WorldWideScience

Sample records for shuttle iodinated resin

  1. Synthesis of iodine-containing cyclophosphazenes for using as radiopacifiers in dental composite resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yuchen; Lan, Jinle [State Key Laboratory of Organic–Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, Xiaoyan; Deng, Xuliang [Department of Geriatric Dentistry, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing 100081 (China); Cai, Qing, E-mail: caiqing@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic–Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Beijing Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Yang, Xiaoping [State Key Laboratory of Organic–Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Beijing Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a strategy of using iodine-containing cyclophosphazenes as radiopacifiers for dental composite resin was evaluated. It was hypothesized that cyclophosphazenes bearing both iodine and acrylate group swere able to endow composite resins radiopacity without compromising mechanical properties. The cyclophosphazene compounds were synthesized by subsequently nucleophilic substitution of hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene with hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and 4-iodoaniline. Cyclotriphosphazenes containing two different molar ratios of HEMA to 4-iodoaniline (1:5 and 2:4) were obtained, and were identified with {sup 1}H NMR, FT-IR, UV and mass spectroscopy. The iodine-containing cyclophosphazenes were able to dissolve well in bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA)/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) resin, and were added at two contents (10 or 15%wt. of the resin). The resins were photo-cured and post-thermal treated before characterizations. The resulting composite resins demonstrated the ability of blocking X-ray. And the addition of HEMA-co-iodoaniline substituted cyclotriphosphazenes caused minor adverse effect on the mechanical properties of the resins because the cyclotriphosphazenes could mix well and react with the resins. The presence of rigid phosphazene rings between resin backbones displayed an effective function of decreasing polymerization shrinkage. In summary, soluble and reactive iodine-containing cyclotriphosphazenes demonstrated advantages over traditional heavy metals or metal oxides in being used as additives for producing radiopaque dental resins. - Highlights: • Iodine-containing cyclotriphosphazenes were prepared via nucleophilic substitution. • The cyclotriphosphazenes endowed Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resins radiopacity. • The cyclotriphosphazenes caused a minor adverse effect on mechanical properties.

  2. Iodine adsorption on ion-exchange resins and activated carbons: batch testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Kent E.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-09-30

    Iodine sorption onto seven resins and six carbon materials was evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36 on the Hanford Site. These materials were tested using a range of solution-to-solid ratios. The test results are as follows. The efficacy of the resin and granular activated carbon materials was less than predicted based on manufacturers’ performance data. It is hypothesized that this is due to the differences in speciation previously determined for Hanford groundwater. The sorption of iodine is affected by the iodine species in the source water. Iodine loading on resins using source water ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g with the corresponding Kd values from 189.9 to 227.0 mL/g. The sorption values when the iodine is converted to iodide ranged from 2.75 to 5.90 µg/g with the corresponding Kd values from 536.3 to 2979.6 mL/g. It is recommended that methods to convert iodine to iodide be investigated in fiscal year (FY) 2015. The chemicals used to convert iodine to iodate adversely affected the sorption of iodine onto the carbon materials. Using as-received source water, loading and Kd values ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g and 189.8 to 226.3 mL/g respectively. After treatment, loading and Kd values could not be calculated because there was little change between the initial and final iodine concentration. It is recommended the cause of the decrease in iodine sorption be investigated in FY15. In direct support of CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has evaluated samples from within the 200W pump and treat bioreactors. As part of this analysis, pictures taken within the bioreactor reveal a precipitate that, based on physical properties and known aqueous chemistry, is hypothesized to be iron pyrite or chalcopyrite, which could affect iodine adsorption. It is recommended these materials be tested at different solution-to-solid ratios in FY15 to determine their effect on iodine

  3. Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Iodine Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? Ask ... find out more about iodine? Disclaimer What is iodine and what does it do? Iodine is a ...

  4. HPLC Characterization of Phenol-Formaldehyde Resole Resin Used in Fabrication of Shuttle Booster Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Philip R.

    1999-01-01

    A reverse phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method was developed to rapidly fingerprint a phenol-formaldehyde resole resin similar to Durite(R) SC-1008. This resin is used in the fabrication of carbon-carbon composite materials from which Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster nozzles are manufactured. A knowledge of resin chemistry is essential to successful composite processing and performance. The results indicate that a high quality separation of over 35 peaks in 25 minutes were obtained using a 15 cm Phenomenex LUNA C8 bonded reverse phase column, a three-way water-acetonitrile-methanol nonlinear gradient, and LTV detection at 280 nm.

  5. Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t have enough iodine to do its job, feedback systems in the body cause the thyroid to ... FDA-approved products (ThyroShield, Iosat) and on the Internet as food supplements. Potassium iodide should only be ...

  6. Large Scale Solid Phase Synthesis of Peptide Drugs: Use of Commercial Anion Exchange Resin as Quenching Agent for Removal of Iodine during Disulphide Bond Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Bhaskara Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The S-acetamidomethyl (Acm or trityl (Trt protecting groups are widely used in the chemical synthesis of peptides that contain one or more disulfide bonds. Treatment of peptides containing S-Acm protecting group with iodine results in simultaneous removal of the sulfhydryl protecting group and disulfide formation. However, the excess iodine needs to be quenched or adsorbed as quickly as possible after completion of the disulfide bond formation in order to minimize side reactions that are often associated with the iodination step. We report here a simple method for simultaneous quenching and removal of iodine and isolation of disulphide bridge peptides. The use of excess inexpensive anion exchange resin to the oxidized peptide from the aqueous acetic acid/methanol solution affords quantitative removal of iodine and other color impurities. This improves the resin life time of expensive chromatography media that is used in preparative HPLC column during the purification of peptide using preparative HPLC. Further, it is very useful for the conversion of TFA salt to acetate in situ. It was successfully applied commercially, to the large scale synthesis of various peptides including Desmopressin, Oxytocin, and Octreotide. This new approach offers significant advantages such as more simple utility, minimal side reactions, large scale synthesis of peptide drugs, and greater cost effectiveness.

  7. Large Scale Solid Phase Synthesis of Peptide Drugs: Use of Commercial Anion Exchange Resin as Quenching Agent for Removal of Iodine during Disulphide Bond Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K M Bhaskara; Kumari, Y Bharathi; Mallikharjunasarma, Dokka; Bulliraju, Kamana; Sreelatha, Vanjivaka; Ananda, Kuppanna

    2012-01-01

    The S-acetamidomethyl (Acm) or trityl (Trt) protecting groups are widely used in the chemical synthesis of peptides that contain one or more disulfide bonds. Treatment of peptides containing S-Acm protecting group with iodine results in simultaneous removal of the sulfhydryl protecting group and disulfide formation. However, the excess iodine needs to be quenched or adsorbed as quickly as possible after completion of the disulfide bond formation in order to minimize side reactions that are often associated with the iodination step. We report here a simple method for simultaneous quenching and removal of iodine and isolation of disulphide bridge peptides. The use of excess inexpensive anion exchange resin to the oxidized peptide from the aqueous acetic acid/methanol solution affords quantitative removal of iodine and other color impurities. This improves the resin life time of expensive chromatography media that is used in preparative HPLC column during the purification of peptide using preparative HPLC. Further, it is very useful for the conversion of TFA salt to acetate in situ. It was successfully applied commercially, to the large scale synthesis of various peptides including Desmopressin, Oxytocin, and Octreotide. This new approach offers significant advantages such as more simple utility, minimal side reactions, large scale synthesis of peptide drugs, and greater cost effectiveness.

  8. Aerosol-phase activity of iodine captured from a triiodide resin filter on fine particles containing an infectious virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbuch, B K; Harnish, D A; Balzli, C; Lumley, A; Kinney, K; Wander, J D

    2015-06-01

    To avoid interference by water-iodine disinfection chemistry and measure directly the effect of iodine, captured from a triiodide complex bound to a filter medium, on viability of penetrating viral particles. Aerosols of MS2 coli phage were passed through control P100 or iodinated High-Efficiency Particulate Air media, collected in plastic bags, incubated for 0-10 min, collected in an impinger containing thiosulphate to consume all unreacted iodine, plated and enumerated. Comparison of viable counts demonstrated antimicrobial activity with an apparent half-life for devitalization in tens of seconds; rate of kill decreased at low humidity and free iodine was captured by the bags. The results support the mechanism of near-contact capture earlier proposed; however, the disinfection chemistry in the aerosol phase is very slow on the time scale of inhalation. This study shows that disinfection by filter-bound iodine in the aerosol phase is too slow to be clinically significant in individual respiratory protection, but that it might be of benefit to limit airborne transmission of infections in enclosed areas. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Aerosol-phase Activity of Iodine Captured from a Triiodide Resin Filter on Fine Particles Containing an Infectious Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    doi:10.1111/jam.12788 Abstract Aims: To avoid interference by water iodine disinfection chemistry and measure directly the effect of iodine, captured...Conclusions: The results support the mechanism of near contact capture earlier proposed; however, the disinfection chemistry in the aerosol phase is very...midget impinger ( SKI , Eighty Four, PA) filled with 3 mm glass beads and 10 ml of NaHCO3/ Na2CO3 (15 mmol l1 NaHCO3, 15 mmol l1 Na2CO3) in sterile water

  10. Iodine Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the United States, may be associated with low intelligence in children. WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF IODINE ... and Asia. TABLE 2. MEDIAN POPULATION URINARY IODINE VALUES AND IODINE NUTRITION MEDIAN URINARY IODINE CONCENTRATION (μg/ ...

  11. Iodine addition using triiodide solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Muckle, Susan V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    The study develops: a triiodide solution for use in preparing ground service equipment (GSE) water for Shuttle support, an iodine dissolution method that is reliable and requires minimal time and effort to prepare, and an iodine dissolution agent with a minimal concentration of sodium salt. Sodium iodide and hydriodic acid were both found to dissolve iodine to attain the desired GSE iodine concentrations of 7.5 +/- 2.5 mg/L and 25 +/- 5 mg/L. The 1.75:1 and 2:1 sodium iodide solutions produced higher iodine recoveries than the 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution. A two-hour preparation time is required for the three sodium iodide solutions. The 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution can be prepared in less than 5 min. Two sodium iodide stock solutions (2.5:1 and 2:1) were found to dissolve iodine without undergoing precipitation.

  12. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected.

  13. Source And Sink Of Iodine For Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Flanagan, David T.; Gibbons, Randall E.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed system for controlling concentration of iodine in potable water exploits temperature dependence of equilibrium partition of iodine between solution in water and residence in ion-exchange resin. Used to maintain concentration of iodine sufficient to kill harmful microbes, but not so great to make water unpalatable. Requires little attention, yet controls concentration of iodine more precisely than iodination and deiodination by manual techniques. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, system has terrestrial applications in regions where water must be kept potable, resupply difficult, and system must operate largely unattended.

  14. Iodine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Found Iodine is found in: Amiodarone (Cordarone) Chemicals (catalysts) for photography and engraving Dyes and inks Lugol's ... 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. What to Expect at the Emergency Room The health ...

  15. Iodine in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iodine ... Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, ... and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual ...

  16. Immobilization of iodine in soil-water systems and its relation to iodine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Y.; Takahashi, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Iodine tends to accumulate in thyroid, and radioactive 131I and 129I are threatening to human health both short-term and long-term, respectively. It is thus important to understand iodine behavior in surface environments. Possible iodine species are I-, IO3-, I2, and organo-iodine species. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) connected to ICP-MS were used to determine iodine species in soil and pore water, respectively. Soil and pore water samples were collected at depths of 0 to 12 cm near a tube well in Yoro, Chiba, Japan, where surface soil is flooded with brine containing iodine of 5.8 mg/L. Soil samples were also collected at depths of 0 to 90 cm in Yakushima Island, Kagoshima, Japan. The soil samples were frozen, and iodine K-edge XANES were measured at BL01B1, SPring-8 (Hyogo, Japan). Soil samples were buried into resin and prepared as thin sections, and mapping of iodine in soil grain was obtained using μ-XRF analysis at BL37XU, SPring-8. HPLC-ICP-MS, equipped with anion exchange or size exclusion column, was used to determine iodine species in pore water. Yoro: The depth profile of iodine concentration in soil correlates quite well with that of organic carbon content. XANES spectra are almost identical to that of humic substances at any depth (Fig. 1). Iodine mapping shows that iodine exists in organic matter more than clay minerals and iron rich mineral. Iodine in pore water exists as I- and organic iodine bound to dissolved humic substances at 0-6 cm, and mainly as I- at 9-12 cm, respectively. Thus, iodine tends to be bound to organic materials in soil as organic iodine, where as iodine in pore water exists mainly as I-. Yakushima: Iodine concentration is higher in volcanic ash soil layer (25-55 cm) than surface organic rich soil layer (0-25 cm). XANES spectrum of volcanic ash soil was different from those of reference materials (Fig. 1). Volcanic ash soil in Yakushima contains imogolite and

  17. Iodine Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John; Kamhawi, Hani; Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    This project is a collaborative effort to mature an iodine propulsion system while reducing risk and increasing fidelity of a technology demonstration mission concept. 1 The FY 2014 tasks include investments leveraged throughout NASA, from multiple mission directorates, as a partnership with NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), a NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Technology Investment Project, and an Air Force partnership. Propulsion technology is often a critical enabling technology for space missions. NASA is investing in technologies to enable high value missions with very small and low-cost spacecraft, even CubeSats. However, these small spacecraft currently lack any appreciable propulsion capability. CubeSats are typically deployed and drift without any ability to transfer to higher value orbits, perform orbit maintenance, or deorbit. However, the iodine Hall system can allow the spacecraft to transfer into a higher value science orbit. The iodine satellite (iSAT) will be able to achieve a (Delta)V of >500 m/s with 1,300 s. The iSAT spacecraft, illustrated in figure 1, is currently a 12U CubeSat. The spacecraft chassis will be constructed from aluminum with a finish to prevent iodine-driven corrosion. The iSAT spacecraft includes full three-axis control using wheels, magnetic torque rods, inertial management unit, and a suite of sensors and optics. The spacecraft will leverage heat generated by spacecraft components and radiators for a passive thermal control system.

  18. Iodine Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  19. Iodine and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Yarrington; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2011-01-01

    Iodine is a necessary element for the production of thyroid hormone. We will review the impact of dietary iodine status on thyroid function in pregnancy. We will discuss iodine metabolism, homeostasis, and nutritional recommendations for pregnancy. We will also discuss the possible effects of environmental contaminants on iodine utilization in pregnant women.

  20. synthesis, characterisat the alkyd resins deriv esis, characterisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    ABSTRACT. Quantity of castor seed oil (CSO) obtained value, percentage free fatty acid, iodine specific gravity and moisture content. The resin (oil modified ester) using monoglycer with glycerol (alcoholysis) and subsequen phthalic anhydride to form the alkyd resin characterized using FTIR. The antimicrobia paper disc ...

  1. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathe it in. In addition, if dairy animals consume grass contaminated with iodine, the radioactive iodine will ... Requests Frequent Questions Follow. Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr Instagram Last updated on May 4, 2017

  2. Shuttle requests

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Please note that starting from 1 March 2007, the shuttle requests: for official visits or bidders' conferences on the CERN site; towards/from the airport or central Geneva; for long distances, shall be made via Fm.Support@cern.ch or by calling 77777. The radio taxi will still be reachable at 76969. TS/FM Group

  3. Iodine deficiency and iodine excess in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords:
    iodine deficiency, iodine excess, endemic goiter, drinking water, iodine intake, thyroid function, thyroid size, iodized salt, iodized oil, IQ, physical development, hearing capacity, epidemiology, meta-analysis, IDD, randomized trial, intervention, USA, Bangladesh,

  4. [Iodine nutrition and thyroid diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lian; Yu, Jian-chun; Kang, Wei-ming; Ma, Zhi-qiang

    2013-08-01

    Iodine, an essential component of the hormones produced by the thyroid gland, is widely but unevenly distributed in the earth's environment. Great difference exists in the iodine nutritional status of populations residing in different region. Both iodine deficiency and iodine excess can injure the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency tigers endemic goiter, cretinism, and hyperthyroidism, while iodine excess can result in high iodine goiter, chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism; also, iodine deficiency or excess may affect the histological type of thyroid cancer. In 1996, China began to implement the universal salt iodization policy, which has basically eliminated the iodine deficiency disorders nationwide; however, it also caused the changes in the spectra of other thyroid diseases including iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, autoimmune thyroid disease, and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Individualized iodine nutritional status assessment for the populations, particularly those with thyroid diseases, will be beneficial.

  5. CERN Shuttle

    CERN Document Server

    General Infrastructure Services Department

    2011-01-01

    As of Monday 21 February, a new schedule will come into effect for the Airport Shuttle (circuit No. 4) at the end of the afternoon: Last departure at 7:00 pm from Main Buildig, (Bldg. 500) to Airport (instead of 5:10 p.m.); Last departure from Airport to CERN, Main Buildig, (Bldg. 500), at 7:30 p.m. (instead of 5:40 p.m.). Group GS-IS

  6. Iodine-deficiency disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Jooste, P.L.; Pandav, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    billion individuals worldwide have insufficient iodine intake, with those in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa particularly affected. Iodine deficiency has many adverse effects on growth and development. These effects are due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and are termed

  7. Iodine Deficiency and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Sviridonova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is а vital microelements that are essential for the normal human development and functions. Iodine deficiency is a global problem: about 2 billion individuals worldwide suffer from a lack of iodine. Despite goiter is the most visually noticeable manifestation of iodine deficiency, the most significant consequence of the iodine deficiency is impaired neurodevelopment, particularly early in life. Moreover, moderate to severe iodine deficiency increases the risk of spontaneous abortion, low birth weight and infant mortality. Babies in utero affected by iodine deficiency are at increased risk of mental developmental disorders, cretinism is their extreme degree. In addition, moderate to severe iodine deficiency in childhood negatively affects somatic growth. Iodine deficiency compensation improves cognitive and motor function in children. Iodine prophylaxis of deficient populations is an extremely effective approach to reduce the substantial adverse effects of iodine deficiency throughout the life cycle.

  8. Iodine mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Iodine mineral waters are found especially in sub-Carpathian region, also in regions with Salif deposits. Waters are currently used iodine in drinking cure for chaps and Basedow. Are also indicated in balneology. Iodine water containing at least 1 mg L, there is pure iodine is usually given the nature of other types of mineral waters further: sodium chlorinated water (Bazna (50-70 mg iodine / l, Baile Govora (50 - 70 mg / l, Bălţăteşti (4-5 mg / l, salted Monteoru (30 mg / l, mine water mixed alkaline chlorination, sulphate, which are indicated for crenoterapie (hypo or isotonic to the bathrooms Olăneşti or Călimăneşti-Căciulata.

  9. Iodine generator for reclaimed water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The system disclosed is for controlling the iodine level in a water supply in a spacecraft. It includes an iodine accumulator which stores crystalline iodine, an electrochemical valve to control the input of iodine to the drinking water and an iodine dispenser. A pump dispenses fluid through the iodine dispenser and an iodine sensor to a potable water tank storage. The iodine sensor electronically detects the iodine level in the water, and through electronic means, produces a correction current control. The correction current control operates the electro-chemical iodine valve to release iodine from the iodine accumulator into the iodine dispenser.

  10. Is placental iodine content related to dietary iodine intake?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, R

    2011-08-01

    Delivery of iodine to the foetus depends not only on maternal dietary iodine intake but also on the presence of a functioning placental transport system. A role for the placenta as an iodine storage organ has been suggested, and this study compares the iodine content of placentas from women giving birth at term in Ireland and Iran, areas with median urinary iodine of 79 and 206 μg\\/l respectively.

  11. Controversies in urinary iodine determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Soldin, Offie Porat

    2002-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) is associated with increased prevalence of goiter, increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, and is the world’s leading cause of intellectual deficits. Iodine nutritional status of a population is assessed by measurements of urinary iodine concentrations which are also used to define, indicate, survey and monitor iodine deficiency and consequently its treatment. Several methods are available for urinary iodine determination. Discussed here are some of the limitat...

  12. Shuttle requests

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Please note that, to improve the service we provide, a new telephone number - 72500 - has been set up for all shuttle requests concerning: journeys within the CERN site, i.e. official visits or bidders' conferences; journeys to or from the airport or city centre; long-distance journeys. However, it will still be possible to submit requests in writing to Fm.Support@cern. The radio taxi can also still be reached on 76969. The TS/FM group would also like to inform you that details of all light logistics services (transport of persons, distribution and collection of parcels up to 1 tonne, distribution and collection of mail) can be found on the group's website: http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/fm/fm.htm TS/FM Group 160239

  13. Iodine Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    Iodine enables dramatic mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. The demonstrated throttling ability of iodine is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars. In the Phase I project, Busek Company, Inc., tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high-flow iodine feed system and supported by an existing Busek hollow cathode flowing xenon gas. The Phase I propellant feed system was evolved from a previously demonstrated laboratory feed system. Throttling of the thruster between 2 and 11 kW at 200 to 600 V was demonstrated. Testing showed that the efficiency of iodine fueled BHT-8000 is the same as with xenon, with iodine delivering a slightly higher thrust-to-power (T/P) ratio. In Phase II, a complete iodine-fueled system was developed, including the thruster, hollow cathode, and iodine propellant feed system. The nominal power of the Phase II system is 8 kW; however, it can be deeply throttled as well as clustered to much higher power levels. The technology also can be scaled to greater than 100 kW per thruster to support megawatt-class missions. The target thruster efficiency for the full-scale system is 65 percent at high specific impulse (Isp) (approximately 3,000 s) and 60 percent at high thrust (Isp approximately 2,000 s).

  14. Enhancing the quality of alkyd resins using methyl esters of rubber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The acid value of the finished alkyd resins depends on the rate and extent of esterification. Iodine value of the alkyd shows that the level of unsaturation depends on the oil length of the resins. The free fatty acid (FFA) value (1.99%) of the MERSO was much lower than that of the RSO (9.54%). This supports the ...

  15. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  16. Iodine Supplementation in the Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ghirri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency can be defined as the world’s greatest single cause of preventable brain damage. Fetal and neonatal hypothyroidism, caused by iodine deficiency can be prevented prior to conception and then during pregnancy and lactation when an adequate iodine supplementation is ensured. Extremely low birth weight preterm babies risk having a negative iodine balance status in the first weeks of life, exacerbating the hypothyroxinaemia of the prematurity. It is important to ensure that these babies are provided with an adequate iodine intake from the first days of life. Mothers and newborns should avoid environmental iodine excess during pregnancy or lactation.

  17. Resin composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the modulus of elasticity of resin composites influences marginal quality in restorations submitted to thermocyclic and mechanical loading. METHODS: Charisma, Filtek Supreme XTE and Grandio were selected as they were found to possess different moduli of elasticity...... of resin composite (p=0.81) on the quality of dentine margins was observed, before or after loading. Deterioration of all margins was evident after loading (p....008). CONCLUSIONS: The resin composite with the highest modulus of elasticity resulted in the highest number of gap-free enamel margins but with an increased incidence of paramarginal enamel fractures. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The results from this study suggest that the marginal quality of restorations can...

  18. [A solid-state reference sample of iodine radionuclide activity for checking radiometers and a method for its production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichkar', G A

    1993-01-01

    This development relates to nuclear engineering, concerns the sources of ionizing radiation of iodine radionuclides and the ways of their manufacture. The iodine radionuclides are used for calibration of radiometers that measure the specific activity of iodine radionuclide in biological specimens, in particular for their use to identify noncancer diseases. The purpose of the paper is to design a routine activity sample for iodine radionuclide in the solid-state source for transfer of an iodine radionuclide activity unit from the reference iodine radionuclide activity unit to an operating meter with a simultaneous decrease in testing errors and an increase, in terms of iodine radionuclide half-life, in the life of the reference sample by stabilizing the activity unit of iodine radionuclide (in terms of its half-life) by eliminating the process of sublimation of iodine radionuclide from the working surface of the source. The objective is achieved by the fact that the radionuclide is replaced on the lower internal build-up part of the container, fixed with the upper internal build-up part, then kept for at least 10-12 hours at least at 18-20 degrees C, packed into a hollow container and sealed with epoxide resin. According to the proposed technical design, reference activity samples of iodine radionuclide in the solid-state radiometric source with a preset activity value have been prepared. The testing error for iodine radionuclide activity is minimal and equal to 1.0-3.0% at a 0.95 confidence.

  19. The Status of Iodine Nutrition and Iodine Deficiency Disorders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Status of Iodine Nutrition and Iodine Deficiency Disorders among School Children in Metekel Zone, Northwest Ethiopia. ... field test kits and titration; a casual urine sample (5 ml) was taken from 30 children to measure urinary iodine spectrophotometrically, and 5 ml venous blood sample were collected from 37 children ...

  20. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...... iodine status in pregnant and breastfeeding women.......Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...

  1. Iodine in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, Karl Johan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    2000-12-01

    A literature study of the migration and the appearance of iodine isotopes in the bio-sphere particularly in soil is presented. Some important papers in the field of iodine appearance in soil and the appearance of {sup 129}I in the surroundings of reprocessing plants are discussed. The most important conclusions are: 1. Iodine binds to organic matter in the soil and also to some oxides of aluminium and iron. 2. If the iodine is not bound to the soil a large fraction of added {sup 129}I is volatilized after a rather short period. 3. The binding and also the volatilisation seems to be due to biological activity in the soil. It may take place within living microorganisms or by external enzymes excreted from microorganisms. 4. Due to variations in the composition of soil there may be a large variation in the distribution of {sup 129}I in the vertical profile of soil - usually most of the {sup 129}I in the upper layer - which also results in large variations in the {sup 129}I uptake to plants.

  2. Iodine supplementation improves cognition in mildly iodine-deficient children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Rosie C; Rose, Meredith C; Skeaff, Sheila A; Gray, Andrew R; Morgan, Kirstie M D; Ruffman, Ted

    2009-11-01

    The effects of severe iodine deficiency during critical periods of brain development are well documented. There is little known about the consequences of milder forms of iodine deficiency on neurodevelopment. The objective was to determine whether supplementing mildly iodine-deficient children with iodine improves cognition. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in 184 children aged 10-13 y in Dunedin, New Zealand. Children were randomly assigned to receive a daily tablet containing either 150 microg I or placebo for 28 wk. Biochemical, anthropometric, and dietary data were collected from each child at baseline and after 28 wk. Cognitive performance was assessed through 4 subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. At baseline, children were mildly iodine deficient [median urinary iodine concentration (UIC): 63 microg/L; thyroglobulin concentration: 16.4 microg/L]. After 28 wk, iodine status improved in the supplemented group (UIC: 145 microg/L; thyroglobulin: 8.5 microg/L), whereas the placebo group remained iodine deficient (UIC: 81 microg/L; thyroglobulin: 11.6 microg/L). Iodine supplementation significantly improved scores for 2 of the 4 cognitive subtests [picture concepts (P = 0.023) and matrix reasoning (P = 0.040)] but not for letter-number sequencing (P = 0.480) or symbol search (P = 0.608). The overall cognitive score of the iodine-supplemented group was 0.19 SDs higher than that of the placebo group (P = 0.011). Iodine supplementation improved perceptual reasoning in mildly iodine-deficient children and suggests that mild iodine deficiency could prevent children from attaining their full intellectual potential. The trial was registered with the Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Register as ACTRN12608000222347.

  3. Atomic iodine laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, G.A.; Gusinow, M.A.; Hays, A.K.; Padrick, T.D.; Palmer, R.E.; Rice, J.K.; Truby, F.K.; Riley, M.E.

    1978-05-01

    The atomic iodine photodissociation laser has been under intensive study for a number of years. The physics associated with this system is now well understood and it is possible to produce a 0.1 nsec (or longer) near-diffraction-limited laser pulse which can be amplified with negligible temporal distortion and little spatial deformation. The output of either a saturated or unsaturated amplifier consists of a high-fidelity near-diffraction-limited, energetic laser pulse. The report is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 is a survey of the important areas affecting efficient laser operation and summarizes the findings of Chap. 2. Chapter 2 presents detailed discussions and evaluations pertinent to pumps, chemical regeneration, and other elements in the overall laser system. Chapter 3 briefly discusses those areas that require further work and the nature of the work required to complete the full-scale evaluation of the applicability of the iodine photodissociation laser to the inertial confinement program.

  4. Preparation and Evaluation of Dental Resin with Antibacterial and Radio-Opaque Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka K. Vallittu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to prepare antibacterial and radio-opaque dental resin, a methacrylate monomer named 2-Dimethyl-2-dodecyl-1-methacryloxyethyl ammonium iodine (DDMAI with both antibacterial and radio-opaque activities was added into a 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropyl-phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA/methyl methacrylate (MMA dental resin system. Degree of conversion (DC, flexural strength (FS and modulus (FM, water sorption (WS and solubility (WSL, antibacterial activity, and radio-opacity (ROX of the obtained dental resin system were investigated. Bis-GMA/MMA resin system without DDMAI was used as a control. The results showed that DDMAI could endow BIS-GMA/MMA resin system with good antibacterial (p 0.05. However, incorporating DDMAI into Bis-GMA/MMA resin could reduce mechanical properties (p < 0.05 and increase WS and WSL (p < 0.05, thus further work is needed in order to optimize the resin formulation.

  5. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  6. Investigations of toughening mechanisms of epoxy resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, T.

    1986-01-01

    Composite material technology was applied to the solid rocket booster by the development of a carbon filament-epoxy resin case which yields a net increase of 4000 lbs. in payload in the shuttle. The question of reusability of the new composite tanks has not yet been answered and will depend on the toughness of the matrix resin. The present study was aimed at providing conditions whereby test specimens of the epoxy resin (EPON/85) and curing agents of systematically varied structures could be produced in a controlled manner. Three sets of conditions were found that might allow the isolation of the structural effects on toughness from the cure effects. The kinetic methods leading to the determination of these conditions are described.

  7. Iodine-Catalyzed Polysaccharide Esterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review is provided of the recent reports to use iodine-catalyzed esterification reaction to produce esters from polysaccharides. The process entails reaction of the polysaccharide with an acid anhydride in the presence of a catalytic level of iodine, and in the absence of additional solvents. T...

  8. Epoxy resins used to seal brachytherapy seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Natalia Carolina Camargos; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos; Santos, Ana Maria Matildes dos, E-mail: nccf@cdtn.br, E-mail: ferrazw@cdtn.br, E-mail: reissc@cdtn.br, E-mail: amms@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, BH (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Prostate cancer treatment with brachytherapy is recommended for patients with cancer at an early stage. In this treatment, small radioactive seeds are implanted directly in the prostate gland. These seeds are composed at least of one radionuclide carrier and an X-ray marker enclosed within a metallic tube usually sealed by laser process. This process is expensive and, furthermore, it can provoke a partial volatilization of the radionuclide and change the isotropy in dose distribution around the seed. In this paper, we present a new sealing process using epoxy resin. Three kinds of resins were utilized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X ray (EDS) and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) and in sodium iodine solution (NaI). The sealing process showed excellent potential to replace the sealing laser usually employed. (author)

  9. Shuttle Wastewater Solution Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Niklas; Pham, Chau

    2011-01-01

    During the 31st shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-129, there was a clogging event in the shuttle wastewater tank. A routine wastewater dump was performed during the mission and before the dump was completed, degraded flow was observed. In order to complete the wastewater dump, flow had to be rerouted around the dump filter. As a result, a basic chemical and microbial investigation was performed to understand the shuttle wastewater system and perform mitigation tasks to prevent another blockage. Testing continued on the remaining shuttle flights wastewater and wastewater tank cleaning solutions. The results of the analyses and the effect of the mitigation steps are detailed in this paper.

  10. Iodine content of infant formulas and iodine intake of premature babies: high risk of iodine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, S; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1994-11-01

    As part of a study of thyroid function in premature babies, the iodine content of their mothers' breast milk, that of 32 formulas from different brands used in Spain, and that of 127 formulas used in other countries was determined. Breast milk contained more iodine--mean (SEM) 10 (1) microgram/dl--than most of the formulas, especially those for premature babies. Iodine intakes were therefore below the recommended daily amount (RDA) for newborns: babies of 27-30 weeks' gestational age took 3.1 (1.1) micrograms/day at 5 days of age and 29.8 (2.7) micrograms by 2 months of age. This problem is not exclusive to Spanish premature babies as the iodine content of many of the formulas on sale in other countries was also inadequate. It is concluded that preterm infants who are formula fed are at high risk of iodine deficiency.

  11. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    children de-ivered a urine sample. Urine samples were analysed for iodine and creatinine, and the results were expressed as urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and as estimated 24-h iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in children was also compared with that of adults living in the same area, investigated...... according to grade. The UIC was higher in children than in adults from the same area. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine excretion among schoolchildren in Copenhagen, an area with a relatively high iodine content in tap water, was within the recommended range as assessed by the UIC. An increased iodine fortification...

  12. Iodine deficiency and nutrition in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manousou, Sofia; Dahl, Lisbeth; Heinsbaek Thuesen, Betina

    2017-01-01

    Iodine nutrition is a result of geological conditions, iodine fortification and monitoring strategies within a country together with the dietary habits of the population. This review summarizes the basis for the current iodine situation in the Scandinavian countries in order to identify gaps...... strategies have been used in Scandinavia to improve iodine nutrition. The major source of iodine is iodized salt in Sweden and from milk and dairy products in Norway. In Denmark, drinking water, milk, dairy products and iodized salt used in commercial production of bread are the important sources of iodine....... The current iodine status in Scandinavia is not optimal and action is ongoing to increase iodination in Denmark, where there is mild iodine deficiency in the general population. Data from all three countries indicate insufficient iodine nutrition during pregnancy and there is a need for data from children...

  13. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B.; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244...... children de-ivered a urine sample. Urine samples were analysed for iodine and creatinine, and the results were expressed as urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and as estimated 24-h iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in children was also compared with that of adults living in the same area, investigated...

  14. Radiochemistry of iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, M.; Kleinberg, J.

    1977-09-01

    The preparation of isotopes of the element, with selected procedures for its determination in or separation from various media is described along with the separating of iodine species from each other. Each part of the introductory section is referenced separately from the remainder of the monograph. For the preparative and analytical sections there is an extensive, indexed bibliography which was developed from the indexes of Volumes 19 to 30 inclusive (1965-1974) of Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA). From these indexes the NSA abstracts of possible pertinent references were selected for examination and a choice was made of those references which were to be included in the bibliography. The bibliography has both primary and secondary references. Although the monograph does not cover hot atom chemistry, the kinetics of exchange reactions, decay schemes, or physiological applications, papers in these areas were examined as possible sources of useful preparative and analytical procedures. (JRD)

  15. Space Shuttle-Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle represented an entirely new generation of space vehicles, the world's first reusable spacecraft. Unlike earlier expendable rockets, the Shuttle was designed to be launched over and over again and would serve as a system for ferrying payloads and persornel to and from Earth orbit. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds, that provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components. The MSFC was assigned responsibility for developing the Shuttle orbiter's high-performance main engines, the most complex rocket engines ever built. The MSFC was also responsible for developing the Shuttle's massive ET and the solid rocket motors and boosters.

  16. IODINE METABOLISM AND PROPHYLAXIS OF IODINE DEFICIENT DISEASES IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Troshina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aspects of iodine metabolism in human organism, physiological need in this microelement, prevalence and criteria of diagnosis of iodine deficient diseases are presented in this article. The measures, essential to the iodine deficiency prophylaxis are described, and possible choices of compensation of iodine deficiency in provisions, including milk formulas, are discussed. recommendations of international expert medical societies, giving evidence of prophylaxis of thyroid gland diseases, related with iodine deficiency, are presented.Key words: children, iodine, prophylaxis.

  17. Observing iodine monoxide from satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Begoin, Mathias; Wittrock, Folkard; Burrows, John P.

    Iodine and iodine monoxide (IO) belong to the group of reactive halogen species, and they may impact on atmospheric chemical composition and the radiation budget. Vice versa, sur-rounding conditions may influence the emissions and pathways of iodine compounds. Although atmospheric amounts of iodine are typically fairly small, the impact may still be substantial. Iodine radicals are photolytically released from precursors and may then cause catalytic ozone depletion. In this reaction with ozone, IO is produced, a molecule which plays a central role in the iodine cycling. Via self reactions of IO, higher iodine oxides form and initiate the formation of new particles, which may change the atmospheric radiation balance. Apart from that, many living species, including human beings, vertebrates in general, but also micro-and macroalgae species, e.g., depend on the supply with iodine. Consequently, it is necessary to understand the cycling of iodine through the different components of the Earth system. Although increas-ing research effort in the form of field, laboratory and modeling studies has strongly improved our knowledge and understanding of iodine abundances and impact, still many open questions remain. The relevance of iodine on a global scale is not well known yet; sources are not well quantified and release processes are not fully understood. Since recently, IO may be observed from space by the SCIAMACHY instrument on the EN-VISAT satellite, which is in a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit. Nadir observations from SCIAMACHY have been analysed for the IO absorption signature in the visible wavelength range for several mission years. IO amounts are typically close to the limit of detectability of SCIAMACHY. Detecting such small quantities, careful attention needs to be paid to system-atic errors, spectral correlations and resulting retrieval artefacts. Subsequently, appropriate temporal averaging is utilised to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The resulting

  18. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Walter E.; Thompson, Clarence T.

    1977-04-12

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3-20 wt. % iodine as Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention was made in the course of, or under a contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. It relates in general to reactor waste solidification and more specifically to the immobilization of fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel for underground storage.

  19. Thyroidectomy: is Lugol's iodine necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, P J; Mitchell, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    In a randomised controlled clinical trial of Lugol's iodine against placebo in 44 patients undergoing thyroidectomy we have failed to show any benefit in terms of reduced bleeding or operative facility after using iodide solution.

  20. Resin-Powder Dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standfield, Clarence E.

    1994-01-01

    Resin-powder dispenser used at NASA's Langley Research Center for processing of composite-material prepregs. Dispenser evenly distributes powder (resin polymer and other matrix materials in powder form) onto wet uncured prepregs. Provides versatility in distribution of solid resin in prepreg operation. Used wherever there is requirement for even, continuous distribution of small amount of powder.

  1. Space Shuttle Abort Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Nguyen, Tri X.

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents some of the evolutionary steps in developing a rigorous Space Shuttle launch abort capability. The paper addresses the abort strategy during the design and development and how it evolved during Shuttle flight operations. The Space Shuttle Program made numerous adjustments in both the flight hardware and software as the knowledge of the actual flight environment grew. When failures occurred, corrections and improvements were made to avoid a reoccurrence and to provide added capability for crew survival. Finally some lessons learned are summarized for future human launch vehicle designers to consider.

  2. Iodine status in neonates in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, Peter; Børlum, K G

    1994-01-01

    Iodine status of 147 neonates born in five different regions of Denmark was evaluated in relation to the iodine content of breast milk and iodine supplementation taken by the mother. Approximately two-thirds of the women had not received iodine supplementation. They had low iodine concentrations...... iodine had been taken (milk/urine: 57.0/61.0 micrograms/l). In general, the values are low compared with internationally recommended levels. We suggest that mothers without autoimmune thyroid disease should receive iodine supplementation in the form of vitamin/mineral tablets containing iodine (150...... in breast milk and urinary iodine concentrations of the neonates at day 5 were low. The median values (milk/urine) were 33.6/31.7 micrograms/l (Randers 22/26, Ringkøbing 29/16, Aalborg 36/31. Arhus 54/41 and Copenhagen 55/59 micrograms/l). Higher values were found in the group where tablets containing...

  3. Shuttle Inventory Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Inventory Management System (SIMS) consists of series of integrated support programs providing supply support for both Shuttle program and Kennedy Space Center base opeations SIMS controls all supply activities and requirements from single point. Programs written in COBOL.

  4. Space Shuttle: The Renewed Promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleer, Neil

    This booklet describes the history of the space shuttle, especially after the Challenger accident. Topics include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Return to Flight: The Recovery"; (3) "Space Shuttle Chronology"; (4) "Examples of Other Modifications on Shuttle's Major Systems"; (5) "Space Shuttle Recovery…

  5. Iodine behaviour in severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, L.M.C.; Grindon, E.; Handy, B.J.; Sutherland, L. [NNC Ltd., Knutsford (United Kingdom); Bruns, W.G.; Sims, H.E. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Dickinson, S. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Hueber, C.; Jacquemain, D. [IPSN/CEA, Cadarache, Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    1996-12-01

    A description is given of analyses which identify which aspects of the modelling and data are most important in evaluating the release of radioactive iodine to the environment following a potential severe accident at a PWR and which identify the major uncertainties which affect that release. Three iodine codes are used namely INSPECT, IODE and IMPAIR, and their predictions are compared with those of the PSA code MAAP. INSPECT is a mechanistic code which models iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, spray water and sump water, and the partitioning of volatile species between the aqueous phases and containment gas space. Organic iodine is not modelled. IODE and IMPAIR are semi-empirical codes which do not model iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, but model organic iodine. The fault sequences addressed are based on analyses for the Sizewell `B` design. Two types of sequence have been analysed.: (a) those in which a major release of fission products from the primary circuit to the containment occur, e.g. a large LOCAS, (b) those where the release by-passes the containment, e.g. a leak into the auxiliary building. In the analysis of the LOCA sequences where the pH of the sump is controlled to be a value of 8 or greater, all three codes predict that the oxidation of iodine to produce gas phase species does not make a significant contribution to the source term due to leakage from the reactor building and that the latter is dominated by iodide in the aerosol. In the case where the pH of the sump is not controlled, it is found that the proportion of gas phase iodine increases significantly, although the cumulative leakage predicted by all three codes is not significantly different from that predicted by MAAP. The radiolytic production of nitric acid could be a major factor in determining the pH, and if the pH were reduced, the codes predict an increase in gas phase iodine species leaked from the containment. (author) 4 figs., 7 tabs., 13 refs.

  6. Urinary Iodine Concentrations Indicate Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Thai Women but Iodine Sufficiency in Their School-Aged Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, S.; Winichagoon, P.; Wyss, L.; Tong, B.; Baumgartner, J.; Boonstra, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women.

  7. Iodine Hall Thruster for Space Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the Phase I program, Busek Co. Inc. tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high flow iodine feed system,...

  8. Breast Milk Iodine and Iodine Status of Breast-Fed Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Golam Morshed Molla; M Iqbal Arslan; Mafruha Tazkin Milky

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast milk is the only source of iodine for exclusively breast-fed infants. Iodine status of breast-fed infants depends on iodine in breast milk and also number of feeding in 24 hours. Iodine deficiency and iodine excess both have bad impact on infant’s health. Objective: To measure the iodine in breast milk and to evaluate iodine status of their breast-fed infants. Materials and method: This observational analytical study was carried out in the department of Bioch...

  9. Iodine content in bread and salt in Denmark after iodization and the influence on iodine intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, Lars; Christensen, Tue

    2007-01-01

    Objective To measure the iodine content in bread and household salt in Denmark after mandatory iodine fortification was introduced and to estimate the increase in iodine intake due to the fortification. Design The iodine content in rye breads, wheat breads and salt samples was assessed....... The increase in iodine intake from fortification of bread and the increase in total iodine intake after fortification were estimated. Subjects Iodine intake before and after fortification was estimated based on dietary intake data from 4,124 randomly selected Danish subjects. Main results Approximately 98......% of the rye breads and 90% of the wheat breads were iodized. The median iodine intake from bread increased by 25 ( 13-43) mu g/day and the total median iodine intake increased by 63 (36-104) mu g/day. Conclusions The fortification of bread and salt has resulted in a desirable increase in iodine intake...

  10. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...

  11. Iodine in Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Crill, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) has multiple adverse effects on growth and development due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Methods for assessment of iodine nutrition in individuals include the urinary iodine concentration (UI), thyroid size and thyroid function tests. The UI measured in several

  12. Spectroscopic (multi-energy) CT distinguishes iodine and barium contrast material in MICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, N.G. [University of Otago, Department of Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); Butler, A.P. [University of Otago, Department of Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Canterbury, Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); Scott, N.J.A. [University of Otago, Department of Medicine, Christchurch (New Zealand); Cook, N.J. [Christchurch Hospital, Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); Butzer, J.S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Physics Department, Karlsruhe (Germany); Schleich, N. [University of Canterbury, Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); Christchurch Hospital, Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); Firsching, M. [Friedrich Alexander University, Physics Department, Erlangen (Germany); Grasset, R.; Ruiter, N. de [University of Canterbury, Hitlab NZ, Christchurch (New Zealand); Campbell, M. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Physics Section, Geneva (Switzerland); Butler, P.H. [University of Canterbury, Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2010-09-15

    Spectral CT differs from dual-energy CT by using a conventional X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. We wished to produce 3D spectroscopic images of mice that distinguished calcium, iodine and barium. We developed a desktop spectral CT, dubbed MARS, based around the Medipix2 photon-counting energy-discriminating detector. The single conventional X-ray tube operated at constant voltage (75 kVp) and constant current (150 {mu}A). We anaesthetised with ketamine six black mice (C57BL/6). We introduced iodinated contrast material and barium sulphate into the vascular system, alimentary tract and respiratory tract as we euthanised them. The mice were preserved in resin and imaged at four detector energy levels from 12 keV to 42 keV to include the K-edges of iodine (33.0 keV) and barium (37.4 keV). Principal component analysis was applied to reconstructed images to identify components with independent energy response, then displayed in 2D and 3D. Iodinated and barium contrast material was spectrally distinct from soft tissue and bone in all six mice. Calcium, iodine and barium were displayed as separate channels on 3D colour images at <55 {mu}m isotropic voxels. Spectral CT distinguishes contrast agents with K-edges only 4 keV apart. Multi-contrast imaging and molecular CT are potential future applications. (orig.)

  13. [Prophylaxis iodine deficit: information support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhatdoeva, F A; Gerasimov, G A; Syrtsova, L E; Polesskiĭ, V A; Rasova, L K; Krasil'shchikov, M I

    2011-01-01

    An insufficient intake of micronutrients has massive and permanent nature and influence negatively to health, growth and vitality of the entire nation. One-third part of Russian schoolchildren suffer from deficiency of iron and iodine. Every year in Russia 215,000 children are born with brain damages associated with iodine deficiency. Raising the public awareness regarding the risks and prevention of micronutrient deficiency is the key issue of public health and nutrition. The study which included 4500 respondents in the Urals Federal District showed 2-4-fold increase awareness of the respondents in different positions after the communication campaign for prevention of micronutrient deficiency.

  14. Stretching the Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, Tim

    1992-05-01

    A review is presented of the modifications incorporated in the Shuttle Columbia to extend its duration and capabilities in preparation for this extended-duration orbiter (EDO) to fly missions of up to 16 days. Attention is given to the evolution of the program that has changed the Shuttle from a space truck on nominal seven-day sorties to a versatile vehicle that can perform as a space laboratory. Consideration is given to the provision of more electrical power and life support supplies and equipment, the CRYO wafer pallet, advanced general-purpose computers, and an improved radar-altimeter.

  15. Nanoparticle shuttle memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alex Karlwalter [Kensington, CA

    2012-03-06

    A device for storing data using nanoparticle shuttle memory having a nanotube. The nanotube has a first end and a second end. A first electrode is electrically connected to the first end of the nanotube. A second electrode is electrically connected to the second end of the nanotube. The nanotube has an enclosed nanoparticle shuttle. A switched voltage source is electrically connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby a voltage may be controllably applied across the nanotube. A resistance meter is also connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby the electrical resistance across the nanotube can be determined.

  16. Infinite Polyiodide Chains in the Pyrroloperylene-Iodine Complex: Insights into the Starch-Iodine and Perylene-Iodine Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, Sheri; Evans, Hayden A; Doan-Nguyen, Vicky V T; Labram, John G; Wu, Guang; Chabinyc, Michael L; Seshadri, Ram; Wudl, Fred

    2016-07-04

    We report the preparation and X-ray crystallographic characterization of the first crystalline homoatomic polymer chain, which is part of a semiconducting pyrroloperylene-iodine complex. The crystal structure contains infinite polyiodide I∞ (δ-) . Interestingly, the structure of iodine within the insoluble, blue starch-iodine complex has long remained elusive, but has been speculated as having infinite chains of iodine. Close similarities in the low-wavenumber Raman spectra of the title compound and starch-iodine point to such infinite polyiodide chains in the latter as well. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Is Gippsland environmentally iodine deficient? Water iodine concentrations in the Gippsland region of Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ashequr; Deacon, Nicholas; Panther, Barbara; Chesters, Janice; Savige, Gayle

    2010-12-01

      This paper provides evidence of environmental iodine deficiency in the Gippsland region.   Quantitative study; water samples were collected from 18 water treatment plants and four rain water tanks across Gippsland and water iodine concentrations were measured.   Gippsland region of Victoria, Australia.   This paper reports on the iodine concentration of drinking water from sources across Gippsland and examines the contribution of iodine from water to the Gippsland diet. This study also briefly examines the relationship between the concentration of iodine in water and distance from the sea. The cut-off value for water iodine concentrations considered to be indicative of environmental iodine deficiency is water from 18 Gippsland water treatment plants was 0.38 µg L(-1) and would therefore make negligible difference to the dietary intake of iodine. This finding also falls well below the suggested dietary intake of iodine from water estimated by the 22nd Australian Total Diet Study. Our study found no linear relationship between the water iodine concentration and distance from the sea.   As Gippsland has environmental iodine deficiency there is a greater probability that people living in this region are at higher risk of dietary iodine deficiency than those living in environmentally iodine sufficient regions. Populations living in areas known to have environmental iodine deficiency should be monitored regularly to ensure that problems of iodine deficiency, especially amongst the most vulnerable, are addressed promptly. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  18. Contrast induced hyperthyroidism due to iodine excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Usman; Price, Timothy; Laddipeerla, Narsing; Townsend, Amanda; Broadbridge, Vy

    2009-01-01

    Iodine induced hyperthyroidism is a thyrotoxic condition caused by exposure to excessive iodine. Historically this type of hyperthyroidism has been described in areas of iodine deficiency. With advances in medicine, iodine induced hyperthyroidism has been observed following the use of drugs containing iodine—for example, amiodarone, and contrast agents used in radiological imaging. In elderly patients it is frequently difficult to diagnose and control contrast related hyperthyroidism, as most of these patients do not always present with typical signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Treatment can be very challenging as drugs commonly used to treat hyperthyroidism have little effect on already formed thyroid hormone due to iodine excess. PMID:22053166

  19. Mobile Christian - shuttle flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Erin Whittle, 14, (seated) and Brianna Johnson, 14, look on as Louis Stork, 13, attempts a simulated landing of a space shuttle at StenniSphere. The young people were part of a group from Mobile Christian School in Mobile, Ala., that visited StenniSphere on April 21.

  20. Dietary flavonoids and iodine Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elst, van der J.P.; Smit, J.W.A.; Romijn, H.A.; Heide, van der D.

    2003-01-01

    Flavonoids have inhibiting effects on the proliferation of cancer cells, including thyroidal ones. In the treatment of thyroid cancer the uptake of iodide is essential. Flavonoids are known to interfere with iodide organification ill vitro, and to cause goiter. The influence of flavonoids on iodine

  1. Determination of iodine and iodine compounds in marine samples by ICPMS and HPLC-ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maiken Sødergreen; Lewandowski, Daniel Jacob; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    2014-01-01

    seaweed and fish, which contain elevated levels of iodine (fish typically 1-10 mg/kg and seaweed up to 8000 mg/kg). These marine food items may contain different iodine species, which may have different bioavailability and toxicity, and hence there is an increased interest in developing analytical methods......By now it is a well-known fact that iodine is an essential trace element for the growth and development of the human body. Because of iodine deficiency, some countries have added iodate to salt in order to increase the iodine intake. However, some people prefer iodine from more natural sources like...... for determining the different iodine species. For determining the total iodine concentration in marine samples five different extraction methods were compared. The most efficient and precise method was then used for determining the total concentration of iodine in seaweed and fish samples using inductively...

