 2 Mg 12 Si 7 is energetically unstable compared to the mixture of Sr 2 Mg 4 Si 3 (or, SrMgSi) and Mg 2 Si. The presence of Sr 2 Mg 12 Si 7 may be due to the vibrational and/or configurational entropy, which are not treated in the present study. From the calculated electronic densities of state, complex compounds of SrMgSi and Mg 2 Si have both p-type and n-type character, depending on the ratio of SrMgSi and Mg 2 Si in that compound

  12. Light extinction in metallic powder beds: Correlation with powder structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rombouts, M.; Froyen, L.; Gusarov, A.V.; Bentefour, E.H.; Glorieux, C.

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical correlation between the effective extinction coefficient, the specific surface area, and the chord length distribution of powder beds is verified experimentally. The investigated powder beds consist of metallic particles of several tens of microns. The effective extinction coefficients are measured by a light-transmission technique at a wavelength of 540 nm. The powder structure is characterized by a quantitative image analysis of powder bed cross sections resulting in two-point correlation functions and chord length distributions. The specific surface area of the powders is estimated by laser-diffraction particle-size analysis and by the two-point correlation function. The theoretically predicted tendency of increasing extinction coefficient with specific surface area per unit void volume is confirmed by the experiments. However, a significant quantitative discrepancy is found for several powders. No clear correlation of the extinction coefficient with the powder material and particle size, and morphology is revealed, which is in line with the assumption of geometrical optics

  13. X-ray diffraction microstructural analysis of bimodal size distribution MgO nano powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suminar Pratapa; Budi Hartono

    2009-01-01

    Investigation on the characteristics of x-ray diffraction data for MgO powdered mixture of nano and sub-nano particles has been carried out to reveal the crystallite-size-related microstructural information. The MgO powders were prepared by co-precipitation method followed by heat treatment at 500 degree Celsius and 1200 degree Celsius for 1 hour, being the difference in the temperature was to obtain two powders with distinct crystallite size and size-distribution. The powders were then blended in air to give the presumably bimodal-size- distribution MgO nano powder. High-quality laboratory X-ray diffraction data for the powders were collected and then analysed using Rietveld-based MAUD software using the lognormal size distribution. Results show that the single-mode powders exhibit spherical crystallite size (R) of 20(1) nm and 160(1) nm for the 500 degree Celsius and 1200 degree Celsius data respectively with the nano metric powder displays narrower crystallite size distribution character, indicated by lognormal dispersion parameter of 0.21 as compared to 0.01 for the sub-nano metric powder. The mixture exhibits relatively more asymmetric peak broadening. Analysing the x-ray diffraction data for the latter specimen using single phase approach give unrealistic results. Introducing two phase models for the double-phase mixture to accommodate the bimodal-size-distribution characteristics give R = 100(6) and σ = 0.62 for the nano metric phase and R = 170(5) and σ= 0.12 for the σ sub-nano metric phase. (author)

  14. Comparison between powder and slices diffraction methods in teeth samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaco, Marcos V.; Barroso, Regina C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada; Porto, Isabel M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FOP/UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia; Gerlach, Raquel F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FORP/USP), Rieirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia, Estomatologia e Fisiologia; Costa, Fanny N. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Propose different methods to obtain crystallographic information about biological materials are important since powder method is a nondestructive method. Slices are an approximation of what would be an in vivo analysis. Effects of samples preparation cause differences in scattering profiles compared with powder method. The main inorganic component of bones and teeth is a calcium phosphate mineral whose structure closely resembles hydroxyapatite (HAp). The hexagonal symmetry, however, seems to work well with the powder diffraction data, and the crystal structure of HAp is usually described in space group P63/m. Were analyzed ten third molar teeth. Five teeth were separated in enamel, detin and circumpulpal detin powder and five in slices. All the scattering profile measurements were carried out at the X-ray diffraction beamline (XRD1) at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory - LNLS, Campinas, Brazil. The LNLS synchrotron light source is composed of a 1.37 GeV electron storage ring, delivering approximately 4x10{sup -1}0 photons/s at 8 keV. A double-crystal Si(111) pre-monochromator, upstream of the beamline, was used to select a small energy bandwidth at 11 keV . Scattering signatures were obtained at intervals of 0.04 deg for angles from 24 deg to 52 deg. The human enamel experimental crystallite size obtained in this work were 30(3)nm (112 reflection) and 30(3)nm (300 reflection). These values were obtained from measurements of powdered enamel. When comparing the slice obtained 58(8)nm (112 reflection) and 37(7)nm (300 reflection) enamel diffraction patterns with those generated by the powder specimens, a few differences emerge. This work shows differences between powder and slices methods, separating characteristics of sample of the method's influence. (author)

  15. Comparison between powder and slices diffraction methods in teeth samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colaco, Marcos V.; Barroso, Regina C.; Porto, Isabel M.; Gerlach, Raquel F.; Costa, Fanny N.

    2011-01-01

    Propose different methods to obtain crystallographic information about biological materials are important since powder method is a nondestructive method. Slices are an approximation of what would be an in vivo analysis. Effects of samples preparation cause differences in scattering profiles compared with powder method. The main inorganic component of bones and teeth is a calcium phosphate mineral whose structure closely resembles hydroxyapatite (HAp). The hexagonal symmetry, however, seems to work well with the powder diffraction data, and the crystal structure of HAp is usually described in space group P63/m. Were analyzed ten third molar teeth. Five teeth were separated in enamel, detin and circumpulpal detin powder and five in slices. All the scattering profile measurements were carried out at the X-ray diffraction beamline (XRD1) at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory - LNLS, Campinas, Brazil. The LNLS synchrotron light source is composed of a 1.37 GeV electron storage ring, delivering approximately 4x10 -1 0 photons/s at 8 keV. A double-crystal Si(111) pre-monochromator, upstream of the beamline, was used to select a small energy bandwidth at 11 keV . Scattering signatures were obtained at intervals of 0.04 deg for angles from 24 deg to 52 deg. The human enamel experimental crystallite size obtained in this work were 30(3)nm (112 reflection) and 30(3)nm (300 reflection). These values were obtained from measurements of powdered enamel. When comparing the slice obtained 58(8)nm (112 reflection) and 37(7)nm (300 reflection) enamel diffraction patterns with those generated by the powder specimens, a few differences emerge. This work shows differences between powder and slices methods, separating characteristics of sample of the method's influence. (author)

  16. Agglomerate behaviour of fluticasone propionate within dry powder inhaler formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, V N P; Robins, E; Flament, M P