  2. Transcutaneous iodine absorption in adult patients with thyroid cancer disinfected with povidone-iodine at operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Chisato; Kitano, Hiroya; Uruno, Takashi; Takamura, Yuuki; Ito, Yasuhiro; Miya, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Matsuzuka, Fumio; Amino, Nobuyuki; Kuma, Kanji; Miyauchi, Akira

    2005-06-01

    Povidone-iodine is used as disinfection in patients undergoing many kinds of operations. Several cases of thyroid dysfunction induced by transcutaneous absorption of povidone-iodine have been reported in small infants. However, transcutaneous absorption was not clearly reported in adults. The aim of this study was to assess transcutaneous absorption of iodine in patients who received single topical application with povidoneiodine and serial changes of urinary iodine excretion under the condition with a simple iodine-restricted diet in Japan, an iodine-sufficient area. Sixty-eight patients with thyroid carcinoma undergoing total thyroidectomy received single skin disinfection with either povidone-iodine (group A; n = 47) or chlohexidine gluconate, a noniodine containing biguanide (group B; n = 21). In group A, urinary iodine excretion on the first day after operation increased up to 7 times that of the preoperative value. The amounts of urinary iodine correlated positively with operating time. Increased urinary iodine, however, returned to preoperative values on the third or fifth day after operation. In group B, there was no increase in urinary iodine excretion and urinary iodine excretion was ranged from 54 to 193 microg/g of creatinine on the third day of operation. In conclusion, a large amount of povidone-iodine was absorbed through healthy skin even in adults. This may possibly interfere with scintigraphy or radioactive iodine treatment, or cause thyroid disinfection in susceptible patients.

  3. Urinary iodine as an iodine deficiency test in lung transplant recipients in order to prevent iodine deficiency disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanjek-Cichoracka, Anita; Żegleń, Sławomir; Woźniak-Grygiel, Elżbieta; Laszewska, Anna; Sindera, Piotr; Wojarski, Jacek; Ochman, Marek; Karolak, Wojtek; Zembala, Marian

    2014-10-07

    In Poland, lung transplantation (LTx) as a routine method began in 2004, and since then, the Silesian Center for Heart Disease in Zabrze 85 LTx has performed (54 single-lung transplantations, 30 double-lung transplantations, and 1 heart-lung) transplantation. The recommendation to take vitamin supplements (without specific indication of the iodine content) does not apply to another iodine prophylaxis in patients after lung transplantation, excluding patients with known thyroid disease. The aim of this study was to assess thyroid gland function based on hormones and urinary iodine (UI) concentration in patients after LTx. UI analysis was performed in 19 lung recipients (12 men and 7 women; mean age: 46.2 ± 12.47 years, BMI: 21 ± 2.25) and compared to TSH, free T3, and free T4. Sufficient UI was observed only in 2 (9%) samples. In 12 samples (54.5%), mild iodine deficiency was recorded, in 4 samples (18.2%) moderate iodine deficiency was noted, and in 3 (13.6%) severe iodine deficiency was found. No correlation between BMI and UI, as well as hormones concentration, was observed. No correlation was revealed when analyzed samples were divided by patient sex. Although thyroid gland hormones were in the normal range, we found moderate, mild, and severe iodine deficiency in the majority of analyzed samples. Measurements of urinary iodine in lung transplant recipients should accompany thyroid hormone measurements as an iodine deficiency test and in order to prevent iodine deficiency disorders.

  4. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Denmark. Regional variations and frequency of individual iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, Peter; Børlum, K G

    1993-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation and adequate iodine intake is important for normal brain development of the fetus/newborn child. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which this increase in iodine requirement is met in pregnant women living...... in various regions of Denmark. One hundred and fifty-two healthy pregnant women admitted to five different Danish departments of obstetrics participated in the study. Iodine status was evaluated by measurement of iodine in spot urine at day five after delivery and by careful history of the intake of iodine...

  5. Shuttle freezer conceptual design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, B. W.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A conceptual design for a kit freezer for operation onboard shuttle was developed. The freezer features a self-contained unit which can be mounted in the orbiter crew compartment and is capable of storing food at launch and returning with medical samples. Packaging schemes were investigated to provide the optimum storage capacity with a minimum weight and volume penalty. Several types of refrigeration systems were evaluated to select one which would offer the most efficient performance and lowest hazard of safety to the crew. Detailed performance data on the selected, Stirling cycle principled refrigeration unit were developed to validate the feasibility of its application to this freezer. Thermal analyses were performed to determine the adequacy of the thermal insulation to maintain the desired storage temperature with the design cooling capacity. Stress analyses were made to insure the design structure integrity could be maintained over the shuttle flight regime. A proposed prototype freezer development plan is presented.

  6. Geochemical Cycling of Iodine Species in Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Moran, J E; Blackwood, V

    2007-08-23

    Iodine is an important element in studies of environmental protection and human health, global-scale hydrologic processes and nuclear nonproliferation. Biogeochemical cycling of iodine in soils is complex, because iodine occurs in multiple oxidation states and as inorganic and organic species that may be hydrophilic, atmophilic, and biophilic. In this study, we applied new analytical techniques to study the content and speciation of stable iodine in representative surface soils, and sorption and transport behavior of iodine species (iodide, iodate, and 4-iodoaniline) in sediments collected at numerous nuclear facilities in the United States, where anthropogenic {sup 129}I from prior nuclear fuel processing activities poses an environmental risk. The surface soil samples were chosen for their geographic locations (e.g., near the ocean or nuclear facilities) and for their differing physico-chemical characteristics (organic matter, texture, etc). Extracted solutions were analyzed by IC and ICP-MS methods to determine iodine concentrations and to examine iodine speciation (iodide, iodate, and organic iodine). In natural soils, iodine is mostly (nearly 90% of total iodine) present as organic species, while inorganic iodine becomes important (up to 50%) only in sediments with low organic matter. Results from laboratory column studies, aimed at examining transport of different iodine species, showed much greater retardation of 4-iodoaniline than iodide or iodate. Careful attention must be given to potential interconversion among species when interpreting the biogeochemical behavior of iodine in the environment. In addition to speciation, input concentration and residence time effects will influence the biogeochemical cycling of anthropogenic 129I deposited on surface soils.

  7. Iodine status in pregnancy and household salt iodine content in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Christian, Parul; Schulze, Kerry J; Ali, Hasmot; Kabir, Alamgir; Rashid, Mahbubur; Labrique, Alain; Salamatullah, Qauzi; West, Keith P

    2012-04-01

    Adequate maternal iodine intake is essential during pregnancy for the development of the foetus. To assess the extent of iodine insufficiency and its association with household iodized salt in rural Bangladesh, we measured urinary iodine and household salt iodine content among pregnant women in early (≤16 weeks, n = 1376) and late (≥32 weeks, n = 1114) pregnancy. Salt (∼20 g) and a spot urine sample (∼10 mL) were collected from women participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation in rural northwestern Bangladesh during home visits in early and late pregnancy. Salt iodine was analyzed by iodometric titration, and urinary iodine by the Ohashi method. Almost all salt samples had some detectable iodine, but over 75% contained <15 ppm. Median (interquartile range) urinary iodine concentrations were 66 (34-133) and 55 (28-110) µg L⁻¹ in early and late pregnancy, respectively; urinary iodine <150 µg L⁻¹ was found in ∼80% of women at both times in pregnancy. Although the risk of iodine insufficiency declined with increasing iodine content of household salt (P for trend <0.05), median urinary iodine did not reach 150 µg L⁻¹ until iodine in household salt was at least 32 ppm and 51 ppm during early and late pregnancy, respectively. Despite a national policy on universal salt iodization, salt iodine content remains insufficient to maintain adequate maternal iodine status throughout pregnancy in rural northern Bangladesh. Alternative measures like direct iodine supplementation during pregnancy could be considered to assure adequate iodine status during this high-risk period of life. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Iodine concentration of organic and conventional milk: implications for iodine intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Sarah C; Button, Suzanne; Rayman, Margaret P

    2012-04-01

    Iodine is required for adequate thyroid hormone production, which is essential for brain development, particularly in the first trimester of pregnancy. Milk is the principal source of iodine in UK diets, and while small studies in Europe have shown organic milk to have a lower iodine concentration than conventional milk, no such study has been conducted in Britain. In view of the increasing popularity of organic milk in the UK, we aimed to compare the iodine concentration of retail organic and conventional milk and to evaluate regional influences in iodine levels. Samples of organic milk (n 92) and conventional milk (n 80), purchased from retail outlets in sixteen areas of the UK (southern England, Wales and Northern Ireland), were analysed for iodine using inductively coupled plasma MS. The region of origin of the milk was determined from information on the label. Organic milk was 42·1 % lower in iodine content than conventional milk (median iodine concentration 144·5 v. 249·5 ng/g; P difference in the iodine concentration of either conventional or organic milk by area of purchase. However, a difference was seen in iodine concentration of organic milk by region of origin (P organic milk has public-health implications, particularly in view of emerging evidence of iodine deficiency in UK population sub-groups, including pregnant women. Individuals who choose organic milk should be aware that their iodine intake may be compromised and should ensure adequate iodine intake from alternative sources.

  9. Estimation of iodine intake from various urinary iodine measurements in population studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejbjerg, P.; Knudsen, N.; Perrild, H.

    2009-01-01

    , are considered in this article. Summary: There are two main ways in which urine can be collected for iodine measurement. The first is the collection of urine over a period, usually 24 hours. The second is the collection of a spot urinary sample. Urinary iodine values can be expressed as the content......Background: Iodine intake is often measured by a surrogate measure, namely urine iodine excretion as almost all ingested iodine is excreted in the urine. However, the methods for urine collection and the reporting of the results vary. These methods, and their advantages and disadvantages...... or concentration and reported without modification or as a function of creatinine in the same sample. The 24-hour urine for iodine measurement is often considered as the “reference standard” for giving a precise estimate of the individual iodine excretion and thereby iodine intake. As 24-hour collections...

  10. Iodine chemistry in a reactor regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards

    1996-12-01

    Radioactive iodine has always been an important consideration in the regulation of nuclear power reactors to assure the health and safety of the public. Regulators adopted conservatively bounding predictions of iodine behavior in the earliest days of the development of nuclear power because there was so little known about either accidents or the chemistry of iodine. Today there is a flood of new information and understanding of the chemistry of iodine under reactor accident conditions. This paper offers some thoughts on how the community of scientists engaged in the study of iodine chemistry can present the results of their work so that it is more immediately adopted by the regulator. It is suggested that the scientific community consider the concept of consensus standards so effectively used within the engineering community to define the status of the study of radioactive iodine chemistry for reactor safety. (author) 9 refs.

  11. Iodine vapor staining for atomic number contrast in backscattered electron and X-ray imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyde, Alan; Mccorkell, Fergus A; Taylor, Graham K; Bomphrey, Richard J; Doube, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Iodine imparts strong contrast to objects imaged with electrons and X-rays due to its high atomic number (53), and is widely used in liquid form as a microscopic stain and clinical contrast agent. We have developed a simple technique which exploits elemental iodine's sublimation-deposition state-change equilibrium to vapor stain specimens with iodine gas. Specimens are enclosed in a gas-tight container along with a small mass of solid I2 . The bottle is left at ambient laboratory conditions while staining proceeds until empirically determined completion (typically days to weeks). We demonstrate the utility of iodine vapor staining by applying it to resin-embedded tissue blocks and whole locusts and imaging them with backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (BSE SEM) or X-ray microtomography (XMT). Contrast is comparable to that achieved with liquid staining but without the consequent tissue shrinkage, stain pooling, or uneven coverage artefacts associated with immersing the specimen in iodine solutions. Unmineralized tissue histology can be read in BSE SEM images with good discrimination between tissue components. Organs within the locust head are readily distinguished in XMT images with particularly useful contrast in the chitin exoskeleton, muscle and nerves. Here, we have used iodine vapor staining for two imaging modalities in frequent use in our laboratories and on the specimen types with which we work. It is likely to be equally convenient for a wide range of specimens, and for other modalities which generate contrast from electron- and photon-sample interactions, such as transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy. © 2014 The Authors. Microscopy Research Technique published by Wiley Periodocals, Inc.

  12. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hrabina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions’ spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches.

  13. Iodine requirements and the risks and benefits of correcting iodine deficiency in populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development due to inadequate thyroid hormone production that are termed the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). IDD remains the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. IDD assessment methods include urinary iodine

  14. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation on the offspring: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently increased their recommended iodine intake during pregnancy from 200 to 250 µg/d and suggested that a median urinary iodine (UI) concentration of 150-249 µg/L indicates adequate iodine intake in pregnant women. Thyrotropin concentrations in blood collected

  15. Iodine: It's Important in Patients that Require Parenteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development because of inadequate thyroid hormone production. Four methods are generally recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition: urinary iodine concentration, thyroid size, and blood concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone

  16. Acetylene terminated matrix resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, I. J.; Lee, Y. C.; Arnold, F. E.; Helminiak, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    The synthesis of resins with terminal acetylene groups has provided a promising technology to yield high performance structural materials. Because these resins cure through an addition reaction, no volatile by-products are produced during the processing. The cured products have high thermal stability and good properties retention after exposure to humidity. Resins with a wide variety of different chemical structures between the terminal acetylene groups are synthesized and their mechanical properties studied. The ability of the acetylene cured polymers to give good mechanical properties is demonstrated by the resins with quinoxaline structures. Processibility of these resins can be manipulated by varying the chain length between the acetylene groups or by blending in different amounts of reactive deluents. Processing conditions similar to the state-of-the-art epoxy can be attained by using backbone structures like ether-sulfone or bis-phenol-A. The wide range of mechanical properties and processing conditions attainable by this class of resins should allow them to be used in a wide variety of applications.

  17. Breast Milk Iodine and Iodine Status of Breast-Fed Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Morshed Molla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast milk is the only source of iodine for exclusively breast-fed infants. Iodine status of breast-fed infants depends on iodine in breast milk and also number of feeding in 24 hours. Iodine deficiency and iodine excess both have bad impact on infant’s health. Objective: To measure the iodine in breast milk and to evaluate iodine status of their breast-fed infants. Materials and method: This observational analytical study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka with active cooperation of Kumudini Women’s Medical College Hospital, Mirzapur, Tangail involving fifty lactating mothers and their exclusively breast-fed infants. Early morning urine and breast milk samples were collected in dry and clean plastic container free from any chemical contamination. Urinary iodine was used as indicator for assessing iodine status. All statistical analyses were done by using SPSS (statistical programme for social science 12 version software package for Windows. Results: The median (range urinary iodine concentration of lactating mothers and their breast-fed infants were 225.25 μg/L (61.50-530.00 and 225.75 μg/L (100.50-526.00 respectively. The median (range breast-milk iodine concentration was 157 μg/L (54.50-431.50 which was more than three times of recommended minimum concentration (50 μg/L. Only 2 (4% lactating mothers had mild biochemical iodine deficiency (UIE, 50-99 μg/L. There was no biochemical iodine deficiency of breast-fed infants. Iodine in breast milk of lactating mothers was positively correlated with their urinary iodine excretion (p<0.01. Infant’s urinary iodine was positively correlated with iodine concentration in breast milk (p<0.01 and with urinary iodine of lactating mothers (p<0.01. Conclusion: Lactating mothers and their breast-fed infants in this study were iodine sufficient. If iodine content of breast-milk is within normal range, 10-12 numbers of

  18. Spectroscopic (multi-energy) CT distinguishes iodine and barium contrast material in MICE

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, NG; Firsching, M; de Ruiter, N; Schleich, N; Butzer, J S; Cook, N J; Grasset, R; Campbell, M; Scott, N J A; Anderson, N G

    2010-01-01

    Spectral CT differs from dual-energy CT by using a conventional X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. We wished to produce 3D spectroscopic images of mice that distinguished calcium, iodine and barium. We developed a desktop spectral CT, dubbed MARS, based around the Medipix2 photon-counting energy-discriminating detector. The single conventional X-ray tube operated at constant voltage (75 kVp) and constant current (150 A mu A). We anaesthetised with ketamine six black mice (C57BL/6). We introduced iodinated contrast material and barium sulphate into the vascular system, alimentary tract and respiratory tract as we euthanised them. The mice were preserved in resin and imaged at four detector energy levels from 12 keV to 42 keV to include the K-edges of iodine (33.0 keV) and barium (37.4 keV). Principal component analysis was applied to reconstructed images to identify components with independent energy response, then displayed in 2D and 3D. Iodinated and barium contrast material was spectrally distinct f...

  19. Iodine uptake and distribution in horticultural and fruit tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Caffagni; Nicola Pecchioni; Pierluigi Meriggi; Valerio Bucci; Emidio Sabatini; Nazareno Acciarri; Tommaso Ciriaci; Laura Pulcini; Nazzareno Felicioni; Massimiliano Beretta; Justyna Milc

    2012-01-01

    Iodine is an essential microelement for humans and iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is one of the most widespread nutrient-deficiency diseases in the world. Iodine biofortification of plants provides an attractive opportunity to increase iodine intake in humans and to prevent and control IDD. This study was conducted to investigate the iodine uptake and accumulation in edible portion of two fruit trees: plum and nectarine, and two horticultural crops: tomato and potato. Two type of iodine tre...

  20. Shuttle Lesson Learned - Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    This is a script for a video about toxicology and the space shuttle. The first segment is deals with dust in the space vehicle. The next segment will be about archival samples. Then we'll look at real time on-board analyzers that give us a lot of capability in terms of monitoring for combustion products and the ability to monitor volatile organics on the station. Finally we will look at other issues that are about setting limits and dealing with ground based lessons that pertain to toxicology.

  1. FDA regulations regarding iodine addition to foods and labeling of foods containing added iodine12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Paula R

    2016-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the addition of iodine to infant formulas, the iodization of salt, and the addition of salt and iodine to foods. The required amount of iodine in infant formulas is based on caloric content, and the label must provide the iodine content per 100 kcal. Cuprous iodide and potassium iodide may be added to table salt as a source of dietary iodine at a maximum amount of 0.01%; if added, the label must indicate that the salt is iodized. Table salt to which iodine has not been added must bear the statement, “This salt does not supply iodide, a necessary nutrient.” If a nutrient is to be appropriately added to a food for the purpose of correcting a dietary insufficiency, there should be sufficient scientific information available to demonstrate a nutritional deficiency and/or identify a public health problem. Furthermore, the population groups that would benefit from the proposed fortification should be identified. If iodine is added to a food, the percent Daily Value of iodine must be listed. There are no FDA regulations governing ingredient standards for dietary supplements. As a result, some dietary supplements include iodine and others do not. If a supplement contains iodine, the Supplement Facts label must list iodine as a nutrient ingredient. If iodine is not listed on the Supplement Facts label, then it has not been added. There are similarities between the FDA, which establishes US food regulations and policies, and the Codex Alimentarius (Codex), which develops international food standards and guidelines under the aegis of the FAO and the WHO. Both the FDA and Codex call for the labeling of table salt to indicate fortification with iodine, voluntary labeling of iodine on foods, and a Daily Value (called a Nutrient Reference Value by Codex) of 150 μg for iodine. PMID:27534626

  2. Control of iodine deficiency using iodination of water in a goitre endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnagar, B; Eltom, M; Karlsson, F A; Bourdoux, P P; Gebre-Medhin, M

    1997-03-01

    Salt iodination is the method of choice for prevention of iodine deficiency in most parts of the world. However, establishment of such a program frequently involves considerable changes in the marketing and distribution patterns and requires years to achieve. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of using well-defined water sources containing iodine-saturated silicon matrices for providing adequate iodine supply to an iodine deficient population in Kordofan State, Western Sudan. A system of water iodination using silicon matrices containing 30% sodium iodide placed in polyethylene baskets was used in four villages using either traditional wells or hand pumps. Before and every 6 months after iodination of water, urine and blood samples were obtained for determination of iodine and thyroid-related hormones, respectively. Goitre assessment on the village populations were performed at the start and 2 years later. Improvements in iodine status were recorded in all the study villages. The water iodine concentrations increased and a higher iodine content was observed in the hand pumps compared to the traditional wells. The median urinary iodine concentrations increased significantly, from 0.19, 0.20, 0.19, 0.11 to 1.20, 1.10, 0.37, 0.30 mumol/l in the four villages, respectively. The percentages of subjects with serum TSH above 4 mU/l were decreased from more than 30% before iodination to less than 15% at 2 years after iodine supply and the mean serum thyroxine hormone values rose. The rates of goitre decreased from 69% to less than 25%. The study shows that this system is effective, cheap, safe and practically applicable under conditions prevailing in rural areas in developing countries with iodine deficiency.

  3. Representative shuttle evaporative heat sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixon, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of a representative shuttle evaporative heat sink (RSEHS) system which vaporizes an expendable fluid to provide cooling for the shuttle heat transport fluid loop is reported. The optimized RSEHS minimum weight design meets or exceeds the shuttle flash evaporator system requirements. A cold trap which cryo-pumps flash evaporator exhaust water from the CSD vacuum chamber test facility to prevent water contamination of the chamber pumping equipment is also described.

  4. Quantum Shuttle in Phase Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novotny, Tomas; Donarini, Andrea; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: We present a quantum theory of the shuttle instability in electronic transport through a nanostructure with a mechanical degree of freedom. A phase space formulation in terms of the Wigner function allows us to identify a crossover from the tunneling to the shuttling regime, thus...... extending the previously found classical results to the quantum domain. Further, a new dynamical regime is discovered, where the shuttling is driven exclusively by the quantum noise....

  5. LSRA with Shuttle main gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft. The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance.

  6. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindorfer, H; Krebs, M; Kautzky-Willer, A; Bancher-Todesca, D; Sager, M; Gessl, A

    2015-03-01

    In Austria, iodine deficiency has been considered to be eliminated owing to table salt fortification with iodine, but whether this also applies to pregnant women is unclear. Even mild iodine deficiency during gestation may lead to neurocognitive sequelae in the offspring. This is a cross-sectional investigation of urinary iodine excretion in 246 pregnant women (first trimester n=2, second trimester n=53, third trimester n=191, gestational diabetes mellitus n=115, no gestational diabetes mellitus n=131). The iodine content of morning spot urine samples was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Pregnant women in the Vienna area had a median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of 87 μg/l. Only 13.8% of the cohort were in the recommended range of 150-249 μg/l, whereas 21.5% had a UIC of 0-49 μg/l, 40.2% had a UIC of 50-99 μg/l and 19.5% had a UIC of 100-149 μg/l. In all, 4.9% had a UIC over 250 μg/l. A total of 137 women of foreign origin had a significantly higher iodine excretion compared with Austrian-born women. Maternal or gestational age had no influence on UIC. Although 79 women on iodine supplementation had a significantly higher iodine concentration compared with women without iodine supplementation (97.3 vs 80.1 μg/l, P=0,006), their UIC was below the recommended range, indicating that doses of 100-150 μg per day are not sufficient to normalize iodine excretion. Sodium and iodine concentrations in the urine were tightly correlated (R=0.539, n=61), suggesting that low intake of iodized salt might contribute to insufficient iodine supply. This study shows that pregnant women in the Vienna area have a potentially clinically significant iodine deficiency and that currently recommended doses of iodine supplementation may not be sufficient.

  7. Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeyapant Punthip

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North Eastern part of Thailand. The process for the preparation of high content iodine enriched hen food was demonstrated to the farm owner with technical transfer in order to ensure the sustainability in the long term for the community. The iodine content of the produced iodine enriched hen eggs were determined and the iodine status of volunteers who consumed the iodine enriched hen eggs were monitored by using urine iodine excretion before and after the implement of iodine enrichment in the model farm. Results The content of iodine in eggs from the model farm were 93.57 μg per egg for the weight of 55 - 60 g egg and 97.76 μg for the weight of 60 - 65 g egg. The biological active iodo-organic compounds in eggs were tested by determination of the base-line urine iodine of the volunteer villagers before and after consuming a hard boiled iodine enriched egg per volunteer at breakfast for five days continuous period in 59 volunteers of Ban Kew village, and 65 volunteers of Ban Nong Nok Kean village. The median base-line urine iodine level of the volunteers in these two villages before consuming eggs were 7.00 and 7.04 μg/dL respectively. After consuming iodine enriched eggs, the median urine iodine were raised to the optimal level at 20.76 μg/dL for Ban Kew and 13.95 μg/dL for Ban Nong Nok Kean. Conclusions The strategic programme for iodine enrichment in the food chain with biological iodo-organic compound from animal origins can be an alternative method to

  8. Urinary Iodine Excretion of Lactating Mothers Predicts the Iodine Content of Their Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forhadul Hoque Mollah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine is essential for normal growth, mental development and survival of infants. Bangladesh is an iodine deficient region. Breast milk is the only source of iodine for exclusively breast-fed infants. Routine measurement of breast milk iodine concentration is very difficult in our country due to some social and religious barriers. So, we designed this study in our population using urinary iodine as the indicator for assessing iodine status. Objectives: To assess the iodine status of lactating mothers and their breast-fed infants and to propose a method on how to predict the iodine concentration in breast milk. Materials and Methods: This observational analytical study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka with active cooperation of Kumudini Women’s Medical College Hospital, Mirzapur, Tangail involving fifty lactating mothers and their exclusively breast-fed infants. Early morning urine and breast milk samples were collected in dry and clean plastic container free from any chemical contamination. All statistical analyses were done by using SPSS (Statistical Programme for Social Science 12 version software package for windows. Results: The median (range urinary iodine concentration of lactating mothers and their breast-fed infants were 225.25 μg/L (61.50-530.00 and 225.75 μg/L (100.50-526.50. 96% (48 mothers had no biochemical iodine deficiency (UIE ≥100μg/L, only 4% (2 mothers had mild biochemical iodine deficiency (UIE 50-99μg/L. There was no biochemical deficiency of breast-fed infants. The median (range breast-milk iodine concentration was 157 μg/L (54.50-431.50 which was more than three times of recommended minimum concentration (50 μg/L. Iodine in breast milk of lactating mothers positively correlated with their urinary iodine excretion (P<0.01. Infant’s urinary iodine positively correlated with iodine concentration in breast milk (P<0.01 and also

  9. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  10. Experimental study on iodine chemistry (EXSI) - Containment experiments with elemental iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerkelae, T.; Auvinen, A. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Holm, J.; Ekberg, C. (Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden)); Glaenneskog, H. (Vattenfall Power Consultant (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    The behaviour of iodine during a severe accident has been studied in several experimental programs, ranging from the large-scale PHEBUS FP tests and intermediate-scale ThAI tests to numerous separate effect studies. Oxidation of iodine in gas phase has been one of the greatest remaining uncertainties in iodine behaviour during a severe accident. In this study the possible formation of iodine oxide aerosol due to radiolytic oxidation of gaseous iodine is experimentally tested and the reaction products are analysed. The experimental facility applied in this study is based on the sampling system built at VTT for ISTP program project CHIP conducted IRSN. The experimental facility and the measuring technology are sophisticated and unique in the area of nuclear research as well as in the field of aerosol science. The results from the experiments show an extensive particle formation when ozone and gaseous iodine react with each other. The formed particles were collected on filters, while gaseous iodine was trapped into bubbles. The particles were iodine oxides and the size of particles was approximately 100 nm. The transport of gaseous iodine through the facility decreased when both gaseous iodine and ozone were fed together into facility. Experimental study on radiolytic oxidation of iodine was conducted in co-operation between VTT and Chalmers University of Technology as a part of the NKS-R programs. (author)

  11. Examination of Urinary Iodine Status from a

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iodine deficiency disorders are common throughout the developing world, yet they are considered one of the most preventable causes of mental retardation. Iodine deficiency has tremendous consequences on women and girls and can not only impair a woman's reproductive health, but it also has serious consequences for ...

  12. Iodine transport analysis in the ESBWR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinich, Donald A.; Gauntt, Randall O.; Young, Michael Francis; Longmire, Pamela

    2009-03-01

    A simplified ESBWR MELCOR model was developed to track the transport of iodine released from damaged reactor fuel in a hypothesized core damage accident. To account for the effects of iodine pool chemistry, radiolysis of air and cable insulation, and surface coatings (i.e., paint) the iodine pool model in MELCOR was activated. Modifications were made to MELCOR to add sodium pentaborate as a buffer in the iodine pool chemistry model. An issue of specific interest was whether iodine vapor removed from the drywell vapor space by the PCCS heat exchangers would be sequestered in water pools or if it would be rereleased as vapor back into the drywell. As iodine vapor is not included in the deposition models for diffusiophoresis or thermophoresis in current version of MELCOR, a parametric study was conducted to evaluate the impact of a range of iodine removal coefficients in the PCCS heat exchangers. The study found that higher removal coefficients resulted in a lower mass of iodine vapor in the drywell vapor space.

  13. SHORT COMMUNICATION EFFICIENT AND DIRECT IODINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    2013-09-07

    Sepideh Bahrami-Nasab, S. Mohamad Reza Nazifi and Ali Reza Pourali*. School of Chemistry, Damghan University, Damghan 36715/364, Iran. (Received September 7, 2013; revised December 27, 2013). ABSTRACT. An efficient and rapid method has been found for the iodination of aromatic compounds using iodine and ...

  14. Iodine deficiency in vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Bucková, K; Klimes, I; Seboková, E

    2003-01-01

    Iodine content in food of plant origin is lower in comparison with that of animal origin due to a low iodine concentration in soil. Urinary iodine excretion was assessed in 15 vegans, 31 lacto- and lacto-ovovegetarians and 35 adults on a mixed diet. Iodine excretion was significantly lower in alternative nutrition groups - 172 microg/l in vegetarians and 78 microg/l in vegans compared to 216 microg/l in subjects on a mixed diet. One fourth of the vegetarians and 80% of the vegans suffer from iodine deficiency (iodine excretion value below 100 microg/l) compared to 9% in the persons on a mixed nutrition. The results show that under conditions of alternative nutrition, there is a higher prevalence of iodine deficiency, which might be a consequence of exclusive or prevailing consumption of food of plant origin, no intake of fish and other sea products, as well as reduced iodine intake in the form of sea salt. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. SHORT COMMUNICATION EFFICIENT AND DIRECT IODINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. An efficient and rapid method has been found for the iodination of aromatic compounds using iodine and polymer-supported periodic acid (PSPIA) as an oxidant under mild aprotic conditions. The reagent after the completion of the reaction was easily removed by filtration and was regenerated for further use.

  16. Iodine binding to humic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Bowley, Hannah E.; Young, Scott D.; Ander, E. Louise; Crout, Neil J.M.; Crout, N.M.J.; Watts, Michael J.; Bailey, Elizabeth H.

    2016-01-01

    The rate of reactions between humic acid (HA) and iodide (I-) and iodate (IO3-) have been investigated in suspensions spiked with 129I at concentrations of 22, 44 and 88 µg L-1 and stored at 10oC. Changes in the speciation of 129I-, 129IO3- and mixed (129I-+129IO3-) spikes were monitored over 77 days using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). In suspensions spiked with 129I- 25% of the added I- was transformed into organic iodine (Org-129I) within...

  17. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W [Harrisonville, MO; Hand, Thomas E [Lee's Summit, MO; DeLaurentiis, Gary M [Jamestown, CA

    2008-12-09

    A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  18. Overview of the ACEX project iodine work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merilo, M.

    1996-12-01

    The ACEX project is an internationally sponsored research program that focuses on several aspects of severe accidents. The areas addressed are iodine behavior in containments, pool scrubbing, molten corium concrete interactions, and ex-vessel core debris coolability. These areas all represent extensions to the previous and current ACE and MACE programs respectively. The ACE-Phase B (iodine) project, and other recent research efforts, have clarified the roles of the important phenomena that influence iodine volatility in reactor containments during severe accidents. The ACE Iodine Chemistry Subcommittee concluded that even though enough data has been generated to support reasonably good quantification of the important phenomena, a few important areas remain where quantification is still uncertain. This is due to a lack of agreement on how to utilize the existing database, as well as the possible absence of critical test and/or property data. Technical resolution of the overall iodine behavior issue is therefore not feasible until these uncertainties are fully assessed and practical solutions have been identified, implemented, and verified. The overall objectives of the ACEX iodine research program are to ensure that the iodine database can be used to predict the airborne concentration of iodine, the conditions for iodine reservoir stability, and to provide a mechanistic understanding for these phenomena. The first phase of this work involves a comprehensive review and interpretation of the existing database in order to formulate practical strategies for dealing with significant uncertainties and/or deficiencies. Several projects are underway involving the effects of organic reactions and structural surface interactions. In addition effort is being expended on standardizing the aqueous iodine kinetics database, specifying useful mass transfer models, and defining methodology for pH prediction. (Abstract Truncated)

  19. Iodine nutritional status in Asturian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riestra Fernández, María; Menéndez Torre, Edelmiro; Díaz Cadórniga, Francisco; Fernández Fernández, Juan Carlos; Delgado Álvarez, Elías

    2017-11-01

    Iodine deficiency is a public health problem, and iodine nutritional status should therefore be regularly measured. To ascertain iodine nutritional status in Asturias and its relation to use of iodized salt and to other sociodemographic and nutritional parameters. A descriptive, observational study was conducted in a random sample of schoolchildren aged 5 to 14 years, in whom urinary iodine levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Families completed a survey on use of iodized salt, consumption of dairy products and fish, and sociodemographic data. The study sample consisted of 705 schoolchildren (51.1% females) with a mean age of 9.9 years (SD 2.6). In a total of 620 valid measurements, mean urinary iodine level was 204.1 μg/L (SD 120.6), while the median value was 180.7 μg/L (P25-P75: 124-252.3 μg/L, interquartile range 128.3 μg/L). Urinary iodine levels were <100 μg/L in 16.6% of children, and very low (<20 μg/L) in 0.2%. Iodized salt was used in 69.3% of all households, and in all school canteens. Consumption of dairy products was significantly associated to urinary iodine levels (P<.0005). Iodine nutrition of Asturian schoolchildren is adequate, although the target of use of iodized salt in 90% of households is still far away. Adequate iodine nutrition may be due to other sources, such as dairy products. Public health campaigns are required to promote iodized salt consumption. Regular assessment of iodine nutritional status is also needed. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Space Shuttle Glider. Educational Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Space Shuttle Glider is a scale model of the U.S. Space Shuttle orbiter. The airplane-like orbiter usually remains in Earth orbit for up to two weeks at a time. It normally carries a six- to seven-person crew which includes the mission commander, pilot, and several mission and/or payload specialists who have specialized training associated with…

  1. Iodine nutrition in pregnant women from Oviedo area. Is iodine supplementation necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez Torre, Edelmiro; Delgado Alvarez, Elías; Rabal Artal, Antonio; Suárez Gutiérrez, Lorena; Rodríguez Caballero, María Galiana; Ares Blanco, Jessica; Díaz Naya, Lucía; Fernández Fernández, Juan Carlos

    2014-10-01

    In Asturias, where iodine deficiency was eradicated in school children by the year 2000, iodine deficiency persisted in pregnant women, who were recommended to use of iodine supplementation. The aim of this study was to determine the iodine nutrition of pregnant women in our area and whether or not iodine supplements are needed. Throughout May and June 2013 we studied the iodine nutrition and thyroid function during the first trimester of pregnancy in 173 women in the health area of Oviedo. The median urinary iodine was 197 μg/L. Iodinated supplements were used by 47% of women, which had a yoduria median higher than those not taking iodinated supplements (247 vs. 138 μg/L; p<.001), and also a higher TSH (2.30 vs 1.94 mU/L) although not significantly different. Yoduria was also higher in women who took more than 2 servings of dairy products (median: 230 μg/L) than those who took less (median: 191 μg/L). Within the group of women who were not taking iodine supplements, those regularly using iodized salt in the kitchen (47%) had a median urinary iodine concentration of 190μg/L indicating iodine sufficiency. Iodinated supplements seem unnecessary nowadays in pregnant women of Oviedo who regularly take iodized salt and our recommendation in these cases should be to continue the use of iodized salt in the recommended amounts during pregnancy and consume at least two daily servings of milk or dairy products. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) in Burie and Womberma Districts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) affect millions of people in developing countries mainly due to dietary iodine deficiency and aggravating factors that affect the bioavailability of iodine in the body. Iodine deficiency disorder is one of the public health problems of Ethiopia. Recent findings show that both endemic and ...

  3. Effect of iodine supplementation in pregnant women on child neurodevelopment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Jaiswal, Nidhi; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Galetti, Valeria; Stinca, Sara; Mackenzie, Ian; Thomas, Susan; Thomas, Tinku; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Zimmermann, Michael B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Iodine deficiency during pregnancy might be associated with reduced intelligence quotient (IQ) score in offspring. We assessed the effect of iodine supplementation in mildly iodine-deficient pregnant women on neurodevelopment of their offspring in areas where schoolchildren were iodine

  4. Active molecular iodine photochemistry in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Angela R. W.; Custard, Kyle D.; May, Nathaniel W.; Tanner, David; Newburn, Matt K.; Walker, Lawrence; Moore, Ronald J.; Huey, L. G.; Alexander, Liz; Shepson, Paul B.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2017-09-01

    During springtime, the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer undergoes frequent rapid depletions in ozone and gaseous elemental mercury due to reactions with halogen atoms, influencing atmospheric composition and pollutant fate. Although bromine chemistry has been shown to initiate ozone depletion events, and it has long been hypothesized that iodine chemistry may contribute, no previous measurements of molecular iodine (I2) have been reported in the Arctic. Iodine chemistry also contributes to atmospheric new particle formation and therefore cloud properties and radiative forcing. Here we present Arctic atmospheric I2 and snowpack iodide (I-) measurements, which were conducted near Utqiaġvik, AK, in February 2014. Using chemical ionization mass spectrometry, I2 was observed in the atmosphere at mole ratios of 0.3-1.0 ppt, and in the snowpack interstitial air at mole ratios up to 22 ppt under natural sunlit conditions and up to 35 ppt when the snowpack surface was artificially irradiated, suggesting a photochemical production mechanism. Further, snow meltwater I- measurements showed enrichments of up to ˜1,900 times above the seawater ratio of I-/Na+, consistent with iodine activation and recycling. Modeling shows that observed I2 levels are able to significantly increase ozone depletion rates, while also producing iodine monoxide (IO) at levels recently observed in the Arctic. These results emphasize the significance of iodine chemistry and the role of snowpack photochemistry in Arctic atmospheric composition, and imply that I2 is likely a dominant source of iodine atoms in the Arctic.

  5. Active molecular iodine photochemistry in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Angela R W; Custard, Kyle D; May, Nathaniel W; Tanner, David; Newburn, Matt K; Walker, Lawrence; Moore, Ronald J; Huey, L G; Alexander, Liz; Shepson, Paul B; Pratt, Kerri A

    2017-09-19

    During springtime, the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer undergoes frequent rapid depletions in ozone and gaseous elemental mercury due to reactions with halogen atoms, influencing atmospheric composition and pollutant fate. Although bromine chemistry has been shown to initiate ozone depletion events, and it has long been hypothesized that iodine chemistry may contribute, no previous measurements of molecular iodine (I2) have been reported in the Arctic. Iodine chemistry also contributes to atmospheric new particle formation and therefore cloud properties and radiative forcing. Here we present Arctic atmospheric I2 and snowpack iodide (I(-)) measurements, which were conducted near Utqiaġvik, AK, in February 2014. Using chemical ionization mass spectrometry, I2 was observed in the atmosphere at mole ratios of 0.3-1.0 ppt, and in the snowpack interstitial air at mole ratios up to 22 ppt under natural sunlit conditions and up to 35 ppt when the snowpack surface was artificially irradiated, suggesting a photochemical production mechanism. Further, snow meltwater I(-) measurements showed enrichments of up to ∼1,900 times above the seawater ratio of I(-)/Na(+), consistent with iodine activation and recycling. Modeling shows that observed I2 levels are able to significantly increase ozone depletion rates, while also producing iodine monoxide (IO) at levels recently observed in the Arctic. These results emphasize the significance of iodine chemistry and the role of snowpack photochemistry in Arctic atmospheric composition, and imply that I2 is likely a dominant source of iodine atoms in the Arctic.

  6. Present status of iodine research at IPSN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardelay, J. [IPSN/DPEA/SEAC (France)

    1996-12-01

    Since several years, IPSN has conducted an effort in order to evaluate the release of radioactive iodine in case of hypothetical severe accident in a realistic manner. This source-term evaluation is performed with IODE code which is a module of the EXCADRE system of codes. This code is validated against: -analytical experiments: in these experiments, IPSN studies radiolytic effects and chemical processes in the sump, organic formation, mass transfer, effect of spray (CARAIDAS experiment), - the CAIMAN semi global experiment; this experiment will allow to study the phenomena linked to iodine behavior under representative containment geometry in the presence of painted surfaces and global irradiation, - the PHEBUS FP program. The paper consists to describe succinctly the current status of IODE and the various experiments for its validation. In case of hypothetical severe accident iodine can induce important perturbations of human organism. The effects are principally radiological, in particular on the thyroid. At short term, radioactive iodine is the most important contributor for the sanitary risk. It represents 55% of effective dose and 92% of thyroid dose at 10 km in case of controlled rejects with current assumptions. This is the reason why it must be actively studied. In France, the safety evaluations are performed with mechanistic codes or lumped parameter codes like EXCADRE which contains a module devoted to iodine studies: IODINE. The objective of the French experimental program on iodine is to understand and quantify important phenomena in order to put kinetic parameters in IODE module. The experiments can be classified in analytical experiments, the semi-global experiment CAIMAN which takes into account different phenomena studied in analytical experiments and the global experiment PHEBUS PF, not only devoted to iodine behavior study. In the following text we will present the needs of IODINE code and these different experiments. (author).

  7. Iodine excretion has decreased in Denmark between 2004 and 2010 - the importance of iodine content in milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Carlé, Allan; Jørgensen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Fortification with the essential trace element iodine is widespread worldwide. In the present study, results on iodine excretion and intake of iodine-rich foods from a cross-sectional study carried out in 2004-5, 4 to 5 years after the implementation of mandatory iodine fortification, were compar...

  8. IODINATION OF VEGETABLE OIL AS A METHOD FOR CORRECTING IODINE DEFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Sturza

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the study made for obtaining iodized oil that would satisfy the requirements in iodine for human body. The sunflower oil is a product with the most important value, thus the production of oil fortified with iodine would be a cheap and accessible option. These studies indicate that lipids present an important vehicle for the fortification with iodine. Eradication of the iodine deficiency may be realized not only by injection of the iodinated oil, but also by its use as an ingredient for the formulation of different food compositions. This method, complementary with the iodinated salt, would allow the increase of the efficiency of the prophylactic undertaken measures, because is based on the use of vegetal material – sunflower oil; it is cost-efficient and does not require substantial investments.

  9. A model to secure a stable iodine concentration in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisken Trøan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dairy products account for approximately 60% of the iodine intake in the Norwegian population. The iodine concentration in cow's milk varies considerably, depending on feeding practices, season, and amount of iodine and rapeseed products in cow fodder. The variation in iodine in milk affects the risk of iodine deficiency or excess in the population. Objective: The first goal of this study was to develop a model to predict the iodine concentration in milk based on the concentration of iodine and rapeseed or glucosinolate in feed, as a tool to securing stable iodine concentration in milk. A second aim was to estimate the impact of different iodine levels in milk on iodine nutrition in the Norwegian population. Design: Two models were developed on the basis of results from eight published and two unpublished studies from the past 20 years. The models were based on different iodine concentrations in the fodder combined with either glucosinolate (Model 1 or rapeseed cake/meal (Model 2. To illustrate the impact of different iodine concentrations in milk on iodine intake, we simulated the iodine contribution from dairy products in different population groups based on food intake data in the most recent dietary surveys in Norway. Results: The models developed could predict iodine concentration in milk. Cross-validation showed good fit and confirmed the explanatory power of the models. Our calculations showed that dairy products with current iodine level in milk (200 µg/kg cover 68, 49, 108 and 56% of the daily iodine requirements for men, women, 2-year-old children, and pregnant women, respectively. Conclusions: Securing a stable level of iodine in milk by adjusting iodine concentration in different cow feeds is thus important for preventing excess intake in small children and iodine deficiency in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

  10. Canadian synthetic resins industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margeson, J. [Industry Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    The growth of the synthetic resin industry in Canada is described. In 1999 the industry had shipments totalling $6.3 billion and employed about 9,000 people in 105 establishments. The industry is concentrated in Alberta, Ontario and Quebec. Plants in Alberta produce commodity-grade thermoplastic resins from raw materials derived mainly from natural gas, whereas plants in Ontario and Quebec produce both thermoplastic and thermoset resins using raw materials derived from both crude oil and natural gas. Sixty-four per cent of the synthetic reins produced in Canada, worth about $4.1 billion, are exported. This is offset by imports of 68 per cent of domestic consumption, (valued at $5.0 billion) reflecting rationalization and specialization of the resin industry on a continental basis. Process and product technologies used in Canada are up-to-date and licensed from parent or other foreign chemical companies. Capital investment in the Canadian resin industry is lagging behind investment in the United States, however, this is expected to change once the impact of recent investments in the industry in Alberta is reflected in the statistics. A five to seven per cent real average annual growth in world-wide consumption is predicted over the next five years. Growth in North America is projected to be in the three to four per cent range. The Alberta-based component of the industry, being relatively new, is expected to improve its ability to compete globally in commodity thermoplastics. In contrast, the plants in Ontario and Quebec suffer from the fact that they were built prior to the Free Trade Agreement and were designed to satisfy domestic requirements. They are attempting to compensate for their lack of economics of scale by developing strategies to supply niche products. 8 figs.

  11. Shuttle electrical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiddy, M.; Sullivan, W. P.; Girouard, D.; Anderson, P. B.

    1985-01-01

    Part of an AFGL payload flown on the STS-4 mission consisted of experiments to measure in-situ electric fields, electron densities, and vehicle charging. During this flight some 11 hours of data were acquired ranging from 5 minute snapshots up to continuous half-orbits. These experiments are described and results presented for such vehicle induced events as a main engine burn, thruster firings and water dumps in addition to undisturbed periods. The main characteristic of all the vehicle induced events is shown to be an enhancement in the low frequency noise (less than 2 kHz), in both the electrostatic and electron irregularity (delta N/N) spectra. The non-event results indicate that the electrostatic broadband emissions show a white noise characteristic in the low frequency range up to 2 kHz at an amplitude of 10 db above the shuttle design specification limit, falling below that limit above 10 kHz. The vehicle potential remained within the range of -3 to +1 volt throughout the flight which exhibits normal behavior for a satellite in a low equatorial orbit.

  12. Influence of dietary iodine on the iodine content of pork and the distribution of the trace element in the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Katrin; Schöne, Friedrich; Berk, Andreas; Leiterer, Matthias; Flachowsky, Gerhard

    2008-02-01

    Millions of people worldwide still suffer from iodine deficiency disorders. Besides salt iodination, iodine is added to animal feed to concentrate it in food of animal origin (milk, eggs, meat). Otherwise possible adverse effects of high supplementation should be avoided. The objective of the study was to evaluate the iodine content of pork at various feed iodine concentrations to estimate its contribution to human iodine supply. Furthermore the handling of low and high iodine dosages by the organism should be investigated using the pig as a model for the human. Seventy pigs (live weight period 27-115 kg), divided into five groups, were fed diets supplemented with 0 (group 1), 0.5 (group 2), 1 (group 3), 2 (group 4) and 5 (group 5) mg iodine per kg diet. Iodine was determined in the thyroid and in the fractions innards/blood, bones and muscle/fat of four pigs of each group by ICP-MS. Rising iodine supplementation of feed significantly increased (P < 0.05) the iodine content of the muscle/fat fraction [3.9 (group 1), 6.0 (group 2), 8.5 (group 3), 10.8 (group 4) and 17.1 (group 5) microg I/kg]. Carry over (of supplemented iodine) into muscle/fat varied between 0.10 and 0.24%. The highest tested iodine dosage (5 mg I/kg diet) caused a 3.6-fold iodine concentration of the total body (calculated from the contents of the fractions), and a significantly increased thyroid weight compared to the group without supplementary iodine. Iodine supplementation increased iodine content in thyroid and bones significantly (P < 0.05) but not in innards/blood. On an average of the groups, the thyroid contained 80% of the body's iodine, innards/blood 14%, muscle/fat 5% and bones 1%. The iodine content of pork, and consequently its contribution to human iodine supply ( approximately 1%), is very low, even at high supplementation of feed. The total body iodine content (empty body) is determined by the iodine intake. Irrespective of the iodine dosage, the thyroid contains about 4/5 of the

  13. Analysis of Iodine Content in Seaweed and Estimation of Iodine Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Rasyid, Nur Qadri

    2017-01-01

    Seaweed has become food the most popular in many Asian countries because apart from has a distinctive taste, seaweeds having the mineral content needed by the body. Seaweed iodine containing minerals being obtained from sea water, who was one of micro nonmetallic minerals which is very much needed by the body. Lack of iodine can cause cretinism, hyacinth, and the production of hormone low ( hypothyroidism due to enlargement the thyroid gland. Excess intake iodine also can cause an impairment ...

  14. Analysis of iodine content in seaweed by GC-ECD and estimation of iodine intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Sheng Yeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Edible seaweed products have been consumed in many Asian countries. Edible seaweeds accumulate iodine from seawater, and are therefore a good dietary source of iodine. An adequate consumption of seaweed can eliminate iodine deficiency disorders, but excessive iodine intake is not good for health. The recommended dietary reference intake of 0.15 mg/d and 0.14 mg/d for iodine has been established in the United States and Taiwan, respectively. In this study, 30 samples of seaweed were surveyed for iodine content. The samples included 10 nori (Porphyra, 10 wakame (Undaria, and 10 kombu (Laminaria products. The iodine in seaweed was derivatized with 3-pentanone and detected by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. The method detection limit was 0.5 mg/kg. The iodine content surveyed for nori was 29.3–45.8 mg/kg, for wakame 93.9–185.1 mg/kg, and for kombu 241–4921 mg/kg. Kombu has the highest average iodine content 2523.5 mg/kg, followed by wakame (139.7 mg/kg and nori (36.9 mg/kg. The GC-ECD method developed in this study is a low-cost alternative to inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy for iodine detection in seaweeds. The iodine intake from seaweed in the current survey was calculated and compared with the iodine dietary reference intake of Taiwan. The risk and benefit of seaweed consumption is also discussed.

  15. Low Iodine Diet for Preparation for Radioactive Iodine Therapy in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jae Hoon Chung

    2013-01-01

    Preparation for radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy includes an increased serum thyroid stimulating hormone level and a low iodine diet (LID). Because of extremely high iodine intake, some physicians have advocated a more stringent LID for greater than 2 weeks in Korean patients with thyroid cancer prior to RAI therapy; however, it is very difficult to maintain a stringent LID for a longer period of time. According to recent reports in Korea, a nonstringent, simple LID for only 1 week might be e...