    2012-04-01

    Due to their small size, the respirable drug particles tend to form agglomerates which prevent flowing and aerosolisation. A carrier is used to be mixed with drug in one hand to facilitate the powder flow during manufacturing, in other hand to help the fluidisation upon patient inhalation. Depending on drug concentration, drug agglomerates can be formed in the mixture. The aim of this work was to study the agglomeration behaviour of fluticasone propionate (FP) within interactive mixtures for inhalation. The agglomerate phenomenon of fluticasone propionate after mixing with different fractions of lactose without fine particles of lactose (smaller than 32 μm) was demonstrated by the optical microscopy observation. A technique measuring the FP size in the mixture was developed, based on laser diffraction method. The FP agglomerate sizes were found to be in a linear correlation with the pore size of the carrier powder bed (R(2)=0.9382). The latter depends on the particle size distribution of carrier. This founding can explain the role of carrier size in de-agglomeration of drug particles in the mixture. Furthermore, it gives more structural information of interactive mixture for inhalation that can be used in the investigation of aerosolisation mechanism of powder. According to the manufacturing history, different batches of FP show different agglomeration intensities which can be detected by Spraytec, a new laser diffraction method for measuring aerodynamic size. After mixing with a carrier, Lactohale LH200, the most cohesive batch of FP, generates a lower fine particle fraction. It can be explained by the fact that agglomerates of fluticasone propionate with very large size was detected in the mixtures. By using silica-gel beads as ball-milling agent during the mixing process, the FP agglomerate size decreases accordingly to the quantity of mixing aid. The homogeneity and the aerodynamic performance of the mixtures are improved. The mixing aid based on ball

  17. Control of core structure in MgB{sub 2} wire through tailoring boron powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Minoru, E-mail: maeda.minoru70@nihon-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Uchiyama, Daisuke [Department of Physics, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Hossain, Md Shahriar Al; Ma, Zongqing [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, North Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Shahabuddin, Mohammed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Kim, Jung Ho, E-mail: jhk@uow.edu.au [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, North Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia)

    2015-07-05

    Highlights: • The typical void structure in the wire is obtained by using large-sized B powder. • In contrast, void alignment can be achieved by using fine B powder. • The sintering at lower temperatures improves the critical current density in fields. - Abstract: A common fabrication process for MgB{sub 2} wire, namely, the in situ powder-in-tube process, forms numerous voids within the wire core, and void formation cannot be completely avoided. The orientation is, however, known to be aligned more or less along the current-flow direction when ductile coarse magnesium powder is used as a precursor, and further tailoring approaches could open up the way to improving the transport critical current density. Herein, we have used boron powders with different particle sizes, in combination with the coarse magnesium powder, and evaluated their size effects on the phase composition, microstructure, and transport properties. A mixture of the coarse magnesium powder with large-sized boron powder in the wire core, after cold working and sintering, forms a granular morphology. In contrast, an aligned core appears during the reduction process for wire which is prepared by using fine boron powder. The sintering process, especially at a low temperature, where magnesium evaporation hardly occurs, yields an aligned structure, mainly consisting of MgB{sub 2} phase, along the wire direction. These findings demonstrate that the initial size of the starting materials is critical for the tailored structure.

  18. [Study on physical properties of titanium alloy sample fabricated with vacuum-sintered powder metallurgy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, X; Liang, X; Chao, Y; Han, X

    2000-06-01

    To investigate the physical properties of titanium alloy fabricated with vacuum-sintered powder metallurgy. The titanium powders of three different particle sizes(-160mesh, -200 - +300mesh, -300mesh) were selected, and mixed with copper and aluminum powder in different proportions. Two other groups were made up of titanium powder(-200 - +300mesh) plated with copper and tin. The build-up and, condensation method and a double-direction press with a metal mold were used. The green compacts were sintered at 1000 degrees C for 15 minutes in a vacuum furnace at 0.025 Pa. In the double-direction press, the specimens were compacted at the pressure of 100 MPa, 200 MPa and 300 MPa respectively. Then the linear shrinkage ratio and the opening porosity of the sintered compacts were evaluated respectively. 1. The linear shrinkage ratio of specimens decreased with the increased compacted pressure(P powders at the same compacted pressure(P > 0.05), but that of titanium powder plated with copper and tin was higher than those of other specimens without plating(P powder did not affect the opening porosity at the same compacted pressure(P > 0.05). The composition of titanium-based metal powder mixtures and the compacted pressures affect the physical properties of sintered compacts. Titanium powder plated with copper and tin is compacted and sintered easily, and the physical properties of sintered compacts are greatly improved.

  19. Nano-scale analysis of titanium dioxide fingerprint-development powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, A J; Jones, B J; Sears, V; Bowman, V

    2008-01-01

    Titanium dioxide based powders are regularly used in the development of latent fingerprints on dark surfaces. For analysis of prints on adhesive tapes, the titanium dioxide is suspended in a surfactant and used in the form of a small particle reagent (SPR). Analysis of commercially available products shows varying levels of effectiveness of print development, with some powders adhering to the background as well as the print. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of prints developed with different powders show a range of levels of aggregation of particles. Analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the fingerprint powder shows TiO 2 particles with a surrounding coating, tens of nanometres thick, consisting of Al and Si rich material. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to determine the composition and chemical state of the surface of the powders; with a penetration depth of approximately 10nm, this technique demonstrates differing Ti: Al: Si ratios and oxidation states between the surfaces of different powders. Levels of titanium detected with this technique demonstrate variation in the integrity of the surface coating. The thickness, integrity and composition of the Al/Si-based coating is related to the level of aggregation of TiO 2 particles and efficacy of print development.

  20. Nano-scale analysis of titanium dioxide fingerprint-development powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, A J; Jones, B J [Experimental Techniques Centre, Brunei University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Sears, V; Bowman, V [Fingerprint and Footwear Forensics, Home Office Scientific Development Branch, Sandridge, St Albans, Hertfordshire, AL4 9HQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: b.j.jones@physics.org

    2008-08-15

    Titanium dioxide based powders are regularly used in the development of latent fingerprints on dark surfaces. For analysis of prints on adhesive tapes, the titanium dioxide is suspended in a surfactant and used in the form of a small particle reagent (SPR). Analysis of commercially available products shows varying levels of effectiveness of print development, with some powders adhering to the background as well as the print. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of prints developed with different powders show a range of levels of aggregation of particles. Analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the fingerprint powder shows TiO{sub 2} particles with a surrounding coating, tens of nanometres thick, consisting of Al and Si rich material. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to determine the composition and chemical state of the surface of the powders; with a penetration depth of approximately 10nm, this technique demonstrates differing Ti: Al: Si ratios and oxidation states between the surfaces of different powders. Levels of titanium detected with this technique demonstrate variation in the integrity of the surface coating. The thickness, integrity and composition of the Al/Si-based coating is related to the level of aggregation of TiO{sub 2} particles and efficacy of print development.

  1. Fabrication of high-alloy powders consisting of spherical particles from ultradispersed components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhin, A. V.; Fadeev, A. A.; Sinayskiy, M. A.; Alekseev, N. V.; Tsvetkov, Yu. V.; Arzhatkina, O. A.

    2017-07-01

    It is shown that powders of a model high alloy consisting of spherical particles 25-50 μm in size can be synthesized from a starting ultradispersed powder, which is made of a mixture of the alloy components and is fabricated by the magnesiothermal reduction of metal chlorides in the potassium chloride melt. The synthesis includes the stages of microgranulation of an ultradispersed powder, heat treatment of microgranules, classification of the microgranules with the separation of microgranule fraction of 25-50 μm, spheroidization of the separated fraction in a thermal plasma flow, and classification with the separation of a fraction of micro- and submicrometer-sized particles.

  2. Kinetics of phase transformation and optical property of pink coral zirconia powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Wang, Cheng-Li; Hwang, Weng-Sing; Lee, Kuen-Chan; Zhou, Xuedong; Wang, Moo-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The single phase of tetragonal ZrO 2 formed when calcined at 1223 K for 1 h. • The tetragonal ZrO 2 fully converted to ZrSiO 4 when calcined at 1323–1473 K for 1 h. • The activation energy of t-ZrO 2 formed is 399.9 kJ/mol when 5 mol% Fe 2 O 3 added. • The activation energy of the Fe/ZrSiO 4 formed is 257.7 kJ/mol when 5 mol% Fe 2 O 3 added. • The growth morphology parameter and crystallization index are about 2.0 and 1.0. - Abstract: The kinetics of phase transformation and optical property of pink coral zircon powders have been studied. The ZrO 2 –SiO 2 –Fe 2 O 3 precursor powders were synthesized using Zr(NO 3 ) 4 ⋅4H 2 O, Si(C 2 H 5 O) 4 and Fe(NO 3 ) 3 ⋅9H 2 O as initial materials via the hot–wet routes. The kinetics of phase transformation of the ZrO 2 –SiO 2 –Fe 2 O 3 precursor powders was characterized by thermo-gravimetric (TG)/differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nano-beam electron diffraction (NBED), and spectrophotometry. The crystallization temperatures of tetragonal zirconia (t-ZrO 2 ) and zircon (ZrSiO 4 ) of ZrO 2 –SiO 2 precursor powders with 1 mol% Fe 2 O 3 were estimated to be approximately 1204 K and 1496 K, respectively, based on a DSC analysis conducted at a heating rate of 20 K/min. The activation energies of t-ZrO 2 formulation are 428.2, 403.2, and 399.9 kJ/mol, respectively, for ZrO 2 –SiO 2 precursor powders containing 1, 3, and 5 mol% Fe 2 O 3 , respectively, whereas the activation energies of the Fe/ZrSiO 4 formulation are 271.9, 261.9, and 257.7 kJ/mol, respectively. The parameter of growth morphology (n) and index of crystallization (m) were approximated as 2.0 and 1.0, respectively, meaning that two-dimensional growth with plate-like morphology was the primary mechanism of ZrO 2 crystallization from ZrO 2 –SiO 2 –Fe 2 O 3 precursor powders. The XRD results show that when the precursor powders of ZrO 2 –SiO 2 –1 mol

  3. Superconducting properties of in situ powder-in-tube-processed MgB{sub 2} tapes fabricated with sub-micrometre Mg powder prepared by an arc-plasma method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, H [Maglev System Development Division, Central Japan Railway Company, 1545-33, Ooyama, Komaki, Aichi 485-0801 (Japan); Uchiyama, N [Maglev System Development Division, Central Japan Railway Company, 1545-33, Ooyama, Komaki, Aichi 485-0801 (Japan); Matsumoto, A [Superconducting Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1, Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Kitaguchi, H [Superconducting Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1, Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Kumakura, H [Superconducting Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1, Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2007-01-15

    We fabricated in situ powder-in-tube-processed MgB{sub 2}/Fe tapes using sub-micrometre Mg powder prepared by applying an arc-plasma method. We found that the use of this sub-micrometre Mg powder was very effective in increasing the J{sub c} values. The transport J{sub c} value of 10 mol% SiC-added tapes fabricated with this sub-micrometre Mg powder reached 275 A mm{sup -2} at 4.2 K and 10 T. This value was about six times that of 5 mol% SiC-added tapes fabricated with commercial Mg powder. Microstructure analyses suggest that this J{sub c} enhancement is primarily due to the smaller MgB{sub 2} grain size.

  4. Superconducting properties of in situ powder-in-tube-processed MgB2 tapes fabricated with sub-micrometre Mg powder prepared by an arc-plasma method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, H; Uchiyama, N; Matsumoto, A; Kitaguchi, H; Kumakura, H

    2007-01-01

    We fabricated in situ powder-in-tube-processed MgB 2 /Fe tapes using sub-micrometre Mg powder prepared by applying an arc-plasma method. We found that the use of this sub-micrometre Mg powder was very effective in increasing the J c values. The transport J c value of 10 mol% SiC-added tapes fabricated with this sub-micrometre Mg powder reached 275 A mm -2 at 4.2 K and 10 T. This value was about six times that of 5 mol% SiC-added tapes fabricated with commercial Mg powder. Microstructure analyses suggest that this J c enhancement is primarily due to the smaller MgB 2 grain size

  5. Thermal decomposition of silane to form hydrogenated amorphous Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strongin, M.; Ghosh, A.K.; Wiesmann, H.J.; Rock, E.B.; Lutz, H.A. III

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon is produced by thermally decomposing silane (SiH/sub 4/) or other gases comprising H and Si, at elevated temperatures of about 1700 to 2300/sup 0/C, in a vacuum of about 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -4/ torr. A gaseous mixture is formed of atomic hydrogen and atomic silicon. The gaseous mixture is deposited onto a substrate to form hydrogenated amorphous silicon.

  6. Ni3Si(Al)/a-SiOx core shell nanoparticles: characterization, shell formation, and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigozzi, G.; Mukherji, D.; Gilles, R.; Barbier, B.; Kostorz, G.