  16. Iodine binding to humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowley, H E; Young, S D; Ander, E L; Crout, N M J; Watts, M J; Bailey, E H

    2016-08-01

    The rate of reactions between humic acid (HA) and iodide (I(-)) and iodate (IO3(-)) have been investigated in suspensions spiked with (129)I at concentrations of 22, 44 and 88 μg L(-1) and stored at 10 °C. Changes in the speciation of (129)I(-), (129)IO3(-) and mixed ((129)I(-) + (129)IO3(-)) spikes were monitored over 77 days using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). In suspensions spiked with (129)I(-) 25% of the added I(-) was transformed into organic iodine (Org-(129)I) within 77 days and there was no evidence of (129)IO3(-) formation. By contrast, rapid loss of (129)IO3(-) and increase in both (129)I(-) and Org-(129)I was observed in (129)IO3(-)-spiked suspensions. However, the rate of Org-(129)I production was greater in mixed systems compared to (129)IO3(-)-spiked suspensions with the same total (129)I concentration, possibly indicating IO3(-)I(-) redox coupling. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) demonstrated that Org-(129)I was present in both high and low molecular weight fractions of the HA although a slight preference to bond with the lower molecular weight fractions was observed indicating that, after 77 days, the spiked isotope had not fully mixed with the native (127)I pool. Iodine transformations were modelled using first order rate equations and fitted rate coefficients determined. However, extrapolation of the model to 250 days indicated that a pseudo-steady state would be attained after ∼200 days but that the proportion of (129)I incorporated into HA was less than that of (127)I indicating the presence of a recalcitrant pool of (127)I that was unavailable for isotopic mixing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Low Iodine Diet for Preparation for Radioactive Iodine Therapy in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hoon Chung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Preparation for radioactive iodine (RAI therapy includes an increased serum thyroid stimulating hormone level and a low iodine diet (LID. Because of extremely high iodine intake, some physicians have advocated a more stringent LID for greater than 2 weeks in Korean patients with thyroid cancer prior to RAI therapy; however, it is very difficult to maintain a stringent LID for a longer period of time. According to recent reports in Korea, a nonstringent, simple LID for only 1 week might be enough prior to RAI therapy, if the patients can be educated intensively by specially trained staff. The measurement of simple urinary iodine concentration (UIC; µg/L may underestimate daily iodine excretion in patients with a urinary volume of more than 1 L/day and can also be affected by dilution status. Simple UIC had a weaker correlation than the iodine/creatinine (I/Cr ratio. Therefore, the urinary I/Cr ratio can replace 24-hour urine iodine excretion instead of simple UIC, although it may overestimate iodine intake in patients with malnutrition or poor muscle mass. The measurement of serum iodine level might be useful as an adjunct parameter for assessing LID preparation, but its sensitivity and specificity were relatively low compared to the urinary I/Cr ratio.

  18. Iodine content in bread, milk and the retention of inherent iodine in commonly used Indian recipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longvah, T; Toteja, G S; Upadhyay, A

    2013-01-15

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) is still a major public health problem and iodized salt remains the most effective means to control IDD in India. Few reports indicate that vegans have inadequate iodine intake while at the same time concerns are being raised on the implementation of universal salt iodization in the country. Therefore, we investigated the iodine content in bread, milk and commonly used Indian recipes prepared without iodized salt and the retention of inherent iodine therein. Results showed considerable iodine content in bread (25 μg/100g) and milk (303 μg/L) as a positive fallout of universal salt iodization. Iodine content in 38 vegetarian recipes prepared without iodized salt was very low (2.9 ± 2.4 μg/100g). Retention of inherent iodine (65.6 ± 15.4%) and iodine from iodized salt (76.7 ± 10.3%) in the same recipes was comparable. Thus, universal salt iodization programme remains the single most important source of dietary iodine for the Indian population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Denmark. Regional variations and frequency of individual iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, Peter; Børlum, K G

    1993-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation and adequate iodine intake is important for normal brain development of the fetus/newborn child. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which this increase in iodine requirement is met in pregnant women living...... micrograms/g creatinine). These values are far below internationally recommended levels. The consequences remain to be evaluated and no firm recommendations can be given. It seems reasonable, however, to recommend a high intake of food containing iodine (e.g. milk products) during pregnancy and lactation...

  20. Iodine status in preschool children and evaluation of major dietary iodine sources: a German experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johner, Simone A; Thamm, Michael; Nöthlings, Ute; Remer, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Even mild iodine deficiency may negatively affect cognitive performance, especially at a young age. Our aim was to investigate iodine status in very young children and to assess the importance of iodized salt in processed foods of which the use has decreased during the last years in Germany. Twenty-four hours urinary iodine excretion (UIE) as a marker of iodine intake was measured in 378 24 h urine samples collected 2003-2010 by 221 3 to children's diet (iodized salt, milk, fish, meat and eggs). Time trends of UIE (2003-2010) and contributions of the different food groups were analyzed by using linear mixed-effects regression models. Median UIE of 71 μg/d in boys and 65 μg/d in girls (P = 0.03), corresponding to an iodine intake of 82 and 75 μg/d, respectively (assumption: 15% non-renal iodine losses), was below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of 90 μg/d. Milk, salt and egg intake were significant predictors of UIE; milk and salt together accounted for >80% of iodine supply. Between 2003 and 2010, UIE decreased significantly by approximately 1 μg/d per year. The contribution of salt intake to UIE decreased from 2003-2006 to 2007-2010. In countries where salt is a major iodine source, already modest decreases in the iodized proportion of salt used in processed foods may relevantly impair iodine status even in preschool children.

  1. Iodine Hall Thruster for Space Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop a high power (high thrust) electric propulsion system featuring an iodine fueled Hall Effect Thruster (HET). The system to be...

  2. Fundamentals of Thyroid Hormone Physiology, Iodine Metabolism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0. Maintaining Euthyroidism: Fundamentals of Thyroid Hormone Physiology,. Iodine Metabolism and Hypothyroidism. De Wet Wolmarans*. Division of Pharmacology, Center of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of ...

  3. Tositumomab and Iodine I 131 Tositumomab

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about tositumomab and iodine I 131 tositumomab and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug combination, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  4. Iodine dynamics in the terrestrial environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bowley, Hannah E.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of soil properties on soil iodine dynamics and uptake to plants. Soil and vegetation samples were collected from across eastern Northern Ireland (NI) to form the basis of most experimental work; samples from the Rothamsted Park Grass archive were used to investigate the role of changing soil chemistry through time and due to selected fertiliser applications; and iodine dynamics in humic acid (HA) were studied to improve understanding of the r...

  5. Structural characterization of iodinated bovine growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattera, R; Turyn, D; Fernandez, H N; Dellacha, J M

    1982-02-01

    Bovine growth hormone (bGH) was submitted to iodination using limited amounts of oxidizing reagent, yielding a derivative with no more than 1-g-atom of iodine per mole of hormone. Analysis of the hydrolysis products indicated that monoiodotyrosine was almost the only product of substitution. Isolation and identification of the tryptic fragments showed that half of the 125I-labeled bGH molecules were iodinated in Tyr 174, followed by Tyr 158 (16%) and Tyr 42 (14%). Frontal gel chromatography indicated that the preparation did not contain significant amounts of unreacted bGH. Circular dichroism evidenced structural similarity between the native and the iodinated bGH. The iodinated hormone, like the native protein, undergoes self-association. The dissociation constant of the iodo-labeled bGH self-association equilibrium showed a two-fold increase when compared to that corresponding to the unlabeled hormone. At pH 8.5, where the equilibrium constant was estimated, one tenth of the molecules bear a charged iodotyrosyl residue (average pKapp = 9.3), which could account for part, if not all, of the observed difference regarding self-association. By this criterion, the presence of the iodine atom does not disturb the area engaged in dimer formation.

  6. Ultrahigh iodine adsorption in porous organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Pei, Cuiying

    2014-01-01

    We present two porous organic frameworks (POFs), PAF-1 and JUC-Z2, with ultrahigh iodine capture capacity. The iodine vapor uptake of PAF-1 and JUC-Z2 were 1.86 g g-1 and 1.44 g g-1 respectively at 298 K per 40 Pa, which is extremely high for such low pressure sorption conditions. In addition, PAF-1 and JUC-Z2 could adsorb iodine over water with the selectivity of 5.1 and 6.5 respectively. The isosteric enthalpy at zero surface coverage, calculated by a virial equation with the iodine vapor sorption isotherms at 298 K and 313 K of JUC-Z2, reached -51.1 kJ mol-1, which was much higher than the coverage of PAF-1 (-14.9 kJ mol-1). Raman measurement confirmed the polyiodide to be I5 - in POFs. Furthermore, solvents with different polarities, such as n-hexane, chloroform, and methanol, were chosen to conduct iodine binding measurements on PAF-1 and JUC-Z2. The formation constant Kf for POFs in n-hexane, chloroform and methanol drastically decreased with the increase in polarity, thus illustrating the important role of solvents in iodine binding. © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  7. Iodine Gas Trapping using Granular Porous Bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, Jang Jin; Park, Geun Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Mansung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    {sup 129}I is a radionuclide with a very long half-life of 1.57 Χ 10{sup 7} years and has negative health effects to the human body. Therefore, the emission of {sup 129}I into the air is closely regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Many methods for trapping gaseous {sup 129}I have been developed thus far, including wet scrubbing and adsorption using silver loaded zeolites. Although wet scrubbing can effectively remove iodine, it suffers from corrosion of the vessel due to high concentration of the scrubbing solution. Silver loaded zeolites also show effectiveness in capturing {sup 129}I gas, yet weak thermal stability of physisorbed iodine remains a challenge. We studied a novel and facile method to trap iodine gas using bismuth. Granular bismuth having many pores was synthesized using bismuth nitrate and polyvinyl alcohol as a bismuth precursor and pore forming agent, respectively. Reaction of iodine and our samples resulted in an iodine capturing capacity of more than 2 times that of the commercial grade silver exchanged zeolite (AgX). Granular porous bismuths synthesized using bismuth nitrate and PVA show a promising performance in capturing iodine gas. The use of bismuth in trapping {sup 129}I gas can reduce the process cost as bismuth is cheap. Further study is going on to improve the mechanical property of granular porous bismuths for their easy handling.

  8. Dietary Iodine Intake of the Australian Population after Introduction of a Mandatory Iodine Fortification Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Charlton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To address mild iodine deficiency in Australia, a mandatory fortification program of iodised salt in bread was implemented in 2009. This study aimed to determine factors associated with achieving an adequate dietary iodine intake in the Australian population post-fortification, and to assess whether bread consumption patterns affect iodine intake in high-risk groups. Using nationally representative data of repeated 24-h dietary recalls from the 2011–2012 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, dietary iodine intakes and food group contributions were compared by age, socioeconomic status (SES, and geographical remoteness (N = 7735. The association between fortified bread intake and adequacy of iodine intake (meeting age and sex-specific Estimated Average Requirements was investigated using logistic regression models in women of childbearing age 14–50 years (n = 3496 and children aged 2–18 years (n = 1772. The effect of SES on bread consumption was further investigated in a sub group of children aged 5–9 years (n = 488. Main sources of iodine intake at the time of the survey were cereal and cereal products, followed by milk products and dishes. Differences in iodine intake and dietary iodine habits according to age, SES and location were found (p < 0.001 for women of child-bearing age. Fortified bread consumption at ≥100 g/day was associated with five times greater odds of achieving an adequate iodine intake (OR 5.0, 95% CI 4.96–5.13; p < 0.001 compared to lower bread consumption in women and 12 times in children (OR 12.34, 95% CI 1.71–89.26; p < 0.001. Disparities in dietary iodine intake exist within sectors of the Australian population, even after mandatory fortification of a staple food. On-going monitoring and surveillance of iodine status is required.

  9. Dietary evaluation of a low-iodine diet in Korean thyroid cancer patients preparing for radioactive iodine therapy in an iodine-rich region

    OpenAIRE

    Ju, Dal Lae; Park, Young Joo; Paik, Hee-Young; Kim, Min-Ji; Park, Seonyeong; Jung, Kyong Yeun; Kim, Tae Hyuk; Choi, Hun Sung; Song, Yoon Ju

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Despite the importance of a low-iodine diet (LID) for thyroid cancer patients preparing for radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy, few studies have evaluated dietary intake during LID. This study evaluated the amount of dietary iodine intake and its major food sources during a typical diet and during LID periods for thyroid cancer patients preparing for RAI therapy, and examined how the type of nutrition education of LID affects iodine intake. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 92 d...

  10. Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  11. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  12. Paramagnetic epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Vazquez Barreiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work illustrates that macrocycles can be used as crosslinking agents for curing epoxy resins, provided that they have appropriate organic functionalities. As macrocycles can complex metal ions in their structure, this curing reaction allows for the introduction of that metal ion into the resin network. As a result, some characteristic physical properties of the metallomacrocycle could be transferred to the new material. The bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE, n = 0 and hemin (a protoporphyrin IX containing the Fe(III ion, and an additional chloride ligand have been chosen. The new material has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Fe(III remains in the high-spin state during the curing process and, consequently, the final material exhibits the magnetic characteristics of hemin. The loss of the chlorine atom ligand during the cure of the resin allows that Fe(III can act as Lewis acid, catalyzing the crosslinking reactions. At high BADGE n = 0/hemin ratios, the formation of ether and ester bonds occurs simultaneously during the process.

  13. A Novel Aromatic Iodination Method, with Sodium Periodate Used as the Only Iodinating Reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Skulski

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Benzene, halobenzenes and some deactivated arenes readily reacted inanhydrous NaIO4/AcOH/Ac2O/concd. H2SO4 mixtures to afford, after quenching withexcess aqueous Na2SO3 solution (a reducing agent, purified iodinated products in 27-88% yields. This novel method of aromatic iodination is simple, fairly effective andenvironmentally safe.

  14. The impact of iodised salt or iodine supplements on iodine status during pregnancy lactation and infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Monitoring of iodine status during pregnancy, lactation and infancy is difficult as there are no established reference criteria for urinary iodine concentration (UI) for these groups; so it is uncertain whether iodized salt programs meet the needs of these life stages. Design and

  15. Intravascular enhancement with identical iodine delivery rate using different iodine contrast media in a circulation phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihl, Casper; Wildberger, Joachim E; Jurencak, Tomas; Yanniello, Michael J; Nijssen, Estelle C; Kalafut, John F; Nalbantov, Georgi; Mühlenbruch, Georg; Behrendt, Florian F; Das, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Both iodine delivery rate (IDR) and iodine concentration are decisive factors for vascular enhancement in computed tomographic angiography. It is unclear, however, whether the use of high-iodine concentration contrast media is beneficial to lower iodine concentrations when IDR is kept identical. This study evaluates the effect of using different iodine concentrations on intravascular attenuation in a circulation phantom while maintaining a constant IDR. A circulation phantom with a low-pressure venous compartment and a high-pressure arterial compartment simulating physiological circulation parameters was used (heart rate, 60 beats per minute; stroke volume, 60 mL; blood pressure, 120/80 mm Hg). Maintaining a constant IDR (2.0 g/s) and a constant total iodine load (20 g), prewarmed (37°C) contrast media with differing iodine concentrations (240-400 mg/mL) were injected into the phantom using a double-headed power injector. Serial computed tomographic scans at the level of the ascending aorta (AA), the descending aorta (DA), and the left main coronary artery (LM) were obtained. Total amount of contrast volume (milliliters), iodine delivery (grams of iodine), peak flow rate (milliliter per second), and intravascular pressure (pounds per square inch) were monitored using a dedicated data acquisition program. Attenuation values in the AA, the DA, and the LM were constantly measured (Hounsfield unit [HU]). In addition, time-enhancement curves, aortic peak enhancement, and time to peak were determined. All contrast injection protocols resulted in similar attenuation values: the AA (516 [11] to 531 [37] HU), the DA (514 [17] to 531 [32] HU), and the LM (490 [10] to 507 [17] HU). No significant differences were found between the AA, the DA, and the LM for either peak enhancement (all P > 0.05) or mean time to peak (AA, 19.4 [0.58] to 20.1 [1.05] seconds; DA, 21.1 [1.0] to 21.4 [1.15] seconds; LM, 19.8 [0.58] to 20.1 [1.05] seconds). This phantom study demonstrates that

  16. Effects of Increased Iodine Intake on Thyroid Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Sun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is a micronutrient essential for the production of thyroid hormones. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. Universal salt iodization (USI has been introduced in many countries as a cost-effective and sustainable way to eliminate iodine deficiency disorders for more than 25 years. Currently, the relationship between USI and iodine excess has attracted more attention. Iodine excess can lead to hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, especially for susceptible populations with recurring thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses, and neonates. Nationwide USI was introduced in China in 1996. This review focused on the effects of iodine excess worldwide and particularly in China.

  17. The placenta as a compensatory iodine storage organ.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, Robert

    2011-05-01

    The production of iodine-containing thyroid hormones necessary for brain development in the fetus depends not only on maternal dietary intake but also on placental iodine transport. The optimum level of iodine nutrition during pregnancy and the proportion of the pregnant population reaching this level have previously been evaluated. Little information exists on the ability of the placenta to either accumulate or store iodine. This study aims to investigate iodine uptake and tissue iodine content within placental tissue obtained from women delivering at term.

  18. [Application of iodine metabolism analysis methods in thyroid diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian-hua; Qiu, Ling

    2013-08-01

    The main physiological role of iodine in the body is to synthesize thyroid hormone. Both iodine deficiency and iodine excess can lead to severe thyroid diseases. While its role in thyroid diseases has increasingly been recognized, few relevant platforms and techniques for iodine detection have been available in China. This paper summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of currently iodine detection methods including direct titration, arsenic cerium catalytic spectrophotometry, chromatography with pulsed amperometry, colorimetry based on automatic biochemistry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, so as to optimize the iodine nutrition for patients with thyroid diseases.

  19. Iodine Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Dilemma of Ambiguous Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    question is at what level of iodine intake pregnant women should be advised to take iodine-containing supplements. The consensus reached by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 was that pregnant women should not be recommended to take iodine-containing supplements if the population in general had been iodine...... sufficient for at least 2 years. However, guidance on this differs between scientific societies. This review discusses iodine supplementation in pregnancy. Based on current evidence, the recommendations given by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 provide a valid guidance on the use of iodine supplements in pregnant...

  20. Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2013-02-26

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  1. Mixed-layered bismuth--oxygen--iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2015-01-06

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  2. Active molecular iodine photochemistry in the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raso, Angela R.; Custard, Kyle D.; May, Nathaniel W.; Tanner, David; Newburn, Matthew K.; Walker, Lawrence R.; Moore, Ronald J.; Huey, L. G.; Alexander, Lizabeth; Shepson, Paul B.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2017-09-05

    During springtime, the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer undergoes frequent rapid depletions in ozone and gaseous elemental mercury due to reactions with halogen atoms, influencing atmospheric composition and pollutant fate. Although bromine chemistry has been shown to initiate ozone depletion events, and it has long been hypothesized that iodine chemistry may contribute, no previous measurements of molecular iodine (I2) have been reported in the Arctic. Iodine chemistry also contributes to atmospheric new particle formation and therefore cloud properties and radiative forcing. Here we present Arctic atmospheric I2 and snowpack iodide (I-) measurements, which were conducted near Utqiagvik, AK, in February 2014. Using chemical ionization mass spectrometry, I2 was observed in the atmosphere at mole ratios of 0.3–1.0 ppt, and in the snowpack interstitial air at mole ratios up to 22 ppt under natural sunlit conditions and up to 35 ppt when the snowpack surface was artificially irradiated, suggesting a photochemical production mechanism. Further, snow meltwater I-measurements showed enrichments of up to ~1,900 times above the seawater ratio of I-/Na+, consistent with iodine activation and recycling. Modeling shows that observed I2 levels are able to significantly increase ozone depletion rates, while also producing iodine monoxide (IO) at levels recently observed in the Arctic. These results emphasize the significance of iodine chemistry and the role of snowpack photochemistry in Arctic atmospheric composition, and imply that I2 is likely a dominant source of iodine atoms in the Arctic.

  3. [Iodine and thyroid: what a clinic should know].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana Lopes, Maria; Jácome de Castro, João; Marcelino, Mafalda; Oliveira, Maria João; Carrilho, Francisco; Limbert, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The World Health Organization considers iodine deficiency as a major worldwide cause of mental and development diseases, estimating that about 13% of the world population is affected by diseases caused by iodine deficiency. Iodine is a trace element necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormones which, since it cannot be formed by the organism, must be taken regularly with food. Fish and shellfish are generally a good source, because the ocean contains a considerable amount of iodine. On the contrary, plants which grow in iodine-deficient soils are poor in this element, as well as meat and other animal products fed in plants low in iodine. Salt is the best way for iodine supplementation. Cooking the food with iodized salt is a desirable practice because it guarantees the presence of this element. There are also other methods to provide iodine to the general population, such as adding iodine to drinking water or taking supplements of iodine. In pregnancy is recommended iodine supplementation, except in patients with known thyroid disorders. Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormones (T4 and T3). Inadequate iodine intake leads to inadequate thyroid hormone production. The most important consequences of iodine deficiency, in the general population are goiter and hypothyroidism, and in the severe cases, mental retardation, cretinism and increased neo-natal and infant mortality. The International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD) formed in 1985, with the only aim of achieving optimal iodine nutrition in the world, in cooperation with UNICEF and WHO. In Portugal, recent studies show significant deficiencies in pregnancy and The Portuguese Society of Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism, in partnership with General Directorate of Health, proposed an iodine supplementation during pregnancy with 150-200µg/day.

  4. Risk of Suboptimal Iodine Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Margrete Meltzer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 μg/day and 150 μg/day in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 μg/day from food and 166 μg/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 μg/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 μg/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 μg/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 μg/L confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway.

  5. Iodine Supplementation: Usage “with a Grain of Salt”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Prete

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine supplementation through salt iodization is a worldwide, effective strategy for preventing iodine deficiency-related problems. Its safety and efficacy profile has been extensively investigated, and benefits far outweigh the potential iodine-induced risks. Moreover, iodine supplementation during pregnancy in order to avoid brain damage in the newborn is considered a mainstay of preventive medicine. Exposure to high amounts of iodine is actually well tolerated in most cases and can be unrecognized. Nevertheless, at-risk individuals may develop thyroid dysfunction even when they are exposed to increases in iodine intake universally considered as safe. Iodine-induced thyroid disorders include thyroid autoimmunity, thyrotoxicosis, iodine-induced goiter, and hypothyroidism. Moreover, a relationship between iodine intake and histotype distribution of differentiated thyroid cancer has been observed, with a progressive shift from follicular to papillary thyroid cancer. To date, evaluating iodine status in a clinical setting has limitations, and assessing the actual risk for each individual can be challenging, since it is influenced by personal history, genetics, and environmental factors. In conclusion, iodine supplementation programs need to be continued and strengthened, but iodine should be used “with a grain of salt,” because a growing number of susceptible individuals will be exposed to the risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid disorders.

  6. Literature survey: methods for the removal of iodine species from off-gases and liquid waste streams of nuclear power and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, with emphasis on solid sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holladay, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Emphasis was focused on the operating parameters that most strongly affected the optimization of the processes used to treat actual process or feed streams which simulated actual compositions occurring at nuclear facilities. These parameters included gas superficial velocity, temperature, types of organic and inorganic contaminants, relative humidity, iodine feed-gas concentration, iodine species, column design (for both acid-scrub and solid sorbent-based processes), sorbent particle size, run time, intense radiation (solid sorbents only), and scrub-acid concentration. The most promising acid-scrub process for removal of iodine species from off-gases appears to be Iodox. The most promising solid sorbent for removal of iodine species from off-gases is the West German Ag-KTB--AgNO/sub 3/-impregnated amorphous silicic acid. The tandem silver mordenite--lead mordenite sorbent system is also quite attractive. Only a limited number of processes have thus far been studied for removal of iodine species from low-level liquid waste streams. The most extensive successful operating experience has been obtained with anion exchange resins utilized at nuclear power reactors. Bench-scale engineering tests have indicated that the best process for removal of all types of iodine species from liquid waste streams may be treatment on a packed bed containing a mixture of sorbents with affinity for both elemental and anionic species of iodine. 154 references, 7 figures, 21 tables.

  7. Biofortification of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with iodine: The effect of iodine form and concentration in the nutrient solution on growth, development and iodine uptake of lettuce grown in water culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Holwerda, H.T.; Khodabaks, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Iodine is an essential trace element for humans. Two billion individuals have insufficient iodine intake. Biofortification of vegetables with iodine offers an excellent opportunity to increase iodine intake by humans. The main aim was to study the effect of iodine form and concentration

  8. A comparative study on the effects of excess iodine and herbs with excess iodine on thyroid oxidative stress in iodine-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianshu; Shi, Rui; Qi, Tengche; Yin, Huisi; Mei, Lan; Han, Xiaoqing; Cui, Peng

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of excess iodine and herbs with excess iodine on treating iodine deficiency-induced goiter from the perspective of oxidative stress and to measure selenium values in Chinese herbs. One hundred twenty 4-week-old Wistar rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups after inducing iodine-deficiency goiter: normal control group (NC), model control group (MC), iodine excess group (IE), and herbs with iodine excess group (HIE). The activities of oxidative enzymes and levels of oxidative products were measured using biochemical tests. The expression of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) in the thyroid was detected by immunohistochemistry and the expression of peroxiredoxin 5 (PRDX5) by the Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Selenium values in iodine-excessive herbs were measured by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The herbs with iodine excess were tested to contain rich selenium. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and PRDX5 increased markedly, and the values of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-HNE decreased significantly in the HIE group. In conclusion, compared with excess iodine, herbs with excess iodine damaged thyroid follicular cells less, which may be related to the increase of antioxidant capacity and rich selenium values in iodine-excessive herbs.

  9. [Iodine deficiency: current situation and future prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benoist, Bruno; Delange, François

    2002-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) is a major public health problem worldwide. WHO estimates that 740 million people are currently affected by goitre. The consequences of iodine deficiency on health are the results of hypothyroidism and the main one is impaired development of foetal brain. IDD is the first cause of preventable brain damage in children. The recommended strategy to correct IDD rests upon salt iodisation. Over the last 20 years, the international community mobilised to eliminate IDD under the leadership of WHO, Unicef and ICCIDD. It resulted in remarkable progress in IDD control, especially in Africa and in South East Asia where the endemic is the most severe. It is estimated that 68% of the populations of affected countries have currently access to iodised salt. However, out of the 130 affected countries, about 30 have no programme. Besides, salt quality control and monitoring of population iodine status are still weak in many countries, thus exposing the population to an excessive iodine intake and subsequently to the risk of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism. In addition, IDD is re-emerging in some countries, especially in Eastern Europe after it had disappeared. In order to reach the goal of IDD elimination, it is important to insist on the sustainability of salt iodisation programmes, which implies an increased commitment of both health authorities and representatives of the salt industry.

  10. Observations of iodine monoxide columns from satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schönhardt

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Iodine species in the troposphere are linked to ozone depletion and new particle formation. In this study, a full year of iodine monoxide (IO columns retrieved from measurements of the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument is presented, coupled with a discussion of their uncertainties and the detection limits. The largest amounts of IO are found near springtime in the Antarctic. A seasonal variation of iodine monoxide in Antarctica is revealed with high values in springtime, slightly less IO in the summer period and again larger amounts in autumn. In winter, no elevated IO levels are found in the areas accessible to satellite measurements. This seasonal cycle is in good agreement with recent ground-based measurements in Antarctica. In the Arctic region, no elevated IO levels were found in the period analysed. This implies that different conditions with respect to iodine release exist in the two Polar Regions. To investigate possible release mechanisms, comparisons of IO columns with those of tropospheric BrO, and ice coverage are described and discussed. Some parallels and interesting differences between IO and BrO temporal and spatial distributions are identified. Overall, the large spatial coverage of satellite retrieved IO data and the availability of a long-term dataset provide new insight about the abundances and distributions of iodine compounds in the troposphere.

  11. Iodine in the feed of cows and in the milk with a view to the consumer's iodine supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöne, Friedrich; Spörl, Kathrin; Leiterer, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Milk may be an iodine source for humans, but its magnitude depends on the iodine content of cow feed. The present investigation focused on the iodine level of feed and milk in German feeding practice in comparison with the results of previous milk monitoring and dose-response experiments with dairy cows. In 73 samples of straight feedstuffs (41 concentrates, 32 silages prepared from grass or green maize) and a total of 83 vitamin mineral premixes and compound feeds, respectively, the iodine content was determined and along with the expected daily iodine intake of cows. In six Thuringian cow herds, the total cow diets (51 total mixed rations, TMR) as well as the bulk milk (n=77) were analysed for iodine. Cereal and legume grains and extracted meals from oilseeds had very low native iodine contents atcows received via premixes a mean of 1.2mg iodine/kg diet DM and this was in the magnitude of 0.8mg iodine/kg DM determined in TMR on farm. However, the resulting mean milk concentration of 105μg iodine/kg, median 100μg/kg, is only a half of that in dose-response experiments with 200μg iodine/kg milk at 1mg iodine/kg cow feed DM. The decrease of iodine transfer into the mammary gland and milk is caused by rapeseed meal (RSM) with the glucosinolates and their degradation compounds, e.g. isothiocyanates. By compensating for the iodine antagonist effects of diets containing RSM, more iodine should be added. Twice the current mean feed iodine supplement would optimize the contribution of animal-source food to the human iodine supply in Germany. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes to the shuttle circuits

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    To fit with passengers expectation, there will be some changes to the shuttle circuits as from Monday 10 October. See details on http://cern.ch/ShuttleService (on line on 7 October). Circuit No. 5 is cancelled as circuit No. 1 also stops at Bldg. 33. In order to guarantee shorter travel times, circuit No. 1 will circulate on Meyrin site only and circuit No. 2, with departures from Bldg. 33 and 500, on Prévessin site only. Site Services Section

  13. Comprehensive handbook of iodine: nutritional, biochemical, pathological and therapeutic aspects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preedy, Victor R; Burrow, Gerard N; Watson, Ronald R

    2009-01-01

    ... for Monitoring Effects of Iodine/Thyroid Status in Populations Inge Bülow Pedersen and Peter Laurberg 3 15 29 39 47 55 65 Section 2: General Aspects of Iodine Sources and Intakes in the Diet, Mai...

  14. Iodine Contents in Baby Food Consumed in Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yoshida, M; Nozaki, S; Inui, K

    2013-01-01

    ...), while 8 samples showed markedly high iodine values (> 1000 ng/g wet weight). Significantly higher iodine values were observed in 15 samples composed of dishes cooked using kombu (a kind of kelp) than other samples...

  15. Evaluation of iodine content of some selected fruits and vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-07

    C. Iodine content. The iodine content was analyzed by Elmslie Caldwell's method as modified by Diosdy and Fitzgerald (1983). The principle was based on the catalytic reduction of thiosulphate to tetraoxosulfate by the.

  16. Iodine Intakes of Victorian Schoolchildren Measured Using 24-h Urinary Iodine Excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Beckford

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mandatory fortification of bread with iodized salt was introduced in Australia in 2009, and studies using spot urine collections conducted post fortification indicate that Australian schoolchildren are now replete. However an accurate estimate of daily iodine intake utilizing 24-h urinary iodine excretion (UIE μg/day has not been reported and compared to the estimated average requirement (EAR. This study aimed to assess daily total iodine intake and status of a sample of primary schoolchildren using 24-h urine samples. Victorian primary school children provided 24-h urine samples between 2011 and 2013, from which urinary iodine concentration (UIC, μg/L and total iodine excretion (UIE, μg/day as an estimate of intake was determined. Valid 24-h urine samples were provided by 650 children, mean (SD age 9.3 (1.8 years (n = 359 boys. The mean UIE of 4–8 and 9–13 year olds was 94 (48 and 111 (57 μg/24-h, respectively, with 29% and 26% having a UIE below the age-specific EAR. The median (IQR UIC was 124 (83,172 μg/L, with 36% of participants having a UIC < 100 μg/L. This convenience sample of Victorian schoolchildren were found to be iodine replete, based on UIC and estimated iodine intakes derived from 24-h urine collections, confirming the findings of the Australian Health Survey.

  17. Veganism as a cause of iodine deficient hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeliosof, Olga; Silverman, Lawrence A

    2018-01-26

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of acquired hypothyroidism worldwide. Although uncommon in the Western world, the incidence of iodine deficiency may be rising due to the increased use of restrictive diets. We present a 23-month-old boy diagnosed with iodine deficiency hypothyroidism, induced by a vegan diet. This case highlights the risk for iodine deficiency in children on a vegan diet after discontinuation of breast/formula feeding that could lead to acquired hypothyroidism.

  18. Effect of iodinated contrast media on thyroid: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife Mehlika Kuşkonmaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In parallel to the increased use of computed tomography, iodinated contrast agents are increasingly becoming a source of excess iodide. Iodinated contrast agents may induce thyroid dysfunction in exposed patients, especially in the presence of an underlying thyroid disease. Thus, an ordinary dose of the contrast used for the imaging, can induce hyper or hypothyroidism in a patient with subtle thyroid disease. This review will briefly discuss the physiology of iodine and the clinical evaluation of iodine induced thyroid dysfunction.

  19. Cure shrinkage in casting resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J. Brock [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A method is described whereby the shrinkage of a casting resin can be determined. Values for the shrinkage of several resin systems in frequent use by Sandia have been measured. A discussion of possible methods for determining the stresses generated by cure shrinkage and thermal contraction is also included.

  20. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of

  1. The ozone-iodine-chlorate clock reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela T P Sant'Anna

    Full Text Available This work presents a new clock reaction based on ozone, iodine, and chlorate that differs from the known chlorate-iodine clock reaction because it does not require UV light. The induction period for this new clock reaction depends inversely on the initial concentrations of ozone, chlorate, and perchloric acid but is independent of the initial iodine concentration. The proposed mechanism considers the reaction of ozone and iodide to form HOI, which is a key species for producing non-linear autocatalytic behavior. The novelty of this system lies in the presence of ozone, whose participation has never been observed in complex systems such as clock or oscillating reactions. Thus, the autocatalysis demonstrated in this new clock reaction should open the possibility for a new family of oscillating reactions.

  2. Fast and reliable salt iodine measurement: evaluation of the WYD Iodine Checker in comparison with iodometric titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearth-Wesley, Tracy; Makhmudov, Amir; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Caldwell, Kathleen

    2004-06-01

    Iodine deficiency persists as the leading cause of preventable brain damage and reduced intellectual capacity in the world. The most effective method for the elimination of iodine deficiency is the consumption of adequately iodized salt. Ensuring that a population receives adequately iodized salt demands careful monitoring of the salt iodine content. We evaluated the WYD Iodine Checker, a hand-held instrument that quantitatively measures the salt iodine content on the basis of a colorimetric method, and compared its performance with iodometric titration. Performance testing results indicated that the WYD Iodine Checker is a highly precise, accurate, and sensitive tool for measuring salt iodine content. It is a user-friendly instrument that is based on a simple methodology and a straightforward salt sample preparation and testing procedure. We recommend further testing to examine the field performance of the WYD Iodine Checker when measuring iodate salt samples.

  3. Iodine in drinking water varies by more than 100-fold in Denmark. Importance for iodine content of infant formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K M; Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S

    1999-01-01

    for preparation. We found that iodine in tap water was a major determinant of regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark. Changes in water supply and possibly water purification methods may influence the population iodine intake level and the occurrence of thyroid disorders. Udgivelsesdato: 1999-May......The iodine intake level of the population is of major importance for the occurrence of thyroid disorders in an area. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of drinking water iodine content for the known regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark and for the iodine content...... of infant formulas. Iodine in tap water obtained from 55 different locations in Denmark varied from

  4. Contact allergy to epoxy resin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil

    2012-01-01

    Background. Epoxy resin monomers are strong skin sensitizers that are widely used in industrial sectors. In Denmark, the law stipulates that workers must undergo a course on safe handling of epoxy resins prior to occupational exposure, but the effectiveness of this initiative is largely unknown....... Objectives. To evaluate the prevalence of contact allergy to epoxy resin monomer (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A; MW 340) among patients with suspected contact dermatitis and relate this to occupation and work-related consequences. Patients/methods. The dataset comprised 20 808 consecutive dermatitis...... patients patch tested during 2005-2009. All patients with an epoxy resin-positive patch test were sent a questionnaire. Results. A positive patch test reaction to epoxy resin was found in 275 patients (1.3%), with a higher proportion in men (1.9%) than in women (1.0%). The prevalence of sensitization...

  5. Effect of mixing on iodine dissociation, population inversion and lasing in chemical oxygen-iodine lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmashenko, Boris D.; Elior, A.; Lebiush, Eyal; Rosenwaks, Salman

    1993-05-01

    A simple, one-dimensional leak flow tube model was used to calculate the effect of mixing on the performance of chemical oxygen-iodine lasers (COIL). Both the maximum gain and the characteristic length of the iodine dissociation are shown to be nonmonotonic functions of the iodine flow rate, nI2. The maximum nI2 for which lasing is possible is less than 1 - 2% of the oxygen flow rate. This is in agreement with experimental data and is not explained by models assuming premixed flows. The present model was applied to calculations of the performance of supersonic COILs.

  6. QUALIMETRIC QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF IODINE SUPPLEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Bazrova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the new iodine-containing supplements (ID derived from organic media collagenous animal protein (pork rind, carpatina and collagen and protein concentrates brands SCANGEN and PROMIL C95. It is shown that the use of these proteins as carriers of iodine is due to the high content of the amino acids glycine and alanine, which correlates with the degree of binding of iodine objects. New additives in addition to the special focus improve rheological properties of foods, including texture, appearance and functional properties. To assess the quality'ID and selection of preferred option the proposed qualitative assessment and a systematic approach to consider all'ID as a system to allocate its elements, to justify the principles of its construction and the requirements imposed on it, to build a General decision tree. For the construction of complex criterion for assessing the quality'ID proposed procedure formalization based on selection and evaluation of individual indicators, the definition of the laws of their change, depending on the dose, duration and temperature of exposure, and functional efficiency. For comparative evaluation of single and calculation of group indicators all of them were reduced to a single dimension by introducing the dimensionless coefficients of adequately describing the analyzed indicators. The article presents the calculated values of single and group of indicators characterizing technological properties 'ID: the degree of binding of iodine, the binding rate of iodine, heat losses of iodine and basic functional and technological properties of meat stuffing systems (water-binding, moisture-holding, emulsifying capacity and emulsion stability, obtained by the introduction of stuffing in the system studied'ID. At the final stage is the selection of the best 'ID, on the basis of an assessment of group performance.

  7. Determination of iodine in human milk and urine | Ayodele | Ife ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human milk and urine samples were collected from 84 healthy volunteer nursing mothers living in Kano, Nigeria. The samples were analyzed for their Iodine content using the Iodine-catalyzed reduction of Ceric ion by Arsenous acid. Separating the Iodine by solvent extraction eliminated interferences. Physiological ...

  8. Iodine deficiency in primary school children and knowledge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    know about the importance of iodized salt. Conclusion: The observed degree of iodine deficiency in children and the limited knowledge about iodine in an urban area such as Hawassa stress the urgent need for implementing interventions to combat iodine deficiency. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2012;26(1):30-35] ...

  9. Schoolchildren in the Principality of Liechtenstein are mildly iodine deficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilty, F.M.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the iodine status of schoolchildren in the Principality of Liechtenstein. Design: A representative, cross-sectional principality-wide screening of iodine level in household salt and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in primary-school children. Data were compared with the

  10. Progress towards eliminating iodine deficiency in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jooste, P.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Before the introduction of salt iodisation in 1954, South Africa was one of the many countries of the world with a lack of iodine in most of its territory and hence there was a need for a salt iodisation programme. The understanding of the iodine situation in South Africa, the basics of iodine

  11. Book review: Use of Stable Iodine in Nuclear Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nabipour

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Following a radiological or nuclear event, radioactive iodine may be get into the body through respiratory or gastrointestinal systems. In the contaminated cases with radioactive iodine, the radioactive iodine absorbed by the thyroid can injure the gland. Because of the carcinogenic effects of its radiation, there is a significant public health risk in the event of exposure to radioactive iodine. On other hand, due to stable (non-radioactive iodine acts to block radioactive iodine from being taken into the thyroid gland, it can help protect this gland from injury and following side effects. In this query, potassium iodide (also called KI is a salt of stable iodine in a medicine form which is recommended to use sine many years ago. With effective planning and the use of stable iodine prophylaxis, accompanied with other protective implementations, this risk is mostly avoidable. This book contains information such as iodine and physiology kinetic , exposure risk to radioactive iodine, how to use stable iodine in this events , complications attributed to stable(non-radioactive iodine and also at last chapter the final recommendation published by WHO is included.

  12. Iodine supplementation in pregnancy and its effest on child cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.; Gowachirapant, S.; Jaiswal, A.K.; Winichagoon, P.; Srinivasan, K.; Zimmerman, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal hypothyroidism and hypothyroxenemia due to iodine deficiency have been shown to affect development of the newborn negatively. Maternal iodine supplementation may therefore improve cognitive performance of the offspring, even in areas of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency (ID). Several

  13. Iodine intake as a determinant of thyroid disorders in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Ovesen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Depending on the availability of iodine, the thyroid gland is able to enhance or limit the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. When compensation fails, as in severely iodine-deficient populations, hypothyroidism and developmental brain damage will be the dominating disorders. This is, out...

  14. Thyroid cancer in South Africa - an indicator of regional iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Because follicular thyroid cancers predominate in iodine-deficient and papillary cancers predominate in iodine replete populations. we have analysed national and regional (former Transvaal) incidences of these cancer types as a surrogate measure of the population iodine nutritional status in South Africa.

  15. Determinants of iodine deficiency in school children in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indicators of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) assessed were urinary iodine excretion (UIE) rate, iodine concentration in water, the commonly consumed individual foods of plant origin and milk, and bacterial contamination of drinking water. Results: The gross prevalence (mean of male and female values) among school ...

  16. Development of Databases with Iodine in Foods and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth and development, thus an adequate intake of iodine is particularly important in pregnant and lactating women, and throughout childhood. Low levels of iodine in the soil and groundwater are common in many parts of the world, often leadi...

  17. The role of iodine in human growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Michael B

    2011-08-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Thyroid hormones, and therefore iodine, are essential for mammalian life. Iodine deficiency is a major public health problem; globally, it is estimated that two billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake. Although goiter is the most visible sequelae of iodine deficiency, the major impact of hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency is impaired neurodevelopment, particularly early in life. In the fetal brain, inadequate thyroid hormone impairs myelination, cell migration, differentiation and maturation. Moderate-to-severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy increases rates of spontaneous abortion, reduces birth weight, and increases infant mortality. Offspring of deficient mothers are at high risk for cognitive disability, with cretinism being the most severe manifestation. It remains unclear if development of the offspring is affected by mild maternal iodine deficiency. Moderate-to-severe iodine deficiency during childhood reduces somatic growth. Correction of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency in primary school aged children improves cognitive and motor function. Iodine prophylaxis of deficient populations with periodic monitoring is an extremely cost effective approach to reduce the substantial adverse effects of iodine deficiency throughout the life cycle. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of iodine deficiency among school children and access ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The iodine concentration in the salt was determined using the quantitative titrimetric method. The data for the UIC and salt iodine plus data from questionnaires were analysed using Excel and Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 15 (SPSS 15). The median urinary iodine concentration (MUIC) was 248.5μg/l and ...

  19. Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iodine deficiency. Although universal salt iodization in Uganda achieved a household coverage of 95% by 2005, goiter rates are still high. This study investigated the association between iodine excess and goiter. Methods: In a case control study, urinary iodine levels, complete blood count, T3, T4 and TSH levels were ...

  20. Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation | Washington ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation. ... Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation. L Washington, T Makumbi, OJ Fualal, M Galukande. Abstract. Background: Goiters have been associated with iodine deficiency. Although universal salt iodization in Uganda achieved a household coverage of 95%

  1. Iodine. Do we need an enrichment program in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersson, G.; Haraldsdottir, J.

    1996-01-01

    A working group was established to evaluate the need for iodine enrichment in Denmark. Judged from studies of urinary iodine excretion and one dietary survey the intake of iodine in Denmark is low compared with recommended intakes. The occurrence of non-toxic goitre is relatively high; between 9...

  2. Deposition characteristics of iodine from the off-air of the nuclear auxiliaries of a BWR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patzelt, A.

    1983-12-01

    Contrary to the present opinion, the penetrating iodine fraction in the off-air from the auxiliaries of a BWR reactor may be higher than the values communicated in the relevant literature. This seems to be a result of internal processes in the systems in which ion exchanger resins are used. In these systems, filters made of a combination of impregnated and activated carbon have proved to be a better solution as experiments have shown. Systems of this type are recommended for general used.

  3. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M

    2000-01-01

    in elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. The hyperthyroidism is caused by autonomous nodular growth and function of the thyroid gland and it is accompanied by a high frequency of goiter. Pregnant women and small children are not immediately...... endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine...

  4. [Overall child development: beyond pharmacological iodine supplementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilán, Enrique; Jiménez de Gracia, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Iodine deficiency is a factor that may compromise child development, but is not the only one. Other health determinants, some of them outside the healthcare system, are able to influence development. Fighting iodine deficiency may be a pragmatic and useful strategy if it is found to be not maleficent, beneficial to health, and cost-effective, and does not make us lose the notion that child development goes beyond psychomotor or cognitive performance. This article analyzes such constraints from a critical point of view. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Tomato fruits: a good target for iodine biofortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eKiferle

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is a trace element that is fundamental for human health: its deficiency affects about two billion people worldwide. Fruits and vegetables are usually poor sources of iodine; however plants can accumulate iodine if it is either present or exogenously administered to the soil. The biofortification of crops with iodine has therefore been proposed as a strategy for improving human nutrition. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the possibility of biofortifying tomato fruits with iodine. Increasing concentrations of iodine supplied as KI or KIO3 were administered to plants as root treatments and the iodine accumulation in fruits was measured. The influences of the soil organic matter content or the nitrate level in the nutritive solution were analyzed. Finally, yield and qualitative properties of the biofortified tomatoes were considered, as well as the possible influence of fruit storage and processing on the iodine content. Results showed that the use of both the iodized salts induced a significant increase in the fruit’s iodine content in doses that did not affect plant growth and development. The final levels ranged from a few mg up to 10 mg iodine kg-1 fruit fresh weight and are more than adequate for a biofortification program, since 150 µg iodine per day is the recommended dietary allowance for adults. In general, the iodine treatments scarcely affected fruit appearance and quality, even with the highest concentrations applied. In contrast, the use of KI in plants fertilized with low doses of nitrate induced moderate phytotoxicity symptoms. Organic matter-rich soils improved the plant’s health and production, with only mild reductions in iodine stored in the fruits. Finally, a short period of storage at room temperature or a 30-minute boiling treatment did not reduce the iodine content in the fruits, if the peel was maintained. All these results suggest that tomato is a particularly suitable crop for iodine

  6. Electrophilic iodination: a gateway to high iodine compounds and energetic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Deepak; He, Chunlin; Mitchell, Lauren A; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2016-09-21

    A large number of iodine atoms can be introduced into a single molecule in a one-pot reaction using trifluoroperacetic acid-mediated electrophilic iodination methodology. The scope of this reaction was investigated extensively using several pyrazole substrates which resulted in nine polyiodo pyrazole compounds with iodine content as high as 80%. This synthetic methodology was also utilized successfully for iodination of benzimidazoles. Tetraiodobenzimidazole was nitrated with 100% nitric acid to give a high yield of 4,5,6,7-tetranitro-1H-benzimidazol-2(3H)-one (14). All of these materials were fully characterized and compounds 5, 9, 10 and 14 were confirmed further with single crystal X-ray analysis. High density, positive oxygen balance, and very good impact sensitivity values characterize 14. For the first time, two 1,2,5-oxadiazole-N-oxide rings were introduced into a benzimidazole ring (11) which remarkably improves the stability of oxadiazole-N-oxide compounds.

  7. Retrospective reconstruction of Iodine-131 distribution through the analysis of Iodine-129

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ohno, Takeshi; Mao, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Iodine-131 distribution released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was reconstructed through the iodine-129 measurements. From nearly 1,000 surface soil samples iodine was extracted by the pyro hydrolysis method. Extracted iodine was then mixed with carrier, purified and finally collected as silver iodide. Silver iodide sample was pressed into the cathode holder and set at the ion source of the MALT facility, The University of Tokyo. The isotopic ratio 129I/127I was measured by means of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. From 129I data obtained, 131I deposition map was constructed. There observed various fine structures in the map which could not estimated neither by the simulation nor 137Cs distribution.

  8. Retrospective reconstruction of Iodine-131 distribution through the analysis of Iodine-129

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuzaki Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine-131 distribution released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was reconstructed through the iodine-129 measurements. From nearly 1,000 surface soil samples iodine was extracted by the pyro hydrolysis method. Extracted iodine was then mixed with carrier, purified and finally collected as silver iodide. Silver iodide sample was pressed into the cathode holder and set at the ion source of the MALT facility, The University of Tokyo. The isotopic ratio 129I/127I was measured by means of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. From 129I data obtained, 131I deposition map was constructed. There observed various fine structures in the map which could not estimated neither by the simulation nor 137Cs distribution.

  9. Iodine status in neonates in Denmark: regional variations and dependency on maternal iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P; Børlum, K G

    1994-01-01

    in breast milk and urinary iodine concentrations of the neonates at day 5 were low. The median values (milk/urine) were 33.6/31.7 micrograms/l (Randers 22/26, Ringkøbing 29/16, Aalborg 36/31. Arhus 54/41 and Copenhagen 55/59 micrograms/l). Higher values were found in the group where tablets containing...... iodine had been taken (milk/urine: 57.0/61.0 micrograms/l). In general, the values are low compared with internationally recommended levels. We suggest that mothers without autoimmune thyroid disease should receive iodine supplementation in the form of vitamin/mineral tablets containing iodine (150...

  10. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baat, C; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of removable partial dentures, the acrylic resin removable partial denture has 3 favourable aspects: the economic aspect, its aesthetic quality and the ease with which it can be extended and adjusted. Disadvantages are an increased risk of caries developing, gingivitis, periodontal disease, denture stomatitis, alveolar bone reduction, tooth migration, triggering of the gag reflex and damage to the acrylic resin base. Present-day indications are ofa temporary or palliative nature or are motivated by economic factors. Special varieties of the acrylic resin removable partial denture are the spoon denture, the flexible denture fabricated of non-rigid acrylic resin, and the two-piece sectional denture. Furthermore, acrylic resin removable partial dentures can be supplied with clasps or reinforced by fibers or metal wires.

  11. Current iodine nutrition status and progress toward elimination of iodine deficiency disorders in Jazan, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsanosy Rashad Mohammed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The term iodine deficiency disorders (IDD refers to all the effects of iodine deficiency on growth and development in human and animal populations that can be prevented by correction of the iodine deficiency. The objective of this paper was to determine the iodine nutrition status among schoolchildren in the Jazan Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, by measuring urinary iodine concentrations and by clinical assessments of goiter rate. Methods A school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Jazan region of southwestern KSA from May to November 2010. A total of 311 children, aged 6–13 years, drawn from 12 schools, were selected by a three-stage cluster random sampling method. Data on sociodemographic characteristics were collected using a structured questionnaire. Urine samples were collected and physical examinations were conducted to determine the presence or absence of goiter. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Chi square and independent t-tests were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Results Out of 360 selected children, 311 were examined. There were 131 males (42% and 180 females (58%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC of the study group was 421 μg/L. The study population proportion with UIC > 300 μg/L was 74% with a higher proportion among males and urban populations. The proportion of children with UIC of 100–300 μg/L was only 21% and was significantly higher among females compared with males (p Conclusions The present study demonstrates a remarkable achievement in Universal Salt Iodization (USI and IDD elimination goals in the Jazan area. However, UIC levels reflect excessive iodine intake and may put the population at risk of adverse health consequences like iodine-induced hyperthyroidism and autoimmune thyroid diseases.