    2006-08-01

    We have used an electrochemical selective phase dissolution method to extract nanoprecipitates of the Ni3Si-type intermetallic phase from two-phase Ni-Si and Ni-Si-Al alloys by dissolving the matrix phase. The extracted nanoparticles are characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry, x-ray powder diffraction, and electron powder diffraction. It is found that the Ni3Si-type nanoparticles have a core-shell structure. The core maintains the size, the shape, and the crystal structure of the precipitates that existed in the bulk alloys, while the shell is an amorphous phase, containing only Si and O (SiOx). The shell forms around the precipitates during the extraction process. After annealing the nanoparticles in nitrogen at 700 °C, the tridymite phase recrystallizes within the shell, which remains partially amorphous. In contrast, on annealing in air at 1000 °C, no changes in the composition or the structure of the nanoparticles occur. It is suggested that the shell forms after dealloying of the matrix phase, where Si atoms, the main constituents of the shell, migrate to the surface of the precipitates.

  7. Application of laser in powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolochko, N.K.

    1995-01-01

    Modern status of works in the field of laser application in powder metallurgy (powders preparation, sintering, coatings formation, powder materials processing) is considered. The attention is paid to the new promising direction in powder products shape-formation technology - laser layer-by-layer selective powders sintering and bulk sintering of packaged layered profiles produced by laser cutting of powder-based sheet blanks. 67 refs

  8. Spheroidization by Plasma Processing and Characterization of Stainless Steel Powder for 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lina; Wang, Changzhen; Wu, Wenjie; Tan, Chao; Wang, Guoyu; Duan, Xuan-Ming

    2017-10-01

    Stainless steel 316L (SS 316L) powder was spheroidized by plasma processing to improve its suitability for powder 3D printing. The obtained spheroidized (sphero) powder was characterized in terms of its crystalline phases, elemental composition, morphology, particle size and distribution, light absorption, and flow properties. The elemental composition of the sphero powder met the Chinese standard for SS 316L except for its Si content. The volume fraction of ferrite increased after plasma processing. Furthermore, plasma processing was shown to not only reduce the mean size of the particles in the size range of 10 to 100 μm but also generate particles in the size range of 0.1 to 10 μm. The smaller particles filled the voids among larger particles, increasing the powder density. The light absorption was also increased owing to enhanced internal reflection. Although the basic flow energy decreased after plasma processing, the flow function (FF) value was smaller for the sphero powder, indicating a lower flowability of the sphero powder. However, the density of SS 316L pieces printed with commercial and sphero powders was 98.76 pct and 98.16 pct of the SS 316L bulk density, respectively, indicating the suitability of the sphero powder for 3D printing despite an FF below 10.

  9. Black powder in gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherik, Abdelmounam [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-07-01

    Despite its common occurrence in the gas industry, black powder is a problem that is not well understood across the industry, in terms of its chemical and physical properties, source, formation, prevention or management of its impacts. In order to prevent or effectively manage the impacts of black powder, it is essential to have knowledge of its chemical and physical properties, formation mechanisms and sources. The present paper is divided into three parts. The first part of this paper is a synopsis of published literature. The second part reviews the recent laboratory and field work conducted at Saudi Aramco Research and Development Center to determine the compositions, properties, sources and formation mechanisms of black powder in gas transmission systems. Microhardness, nano-indentation, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were used to analyze a large number of black powder samples collected from the field. Our findings showed that black powder is generated inside pipelines due to internal corrosion and that the composition of black powder is dependent on the composition of transported gas. The final part presents a summary and brief discussion of various black powder management methods. (author)

  10. Development of the fabrication process of SiC composite by polycarbosilane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon Ju; Kim, Jung Il; Ryu, Woo Seog

    2004-11-01

    This technical report reviewed the fabrication process of fiber reinforced ceramic composites, characteristics of the PIP process, and applications of SiC f /SiC composite to develop a silicon carbide composite by PIP method. Additionally, characteristics and thermal behaviors of a PCS+SiC powder slurry and infiltration behaviors of slurry into the SiC fabric was evaluated. The stacking behaviors of SiC fabrics infiltrated a PCS+SiC powder slurry was also investigated. Using this stacked preforms, SiC f /SiC composites were fabricated by the electron beam curing and pyrolysis process and the thermal oxidation curing and pyrolysis process, respectively. And the characteristics of both composites were compared

  11. Characterisation of spray dried soy sauce powders made by adding crystalline carbohydrates to drying carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Weibiao

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to reduce stickiness and caking of spray dried soy sauce powders by introducing a new crystalline structure into powder particles. To perform this task, soy sauce powders were formulated by using mixtures of cellulose and maltodextrin or mixtures of waxy starch and maltodextrin as drying carriers, with a fixed carrier addition rate of 30% (w/v) in the feed solution. The microstructure, crystallinity, solubility as well as stickiness and caking strength of all the different powders were analysed and compared. Incorporating crystalline carbohydrates in the drying carrier could significantly reduce the stickiness and caking strength of the powders when the ratio of crystalline carbohydrates to maltodextrin was above 1:5 and 1:2, respectively. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) results showed that adding cellulose or waxy starch could induce the crystallinity of powders. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results demonstrated that the native starch added to the soy sauce powders did not fully gelatinize during spray drying. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fabrication of Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory alloy powders by ball milling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.; Nam, T.

    2001-01-01

    Ti-Ni and Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory alloy powders have been fabricated by ball milling method, and then alloying behavior and transformation behavior were investigated by means of optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. As milled Ti-Ni powders fabricated with milling time less than 20 hrs was a mixture of pure elemental Ti and Ni, and therefore it was unable to obtain alloy powders because the combustion reaction between Ti and Ni occurred during heat treatment. Since those fabricated with milling time more than 20 hrs was a mixture of Ti-rich and Ni-rich Ti-Ni solid solution, however, it was possible to obtain alloy powders without the combustion reaction during heat treatment. Clear exothermic and endothermic peaks appeared in the cooling and heating curves, respectively in DSC curves of 20 hrs and 30 hrs milled Ti-Ni powders. On the other hand, in DSC curves of 1 hr, 10 hrs, 50 hrs and 100 hrs, the thermal peaks were almost discernible. The most optimum ball milling time for fabricating Ti-Ni alloy powders was 30 hrs. Ti-40Ni-10Cu(at%) alloy powders were fabricated successfully by ball milling conditions with rotating speed of 100 rpm and milling time of 30 hrs. (author)

  13. Influence of deposition and spray pattern of nasal powders on insulin bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringels, E; Callens, C; Vervaet, C; Dumont, F; Slegers, G; Foreman, P; Remon, J P

    2006-03-09

    The influence of the deposition pattern and spray characteristics of nasal powder formulations on the insulin bioavailability was investigated in rabbits. The formulations were prepared by freeze drying a dispersion containing a physical mixture of drum dried waxy maize starch (DDWM)/Carbopol 974P (90/10, w/w) or a spray-dried mixture of Amioca starch/Carbopol 974P (25/75, w/w). The deposition in the nasal cavity of rabbits and in a silicone human nose model after actuation of three nasal delivery devices (Monopowder, Pfeiffer and experimental system) was compared and related to the insulin bioavailability. Posterior deposition of the powder formulation in the nasal cavity lowered the insulin bioavailability. To study the spray pattern, the shape and cross-section of the emitted powder cloud were analysed. It was concluded that the powder bulk density of the formulation influenced the spray pattern. Consequently, powders of different bulk density were prepared by changing the solid fraction of the freeze dried dispersion and by changing the freezing rate during freeze drying. After nasal delivery of these powder formulations no influence of the powder bulk density and of the spray pattern on the insulin bioavailability was observed.

  14. (TECTONA GRANDIS LEAF POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the adsorption potential of Teak (Tectona grandis leaf powder (TLP toremove Methylene blue (MB and Malachite Green (MG dye molecules from aqueoussolution was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the influenceof operational parameters such as, pH (2−9, adsorbent dosage (1−7 g/L, contact time(15−150 minutes and initial dye concentration (20−120 mg/L at stirring speed of 150rpm for the adsorption of MB and MG on TLP. Maximum removal efficiency of 98.4%and 95.1% was achieved for MB and MG dye, respectively. The experimentalequilibrium data were analysed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isothermmodels and it was found that, it fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm model. Thesurface structure and morphology of the adsorbent was characterized using scanningelectron microscopy (SEM and the presence of functional groups and its interactionwith the dye molecules were analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR. Based on the investigation, it has been demonstrated that the teak leaf powderhas good potential for effective adsorption of methylene blue and malachite green dye.

  15. Beamline I11 at Diamond: a new instrument for high resolution powder diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S P; Parker, J E; Potter, J; Hill, T P; Birt, A; Cobb, T M; Yuan, F; Tang, C C

    2009-07-01

    The performance characteristics of a new synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction beamline (I11) at the Diamond Light Source are presented. Using an in-vacuum undulator for photon production and deploying simple x-ray optics centered around a double-crystal monochromator and a pair of harmonic rejection mirrors, a high brightness and low bandpass x-ray beam is delivered at the sample. To provide fast data collection, 45 Si(111) analyzing crystals and detectors are installed onto a large and high precision diffractometer. High resolution powder diffraction data from standard reference materials of Si, alpha-quartz, and LaB6 are used to characterize instrumental performance.

  16. Perception of trigeminal mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiou, Renée-Pier; Lepore, Franco; Bryant, Bruce; Lundström, Johan N; Frasnelli, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The trigeminal system is a chemical sense allowing for the perception of chemosensory information in our environment. However, contrary to smell and taste, we lack a thorough understanding of the trigeminal processing of mixtures. We, therefore, investigated trigeminal perception using mixtures of 3 relatively receptor-specific agonists together with one control odor in different proportions to determine basic perceptual dimensions of trigeminal perception. We found that 4 main dimensions were linked to trigeminal perception: sensations of intensity, warmth, coldness, and pain. We subsequently investigated perception of binary mixtures of trigeminal stimuli by means of these 4 perceptual dimensions using different concentrations of a cooling stimulus (eucalyptol) mixed with a stimulus that evokes warmth perception (cinnamaldehyde). To determine if sensory interactions are mainly of central or peripheral origin, we presented stimuli in a physical "mixture" or as a "combination" presented separately to individual nostrils. Results showed that mixtures generally yielded higher ratings than combinations on the trigeminal dimensions "intensity," "warm," and "painful," whereas combinations yielded higher ratings than mixtures on the trigeminal dimension "cold." These results suggest dimension-specific interactions in the perception of trigeminal mixtures, which may be explained by particular interactions that may take place on peripheral or central levels. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Inhalable siRNA-loaded nano-embedded microparticles engineered using microfluidics and spray drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agnoletti, Monica; Bohr, Adam; Thanki, Kaushik

    2017-01-01

    processing, and nanocomplexes could be reconstituted from the dry powders. The amorphous saccharide excipients trehalose and inulin provided better stabilization than crystalline mannitol, and they enabled full reconstitution of the nanocomplexes. In particular, a binary mixture of trehalose and inulin...

  18. Shock compaction of molybdenum powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Kostka, D.; Vreeland, T., Jr.; Schwarz, R. B.; Kasiraj, P.

    1983-01-01

    Shock recovery experiments which were carried out in the 9 to 12 GPa range on 1.4 distension Mo and appear adequate to compact to full density ( 45 (SIGMA)m) powders were examined. The stress levels, however, are below those calculated to be from 100 to approx. 22 GPa which a frictional heating model predicts are required to consolidate approx. 10 to 50 (SIGMA)m particles. The model predicts that powders that have a distension of m=1.6 shock pressures of 14 to 72 GPa are required to consolidate Mo powders in the 50 to 10 (SIGMA)m range.

  19. Iterative Mixture Component Pruning Algorithm for Gaussian Mixture PHD Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As far as the increasing number of mixture components in the Gaussian mixture PHD filter is concerned, an iterative mixture component pruning algorithm is proposed. The pruning algorithm is based on maximizing the posterior probability density of the mixture weights. The entropy distribution of the mixture weights is adopted as the prior distribution of mixture component parameters. The iterative update formulations of the mixture weights are derived by Lagrange multiplier and Lambert W function. Mixture components, whose weights become negative during iterative procedure, are pruned by setting corresponding mixture weights to zeros. In addition, multiple mixture components with similar parameters describing the same PHD peak can be merged into one mixture component in the algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed iterative mixture component pruning algorithm is superior to the typical pruning algorithm based on thresholds.