  12. Chemical oxygen-iodine laser with atomic iodine generated via fluorine atoms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásek, Vít; Čenský, Miroslav; Špalek, Otomar; Kodymová, Jarmila; Picková, Irena; Jakubec, Ivo

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 345, č. 1 (2008), 14-22 ISSN 0301-0104 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0359 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : atomic iodine * atomic fluorine * chemical oxygen–iodine laser * COIL Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.961, year: 2008

  13. Generation of atomic iodine via fluorine for chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásek, Vít; Špalek, Otomar; Čenský, Miroslav; Picková, Irena; Kodymová, Jarmila; Jakubec, Ivo

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 334, - (2007), s. 167-174 ISSN 0301-0104 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0359 Grant - others:USAF European Office for Research and Development(XE) FA 8655-05-M-4027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : atomic iodine * atomic fluorine * chemical oxygen-iodine laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.805, year: 2007

  14. Chromatography resin support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, James G.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method of using an improved chromatography resin support is disclosed. The chromatography support platform is provided by a stainless steel hollow cylinder adapted for being inserted into a chromatography column. An exterior wall of the stainless steel cylinder defines a groove for carrying therein an "O"-ring. The upper surface of the stainless steel column is covered by a fine stainless steel mesh welded to the edges of the stainless steel cylinder. When placed upon a receiving ledge defined within a chromatography column, the "O"-ring provides a fluid tight seal with the inner edge wall of the chromatography cylinder. The stainless steel mesh supports the chromatography matrix and provides a back flushable support which is economical and simple to construct.

  15. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3930 Terpene resins. The terpene resins identified in paragraph (a) of this... the terpene resins identified in paragraph (b) of this section may be safely used as components of...

  16. Determination of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine in waters with a new total organic iodine measurement approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tingting; Zhang, Xiangru

    2013-11-01

    The dissolved iodine species that dominate aquatic systems are iodide, iodate and organo-iodine. These species may undergo transformation to one another and thus affect the formation of iodinated disinfection byproducts during disinfection of drinking waters or wastewater effluents. In this study, a fast, sensitive and accurate method for determining these iodine species in waters was developed by derivatizing iodide and iodate to organic iodine and measuring organic iodine with a total organic iodine (TOI) measurement approach. Within this method, organo-iodine was determined directly by TOI measurement; iodide was oxidized by monochloramine to hypoiodous acid and then hypoiodous acid reacted with phenol to form organic iodine, which was determined by TOI measurement; iodate was reduced by ascorbic acid to iodide and then determined as iodide. The quantitation limit of organo-iodine or sum of organo-iodine and iodide or sum of organo-iodine, iodide and iodate was 5 μg/L as I for a 40 mL water sample (or 2.5 μg/L as I for an 80 mL water sample, or 1.25 μg/L as I for a 160 mL water sample). This method was successfully applied to the determination of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine in a variety of water samples, including tap water, seawater, urine and wastewater. The recoveries of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine were 91-109%, 90-108% and 91-108%, respectively. The concentrations and distributions of iodine species in different water samples were obtained and compared. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Iodine Content in Urine, Faeces and Selected Organs of Rats Fed Lettuce Biofortified with Iodine Through Foliar Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Roksana; Kopeć, Aneta; Piątkowska, Ewa; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Leszczyńska, Teresa; Sady, Włodzimierz

    2016-12-01

    Iodine is an essential trace element for humans. Foliar application of micronutrients is successfully used in order to increase the concentration of essential elements in vegetables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the iodine absorption in the rat organism fed foliar biofortified lettuce. The presented study was consisted of the vegetative and animal experiment. In the vegetative experiment with lettuce, two combinations of foliar application were used: (1) control-without iodine application and (2) iodine application in the potassium iodide (KI) form. In the animal experiment, Wistar rats were divided to four groups, which received one of four diets: (1) C-control diet containing iodine in the KI form, (2) D-diet deficient in iodine, (3) D + BL-diet containing biofortified lettuce, and (4) D + CL-diet containing control lettuce (as the only source of iodine in diet, respectively). The diets contained 0.260, 0.060, 0.254 and 0.075 mg I/kg, respectively. In order to determine the iodine absorption in the rat organisms, the content of this trace element was measured in urine, faeces and in selected organs with the use of the ICP-OES technique. Foliar application of the KI increased the content of iodine in lettuce. The rats from the D + BL group excreted significantly less iodine in their urine and faeces and also accumulated more iodine in the organs than the rats from the C group. Iodine with biofortified lettuce was much bioavailable for rodents than iodine from control diet. Biofortified lettuce can be a source of iodine in a diet of human and can improve iodine nutrition.

  18. prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... and packed in plastic bottle. Twenty salt samples from each category (I,. II, III & IV) were analyzed for iodine content using standard iodometric titration method suggested by WHO/UNICIEF/ICCIDD (33). This method involves the titration of a solution of salt against standard Sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3.

  19. Fundamentals of Thyroid Hormone Physiology, Iodine Metabolism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for iodine are 100–150 µg in adults, 90–120 µg in children and. 200 µg in pregnant women.1 However, ..... chronic fatigue due to insomnia, anxiety, muscle tremor, palpitations. Skin and A ppendages. Increased ... Normal lung volume with reduced maximal breathing capacity; sleep apnea common. 1. D yspnea is common ...

  20. Stability of radiopaque iodine-containing biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aldenhoff, YBJ; Kruft, MAB; Pijpers, AP; van der Veen, FH; Bulstra, SK; Kuijer, Roelof; Koole, LH

    Stability tests have been performed on two typical iodine-containing radiopaque poly(methacrylate) copolymers. Material A is a terpolymer of methylmethacrylate (MMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and 2-[4-iodobenzoyl]-oxo-ethylmethacrylate (4-IEMA) material B is a copolymer of MMA and 4-IEMA.

  1. prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... was to determine the prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency disorders. METHODS: A .... ammonium persulfate method which was suggested and approved by. WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD (21). This involves the spectrophotometric analysis (measuring the absorbance) of a reaction medium, which utilizes.

  2. Radio-active iodine uptake in vitiligo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.; Shankar, V.; Chaudhary, S.; Bhatia, K.K.; Mehta, L.K.; Arora, D.R. (Medical College and Hospital, Rohtak-124001 (India))

    1990-01-01

    Vitiligo and thyroid disease are commonly associated disorders. Twenty-two clinically euthyroid vitiligo patients were studied for functional assessment of thyroid by radioactive iodine uptake assay. Half of them showed abnormal uptake values at 24 hours. Of these patients, 90% had lower values indicating a tendency towards developing hypothyroid state. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction in vitiligo appears to be an adaptive change. (author).

  3. Iodine retention during evaporative volume reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbee, H.W.; Cathers, G.I.; Blanco, R.E.

    1975-11-18

    An improved method for retaining radioactive iodine in aqueous waste solutions during volume reduction is disclosed. The method applies to evaporative volume reduction processes whereby the decontaminated (evaporated) water can be returned safely to the environment. The method generally comprises isotopically diluting the waste solution with a nonradioactive iodide and maintaining the solution at a high pH during evaporation.

  4. Iodine-125 seeds for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostelato, Maria E.C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, Joao A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Nagatomi, Helio R.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Souza, Carla D., E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b, E-mail: czeituni@pobox.co, E-mail: afeher@ipen.b, E-mail: jmoura31@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: esmoura@ipen.b, E-mail: hrnagato@ipen.b, E-mail: jemanzoli@ipen.b, E-mail: cdsouza@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Karam, Dib, E-mail: dib.karan@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil, cancer has become one of the major public health problems. An estimate by the Health Ministry showed that 466,430 people had the disease in the country in 2008. The prostate cancer is the second largest death cause among men. The National Institute of Cancer estimated the occurrence of 50,000 new cases for 2009. Some of these patients are treated with Brachytherapy, using Iodine-125 seeds. By this technique, small seeds with Iodine-125, a radioactive material, are implanted in the prostate. The advantages of radioactive seed implants are the preservation of healthy tissues and organs near the prostate, besides the low rate of impotence and urinary incontinence. The Energy and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN, which belongs to the Nuclear Energy National Commission - CNEN, established a program for the development of the technique and production of Iodine-125 seeds in Brazil. The estimate for the 125-Iodine seeds demand is of 8,000 seeds/month and the laboratory to be implanted will need this production capacity. The purpose of this paper is to explain the project status and show some data about the seeds used in the country. The project will be divided in two phases: technological development of a prototype and a laboratory implementation for the seeds production. (author)

  5. A Review: Radiographic Iodinated Contrast Media-Induced Thyroid Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Brent, Gregory A.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Thyroid hormone production is dependent on adequate iodine intake. Excess iodine is generally well-tolerated, but thyroid dysfunction can occur in susceptible individuals after excess iodine exposure. Radiological iodinated contrast media represent an increasingly common source of excess iodine. Objective: This review will discuss the thyroidal response after acute exposure to excess iodine; contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction; risks of iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction in vulnerable populations, such as the fetus, neonate, and patients with impaired renal function; and recommendations for the assessment and treatment of contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction. Methods: Data for this review were identified by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and references from relevant articles from 1948 to 2014. Conclusions: With the increase in the use of computed tomography scans in the United States, there is increasing risk of contrast-induced thyroid dysfunction. Patients at risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction should be closely monitored after receiving iodinated contrast media and should be treated as needed. PMID:25375985

  6. Soil, wheat, cabbage and drinking water iodine in relation to human iodine status and iodine deficiency disorders in Xinjiang Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Fordyce, F.M.; Ge, Xiaoli; Stewart, A.G.; Jiang, Ji Yong; Cave, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Iodine is an essential trace element for humans and animals. A lack in the diet can lead to iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) the most common manifestation being goitre, an enlargement of the thyroid gland in the neck. Infants born to severely Ideficient mothers may suffer cretinism and I-deficiency is the world's most common cause of preventable mental retardation. In many countries this problem has been tackled successfully using medical interventions such as the iodination o...

  7. Technological aspects of vegetable oils epoxidation in the presence of ion exchange resins: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milchert Eugeniusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A review paper of the technology basics of vegetable oils epoxidation by means of peracetic or performic acid in the presence of acidic ion exchange resins has been presented. The influence of the following parameters: temperature, molar ratio of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide to ethylenic unsaturation, catalyst loading, stirring intensity and the reaction time on a conversion of ethylenic unsaturation, the relative percentage conversion to oxirane and the iodine number was discussed. Optimal technological parameters, mechanism of epoxidation by carboxylic peracids and the possibilities of catalyst recycling have been also discussed. This review paper shows the application of epoxidized oils.

  8. Effect of excess iodine intake on thyroid on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukkou, Eftychia G; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Markou, Kostas B

    2017-04-01

    The recommended daily intake of iodide, is 150 μg for adolescents and adults, 250 μg for pregnancy and lactation. Thyroid gland is an effective collector of iodine. The active iodine uptake along the basolateral membrane of thyroid cell is followed by its transport to the apical edge of the cell and then to the follicle lumen. TSH acts through cAMP and stimulates NIS gene expression and protein synthesis. The major proportion of iodine in the thyroid gland is bound to Thyroglobulin. The non-organic intrathyroidal iodine is usually low, but significantly greater compared to plasma. Large doses of iodine reduce both the uptake and the organification (Wolff-Chaikoff effect) and cause partial inhibition of Tg proteolysis. The thyroid gland has several protective mechanisms resulting on the maintenance of normal thyroid function despite wide fluctuations of the daily iodine intake. Ingestion of several commonly used drugs and food conservatives results in acute or chronic excessive iodine intake. Failure to escape from the iodine induced organification inhibition can cause hypothyroidism, which is temporary and subsides after iodine exposure ceases. Iodine excess may also establish a status of excessive thyroid hormone synthesis and release, thus inducing autonomic thyroid function in iodopenic areas or can contribute to the development of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism in iodine abundant areas. The anti-arrhythmic Amiodarone, is a benzofuranic product with a very high iodine content, is associated with either hypo- or hyperthyroidism development. In the presence of defective auto-protective mechanisms, excessive iodine ingestion can divert the normal thyroid function.

  9. Digital coding of Shuttle TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, A.; Batson, B.

    1976-01-01

    Space Shuttle will be using a field-sequential color television system for the first few missions, but the present plans are to switch to a NTSC color TV system for future missions. The field-sequential color TV system uses a modified black and white camera, producing a TV signal with a digital bandwidth of about 60 Mbps. This article discusses the characteristics of the Shuttle TV systems and proposes a bandwidth-compression technique for the field-sequential color TV system that could operate at 13 Mbps to produce a high-fidelity signal. The proposed bandwidth-compression technique is based on a two-dimensional DPCM system that utilizes temporal, spectral, and spatial correlation inherent in the field-sequential color TV imagery. The proposed system requires about 60 watts and less than 200 integrated circuits.

  10. Space Shuttle Corrosion Protection Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Cris E.

    2007-01-01

    The reusable Manned Space Shuttle has been flying into Space and returning to earth for more than 25 years. The launch pad environment can be corrosive to metallic substrates and the Space Shuttles are exposed to this environment when preparing for launch. The Orbiter has been in service well past its design life of 10 years or 100 missions. As part of the aging vehicle assessment one question under evaluation is how the thermal protection system and aging protective coatings are performing to insure structural integrity. The assessment of this cost resources and time. The information is invaluable when minimizing risk to the safety of Astronauts and Vehicle. This paper will outline a strategic sampling plan and some operational improvements made by the Orbiter Structures team and Corrosion Control Review Board.

  11. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartwright, P; Helin, K

    2000-01-01

    To elicit the transcriptional response following intra- or extracellular stimuli, the signals need to be transmitted to their site of action within the nucleus. The nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors is a mechanism mediating this process. The activation and inactivation of the t......To elicit the transcriptional response following intra- or extracellular stimuli, the signals need to be transmitted to their site of action within the nucleus. The nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors is a mechanism mediating this process. The activation and inactivation...... transcription factor families are regulated by similar mechanisms, there are several differences that allow for the specific activation of each transcription factor. This review discusses the general import and export pathways found to be common amongst many different transcription factors, and highlights...... a select group of transcription factors that demonstrate the diversity displayed in their mode of activation and inactivation....

  12. Iodine uptake and distribution in horticultural and fruit tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Caffagni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is an essential microelement for humans and iodine deficiency disorder (IDD is one of the most widespread nutrient-deficiency diseases in the world. Iodine biofortification of plants provides an attractive opportunity to increase iodine intake in humans and to prevent and control IDD. This study was conducted to investigate the iodine uptake and accumulation in edible portion of two fruit trees: plum and nectarine, and two horticultural crops: tomato and potato. Two type of iodine treatments (soil and foliar spray application, and, for fresh market tomato, two production systems (open field and greenhouse hydroponic culture were tested. The distribution of iodine in potato stem and leaves, and in plum tree fruits, leaves, and branches was investigated. Iodine content of potato tubers after postharvest storage and processing (cooking, and iodine content of nectarine fruits after postharvest storage and processing (peeling were also determined. Differences in iodine accumulation were observed among the four crops, between applications, and between production systems. In open field, the maximum iodine content ranged from 9.5 and 14.3 μg 100 g−1 for plum and nectarine fruit, to 89.4 and 144.0 μg 100 g−1 for potato tuber and tomato fruit, respectively. These results showed that nectarine and plum tree accumulated significantly lower amounts of iodine in their edible tissues, in comparison with potato and tomato. The experiments also indicated hydroponic culture as the most efficient system for iodine uptake in tomato, since its fresh fruits accumulated up to 2423 μg 100 g−1 of iodine. Iodine was stored mainly in the leaves, in all species investigated. Only a small portion of iodine was moved to plum tree branches and fruits, and to potato stems and tubers. No differences in iodine content after fruit peeling was observed. A significant increase in iodine content of potato was observed after baking, whereas a significant decrease was

  13. Global iodine nutrition: Where do we stand in 2013?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Andersson, Maria; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2013-05-01

    Dietary iodine intake is required for the production of thyroid hormone. Consequences of iodine deficiency include goiter, intellectual impairments, growth retardation, neonatal hypothyroidism, and increased pregnancy loss and infant mortality. In 1990, the United Nations World Summit for Children established the goal of eliminating iodine deficiency worldwide. Considerable progress has since been achieved, largely through programs of universal salt iodization. Approximately 70% of all households worldwide currently have access to adequately iodized salt. In 2013, as defined by a national or subnational median urinary iodine concentration of 100-299 μg/L in school-aged children, 111 countries have sufficient iodine intake. Thirty countries remain iodine-deficient; 9 are moderately deficient, 21 are mildly deficient, and none are currently considered severely iodine-deficient. Ten countries have excessive iodine intake. In North America, both the United States and Canada are generally iodine-sufficient, although recent data suggest pregnant U.S. women are mildly iodine-deficient. Emerging issues include discrepancies between urinary iodine status in pregnant women compared to school-aged children in some populations, the problem of re-emerging iodine deficiency in parts of the developed world, the importance of food industry use of iodized salt, regions of iodine excess, and the potential effects of initiatives to lower population sodium consumption on iodine intake. Although substantial progress has been made over the last several decades, iodine deficiency remains a significant health problem worldwide and affects both industrialized and developing nations. The ongoing monitoring of population iodine status remains crucially important, and particular attention may need to be paid to monitoring the status of vulnerable populations, such as pregnant women and infants. There is also need for ongoing monitoring of iodized salt and other dietary iodine sources in

  14. Values of iodine metabolism biomarkers in assessing the iodine nutrition status in surgically treated patients with thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian-hua; Wu, Lian; Yu, Song-lin; Fang, Hui-ling; Kamg, Wei-ming; Cheng, Xin-qi; Lu, Jie; Yu, Jian-chun; Qiu, Ling

    2015-04-01

    To assess the clinical application value of iodine metabolism biomarkers in assessing iodine nutrition status in surgically treated patients with thyroid disease. Blood,morning urine and 24-hour urine samples were collected in 31 healthy volunteers and in 30 surgically treated patients with thyroid disease before and after surgery. Iodine concentration was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The iodine metabolism biomarkers including serum iodine (SI), morning urine iodine(UI), morning urine iodine/urine creatinine ratio (UI/UCr), 24-hour urine iodine (24 h UI), and 24-hour urine iodine excretion (24 h UIE) were evaluated in these two groups. In addition, the validation coincidence rate of iodine metabolism biomarkers in healthy volunteers to different reference ranges including World Health Organization, Mayo Clinic, and Quest Diagnostics were calculated. The UI/UCr ratio of pre-operative thyroid disease patients was significantly lower than that of healthy volunteers (P0.05) between these two groups. The SI, UI ,and 24 h UI in postoperative thyroid disease patients were significantly higher than those of the pre-operative patients (all Piodine metabolism biomarkers. The UI/UCr ratio may be used for iodine nutrition evaluation in surgically treated patients with thyroid disease.

  15. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Under an agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense's National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is distributing elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM is a joint project of NASA and NGA to map the Earth's land surface in three dimensions at an unprecedented level of detail. As part of space shuttle Endeavour's flight during February 11-22, 2000, the SRTM successfully collected data over 80 percent of the Earth's land surface for most of the area between latitudes 60 degrees north and 56 degrees south. The SRTM hardware included the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (X-SAR) systems that had flown twice previously on other space shuttle missions. The SRTM data were collected with a technique known as interferometry that allows image data from dual radar antennas to be processed for the extraction of ground heights.

  16. Space Shuttle Star Tracker Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    The space shuttle fleet of avionics was originally designed in the 1970's. Many of the subsystems have been upgraded and replaced, however some original hardware continues to fly. Not only fly, but has proven to be the best design available to perform its designated task. The shuttle star tracker system is currently flying as a mixture of old and new designs, each with a unique purpose to fill for the mission. Orbiter missions have tackled many varied missions in space over the years. As the orbiters began flying to the International Space Station (ISS), new challenges were discovered and overcome as new trusses and modules were added. For the star tracker subsystem, the growing ISS posed an unusual problem, bright light. With two star trackers on board, the 1970's vintage image dissector tube (IDT) star trackers track the ISS, while the new solid state design is used for dim star tracking. This presentation focuses on the challenges and solutions used to ensure star trackers can complete the shuttle missions successfully. Topics include KSC team and industry partner methods used to correct pressurized case failures and track system performance.

  17. Direct evidence for coastal iodine particles from Laminaria macroalgae – linkage to emissions of molecular iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. McFiggans

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewal of ultrafine aerosols in the marine boundary layer may lead to repopulation of the marine distribution and ultimately determine the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Thus the formation of nanometre-scale particles can lead to enhanced scattering of incoming radiation and a net cooling of the atmosphere. The recent demonstration of the chamber formation of new particles from the photolytic production of condensable iodine-containing compounds from diiodomethane (CH2I2, (O'Dowd et al., 2002; Kolb, 2002; Jimenez et al., 2003a; Burkholder and Ravishankara, 2003, provides an additional mechanism to the gas-to-particle conversion of sulphuric acid formed in the photo-oxidation of dimethylsulphide for marine aerosol repopulation. CH2I2 is emitted from seaweeds (Carpenter et al., 1999, 2000 and has been suggested as an initiator of particle formation. We demonstrate here for the first time that ultrafine iodine-containing particles are produced by intertidal macroalgae exposed to ambient levels of ozone. The particle composition is very similar both to those formed in the chamber photo-oxidation of diiodomethane and in the oxidation of molecular iodine by ozone. The particles formed in all three systems are similarly aspherical. When small, those formed in the molecular iodine system swell only moderately when exposed to increased humidity environments, and swell progressively less with increasing size; this behaviour occurs whether they are formed in dry or humid environments, in contrast to those in the CH2I2 system. Direct coastal boundary layer observations of molecular iodine, ultrafine particle production and iodocarbons are reported. Using a newly measured molecular iodine photolysis rate, it is shown that, if atomic iodine is involved in the observed particle bursts, it is of the order of at least 1000 times more likely to result from molecular iodine photolysis than diiodomethane photolysis. A hypothesis for molecular

  18. Bending characteristics of resin concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Maria Cristina Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work the influence of composition and curing conditions in bending strength of polyester and epoxy concrete is analyzed. Various mixtures of resin and aggregates were considered in view of an optimal combination. The Taguchi methodology was applied in order to reduce the number of tests, and in order to evaluate the influence of various parameters in concrete properties. This methodology is very useful for the planning of experiments. Test results, analyzed by this methodology, shown that the most significant factors affecting bending strength properties of resin concretes are the type of resin, resin content and charge content. An optimal formulation leading to a maximum bending strength was achieved in terms of material parameters.

  19. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  20. Epoxy hydantoins as matrix resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, J.

    1983-01-01

    Tensile strength and fracture toughness of castings of the hydantoin resins cured with methylenedianiline are significantly higher than MY 720 control castings. Water absorption of an ethyl, amyl hydantoin formulation is 2.1 percent at equilibrium and Tg's are about 160 C, approximately 15 deg below the final cure temperature. Two series of urethane and ester-extended hydantoin epoxy resins were synthesized to determine the effect of crosslink density and functional groups on properties. Castings cured with methylenedianiline or with hexahydrophthalic anhydride were made from these compounds and evaluated. The glass transition temperatures, tensile strengths and moduli, and fracture toughness values were all much lower than that of the simple hydantoin epoxy resins. Using a methylene bishydantoin epoxy with a more rigid structure gave brittle, low-energy fractures, while a more flexible, ethoxy-extended hydantoin epoxy resin gave a very low Tg.

  1. Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

    2014-10-07

    The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

  2. Karakteristik Komposit Resin Berkemampuan Mengalir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Irawan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of resin composites as posterior restoratives has markedly increased over the past decade. The patients demand for better esthetics, concerns related to possible mercury toxicity from amalgam and improvements in resin composite materials have significantly contributed the popularity of these materials. Early problems related to composites included excessive wear, less of anatomic form, post operative sensitivity, secondary caries and marginal leakage. Marginal adaptation still remains an unavoidable problem for composite restoration, especially at the gingival wall of cervical or Class II restoration. In an attempt to improve marginal sealing, many techniques and lining materials have been designed. To reduce stress generated by polymerization shrinkage, applying and curing of resin composites in layers is often recommended. Using a thick adhesive layer or low-viscosity resin may, due to its elastic properties, serve as a flexible intermediate layer and compensate for the polymerization stress created in resin composite. Flowable composites were created by retaining the same small particle size of traditional hybrid composite but reducing the filler content and allowing the increased resin to reduce the viscosity of the mixture. Flowable composites were introduced in 1996 as liners, fissure sealants and also in tunnel preparations. They have been suggested for Class I, II, III and V cavity restorations, preventive resin restorations and composite, porcelain and amalgam repairing. Their usage as a liner under high filled resins in posterior restorations has been shown to improve the adaptation of composites and effectively achieve clinically acceptable results. This article attempts to give a broad characteristics of different types of flowable composites. 

  3. Quantification of total iodine in intact granular starches of different botanical origin exposed to iodine vapor at various water activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manion, Bruce; Ye, Mei; Holbein, Bruce E; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2011-11-08

    Iodine has been used as an effective tool for studying both the structure and composition of dispersed starch and starch granules. In addition to being employed to assess relative amylose contents for starch samples, it has been used to look at the molecular mobility of the glucose polymers within intact starch granules based on exposure to iodine vapor equilibrated at different water activities. Starches of different botanical origin including corn, high amylose corn, waxy corn, potato, waxy potato, tapioca, wheat, rice, waxy rice, chick pea and mung bean were equilibrated to 0.33, 0.75, 0.97 water activities, exposed to iodine vapor and then absorbance spectra and LAB color were determined. In addition, a new iodine quantification method sensitive to <0.1% iodine (w/w) was employed to measure bound iodine within intact granular starch. Amylose content, particle size distribution of granules, and the density of the starch were also determined to explore whether high levels of long linear glucose chains and the surface area-to-volume ratio were important factors relating to the granular iodine binding. Results showed, in all cases, starches complexed more iodine as water content increased and waxy starches bound less iodine than their normal starch counterparts. However, much more bound iodine could be measured chemically with waxy starches than was expected based on colorimetric determination. Surface area appeared to be a factor as smaller rice and waxy rice starch granules complexed more iodine, while the larger potato and waxy potato granules complexed less than would be expected based on measured amylose contents. Corn, high amylose corn, and wheat, known to have starch granules with extensive surface pores, bound higher levels of iodine suggesting pores and channels may be an important factor giving iodine vapor greater access to bind within the granules. Exposing iodine vapor to moisture-equilibrated native starches is an effective tool to explore starch

  4. Iodine Nutritional Status of School Children in Nauru 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jui Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6–12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively. The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru.

  5. Stabilisation of microalgae: Iodine mobilisation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Mobilisation of iodine during microalgae stabilisation was investigated, with the view of assessing the potential of stabilised microalgae as an iodine-rich fertiliser. An iodine-rich waste microalgae (0.35 ± 0.05 mg I g(-1) VS(added)) was stabilised under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Iodine mobilisation was linearly correlated with carbon emission, indicating iodine was in the form of organoiodine. Comparison between iodine and nitrogen mobilisation relative to carbon emission indicated that these elements were, at least in part, housed separately within the cells. After stabilisation, there were 0.22 ± 0.05 and 0.19 ± 0.01 mg g(-1) VS(added) iodine remaining in the solid in the aerobic and anaerobic processed material respectively, meaning 38 ± 5.0% (aerobic) and 50 ± 8.6% (anaerobic) of the iodine were mobilised, and consequently lost from the material. The iodine content of the stabilised material is comparable to the iodine content of some seaweed fertilisers, and potentially satisfies an efficient I-fertilisation dose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The kinetic study of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrel, L. [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPNS, CEN Cadarache, Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Chopin, J. [Laboratoire d`Electrochimie Inorganique, ENSSPICAM, Marseille (France)

    1996-12-01

    Iodine chemistry is one of the most important subjects of research in the field of reactor safety because this element can form volatile species which represent a biological hazard for environment. As the iodine and the peroxide are both present in the sump of the containment in the event of a severe accident on a light water nuclear reactor, it can be important to improve the knowledge on the reaction of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide. The kinetics of iodine by hydrogen peroxide has been studied in acid solution using two different analytical methods. The first is a UV/Vis spectrophotometer which records the transmitted intensity at 460 nm as a function of time to follow the decrease of iodine concentration, the second is an amperometric method which permits to record the increase of iodine+1 with time thanks to the current of reduction of iodine+1 to molecular iodine. The iodine was generated by Dushman reaction and the series of investigations were made at 40{sup o}C in a continuous stirring tank reactor. The influence of the initial concentrations of iodine, iodate, hydrogen peroxide, H{sup +} ions has been determined. The kinetics curves comprise two distinct chemical phases both for molecular iodine and for iodine+1. The relative importance of the two processes is connected to the initial concentrations of [I{sub 2}], [IO{sub 3}{sup -}], [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] and [H{sup +}]. A rate law has been determined for the two steps for molecular iodine. (author) figs., tabs., 22 refs.

  7. IODINE CONTENT OF ENTERAL AND PARENTERAL NUTRITION SOLUTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Devina L; Young, Lorraine S; He, Xuemei; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2017-07-01

    Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis, and iodine deficiency may result in thyroid disorders including goiter and hypothyroidism. Patients on long-term enteral nutrition (EN) or parenteral nutrition (PN) may be at risk for micronutrient deficiencies. The recommended daily allowance for iodine intake is 150 μg for nonpregnant adults. However, there is no current consensus among scientific societies regarding the quantity of iodine to be added in adult EN and PN formulations. The objective of this study was to determine the iodine content of U.S. adult enteral and parenteral nutrition solutions. This study also aimed to determine whether adult patients in the United States who are receiving long-term artificial nutrition may be at risk for iodine deficiency. Ten enteral nutrition solutions and 4 parenteral nutrition solutions were evaluated. The iodine contents of these solutions were measured spectrophotometrically and compared to the labeled contents. Measured and labeled EN iodine contents were similar (range 131-176 μg/L and 106-160 μg/L, respectively). In contrast, PN formulas were found to contain small, unlabeled amounts of iodine, averaging 27 μg/L. Typical fluid requirements are 30 to 40 mL/kg/day for adults receiving either total EN (TEN) or total PN (TPN). Adults on long-term TEN likely consume enough servings to meet their daily iodine requirements. However, patients on long-term TPN would require on average 5.6 L PN/day to meet the recommended daily allowance of iodine. This volume of PN is far in excess of typical consumption. Thus, U.S. patients requiring long-term TPN may be at risk for iodine deficiency. EN = enteral nutrition; PN = parenteral nutrition; TEN = total enteral nutrition; TPN = total parenteral nutrition; UIC = urinary iodine concentration.

  8. The Swiss lodized Salt Program Provides Adequate Iodine for School Children and Pregnant Women, but Weaning Infants Not Receiving Iodine-Containing Complementary Foods as well as Their Mothers Are Iodine Deficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, M.; Aeberli, I.; Wüst, N.; Piacenza, A.M.; Bucher, T.; Henschen, I.; Haldimann, M.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: If children and pregnant women in the population are iodine sufficient, it is generally assumed infants are also sufficient. But weaning infants may be at risk of iodine deficiency because iodized salt contributes little dietary iodine during this period. To fill this gap, iodine

  9. Formation of iodinated trihalomethanes during UV/chloramination with iodate as the iodine source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Yang; Lin, Yi-Li; Wang, An-Qi; Tian, Fu-Xiang; Xu, Bin; Xia, Sheng-Ji; Gao, Nai-Yun

    2016-07-01

    Iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) are a group of emerging disinfection by-products with high toxicity, and iodide (I(-)) as well as iodinated organic compounds are expected to be their iodine sources. Nevertheless, in this study, iodate (IO3(-)) was proven to be a new iodine source of I-THM formation during UV/chloramination. In the iodate-containing waters (without any other iodine sources), I-THM formation increased with the increase of UV dose, IO3(-) and NH2Cl concentrations. With the increase of Br(-)/IO3(-) molar ratio, I-THM formation (especially for the brominated species) increased. Besides, NOM species could affect I-THM formation from IO3(-) during UV/chloramination. Fulvic acid could promote IO3(-) phototransformation to I(-) but humic acid impeded the production of I(-) during UV irradiation. Under realistic drinking water treatment conditions (DOC = 5.0 mg-C/L, IO3(-) = 12.7 μg-I/L, UV dose = 50 mJ/cm(2), NH2Cl = 5 mg-Cl2/L), CHCl2I was detected as 0.17 μg/L using solid-phase microextraction method, and the production rate of I-THMs from IO3(-) was about 7% of that from I(-). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Strong association of relatively low and extremely excessive iodine intakes with thyroid cancer in an iodine-replete area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Kim, Na Kyung; Park, Hyeong Kyu; Byun, Dong Won; Suh, Kyoil; Yoo, Myung Hi; Min, Yong-Ki; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2017-04-01

    The relationship between iodine intake and development of thyroid diseases shows a U-shaped curve with an increase of risk in both deficient and excessive iodine intakes. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between iodine intake and thyroid cancer in patients with thyroid nodules in an iodine-replete area. Retrospective analysis of 1170 patients with thyroid nodules was performed. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Predictive factors for thyroid cancer were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models. The median UIC in all patients with thyroid nodules was 360 μg/L (range from 4 to 9631 μg/L). More than half of the patients (650/1170, 56 %) belonged to the category of excessive iodine intake (UIC ≥ 300 μg/L) according to WHO iodine recommendations. Patients with thyroid cancer were more likely to be distributed in UIC cancer. The multivariate-adjusted OR (95 % CI) in the relatively low (UIC cancer were 1.519 (1.099-2.098) and 1.874 (1.094-3.208), respectively, compared to the other iodine intake group (300-2499 μg/L). Male gender and UIC were independent predictors of thyroid cancer in patients with thyroid nodules. This study suggests that relatively low and extremely excessive iodine intakes are associated with thyroid cancer in an iodine-replete area.

  11. The Impact of Carrot Enriched in Iodine through Soil Fertilization on Iodine Concentration and Selected Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątkowska, Ewa; Kopeć, Aneta; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Pysz, Mirosław; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Koronowicz, Aneta Agnieszka; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Rakoczy, Roksana; Maślak, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is one of the trace elements which are essential for mammalian life. The major objective of iodine biofortification of plants is to obtain food rich in this trace element, which may increase its consumption by various populations. Additionally, it may reduce the risk of iodine deficiency diseases. In this research for the first time we have assessed the bioavailability of iodine from raw or cooked carrot biofortified with this trace element on iodine concentration in selected tissues and various biochemical parameters as well as mRNA expression of some genes involved in iodine metabolism in Wistar rats. Statistically, a significantly higher iodine level was determined in urine, faeces and selected tissues of rats fed a diet containing biofortified raw carrot as compared to a diet without iodine and a diet containing control cooked carrot. Biofortified raw carrot significantly increased triiodothyronine concentration as compared to animals from other experimental groups. The highest thyroid stimulating hormone level was determined in rats fed control cooked carrots. mRNA expression of selected genes was affected by different dietary treatment in rats' hearts. Biofortified raw and cooked carrot could be taken into account as a potential source of iodine in daily diets to prevent iodine deficiency in various populations.

  12. Improvement in iodine status of pregnant Australian women 3 years after introduction of a mandatory iodine fortification programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Karen E; Yeatman, Heather; Brock, Erin; Lucas, Catherine; Gemming, Luke; Goodfellow, Alison; Ma, Gary

    2013-07-01

    In order to address population-level mild iodine deficiency in Australia, a mandatory iodine fortification programme of salt used in bread was introduced in late 2009. A before-after study was conducted to assess changes in median urinary iodine concentration (MUIC) measurements, according to supplement use, in convenience samples of pregnant women attending a public antenatal clinic in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia in 2008 (n=139), 2011 (n=147) and 2012 (n=114). Knowledge and practices related to iodine nutrition were investigated in 2012, using self-administered questionnaires. The mild iodine deficiency confirmed pre-fortification (MUIC (IQR)=87.5 (62-123.5; n=110)) has steadily improved to 145.5 μg/L (91-252) in 2011 (n=106) and 166 (97-237) in 2012 (n=95) (sufficiency ≥ 150 μg/L). However, only women taking supplements containing iodine had MUIC indicative of sufficiency in both years surveyed post fortification (2011: 178 μg/L vs. 109 μg/L, Pfoods remained major contributors to total iodine intake (58%). Overall knowledge regarding health implications of iodine deficiency was poor. Iodine status of women has improved since the introduction of mandatory iodine fortification; however supplementation is indicated during pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Iodine-125 radiation of posterior uveal melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packer, S.

    1987-12-01

    Twenty-eight cases of posterior choroidal melanoma were treated with iodine-125 in gold eye plaques. Eleven cases were located within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve (group A), nine were within 3.0 mm of the fovea (group B), and eight were within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve and fovea (group C). The mean follow-up of group A was 46.3 months; group B, 25.5 months; and group C, 42.7 months. Complications included macular edema, cataract and tumor growth. Visual acuity remained within two lines of that tested preoperatively for 4 of 11 patients in group A, 4 of 9 in group B, and 5 of 8 in group C. These results with iodine-125 suggest it as an appropriate treatment for patients with choroidal melanoma located near optic nerve and/or macula.

  14. The impact of iodine supplementation and bread fortification on urinary iodine concentrations in a mildly iodine deficient population of pregnant women in South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy can have significant effects on fetal development and future cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to characterise the iodine status of South Australian women during pregnancy and relate it to the use of iodine-containing multivitamins. The impact of fortification of bread with iodized salt was also assessed. Women (n = 196) were recruited prospectively at the beginning of pregnancy and urine collected at 12, 18, 30, 36 weeks gestation and 6 months postpartum. The use of a multivitamin supplement was recorded at each visit. Spot urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) were assessed. Median UICs were within the mildly deficient range in women not taking supplements (iodine-containing multivitamins UICs were within WHO recommendations (150–249 μg/L) for sufficiency and showed an increasing trend through gestation. The fortification of bread with iodized salt increased the median UIC from 68 μg/L to 84 μg/L (p = .011) which was still in the deficient range. Pregnant women in this region of Australia were unlikely to reach recommended iodine levels without an iodine supplement, even after the mandatory iodine supplementation of bread was instituted in October 2009. PMID:23497409

  15. Dither Cavity Length Controller with Iodine Locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson Marty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cavity length controller for a seeded Q-switched frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser is constructed. The cavity length controller uses a piezo-mirror dither voltage to find the optimum length for the seeded cavity. The piezo-mirror dither also dithers the optical frequency of the output pulse. [1]. This dither in optical frequency is then used to lock to an Iodine absorption line.

  16. European commission research activities on iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loggia, E. della [European Commission, Brussels (Belgium)

    1996-12-01

    The research on iodine, as on other important fission products which would be released during a severe accident, carried out directly or organized by the European Commission stems from the Euratom Treaty, namely from Chapter III of the treaty which deals with the protection of the health of the population against radiations and from Chapter I which deals with research. In this paper we do not consider the Commission radiological protection programme: we limit ourselves to the presentation of the research carried out on Iodine as part of the most recent source term studies within the framework Programmes as are called the research programme of the European Commission, usually valid for a 4 year periods. The research activities are carried out by the European Commission either directly through the Joint Research Centres (JRC) or indirectly through collaboration with research organizations of Member States. Concerning the iodine research carried out as Direct Action in the Joint Research Centres, are mentioned here the most relevant activities carried out in this field at the JRC of Ispra and Karlsruhe (TUI). As Indirect Action, we present here the results of some studies allocated by the European Commission to experts of research organizations of Member Countries, followed by a short description of the main results achieved by the Reinforced Concerted Action, within the III Framework Programme (1992-1995). At the end of the paper are described the research on iodine being carried out or proposed within the IV Framework Programme (1995-1998). Mention is also done of the Commission participation, relevant in terms of financial and human efforts, to the PHEBUS FP Project. (author) refs.

  17. Space Shuttle and Hypersonic Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Gerstenmaier, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years of human spaceflight have been characterized by the aerospace operations of the Soyuz, of the Space Shuttle and, more recently, of the Shenzhou. The lessons learned of this past half decade are important and very significant. Particularly interesting is the scenario that is downstream from the retiring of the Space Shuttle. A number of initiatives are, in fact, emerging from in the aftermath of the decision to terminate the Shuttle program. What is more and more evident is that a new era is approaching: the era of the commercial usage and of the commercial exploitation of space. It is probably fair to say, that this is the likely one of the new frontiers of expansion of the world economy. To make a comparison, in the last 30 years our economies have been characterized by the digital technologies, with examples ranging from computers, to cellular phones, to the satellites themselves. Similarly, the next 30 years are likely to be characterized by an exponential increase of usage of extra atmospheric resources, as a result of more economic and efficient way to access space, with aerospace transportation becoming accessible to commercial investments. We are witnessing the first steps of the transportation of future generation that will drastically decrease travel time on our Planet, and significantly enlarge travel envelope including at least the low Earth orbits. The Steve Jobs or the Bill Gates of the past few decades are being replaced by the aggressive and enthusiastic energy of new entrepreneurs. It is also interesting to note that we are now focusing on the aerospace band, that lies on top of the aeronautical shell, and below the low Earth orbits. It would be a mistake to consider this as a known envelope based on the evidences of the flights of Soyuz, Shuttle and Shenzhou. Actually, our comprehension of the possible hypersonic flight regimes is bounded within really limited envelopes. The achievement of a full understanding of the hypersonic flight

  18. Iodine intake as a determinant of thyroid disorders in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Ovesen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Depending on the availability of iodine, the thyroid gland is able to enhance or limit the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. When compensation fails, as in severely iodine-deficient populations, hypothyroidism and developmental brain damage will be the dominating disorders. This is, out...... of all comparison, the most serious association between disease and the level of iodine intake in a population. In less severe iodine deficiency, the normal thyroid gland is able to adapt and keep thyroid hormone production within the normal range. However, the prolonged thyroid hyperactivity associated...... with such adaptation leads to thyroid growth, and during follicular cell proliferation there is a tendency to mutations leading to multifocal autonomous growth and function. In populations with mild and moderate iodine deficiency, such multifocal autonomous thyroid function is a common cause of hyperthyroidism...

  19. Iodine deficiency disorders among primary school children in eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelal, Basanta; Chaudhari, Rajendra K; Nepal, Ashwini K; Sah, Gauri S; Lamsal, Madhab; Brodie, David A; Baral, Nirmal

    2011-01-01

    To assess the iodine status among primary school children of Dhankuta and Dharan in eastern Nepal. A population based cross sectional study was conducted on schools of Dhankuta and Dharan from January-March 2008. 385 samples of both urine and salt were collected from school children aged 6-11 yrs. Urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was measured in casual urine samples by the ammonium-persulphate digestion microplate (APDM) method and salt iodine content by using a semi quantitative rapid test kit. The median UIEs of school children of Dhankuta and Dharan were 157.1 μg/L and 180.3 μg/L respectively. The percentage of iodine deficient (UIE Nepal is continuously progressing towards the sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency disease as illustrated by a normal median UIE and the majority of households consuming adequately iodized packet salt. It is necessary to maintain the program continuously to ensure adequate iodine nutrition of the population.

  20. Laser Induced Fluorescence of the Iodine Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargus, William

    2014-10-01

    Iodine (I2) has been considered as a potential electrostatic spacecraft thruster propellant for approximately 2 decades, but has only recently been demonstrated. Energy conversion efficiency appears to be on par with xenon without thruster modification. Intriguingly, performance appears to exceed xenon at high acceleration potentials. As part of a continuing program for the development of non-intrusive plasma diagnostics for advanced plasma spacecraft propulsion, we have identified the I II 5d5D4 o state as metastable, and therefore containing a reservoir of excited state ions suitable for laser probing. The 5d5D4 o - 6p5P3 transition at 695.878 nm is convenient for diode laser excitation with the 5s5S2 o - 6p5P3 transition at 516.12 nm as an ideal candidate for non-resonant fluorescence collection. We have constructed a Penning type iodine microwave discharge lamp optimized for I II production for table-top measurements. This work demonstrates I II laser-induced fluorescence in a representative iodine discharge and will validate our previous theoretical work based on the limited available historical I II spectral data.

  1. Nonimmediate hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Enrique; Ariza, Adriana; Blanca-López, Natalia; Torres, Maria J

    2013-08-01

    To provide a detailed analysis of the latest findings on the mechanisms underlying the nonimmediate reactions to iodinated contrast media and comment on the recent advances in diagnosis, focusing on the roles of the skin test, drug provocation test (DPT), and lymphocyte transformation test (LTT). Several studies have reported new findings supporting an important role for T-lymphocytes in the nonimmediate reactions to iodinated contrast media. The LTT has been used as an in-vitro tool for diagnosis, but with variable results. However, the inclusion of autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells as professional antigen-presenting cells has improved the sensitivity of this test. Regarding in-vivo diagnosis, although skin testing has been routine, it has now been shown that its sensitivity and negative predictive value are low. Recent studies have demonstrated that the DPT is a well tolerated and useful procedure that is necessary to confirm the diagnosis of nonimmediate hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media. Nonimmediate reactions to contrast media are usually T-cell mediated. Diagnosis is based on skin testing, although its sensitivity and negative predictive value are not optimal. Consequently, drug provocation testing is often needed to confirm the diagnosis and also to seek alternative contrast media that can be tolerated.

  2. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a “mission approach” with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

  3. [Adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimany-Masclans, Jordi; Garrido-Aguilar, Eva; Pernas-Canadell, Juan Carlos; Díaz-Rodríguez, Susana

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the incidence of adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media and to characterise them in a group of outpatients, inpatients and emergency patients in a private hospital in Barcelona. A retrospective cohort study was carried out over a 60 months period, from February 2002 to February 2007, analysing the patients who underwent to iodinated contrast radiological examinations. Adverse reactions were evaluated from the manual record format developed following the requirements of the Quality Assurance Program in Radiology. Study variables were, administration route, contrast media dose, adverse reaction type, and signs and symptoms. Statistical analysis was descriptive. A total of 68 (0.3 %) of adverse reaction were registered of which 64 were mild (94.1%), 4 moderate (5.9%) and none severe. On the basis of the administration route (intravenous or oral) adverse reaction were 67 (94%) and 1 (6%) respectively. With a 40-80ml contrast media dose by injection, mild adverse reactions were 87.5%, moderate 12.5% and severe 0%. With a 90-150ml contrast media dose by injection, mild adverse reaction were 94.9% and moderate 5.1%. The number of adverse reaction using iodinated contrast media is low and are they are generally mild; however the nurse must be ready to recognise and treat them. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Potassium Iodate Application on the Biomass and Iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at increasing the level of iodine in commonly consumed vegetables by iodination of irrigation water with potassium iodate. The results obtained showed that, the increase in iodine concentration in fluted pumpkin ranged from 89.02 ± 0.31 to 140.36 ± 1.08 ìg/100 g in week 4 and 102.86 ± 0.60 to 115.89 ...

  5. [Iodine deficiency in pregnancy--a continuing public health problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szybiński, Zbigniew

    2005-01-01

    Iodine prophylaxis in Poland started in 1997 and is based on mandatory iodzation of household salt with 20-40 mg KI/ 1 kg, supplementation of bottle fed infants with iodized formulas with 10,0 microg KI/100 ml, and a voluntary supplementation of pregnant and breast feeding women with additional 100-150 microg of iodine/ day. Last evaluation of efficacy of the iodine prophylaxis performed in 2003 by WHO and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders allocated Poland within the group of the European countries with sufficient iodine supplementation on the population level. However according to data of the Institute of Mather and Chield in Poland, around 50 % of pregnant women only is additionally supplemented with iodine. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy even as a moderate iodine deficiency, creates a risk of mental retardation, perinatal complication like low and very low births weigt of neonates with increased perinatal mortality rate and late consequences in adult life: metabolic syndrom and type 2 diabetes. Another limitation of the actual model of iodine prophylaxis in Poland, it is too high consumption of natrum chloride (over 5,0 g of household salt/day/ capita). It is around 50% over WHO recommendation. Intensive preventive program against hypertension, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, osteoporosis and some neoplasmatic diseases includes limitation of natrum chloride consumption- as one of the risk factors. Therefore new scope of the National Programme for Elimination of Iodine Deficiency will include: a special prorgramme for the iodization of animal food according to european standard, increased rate of pregnant women additionally supplemented with iodine, strengthening public awarness on necessary increase of milk consumption especially in pregnancy and in children and continouse monitoring system of biologic effects and technologic quality of the model of iodine prophylaxis.

  6. Iodine in food- and dietary supplement–composition databases123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrsson, Pamela R; Patterson, Kristine Y; Spungen, Judith H; Wirtz, Mark S; Andrews, Karen W; Dwyer, Johanna T; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of the USDA Agricultural Research Service have worked independently on determining the iodine content of foods and dietary supplements and are now harmonizing their efforts. The objective of the current article is to describe the harmonization plan and the results of initial iodine analyses accomplished under that plan. For many years, the FDA’s Total Diet Study (TDS) has measured iodine concentrations in selected foods collected in 4 regions of the country each year. For more than a decade, the NDL has collected and analyzed foods as part of the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program; iodine analysis is now being added to the program. The NDL recently qualified a commercial laboratory to conduct iodine analysis of foods by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. Co-analysis of a set of samples by the commercial laboratory using the ICP-MS method and by the FDA laboratory using its standard colorimetric method yielded comparable results. The FDA recently reviewed historical TDS data for trends in the iodine content of selected foods, and the NDL analyzed samples of a limited subset of those foods for iodine. The FDA and the NDL are working to combine their data on iodine in foods and to produce an online database that can be used for estimating iodine intake from foods in the US population. In addition, the NDL continues to analyze dietary supplements for iodine and, in collaboration with the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, to publish the data online in the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database. The goal is to provide, through these 2 harmonized databases and the continuing TDS focus on iodine, improved tools for estimating iodine intake in population studies. PMID:27534627

  7. Low Melt Viscosity Resins for Resin Transfer Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Frank W.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, resin transfer molding (RTM) has become one of the methods of choice for high performance composites. Its cost effectiveness and ease of fabrication are major advantages of RTM. RTM process usually requires resins with very low melt viscosity (less than 10 Poise). The optimum RTM resins also need to display high thennal-oxidative stability, high glass transition temperature (T(sub g)), and good toughness. The traditional PMR-type polyimides (e.g. PMR-15) do not fit this requirement, because the viscosities are too high and the nadic endcap cures too fast. High T(sub g), low-melt viscosity resins are highly desirable for aerospace applications and NASA s Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program. The objective of this work is to prepare low-melt viscosity polyimide resins for RTM or resin film infusion (RFI) processes. The approach involves the synthesis of phenylethynyl-terminated imide oligomers. These materials have been designed to minimize their melt viscosity so that they can be readily processed. During the cure, the oligomers undergo both chain extension and crosslinking via the thermal polymerization of the phenylethynyl groups. The Phenylethynyl endcap is preferred over the nadic group due to its high curing temperature, which provides broader processing windows. This work involved the synthesis and polymerization of oligomers containing zig-zag backbones and twisted biphenyl structures. Some A-B type precursors which possessed both nitro and anhydride functionality, or both nitro and amine functionality, were also synthesized in order to obtain the well defined oligomers. The resulting zig-zag structured oligomers were then end-capped with 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride (PEPA) for further cure. The properties of these novel imide oligomers are evaluated.