  20. The study of characteristics of powders of polymers for 3D printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. F. Shutilin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges is to find ways of recovering the expensive powder. With this aim, we needed to find out what happens with polyamide powder in the chamber of the printer and what processes affect raw materials, thereby impairing the physico-mechanical properties. In order to answer these questions, we conducted a number of studies. Articles of mixtures with a high aspect ratio of the secondary powder lose their properties: their surface is rough, increased fragility, there is a possibility of deformation of details. We carried out studies of the powder based on polyamide-12, applied by JSC "Center of technological competence of additive technologies" of the city of Voronezh, brand PA2200 modified. Material white powder, odourless. An increase in the degree of crystallinity from recycled polymer is considered an anomaly. But the violation of this trend due to the peculiarities of the technology of selective laser sintering. Thus, prolonged exposure of the powder in the chamber at a temperature close to the melting point, followed by a long cooling to room temperature represents the ideal conditions for the growth of crystalline phase. The research was able to identify differences due to deterioration of the physico-chemical properties of the powder after processing. The most important is the agglomeration of particles of the secondary powder in relation to the primary. In this regard, powder, already passed the stage of processing, an increase in the melting temperature, which causes defects in the fabricated parts: as the capacity of the carbon laser melting powder particles is fixed, its energy is not sufficient for the occurrence of the endothermic reaction caused by melting of the secondary powder. Thus, the powder particles only partially fused, whereby the resulting products of the observed increase in fragility.

  1. Electron spin resonance and thermoluminescence in powder form of clear fused quartz: effects of grinding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjbar, A.H.; Durrani, S.A.; Randle, K.

    1999-01-01

    Clear fused quartz (CFQ) tubes were powdered either manually by using a mortar and pestle (for coarse production) or mechanically, using a micronising mill (for fine production). A high and multisignal electron spin resonance (ESR) background was found in the fine powder even after annealing it at 900 deg. C for 20 min. In the case of the coarse powder, the signal (ESR background) varied inversely with particle size and was quite high for particle sizes lower than 38 μm. In a subsidiary experiment, using fine SiO 2 powder (99.8% pure, with the particle size of ∼0.007 μm), manufactured by using flame hydrolysis, only a weak background signal was found. The 60 Co gamma-ray irradiated powders (∼22 Gy) were subjected to ESR analysis or thermoluminescence (TL) readout. The ESR intensity of the coarse powder varied directly with particle size. Thus, the intensity for a particle size of 20-38 μm was very low and almost the same as the unirradiated intensity. In TL readout the results were the opposite: the TL intensity of the coarse powder varied inversely with the particle size down to 38 μm, after which it decreased with decreasing particle size of the material. The fine powder, produced by grinding the CFQ tubes, was insensitive to gamma-rays (at least at doses of up to 50 Gy); but for the flame hydrolysis SiO 2 the situation was the opposite. The minimum detectable dose (MDD) for the CFQ in powder form using ESR was ∼2 Gy, which is ∼2 times higher than that for the bulk form, while the MDD for the powder using TL was ∼20 μGy, which is ∼2 times lower than that for the bulk form of the material

  2. Electron spin resonance and thermoluminescence in powder form of clear fused quartz: effects of grinding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjbar, A.H. [Physics Department, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Durrani, S.A. [School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Randle, K. [School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    1999-02-01

    Clear fused quartz (CFQ) tubes were powdered either manually by using a mortar and pestle (for coarse production) or mechanically, using a micronising mill (for fine production). A high and multisignal electron spin resonance (ESR) background was found in the fine powder even after annealing it at 900 deg. C for 20 min. In the case of the coarse powder, the signal (ESR background) varied inversely with particle size and was quite high for particle sizes lower than 38 {mu}m. In a subsidiary experiment, using fine SiO{sub 2} powder (99.8% pure, with the particle size of {approx}0.007 {mu}m), manufactured by using flame hydrolysis, only a weak background signal was found. The {sup 60}Co gamma-ray irradiated powders ({approx}22 Gy) were subjected to ESR analysis or thermoluminescence (TL) readout. The ESR intensity of the coarse powder varied directly with particle size. Thus, the intensity for a particle size of 20-38 {mu}m was very low and almost the same as the unirradiated intensity. In TL readout the results were the opposite: the TL intensity of the coarse powder varied inversely with the particle size down to 38 {mu}m, after which it decreased with decreasing particle size of the material. The fine powder, produced by grinding the CFQ tubes, was insensitive to gamma-rays (at least at doses of up to 50 Gy); but for the flame hydrolysis SiO{sub 2} the situation was the opposite. The minimum detectable dose (MDD) for the CFQ in powder form using ESR was {approx}2 Gy, which is {approx}2 times higher than that for the bulk form, while the MDD for the powder using TL was {approx}20 {mu}Gy, which is {approx}2 times lower than that for the bulk form of the material.

  3. One-step Ge/Si epitaxial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hung-Chi; Lin, Bi-Hsuan; Chen, Huang-Chin; Chen, Po-Chin; Sheu, Hwo-Shuenn; Lin, I-Nan; Chiu, Hsin-Tien; Lee, Chi-Young

    2011-07-01

    Fabricating a low-cost virtual germanium (Ge) template by epitaxial growth of Ge films on silicon wafer with a Ge(x)Si(1-x) (0 deposition method in one step by decomposing a hazardousless GeO(2) powder under hydrogen atmosphere without ultra-high vacuum condition and then depositing in a low-temperature region. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the Ge film with an epitaxial relationship is along the in-plane direction of Si. The successful growth of epitaxial Ge films on Si substrate demonstrates the feasibility of integrating various functional devices on the Ge/Si substrates.

  4. Comparative study of methods to measure the density of Cementious powders

    OpenAIRE

    Helsel, Michelle A.; Ferraris, Chiara F.; Bentz, Dale

    2015-01-01

    The accurate measurement of the density of hydraulic cement has an essential role in the determination of concrete mixture proportions. As more supplementary cementitious materials (SCM), such as fly ash, and slag, or cement replacements materials such as limestone and calcium carbonate are used in blended cements, knowledge of the density of each powder or of the blended cement would allow a more accurate calculation of the proportions of a concrete mixture by volume instead of by mass. The ...

  5. Ultrasonic wave propagation in powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Lashi, R. S.; Povey, M. J. W.; Watson, N. J.

    2018-05-01

    Powder clumps (cakes) has a significant effect on the flowability and stability of powders. Powder caking is mainly caused by moisture migration due to wetting and environmental (temperature and humidity) changes. The process of moisture migration caking involves creating liquid bridges between the particles during condensation which subsequently harden to form solid bridges. Therefore, an effective and reliable technique is required to quantitatively and non-invasively monitor caking kinetics and effective stiffness. This paper describes two ultrasonic instruments (ultrasonic velocity pulse and airborne ultrasound systems) that have been used to monitor the caking phenomenon. Also, it discusses the relationship between the ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements and tracking caking kinetics and the effective stiffness of powders.

  6. Neutron Powder Diffraction in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellgren, R.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron powder diffraction in Sweden has developed around the research reactor R2 in Studsvik. The article describes this facility and presents a historical review of research results obtained. It also gives some ideas of plans for future development

  7. Powder metallurgy - some economic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    As a forming process powder metallurgy offers reductions in material and energy consumption. The engineering prerequisites and economics are discussed in relation to several industrial applications including automobile parts. 14 refs.

  8. Powder metallurgy of refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reports on the powder metallurgical methods for the production of high-melting materials, such as pure metals and their alloys, compound materials with a tungsten base and hard metals from liquid phase sintered carbides. (author)

  9. Evidence for nano-Si clusters in amorphous SiO anode materials for rechargeable Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T.; Kodzuka, M.; Yamamura, H.; Saito, T.; Iba, H.; Hono, K.

    2013-01-01

    Atom probe tomography and high resolution transmission electron microscopy have shown the presence of nano-sized amorphous Si clusters in non-disproportionated amorphous SiO powders are under consideration for anode materials in Li-ion batteries. After Li insertion/extraction, no change was found in the chemistry and structure of the Si clusters. However, Li atoms were found to be trapped at the amorphous SiO phase after Li insertion/extraction, which may be attributed to the large capacity fade after the first charge/discharge cycle

  10. DLC-Si protective coatings for polycarbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damasceno J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a-C:H:Si (DLC-Si films were produced onto crystalline silicon and polycarbonate substrates by the rf-PACVD technique from gaseous mixtures of CH4 + SiH4 and C2H2 + SiH4. The effects of self-bias and gas composition upon mechanical and optical properties of the films were investigated. Micro-hardness, residual stress, surface roughness and refractive index measurements were employed for characterization. By incorporating low concentrations of silicon and by exploring the more favorable conditions for the rf-PACVD deposition technique, highly adherent DLC-Si thin films were produced with reduced internal stresses (lower than 1 GPa, high hardness (around 20 GPa and high deposition rates (up to 10 µm/h. Results that show the technological viability of this material for application as protective coatings for polycarbonates are also discussed.

  11. Pressurized Anneal of Consolidated Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemir, David Charles (Inventor); Rubio, Edward S. (Inventor); Beck, Jan Bastian (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods for producing a dense, well bonded solid material from a powder may include consolidating the powder utilizing any suitable consolidation method, such as explosive shockwave consolidation. The systems and methods may also include a post-processing thermal treatment that exploits a mismatch between the coefficients of thermal expansion between the consolidated material and the container. Due to the mismatch in the coefficients, internal pressure on the consolidated material during the heat treatment may be increased.

  12. Phase relations in the SiC-Al2O3-Pr2O3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, W.; Wu, L.; Jiang, Y.; Huang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Phase relations in the Si-Al-Pr-O-C system, including the SiC-Al 2 O 3 -Pr 2 O 3 , the Al 2 O 3 -Pr 2 O 3 -SiO 2 and the SiC-Al 2 O 3 -Pr 2 O 3 -SiO 2 subsystems, were determined by means of XRD phase analysis of solid-state-reacted samples fabricated by using SiC, Al 2 O 3 , Pr 2 O 3 and SiO 2 powders as the starting materials. Subsolidus phase diagrams of the systems were presented. Two Pr-aluminates, namely PrAlO 3 (PrAP) and PrAl 11 O 18 (β(Pr) β-Al 2 O 3 type) were formed in the SiC-Al 2 O 3 -Pr 2 O 3 system. SiC was compatible with both of them. Pr-silicates of Pr 2 SiO 5 , Pr 2 Si 2 O 7 and Pr 9.33 Si 6 O 26 (H(Pr) apatite type) were formed owing to presence of SiO 2 impurity in the SiC powder. The presence of the SiO 2 extended the ternary system of SiC-Al 2 O 3 -Pr 2 O 3 into a quaternary system of SiC-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -Pr 2 O 3 (Si-Al-Pr-O-C). SiC was compatible with Al 2 O 3 , Pr 2 O 3 and the Pr-silicates. The effect of SiO 2 on the phase relations and liquid phase sintering of SiC ceramics was discussed.

  13. A study on the formation of iron aluminide (FeAl) from elemental powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sina, H.; Corneliusson, J.; Turba, K.; Iyengar, S.

    2015-07-05

    Highlights: • Fe–40 at.% Al discs with coarse iron powder showed precombustion and combustion peaks. • Loose powder mixtures and discs with fine iron powder showed only combustion peaks. • Slower heating rate and fine aluminum particles promote precombustion. • The major product formed during both the reactions was Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5}. • Heating the samples to 1000 °C yielded a stable FeAl phase as the final product. - Abstract: The formation of iron aluminide (FeAl) during the heating of Fe–40 at.% Al powder mixture has been studied using a differential scanning calorimeter. The effect of particle size of the reactants, compaction of the powder mixtures as well as the heating rate on combustion behavior has been investigated. On heating compacted discs containing relatively coarser iron powder, DSC data show two consecutive exothermic peaks corresponding to precombustion and combustion reactions. The product formed during both these reactions is Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and there is a volume expansion in the sample. The precombustion reaction could be improved by a slower heating rate as well as a better surface coverage of iron particles using relatively finer aluminum powder. The combustion reaction was observed to be weaker after a strong precombustion stage. Heating the samples to 1000 °C resulted in the formation of a single and stable FeAl phase through the diffusional reaction between Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and residual iron. DSC results for compacted discs containing relatively finer iron powder and for the non-compacted samples showed a single combustion exotherm during heating, with Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} as the product and traces of FeAl. X-ray diffraction and EDS data confirmed the formation of FeAl as the final product after heating these samples to 1000 °C.

  14. [Determination method of polysorbates in powdered soup by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Y; Abe, Y; Ishiwata, H; Yamada, T

    2001-04-01

    A method for qualitative and quantitative analyses of polysorbates in powdered soup by HPLC was studied. Polysorbates in samples were extracted with acetonitrile after rinsing with n-hexane to remove fats and oils. The extract was cleaned up using a Bond Elut silica gel cartridge (500 mg). The cartridge was washed with ethyl acetate and polysorbates were eluted with a small amount of acetonitrile-methanol (1:2) mixture. The eluate was treated with cobalt thiocyanate solution to form a blue complex with polysorbate. In order to determine polysorbate, the complex was subjected to HPLC with a GPC column, using a mixture of acetonitrile-water (95:5) as a mobile phase, with a detection wavelength of 620 nm. The recoveries of polysorbate 80 added to powdered soups were more than 75% and the determination limit was 0.04 mg/g. When the proposed method was applied to the determination of polysorbates in 16 commercial samples of powdered soup for instant noodles and seasoning consomme, no polysorbates were detected in any sample.