  8. Role of iodine in pathogenesis of thyroid disease - is induction of apoptosis consequence of iodine cytotoxicity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Ljiljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is one of the best-characterized environmental factors associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD. Epidemiological studies have shown that ATD incidence has increased following the introduction of salt iodination in the 1920s; in addition, ATD patients can improve upon iodine restriction. In animal models such as BioBreeding/Worcester and Buffalo rats, obese chicken strain, and non-obese diabetic H-2h4 mice, excess iodine is associated with autoimmunity. Analyses of Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT have shown enlarged number of apoptotic follicular cells, and the destruction is an effect of death receptormediated apoptosis. Excess of iodine induces rapid apoptosis of goitrogen Wistar pretreated rats, possibly connected with inhibition of polyamine synthesis, inhibitors of DNA fragmentation. Percentage of apoptotic cells was statistically higher in patients with HT than in those with euthyroid goiter, with significant increase of caspase 32. Genes for Bcl-2 and Bax proteins are under the transcriptional control of p53. In TAD-2 cell cultures, apoptosis is p53-independed, suggesting that DNA damage is not primarily evoked by potassium iodide (KI. High concentrations of NaI increase the proportion of apoptotic cells in FTRL5 thyroid cell line. Iodide cytotoxicity is inhibited by a TPO inhibitor and is relieved with an anti-oxidant agent. Chronic iodine excess induces apoptosis and necrosis of thyroid follicular and endothelial cells, leading to thyroglobulin accumulation in connective tissue. Iodide excess requires peroxidase enzymatic activity to induce apoptosis. Ionic iodide is not directly toxic, whereas its molecular form I2 mediates the apoptotic effect of KI. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. OI-175059

  9. Laser Induced Fluorescence for Singly Ionized Atomic Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, Thomas; Scime, Earl

    2017-10-01

    While xenon is the standard propellant for a wide range of plasma thrusters, xenon is expensive and xenon propellant systems require heavy compressed gas tanks, pressure regulators, and other bulky hardware. Iodine has similar mass and is much easier to acquire than xenon. Iodines natural state of matter at room temperature is solid and is easily sublimated to gas with a simple heating element. This advantage for iodine is also a significant challenge when developing gas handling systems for iodine. Another challenge for iodine thrusters is a lack of well-defined spectroscopic diagnostics for single ionized iodine, specifically, a lack of a demonstrated laser induced fluorescence (LIF) scheme. We present emission spectroscopy measurements of iodine ion emission from the 6p5P3 - 5d5D4o transition at 695.878 nm and the 6p5P3 - 6s5S2o transition at 516.12 nm as a function of pressure and microwave power for a microwave excited iodine plasma in a sealed quartz cell at a pressure of 1 mTorr. The 5d5D4o state is metastable and was identified by Hargus et al. [48th AIAA Joint Propulsion, 2012] as a strong candidate for an iodine ion LIF scheme. We will also present preliminary LIF measurements using a tunable dye laser operating at 695.878 nm. Special thanks to Dr. William Hargus Jr. and Air Force Research Laboratory at Edwards AFB.

  10. Mission and System Advantages of Iodine Hall Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Szabo, James; Pote, Bruce; Oleson, Steve; Kamhawi, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The exploration of alternative propellants for Hall thrusters continues to be of interest to the community. Investments have been made and continue for the maturation of iodine based Hall thrusters. Iodine testing has shown comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density and resulting higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's vapor pressure is low enough to permit low-pressure storage, but high enough to minimize potential adverse spacecraft-thruster interactions. The low vapor pressure also means that iodine does not condense inside the thruster at ordinary operating temperatures. Iodine is safe, it stores at sub-atmospheric pressure, and can be stored unregulated for years on end; whether on the ground or on orbit. Iodine fills a niche for both low power (10kW) electric propulsion regimes. A range of missions have been evaluated for direct comparison of Iodine and Xenon options. The results show advantages of iodine Hall systems for both small and microsatellite application and for very large exploration class missions.

  11. Iodine and Selenium Intakes of Postmenopausal Women in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brough, Louise; Gunn, Caroline A; Weber, Janet L; Coad, Jane; Jin, Ying; Thomson, Jasmine S; Mauze, Mathilde; Kruger, Marlena C

    2017-03-09

    Iodine and selenium are required for thyroid function. This study investigated iodine and selenium intakes in healthy, women aged 50-70 years (n = 97) from three cities in the North Island of New Zealand, after mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt. Iodine and selenium concentrations were determined in 24-h urine samples; daily intakes were extrapolated from amounts in urine (90% and 55% of daily intake, respectively). Three day diet diaries (3DDD) also estimated selenium and iodine (excluding iodised salt) intake. Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 57 (41, 78) µg/L, indicating mild iodine deficiency. Estimated median iodine intake based on urine was 138 (100, 172) µg/day, below Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI) (150 µg/day) with 25% below Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) (100 µg/day). Estimated median selenium intake was 50 (36, 71) µg/day based on urine and 45 (36, 68) µg/day using 3DDD, below RDI (60 µg/day) with 49%-55% below EAR (50 µg/day). Median bread intakes were low at 1.8 (1.1, 2.7) serves/day; 25% consumed ≤1 serve/day. Although population iodine intakes improved following mandatory fortification, some had low intakes. Selenium intakes remain low. Further research should investigate thyroid function of low consumers of iodine fortified bread and/or selenium in New Zealand.

  12. Iodine status among pregnant women in rural Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kuang Kuay; Chan, Ying Ying; Teh, Chien Huey; Ismail, Hasimah; Yusof, Rafidah; Muhi, Jamail; Lim, Kuang Hock; Foo, Leng Huat

    2017-01-01

    In 2000, legislation on mandatory universal salt iodisation was enacted in Sabah, Malaysia, to reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency disorders among its population. To evaluate the iodine levels among pregnant women from selected rural divisions in Sabah 13 years after the enactment of the universal salt iodisation programme. This cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 May to 30 June, 2013, in three rural divisions of Sabah (the Interior, the West Coast, and Kudat). Data regarding domestic iodised salt use and iodine-containing supplement consumption were obtained from respondents through face-to-face interviews; goitre enlargement was examined through palpation and graded according to the World Health Organization classification. Spot urine samples were also obtained to assess urinary iodine levels by using an in-house modified micromethod. In total, 534 pregnant women participated. The prevalence of goitre was 1.0% (n=5), noted only in the West Coast and Kudat divisions. Although all pregnant women consumed iodised salt, overall median urinary iodine concentration was only 106 μg/L, indicating insufficient iodine intake, with nearly two-thirds of the women (60%) having a median urinary iodine concentrations of <150 μg/L. Pregnant women from the rural divisions in Sabah still exhibit iodine deficiency disorder despite the mandatory universal salt iodisation programme. Iodine supplementation programmes targeting pregnant women are warranted.

  13. Iodine Contents in Baby Food Consumed in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate iodine intake in Japanese infants, iodine contents were determined in both commercial and homemade baby food samples consumed in Japan. Fifty-three samples of commercial bottled or retort baby food and 25 samples of homemade baby food for one day were collected and their iodine contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after an extraction with 0.5% tetramethylammonium hydroxide. Among the commercial baby food samples, 35 samples showed low iodine values ( 1000 ng/g wet weight. Significantly higher iodine values were observed in 15 samples composed of dishes cooked using kombu (a kind of kelp than other samples. Among the homemade baby food samples, 12 samples brought very low iodine intake (< 1- 24 μg/d, while 5 samples brought very high iodine intake (283-978 μg/d. These results indicate that intermittent high iodine baby food including dishes cooked using kombu contributes to sufficient iodine intake in Japanese infants.

  14. Maternal urinary iodine concentration in pregnancy and children's cognition: results from a population-based birth cohort in an iodine-sufficient area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghassabian, A.; Steenweg- de Graaff, J.; Peeters, R.P.; Ross, H.A.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; White, T.; Tiemeier, H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reports from populations with an insufficient iodine intake suggest that children of mothers with mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy are at risk for cognitive impairments. However, it is unknown whether, even in iodine-sufficient areas, low levels of iodine intake occur that

  15. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South-East of the UK: the influence of diet and nutritional supplements on iodine status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Sarah C.; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Wright, John; Rayman, Margaret P.

    2015-01-01

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones which are crucial for brain development. Pregnant women are vulnerable to iodine deficiency because their requirement for iodine is higher than that of non-pregnant adults. Data on the iodine status of UK pregnant women are sparse and there are no such data in the South East. One hundred pregnant women were recruited to a cross-sectional study at the Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, at their first-trimester visit for an ultrasound scan. Participants provided a spot-urine sample (for the measurement of urinary iodine and creatinine concentrations) and 24-hour excretion of iodine was estimated from the urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio. Women completed a general questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire. The median urinary iodine concentration (85·3 μg/l) indicated that the group was iodine deficient by WHO criteria. The median values of the iodine-to-creatinine ratio (122·9 μg/g) and of the estimated 24-hr iodine excretion (151·2 μg/day) were also suggestive of iodine deficiency. Urinary iodine concentration was significantly higher in women taking an iodine-containing prenatal supplement (n=42) than in those not taking such a supplement (Ppregnant women should be given advice on how to improve their iodine status through dietary means. A national survey of iodine status in UK pregnant women is required. PMID:24398008

  16. Efforts to Consolidate Chalcogels with Adsorbed Iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun

    2013-08-28

    This document discusses ongoing work with non-oxide aerogels, called chalcogels, that are under development at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as sorbents for gaseous iodine. Work was conducted in fiscal year 2012 to demonstrate the feasibility of converting Sn2S3 chalcogel without iodine into a glass. This current document summarizes the work conducted in fiscal year 2013 to assess the consolidation potential of non-oxide aerogels with adsorbed iodine. The Sn2S3 and Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels were selected for study. The first step in the process for these experiments was to load them with iodine (I2). The I2 uptake was ~68 mass% for Sn2S3 and ~50 mass% for Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of both sets of sorbents showed that metal-iodide complexes were formed during adsorption, i.e., SnI4 for Sn2S3 and SbI3 for Sb13.5Sn5S20. Additionally, metal-sulfide-iodide complexes were formed, i.e., SnSI for Sn2S3 and SbSI for Sb13.5Sn5S20. No XRD evidence for unreacted iodine was found in any of these samples. Once the chalcogels had reached maximum adsorption, the consolidation potential was assessed. Here, the sorbents were heated for consolidation in vacuum-sealed quartz vessels. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogel was heated both (1) in a glassy carbon crucible within a fused quartz tube and (2) in a single-containment fused quartz tube. The Sn2S3 chalcogel was only heated in a single-containment fused quartz tube. In both cases with the single-containment fused quartz experiments, the material consolidated nicely. However, in both cases, there were small fractions of metal iodides not incorporated into the final product as well as fused quartz particles within the melt due to the sample attacking the quartz wall during the heat treatment. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 did not appear to attack the glassy carbon crucible so, for future experiments, it would be ideal to apply a coating, such as pyrolytic graphite, to the inner walls of the fused quartz vessel to prevent

  17. Prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders and effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis among the population of reproductive age living in Saint Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Soboleva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is the assessment of iodine status and effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis among the population of reproductive age. In this regard, we examined 200 individuals from 18 up to 44 years old living in Saint Petersburg for more than 3 years permanently. Most of the examined individuals had mild iodine deficiency, less than half of people of reproductive age (46 % used iodized salt at home. Goiter was found by palpation in 8 % of participants. More than half of the surveyed individuals are women of reproductive age who are at risk for the development of iodine deficiency disorders. Our data reflect an unfavorable situation in fight against iodine deficiency disorders in Saint Petersburg. Probably, the voluntary model of using iodized salt as the prevention of iodine deficiency in the Russian Federation is not effective enough.

  18. Electromagnetic Compatibility for the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Space Shuttle electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). It includes an overview of the design of the shuttle with the areas that are of concern for the electromagnetic compatibility. It includes discussion of classical electromagnetic interference (EMI) and the work performed to control the electromagnetic interference. Another area of interest is electrostatic charging and the threat of electrostatic discharge and the attempts to reduce damage to the Shuttle from these possible hazards. The issue of electrical bonding is als reviewed. Lastly the presentation reviews the work performed to protect the shuttle from lightning, both in flight and on the ground.

  19. Shot noise of a quantum shuttle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novotny, Tomas; Donarini, Andrea; Flindt, Christian

    2004-01-01

    We formulate a theory for shot noise in quantum nanoelectromechanical systems. As a specific example, the theory is applied to a quantum shuttle, and the zero-frequency noise, measured by the Fano factor F, is computed. F reaches very low values (Fsimilar or equal to10(-2)) in the shuttling regime...... even in the quantum limit, confirming that shuttling is universally a low noise phenomenon. In approaching the semiclassical limit, the Fano factor shows a giant enhancement (Fsimilar or equal to10(2)) at the shuttling threshold, consistent with predictions based on phase-space representations...

  20. Current iodine nutrition status and progress toward elimination of iodine deficiency disorders in Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed Ali; Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Khalafalla, Husam Eldin Elsawi; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Zaid, Abdel Naser Shaaban; Bani, Ibrahim Ahmed

    2012-11-20

    The term iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) refers to all the effects of iodine deficiency on growth and development in human and animal populations that can be prevented by correction of the iodine deficiency. The objective of this paper was to determine the iodine nutrition status among schoolchildren in the Jazan Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), by measuring urinary iodine concentrations and by clinical assessments of goiter rate. A school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Jazan region of southwestern KSA from May to November 2010. A total of 311 children, aged 6-13 years, drawn from 12 schools, were selected by a three-stage cluster random sampling method. Data on sociodemographic characteristics were collected using a structured questionnaire. Urine samples were collected and physical examinations were conducted to determine the presence or absence of goiter. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Chi square and independent t-tests were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Out of 360 selected children, 311 were examined. There were 131 males (42%) and 180 females (58%). The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of the study group was 421 μg/L. The study population proportion with UIC > 300 μg/L was 74% with a higher proportion among males and urban populations. The proportion of children with UIC of 100-300 μg/L was only 21% and was significantly higher among females compared with males (p < 0.001). Only about 3% of the children had a median UIC less than 50 μg/L. The prevalence of total goiter rate (TGR) among the sample of schoolchildren in Jazan was 11%, with significant variations between rural and urban populations and by gender. The present study demonstrates a remarkable achievement in Universal Salt Iodization (USI) and IDD elimination goals in the Jazan area. However, UIC levels reflect excessive iodine intake and may put the population at risk of adverse health consequences like iodine

  1. Epoxy Resins in Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, Henry

    1960-01-01

    A method of embedding biological specimens in araldite 502 (Ciba) has been developed for materials available in the United States. Araldite-embedded tissues are suitable for electron microscopy, but the cutting qualities of the resin necessitates more than routine attention during microtomy. The rather high viscosity of araldite 502 also seems to be an unnecessary handicap. The less viscous epoxy epon 812 (Shell) produces specimens with improved cutting qualities, and has several features—low shrinkage and absence of specimen damage during cure, minimal compression of sections, relative absence of electron beam-induced section damage, etc.—which recommends it as a routine embedding material. The hardness of the cured resin can be easily adjusted by several methods to suit the materials embedded in it. Several problems and advantages of working with sections of epoxy resins are also discussed. PMID:13822825

  2. Process for Molding Nonreinforced (Neat) Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Void free moldings obtained for neat, condensation, thermosetting resins. Thermally and mechanically treat resin prior to molding to reduce amount of volatiles. With volatiles reduced molding temperature and pressure are applied in way to drive out remaining volatiles during molding.

  3. Dietary evaluation of a low-iodine diet in Korean thyroid cancer patients preparing for radioactive iodine therapy in an iodine-rich region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Dal Lae; Park, Young Joo; Paik, Hee-Young; Kim, Min-Ji; Park, Seonyeong; Jung, Kyong Yeun; Kim, Tae Hyuk; Choi, Hun Sung; Song, Yoon Ju

    2016-04-01

    Despite the importance of a low-iodine diet (LID) for thyroid cancer patients preparing for radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy, few studies have evaluated dietary intake during LID. This study evaluated the amount of dietary iodine intake and its major food sources during a typical diet and during LID periods for thyroid cancer patients preparing for RAI therapy, and examined how the type of nutrition education of LID affects iodine intake. A total of 92 differentiated thyroid cancer patients with total thyroidectomy were enrolled from Seoul National University Hospital. All subjects completed three days of dietary records during usual and low-iodine diets before (131)I administration. The median iodine intake was 290 µg/day on the usual diet and 63.2 µg/day on the LID. The major food groups during the usual diet were seaweed, salted vegetables, fish, milk, and dairy products and the consumption of these foods decreased significantly during LID. The mean energy intake on the LID was 1,325 kcal, which was 446 kcal lower than on the usual diet (1,771 kcal). By avoiding iodine, the intake of most other nutrients, including sodium, was significantly reduced during LID (P thyroid cancer patients was significantly reduced during LID and was within the recommended amount. However, the intake of most other nutrients and calories was also reduced. Future studies are needed to develop a practical dietary protocol for a LID in Korean patients.

  4. Excessive iodine intake and thyroid dysfunction among lactating Saharawi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakre, Inger; Bjøro, Trine; Norheim, Ingrid; Strand, Tor A; Barikmo, Ingrid; Henjum, Sigrun

    2015-01-01

    Excessive iodine intake may lead to thyroid dysfunction, which may be particularly harmful during pregnancy and lactation. The main objective was to describe iodine status and the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among lactating women in areas with high iodine (HI) and very high iodine (VHI) concentrations in drinking water. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 111 lactating women in the Saharawi refugee camps, Algeria. Breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC), urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and the iodine concentration in the most commonly consumed foods/drinks were measured. A 24-h dietary recall was used to estimate iodine intake. Thyroid hormones and antibodies were measured in serum. Median UIC, BMIC and iodine intake across both areas was 350 μg/L, 479 μg/L and 407 μg/day, respectively. In multiple regression analyses, we discovered that being from VHI area was associated with higher UIC and BMIC. BMIC was also positively associated with iodine intake. Thyroid dysfunction and/or positive thyroid antibodies were found in 33.3% of the women, of which 18.9% had hypothyroidism and 8.1% had hyperthyroidism and 6.3% had positive antibodies with normal thyroid function. Elevated thyroid antibodies were in total found in 17.1%. We found no difference in distribution of thyroid dysfunction or positive antibodies between HI and VHI areas. BMI, BMIC and elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) predicted abnormal thyroid function tests. The high prevalence of thyroid dysfunction may be caused by excessive iodine intake over several years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Interdisciplinary aspects of iodine prophylaxis in German Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, K; Anke, M; Gürtler, H; Hesse, V; Knappe, G; Körber, R; von Kozierowski, F; Meng, W; Thomas, G; Ulrich, F E

    1989-06-01

    Endemic goiter still occurs in several European countries. Alimentary iodine deficiency could be proved as the main cause of endemic prevalence. Extensive epidemiologic surveys showed the great medical and economical impact of this matter for the GDR. Over 200 million Marks might be spent for diagnosis and treatment of thyroid patients per year. Also in the field of veterinary medicine and animal production iodine deficiency plays an important role. Under the conditions of iodine deficiency the fodder containing nitrate and glucosinolates (e.g. bruised rape extraction) results in additional goitrogenic effects (so-called indirect or relative iodine deficiency). Due to iodine deficiency disorders considerable losses of yields in cattle, pigs and sheep occurred. The content of iodine in animal products used for human nutrition was subsequently low. Considering the ecological implication of these problems an Interdisciplinary Iodine Commission within the Society for Endocrinology and Diseases of Metabolism of the GDR was established. Together with the governement authorities it worked out corresponding recommendations for the prophylaxis and control of its efficiency. In 1986 the iodination of most of the packed salt (32 mg KIO3/kg = = 19 mg I/kg) and the administration of iodinated mineral mixtures for the animal production were started for pigs in the whole territory of GDR and for cattle in the southern counties of the GDR only. These activities have been accompanied by information of TV as well as in the newspapers and medical journals. Thus, an improved supply of iodine to the population through iodinated table salt and animal products can be taken into account. The efficiency of these prophylactic measures is controlled interdisciplinarily.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. 21 CFR 177.1680 - Polyurethane resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyurethane resins. 177.1680 Section 177.1680 Food... of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1680 Polyurethane resins. The polyurethane...) For the purpose of this section, polyurethane resins are those produced when one or more of the...

  7. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  8. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  9. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert,George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand,Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); Delaurentiis,Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2007-08-07

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  10. 21 CFR 177.1595 - Polyetherimide resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyetherimide resin. 177.1595 Section 177.1595... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1595 Polyetherimide resin. The polyetherimide resin identified in this section may be safely used as an article or component of an article...

  11. Shuttle onboard IMU alignment methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The current approach to the shuttle IMU alignment is based solely on the Apollo Deterministic Method. This method is simple, fast, reliable and provides an accurate estimate for the present cluster to mean of 1,950 transformation matrix. If four or more star sightings are available, the application of least squares analysis can be utilized. The least squares method offers the next level of sophistication to the IMU alignment solution. The least squares method studied shows that a more accurate estimate for the misalignment angles is computed, and the IMU drift rates are a free by-product of the analysis. Core storage requirements are considerably more; estimated 20 to 30 times the core required for the Apollo Deterministic Method. The least squares method offers an intermediate solution utilizing as much data that is available without a complete statistical analysis as in Kalman filtering.

  12. Shuttle Spacelab Core Equipment Freezer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary design of a Shuttle Spacelab Core Equipment Freezer. The unit will provide the capability to freeze and store many experiment specimens. Two models of the unit are planned. One model provides storage at -70 C; the other model will provide -70 C storage, a freeze dry capability, storage at a selectable temperature in the range of 0 C to -70 C, and means of maintaining close temperature tolerances. In addition an exchanger loop will be available at 4 C for cooling of a centrifuge and a remote storage compartment. A test tube holder, a dish holder and thermal capacitors for rapid freezing of large specimens will also be provided. A Stirling Cycle was selected as the active refrigerator for minimum cost and weight.

  13. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Denmark. Regional variations and frequency of individual iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P; Børlum, K G

    1993-01-01

    micrograms/g creatinine). These values are far below internationally recommended levels. The consequences remain to be evaluated and no firm recommendations can be given. It seems reasonable, however, to recommend a high intake of food containing iodine (e.g. milk products) during pregnancy and lactation...

  14. Space Shuttle Orbiter-Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This illustration is an orbiter cutaway view with callouts. The orbiter is both the brains and heart of the Space Transportation System (STS). About the same size and weight as a DC-9 aircraft, the orbiter contains the pressurized crew compartment (which can normally carry up to seven crew members), the huge cargo bay, and the three main engines mounted on its aft end. There are three levels to the crew cabin. Uppermost is the flight deck where the commander and the pilot control the mission. The middeck is where the gallery, toilet, sleep stations, and storage and experiment lockers are found for the basic needs of weightless daily living. Also located in the middeck is the airlock hatch into the cargo bay and space beyond. It is through this hatch and airlock that astronauts go to don their spacesuits and marned maneuvering units in preparation for extravehicular activities, more popularly known as spacewalks. The Space Shuttle's cargo bay is adaptable to hundreds of tasks. Large enough to accommodate a tour bus (60 x 15 feet or 18.3 x 4.6 meters), the cargo bay carries satellites, spacecraft, and spacelab scientific laboratories to and from Earth orbit. It is also a work station for astronauts to repair satellites, a foundation from which to erect space structures, and a hold for retrieved satellites to be returned to Earth. Thermal tile insulation and blankets (also known as the thermal protection system or TPS) cover the underbelly, bottom of the wings, and other heat-bearing surfaces of the orbiter to protect it during its fiery reentry into the Earth's atmosphere. The Shuttle's 24,000 individual tiles are made primarily of pure-sand silicate fibers, mixed with a ceramic binder. The solid rocket boosters (SRB's) are designed as an in-house Marshall Space Flight Center project, with United Space Boosters as the assembly and refurbishment contractor. The solid rocket motor (SRM) is provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

  15. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Kobrick, M.

    2001-12-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), which flew successfully aboard Endeavour in February 2000, is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, and the German and Italian Space Agencies. The mission was designed to use a single-pass radar interferometer to produce a digital elevation model of the Earth's land surface between about 60 degrees north and 56 degrees south latitude. The DEM will have 30 m horizontal resolution and better than 15 m vertical errors. Two ortho-rectified C-band image mosaics are also planned. Data processing will be completed by the end of 2002. SRTM used a modification of the radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Radar Laboratory that flew twice on the Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. To collect the interferometric data, a 60 m mast, additional C-band antenna, and improved tracking and navigation devices were added. A second X-band antenna was also added by the German Space Agency, and produced higher resolution topographic measurements in strips nested within the full, C-band coverage. First results indicate that the radars and ancillary instruments worked very well. Data played back to the ground during the flight were processed to DEMs and products released hours after acquisition. An extensive program for calibration and verification of the SRTM data is now underway. When complete later this year, systematic processing of the data will begin, with final products emerging a continent at a time. Products will be transferred to the US Geological Survey's EROS Data Center for civilian archive and distribution. NIMA will handle Department of Defense distribution. * Work performed under contract to NASA.

  16. Space Shuttle RTOS Bayesian Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A. Terry; Beling, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    With shrinking budgets and the requirements to increase reliability and operational life of the existing orbiter fleet, NASA has proposed various upgrades for the Space Shuttle that are consistent with national space policy. The cockpit avionics upgrade (CAU), a high priority item, has been selected as the next major upgrade. The primary functions of cockpit avionics include flight control, guidance and navigation, communication, and orbiter landing support. Secondary functions include the provision of operational services for non-avionics systems such as data handling for the payloads and caution and warning alerts to the crew. Recently, a process to selection the optimal commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) real-time operating system (RTOS) for the CAU was conducted by United Space Alliance (USA) Corporation, which is a joint venture between Boeing and Lockheed Martin, the prime contractor for space shuttle operations. In order to independently assess the RTOS selection, NASA has used the Bayesian network-based scoring methodology described in this paper. Our two-stage methodology addresses the issue of RTOS acceptability by incorporating functional, performance and non-functional software measures related to reliability, interoperability, certifiability, efficiency, correctness, business, legal, product history, cost and life cycle. The first stage of the methodology involves obtaining scores for the various measures using a Bayesian network. The Bayesian network incorporates the causal relationships between the various and often competing measures of interest while also assisting the inherently complex decision analysis process with its ability to reason under uncertainty. The structure and selection of prior probabilities for the network is extracted from experts in the field of real-time operating systems. Scores for the various measures are computed using Bayesian probability. In the second stage, multi-criteria trade-off analyses are performed between the scores

  17. Liquid Hydrogen Consumption During Space Shuttle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Jonathan K.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the issue of liquid hydrogen consumption and the points of its loss in prior to the shuttle launch. It traces the movement of the fuel from the purchase to the on-board quantity and the loss that results in 54.6 of the purchased quantity being on board the Shuttle.

  18. Shuttle Entry Imaging Using Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Thomas; Berry, Scott; Alter, Stephen; Blanchard, Robert; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin; Tack, Steve

    2007-01-01

    During the Columbia Accident Investigation, imaging teams supporting debris shedding analysis were hampered by poor entry image quality and the general lack of information on optical signatures associated with a nominal Shuttle entry. After the accident, recommendations were made to NASA management to develop and maintain a state-of-the-art imagery database for Shuttle engineering performance assessments and to improve entry imaging capability to support anomaly and contingency analysis during a mission. As a result, the Space Shuttle Program sponsored an observation campaign to qualitatively characterize a nominal Shuttle entry over the widest possible Mach number range. The initial objectives focused on an assessment of capability to identify/resolve debris liberated from the Shuttle during entry, characterization of potential anomalous events associated with RCS jet firings and unusual phenomenon associated with the plasma trail. The aeroheating technical community viewed the Space Shuttle Program sponsored activity as an opportunity to influence the observation objectives and incrementally demonstrate key elements of a quantitative spatially resolved temperature measurement capability over a series of flights. One long-term desire of the Shuttle engineering community is to calibrate boundary layer transition prediction methodologies that are presently part of the Shuttle damage assessment process using flight data provided by a controlled Shuttle flight experiment. Quantitative global imaging may offer a complementary method of data collection to more traditional methods such as surface thermocouples. This paper reviews the process used by the engineering community to influence data collection methods and analysis of global infrared images of the Shuttle obtained during hypersonic entry. Emphasis is placed upon airborne imaging assets sponsored by the Shuttle program during Return to Flight. Visual and IR entry imagery were obtained with available airborne

  19. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K. [Battelle Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Eschborn (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs.

  20. Effects of diuretics on iodine uptake in non-toxic goitre: comparison with low-iodine diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapucu, L.Ozlem; Azizoglu, Firat [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey); Ayvaz, Goksun; Karakoc, Ayhan [Department of Endocrinology, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2003-09-01

    Low-iodine diet has been employed to achieve iodine depletion prior to radioiodine (RI) therapy. However, treatment with diuretics may be more effective than low-iodine diet in causing iodine depletion and subsequent increase in RI uptake by the thyroid. Fifty-five patients with non-toxic goitre were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. on the first day of the study and thyroid uptake was measured. In 15 patients, a low-iodine diet was started and continued for 14 days. The remaining 40 patients received furosemide 40 mg/day orally for 5 days with an unrestricted diet. On the 15th day of the study, all patients were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. and thyroid RI uptake was measured again. Additionally, 24-h urinary iodine excretion and RI clearance were measured on the 1st and 6th days in 21 patients from the furosemide group and on the 1st and 15th days in eight patients from the diet group. Furosemide administration led to a 58.40% increase in iodine uptake over the baseline value, which was significantly higher than the increase caused by low-iodine diet (17.22%) (P<0.0001). Urinary excretion of RI decreased in both groups similarly (furosemide, 29.45%; low-iodine diet, 21.06%; P=0.33). Iodine clearance also decreased in each group similarly (10.61% vs 7.53%, P=0.53). Treatment with furosemide prior to administration of RI increases the uptake of RI by the thyroid more effectively than does low-iodine diet. (orig.)

  1. Current Noise Spectrum of a Quantum Shuttle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Christian; Novotny, T.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2005-01-01

    peaks at integer multiples of the mechanical frequency, which is slightly renormalized. The renormalization explains a previously observed small deviation of the shuttle Current compared to the expected value given by the product of the natural mechanical frequency and the electron charge. For a certain......We present a method for calculating the full current noise spectrum S(omega) for the class of nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) that can be described by a Markovian generalized master equation. As a specific example we apply the method to a quantum shuttle. The noise spectrum of the shuttle has...... parameter range the quantum shuttle exhibits a coexistence regime, where the charges are transported by two different mechanisms: Shuttling and sequential tunneling. In our previous studies we showed that characteristic features in the zero-frequency noise could be quantitatively understood as a slow...

  2. Preparation and antibacterial activity of quaternized chitosan with iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yang; Xie, Linlin; Sai, Mingze; Xu, Ningning; Ding, Derun, E-mail: dingderun@sues.edu.cn

    2015-03-01

    Chitosan (CTS) is a natural polymer with active groups such as –NH{sub 2} which can be functionalized to introduce new positively charged N-atoms and protonated amino group for better use. In this study, to improve the stability of iodine, a novel complex (CTS–CTA–I{sub 2}) was prepared by mixing N-(2-hydroxy) propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (CTS–CTA) with iodine in ethanol solution. The CTS–CTA–I{sub 2} was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), Ultraviolet and visible (UV–vis) spectra and thermal gravimetric analysis (TG). Besides, the interaction of iodine with CTS–CTA was also studied. The mole ratio of CTS–CTA with iodine was measured by iodometric titration method and the max mole ratio of CTS–CTA with iodine was 1:1.33. The antimicrobial activity of CTS, CTS–CTA and CTS–CTS–I{sub 2} complexes was investigated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and the antibacterial property of CTS–CTA–I{sub 2} was superior to CTS–CTA. - Highlights: • We prepared a novel iodine complex based on chitosan. • The CTS–CTA–I{sub 2} complex improved the stability of iodine. • The max mole ratio of CTS–CTA with iodine was 1:1.33. • The CTS–CTA–I{sub 2} complex showed significant antibacterial activity.

  3. Iodine, a Mild Reagent for the Aromatization of Terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Victoriano; Prieto, Consuelo; Silva, Lucia; Rodilla, Jesús M L; Quílez del Moral, José F; Barrero, Alejandro F

    2016-04-22

    Efficient procedures based on the use of iodine for the aromatization of a series of terpenoids possessing diene and homoallylic or allylic alcohol functionalities are described. Different examples are reported as a proof-of-concept study. Furthermore, iodine also proved to mediate the dehydrogenation of testosterone.

  4. Examination of Urinary Iodine Status from a Sample of Malian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital hypothyroidism is a disorder associated with a low IQ, deaf mutism, and neurological problems. Many studies have revealed that iodine deficiency is common throughout West Africa. While several of these studies have investigated the prevalence of iodine deficiency among women in West Africa, few have ...

  5. Iodine nutrition in the adult population of Galicia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego-Iraeta, A; Pérez-Fdez, R; Cadarso-Suárez, C; Tomé, M; Fdez-Mariño, A; Mato, J A; Botana, M; Solache, I

    2007-02-01

    To identify the current state of iodine nutrition in the adult population of Galicia (Spain), which is considered iodine sufficient based on results from studies carried out on schoolchildren. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and its relationship with different socio-demographic variables were assessed. A cross-sectional study was carried out on the population aged above 18 years in the Autonomous Community of Galicia (Spain) during 2004. The UICs were determined in an isolated urine sample using Dunn's colorimetric method. Iodine status was based on World Health Organization/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (WHO/ICCIDD) UIC. A total of 2877 urine samples were taken. Median UIC for the total Galician population was 75.6 microg/L. About 30% of the population showed a UIC below 50 microg/L. Educational level, place of residence (coast vs. inland), and consumption of iodized salt were independent variables associated with the iodine nutrition of the adult population of Galicia. There is "mild" iodine deficiency (WHO) in the adult population of Galicia, which affects all the groups analyzed and which is particularly significant in the group of women of a fertile age. The data obtained on the state of iodine nutrition in school-age populations cannot be extended to the adult population.

  6. Iodine deficiency, thyroid function and hearing deficit: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.; MacKenzie, I.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency affects an estimated 241 million school-aged children in the world. Little is known about iodine deficiency in relation to auditory function, except for the fact that deaf-mutism is one of the features of cretinism. In the present review, we documented the scientific knowledge on

  7. Transient congenital hypothyroidism after topical iodine in pregnancy and lactation.

    OpenAIRE

    Danziger, Y; Pertzelan, A; M. Mimouni

    1987-01-01

    A 6 week old girl with transient congenital hypothyroidism is described. The hypothyroidism was associated with multiple applications of povidone iodine during pregnancy and lactation. This case illustrates the potential hazard of using topical solutions containing iodine during pregnancy and lactation.

  8. The iodine reactivity; La reactivite de l'iode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The iodine is an important element because it has long life isotopes (such as iodine 129) and a great mobility in natural media. Iodine presents a complex chemistry because of its volatility and its strong redox reactivity. The S.E.C.R. works to better understand the reactivity of this element in different natural, industrial or biological environments. It plays a part in thermochemical sites as a possible way of hydrogen formation. This seminar gives some aspects relative to the chemical reactivity of iodine, since its thermochemistry in the I/S cycles to produce hydrogen to its reactivity in the natural medium and its potential radiological impact. This document includes 4 presentations transparencies dealing with: the {sup 129}I cycle rejected in the low radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents of the La Hague reprocessing plant (C. Frechou); a bibliographic review of iodine retention in soils (F. Bazer-Bachi); the hydrogen production and the iodine/sulfur thermochemical cycle (role of iodine in the process); and the direct characterization by electro-spray ionization mass spectroscopy of iodine fixation by fulvic acids (P. Reiller, B. Amekraz, C. Moulin, V. Moulin)

  9. Concentrations of iodine and some environmental goitrogens in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the distribution of iodine and goitrogens in two selected rivers: Adada and Akoru in Enugu Sate, Nigeria. Iodine concentrations were found to be 0.109±0.001 and 0.108±0.001 ppm, respectively in both water bodies. The evaluated environmental goitrogens were as follows in Adada ...

  10. [Study on the iodine nutrition and iodine deficiency disorders status in pasturing areas of Tibet-a non-epidemic area of iodine deficiency disorders in serious iodine deficiency district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    DU, Dan; Li, Su-Mei; Li, Xiu-Wei; Wang, Hai-Yan; Li, Shu-Hua; Nima, Cangjue; Danzeng, Sangbu; Zhuang, Guang-Xiu

    2010-08-01

    To explore the status of iodine nutrition and iodine deficiency disorders in the pasturing areas and agricultural regions in Tibet. 30 families were selected respectively in pastoral Dangxiong county and agricultural Qushui county of Lasa. Drinking water and edible salt were collected for testing the iodine contents. In each type of the following populations including children aged 8 - 10, women of child-bearing age and male adults, 50 subjects were randomly sampled to examine their urinary iodine contents. Among them, 50 children and 50 women were randomly selected for goiter examination by palpation. Water iodine content was less than 2 µg/L, both in pasturing area and in agricultural areas. There was no iodized salt used in the families of pasturing areas, while 90% people consumed iodized salt in agricultural areas. The median of urinary iodine in pasturing area was 50.2 µg/L, significantly lower than that of agricultural area (193.2 µg/L). However, the goiter rate of children and women in pasturing area was significantly lower than that in agricultural area. Although iodine intake of populations in pasturing area of Tibet was severely deficient, there was no epidemic of Iodine Deficiency Disorders. This phenomenon noticed by the researchers deserved further investigation.

  11. Sorption Behavior of Radionuclide Iodine on Organic and Inorganic sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Chang, See Un; Choung, Sung Wook; Um, Woo Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Radioactive iodine ({sup 125/129/131}I) has been released into the environment as a result of nuclear testing, nuclear fuel processing, and nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima. The released iodine radioisotopes are harmful to human and ecological system due to their high toxicity. In particular, long half-life of {sup 129}I (t{sub 1/2} = 1.6 x 10{sup 7} years) leads to contamination of soils, sediments, and groundwater surrounding nuclear facilities. Prior studies have suggested that the transport behavior of iodine in environment depends on the iodine speciation, based on different chemical reaction for individual iodine species. Iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup -}) and certain organo-iodine (OI) species are strongly affected by sorption processes, while iodide (I{sup -}) is not. The sorption characteristics of iodine species are also differentiated by the properties and composition of soils and sediments. However, contribution of mineral and organic matter types in soils/sediments on the sorption behavior was not properly evaluated. As the first step of systematical research, the objective of this study is to investigate the sorption behavior of iodine species, especially, IO{sub 3}{sup -}, on different types of natural inorganic and organic sorbents in soils/sediments

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding iodine among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While iodine deficiency has been reported to facilitate the development of toxic nodular goitre, .... and in previous studies regarding inadequate public knowledge about iodine has also been demonstrated in India. In the district of Orissa, the proportion of .... salt in Turkey.23 Community awareness and understanding of the.

  13. Urinary iodine concentration and availability of iodated salt in school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Education and communication strategies to different stakeholders need to be strengthened to effectively communicate the message on iodine nutrition. There is a need for renewed efforts to reinforce regular monitoring of iodine content of salt especially in the rural areas where informal re-packing of iodated salt and sale of ...

  14. Thyroid Function among Breastfed Children with Chronically Excessive Iodine Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Aakre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Iodine excess may impair thyroid function and trigger adverse health consequences for children. This study aims to describe iodine status among breastfed infants with high iodine exposure in the Saharawi refugee camps Algeria, and further assess thyroid function and iodine status among the children three years later. In 2010, a cross-sectional study among 111 breastfed children aged 0–6 months was performed (baseline study. In 2013, a second cross-sectional study (follow-up study was conducted among 289 children; 213 newly selected and 76 children retrieved from baseline. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC and breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC were measured at baseline. UIC, thyroid hormones and serum thyroglobulin (Tg were measured at follow-up. At baseline and follow-up, 88% and 72% had excessive iodine intakes (UIC ≥ 300 µg/L, respectively. At follow-up, 24% had a thyroid hormone disturbance and/or elevated serum Tg, including 9% with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH, 4% with elevated fT3 and 14% with elevated Tg. Children with SCH had poorer linear growth and were more likely to be underweight than the children without SCH. Excessive iodine intakes and thyroid disturbances were common among children below four years of age in our study. Further, SCH seemed to be associated with poor growth and weight.

  15. Prevalence and serverity of Iodine deficiency disorder among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three elementary schools were selected by lottery method from 20 schools. From each school, students were selected by simple random sampling. Spot urine sample (5 ml) was taken to measure urine iodine level; physical exam was made to palpate goiter and salt samples were collected to estimate iodine content.

  16. Excess dietary iodine intake in long-term African refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Andrew J; Creeke, Paul I; Gnat, Daniella; Abdalla, Fathia; Mirghani, Zahra

    2006-02-01

    To assess the iodine status of long-term refugees dependent on international food aid and humanitarian assistance. A series of cross-sectional two-stage cluster or systematic random sample surveys which assessed urinary iodine excretion and the prevalence of visible goitre. Salt samples were also collected and tested for iodine content by titration. Six refugee camps in East, North and Southern Africa. Male and female adolescents aged 10-19 years. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) ranged from 254 to 1200 microg l(-1) and in five of the camps exceeded the recommended maximum limit of 300 microg l(-1), indicating excessive iodine intake. Visible goitre was assessed in four surveys where it ranged from 0.0 to 7.1%. The camp with the highest UIC also had the highest prevalence of visible goitre. The iodine concentrations in 11 salt samples from three camps were measured by titration and six of these exceeded the production-level concentration of 20 to 40 ppm recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), but were all less than 100 ppm. Excessive consumption of iodine is occurring in most of the surveyed populations. Urgent revision of the level of salt iodisation is required to meet current WHO recommendations. However, the full cause of excessive iodine excretion remains unknown and further investigation is required urgently to identify the cause, assess any health impact and identify remedial action.

  17. Co-60 gamma radiation assisted diffusion of iodine in polypropylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathakari, N.L.; Bhoraskar, V.N. [Microtron Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune, Maharashtra 411007 (India); Dhole, S.D., E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ernet.i [Microtron Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune, Maharashtra 411007 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Thin films of polypropylene having dimensions 50 mm x 15 mm x 350 {mu}m were immersed in 1 N iodine solution and then irradiated with Co-60 gamma radiation for the periods of 48, 96 and 144 h at the doses varying from 14.4 to 43.2 kGy. The films were also kept immersed in iodine solution for similar periods but without irradiation. Furthermore, the films were also directly-irradiated with Co-60 gamma radiation for similar periods and doses. The radiation-iodinated, plain-iodinated and directly-irradiated samples were characterized by using various techniques such as weight gain EDS, SEM, FTIR, UV-visible spectroscopy, contact angle and XRD. Weight gain, EDS and SEM collectively reveal that gamma irradiation enhances iodine intake in polypropylene. FTIR, EDS and contact angle measurements indicate that presence of iodine during irradiation resists radiation induced carbonylation of polypropylene. FTIR also shows presence of HOI (Hypoiodous acid) species instead of expected C-I bonds. UV-visible analysis unambiguously shows that presence of iodine enhances radiation induced band gap reduction process of polypropylene. XRD indicates that iodine decreases the crystallinity of polypropylene.

  18. Longevity of resin composite restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shisei Kubo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In daily practice, an evidence-based approach is becoming more expected of dentist. However, only outcomes obtained from clinical studies are accepted as evidence. Although many clinical trials have been performed, most of them are short-term studies, whereas long-term studies are likely to provide more reliable evidence. In this article, prospective studies and retrospective longitudinal clinical studies on resin composite restorations were systematically searched with PubMed for literature in English and with Japana Centra Revuo Medicina (Ichushi Web for articles in Japanese. Finally, 21 long-term (8 years or more prospective studies and nine retrospective studies with survival analysis were selected and reviewed from more than 561 papers. The overall findings suggest that at least 60% of resin composite restorations will last more than 10 years when proper materials are applied correctly. Patient-, operator-, material- and tooth-related factors may have an influence on the survival of resin composite restorations. Appropriate maintenance policies based on MI concepts are claimed to enhance the longevity of resin composite restorations.

  19. and phenol–formaldehyde resin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thermosetting resin; magnetic properties; microstructures; heat treatment. 1. Introduction. The ideal insulating soft magnetic composite (SMC) is formed by ferromagnetic .... turns was wound for AC complex permeability measure- ment. Complex permeability spectra were measured by an impedance analyzer (HP 4194A) ...

  20. Occupational exposure to epoxy resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.; Kersting, K.

    2014-01-01

    Products based on epoxy resins as a binder have become popular in various settings, among which the construction industry and in windmill blade production, as a result of their excellent technical properties. However, due to the same properties epoxy products are a notorious cause of allergic skin

  1. Laser Induced Fluorescence of the Iodine Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER Q1AU 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO. Air Force Research ...MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL/RQR 5 Pollux Drive. 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT Edwards AFB CA 93524-7048 NUMBER(S...a halogen the natural state is diatomic (I2) with a molecular mass of 253.8 amu. Atomic iodine (I) only has an ionization energy of 10.45 eV. The

  2. Evaluating iodine deficiency in pregnant women and young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, S.; Bjarnadottir, R. I.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To review methods for evaluating iodine deficiency in pregnant women and Young infants and to discuss factors to be considered in the interpretation of their results. Design: Review of the literature regarding the various methods available for assessing iodine status. Setting: Population...... Surveys and research studies. Subjects: Pregnant women and young infants. Results. Several factors to consider when assessing iodine status in pregnant women and young infants include: 1) the urinary iodine (UI) concentration (mu g l(-1)) is not interchangeable with 24 h UI excretion (mu g per 24 h); 2...... deficiency than in the mother. Conclusions: if the iodine status Of pregnant women and small children is not to be Misjudged, the above six factors need to be taken into account....

  3. Modelling iodine behaviour using LIRIC 3.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wren, J.C.; Glowa, G.A.; Ball, J.M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1996-12-01

    The overall objective of the iodine chemistry research program at the Whiteshell Laboratories of AECL is to develop and validate the LIRIC (Library of Iodine Reactions In Containment) model. The model, once validated, is intended as either a stand-alone analytical tool or for incorporation into a code for licensing analyses of fission-product behaviour in containment. LIRIC is currently being used to assess the role and importance of individual phenomena on iodine volatility under reactor accident conditions and, thus, help to establish priorities within the iodine research program. The LIRIC model has undergone significant alterations since it was last reported (LIRIC 2.0), mainly as a result of considerable development in understanding of iodine behaviour over the last few years. The new version, LIRIC 3.0, has been used to simulate various results from the Radioiodine Test Facility (RTF) with reasonable success, although under somewhat limited conditions.

  4. Chemical Shuttle Additives in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Mary

    2013-03-31

    The goals of this program were to discover and implement a redox shuttle that is compatible with large format lithium ion cells utilizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (NMC) cathode material and to understand the mechanism of redox shuttle action. Many redox shuttles, both commercially available and experimental, were tested and much fundamental information regarding the mechanism of redox shuttle action was discovered. In particular, studies surrounding the mechanism of the reduction of the oxidized redox shuttle at the carbon anode surface were particularly revealing. The initial redox shuttle candidate, namely 2-(pentafluorophenyl)-tetrafluoro-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole (BDB) supplied by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL, Lemont, Illinois), did not effectively protect cells containing NMC cathodes from overcharge. The ANL-RS2 redox shuttle molecule, namely 1,4-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-2,5-di-tert-butyl-benzene, which is a derivative of the commercially successful redox shuttle 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB, 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota), is an effective redox shuttle for cells employing LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) cathode material. The main advantage of ANL-RS2 over DDB is its larger solubility in electrolyte; however, ANL-RS2 is not as stable as DDB. This shuttle also may be effectively used to rebalance cells in strings that utilize LFP cathodes. The shuttle is compatible with both LTO and graphite anode materials although the cell with graphite degrades faster than the cell with LTO, possibly because of a reaction with the SEI layer. The degradation products of redox shuttle ANL-RS2 were positively identified. Commercially available redox shuttles Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} (Air Products, Allentown, Pennsylvania and Showa Denko, Japan) and DDB were evaluated and were found to be stable and effective redox shuttles at low C-rates. The Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} is suitable for lithium ion cells utilizing a high voltage cathode (potential that is higher

  5. Primary circuit iodine model addition to IMPAIR-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osetek, D.J.; Louie, D.L.Y. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guntay, S.; Cripps, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-12-01

    As part of a continuing effort to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Reactor Severe Accident Program (ARSAP) with complete iodine analysis capability, a task was undertaken to expand the modeling of IMPAIR-3, an iodine chemistry code. The expanded code will enable the DOE to include detailed iodine behavior in the assessment of severe accident source terms used in the licensing of U.S. Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs). IMPAIR-3 was developed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Switzerland, and has been used by ARSAP for the past two years to analyze containment iodine chemistry for ALWR source term analyses. IMPAIR-3 is primarily a containment code but the iodine chemistry inside the primary circuit (the Reactor Coolant System or RCS) may influence the iodine species released into the the containment; therefore, a RCS iodine chemistry model must be implemented in IMPAIR-3 to ensure thorough source term analysis. The ARSAP source term team and the PSI IMPAIR-3 developers are working together to accomplish this task. This cooperation is divided into two phases. Phase I, taking place in 1996, involves developing a stand-alone RCS iodine chemistry program called IMPRCS (IMPAIR -Reactor Coolant System). This program models a number of the chemical and physical processes of iodine that are thought to be important at conditions of high temperature and pressure in the RCS. In Phase II, which is tentatively scheduled for 1997, IMPRCS will be implemented as a subroutine in IMPAIR-3. To ensure an efficient calculation, an interface/tracking system will be developed to control the use of the RCS model from the containment model. These two models will be interfaced in such a way that once the iodine is released from the RCS, it will no longer be tracked by the RCS model but will be tracked by the containment model. All RCS thermal-hydraulic parameters will be provided by other codes. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  6. Iodine intake in human nutrition: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingibjörg Gunnarsdottir

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present literature review is a part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR issued in 2004. The main objective of the review is to assess the influence of different intakes of iodine at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health. The literature search resulted in 1,504 abstracts. Out of those, 168 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Full paper selection resulted in 40 papers that were quality assessed (A, B, or C. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, and no conclusion. We found suggestive evidence for improved maternal iodine status and thyroid function by iodine supplementation during pregnancy. Suggestive evidence was found for the relationship between improved thyroid function (used as an indicator of iodine status during pregnancy and cognitive function in the offspring up to 18 months of age. Moderately to severely iodine-deficient children will probably benefit from iodine supplementation or improved iodine status in order to improve their cognitive function, while only one study showed improved cognitive function following iodine supplementation in children from a mildly iodine-deficient area (no conclusion. No conclusions can be drawn related to other outcomes included in our review. There are no new data supporting changes in dietary reference values for children or adults. The rationale for increasing the dietary reference values for pregnant and lactating women in the NNR5 needs to be discussed in a broader perspective, taking iodine status of pregnant women in the Nordic countries into account.

  7. Monitoring salt and iodine intakes in Dutch adults between 2006 and 2010 using 24 h urinary sodium and iodine excretions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Wilson-van den Hooven, E.C.; Ocke, M.C.; A, van der D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To monitor the effectiveness of salt-reduction initiatives in processed foods and changes in Dutch iodine policy on Na and iodine intakes in Dutch adults between 2006 and 2010. Design Two cross-sectional studies among adults, conducted in 2006 and 2010, using identical protocols.

  8. Revisiting History: Encountering Iodine Then and Now--A General Chemistry Laboratory to Observe Iodine from Seaweed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, M. Farooq

    2009-01-01

    The history of the discovery of iodine is retold using brown-colored seaweed found commonly along the ocean shore. The seaweed is ashed at a low temperature and the iodides are extracted into boiling water. The iodides are oxidized in acidic medium. Solvent extraction of iodine by oxidation of iodides as well as simple aqueous extraction of iodide…

  9. Mandatory iodine fortification of bread and salt increases iodine excretion in adults in Denmark - A 11-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Jørgensen, Torben; Perrild, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims: Iodine fortification is widespread. Systematic monitoring of iodine fortification programs should be carried out to secure an optimal fortification level. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of the Danish iodine fortification program by comparing iodine excretion...... in the use of iodine supplements, and with bread intake at follow-up. Salt intake, education, self-rated health, smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity were not associated with the increase in iodine excretion. Conclusions: The strategy to combat iodine deficiency in Denmark seems to be working...... because the fortification led to increased urinary iodine excretion in (almost) all participants. However, the level of iodine fortification of salt is too low. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism....

  10. Iodine waste form summary report (FY 2007).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Nenoff, Tina Maria; McMahon, Kevin A.; Gao, Huizhen; Rajan, Ashwath Natech

    2007-11-01

    This new program at Sandia is focused on Iodine waste form development for GNEP cycle needs. Our research has a general theme of 'Waste Forms by Design' in which we are focused on silver loaded zeolite waste forms and related metal loaded zeolites that can be validated for chosen GNEP cycle designs. With that theme, we are interested in materials flexibility for iodine feed stream and sequestration material (in a sense, the ability to develop a universal material independent on the waste stream composition). We also are designing the flexibility to work in a variety of repository or storage scenarios. This is possible by studying the structure/property relationship of existing waste forms and optimizing them to our current needs. Furthermore, by understanding the properties of the waste and the storage forms we may be able to predict their long-term behavior and stability. Finally, we are working collaboratively with the Waste Form Development Campaign to ensure materials durability and stability testing.