  15. Powder compression mechanics of spray-dried lactose nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellrup, Joel; Nordström, Josefina; Mahlin, Denny

    2017-02-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the structural impact of the nanofiller incorporation on the powder compression mechanics of spray-dried lactose. The lactose was co-spray-dried with three different nanofillers, that is, cellulose nanocrystals, sodium montmorillonite and fumed silica, which led to lower micron-sized nanocomposite particles with varying structure and morphology. The powder compression mechanics of the nanocomposites and physical mixtures of the neat spray-dried components were evaluated by a rational evaluation method with compression analysis as a tool, using the Kawakita equation and the Shapiro-Konopicky-Heckel equation. Particle rearrangement dominated the initial compression profiles due to the small particle size of the materials. The strong contribution of particle rearrangement in the materials with fumed silica continued throughout the whole compression profile, which prohibited an in-depth material characterization. However, the lactose/cellulose nanocrystals and the lactose/sodium montmorillonite nanocomposites demonstrated high yield pressure compared with the physical mixtures indicating increased particle hardness upon composite formation. This increase has likely to do with a reinforcement of the nanocomposite particles by skeleton formation of the nanoparticles. In summary, the rational evaluation of mechanical properties done by applying powder compression analysis proved to be a valuable tool for mechanical evaluation for this type of spray-dried composite materials, unless they demonstrate particle rearrangement throughout the whole compression profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mo-based compounds for SiC-SiC joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnani, G.; Beaulardi, L.; Mingazzini, C. [ENEA-Faenza (Italy). New Material Div.; Marmo, E. [Fabbricazioni Nucleari S.p.A., Bosco Mavengo (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    New method to joint silicon carbide-based material was developed. It was based on mixture composed mainly by molybdenum silicides. This mixture was tested as brazing mixture with several types of silicon carbide-based material. Microstructural examination of the joint showed that brazing mixture reacted with substrate to form silicon carbide on the surface, while two different molybdenum silicides were identified inside the joint (MoSi{sub 2} and Mo{sub 4.8}Si{sub 3}C{sub 0.6}). Preliminary oxidation tests performed by means of TGA showed high oxidation resistance of this joint over 1000 C making it very promising for high temperature application like ceramic heat exchanger. (orig.)

  17. Amorphous silicon prepared from silane-hydrogen mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietruszko, S.M.

    1982-09-01

    Amorphous silicon films prepared from a d.c. discharge of 10% SiH 4 - 90% H 2 mixture are found to have properties similar to those made from 100% SiH 4 . These films are found to be quite stable against prolonged light exposure. The effect of nitrogen on the properties of these films was investigated. It was found that instead of behaving as a classical donor, nitrogen introduces deep levels in the material. Field effect experiments on a-Si:H films at the bottom (film-substrate interface) and the top (film-vacuum interface) of the film are also reported. (author)

  18. The precursors effects on biomimetic hydroxyapatite ceramic powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoruç, Afife Binnaz Hazar; Aydınoğlu, Aysu

    2017-06-01

    In this study, effects of the starting material on chemical, physical, and biological properties of biomimetic hydroxyapatite ceramic powders (BHA) were investigated. Characterization and chemical analysis of BHA powders were performed by using XRD, FT-IR, and ICP-AES. Microstructural features such as size and morphology of the resulting BHA powders were characterized by using BET, nano particle sizer, pycnometer, and SEM. Additionally, biological properties of the BHA ceramic powders were also investigated by using water-soluble tetrazolium salts test (WST-1). According to the chemical analysis of BHA ceramic powders, chemical structures of ceramics which are prepared under different conditions and by using different starting materials show differences. Ceramic powders which are produced at 80°C are mainly composed of hydroxyapatite, dental hydroxyapatite (contain Na and Mg elements in addition to Ca), and calcium phosphate sulfide. However, these structures are altered at high temperatures such as 900°C depending on the features of starting materials and form various calcium phosphate ceramics and/or their mixtures such as Na-Mg-hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, Mg-Whitlockit, and chloroapatite. In vitro cytotoxicity studies showed that amorphous ceramics produced at 80°C and ceramics containing chloroapatite structure as main or secondary phases were found to be extremely cytotoxic. Furthermore, cell culture studies showed that highly crystalline pure hydroxyapatite structures were extremely cytotoxic due to their high crystallinity values. Consequently, the current study indicates that the selection of starting materials which can be used in the production of calcium phosphate ceramics is very important. It is possible to produce calcium phosphate ceramics which have sufficient biocompatibility at physiological pH values and by using appropriate starting materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 21 CFR 73.1647 - Copper powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.1647 Section 73.1647 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1647 Copper powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive copper powder is a very fine free-flowing metallic powder prepared from virgin electrolytic copper. It...

  20. Effect Of SiC Particles On Sinterability Of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu P/M Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudianto H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Premix Al-5.5Zn-2.5Mg-0.5Cu alloy powder was analyzed as matrix in this research. Gas atomized powder Al-9Si with 20% volume fraction of SiC particles was used as reinforcement and added into the alloy with varied concentration. Mix powders were compacted by dual action press with compaction pressure of 700 MPa. High volume fraction of SiC particles gave lower green density due to resistance of SiC particles to plastic deformation during compaction process and resulted voids between particles and this might reduce sinterability of this mix powder. Sintering was carried out under ultra high purity nitrogen gas from 565°-580°C for 1 hour. High content of premix Al-5.5Zn-2.5Mg-0.5Cu alloy powder gave better sintering density and reached up to 98% relative. Void between particles, oxide layer on aluminum powder and lower wettability between matrix and reinforcement particles lead to uncompleted liquid phase sintering, and resulted on lower sintering density and mechanical properties on powder with high content of SiC particles. Mix powder with wt90% of Alumix 431D and wt10% of Al-9Si-vf20SiC powder gave higher tensile strength compare to another mix powder for 270 MPa. From chemical compositions, sintering precipitates might form after sintering such as MgZn2, CuAl2 and Mg2Si. X-ray diffraction, DSC-TGA, and SEM were used to characterize these materials.