  11. Nutritional status of iodine in pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain: study on hygiene-dietetic habits and iodine in urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrent Anna

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is a priority to achieve an adequate nutritional status of iodine during pregnancy since iodine deficiency in this population may have repercussions on the mother during both gestation and post partum as well as on the foetus, the neonate and the child at different ages. According to the WHO, iodine deficiency is the most frequent cause of mental retardation and irrreversible cerebral lesions around the world. However, few studies have been published on the nutritional status of iodine in the pregnant population within the Primary Care setting, a health care level which plays an essential role in the education and control of pregnant women. Therefore, the aim of the present study is: 1.- To know the hygiene-dietetic habits related to the intake of foods rich in iodine and smoking during pregnancy. 2.- To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency and the factors associated with its appearance during pregnancy. Methods/design We will perform a cluster randomised, controlled, multicentre trial. Randomisation unit: Primary Care Team. Study population: 898 pregnant women over the age of 17 years attending consultation to a midwife during the first trimester of pregnancy in the participating primary care centres. Outcome measures: consumption of iodine-rich foods and iodine deficiency. Points of assessment: each trimester of the gestation. Intervention: group education during the first trimester of gestation on healthy hygiene-dietetic habits and the importance of an adequate iodine nutritional status. Statistical analysis: descriptive analysis of all variables will be performed as well as multilevel logistic regression. All analyses will be done carried out on an intention to treat basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Discussion Evidence of generalised iodine deficiency during pregnancy could lead to the promotion of interventions of prevention such as how to

  12. Nutritional status of iodine in pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain): study on hygiene-dietetic habits and iodine in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Gemma; Torres, Maria Teresa; Francés, Lidia; Falguera, Gemma; Vila, Lluis; Manresa, Josep María; Casamitjana, Roser; Barrada, Juan Ramón; Acera, Amèlia; Guix, Dolors; Torrent, Anna; Grau, Josep; Torán, Pere

    2011-03-08

    It is a priority to achieve an adequate nutritional status of iodine during pregnancy since iodine deficiency in this population may have repercussions on the mother during both gestation and post partum as well as on the foetus, the neonate and the child at different ages. According to the WHO, iodine deficiency is the most frequent cause of mental retardation and irrreversible cerebral lesions around the world. However, few studies have been published on the nutritional status of iodine in the pregnant population within the Primary Care setting, a health care level which plays an essential role in the education and control of pregnant women. Therefore, the aim of the present study is: 1.- To know the hygiene-dietetic habits related to the intake of foods rich in iodine and smoking during pregnancy. 2.- To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency and the factors associated with its appearance during pregnancy. We will perform a cluster randomised, controlled, multicentre trial. Randomisation unit: Primary Care Team. 898 pregnant women over the age of 17 years attending consultation to a midwife during the first trimester of pregnancy in the participating primary care centres. consumption of iodine-rich foods and iodine deficiency. Points of assessment: each trimester of the gestation. group education during the first trimester of gestation on healthy hygiene-dietetic habits and the importance of an adequate iodine nutritional status. descriptive analysis of all variables will be performed as well as multilevel logistic regression. All analyses will be done carried out on an intention to treat basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Evidence of generalised iodine deficiency during pregnancy could lead to the promotion of interventions of prevention such as how to improve and intensify health care educational programmes for pregnant women. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01301768.

  13. Advantages of a round-body shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington, James P.; Wells, William L.; Lepsch, Roger A., Jr.; Huffman, Jarrett K.; Macconochie, Ian O.

    1989-01-01

    A cylindrical fuselage cross-section SSTOV representing the design generation beyond the current NASA Space Shuttle has been projected capable of reducing the cost of payload delivery to orbit while increasing mission scope. Due to its intrinsically greater wetted-area and structural weight efficiencies, this cylindrical vehicle would carry 40 percent greater payload than the Space Shuttle system despite a 20-percent lower gross liftoff weight. A LOX/hydrocarbon fuel combination would be employed during the early portion of flight, thereupon shifting to LOX/hydrogen. The cylindrical SSTOV would have eight times the volume of the Space Shuttle Orbiter.

  14. Reduction of salt: will iodine intake remain adequate in The Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Veer, van 't P.; Ocke, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Salt is the main vehicle for iodine fortification in The Netherlands. A reduction in salt intake may reduce the supply of iodine. Our aim was to quantify the effect of salt reduction on the habitual iodine intake of the Dutch population and the risk of inadequate iodine intake. We used data of the

  15. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is prevalent in vulnerable groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Perslev, Kathrine; Andersen, Stine Linding

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. In pregnancy, physiological changes occur that can lead to iodine deficiency and impairment of fetal neurological development. We aimed to assess the iodine intake in pregnant women in Eastern Denmark, compare iodine levels...

  16. Development of methods for thermal desorption of iodine from carbon sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalova, E. A.; Hlopotov, R. A.

    2017-10-01

    The paper studies and proposes four circuits of thermal iodine desorption from coal, which excludes the use of chemical reagents. The method allows for the sublimation of iodine from coal, avoiding the stage of pre-concentration and crystallization of crude iodine-concentrate. The proposed solution allows carrying out the process of thermal desorption of iodine without unloading it from the reactor.

  17. Testing Iodine as a New Fuel for Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glad, Harley; Branam, Richard; Rogers, Jim; Warren, Matthew; Burleson, Connor; Siy, Grace

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate the viability of using iodine as an alternative space propulsion propellant. The demonstration requires the testing of a cathode with xenon and then the desired element iodine. Currently, cathodes run on noble gases such as xenon which must be stored in high pressure canisters and is very expensive. These shortcomings have led to researching possible substitutes. Iodine was decided as a suitable candidate because it's cheaper, can be stored as a solid, and has similar mass properties as xenon. In this research, cathodes will be placed in a vacuum chamber and operated on both gases to observe their performance, allowing us to gain a better understanding of iodine's behavior. Several planned projects depend on the knowledge gained from this project, such as larger scaled tests and iodine fed hall thrusters. The tasks of this project included protecting the stainless-steel vacuum chamber by gold plating and Teflon® coating, building a stand to hold the cathode, creating an anode resistant to iodine, and testing the cathode once setup was complete. The successful operation of the cathode was demonstrated. However, the experimental setup proved ineffective at controlling the iodine flow. Current efforts are focused on this problem. REU Site: Fluid Mechanics with Analysis using Computations and Experiments NSF Grant EEC 1659710.

  18. Low iodine diet in differentiated thyroid cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Josephine H; He, Zhiheng H; Bansal, Vivek; Hennessey, James V

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation is a beneficial, adjuvant therapy for the management of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) after thyroidectomy. The goal of RAI is to destroy remnant thyroid and microscopic cancerous tissue. Radioactive iodine uptake is enhanced by elevating TSH levels and initiating a low iodine diet (LID) prior to ablation. An ideal LID should preferably not exceed 50 mcg/day of dietary iodine for 1-2 weeks, although the duration may be shortened to a week with a structured patient education programme. A pre-ablation spot urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of <100 mcg/l and/or a urinary iodine to creatinine ratio (UICR) of <100 mcg/gCr would support an adequate LID preparation. Hyponatraemia, most likely due to iatrogenic hypothyroidism, is a potential side effect associated with LID and occurs during and a few days after the LID. Although the overall incidence of hyponatraemia is low, patients at high risk (older age, female sex, use of thiazide diuretics) may benefit from serum sodium monitoring. The existing evidence on the impact of LID on RAI ablation has been largely inconsistent due to retrospective study designs and the lack of an objective measurement of urinary iodine levels. Future large prospective randomized control trials are needed to elucidate and confirm the crucial role of LID in achieving successful RAI ablation and greater disease-free survival in DTC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Eliminating Iodine Deficiency in China: Achievements, Challenges and Global Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dianjun; Codling, Karen; Chang, Suying; Zhang, Shubin; Shen, Hongmei; Su, Xiaohui; Chen, Zupei; Scherpbier, Robert W.; Yan, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The prevention of iodine deficiency through salt iodization has been recognized as a global success story, and China stands at the forefront of this achievement with one of the most successful programs in the world. High level political commitment, national mandatory legislation, a state-managed edible salt industry and a complex and highly sophisticated surveillance system have facilitated the success of the program. Challenges have arisen however, including: (i) concern that adequate iodine status in pregnant women cannot be achieved without causing above adequate iodine intakes in children; (ii) declining iodine intake as a result of reductions in salt consumption and increased consumption of processed foods, which may not be made with iodized salt; (iii) the existence of areas with high iodine content in the water; and (iv) declines in household use of iodized salt due to concerns about excess iodine intake and thyroid disease. This article reviews the achievements and challenges of the Chinese Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) Elimination Program and reflects on lessons learned and implications for other national salt iodization programs. PMID:28379180

  20. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is prevalent in vulnerable groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Perslev, Kathrine; Andersen, Stine Linding

    2016-01-01

    -containing supplements (86%). The median UIC was 118 (interquartile range (IQR): 79-196) µg/l in iodine supplement users and 82 (IQR: 41-122) µg/l in non-users (p pregnancy obesity....... CONCLUSIONS: The iodine status in Danish pregnant women was below WHO recommendations. Iodine supplement non-users are at a particular risk of iodine deficiency. Low maternal education, non-Danish origin and pre-pregnancy obesity are predictors of non-iodine supplement use. An increase in iodine fortification......INTRODUCTION: Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. In pregnancy, physiological changes occur that can lead to iodine deficiency and impairment of fetal neurological development. We aimed to assess the iodine intake in pregnant women in Eastern Denmark, compare iodine levels...

  1. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is prevalent in vulnerable groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Perslev, Kathrine; Andersen, Stine Linding

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. In pregnancy, physiological changes occur that can lead to iodine deficiency and impairment of fetal neurological development. We aimed to assess the iodine intake in pregnant women in Eastern Denmark, compare iodine levels......-containing supplements (86%). The median UIC was 118 (interquartile range (IQR): 79-196) µg/l in iodine supplement users and 82 (IQR: 41-122) µg/l in non-users (p pregnancy obesity....... CONCLUSIONS: The iodine status in Danish pregnant women was below WHO recommendations. Iodine supplement non-users are at a particular risk of iodine deficiency. Low maternal education, non-Danish origin and pre-pregnancy obesity are predictors of non-iodine supplement use. An increase in iodine fortification...

  2. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is prevalent in vulnerable groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Perslev, Kathrine; Andersen, Stine Linding

    2016-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: The iodine status in Danish pregnant women was below WHO recommendations. Iodine supplement non-users are at a particular risk of iodine deficiency. Low maternal education, non-Danish origin and pre-pregnancy obesity are predictors of non-iodine supplement use. An increase in iodine fortification......INTRODUCTION: Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. In pregnancy, physiological changes occur that can lead to iodine deficiency and impairment of fetal neurological development. We aimed to assess the iodine intake in pregnant women in Eastern Denmark, compare iodine levels...... in Eastern and Western Denmark and to identify potentially vulnerable groups. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional cohort study of pregnant Danish women (n = 240). Questionnaires and urine samples were collected at the Ultrasound Clinic, Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) (µg...

  3. Iodine deficiency among goiter patients in rural South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuot, Chep C; Galukande, Moses; Ibingira, Charles; Kisa, Nicholas; Fualal, Jane Odubu

    2014-10-23

    It is estimated that 2.2 billion or approximately 30% of the world's population live in iodine-deficient areas. In a 2005 study households consuming iodized salt in South Sudan increased from 40% to 73%. Despite this achievement, there are still many goiter cases in rural South Sudan and iodine deficiency remains as a major public health problem in this part of sub Saharan Africa.The purpose of this study therefore was to determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency among rural Southern Sudan goiter patients. A cross-sectional study was carried out in three South Sudan counties, adults with goiter were from three centers following a mobilization campaign that lasted 4 weeks for free medical care. They were clinically evaluated and completed interviewer administered questionnaires to determine their age, gender, diet, family history, drug history, and medical history. Urine samples were then taken for urinary iodine levels. The outcome was iodine deficiency measured as urinary iodine less than 100 μg per/ L. Multiple logistic regression was used to establish the factors associated with iodine deficiency in South Sudan. Ethical approval was obtained. A total of 286 goitre patients were recruited. The mean age was 38 years (SD 9), 262(92%) were females (F: M ratio 11:1), and 257(90%) were rural- peasants, 25% (20/286) had moderate to severe iodine deficiency. 174(62%) consumed non-iodized salts. Iodine deficiency is highly prevalent among rural South Sudan communities and a likely cause for goiters. Rural poor women are highly vulnerable.

  4. THE REACTIONS OF IODINE AND IODOACETAMIDE WITH NATIVE EGG ALBUMIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, M L

    1940-01-20

    The following experimental results have been obtained. 1. Native egg albumin treated with iodine and then denatured no longer gives a nitroprusside test or reduces dilute ferricyanide in neutral Duponol PC solution. 2. More iodine is needed to abolish the ferricyanide reduction if the reaction between native egg albumin and iodine is carried out at pH 6.8 than if the reaction is carried out at pH 3.2. At pH 6.8 iodine reacts with tyrosine as well as with cysteine. 3. Cysteine and tryptophane are the only amino acids with reducing groups which are known to react with dilute iodine at pH 3.2 The reducing power of cysteine is abolished by the reaction with iodine, whereas the reducing power of tryptophane remains intact. Pepsin and chymotrypsinogen which contain tryptophane but not cysteine, do not react at all with dilute iodine at pH 3.2. 4. Native egg albumin treated with iodoacetamide at pH 9.0 and then denatured by Duponol PC reduces only 60 per cent as much dilute ferricyanide as egg albumin which has not been treated with iodoacetamide. 5. The SH group is the only protein reducing group which is known to react with iodoacetamide. The simplest explanation of the new observation that the SH groups of egg albumin can be modified by reactions with the native form of the protein is that the native egg albumin has free and accessible but relatively unreactive SH groups which can react with iodine and iodoacetamide despite the fact that they do not react with ferricyanide, porphyrindin, or nitroprusside. Preliminary experiments suggested by the results with egg albumin indicate that the tobacco mosaic virus is modified by iodine at pH 2.8 without being inactivated and that the tobacco mosaic and rabbit papilloma viruses are not inactivated by iodoacetamide at pH 8.0.

  5. Resin Diterpenes from Austrocedrus chilensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Rachel Olate

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen diterpenes belonging to the labdane, abietane and isopimarane skeleton classes were isolated from the resin of the Chilean gymnosperm Austrocedrus chilensis and identified by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods. The diterpene 12-oxo-labda-8(17,13E-dien-19 oic acid is reported for the first time as a natural product and 14 diterpenes are reported for the first time for the species.

  6. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Influenza A Virus Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses transcribe and replicate their genomes in the nuclei of infected host cells. The viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP complex of influenza virus is the essential genetic unit of the virus. The viral proteins play important roles in multiple processes, including virus structural maintenance, mediating nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the vRNP complex, virus particle assembly, and budding. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of viral proteins occurs throughout the entire virus life cycle. This review mainly focuses on matrix protein (M1, nucleoprotein (NP, nonstructural protein (NS1, and nuclear export protein (NEP, summarizing the mechanisms of their nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and the regulation of virus replication through their phosphorylation to further understand the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in host adaptation of the viruses.

  7. The space shuttle program: a policy failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logsdon, J M

    1986-05-30

    The 5 January 1972 announcement by President Richard Nixon that the United States would develop during the 1970's a new space transportation system-the space shuttle-has had fundamental impacts on the character of U.S. space activities. In retrospect, it can be argued that the shuttle design chosen was destined to fail to meet many of the policy objectives established for the system; the shuttle's problems in serving as the primary launch vehicle for the United States and in providing routine and cost-effective space transportation are in large part a result of the ways in which compromises were made in the 1971-72 period in order to gain White House and congressional approval to proceed with the program. The decision to develop a space shuttle is an example of a poor quality national commitment to a major technological undertaking.

  8. Space Shuttle Atlantis after RSS rollback

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    On Launch Pad 39A, the Rotating Service Structure has rolled back to reveal Space Shuttle Atlantis poised for launch. Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the International Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. Launch is targeted for 6:11 p.m. EST and the planned landing at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program.

  9. The space shuttle program technologies and accomplishments

    CERN Document Server

    Sivolella, Davide

    2017-01-01

    This book tells the story of the Space Shuttle in its many different roles as orbital launch platform, orbital workshop, and science and technology laboratory. It focuses on the technology designed and developed to support the missions of the Space Shuttle program. Each mission is examined, from both the technical and managerial viewpoints. Although outwardly identical, the capabilities of the orbiters in the late years of the program were quite different from those in 1981. Sivolella traces the various improvements and modifications made to the shuttle over the years as part of each mission story. Technically accurate but with a pleasing narrative style and simple explanations of complex engineering concepts, the book provides details of many lesser known concepts, some developed but never flown, and commemorates the ingenuity of NASA and its partners in making each Space Shuttle mission push the boundaries of what we can accomplish in space. Using press kits, original papers, newspaper and magazine articles...

  10. Geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level and association between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre: a Chinese national investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongmei; Liu, Shoujun; Sun, Dianjun; Zhang, Shubin; Su, Xiaohui; Shen, Yanfeng; Han, Hepeng

    2011-07-01

    Excessive iodine intake can cause thyroid function disorders as can be caused by iodine deficiency. There are many people residing in areas with high iodine levels in drinking-water in China. The main aim of the present study was to map the geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level in China and to determine the relationship between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre prevalence. Iodine in drinking-water was measured in 1978 towns of eleven provinces in China, with a total of 28,857 water samples. We randomly selected children of 8-10 years old, examined the presence of goitre and measured their urinary iodine in 299 towns of nine provinces. Of the 1978 towns studied, 488 had iodine levels between 150 and 300 μg/l in drinking-water, and in 246 towns, the iodine level was >300 μg/l. These towns are mainly distributed along the original Yellow River flood areas, the second largest river in China. Of the 56 751 children examined, goitre prevalence was 6.3 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine levels of 150-300 μg/l and 11.0 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine >300 μg/l. Goitre prevalence increased with water and urinary iodine levels. For children with urinary iodine >1500 μg/l, goitre prevalence was 3.69 times higher than that for those with urinary iodine levels of 100-199 μg/l. The present study suggests that drinking-water with high iodine levels is distributed in eleven provinces of China. Goitre becomes more prevalent with the increase in iodine level in drinking-water. Therefore, it becomes important to prevent goitre through stopping the provision of iodised salt and providing normal drinking-water iodine through pipelines in these areas in China.

  11. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South East of the UK: the influence of diet and nutritional supplements on iodine status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Sarah C; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Wright, John; Rayman, Margaret P

    2014-05-01

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones which are crucial for brain development. Adequate intake of iodine in pregnancy is important as in utero deficiency may have lifelong consequences for the offspring. Data on the iodine status of UK pregnant women are sparse, and there are no such data for pregnant women in the South East of the UK. A total of 100 pregnant women were recruited to a cross-sectional study carried out at the Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, at their first-trimester visit for an ultrasound scan. The participants provided a spot-urine sample (for the measurement of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and creatinine concentration) and 24 h iodine excretion was estimated from the urinary iodine:creatinine ratio. Women completed a general questionnaire and a FFQ. The median UIC (85·3 μg/l) indicated that the group was iodine deficient by World Health Organisation criteria. The median values of the iodine:creatinine ratio (122·9 μg/g) and of the estimated 24 h iodine excretion (151·2 μg/d) were also suggestive of iodine deficiency. UIC was significantly higher in women taking an iodine-containing prenatal supplement (n 42) than in those not taking such a supplement (Ppregnant women should be given advice on how to improve their iodine status through dietary means. A national survey of iodine status in UK pregnant women is required.

  12. A mechanism for biologically induced iodine emissions from sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Blaszczak-Boxe, C. S.; Carpenter, L. J.

    2015-09-01

    Ground- and satellite-based measurements have reported high concentrations of iodine monoxide (IO) in coastal Antarctica. The sources of such a large iodine burden in the coastal Antarctic atmosphere remain unknown. We propose a mechanism for iodine release from sea ice based on the premise that micro-algae are the primary source of iodine emissions in this environment. The emissions are triggered by the biological production of iodide (I-) and hypoiodous acid (HOI) from micro-algae (contained within and underneath sea ice) and their diffusion through sea-ice brine channels, ultimately accumulating in a thin brine layer (BL) on the surface of sea ice. Prior to reaching the BL, the diffusion timescale of iodine within sea ice is depth-dependent. The BL is also a vital component of the proposed mechanism as it enhances the chemical kinetics of iodine-related reactions, which allows for the efficient release of iodine to the polar boundary layer. We suggest that iodine is released to the atmosphere via three possible pathways: (1) emitted from the BL and then transported throughout snow atop sea ice, from where it is released to the atmosphere; (2) released directly from the BL to the atmosphere in regions of sea ice that are not covered with snowpack; or (3) emitted to the atmosphere directly through fractures in the sea-ice pack. To investigate the proposed biology-ice-atmosphere coupling at coastal Antarctica we use a multiphase model that incorporates the transport of iodine species, via diffusion, at variable depths, within brine channels of sea ice. Model simulations were conducted to interpret observations of elevated springtime IO in the coastal Antarctic, around the Weddell Sea. While a lack of experimental and observational data adds uncertainty to the model predictions, the results nevertheless show that the levels of inorganic iodine (i.e. I2, IBr, ICl) released from sea ice through this mechanism could account for the observed IO concentrations during

  13. Iodine chemistry in the troposphere and its effect on ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Fernandez, R. P.; Ordóñez, C.; Kinnison, D. E.; Gómez Martín, J. C.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Tilmes, S.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the potential influence of iodine chemistry on the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere, reactive iodine distributions and their impact on tropospheric ozone remain almost unexplored aspects of the global atmosphere. Here we present a comprehensive global modelling experiment aimed at estimating lower and upper limits of the inorganic iodine burden and its impact on tropospheric ozone. Two sets of simulations without and with the photolysis of IxOy oxides (i.e. I2O2, I2O3 and I2O4) were conducted to define the range of inorganic iodine loading, partitioning and impact in the troposphere. Our results show that the most abundant daytime iodine species throughout the middle to upper troposphere is atomic iodine, with an annual average tropical abundance of (0.15-0.55) pptv. We propose the existence of a "tropical ring of atomic iodine" that peaks in the tropical upper troposphere (~11-14 km) at the equator and extends to the sub-tropics (30° N-30° S). Annual average daytime I / IO ratios larger than 3 are modelled within the tropics, reaching ratios up to ~20 during vigorous uplift events within strong convective regions. We calculate that the integrated contribution of catalytic iodine reactions to the total rate of tropospheric ozone loss (IOx Loss) is 2-5 times larger than the combined bromine and chlorine cycles. When IxOy photolysis is included, IOx Loss represents an upper limit of approximately 27, 14 and 27% of the tropical annual ozone loss for the marine boundary layer (MBL), free troposphere (FT) and upper troposphere (UT), respectively, while the lower limit throughout the tropical troposphere is ~9%. Our results indicate that iodine is the second strongest ozone-depleting family throughout the global marine UT and in the tropical MBL. We suggest that (i) iodine sources and its chemistry need to be included in global tropospheric chemistry models, (ii) experimental programs designed to quantify the iodine budget in the troposphere should include

  14. An epidemic of hyperthyroidism following salt iodination in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaron, C

    1996-01-01

    Salt iodination, in Lebanon, started partially in late 1992, and was implemented in a uniform manner by January 1995. Following salt iodination, an epidemic of iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis occurred, as noted by the author, in his private clinic. The number of thyrotoxic patients increased sharply by 2 to 6 folds, and the yearly incidence rose from a baseline of 0.02% up to 0.07%. The younger patients have predominantly Graves' disease (32% of the cases), while 17% have solitary thyroid nodules, and 44% of the cases were elderly subjects with multinodular goiter. The pathogenesis and possible causes of this epidemic are discussed.

  15. Can neonatal TSH screening reflect trends in population iodine intake?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, Robert

    2008-08-01

    The distribution of neonatal blood thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations has been used as an index reflecting population dietary iodine intake, with higher concentrations being indicative of lower iodine intake. We examined this distribution in neonates born in Ireland, where the pregnant population has shown a recent decline in urinary iodine (UI) excretion. Our objectives were to determine if any alteration was observed in the percentage of values > 5.0 mIU\\/L and whether a trend in neonatal blood TSH was apparent.

  16. Direct counting of bacteria preserved with lugol iodine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomroy, A J

    1984-05-01

    Lugol iodine solution was compared with glutaraldehyde as a preservative for marine bacteria. Direct counts with the fluorochrome 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole show no significant difference between the preservatives, but the use of Lugol solution has several advantages over glutaraldehyde, especially in the handling and storage of samples. Bacteria were counted in water samples that were preserved with Lugol iodine solution and stored at room temperature for 4 years. Microprotozoa were also counted in samples preserved with Lugol iodine solution by using the fluorochrome fluorescein isothiocyanate.

  17. CERN Shuttles - Enlarged Regular Shuttle Services as from 8/02/2010

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    As of Monday 8 February 2010, please note the enhancement of the regular shuttle services: - with now two shuttles dedicated to the transportation within and between both CERN sites, Meyrin and Prevessin with bus stop at more buildings - To and from the Geneva airport every hour (from building 500) to complement the TPG bus Y For timetable details, please click here: http://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/gs-dep/groups/sem/ls/RegularShuttleTimetable_Feb2010.htm GS-SEM

  18. AN ANALYSIS OF IODINE DEFICIENCY DISORDER AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES IN THE HIGH ATLAS MOUNTAINS OF MOROCCO

    OpenAIRE

    Oldham, Elizabeth Anne; Barrett, Christopher B.; Benjelloun, Sabah; Ahanou, Brahim

    1996-01-01

    The population of the Ounein Valley in the High Atlas Mountains in Morocco is at high risk of iodine deficiency. We investigated local childrens iodine deficiency and goiter patterns as well as food consumption habits through a household survey. Median urinary iodine content and goiter analysis both reflect moderate iodine deficiency. Total fish consumption has a statistically significant, positive effect on urinary iodine content. Fish consumption, like that of salt, is closely related to ma...

  19. Iodine environmental availability and human intake in oceanic islands: Azores as a case-study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhares, Diana Paula Silva, E-mail: dlinhares@uac.pt [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Garcia, Patrícia Ventura, E-mail: patriciag@uac.pt [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CE3C, Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes/Azorean Biodiversity Group, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Almada, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra_almada@hotmail.com [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Ferreira, Teresa, E-mail: teresa.jl.ferreira@azores.gov.pt [Department of Geosciences, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Queiroz, Gabriela, E-mail: maria.gp.queiroz@azores.gov.pt [Department of Geosciences, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Cruz, José Virgílio, E-mail: jvc@uac.pt [Department of Geosciences, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos, E-mail: rodrigues@uac.pt [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment. Although several studies have established an association between ocean proximity and iodine environmental availability, recent studies revealed an inadequate iodine intake in the Azorean islands. In this study, we aim to understand the underlying causes of iodine environmental availability in oceanic islands and its association with iodine intake in schoolchildren, using the Azores as case-study. Iodine concentration in soil and grass pasture was measured by INAA and in drinking water by spectrophotometry. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in schoolchildren was assessed by ICP-MS in a randomized cross-sectional survey with 315 participants from S. Miguel (study group) and Sta. Maria islands (reference group). A validated diet questionnaire assessing sources of iodine was recorded. The iodine concentration in soils of the reference group was significantly higher than in the study group (58.1 ppm vs. 14.5 ppm, respectively; p = 0.001). The prevalence of schoolchildren with inadequate UIC was significantly higher in the study group than in the reference one (63.0% vs. 37.8%, respectively; p < 0.001). Chronic exposure to low iodine environmental availability was significantly associated with the exacerbation in iodine deficiency, with a risk 4.94 times higher in the study group. The differences observed in the studied islands are related with each island geomorphology (soil properties and orography) and climate, which can promote or inhibit iodine environmental availability, contributing distinctively to iodine bioavailability and human intake. These findings draw attention to an urgent need for a full investigation of Azores iodine status to apply evidence-based recommendations for iodine supplementation. - Highlights: • Iodine intake in schoolchildren differs between islands of the Azorean archipelago. • Island geomorphology and climate modulate iodine environmental availability. • In

  20. Cosmonaut Krikalev Views Approaching Space Shuttle Atlantis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Cosmonaut Sergei K. Krikalev, flight engineer for Expedition One, is positioned by a porthole aboard the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station (ISS) as the Space Shuttle Atlantis approaches for docking to begin several days of joint activities between the two crews. Visible through the window are the crew cabin and forward section of the Shuttle amidst scattered clouds above the Western Pacific. The aft part of the cargo bay stowing the Destiny Laboratory is not visible in this scene.

  1. Dietary iodine restriction in preparation for radioactive iodine treatment or scanning in well-differentiated thyroid cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Anna M; Ibrahim-Zada, Irada; Galacgac, Philip; Tsang, Richard W; Brierley, James D; Ezzat, Shereen; Goldstein, David P

    2010-10-01

    Dietary iodine is often restricted before radioactive iodine (RAI) scanning or treatment of well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Our objective was to examine the impact of a low-iodine diet (LID) before RAI treatment or scanning on the following outcomes: (i) the efficacy of thyroid remnant ablation (or residual disease elimination), (ii) urinary iodine measurements, (iii) RAI kinetics, and (iv) long-term thyroid cancer outcomes. We performed a systematic review of the English literature. We searched four electronic databases and conducted a hand search. Two reviewers independently screened citations and reviewed full-text articles and reached consensus on included articles. Two reviewers independently abstracted data. We reviewed 76 abstracts or citations and 26 full-text articles. Eight studies were included in the review. The most commonly studied diets allowed ≤ 50 µg/day of iodine for 1-2 weeks. In one study, 6-month successful remnant ablation rates were higher in patients following an LID than in controls. However, in another study, there was no significant benefit of an LID. LIDs reduce urinary iodine measurements and appear to increase I-131 uptake or lesional radiation compared to regular diets. No studies have examined long-term recurrence or mortality rates. Given that LIDs reduce urinary iodine measurements, increase I-131 uptake, and possibly improve efficacy of I-131 treatment, we currently favor the use of a 1-2-week LID before I-131 therapy or scanning. However, more research is needed to clarify the role of this dietary intervention.

  2. Investigations regarding the wet decontamination of fluorescent lamp waste using iodine in potassium iodide solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunsu, Cristian; Ekberg, Christian; Foreman, Mark; Retegan, Teodora

    2015-02-01

    With the rising popularity of fluorescent lighting, simple and efficient methods for the decontamination of discarded lamps are needed. Due to their mercury content end-of-life fluorescent lamps are classified as hazardous waste, requiring special treatment for disposal. A simple wet-based decontamination process is required, especially for streams where thermal desorption, a commonly used but energy demanding method, cannot be applied. In this study the potential of a wet-based process using iodine in potassium iodide solution was studied for the recovery of mercury from fluorescent lamp waste. The influence of the leaching agent's concentration and solid/liquid ratio on the decontamination efficiency was investigated. The leaching behaviour of mercury was studied over time, as well as its recovery from the obtained leachates by means of anion exchange, reduction, and solvent extraction. Dissolution of more than 90% of the contained mercury was achieved using 0.025/0.05 M I2/KI solution at 21 °C for two hours. The efficiency of the process increased with an increase in leachant concentration. 97.3 ± 0.6% of the mercury contained was dissolved at 21 °C, in two hours, using a 0.25/0.5M I2/KI solution and a solid to liquid ratio of 10% w/v. Iodine and mercury can be efficiently removed from the leachates using Dowex 1X8 anion exchange resin or reducing agents such as sodium hydrosulphite, allowing the disposal of the obtained solution as non-hazardous industrial wastewater. The extractant CyMe4BTBP showed good removal of mercury, with an extraction efficiency of 97.5 ± 0.7% being achieved in a single stage. Better removal of mercury was achieved in a single stage using the extractants Cyanex 302 and Cyanex 923 in kerosene, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Wear rates of resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkmeier, W W; Erickson, R I; Latta, M A; Wilwerding, T M

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY A laboratory study was conducted to examine the wear of resin composite materials using a generalized wear simulation model. Ten specimens each of five resin composites (Esthet•X [EX], Filtek Supreme Plus [SP], Filtek Z250 [Z2], Tetric EvoCeram [EC], and Z100 Restorative [Z1]) were subjected to wear challenges of 100,000, 400,000, 800,000, and 1,200,000 cycles. The materials were placed in cylinder-shaped stainless-steel fixtures, and wear was generated using a flat stainless-steel antagonist in a slurry of polymethylmethacrylate beads. Wear (mean facet depth [μm] and volume loss [mm(3)]) was determined using a noncontact profilometer (Proscan 2000) with Proscan and ProForm software. Statistical analysis of the laboratory data using analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test showed a significant difference (p<0.05) for mean wear facet depth and volume loss for both the number of cycles and resin composite material. Linear regression analysis was used to develop predictive wear rates and volume loss rates. Linear wear was demonstrated with correlation coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.914 to 0.995. Mean wear values (mean facet depth [μm]) and standard deviations (SD) for 1200K cycles were as follows: Z1 13.9 (2.0), Z2 26.7 (2.7), SP 30.1 (4.1), EC 31.8 (2.3), and EX 67.5 (8.2). Volume loss (mm(3)) and SDs for 1200K cycles were as follows: Z1 0.248 (0.036), Z2 0.477 (0.044), SP 0.541 (0.072), EC 0.584 (0.037), and EX 1.162 (0.139). The wear rate (μm) and volume loss rate (mm(3)) per 100,000 cycles for the five resin composites were as follows: wear rate Z1 0.58, EC 1.27, Z2 1.49, SP 1.62, and EX 4.35, and volume loss rate Z1 0.009, EC 0.024, Z2 0.028, SP 0.029, and EX 0.075. The generalized wear model appears to be an excellent method for measuring relative wear of resin composite materials.

  4. Variation in iodine food composition data has a major impact on estimates of iodine intake in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Áine; Ní Chaoimh, Carol; McCarthy, Elaine K; Kingston, Ciara; Irvine, Alan D; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Kenny, Louise C; Murray, Deirdre M; Kiely, Mairead

    2017-11-09

    The reliability of an estimate of iodine intake is largely dependent on the quality of the food composition data. We aimed to assess the impact of variations in food composition data for iodine and season on the estimates of iodine intake in young children. Cross-sectional dietary intake study of Irish 2-year-olds participating in the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study (n=468; 30% of the cohort at the 2-year follow-up) were used to assess the impact of variation in iodine food composition data on estimates of iodine intake, dietary adequacy and risk of exceeding the tolerable upper intake level (UL). Mean (SD) iodine intakes calculated using UK (147 (71)) and Irish (177 (93)) food composition data were significantly different (P composition data, respectively, of which milk accounted for 106% and 150% of the UL. This translated into 22% and 35% of toddlers exceeding the UL, using UK and Irish composition data, respectively. The mean (SD) daily intake of cow's milk among the 91% of consumers was 309 (208) ml. Intakes of cow's milk at the 75th and 95th percentiles were 452 and 706 ml, respectively. Using Irish composition data for iodine in cows' milk, a daily intake of 450 ml could result in a toddler exceeding the UL from milk alone. Variability in food composition has a large impact on assessments of iodine intake, particularly among young children for whom milk contributes a large proportion of their daily nutrient intake. Although this is unlikely to result in long-term adverse effects, our study highlights the need for development of valid biomarkers of individual iodine status.

  5. Iodine supplementation improves cognition in iodine-deficient schoolchildren in Albania: a randomized, controlled, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Connolly, Kevin; Bozo, Maksim; Bridson, John; Rohner, Fabian; Grimci, Lindita

    2006-01-01

    Iodine is required for the production of thyroid hormones, which are necessary for normal brain development and cognition. Although several randomized trials examined the effect of iodine supplementation on cognitive performance in schoolchildren, the results were equivocal. We aimed to ascertain whether providing iodized oil to iodine-deficient children would affect their cognitive and motor performance. In a double-blind intervention trial, 10-12-y-old children (n = 310) in primary schools in rural southeastern Albania were randomly assigned to receive 400 mg I (as oral iodized oil) or placebo. We measured urinary iodine (UI), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and total thyroxine (TT4) concentrations and thyroid gland volume (by ultrasound). The children were given a battery of 7 cognitive and motor tests, which included measures of information processing, working memory, visual problem solving, visual search, and fine motor skills. Thyroid ultrasound and the biochemical and psychological tests were repeated after 24 wk. At baseline, the children's median UI concentration was 43 microg/L; 87% were goitrous, and nearly one-third had low concentrations of circulating TT4. Treatment with iodine markedly improved iodine and thyroid status: at 24 wk, median UI in the treated group was 172 microg/L, mean TT4 was approximately 40% higher, and the prevalence of hypothyroxinemia was < 1%. In the placebo group after the intervention, these variables did not differ significantly from baseline. Compared with placebo, iodine treatment significantly improved performance on 4 of 7 tests: rapid target marking, symbol search, rapid object naming, and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (P < 0.0001). Information processing, fine motor skills, and visual problem solving are improved by iodine repletion in moderately iodine-deficient schoolchildren.

  6. Assessment of iodine status in children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women in iodine-replete areas of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangang Meng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD are widespread in China. Presently, IDD have been put under control by Universal Salt Iodisation (USI in China; however, there is a lack of evidence on whether the iodine status in adults, pregnant women and lactating women is optimal. This study was therefore conducted to assess the iodine nutrition and thyroid function of children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women residing in areas where the USI program is fully established. DESIGN: Six areas were selected according to the geographical regions in China. In each of these areas, we selected 4 distinct groups of subjects (children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women in regions where the coverage rate of iodised salt was more than 95% and the levels of iodine and fluoride in drinking water were less than or equal to 10 µg/L and 1 mg/L, respectively. We tested the iodine content of salt, urinary iodine (UI, free thyroxin (FT4, thyrotropin (TSH, thyroglobulin (Tg, thyroglobulin antibody (Tg-Ab and antimicrosomal antibody (TM-Ab in the 4 groups, and examined the thyroid volume in children. RESULTS: The median urinary iodine (MUI concentrations were 271.4 μg/L, 260.2 μg/L, 205.9 μg/L and 193.9 μg/L in children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women, respectively; MUI in children and adults were more than adequate. The goitre prevalence (GP in children was 6.70%. The odds ratios (OR of subclinical hypothyroidism in the Tg-Ab- or TM-Ab-positive groups were 3.80, 7.65, 2.01 and 7.47 for children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women, respectively, compared with the negative groups. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine status in children and adults is above the requirement, we should reduce their iodine intake. Subclinical hypothyroidism easily occurs in the Tg-Ab or TM-Ab positive groups.

  7. The Impact of Low Adherence to the Low-iodine Diet on the Efficacy of the Radioactive Iodine Ablation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Dal Lae; Park, Young Joo; Paik, Hee-Young; Song, YoonJu

    2015-10-01

    To improve the efficacy of radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer patients, a low-iodine diet (LID) prior to the therapy is recommended. In iodine-rich areas such as Korea, however, a strict LID is very difficult to maintain. We experienced the cases of three patients showing low adherence to the LID before initial RAI therapy, and analyzed the main food source supplying iodine during the LID, and examined the influence of the poorly maintained LID on the efficacy of RAI therapy. The dietary intake during the LID periods were assessed using three-day dietary records and remnant thyroid activity after the second RAI administration was also evaluated. All patients' mean daily iodine intake during two-week LID periods exceeded the 100 µg guideline set by the Korean Thyroid Association (median 110.9 µg, ranges 100.4-117.0 µg). Although the typical food sources of iodine intake are seaweeds in Korea, salted vegetables were the main contributor to the patients' iodine intake during the LID periods. Remnant thyroid activity was shown on a follow-up scan in all of 3 patients suggesting low efficacy of RAI therapy. In summary, the patients with low adherence to the LID guideline showed unsuccessful remnant ablation, and the main food source of iodine was salted vegetables. Further studies are necessary to examine the relationship between adherence of the LID and RAI efficacy according to dietary iodine intake levels, as well as food sources that cause low adherence to the LID. These data can then be used to develop more practical LID guidelines.

  8. Color stability of different composite resin materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkensammer, Frank; Arnetzl, Gerwin Vincent; Wildburger, Angelika; Freudenthaler, Josef

    2013-06-01

    Data are needed to better predict the color stability of current composite resin materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of different storage solutions on the color stability of different composite resin materials. Different restorative and adhesive composite resin specimens (dual-polymerizing self-adhesive resin cement, autopolymerizing resin-based composite resin, dual-polymerizing resin-based composite resin, nanohybrid composite resin, and microhybrid composite resin) were fabricated and stored in red wine, black tea, chlorhexidine, sodium fluoride, tea tree oil, or distilled water for 4 weeks at 37°C. Color parameters were measured with a colorimeter before and after storage. Total color differences and specific coordinate differences were expressed as ΔE, ΔL, Δa, and Δb. A 2-way and 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons were applied for statistical calculations (α=.05). Red wine caused the most severe discoloration (ΔE >10), followed by black tea with perceptible (ΔE >2.6) to clinically unacceptable discoloration (ΔE >5.5). Colored mouth rinses discolored the materials to a lesser extent with clinically acceptable values. Dual-polymerizing resin adhesives showed a higher amount of discoloration. Current restorative and adhesive composite resin materials discolor over time under the influence of different storage solutions. The composition related to the polymerizing mode seemed to be a causative factor. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNS) Resin with Polyester Resin in Composite Development

    OpenAIRE

    C. C. Ugoamadi

    2013-01-01

    Natural resins can compete effectively with the synthetic ones in composite development. In this research, cashew nuts were picked and processed for the extraction of the resin content. The resin (natural resin) so obtained was mixed with cobalt amine (accelerator), methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (catalyst) to develop two sets of composite specimens – specimens without fibres and specimens reinforced with glass fibres. This method of sample specimen development was repeated with polyester (synt...

  10. 21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4â²... Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. The...) The resins are produced by the condensation of xylene-formaldehyde resin and 4,4...

  11. Iodinated Contrast Media and the Alleged "Iodine Allergy": An Inexact Diagnosis Leading to Inferior Radiologic Management and Adverse Drug Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Ingrid; Nairz, Knud; Morelli, John N; Keller, Patricia Silva Hasembank; Heverhagen, Johannes T

    2017-04-01

    Purpose  To test the hypothesis that the incomplete diagnosis "iodine allergy" is a possibly dangerous concept for patients under routine radiologic conditions. Materials and Methods  300 patients with a history of an "iodine allergy" were retrospectively screened and compared with two age-, sex-, and procedure-matched groups of patients either diagnosed with a nonspecific "iodine contrast medium (ICM) allergy" or an allergy to a specific ICM agent. For all groups, the clinical symptoms of the most recent past adverse drug reaction (ADR), prophylactic actions taken for subsequent imaging, and ultimate outcome were recorded and analyzed. Results  The diagnosis "iodine allergy" was not otherwise specified in 84.3 % patients. For this group, in most cases, the symptoms of the previous ADRs were not documented. In contrast, the type of ADR was undocumented in only a minority of patients in the comparison groups. In the group of patients with an "iodine allergy" the percentage of unenhanced CT scans was greater than within the other two groups (36.7 % vs. 28.7 %/18.6 %). ADRs following prophylactic measures were only observed in the "iodine allergy" group (OR of 9.24 95 % CI 1.16 - 73.45; p contrast media containing covalently bound iodine.. · There is a clear correlation between the exactness of the diagnosis - from the alleged "iodine allergy" to "contrast media allergy" to naming the exact culprit CM - and the quality of documentation of the symptoms.. · Management of patients diagnosed with "iodine allergy" was associated with uncertainty leading to unenhanced scans and sometimes unnecessary prophylactic actions.. · The term "iodine allergy" should be omitted, because it is potentially dangerous and can decrease the quality of radiology exams.. Citation Format · Böhm Ingrid, Nairz Knud, Morelli John N et al. Iodinated Contrast Media and the Alleged "Iodine Allergy": An Inexact Diagnosis Leading to Inferior Radiologic Management and

  12. Advanced resin systems for graphite epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilwee, W. J.; Jayarajan, A.

    1980-01-01

    The value of resin/carbon fiber composites as lightweight structures for aircraft and other vehicle applications is dependent on many properties: environmental stability, strength, toughness, resistance to burning, smoke produced when burning, raw material costs, and complexity of processing. A number of woven carbon fiber and epoxy resin composites were made. The epoxy resin was commercially available tetraglycidylmethylene dianiline. In addition, composites were made using epoxy resin modified with amine and carboxyl terminated butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer. Strength and toughness in flexure as well as oxygen index flammability and NBS smoke chamber tests of the composites are reported.

  13. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

  14. Heat-cured Acrylic Resin versus Light-activated Resin: A Patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Although light-activated resins (Eclipse) have been reported to possess superior physical and mechanical properties compared with the heat-cured acrylic resins (Lucitone-199), a few studies have compared overdentures with a locator attachment constructed from heat-cured acrylic resins with those constructed ...

  15. The impact of iodinated contrast agent administered during preoperative computed tomography scan on body iodine pool in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer preparing for radioactive iodine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Seo Young; Choi, Ji Hun; Kim, Na Kyung; Joung, Ji Young; Cho, Yoon Young; Park, Sun Mi; Kim, Tae Hun; Jin, Sang Man; Bae, Ji Cheol; Lee, Soo Youn; Chung, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sun Wook

    2014-05-01

    Iodine in iodinated contrast agents (ICAs) interferes with radioactive iodine treatment (RAIT) and diagnostic scans in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) because it can compete with ¹³¹I. Published guidelines recommend delaying RAIT for three to four months in patients who have been exposed to ICA. Spot urinary iodine concentration is a useful marker to reflect the body iodine pool. We investigated the impact of ICAs administered at preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan on the body iodine pool to determine the proper time interval between preoperative CT and RAIT in DTC patients. We performed a retrospective review of 1023 patients with DTC who underwent a preoperative CT scan with ICA, total thyroidectomy, and one week of low-iodine diet in preparation for RAIT. Urine iodine excretion (UIE) was measured in spot urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and reported both in simple concentration (μg/L) and divided by gram creatinine (μg/gCr). Patients were divided into five groups by time interval in days between preoperative CT scan and spot urine iodine measurement (A, 31-60 [n=29]; B, 61-90 [n=155]; C, 91-120 [n=546]; D, 121-150 [n=226]; E, 151-180 [n=67]). The median (interquartile range) of UIE (μg/gCr) in each group was 44.4 (27.7-73.2) in group A, 33.3 (22.8-64.7) in group B, 32.7 (20.8-63.0) in group C, 32.0 (20.6-67.0) in group D, and 30.4 (19.6-70.8) in group E. There was no significant difference between group A and the remaining groups (p>0.05) Also, the proportion of patients who achieved the appropriate UIE for RAIT according to our hospital's cutoff (≤66.2 μg/gCr) was not different between groups (A, 72.4%; B, 76.1%; C, 77.5%; D, 74.8%; E, 74.6%) (p=0.78). This study shows that a UIE of one month after preoperative CT scan with ICA was not higher than that of six months after CT scan in patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for DTC. Thus, current guidelines that recommend delay of RAIT for three to

  16. Advanced In-Space Propulsion (AISP): Iodine Hall Thruster Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Iodine propellant offers many enabling capabilities for both SmallSat application and for high power system level implementation.  Some of the highest risk...

  17. The psychodynamics of work with iodine-131 in nuclear medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leila Cunha da Silveira; Maria Cristina Rodrigues Guilam; Sergio Ricardo de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

      This paper seeks to demonstrate to what extent alternative forms adopted in the working process of professionals with iodine-131 in nuclear medicine can assist in managing risks of ionizing radiation...

  18. Thermodynamic study of charge-transfer complex of iodine with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermodynamic study of charge-transfer complex of iodine with HT18C6 in chloroform solution. Mahmoud Javadian Jazi, Ali Reza Firooz, Abolfazl Semnani, Hamid Reza Pouretedal, Mohammad Hossein Keshavarz ...

  19. Determination of iodine content of some commonly utilized leafy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of iodine content of some commonly utilized leafy vegetables: Spinacea oleracea Linn (spinach), Brassica oleracea Var (cabbage), Hibiscus sabdriffa Linn and Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) found in Kano metropolis vegetable markets.

  20. Metal free synthesis of functionalized 1-aryl isoquinolines via iodine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 129; Issue 6. Metal free synthesis of functionalized 1-aryl isoquinolines via iodine mediated oxidative dehydrogenation and ring opening of lactam in isoindoloisoquinolinones. KAMSALI MURALI MOHAN ACHARI MUTHUPANDI KARTHICK CHINNASAMY RAMARAJ ...

  1. Metal free synthesis of functionalized 1-aryl isoquinolines via iodine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KAMSALI MURALI MOHAN ACHARI

    cyclized to furnish the azabenzanthrone derivatives, the potential precursors for the synthesis of menisporphine alkaloids and daurioxoisoaporphines. Keywords. Iodine; oxidative dehydrogenation; oxoisoaporphines; 1-Azabenzanthrone; isoindoloisoquinolinones. 1. Introduction. The oxoisoaporphines constitute a small ...

  2. An assessment of the iodine status and the correlation between iodine nutrition and thyroid function during pregnancy in an iodine sufficient area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouzegar, A; Khazan, M; Hedayati, M; Azizi, F

    2014-03-01

    Iodine as a micronutrient is mandatory for thyroid hormone production and inadequate iodine intakes during pregnancy may result in varying degrees of hypothyroidism affecting pregnancy outcomes adversely. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional status and its effects on thyroid function in pregnant women during all trimesters of pregnancy. In this cohort study, we assessed a total of 203 pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy and followed them in the second and third trimesters. They were divided into two groups, group I with urinary iodine excretion (UIE) pregnancy, respectively; UIEpregnancy, respectively. The median (range) of TSH was 1.7 (0.9-2.7) mIU/l, 1.9(1.2-2.7) mIU/l and 1.8 (1.1-2.8) mIU/l in the three trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. There was no correlation between UIE, TSH, TT4, FT4I, T3 and TPOAb in the first and second trimesters, but there was a weak correlation between UIE, TSH, T3 and TgAb in the third trimester. In our cohort of pregnant women the iodine intakes were sufficient, and no correlation between urinary iodine concentration and thyroid function tests was found.

  3. The Study of Iodine Status among Schoolchildren from Kyiv and Ways to Correct the Revealed Violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Stroi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Relevance. Lack of iodine in the environment is one of the topical medico-social problems in many countries of the world. Iodine deficiency is an important risk factor for the developmental delay, memory loss, or the ability for analysis and abstract thinking. Traditionally in Ukraine the problem of iodine deficiency was relevant in Western regions, but recent studies indicate the existence of moderate iodine deficiency in all areas. The aim of our study was to assess the iodine status of primary schoolchildren from Kyiv. Materials and methods. The examination of 52 children aged 6–12 years was performed, which involved a survey of families on awareness of the consequences of iodine deficiency and frequency of consumption of foods containing iodine, objective and ultrasound thyroid investigation, determination of urine iodine content in single portions of urine. Results. Iodine deficiency was detected in 87 % of pupils, mostly mild. Diffuse goiter grade 1 was diagnosed in 23 % of patients. To correct iodine deficiency, we have used new generation product — jodis-concentrate as an aqueous solution. Conclusions. Research of iodine status in schoolchildren aged 6–12 years in Kyiv showed the presence of mild iodine deficiency in 87 % of them (in 68 and 19 %, respectively. In 12 (23 % children, we have diagnosed thyroid volume increase under normal echogenicity and homogeneous echostructure. Lack of iodine nutrition is caused by poor nutrition, lack of mass, group and individual iodine prophylaxis, low sanitary hygienic culture of the population. Pupils with iodine deficiency were administered an individual subsidy of iodine in the form of an aqueous solution of jodis-concentrate for 12 months, which has significantly improved the iodine status of children, normalized the level of urine iodine content. Early detection of iodine deficiency and its correction are the promising directions of modern pediatrics in terms of the prevention of thyroid

  4. Investigations regarding the wet decontamination of fluorescent lamp waste using iodine in potassium iodide solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunsu, Cristian, E-mail: tunsu@chalmers.se; Ekberg, Christian; Foreman, Mark; Retegan, Teodora

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • A wet-based decontamination process for fluorescent lamp waste is proposed. • Mercury can be leached using iodine in potassium iodide solution. • The efficiency of the process increases with an increase in leachant concentration. • Selective leaching of mercury from rare earth elements is achieved. • Mercury is furthered recovered using ion exchange, reduction or solvent extraction. - Abstract: With the rising popularity of fluorescent lighting, simple and efficient methods for the decontamination of discarded lamps are needed. Due to their mercury content end-of-life fluorescent lamps are classified as hazardous waste, requiring special treatment for disposal. A simple wet-based decontamination process is required, especially for streams where thermal desorption, a commonly used but energy demanding method, cannot be applied. In this study the potential of a wet-based process using iodine in potassium iodide solution was studied for the recovery of mercury from fluorescent lamp waste. The influence of the leaching agent’s concentration and solid/liquid ratio on the decontamination efficiency was investigated. The leaching behaviour of mercury was studied over time, as well as its recovery from the obtained leachates by means of anion exchange, reduction, and solvent extraction. Dissolution of more than 90% of the contained mercury was achieved using 0.025/0.05 M I{sub 2}/KI solution at 21 °C for two hours. The efficiency of the process increased with an increase in leachant concentration. 97.3 ± 0.6% of the mercury contained was dissolved at 21 °C, in two hours, using a 0.25/0.5 M I{sub 2}/KI solution and a solid to liquid ratio of 10% w/v. Iodine and mercury can be efficiently removed from the leachates using Dowex 1X8 anion exchange resin or reducing agents such as sodium hydrosulphite, allowing the disposal of the obtained solution as non-hazardous industrial wastewater. The extractant CyMe{sub 4}BTBP showed good removal of mercury

  5. Characterization of iodinated adrenomedullin derivatives suitable for lung nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Yan; Letourneau, Myriam; Chatenet, David [Laboratoire d' etudes moleculaires et pharmacologiques des peptides, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Ville de Laval, Qc, H7V 1B7 (Canada); Dupuis, Jocelyn [Research Center, Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, Qc (Canada); Department of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Qc (Canada); Fournier, Alain, E-mail: alain.fournier@iaf.inrs.ca [Laboratoire d' etudes moleculaires et pharmacologiques des peptides, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Ville de Laval, Qc, H7V 1B7 (Canada)

    2011-08-15

    Introduction: We have recently demonstrated the effectiveness of 99m-technetium adrenomedullin (AM) as a new molecular lung imaging agent that could provide significant advantages for the diagnosis and follow-up of disorders affecting the pulmonary circulation such as pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension. Having the possibility to conjugate the targeting molecule with different radionuclides would offer more flexibility and potential advantages depending on clinical situations. Since various iodine isotopes are currently used in nuclear medicine and in pharmacological studies, we have evaluated which iodination method should be privileged in order to produce a good iodinated AM-derived nuclear medicine agent. Methods: Synthetic AM was labeled with iodine through chemical and lactoperoxidase oxidation methods. Position of the iodine atom on the peptide was determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis following cyanogen bromide cleavage and carboxypeptidase Y digestion. Binding affinity of iodinated AM analogues was evaluated by competition and saturation binding experiments on dog lung preparations. Results: In this study, we demonstrated that, upon lactoperoxidase oxidation, iodination occurred at Tyr{sup 1} and that this radioligand retained higher binding affinity and specificity over preparations obtained through chemical oxidation. Conclusions: These results emphasize the fact that even a small chemical modification, i.e. iodination, might deeply modify the pharmacological profile of a compound and support observations that the C-terminal tail of human AM plays an important role in the AM receptor binding process. Consequently, incorporation of a radionuclide to produce an AM-based nuclear medicine agent should privilege the N-terminus of the molecule.

  6. Salt iodization and iodine status among infants and lactating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean iodine content in salt from households and trade-stores was 33.38 ± 18.04ppm and 44.20 ± 12.10ppm, respectively. Adequately iodised salt was available in 94.48% of households and in 100% of trade-stores. The calculated mean daily per capita discretionary intake of iodine was 186.93ug, which is below the ...

  7. Povidone-Iodine-Based Polymeric Nanoparticles for Antibacterial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianyi; Fan, Hongbo; Wang, Xinjie; Gao, Yangyang; Liu, Wenxin; Chen, Wanjun; Dong, Alideertu; Wang, Yan-Jie

    2017-08-09

    As microbial contamination is becoming more and more serious, antibacterial agents play an important role in preventing and removing bacterial pathogens from microbial pollution in our daily life. To solve the issues with water solubility and antibacterial stability of PVP-I2 (povidone-iodine) as a strong antibacterial agent, we successfully obtain hydrophobic povidone-iodine nanoparticles (povidone-iodine NPs) by a two-step method related to the advantage of nanotechnology. First, the synthesis of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles, i.e., P(NVP-MMA) NPs, was controlled by tuning a feed ratio of NVP to MMA. Then, the products P(NVP-MMA) NPs were allowed to undergo a complexation reaction with iodine, resulting in the formation of a water-insoluble antibacterial material, povidone-iodine NPs. It is found that the feed ratio of NVP to MMA has an active effect on morphology, chemical composition, molecular weight, and hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties of the P(NVP-MMA) copolymer after some technologies, such as SEM, DLS, elemental analysis, (1)H NMR, GPC, and the contact angle test, were used in the characterizations. The antibacterial property of povidone-iodine NPs was investigated by using Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) as model bacteria with the colony count method. Interestingly, three products, such as glue, ink, and dye, after the incorporation of povidone-iodine NPs, show significant antibacterial properties. It is believed that, with the advantage of nanoscale morphology, the final povidone-iodine NPs should have great potential for utilization in various fields where antifouling and antibacterial properties are highly required.

  8. An improved method for total organic iodine in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayess, Rassil; Reckhow, David A

    2017-01-01

    A concise, rapid, and sensitive method is developed to measure organically-bound iodine in water. Total organic iodine (TOI) is used as an integrative surrogate that reflects the amount of iodinated organics in a water sample and is quantified using a refined method that builds on previous adsorption and detection approaches. The proposed method combines adsorption, combustion, and trapping of combustion products, with an offline inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) for iodide detection. During method development, three analytical variables (factors) were varied across two levels each in order to optimize the method for iodine recovery: 1) the sample pH prior to adsorption on the granular activated carbon (GAC); 2) the amount of base addition to the trap solution; and 3) composition of the ICP-MS wash solution. These factors were tested with solutions of eight iodinated model organic compounds, two iodinated inorganic compounds, and field water samples using a full factorial experimental design. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) and related statistical methods were deployed to identify the best combination of conditions (i.e., treatment) that results in the most complete recovery of iodine from the model compounds and the highest rejection of inorganic iodine. The chosen treatment for TOI measurement incorporates a sample pH of less than 1 prior to adsorption onto the GAC, a solution of 2% (v/v) tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) for trapping of combustion products, and a TMAH wash solution of 0.1% (v/v) for the ICP-MS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy and toxicity of iodine disinfection of Atlantic salmon eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, M.A.; Ketola, H.G.; Starliper, C.E.; Gallagher, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interest in the restoration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Great Lakes has given rise to new culture techniques and management programs designed to reduce pathogen transmission while stabilizing and enhancing wild populations. We examined the toxicity of iodine to Atlantic salmon eggs and its effectiveness as a disinfectant against bacteria on egg surfaces. We spawned and fertilized eight gravid Atlantic salmon from Cayuga Lake, New York, and exposed their eggs to 10 concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, 100, 500, 750, 1,000, 5,000, and 7,500 mg/L) for 30 min during water hardening. An additional subsample of unfertilized eggs was also exposed to some of the same concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to determine the efficiency of disinfection. Viable eggs were only obtained from four females. Survival of eggs to the eyed stage and hatch tended to be reduced at iodine concentrations of 50 and 75 mg/L and was significantly reduced at concentrations of 100 mg/L iodine or more. We calculated the concentrations of iodine that killed 50% of the Atlantic salmon eggs at eye-up and hatch to be 175 and 85 mg/L, respectively. Aeromonas veronii, A. schubertii, A. hydrophila, A. caviae, Plesiomonas shiggeloides, and Citrobacter spp. were the predominant bacteria present on the surface of green eggs and were significantly reduced by an iodine immersion. The use of iodine as a disinfectant on Atlantic salmon eggs was effective at low concentrations (50–75 mg/L), for which toxicity to Atlantic salmon was minimal.

  10. High iodine intake by preschool children in Miyagi prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Haruo; Watanabe, Takao; Shimbo, Shinichiro; Sawatari, Hideyuki; Izumi, Kana; Yaginuma-Sakurai, Kozue; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2014-09-01

    Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan 2010 (FCT) remain incomplete for iodine contents. This survey was initiated to develop a method to cope with this shortage and to find daily iodine intake of preschool children in Japan. Data were available for one-day food intake for 296 3- to 6-year-old children (the total cases). 128 samples (the selected cases) were analyzed by ICP-MS for iodine (the measured values). Iodine intake was also calculated using FCT assuming that iodine contents in missing items were zero (the calculated values). Measured and calculated values for the selected 125 cases (after exclusion of 3 extreme cases) gave geometric means (GM) of 117.6 and 101.8 μg/day. The measured/calculated ratio in GM, 117.6/101.8 = 1.155, was applied to the calculated values for total 296 cases to estimate iodine intake (the estimated values). GM for the estimated value was 175.2 μg/day and it was 8.93 μg/kg/day after adjustment for body weight for 296 children. There was no significant difference between boys and girls. The GM values for both the measured and estimated values (n = 125 pairs) were 117.6 μg/day. The agreement suggested that the factor employed, 1.155, was proper and adequate. Literature survey suggested that values on a body weight basis were comparable between the children and adults in Japan. The levels were higher than levels in east Asian countries. A correction method was developed for estimation of daily dietary iodine intake. The iodine intake level for preschoolers was comparable to levels for adult population.

  11. Direct Counting of Bacteria Preserved with Lugol Iodine Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Pomroy, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    Lugol iodine solution was compared with glutaraldehyde as a preservative for marine bacteria. Direct counts with the fluorochrome 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole show no significant difference between the preservatives, but the use of Lugol solution has several advantages over glutaraldehyde, especially in the handling and storage of samples. Bacteria were counted in water samples that were preserved with Lugol iodine solution and stored at room temperature for 4 years. Microprotozoa were also ...

  12. Iodine Plasma Species Measurements in a Hall Effect Thruster Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    60 90 0 2 4 6 8 Current (mA/cm^2) A n g l e ( d e g ) Xenon Iodine 500 V, 2 A, I2 Presented at 2012 JPC 33 Distribution A: Approved for public...Over 1 hour of operation on iodine – Additional 1/2 hour with thruster flowing Xe – Current up to ~50 A into anode Presented at 2012 JPC

  13. The iodized salt programme in Bangalore, India provides adequate iodine intakes in pregnant women and more-than-adequate iodine intakes in their children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaiswal, N.; Boonstra, A.; Sharma, S.K.; Srinivasan, K.; Zimmerman, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the iodine status of pregnant women and their children who were sharing all meals in Bangalore, India. Design A cross-sectional study evaluating demographic characteristics, household salt iodine concentration and salt usage patterns, urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in women

  14. Effect of iodine doping in the deposition solution and iodine vapor pressure in the sensitization treatment on the properties of PbSe films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Youngjoon; Suh, Sang-Hee

    2017-09-01

    Effect of iodine-doping in the deposition solution and iodine vapor pressure during the sensitization process on the morphological, microstructural, electrical, and optical properties of PbSe films was studied. Undoped and iodine-doped PbSe films of polycrystalline particles were coated on thermally oxidized silicon substrates by chemical bath deposition. The PbSe films were oxidized at 380°C for 30 min and then iodinated at different iodine vapor pressures at 380°C for 5 min. When the iodine vapor pressure was below 20 Pa, PbSeO3 was the main phase formed on the surface of PbSe microcrystals for both undoped and iodine-doped films. As the iodine vapor pressure was increased above 20 Pa, Pb3I2O2 and PbI2 phases were formed in both types of films and PbSeO3 disappeared in the undoped film. Only the iodine-doped films showed photo response. The sheet resistance and IR signal-to-noise ratio had maximum values at the iodine vapor pressure of 17.5 Pa in the iodine-doped film. The x-ray diffraction spectra, scanning electron microscopy morphologies, and EDS analyses of the sensitized PbSe films show that the main role of iodine in the sensitization is helping solid-state sintering of PbSe microcrystals which may lead to redistribution of oxygen atoms in the effective atomic sites.

  15. Iodine binding in the endostyle of larvae Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Cephalochordata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksson, G.; Ericson, L.E.; Olsson, R.

    1984-11-01

    The asymmetrical endostyle of Branchiostoma larvae contains two different zones of mucus-producing cells which metamorphose to the paired zones 2 and 4 respectively in the endostyle of the adult. In both the larva and the adult these zones are parts of the food-trapping mechanism. An endostyle zone, which has a position corresponding to that of the paired iodinating zones in the endostyle of the adult, binds iodine selectively. The ultrastructure and labeling pattern indicate that the labeled cells in the larval endostyle belong to functionally different types. In one region of the iodinating zone iodine is mainly bound extracellularly at the apical cell surface. Also in the second region grains are located at the apical cell surface as well as over the cytoplasm and extracellularly at the basal plasma membrane. It is possible that iodination takes place in the lumen close to cells in the first region and that the labeled product is taken up and eventually released by cells of the second region. Our observations show that this primitive endostyle already has iodinating capacity and may synthesize and release thyroid hormones.

  16. Detection of iodine monoxide in the tropical free troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Barbara; Baidar, Sunil; Bresch, James F.; Hall, Samuel R.; Schmidt, K. Sebastian; Wang, Siyuan; Volkamer, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric iodine monoxide (IO) is a radical that catalytically destroys heat trapping ozone and reacts further to form aerosols. Here, we report the detection of IO in the tropical free troposphere (FT). We present vertical profiles from airborne measurements over the Pacific Ocean that show significant IO up to 9.5 km altitude and locate, on average, two-thirds of the total column above the marine boundary layer. IO was observed in both recent deep convective outflow and aged free tropospheric air, suggesting a widespread abundance in the FT over tropical oceans. Our vertical profile measurements imply that most of the IO signal detected by satellites over tropical oceans could originate in the FT, which has implications for our understanding of iodine sources. Surprisingly, the IO concentration remains elevated in a transition layer that is decoupled from the ocean surface. This elevated concentration aloft is difficult to reconcile with our current understanding of iodine lifetimes and may indicate heterogeneous recycling of iodine from aerosols back to the gas phase. Chemical model simulations reveal that the iodine-induced ozone loss occurs mostly above the marine boundary layer (34%), in the transition layer (40%) and FT (26%) and accounts for up to 20% of the overall tropospheric ozone loss rate in the upper FT. Our results suggest that the halogen-driven ozone loss in the FT is currently underestimated. More research is needed to quantify the widespread impact that iodine species of marine origin have on free tropospheric composition, chemistry, and climate. PMID:23345444

  17. Low cost iodine intercalated graphene for fuel cells electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinoiu, Adriana; Raceanu, Mircea; Carcadea, Elena; Varlam, Mihai; Stefanescu, Ioan

    2017-12-01

    On the theoretical predictions, we report the synthesis of iodine intercalated graphene for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) applications. The structure and morphology of the samples were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, specific surface area by BET method, Raman investigations. The presence of elemental iodine in the form of triiodide and pentaiodide was validated, suggesting that iodine was trapped between graphene layers, leading to interactions with C atoms. The electrochemical performances of iodinated graphenes were tested and compared with a typical PEMFC configuration, containing different Pt/C loading (0.4 and 0.2 mg cm-2). If iodinated graphene is included as microporous layer, the electrochemical performances of the fuel cell are higher in terms of power density than the typical fuel cell. Iodine-doped graphenes have been successfully obtained by simple and cost effective synthetic strategy and demonstrated new insights for designing of a high performance metal-free ORR catalyst by a scalable technique.

  18. Body iodine status in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanca, Tufan; Korkmaz, Vakkas; Arslanca, Seyma B; Karadag, Burak; Ergün, Yusuf

    2018-03-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a frequent cause of morbidity and can negatively impact life expectancy; iodine is an essential element for bone mineralization, and iodine deficiency is frequently observed. The aim of the present study was to understand the connection between postmenopausal osteoporosis and the level of iodine in the body. A total of 132 participants were divided into three groups: group 1 consisted of healthy postmenopausal women (n = 34), group 2 comprised osteopenic women (n = 38), and group 3 included women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (n = 60). The three groups were compared according to demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings. The urinary iodine levels were recorded as 216.1 ± 125.2 in the control group, 154.6 ± 76.6 in the osteopenic group, and 137.5 ± 64.9 in the postmenopausal osteoporosis group (P osteoporosis, and iodine replacement may be important in preventing osteoporosis in areas where iodine deficiency is endemic.

  19. Successful efforts toward elimination iodine deficiency disorders in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Umesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency (ID is the world′s single most important preventable cause of brain damage and mental retardation. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs is a public health problem in 130 countries, affecting 13% of the world population. The simplest solution to prevent the IDD is to consume iodized common salt every day. In India, significant progress has been achieved toward elimination of IDD, in the last 30 years. Satisfactory levels of urinary iodine excretion and iodine content of salt have been documented by the research surveys conducted by research scientists. The results indicate that we are progressing toward elimination of IDD. IDD is due to a nutritional deficiency, which is prima-rily that of iodine, in soil and water. IDD is known to re-appear if the IDD Control Program is not sustained. To ensure that the population continues to have intake of adequate amount of iodine, there is a need of i periodic surveys to assess the magnitude of the IDD with respect to impact of iodized salt (IS intervention; ii strengthening the health and nutrition education activities to create demand for IS and iii development of a monitoring information system (MIS for ensuring that the adequately IS is available to the beneficiaries.

  20. Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program: Changes in Shuttle Post Challenger and Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, George

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the legacy of successes in the space shuttle program particularly with regards to the changes in the culture of NASA's organization after the Challenger and Columbia accidents and some of the changes to the shuttles that were made manifest as a result of the accidents..

  1. INFLUENCE OF IODINATED OIL AND MARGARINE ON THE THYROID SYSTEM OF RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica A. Sturza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency in the world today. Food fortification is an important compliment to food-based approaches, and iodine fortification of foods as one of the strategies for the control of iodine deficiency. Manufacturing and consumption of sunflower oil fortified with iodine as well as derivative products on it basis is a perspective direction for elimination of alimentary dependent iodine deficiency disorders. The present work examines morphological changes in the thyroid system of rats at the experimental mercatholile-induced hypothyroidism. As well it determines the influence of iodinated oil and margarine on the thyroid system of rats. It specifies the safe value of iodinated oil and margarine for rats. In-vivo study demonstrated the efficacy of fortification of lipid products with iodine under iodine deficiency status.

  2. Gold Loading on Ion Exchange Resins in Non-Ammoniacal Resin-Solution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar Muslim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The loading of gold using strong base anion exchange resin in non-ammoniac resin-solution (NARS systems has been studied. The loading of gold onto ion exchange resins is affected by polythionate concentration, and trithionate can be used as the baseline in the system. The results also show that resin capacity on gold loading increases due to the increase in the equilibrium thiosulfate concentration in the NARS system. Gold loading performances show the need of optimization the equilibrium concentrations of thiosulfate in the NARS system. Keywords: equilibrium, gold loading, resin capacity, thiosulfate, trithionate

  3. [A cross-sectional study on iodine nutrition in general population from Zhejiang province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Zhe; Lou, Xiao-ming; Zhu, Wen-ming; Wang, Xiao-feng; Mao, Guang-ming; Zhou, Jin-shui; Ding, Gang-qiang

    2013-05-01

    To understand the current status of iodine nutrition among the community residents to compare the level of iodine nutrition in different areas and groups of populations in Zhejiang province. Stratified cluster sampling method was adopted and residents from twenty-two communities in Zhejiang province were selected. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, using questionnaires, laboratory tests, on urinary iodine, water iodine and the concentration of the iodine in salt, which had played positive roles in the calculation of the level of iodine nutrition. of the iodine nutrition in this cross-sectional survey were as follows: the median water iodine and salt iodine of Zhejiang were 2.42 µg/L and 28.8 mg/kg, respectively. The coverage of iodized salts was 79.54%, with the ingesting rate of qualified iodized-salt as 76.65% and the median content of urinary iodine in the population of Zhejiang was 161 µg/L. The average iodine content among pregnant women was 138 µg/L, with the percentage of samples less than 100 µg/L as 25.92%, more than 300 µg/L as 15.30%. The proportions of iodine intake through water, salt and other foods were 1.70%, 76.41% and 21.89%, respectively. The status of iodine nutrition in Zhejiang province in general seemed to be appropriate, but the level of iodine nutrition in pregnant women was less than the requirement, which should call for attention.

  4. Preparation of High Surface Area Activated Carbon from Spent Phenolic Resin by Microwave Heating and KOH Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Song; Zhang, Libo; Zhang, Shengzhou; Xia, Hongying; Peng, Jinhui

    2018-01-01

    The spent phenolic resin is as raw material for preparing high surface area activated carbon (HSAAC) by microwave-assisted KOH activation. The effects of microwave power, activation duration and impregnation ratio (IR) on the iodine adsorption capability and yield of HSAAC were investigated. The surface characteristics of HSAAC were characterized by nitrogen adsorption isotherms, FTIR, SEM and TEM. The operating variables were optimized utilizing the response surface methodology (RSM) and were identified to be microwave power of 700 W, activation duration of 15 min and IR of 4, corresponding to a yield of 51.25 % and an iodine number of 2,384 mg/g. The pore structure parameters of the HSAAC, i. e., Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, total pore volume, and average pore diameter were estimated to be 4,269 m2/g, 2.396 ml/g and 2.25 nm, respectively, under optimum conditions. The findings strongly support the feasibility of microwave-assisted KOH activation for preparation of HSAAC from spent phenolic resin.

  5. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Debris Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Kristin; Kanner, Howard; Yu, Weiping

    2006-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia Accident revealed a fundamental problem of the Space Shuttle Program regarding debris. Prior to the tragedy, the Space Shuttle requirement stated that no debris should be liberated that would jeopardize the flight crew and/or mission success. When the accident investigation determined that a large piece of foam debris was the primary cause of the loss of the shuttle and crew, it became apparent that the risk and scope of - damage that could be caused by certain types of debris, especially - ice and foam, were not fully understood. There was no clear understanding of the materials that could become debris, the path the debris might take during flight, the structures the debris might impact or the damage the impact might cause. In addition to supporting the primary NASA and USA goal of returning the Space Shuttle to flight by understanding the SRB debris environment and capability to withstand that environment, the SRB debris assessment project was divided into four primary tasks that were required to be completed to support the RTF goal. These tasks were (1) debris environment definition, (2) impact testing, (3) model correlation and (4) hardware evaluation. Additionally, the project aligned with USA's corporate goals of safety, customer satisfaction, professional development and fiscal accountability.

  6. Space Shuttle Underside Astronaut Communications Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Dobbins, Justin A.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Kroll, Quin D.; Sham, Catherine C.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Ultra High Frequency (UHF) communications system is planned to provide Radio Frequency (RF) coverage for astronauts working underside of the Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO) for thermal tile inspection and repairing. This study is to assess the Space Shuttle UHF communication performance for astronauts in the shadow region without line-of-sight (LOS) to the Space Shuttle and Space Station UHF antennas. To insure the RF coverage performance at anticipated astronaut worksites, the link margin between the UHF antennas and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Astronauts with significant vehicle structure blockage was analyzed. A series of near-field measurements were performed using the NASA/JSC Anechoic Chamber Antenna test facilities. Computational investigations were also performed using the electromagnetic modeling techniques. The computer simulation tool based on the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) was used to compute the signal strengths. The signal strength was obtained by computing the reflected and diffracted fields along the propagation paths between the transmitting and receiving antennas. Based on the results obtained in this study, RF coverage for UHF communication links was determined for the anticipated astronaut worksite in the shadow region underneath the Space Shuttle.

  7. Intelligent Shuttle Management and Routing Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Toshen M.; Subashanthini, S.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, most of the big Universities and campuses have Shuttle cabs running in them to cater the transportational needs of the students and faculties. While some shuttle services ask for a meagre sum to be paid for the usage, no digital payment system is onboard these vehicles to go truly cashless. Even more troublesome is the fact that sometimes during the day, some of these cabs run with bare number of passengers, which can result in unwanted budget loss to the shuttle operator. The main purpose of this paper is to create a system with two types of applications: A web portal and an Android app, to digitize the Shuttle cab industry. This system can be used for digital cashless payment feature, tracking passengers, tracking cabs and more importantly, manage the number of shuttle cabs in every route to maximize profit. This project is built upon an ASP.NET website connected to a cloud service along with an Android app that tracks and reads the passengers ID using an attached barcode reader along with the current GPS coordinates, and sends these data to the cloud for processing using the phone’s internet connectivity.

  8. Flexure fatigue of 10 commonly used denture base resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, E P; Nicholls, J I; Smith, D E

    1981-11-01

    The flexure fatigue properties of 10 denture base resins (four different types) were tested. Each specimen underwent two-way testing in a water bath maintained at 37 degrees +/- 1 degree C. A load of 3,650 gm was applied a 342 flexures per minute until the specimen broke. The resin types listed in order of increasing resistance to flexure fatigue are polymethylmethacrylate (PMM) pour resins, PMM thermosetting resins, vinyl resins, and a PMM grafted resin. Although small samples size and scatter of results limit broad application of this data, it is of some significance that the grafted resin Lucitone 199 tended to withstand repeated flexure when compared to the other resins.

  9. Properties of the Carboxylate ion exchange resins; Karboxylatjonbytarmassans egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, Bert; Dario, Maarten [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden); Boren, Hans [Linkoepings Univ. (Sweden); Torstenfelt, Boerje [Swedpower, Stockholm (Sweden); Puigdomenech, Ignasi; Johansson, Claes [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-09-01

    Weakly acidic, carboxylic resin has been selected, together with strong base anion resins, for water purification at the Forsmark 1 and 2 reactors. For the strong (but not the weak) ion exchange resin the Nuclear Power Inspectorate has given permission to dispose the spent resins in the SFR 1 (the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste). This report gives a review of the carboxylic resins and comes to the conclusion that the resins are very stable and that there should not exist any risks for increased leaching of radionuclides from SFR 1 if these resins are disposed (compared to the strong resins)

  10. Comparison of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNS Resin with Polyester Resin in Composite Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Ugoamadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural resins can compete effectively with the synthetic ones in composite development. In this research, cashew nuts were picked and processed for the extraction of the resin content. The resin (natural resin so obtained was mixed with cobalt amine (accelerator, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (catalyst to develop two sets of composite specimens – specimens without fibres and specimens reinforced with glass fibres. This method of sample specimen development was repeated with polyester (synthetic resin. Compressive and tensile strength tests conducted proved that composites developed with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL resin were comparable to those developed with polyester resin. In the results, CNSL has an ultimate compressive strength of 55MPa compared to that of polyester resin with an ultimate strength of 68MPa. The result of tensile strength proved cashew nut shell liquid resin (with ultimate strength of 44MPa to be better than polyester resin with 39MPa as ultimate tensile strength. This means that natural resins could be a better substitute for the synthetic ones when the required quantities of fibers (reinforcements and fillers are used in the fibre-reinforced plastic composite developments.

  11. A new study of iodine complexes of oxidized gum arabic: An interaction between iodine monochloride and aldehyde groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Akbar; Ganie, Showkat Ali; Mazumdar, Nasreen

    2018-01-15

    Gum arabic, a plant polysaccharide was oxidized with periodate to produce aldehyde groups by the cleavage of diols present in the sugar units. The oxidized gum was then iodinated with iodine monochloride (ICl) and the interaction between electrophilic iodine, I+ and reactive carbonyl groups of the modified gum was studied.Results of titrimetric estimation performed to determine the extent of oxidation and aldehyde content in the oxidized gum showed that degree of oxidation ranged between 19.68-50.19% which was observed to increase with periodate concentration; the corresponding aldehyde content was calculated to be 5.15-40.42%. Different strengths of ICl were used to iodinate the oxidized gum and the iodine content of the complexes varied from 6.11-11.72% as determined by iodometric titration. Structure elucidation of the iodine complexes conclusively established the attachment of ICl molecules to CHO groups. A reaction scheme has been proposed suggesting an electrophilic addition of the reagent to the aldehyde groups, a mechanism that was also supported by iodide ion release studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Iodine uptake by spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) plants grown in solution culture: effects of iodine species and solution concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y-G; Huang, Y-Z; Hu, Y; Liu, Y-X

    2003-04-01

    A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of iodine species and solution concentrations on iodine uptake by spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Five iodine concentrations (0, 1, 10, 50 and 100 microM) for iodate (IO(3)(-)) and iodide (I(-)) were used. Results show that higher concentrations of I(-) (> or =10 microM) had some detrimental effect on plant growth, while IO(3)(-) had little effect on the biomass production of spinach plants. Increases in iodine concentration in the growth solution significantly enhanced I concentrations in plant tissues. The detrimental effect of I(-) on plant growth was probably due to the excessively high accumulation of I in plant tissues. The solution-to-spinach leaf transfer factors (TF(leaf), fresh weight basis) for plants treated with iodide were between 14.2 and 20.7 at different solution concentrations of iodide; TF(leaf) for plants treated with iodate decreased gradually from 23.7 to 2.2 with increasing solution concentrations of iodate. The distribution coefficients (DCs) of I between leaves and roots were constantly higher for plants treated with iodate than those treated with iodide. DCs for plants treated with iodide increased with increasing solution concentrations of iodide, while DCs for plants treated with iodate (around 5.5) were similar across the range of solution concentrations of iodate used in this experiment. The implications of iodine accumulation in leafy vegetables in human iodine nutrition are also discussed. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  13. [Changes of iodine nutrition status and thyroid function among pregnant women in iodine sufficient rural area of Gansu province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanling; Sun, Wei; Zhu, Xiaonan; Cao, Yongqin; Ge, Pengfei

    2014-01-01

    To assess the iodine nutrition and thyroid function of pregnant women during different periods of pregnancy, to provide evidence for guiding iodine supplementation for them. A cross-sectional survey was performed in 215 pregnant women in Yongjing couty from May to June 2013. Samples of blood and random urine were collected, and serum thyrotrophin (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), antithyroglobulin ( anti-TG)and urinary iodine were measured. The medians of urinary iodine from the three groups of pregnant women(first, second and third trimester) were 189.8 µg/L, 152.5 µg/L and 144.9 µg/L respectively. With the exception of pregnant women in the third trimester, the urinary iodine medians of pregnant women in the first and second trimesters were within the 150-249 µg/L range which was defined as optimal by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD. With the increase of gestational age, the level of FT3 decreased (P pregnant women was statistically significant (P pregnant women (first, second and third trimester) (P pregnant women. Abnormal thyroid hormones, TSH, positive anti-TG and anti-TPO were mainly existed in the early pregnancy. Programs as monitoring urinary iodine as well as thyroid function targeting all the pregnant women should be carried out.

  14. Iodine Replete among Populations in Nigeria: Is the Population Tending Towards the Development of Iodine Induced Hyperthyroidism (IIH?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyeaghala A. Augustine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is a micronutrient which is required for normal thyroid function. The recommended daily intake for iodine is 150 µg, however in pregnant women; higher levels up to 250 µg could be required. Deficiency of iodine in any given population results in iodine deficiency disorder (IDD. Researchers in Nigeria as far back as 1967 had reported the existence of IDD. To combat this public health problem with its associated medical consequences, a policy to ensure salt iodization was enacted. The Nation’s consistent approach to combat IDD was globally recognized and it was adjudged as the only country in Africa that had achieved the goals of sustained elimination of IDD. Although the health benefits derivable from salt iodization seem to outweigh its risk, yet recent epidemiological data are pointing that populations within the country could be tending toward the development of Iodine Induced Hyperthyroidism (IIH, a common disorder associated with salt iodization following chronic iodine deficiency. The need therefore to use evidence based approach to re-examine the County’s iodization policy as well as investigate the impact of salt iodization on thyroid hormone formation, metabolism and associated pathologies becomes very imperative. This could be very helpful in order to prevent the burden of non- communicable disease in a nation already battling with epidemics of various infectious diseases.

  15. TMI-2 purification demineralizer resin study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J D; Osterhoudt, T R

    1984-05-01

    Study of the Makeup and Purification System demineralizers at TMI-2 has established that fuel quantities in the vessels are low, precluding criticality, that the high radioactive cesium concentration on the demineralizer resins can be chemically removed, and that the demineralizer resins can probably be removed from the vessels by sluicing through existing plant piping. Radiation measurements from outside the demineralizers establishing that there is between 1.5 and 5.1 (probably 3.3) lb of fuel in the A vessel and less than that amount in the B vessel. Dose rates up to 2780 R per hour were measured on contact with the A demineralizer. Remote visual observation of the A demineralizer showed a crystalline crust overlaying amber-colored resins. The cesium activity in solid resin samples ranged from 220 to 16,900 ..mu..Ci/g. Based on this information, researchers concluded that the resins cannot be removed through the normal pathway in their present condition. Studies do show that the resins will withstand chemical processing designed to rinse and elute cesium from the resins. The process developed should work on the TMI-2 resins.

  16. [Delayed asthma bronchiale due to epoxy resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authried, Georg; Al-Asadi, Haifaa; Møller, Ulla; Sherson, David Lee

    2013-10-28

    Epoxy resin is a low molecular weight agent, which can cause both acute and delayed allergic reactions. However, it is known causing skin reactions with direct or airborne contact. Rarely it can cause airway reactions like asthma bronchiale. We describe a case of a windmill worker who developed delayed asthma bronchiale due to airborne contact with epoxy resin.

  17. Facile synthesis of hypercrosslinked resins via chloromethylation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A sort of non-polystyrene type hypercrosslinked resin was firstly synthesized through chloromethylation of simple aryl molecules (benzene, toluene, naphthalene, diphenyl), succedent continuous Friedel–Crafts alkylation polymerization and post-crosslinking reaction. The chemical and porous structures of these novel resins ...

  18. 21 CFR 177.1655 - Polysulfone resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... acetic acid in distilled water, and n-heptane, yield total extractives in each extracting solvent not to... (a) of this section may contain optional adjuvant substances required in the production of such basic resins. The optional adjuvant substances required in the production of the basic polysulfone resins may...

  19. A New Era of Space Shuttle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Kyu Kim

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Space Shuttle represents the beginning of a new era in transportation and is the critical element in the industrialization of the near-Earth-space. Most of its flights are dedicated to reducing costs of launching commercial satellites. However, it provides a microgravity environment for processing unique and improved materials which is generating great interest in both civilian and military sectors. The space shuttle is also the necessary step in establishing a permanent space station which could host materials analysis laboratories and commercial processing facilities. This paper reviews the different elements of the space shuttle transportation system, a typical mission scenario, and discusses current activities in materials processing in space.

  20. Orbital impacts and the space shuttle windshield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Karen S.

    1995-06-01

    The Space Transportation System (STS) fleet has flown more than sixty missions over the fourteen years since its first flight. As a result of encounters with on-orbit particulates (space debris and micrometeoroids), 177 impact features (chips) have been found on the STS outer windows (through STS-65). Forty-five of the damages were large enough to warrant replacement of the window. NASA's orbital operations and vehicle inspection procedures have chnaged over the history of the shuttle program, in response to concerns about the orbital environment and the cost of maintaining the space shuttle. These programmatic issues will be discussed, including safety concerns, maintenance issues, inspection procedures, and flight rule changes. Examples of orbital debris impacts to the shuttle windows will be provided. There will also be a brief discussion of the impact properties of glass and what design changes have been considered to improve the impact properties of the windows.

  1. Shuttle Case Study Collection Website Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Khadijah S.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2012-01-01

    As a continuation from summer 2012, the Shuttle Case Study Collection has been developed using lessons learned documented by NASA engineers, analysts, and contractors. Decades of information related to processing and launching the Space Shuttle is gathered into a single database to provide educators with an alternative means to teach real-world engineering processes. The goal is to provide additional engineering materials that enhance critical thinking, decision making, and problem solving skills. During this second phase of the project, the Shuttle Case Study Collection website was developed. Extensive HTML coding to link downloadable documents, videos, and images was required, as was training to learn NASA's Content Management System (CMS) for website design. As the final stage of the collection development, the website is designed to allow for distribution of information to the public as well as for case study report submissions from other educators online.

  2. Space Shuttle Pinhole Formation Mechanism Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1998-01-01

    Pinholes have been observed to form on the wing leading edge of the space shuttle after about 10-15 flights. In this report we expand upon previous observations by Christensen (1) that these pinholes often form along cracks and are associated with a locally zinc-rich area. The zinc appears to come from weathering and peeling paint on the launch structure. Three types of experimental examinations are performed to understand this issue further: (A) Detailed microstructural examination of actual shuttle pinholes (B) Mass spectrometric studies of coupons containing, actual shuttle pinholes and (C) Laboratory furnace studies of ZnO/SiC reactions and ZnO/SiC protected carbon/carbon reaction. On basis of these observations we present a detailed mechanism of pinhole formation due to formation of a corrosive ZnO-Na-2-O-SiO2 ternary glass, which flows into existing cracks and enlarges them.

  3. Physical Properties of Synthetic Resin Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Meyer

    1939-01-01

    A study was made to determine the physical properties of synthetic resins having paper, canvas, and linen reinforcements, and of laminated wood impregnated with a resin varnish. The results show that commercial resins have moduli of elasticity that are too low for structural considerations. Nevertheless, there do exist plastics that have favorable mechanical properties and, with further development, it should be possible to produce resin products that compare favorably with the light-metal alloys. The results obtained from tests on Compound 1840, resin-impregnated wood, show that this material can stand on its own merit by virtue of a compressive strength four times that of the natural wood. This increase in compressive strength was accomplished with an increase of density to a value slightly below three times the normal value and corrected one of the most serious defects of the natural product.

  4. Disinfection of denture base acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J J; Cameron, S M; Runyan, D A; Craft, D W

    1999-02-01

    During repair or adjustments of acrylic resin removable complete and partial dentures, particles of the acrylic resin from the interior of the prosthesis may expose dental personnel to microbial health hazards if the prosthesis has not been thoroughly disinfected. This study investigates the efficacy of a commercially prepared microbial disinfectant (Alcide) on the external and internal surfaces of acrylic resins. Four groups of acrylic resin were incubated in an experimental model to simulate the oral environment over time. Specimens were treated in 2 groups, disinfected and not disinfected, and then further grouped by breaking and not breaking. Analysis was performed with microbial colony counts, SEM, and statistical analyses. Viable microorganisms still remain on the internal and external surfaces of treated resins. Chlorine dioxide reduces, but does not eliminate, viable microorganisms on these dental prostheses.

  5. STS-62 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-05-01

    The STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSHE) systems performance during the sixty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-62; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-064. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L036A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 36OWO36B (welterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-62 mission were to perform the operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-2 (USMP-2) and the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-2 (OAST-2) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Dexterous End Effector (DEE), the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A), the Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Material Exposure (LDCE), the Advanced Protein Crystal Growth (APCG), the Physiological Systems Experiments (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), the Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), the Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS), the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), and the Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B).

  6. First observations of iodine oxide from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Chance, Kelly; Liu, Xiong; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Sander, Stanley P.

    2007-06-01

    We present retrievals of IO total columns from the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) satellite instrument. We analyze data for October 2005 in the polar regions to demonstrate for the first time the capability to measure IO column abundances from space. During the period of analysis (i.e. Southern Hemisphere springtime), enhanced IO vertical columns over 3 × 1013 molecules cm-2 are observed around coastal Antarctica; by contrast during that time in the Artic region IO is consistently below the calculated instrumental detection limit for individual radiance spectra (2-4 × 1012 molecules cm-2 for slant columns). The levels reported here are in reasonably good agreement with previous ground-based measurements at coastal Antarctica. These results also demonstrate that IO is widespread over sea-ice covered areas in the Southern Ocean. The occurrence of elevated IO and its hitherto unrecognized spatial distribution suggest an efficient iodine activation mechanism at a synoptic scale over coastal Antarctica.

  7. Quality control of iodine-131-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşdelen, Betül; Kam, Erol; Asliyuksek, Hızır

    2014-01-01

    Iodine-131-m-iodobenzylguanidine ([(131)I]mIBG) is used worldwide for the diagnosis and therapy of neuroendocrine tumors, particularly adrenal medullae tumors. After the synthesis and preparation of a radioiodinated MIBG drug formulation, quality control testing to determine its radiochemical purity (RCP) should be performed. European Pharmacopoeia 8.0 requires that the quality control include a test for RCP for the determination of [(131)I]mIBG. Previously reported procedures using reversed-phase conditions require long retention times. Our system enables the separation of [(131)I]mIBG within a few minutes. The aim of this work was to carry out RCP testing for [(131)I]mIBG without any type of sample pretreatment. RCP testing for ([(131)I]mIBG has been carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography methods. A simple and rapid reversed-phase isocratic system enables the HPLC investigation of RCP testing for [(131)I]mIBG used for therapy within a few minutes. From the point of view of radiation protection, this method is safer, especially for therapeutic amounts of [(131)I]mIBG.

  8. Systematic review using meta-analyses to estimate dose-response relationships between iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status in different population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić-Medić, Danijela; Dullemeijer, Carla; Tepsić, Jasna; Petrović-Oggiano, Gordana; Popović, Tamara; Arsić, Aleksandra; Glibetić, Marija; Souverein, Olga W; Collings, Rachel; Cavelaars, Adriënne; de Groot, Lisette; van't Veer, Pieter; Gurinović, Mirjana

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to identify studies investigating iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status, to assess the data of the selected studies, and to estimate dose-response relationships using meta-analysis. All randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, nested case-control studies, and cross-sectional studies that supplied or measured dietary iodine and measured iodine biomarkers were included. The overall pooled regression coefficient (β) and the standard error of β were calculated by random-effects meta-analysis on a double-log scale, using the calculated intake-status regression coefficient (β) for each individual study. The results of pooled randomized controlled trials indicated that the doubling of dietary iodine intake increased urinary iodine concentrations by 14% in children and adolescents, by 57% in adults and the elderly, and by 81% in pregnant women. The dose-response relationship between iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status indicated a 12% decrease in thyroid-stimulating hormone and a 31% decrease in thyroglobulin in pregnant women. The model of dose-response quantification used to describe the relationship between iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status may be useful for providing complementary evidence to support recommendations for iodine intake in different population groups.

  9. Iodine uptake and prostate cancer in the TRAMP mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera-Caltzontzin, Paloma; Delgado, Guadalupe; Aceves, Carmen; Anguiano, Brenda

    2013-11-08

    Iodine supplementation exerts antitumor effects in several types of cancer. Iodide (I⁻) and iodine (I₂) reduce cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP and DU-145). Both chemical species decrease tumor growth in athymic mice xenografted with DU-145 cells. The aim of this study was to analyze the uptake and effects of iodine in a preclinical model of prostate cancer (transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate [TRAMP] mice/SV40-TAG antigens), which develops cancer by 12 wks of age. ¹²⁵I⁻ and ¹²⁵I₂ uptake was analyzed in prostates from wild-type and TRAMP mice of 12 and 24 wks in the presence of perchlorate (inhibitor of the Na⁺/I⁻ symporter [NIS]). NIS expression was quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Mice (6 wks old) were supplemented with 0.125 mg I⁻ plus 0.062 mg I₂/mouse/day for 12 or 24 wks. The weight of the genitourinary tract (GUT), the number of acini with lesions, cell proliferation (levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA] by immunohistochemistry), p53 and p21 expression (by qPCR) and apoptosis (relative amount of nucleosomes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were evaluated. In both age-groups, normal and tumoral prostates take up both forms of iodine, but only I⁻ uptake was blocked by perchlorate. Iodine supplementation prevented the overexpression of NIS in the TRAMP mice, but had no effect on the GUT weight, cell phenotype, proliferation or apoptosis. In TRAMP mice, iodine increased p53 expression but had no effect on p21 (a p53-dependent gene). Our data corroborate NIS involvement in I⁻ uptake and support the notion that another transporter mediates I₂ uptake. Iodine did not prevent cancer progression. This result could be explained by a strong inactivation of the p53 pathway by TAG antigens.

  10. Postpartum thyroid dysfunction in pregnant thyroid peroxidase antibody-positive women living in an area with mild to moderate iodine deficiency: is iodine supplementation safe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Jørgensen, A; Pedersen, K M

    2000-01-01

    In moderately iodine-deficient, pregnant, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab)-positive women the role of iodine supplementation in the development of postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) was studied in a placebo-controlled, randomized, double blind trial. Screening for TPO-Ab was performed...... in early pregnancy in a population of healthy pregnant Danish women with no previous diagnosed thyroid disease (prevalence, 117 of 1,284; 9.1%). The participants were randomized, stratified according to TPO-Ab level, to three groups. All participants received a daily vitamin and mineral tablet with 150...... microg iodine or no iodine. The +/+ group received iodine during pregnancy and the postpartum period, the +/- group received iodine during pregnancy only, and the -/- group received no iodine supplementation. A total of 66 TPO-Ab positive women were followed, and in the postpartum period sera were...

  11. Shear bond strength of composite resin to dentin after application of cavity disinfectants - SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to evaluate the effect of different cavity disinfectants on dentin bond strengths of composite resin applied with two different adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: Two-hundred mandibular molars were sectioned parallel to the occlusal surface to expose dentin in the midcoronal one-third. The dentinal surfaces were polished with waterproof-polishing papers. The specimens were randomly divided into five groups of 40 teeth each as follows: group 1(control -- specimens were not treated with any cavity disinfectants. Groups 2--5 (experimental groups -- dentin surfaces were treated with the following cavity disinfectants, respectively; 2% chlorhexidine solution, 0.1% benzalkonium chloride-based disinfectant, 1% chlorhexidine gel, and an iodine potassium iodide/copper sulfate-based disinfectant. The specimens were then randomly divided into two subgroups including 20 teeth each to evaluate the effect of different bonding systems. Dentin bonding systems were applied to the dentin surfaces and the composite buildups were done. After the specimens were stored in an incubator for 24 hours, the shear bond strength was measured at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The specimens were then statistically analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: One way analysis of variance and Tukey-HSD tests were used. Results: There was no significant difference between chlorhexidine gel and control groups regardless of the type of the bonding agent used (P>0.05. On the other hand, pretreatment with benzalkonium chloride-based, iodine potassium iodide/copper sulfate-based disinfectants or chlorhexidine solutions had a negative effect on the shear bond strength of self-etching bonding systems. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that when benzalkonium chloride-based, iodine potassium iodide/copper sulfate-based disinfectants or chlorhexidine solutions are used as a cavity disinfectant, an etch-and-rinse bonding system should be preferred.

  12. Interference of Cerebrospinal Fluid Total Protein Measurement by Povidone-Iodine Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounden, Verena; Sacks, David B; Zhao, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Background A falsely high cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) total protein (TP) result measured by pyrogallol red (PGR) method was suspected to be caused by preparation of the collection site with povidone-iodine (PVP-iodine) solution. Methods CSF TP was evaluated for interference in samples with different final concentrations of PVP-iodine (up to 0.25% PVP and 0.025% iodine) or iodine alone (up to 0.025% iodine) using three methods: PGR, modified biuret and benzethonium chloride (BZTC). Interference exceeding ±20% of the baseline value is considered clinically significant according the criterion defined by College of American Pathologists. Results There was a positive interference with the PGR method and a negative inference for the BZTC method in CSF samples spiked with PVP-iodine. The PVP-iodine (up to 0.25% PVP and 0.025% iodine) did not cause a clinically significant interference with the modified biuret method. PVP alone without iodine caused a positive interference with the PGR method but did not interfere with the modified biuret or the BZTC method. When the samples were spiked with iodine alone, none of the three methods was affected (change < 20%) by iodine concentration up to 0.025%. Conclusions Contamination of CSF specimens with PVP-iodine can lead to interference with CSF TP measurements using PGR or BZTC methods. PMID:25446880

  13. Crystal Sinking Modeling for Designing Iodine Crystallizer in Thermochemical Sulfur-Iodine Hydrogen Production Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Heung [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Seong-Uk [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jeong Won [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    SI process is a thermochemical process producing hydrogen by decomposing water while recycling sulfur and iodine. Various technologies have been developed to improve the efficiency on Section III of SI process, where iodine is separated and recycled. EED(electro-electrodialysis) could increase the efficiency of Section III without additional chemical compounds but a substantial amount of I{sub 2} from a process stream is loaded on EED. In order to reduce the load, a crystallization technology prior to EED is considered as an I{sub 2} removal process. In this work, I{sub 2} particle sinking behavior was modeled to secure basic data for designing an I{sub 2} crystallizer applied to I{sub 2}-saturated HI{sub x} solutions. The composition of HI{sub x} solution was determined by thermodynamic UVa model and correlation equations and pure properties were used to evaluate the solution properties. A multiphysics computational tool was utilized to calculate particle sinking velocity changes with respect to I{sub 2} particle radius and temperature. The terminal velocity of an I{sub 2} particle was estimated around 0.5 m/s under considered radius (1.0 to 2.5 mm) and temperature (10 to 50 .deg. C) ranges and it was analyzed that the velocity is more dependent on the solution density than the solution viscosity.

  14. A novel spectrophotometric determination of some phenothiazines involving iodine monochloride from chloramine-T with iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowtham, Malledevarapura D; Kumar, Mysore S Yogendra; Sathish, Mahadeshwarabetta A; Nagendrappa, Giddappa

    2004-11-01

    A novel, simple, sensitive spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of five phenothiazines. Chloramine-T with iodine in acetic acid produces iodine monochloride which oxidizes phenothiazines to absorbing cations. Those would associate later with unreacted ICl to form an ion pair, [Ph+] [ICl-(2)] in hydrochloric acid medium. These appear to provide exceptional color stability to the systems. A probable mechanism along with experimental stoichiometry and stability constants of such ion pairs is indicated. The method is not only successful in stabilizing the color of the systems, but also in making a unique observation of two regions of concentration of phenothiazines adhering separately to Beer's law. The results obtained from the analyses of pure samples and their drug formulations in both regions of concentration are comparable with those obtained either with a reported titrimetric method or with a British Pharmacopoeia (B.P.) UV-spectrophotometric method. The conditions required for the quantitative determination of phenothiazines are described and related analytical parameters are also calculated.

  15. Structure Property Relationships of Biobased Epoxy Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorana, Anthony Surraht

    The thesis is about the synthesis, characterization, development, and application of epoxy resins derived from sustainable feedstocks such as lingo-cellulose, plant oils, and other non-food feedstocks. The thesis can be divided into two main topics 1) the synthesis and structure property relationship investigation of new biobased epoxy resin families and 2) mixing epoxy resins with reactive diluents, nanoparticles, toughening agents, and understanding co-curing reactions, filler/matrix interactions, and cured epoxy resin thermomechanical, viscoelastic, and dielectric properties. The thesis seeks to bridge the gap between new epoxy resin development, application for composites and advanced materials, processing and manufacturing, and end of life of thermoset polymers. The structures of uncured epoxy resins are characterized through traditional small molecule techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance, high resolution mass spectrometry, and infrared spectroscopy. The structure of epoxy resin monomers are further understood through the process of curing the resins and cured resins' properties through rheology, chemorheology, dynamic mechanical analysis, tensile testing, fracture toughness, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and notched izod impact testing. It was found that diphenolate esters are viable alternatives to bisphenol A and that the structure of the ester side chain can have signifi-cant effects on monomer viscosity. The structure of the cured diphenolate based epoxy resins also influence glass transition temperature and dielectric properties. Incorporation of reactive diluents and flexible resins can lower viscosity, extend gel time, and enable processing of high filler content composites and increase fracture toughness. Incorpora-tion of high elastic modulus nanoparticles such as graphene can provide increases in physical properties such as elastic modulus and fracture toughness. The synthesis

  16. Evaluation of Resin-Resin Interface in Direct Composite Restoration Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoleriu, S.; Andrian, S.; Pancu, G.; Nica, I.; Iovan, G.

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the resin-resin interface when a universal bonding agent was used in two different strategies in direct restoration repair. Two composite resins (a micro-filled hybrid and a nano-filled hybrid) as old restorations that have to be repair, a universal bonding agent and a micro-filled hybrid composite resin (different then that aged) as new material for repair were chosen for the study. Non-aged samples were used as control and aged samples were used as study groups. The universal bonding agent was applied in etch-and-rinse and in self-etch strategies. The interface between old and new composite resins was evaluated by SEM and the microleakage was assessed by scoring the dye penetration. Very good adaptation of the two different composite resins placed in direct contact in non-aged samples was recorded. No gaps or defects were visible and strong resin-resin contact was observed. After aging, enlargement of resin-resin junction were observed in most of the samples and a increased dye penetration was recorded irrespective of the strategy (etch-and-rinse or self-etch) used for bonding agent application.

  17. Effect of resin matrix composition on the translucency of experimental dental composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, Natasha; Moharamzadeh, Keyvan; Wood, Duncan J; Martin, Nicolas; van Noort, Richard

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the resin matrix composition on the translucency of experimental dental composite resins. Three types of unfilled resin matrices (TEGDMA-, UDMA- and BisGMA-based) were formulated and light cured. In addition, six different experimental dental composite resins with constant filler loading but varying in the type of monomer and the content of BisGMA were fabricated. Discs of each test material with 15.5mm diameter and 1.0mm thickness were prepared (N=3) and light cured. Total and diffuse transmittance values for each sample were measured using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer with the range of readings from 380 to 700nm. Difference in color was measured using the CIE Lab system. Statistical analysis by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test showed that there was no statistically significant difference in transmittance values between the three unfilled resins. However, with the addition of filler, BisGMA-containing composite resins showed significantly higher transmittance values than the UDMA- and TEGDMA-based composite resins. Regression analysis revealed that there was a linear correlation between the percentage of BisGMA in the resin matrix and the total and diffuse translucency. The amount of BisGMA used in the resin matrix has a significant effect on the translucency of silica filler-containing dental composite resins.

  18. Deep Bed Iodine Sorbent Testing FY 2011 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

    2011-08-01

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products (FPs) and activation products that increasingly interfere with the fission process as their concentrations increase. Some of these fission and activation products tend to evolve in gaseous species during used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Analyses have shown that I129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Deep-bed iodine sorption testing has been done to evaluate the performance of solid sorbents for capturing iodine in off-gas streams from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The objectives of the FY 2011 deep bed iodine sorbent testing are: (1) Evaluate sorbents for iodine capture under various conditions of gas compositions and operating temperature (determine sorption efficiencies, capacities, and mass transfer zone depths); and (2) Generate data for dynamic iodine sorption modeling. Three tests performed this fiscal year on silver zeolite light phase (AgZ-LP) sorbent are reported here. Additional tests are still in progress and can be reported in a revision of this report or a future report. Testing was somewhat delayed and limited this year due to initial activities to address some questions of prior testing, and due to a period of maintenance for the on-line GC. Each test consisted of (a) flowing a synthetic blend of gases designed to be similar to an aqueous dissolver off-gas stream over the sorbent contained in three separate bed segments in series, (b) measuring each bed inlet and outlet gas concentrations of iodine and methyl iodide (the two surrogates of iodine gas species considered most representative of iodine species expected in dissolver off-gas), (c) operating for a long enough time to achieve breakthrough of the iodine species from at least one (preferably the first two) bed segments, and (d) post-test purging

  19. Stability of Tritium and Iodine Sorbents in TPOG Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Jacob A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    US regulations could require the removal of both iodine and tritium from the off-gas stream of a used nuclear fuel (UNF) reprocessing facility. Advanced tritium pretreatment is a pretreatment step that uses high concentrations of NOR2R in a gas stream to volatilize tritium and iodine from UNF prior to traditional dissolution. The gaseous effluent from this process would then require abatement to remove tritium and iodine, but high levels of NOR2R could have a detrimental effect on the ability of various solid sorbents to remove the volatile radionuclides. For tritium and iodine, the sorbents of interest are 3Å molecular sieve (3AMS) for tritium and reduced silver mordenite (AgP0 PZ), silver-functionalized silica-aerogel (AgAerogel), and silver-nitrate-impregnated alumina (AgA) for iodine. Prior research has demonstrated that exposure to high concentrations of NOR2R can reduce the iodine loading capacity of AgP0 PZ by > 90% when exposed for 1 week. Research in Japan has demonstrated that AgA is more robust to NOR2R exposure than AgZ. The testing described here was intended to assess the effects of high concentrations of NOR2R on the iodine capture capacity of AgA and the water adsorption capacity of 3AMS. To determine the effect of extended exposure of the sorbents to NOR2R, both 3AMS and AgA were aged in a 75% NOR2R environment prior to loading. The 3AMS samples were aged for 1, 4, and 5.5 weeks at 40°C. They were then loaded with water in a 10°C dew point stream (corresponding to a water concentration of ~12,000 ppmv) at 40°C. There was no significant change in the water adsorption capacity of the 3AMS upon exposure to 75% NOR2R. The AgA samples were aged for 1, 2, and 4 weeks at 150°C and were loaded with 50 ppmv IR2R at 150°C. The results show that the iodine capture capacity of AgA is reduced by exposure to high concentrations of NOR2R. The iodine capacity reductions were 16%, 36%, and 76% for 1, 2, and 4 week exposures, respectively

  20. Transition of Iodine Analysis to Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watrous, Matthew George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Adamic, Mary Louise [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Olson, John Eric [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Baeck, D. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fox, R. V. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hahn, P. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jenson, D. D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lister, T. E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the project, New Paradigms for Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry: Raising the Scientific Profile and Improved Performance for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS), is to ensure that the ongoing isotope ratio determination capability within the U.S. Department of Energy complex is the world’s best for application to nonproliferation. This report spells out the progress of Task 4, Transition of TIMS to AMS for Iodine Analysis, of the larger project. The subtasks under Task 4 and the accomplishments throughout the three year project life cycle are presented in this report. Progress was made in optimization of chemical extraction, determination of a detection limit for 127Iodine, production of standard materials for AMS analysis quality assurance, facilitation of knowledge exchange with respect to analyzing iodine on an AMS, cross comparison with a world-leading AMS laboratory, supercritical fluid extraction of iodine for AMS analysis and electrodeposition of seawater as a direct method of preparation for iodine analysis by AMS--all with the goal of minimizing the time required to stand up an AMS capability for iodine analysis of exposed air filters at INL. An effective extraction method has been developed and demonstrated for iodine analysis of exposed air filters. Innovative techniques to accomplish the cathode preparation for AMS analysis were developed and demonstrated and published. The known gap of a lack of available materials for reference standards in the analysis of iodine by AMS was filled by the preparation of homogenous materials that were calibrated against NIST materials. A minimum limit on the amount of abundant isotope in a sample was determined for AMS analysis. The knowledge exchange occurred with fantastic success. Scientists engaged the international AMS community at conferences, as well as in their laboratories for collaborative work. The supercritical fluid extraction work has positive

  1. Association between excessive urinary iodine excretion and failure of radioactive iodine thyroid ablation in patients with papillary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Seo Young; Choi, Joon Young; Jang, Hye Won; Kim, Hye Jeong; Jin, Sang Man; Kim, Se Won; Suh, Sunghwan; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Chung, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sun Wook

    2013-06-01

    A low-iodine diet (LID) is usually recommended for a week or two before radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation therapy in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients after total thyroidectomy. However, it is still controversial whether an LID affects ablation outcomes. We therefore evaluated the association between urinary iodine excretion and the rate of successful ablation and investigated the determinants of successful RAI ablation outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 295 consecutive patients with PTC who received 1110 MBq RAI remnant ablation therapy with thyroid hormone withdrawal after total thyroidectomy. Successful ablation was defined as either no visible or faint uptake on a follow-up scan (definition 1), or no visible or faint uptake on a follow-up scan and a stimulated thyroglobulin level 250 μg/gCr at the time of RAI ablation (p250 μg/gCr was the only significant variable associated with ablation failure (p=0.002, odds ratio [OR] 4.74 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.78-12.63]). Based on definition 2, 74.9% (221/295) of patients were successfully ablated. A UIC >250 μg/gCr at RAI administration showed a significant association with ablation failure (p250 μg/gCr for ablation failure was 3.88 [CI 1.42-10.57] (p=0.008). Excessive iodine intake (UIC >250 μg/gCr) was associated with poor RAI ablation outcomes. Because this amount of iodine is very high, we propose that the level of strictness of the LID protocol should be modified according to the region that the patient is from and the food that the patient is accustomed to eating. Even in those areas where iodine intake is high, overly strict compliance with an LID protocol is not necessary and simple recommendations to avoid iodine-rich foods would be appropriate.

  2. Preparation and antibacterial activity of quaternized chitosan with iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang; Xie, Linlin; Sai, Mingze; Xu, Ningning; Ding, Derun

    2015-03-01

    Chitosan (CTS) is a natural polymer with active groups such as -NH2 which can be functionalized to introduce new positively charged N-atoms and protonated amino group for better use. In this study, to improve the stability of iodine, a novel complex (CTS-CTA-I2) was prepared by mixing N-(2-hydroxy) propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (CTS-CTA) with iodine in ethanol solution. The CTS-CTA-I2 was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), Ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) spectra and thermal gravimetric analysis (TG). Besides, the interaction of iodine with CTS-CTA was also studied. The mole ratio of CTS-CTA with iodine was measured by iodometric titration method and the max mole ratio of CTS-CTA with iodine was 1:1.33. The antimicrobial activity of CTS, CTS-CTA and CTS-CTS-I2 complexes was investigated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and the antibacterial property of CTS-CTA-I2 was superior to CTS-CTA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Studies on iodine deficiency in adult population of Cracow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buziak-Bereza, Monika; Gołkowski, Filip; Szybiński, Zbigniew

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study carried out in 1989-90 and 1998-99 was to define the iodine deficiency state and goiter prevalence in adult population of Cracow. The analysis included data obtained from 230 individuals (143 females and 87 males). The mean age was 36 +/- 15 years. The thyroid size and morphology was determined by ultrasound method using Aloka unit equipped with 7.5 MHz linear transducer. The concentration of iodine in casual morning urine sample was measured using Sandell-Kolthoff's method. The 10- year observation revealed an insignificant decrease in prevalence of goiter from 26.2% to 21.8%. We observed statistically significant (p = 0.001) decrease in the parenchymal goiter prevalence from 22.7% to 11.7 in the same period of time. The significant increase in incidence of nodular goiter was found (6.5% vs 20.8%, p < 0.001). In all groups investigated through 1989-99, there was an increase in medians of ioduria over the 10-year period. The level of urinary iodine excretion was not essential element for risk of nodular goitre. Thus, the results indicate the beneficial effect of iodine prophylaxis which reflects in decrease of prevalence of parenchymal goiter. No clear effect of iodine prophylaxis was noticed regarding rise in nodular goiter incidence.

  4. Low sintering temperature glass waste forms for sequestering radioactive iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Krumhansl, James L.; Garino, Terry J.; Ockwig, Nathan W.

    2012-09-11

    Materials and methods of making low-sintering-temperature glass waste forms that sequester radioactive iodine in a strong and durable structure. First, the iodine is captured by an adsorbant, which forms an iodine-loaded material, e.g., AgI, AgI-zeolite, AgI-mordenite, Ag-silica aerogel, ZnI.sub.2, CuI, or Bi.sub.5O.sub.7I. Next, particles of the iodine-loaded material are mixed with powdered frits of low-sintering-temperature glasses (comprising various oxides of Si, B, Bi, Pb, and Zn), and then sintered at a relatively low temperature, ranging from 425.degree. C. to 550.degree. C. The sintering converts the mixed powders into a solid block of a glassy waste form, having low iodine leaching rates. The vitrified glassy waste form can contain as much as 60 wt % AgI. A preferred glass, having a sintering temperature of 500.degree. C. (below the silver iodide sublimation temperature of 500.degree. C.) was identified that contains oxides of boron, bismuth, and zinc, while containing essentially no lead or silicon.

  5. Uptake mechanism for iodine species to black carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, Sungwook; Um, Wooyong; Kim, Minkyung; Kim, Min-Gyu

    2013-09-17

    Natural organic matter (NOM) plays an important role in determining the fate and transport of iodine species such as iodide (I(-)) and iodate (IO3(-)) in groundwater system. Although NOM exists as diverse forms in environments, prior iodine studies have mainly focused on uptake processes of iodide and iodate to humic materials. This study was conducted to determine the iodide and iodate uptake potential for a particulate NOM (i.e., black carbon [BC]). A laboratory-produced BC and commercial humic acid were used for batch experiments to compare their iodine uptake properties. The BC exhibited >100 times greater uptake capability for iodide than iodate at low pH of ~3, while iodide uptake was negligible for the humic acid. The uptake properties of both solids strongly depend on the initial iodine aqueous concentrations. After uptake reaction of iodide to the BC, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy results indicated that the iodide was converted to electrophilic species, and iodine was covalently bound to carbon atom in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in the BC. The computed distribution coefficients (i.e., Kd values) suggest that the BC materials retard significantly the transport of iodide at low pH in environmental systems containing even a small amount of BC.

  6. Chloroform extraction of iodine in seawater: method development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, H. B.; Glimme, A.; Tumey, S.; Guilderson, T. P.

    2012-12-01

    While 129I poses little to no radiological health hazard, the isotopic ratio of 129I to stable iodine is very useful as a nearly conservative tracer for ocean mixing processes. The unfortunate disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant released many radioactive materials into the environment, including 129I. The release allows the studying of oceanic processes through the tracking of 129I. However, with such a low iodine (~0.5 micromolar) and 129I concentrations (background 129I concentrations in the Pacific Ocean, we sought to optimize recovery of thismethod, which would minimize both the sample size and the carrier addition required for analysis. We started from a base method described in other research and worked towards maximum efficiency of the process while boosting the recovery of iodine. During development, we assessed each methodological change qualitatively using a color scale (I2 in CHCl3) and quantitatively using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The "optimized method" yielded a 20-40% increase in recovery of the iodine compared to the base method (80-85% recovery vs. 60%). Lastly, the "optimized method" was tested by AMS for fractionation of the extracted iodine.

  7. Investigation of fossil resins and amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Yu. Makarova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fossil resins and amber are a product of lithogenesis of resinous substances of higher plants – resinite. These components of plants, like other lipoid ingredients (suberins, coutines, sporinins, natural rubbers are resistant to microbial action, so they are well preserved in bacterial processing of organic matter in the stages of sedimento- and diagenesis, and are well diagnosed in microscopic studies. They occur in a rather wide age range of sedimentary rocks. The amber of the Baltic region of the Eocene age is most fully studied. The article presents the results of a study of the collection of fossil resins and amber from various regions of the world. Samples were studied microscopically; carbon isotope analysis, infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy were performed. The most informative analysis of high-molecular polymeric compounds is IR spectroscopy. It was found that in the analyzed samples of fossil resins of different ages, aromatic compounds are not observed, most of which are first volatilized in fossilization processes. The possibility of influencing the group composition of amber and amber-like resins for sedimentation, diagenesis and catagenesis is discussed. The IR spectra of fossil and modern resin conifers are compared. Using the IR spectroscopy method, an attempt was made to identify the botanical origin of fossil resins.

  8. AMS gets lift on space shuttle Discovery

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    AMS-02, the CERN-recognized experiment that will seek dark matter, missing matter and antimatter in Space aboard the International Space Station (ISS), has recently got the green light to be part of the STS-134 NASA mission in 2010. Installation of AMS detectors in the Prévessin experiment hall.In a recent press release, NASA announced that the last or last-but-one mission of the Space Shuttle programme would be the one that will deliver AMS, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, to the International Space Station. The Space Shuttle Discovery is due to lift off in July 2010 from Kennedy Space Center and its mission will include the installation of AMS to the exterior of the space station, using both the shuttle and station arms. "It wasn’t easy to get a lift on the Space Shuttle from the Bush administration," says professor Samuel Ting, spokesperson of the experiment, "since during his administration all the funds for space research w...

  9. Shuttle Transportation System Case-Study Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Khadijah

    2012-01-01

    A case-study collection was developed for NASA's Space Shuttle Program. Using lessons learned and documented by NASA KSC engineers, analysts, and contractors, decades of information related to processing and launching the Space Shuttle was gathered into a single database. The goal was to provide educators with an alternative means to teach real-world engineering processes and to enhance critical thinking, decision making, and problem solving skills. Suggested formats were created to assist both external educators and internal NASA employees to develop and contribute their own case-study reports to share with other educators and students. Via group project, class discussion, or open-ended research format, students will be introduced to the unique decision making process related to Shuttle missions and development. Teaching notes, images, and related documents will be made accessible to the public for presentation of Space Shuttle reports. Lessons investigated included the engine cutoff (ECO) sensor anomaly which occurred during mission STS-114. Students will be presented with general mission infom1ation as well as an explanation of ECO sensors. The project will conclude with the design of a website that allows for distribution of information to the public as well as case-study report submissions from other educators online.

  10. Current and Current Fluctuations in Quantum Shuttles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Flindt, Christian; Novotny, Tomas

    2005-01-01

    We review the properties of electron shuttles, i.e., nanoelectromechanical devices that transport electrons one by one by utilizing a combination of electronic and mechanical degrees of freedom. We focus on the extreme quantum limit, where the mechanical motion is quantized. We introduce the main...

  11. Shuttle Operational Test and Scientific Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonesifer, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The Detailed Test Objectives (DTOs) originated as a test or measurement made to verify the function of a vehicle system for certification of a vehicle system. The Detailed Supplementary Objectives (DSOs) are a demonstration or test which has a lower priority than a DTO. The criteria for inclusion on space shuttle mission is discussed.

  12. Shuttle Imaging Radar Survey Mission C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) was part of an imaging radar system that was flown on board two Space Shuttle flights (9 - 20 April, 1994 and 30 September - 11...

  13. Laser contouring of Space Shuttle tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, P. J.; Minardi, A.; He, Mingli; Shelton, Bret

    Straight through and partial cuts were made in fibrous silicon-based ceramic insulation materials (used on the Space Shuttle) to determine the feasibility of laser machining. Experimental results were accumulated from over 800 exposures to determine the belt conditions for cutting. Laser intensity, feedrate, and other parameters were varied to determine conditions for cutting and are discussed in the paper.

  14. Shuttle Repair Tools Automate Vehicle Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Successfully building, flying, and maintaining the space shuttles was an immensely complex job that required a high level of detailed, precise engineering. After each shuttle landed, it entered a maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) phase. Each system was thoroughly checked and tested, and worn or damaged parts replaced, before the shuttle was rolled out for its next mission. During the MRO period, workers needed to record exactly what needed replacing and why, as well as follow precise guidelines and procedures in making their repairs. That meant traceability, and with it lots of paperwork. In 2007, the number of reports generated during electrical system repairs was getting out of hand-placing among the top three systems in terms of paperwork volume. Repair specialists at Kennedy Space Center were unhappy spending so much time at a desk and so little time actually working on the shuttle. "Engineers weren't spending their time doing technical work," says Joseph Schuh, an electrical engineer at Kennedy. "Instead, they were busy with repetitive, time-consuming processes that, while important in their own right, provided a low return on time invested." The strain of such inefficiency was bad enough that slow electrical repairs jeopardized rollout on several occasions. Knowing there had to be a way to streamline operations, Kennedy asked Martin Belson, a project manager with 30 years experience as an aerospace contractor, to co-lead a team in developing software that would reduce the effort required to document shuttle repairs. The result was System Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART) software. SMART is a tool for aggregating and applying information on every aspect of repairs, from procedures and instructions to a vehicle s troubleshooting history. Drawing on that data, SMART largely automates the processes of generating repair instructions and post-repair paperwork. In the case of the space shuttle, this meant that SMART had 30 years worth of operations

  15. 21 CFR 177.2260 - Filters, resin-bonded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Filters, resin-bonded. 177.2260 Section 177.2260... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2260 Filters, resin-bonded. Resin-bonded filters may... of this section. (a) Resin-bonded filters are prepared from natural or synthetic fibers to which have...

  16. Comparison of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNS ) Resin with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural resins can compete effectively with the synthetic ones in composite development. In this research, cashew nuts were picked and processed for the extraction of the resin content. The resin (natural resin) so obtained was mixed with cobalt amine (accelerator), methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (catalyst) to develop two sets ...

  17. 76 FR 4936 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade... antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``granular PTFE resin'') from Italy. DATES... on granular PTFE resin from Italy and Japan (75 FR 67082-67083 and 67105-67108, November 1, 2010...

  18. Traumatic resin ducts as indicators of bark beetle outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Justin DeRose; Matthew F. Bekker; James N. Long

    2017-01-01

    The formation of traumatic resin ducts (TRDs) represents an important induced defense in woody plants that enhances oleoresin production and flow in response to environmental perturbations. In some genera (Pinus), resin ducts are copious and conspicuous; however, in others (Picea), resin ducts are relatively rare. The occurrence and strength of resin ducts, in...

  19. Melamine-modified urea formaldehyde resin for bonding particleboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Yun Hse; Feng Fu; Hui Pan

    2008-01-01

    For the development of a cost-effective melamine-modified urea formaldehyde resin (MUF), the study evaluated the effects of reaction pH and melamine content on resin properties and bond performance of the MUF resin adhesive systems. Eight resins, each with three replicates, were prepared in a factorial experiment that included two formulation variables: two reaction...

  20. Dynamic scintigrams using iodine-123 amphetamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutzig, H.; Schober, O.; Gielow, P.; Becker, H.; Friedrich, H.; Dietz, H.; Hundeshagen, H.

    1985-12-01

    Tomograms of different brain areas were taken to compare the iodine-123 deposition measured 15-45 min, 90-120 min, and 210-240 min after IAMP application. The study included a control group of 23 patients without neurological diseases, 12 patients with histologically established brain tumours and 14 cases of established angiographic diagnosis of occlusion of a great cerebral vessel. Time-dependent changes in the distribution of radioactivity, as observed in the control group, were marked in the cerebellum. As for the visual cortex, only 54% of the initial activity could be detected in individual late scans. Brain tumours showed no I-123 accumulation. There was no difference between early and late scans. In infarcted tissues an accumulation of 40 to 60% of the contralateral side was measured. In 5 of these 14 patients the late scans revealed a relative increase in the I-123 accumulation. A comparison showed that the absolute accumulation in the 'ischaemic area' increased by a mean of 23% within 3 hours, but decreased in 'infarcted areas', depending upon the surrounding activity. The I-123 accumulation in the brain is a function of blood flow and time. Due to the differing flow patterns, which vary depending on the mental activity, conscious patients showed varying depositions in different sensory centres. Varying kinetics of I-123 elimination were found for different brain areas. When performing the I-123 amphetamine SPECT, a short exposure time should be aimed at, and at least 2 tomograms must be taken at defined times, in order to assess kinetic changes.

  1. Characterizing Delamination Resistance of Toughened Resin Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, T. K.

    1984-01-01

    The delamination resistance of toughened resin composites was studied. Both the edge delamination test (EDT) and the double-cantilever-beam (DCB) test provided a useful ranking of improvements in delamination resistance between brittle and tough resin composites. Several layups were designed for the edge delamination test to cover a wide range of mixed-mode conditions. The DCB and the various layups of the EDT were then used to characterize the interlaminar fracture behavior of brittle and toughened resin composites subjected to both static and cyclic loading.

  2. Hydraulic Permeability of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    An ion exchange process using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin is the baseline process for removing cesium from the dissolved salt solution in the high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site, using large scale columns as part of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The RF resin is also being evaluated for use in the proposed small column ion exchange (SCIX) system, which is an alternative treatment option at Hanford and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A recirculating test loop with a small ion exchange column was used to measure the effect of oxygen uptake and radiation exposure on the permeability of a packed bed of the RF resin. The lab-scale column was designed to be prototypic of the proposed Hanford columns at the WTP. Although the test equipment was designed to model the Hanford ion exchange columns, the data on changes in the hydraulic permeability of the resin will also be valuable for determining potential pressure drops through the proposed SCIX system. The superficial fluid velocity in the lab-scale test (3.4-5.7 cm/s) was much higher than is planned for the full-scale Hanford columns to generate the maximum pressure drop expected in those columns (9.7 psig). The frictional drag from this high velocity produced forces on the resin in the lab-scale tests that matched the design basis of the full-scale Hanford column. Any changes in the resin caused by the radiation exposure and oxygen uptake were monitored by measuring the pressure drop through the lab-scale column and the physical properties of the resin. Three hydraulic test runs were completed, the first using fresh RF resin at 25 C, the second using irradiated resin at 25 C, and the third using irradiated resin at 45 C. A Hanford AP-101 simulant solution was recirculated through a test column containing 500 mL of Na-form RF resin. Known amounts of oxygen were introduced into the primary recirculation loop by saturating measured volumes of the simulant solution with oxygen and reintroducing

  3. In-depth disinfection of acrylic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, V B; Saunders, T R; Pimsler, M; Elfring, D R

    1995-09-01

    This study demonstrated that bacteria penetrate three kinds of dental acrylic resin after a short time period. Samples of acrylic resin were contaminated with a variety of bacteria and were then placed in three different disinfecting solutions as directed by the manufacturers. After the specific dilution and immersion time, cultures were made from the resin samples. The only effective disinfectant was a 0.525% solution of sodium hypochlorite at a 10-minute immersion. It disinfected not only the surfaces but also the bacteria that penetrated the surfaces to a depth of 3 mm.

  4. Development of an online method for quantification of maritime molecular iodine and other gaseous iodine containing inorganic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Sven; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2014-05-01

    The atmospheric chemistry of iodine is important in multiple ways. The focus lies on the ability to influence the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere, i.e. by destruction of ozone, and the formation of iodine oxide particles (IOP), i.e. the influence on condensation nuclei (CCN). Using a variation of techniques, like differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization with tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS), the reactive iodine species of atomic iodine (I), molecular iodine (I2), iodine monoxide (IO) and iodine dioxide (OIO) have all been detected in the atmosphere from Antarctica to the equatorial marine boundary layer (MBL). In the past few years there have been active research on IO, especially after revealing significant levels in open ocean measurements, OIO and higher iodine oxides. In addition to atmospheric measurements, significant developments in laboratory kinetics, photochemistry and heterogeneous chemistry of iodine species have been accomplished. [1] Here we introduce an online-method for detecting gaseous molecular iodine and other gaseous iodine-containing inorganic compounds such as HOI, which is a further development of the technique used by Carpenter et al. [2]. The method is based on selective photolytic dissociation of the analytes, followed by oxidization and particle formation of the iodine compounds. The particles are than size-segregated and detected by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) system. Initial IOP forming is performed in a reaction chamber providing specific wavelengths according to corresponding bond dissociation thresholds. Atmospheric samples can also be pre concentrated by diffusion denuder (with α Cyclodextrin modified and immobilised silica coating) [3-5] and afterwards released by thermodesorption. First attempts of quantification are carried out by external calibration using an

  5. Cobalt Ions Improve the Strength of Epoxy Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St. Clair, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Technique developed for improving mechanical strength of epoxy resins by adding cobalt ions in form of tris(acetylacetonato)cobalt (III) complex. Solid cast disks prepared from cobalt ion-containing epoxy resins tested for flexural strength and stiffness. Incorporation of cobalt ions into epoxies increased flexural strength of resins by 10 to 95 percent. Suitable resins for this technique include any liquid or solid TGMDA resins. Improved epoxy formulation proves useful as composite matrix resin, adhesive, or casting resin for applications on commercial and advanced aircraft.

  6. Rockwell International art concept view on proposed Shuttle payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Rockwell International art concept view on proposed Shuttle payloads. View is of the Solar Max Mission. The shuttle is in orbit with the remote manipulator system (RMS) grappling the satellite into place.

  7. Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV) Solar Spectral Irradiance V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) level-2 irradiance data are available for eight space shuttle missions flown between 1989 and 1996. SSBUV, a...

  8. Semiconductor surface physics research in the Space Shuttle orbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindau, I.; Spicer, W.E.

    1977-11-01

    The prospects for surface physics research on semiconductors with the Space Shuttle are summarized. The effect of residual gases and solar radiation outside the Shuttle on the semiconductor-surface electronic properties are assessed.

  9. Modification of Amino Acid Residues in Arsonic Antibody During Extensive Iodination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshland, Marian Elliott; Englberger, Frieda M.; Gaddone, Suzanne M.

    1963-05-01

    The active site of antibody directed against the negativity charged phenylarsonic acid group has been shown to contain an iodine-reactive residue. The purpose of the present research was to identify the iodine-reactive group at the active site of arsonic antibody. However, in view of the complexities of iodine-protein interaction the first step was to determine by extensive iodination the number and kinds of residues which can react. The results of such investigations are presented in this paper.

  10. Iodine concentration of milk-alternative drinks available in the UK in comparison with cows' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Sarah C; Hill, Sarah; Infante, Heidi Goenaga; Elghul, Sarah; Nezianya, Carolina J; Rayman, Margaret P

    2017-10-01

    Iodine deficiency is present in certain groups of the UK population, notably in pregnant women; this is of concern as iodine is required for fetal brain development. UK milk is rich in iodine and is the principal dietary iodine source. UK sales of milk-alternative drinks are increasing but data are lacking on their iodine content. As consumers may replace iodine-rich milk with milk-alternative drinks, we aimed to measure the iodine concentration of those available in the UK. Using inductively coupled plasma-MS, we determined the iodine concentration of seven types of milk-alternative drink (soya, almond, coconut, oat, rice, hazelnut and hemp) by analysing forty-seven products purchased in November/December 2015. For comparison, winter samples of conventional (n 5) and organic (n 5) cows' milk were included. The median iodine concentration of all of the unfortified milk-alternative drinks (n 44) was low, at 7·3 μg/kg, just 1·7 % of our value for winter conventional cows' milk (median 438 μg/kg). One brand (not the market leader), fortified its soya, oat and rice drinks with iodine and those drinks had a higher iodine concentration than unfortified drinks, at 280, 287 and 266 μg/kg, respectively. The iodine concentration of organic milk (median 324 μg/kg) was lower than that of conventional milk. Although many milk-alternative drinks are fortified with Ca, at the time of this study, just three of forty-seven drinks were fortified with iodine. Individuals who consume milk-alternative drinks that are not fortified with iodine in place of cows' milk may be at risk of iodine deficiency unless they consume alternative dietary iodine sources.

  11. Spectroscopy of Vibrational States in Diatomic Iodine Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Mary; Harrill, Charles H.; Smith, R. Seth

    2015-04-01

    This project is focused on understanding the vibrational structure of iodine, which is a homonuclear diatomic molecule. A 20 mW, 532 nm cw diode laser was used to selectively excite neutral iodine molecules to a higher energy electronic state. By performing spectroscopy on the transitions from this state to a lower energy electronic state, the data only showed those vibrational bands which connect the two electronic states. Since a number of vibrational levels are populated in the higher energy electronic state, the transitions to all of the allowed vibrational levels in the lower energy electronic state provided sufficient data to determine the vibrational structures of both states. Emission spectra were collected with an Ocean Optics USB4000 Compact CCD Spectrometer. The spectrometer had a range of 500 - 770 nm with a resolution of approximately 0.5 nm and was sensitive enough to resolve the vibrational states in diatomic iodine molecules. The results were compared to a simple harmonic oscillator model.

  12. The Physical Mechanisms Responsible for the Weathering of Epoxy Resins and Glass Fibre Reinforced Expoxy Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    promise is that in which- the load transferred from resin to fibre is measured photoelastically. A microscope with rectified optics has improved our...an oven and added to the liquid epoxy resin prior to vigorous mixing and subsequent de-gassing under vacuum. The moulds were carefully cleaned and...dried, and warmed to approximately 500 C to aid in filling the mould to the desired level with the viscous resin . After gelling for 2 hours at 1000 C the

  13. 5-year clinical performance of resin composite versus resin modified glass ionomer restorative system in non-carious cervical lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Eduardo Batista; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    To comparatively assess the 5-year clinical performance of a 1-bottle adhesive and resin composite system with a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative in non-carious cervical lesions.......To comparatively assess the 5-year clinical performance of a 1-bottle adhesive and resin composite system with a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative in non-carious cervical lesions....

  14. Regioselective iodination of aryl amines using 1,4-dibenzyl-1,4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,4-Dibenzyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane dichloroiodate is an efficient and regioselective reagent for iodination of aryl amines. A wide variety of aryl amines in reaction with this reagent afforded regioselectively iodinated products. The iodination reaction can be carried out in solution or under solvent-free condition at ...

  15. Iodine contents of some selected roots/tubers, cereals and legumes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... to screen those plants that are grown and consumed in a particular geographical location for their iodine content so as to establish those plants that can concentrate sufficient amount of iodine and that can be recommended for consumption in order to prevent the symptoms of iodine deficiency disorder in ...

  16. Zero-valent iron pretreatment for detoxifying iodine in liquid crystal display (LCD) manufacturing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J W; Cha, D K; Oh, Y K; Ko, K B; Song, J S

    2009-05-15

    This study investigated reductive transformation of iodine by zero-valent iron (ZVI), and the subsequent detoxification of iodine-laden wastewater. ZVI completely reduced aqueous iodine to non-toxic iodide. Respirometric bioassay illustrated that the presence of iodine increase the lag phase before the onset of oxygen consumption. The length of lag phase was proportional to increasing iodine dosage. The reduction products of iodine by ZVI did not exhibit any inhibitory effect on the biodegradation. The cumulative biological oxidation associated with iodine toxicity was closely fitted to Gompertz model. When iodine-laden wastewater was continuously fed to a bench-scale activated sludge unit, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies decreased from above 90% to below 80% along with a marked decrease in biomass concentration. On the other hand, the COD removal efficiency and biomass concentration remained constant in the integrated ZVI-activated sludge system. Respirometric bioassay with real iodine-laden LCD manufacturing wastewater demonstrated that ZVI was effective for detoxifying iodine and consequently enhancing biodegradability of wastewater. This result suggested that ZVI pretreatment may be a feasible option for the removal of iodine in LCD processing wastewater, instead of more costly processes such as adsorption and chemical oxidation, which are commonly in the iodine-laden LCD wastewater treatment facility.

  17. Opposite variations in maternal and neonatal thyroid function induced by iodine supplementation during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P

    2000-01-01

    Whereas the consequences of extremes in iodine intake are well described, much less is known about the effect of more moderate variations in maternal iodine intake on fetal thyroid function. The present study performed in Denmark with mild to moderate iodine deficiency dealt with the effect of ma...

  18. Iodine deficiency and endemic goitre in the Langkloof area of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . M .J Weight. ... et al.8 also reported low levels of iodine in the drinking water, which probably worsened the iodine shortage. Already in 1978 a ..... SOS For IiI Bi/fion. The Conquest of. Iodine Deficiency Disorders. Delhi: Oxford Univer!iity Press.

  19. Child’s Intellect and Iodine Deficiency: Mechanisms of Negative Impact and Ways of Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Berezhnoy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of scientific literature on the effect of iodine deficiency on the intellectual development of the child. The conclusion was made about the need for a mass iodine prophylaxis in the population and the individual one — in groups at high risk of iodine deficiency disorders, which include children, pregnant women and nursing mothers.

  20. Iodine in dairy milk: Sources, concentrations and importance to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Reijden, Olivia L; Zimmermann, Michael B; Galetti, Valeria

    2017-08-01

    Milk and dairy products are major iodine sources in industrialized countries. However, consumption of milk and dairy, as well as their iodine concentrations, vary widely, making them an unpredictable iodine source. Milk iodine concentrations in industrialized countries range from 33 to 534 μg/L and are influenced by the iodine intake of dairy cows, goitrogen intake, milk yield, season, teat dipping with iodine-containing disinfectants, type of farming and processing. We estimate milk and dairy contribute ≈13-64% of the recommended daily iodine intake based on country-specific food intake data. To ensure adequate iodine levels but avoid the risk of iodine excess through milk and dairy, it is crucial to reduce the wide variations in milk iodine. If iodine intakes from iodized salt fall because of public health efforts to reduce salt intake, milk and dairy products may become increasingly important sources of dietary iodine in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Control of radio-iodine at the German reprocessing plant WAK during operation and after shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Kuhn, K.D. [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (Germany)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    During 20 years of operation 207 metric tons of oxide fuel from nuclear power reactors with 19 kg of iodine-129 had been reprocessed in the WAK plant near Karlsruhe. In January 1991 the WAK Plant was shut down. During operation iodine releases of the plant as well as the iodine distribution over the liquid and gaseous process streams had been determined. Most of the iodine is evolved into the dissolver off-gas in volatile form. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and especially gaseous process and waste streams. After shut down of the plant in January 1991, iodine measurements in the off-gas streams have been continued up to now. Whereas the iodine-129 concentration in the dissolver off-gas dropped during six months after shutdown by three orders of magnitude, the iodine concentrations in the vessel ventilation system of the PUREX process and the cell vent system decreased only by a factor of 10 during the same period. Iodine-129 releases of the liquid high active waste storage tanks did not decrease distinctly. The removal efficiencies of the silver impregnated iodine filters in the different off-gas streams of the WAK plant depend on the iodine concentration in the off-gas. The reason of the observed dependence of the DF on the iodine-129 concentration might be due to the presence of organic iodine compounds which are difficult to remove. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  2. 40 CFR 180.1022 - Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iodine-detergent complex; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1022 Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The aqueous solution of hydriodic acid and elemental iodine, including one or both of...

  3. Iodide Residues in Milk Vary between Iodine-Based Teat Disinfectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, Elizabeth A; Mukai, Motoko; Zurakowski, Michael; Rauch, Bradley; Gioia, Gloria; Hillebrandt, Joseph R; Henderson, Mark; Schukken, Ynte H; Hemling, Thomas C

    Majority of iodine found in dairy milk comes from the diet and teat disinfection products used during milking process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 4 iodine-based teat dips on milk iodide concentrations varying in iodine level (0.25% vs. 0.5%, w/w), normal low viscosity

  4. Effect of processing on iodine content of some selected plants food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of processing on iodine content of some selected plants food was investigated. Results show significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the iodine content of the processed food compared with the raw forms. The iodine value of 658.60 ± 17.2 ìg/100g observed in raw edible portion of Discorea rotundata was significantly higher ...

  5. Iodine deficiency and endemic goitre in the Langkloof area of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Report of the Subcommittee for the Study 01 EndemiC Goitre and Iodine. DefiCiency of the European Thyroid Association. Goitre and iodine deficiency in. Europe. Lancet 1985; 1: 1289-1293. 22. Todd CH, Bourdoux PP. Severe iodine detioeney 10 two endemic goitre areas CIf. Zimbabwe. Cent AIr.J Med 1991; 37: 237-241.

  6. Effect of surface treatments on the bond strength between composite resin and acrylic resin denture teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, C E; Machado, A L; Giampaolo, E T; Pavarina, A C

    2000-01-01

    This investigation studied the effects of 3 surface treatments on the shear bond strength of a light-activated composite resin bonded to acrylic resin denture teeth. The occlusal surfaces of 30 acrylic resin denture teeth were ground flat with up to 400-grit silicon carbide paper. Three different surface treatments were evaluated: (1) the flat ground surfaces were primed with methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer for 180 seconds; (2) light-cured adhesive resin was applied and light polymerized according to the manufacturer's instructions; and (3) treatment 1 followed by treatment 2. The composite resin was packed on the prepared surfaces using a split mold. The interface between tooth and composite was loaded at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences between the surface treatments. Results of mean comparisons using Tukey's test showed that significantly higher shear bond strengths were developed by bonding composite resin to the surfaces that were previously treated with MMA and then with the bonding agent when compared to the other treatments. Combined surface treatment of MMA monomer followed by application of light-cured adhesive resin provided the highest shear bond strength between composite resin and acrylic resin denture teeth.

  7. Economic analysis of the space shuttle system, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis of the space shuttle system is presented. The analysis is based on economic benefits, recurring costs, non-recurring costs, and ecomomic tradeoff functions. The most economic space shuttle configuration is determined on the basis of: (1) objectives of reusable space transportation system, (2) various space transportation systems considered and (3) alternative space shuttle systems.

  8. The chlorate-iodine-nitrous acid clock reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela T P Sant'Anna

    Full Text Available A new clock reaction based on chlorate, iodine and nitrous acid is presented. The induction period of this new clock reaction decreases when the initial concentrations of chlorate, nitrous acid and perchloric acid increase, but it is independent on the initial iodine concentration. The proposed mechanism is based on the LLKE autocatalytic mechanism for the chlorite-iodide reaction and the initial reaction between chlorate and nitrous acid to produce nitrate and chlorite. This new clock reaction opens the possibility for a new family of oscillating reactions containing chlorate or nitrous acid, which in both cases has not been observed until now.

  9. Iodine 131 ablation of an obstructive lingual thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lester Johnson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old woman undergoing surgery could not be intubated because of an oropharyngeal mass. CT and MRI revealed a 3 cm possible lingual thyroid mass, confirmed by Iodine-123 SPECT/CT. The patient underwent successful Iodine-131 ablation and has done well on thyroid hormone-replacement therapy. This case also demonstrates how modern cross-sectional imaging like SPECT/CT can appropriately be used in the patient diagnosis and management, and is of additional interest for including pre- and post-therapy MRI documenting efficacy morphologically.

  10. Studies in iodine metabolism: Progress report, July 1968-July 1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1987-01-01

    This document describes research on iodine metabolism conducted at the University of Tennessee, Memphis between July 1968 and July 1969. The author and his research team prepared autoradiographs of rat thyroids from individuals exposed to Iodine 125 in utero. Additional studies were conducted to determine the effect on hypothalamic lesions on iodide metabolism in rats; to evaluate an iodide-specific electrode for measuring iodide levels in blood or urine; and to study the amount of thyroxine absorption from the intestine. An analysis of bovine and sheep thyroids from eight locations provided additional information on global fallout levels. 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Durability of adhesion between feldspathic ceramic and resin cements: effect of adhesive resin, polymerization mode of resin cement, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlei, Aleska; Passos, Sheila Pestana; Özcan, Mutlu; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2013-04-01

    Adhesive cementation is an important step for restorations made of feldspathic ceramic as it increases the strength of such materials. Incorrect selection of the adhesive resin and the resin cement to adhere to the ceramic surface and their durability against aging can affect the adhesion between these materials and the clinical performance. This study evaluated the effect of adhesive resins with different pHs, resin cements with different polymerization modes, and aging on the bond strength to feldspathic ceramic. One surface of feldspathic ceramic blocks (VM7) (N = 90) (6.4 × 6.4 × 4.8 mm(3) ) was conditioned with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 20 seconds, washed/dried, and silanized. Three adhesive resins (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus [SBMP], pH: 5.6; Single Bond [SB], pH: 3.4; and Prime&Bond NT [NT], pH: 1.7) were applied on the ceramic surfaces (n = 30 per adhesive). For each adhesive group, three resin cements with different polymerization modes were applied (n = 10 per cement): photo-polymerized (Variolink II base), dual polymerized (Variolink II base + catalyst), and chemically polymerized (C&B). The bonded ceramic blocks were stored in water (37°C) for 24 hours and sectioned to produce beam specimens (cross-sectional bonded area: 1 ± 0.1 mm(2) ). The beams of each block were randomly divided into two conditions: Dry, microtensile test immediately after cutting; TC, test was performed after thermocycling (12,000×, 5°C to 55°C) and water storage at 37°C for 150 days. Considering the three factors of the study (adhesive [3 levels], resin cement [3 levels], aging [2 levels]), 18 groups were studied. The microtensile bond strength data were analyzed using 3-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test (α= 0.05). Adhesive resin type (p cement affected the mean bond strength (p= 0.0003) (3-way ANOVA). The NT adhesive associated with the chemically polymerized resin cement in both dry (8.8 ± 6.8 MPa) and aged conditions (6.9 ± 5.9 MPa) presented statistically lower

  12. EFFICIENCY ON GROUP PROPHYLAXIS OF IODINE DEFICIENCY IN CHILDREN LIVING IN IODINE DEFICIENCY REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Kuchma

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex examination detected that kalium iodide dosage 100 mkg daily promote a rapid normalization of median of ioduria in children aged 8 to 12 years. Even in a case of normal initial level of ioduria iod active at the same dosage doesn't promote an increase of median of ioduria over than optimum level. It wasn't detected any decrease of goiter frequency during 6 months of prophylaxis, while the level of some cognitive indexes (an attention and the frequency of absence from school by the reason of acute respiratory deseases significantly increased. It could be concluded, that iodine prophylaxis using iod active is more effective in mild goiter endemia combine to decrease of attention in prepubertal children. In the case of combination of moderate endemic goiter and normal cognitive function kalium iodide is more preferable in prophylaxis in children.Key words: children, iod deficiency, prophylaxis.

  13. Combining resin composite bonding and enamel microabrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, T P

    1996-10-01

    Some teeth can best be treated by a combination of enamel microabrasion and resin composite bonding. This article outlines a protocol for treating patients with such teeth and documents one case, showing 5-year results.

  14. Suppressing Shuttle Effect Using Janus Cation Exchange Membrane for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Battery Separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Han, Yu; Wei, Junhua; Wang, Wenqiang; Cao, Tiantian; Xu, Shengming; Xu, Zhenghe

    2017-12-27

    Suppressing the shuttle effect of polysulfide ions to obtain high durability and good electrochemical performance is of great concern in the field of lithium-sulfur batteries. To address this issue, a Janus membrane consisting of an ultrathin dense layer and a robust microporous layer is fabricated using cation exchange resin. Different from the composite membranes made from polyolefin membranes, the multiple layers of the Janus membrane in this study are synchronously generated by one step, getting rid of the additional complex coating processes. Excellent overall performance is obtained by the cooperation of multiple factors. The excellent ionic selectivity of cation exchange resin renders a great suppression of the shuttle effect, endowing the lithium-sulfur battery with high Coulombic efficiency of 92.0-99.0% (LiNO3-free electrolyte). The ultrathin property of a dense layer renders a low ionic resistance, resulting in 60% higher discharge capacity over the entire C-rates (versus the control sample with Celgard 2400 membrane). The robust macroporous layer supports the ultrathin layer to achieve a free-standing property, ensuring the usability of the Janus membrane.

  15. Low iodine diet for one week is sufficient for adequate preparation of high dose radioactive iodine ablation therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer patients in iodine-rich areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minkyung; Lee, Yu Kyung; Jeon, Tae Joo; Chang, Hang Seok; Kim, Bup-Woo; Lee, Yong Sang; Park, Cheong Soo; Ryu, Young Hoon

    2014-08-01

    Most current guidelines suggest one or two weeks of low iodine diet (LID) before radioactive iodine ablation therapy (RAIT) to increase its efficacy in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients after total thyroidectomy. LID duration is particularly important for patients living in iodine excess areas. However, there is no standardized LID protocol and there are limited reports regarding the relationship between LID and ablation outcome. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the optimal LID duration and define clinical features that affect ablation outcome. A total of 202 papillary thyroid cancer patients with total thyroidectomy preparing for RAIT were enrolled. All patients had undergone two weeks of LID before (131)I administration. Morning spot urine specimens were obtained twice (one week or two weeks after LID, respectively) from each patient. Urine iodine excretion (UIE) values were used to evaluate LID efficacy. Successful ablation was defined using two definitions: (i) no visible uptake on a follow-up diagnostic (131)I scans, and (ii) no visible uptake on a follow-up diagnostic (131)I scans and stimulated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels <1 ng/mL. The UIE median values after LID for one and two weeks were lower than 50 μg/L, and the median UIE values were not significantly different according to the LID duration. Based on the first criterion for successful ablation, 175 of the 195 patients were successfully ablated. There were no significant differences in mean and median UIE levels between the ablated and non-ablated groups after LID for two weeks. The rate of ablation did not differ between the mild and moderate iodine deficient groups. Based on the second criterion for successful ablation, 149 of 188 patients were successfully ablated. The ablation success rate did not differ between UIE levels. When we analyzed clinical factors that affect ablation outcome, serum Tg level at the time of ablation was the only significant variable in multivariate

  16. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage of contemporary composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Nagem Filho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill Magic, Alert, and Solitaire to determine whether there are differences among these materials. The tests were conducted with precision of 0.1 mg. The volumetric shrinkage was measured by hydrostatic weighing before and after polymerization and calculated by known mathematical equations. One-way ANOVA (a or = 0.05 was used to determine statistically significant differences in volumetric shrinkage among the tested composite resins. Suprafill (1.87±0.01 and Definite (1.89±0.01 shrank significantly less than the other composite resins. SureFil (2.01±0.06, Filtek Z250 (1.99±0.03, and Fill Magic (2.02±0.02 presented intermediate levels of polymerization shrinkage. Alert and Solitaire presented the highest degree of polymerization shrinkage. Knowing the polymerization shrinkage rates of the commercially available composite resins, the dentist would be able to choose between using composite resins with lower polymerization shrinkage rates or adopting technical or operational procedures to minimize the adverse effects deriving from resin contraction during light-activation.

  17. Pilot study: tendency of increasing iodine content in human milk and cow's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, N; Möller, U; Leiterer, M; Franke, K; Jahreis, G

    2005-01-01

    The iodine supply in Germany has improved throughout the last decade, albeit with enormous differences between individuals and regions. In the Thuringian city of Jena, analyses of the iodine content of human milk have been undertaken regularly since 1982. Significantly increasing iodine concentrations in human and cow's milk have been found. Therefore, the current situation and the effectiveness of measures to prevent iodine deficiency demands re-evaluation. The iodine content of human milk from 32 lactating mothers was analysed on the 5th day (mean) postpartum and mothers' dietary iodine intake during the last two months of pregnancy was assessed by means of a food frequency questionnaire. To corroborate the assumption that the increasing iodine levels of cow's milk are one of the main reasons for the improved iodine supply, the iodine concentration of 34 cow's milk bulk-samples was also determined. Both human and cow's milk samples were analysed by the ICP-MS method. Twenty women took iodine supplements (mean daily intake = 175 microg). The average daily iodine intake of the 20 supplemented and 12 non-supplemented women was 258 microg and 116 microg, respectively. Daily iodine intake from food and beverages was significantly lower in supplemented women (83 microg/day). The average iodine content of human milk was 169 +/- 88 microg/l with a range of 33 - 348 microg/l. This content is two times higher than levels from 1994 in the same area. There was no difference in the human milk iodine content between mothers taking supplements and those who did not. Cow's milk samples showed a mean iodine concentration of 178 +/- 131 microg/l (range 48 - 661 microg/l).

  18. Resin adhesion to carious dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiyama, Masahiro; Tay, Franklin R; Torii, Yasuhiro; Nishitani, Yoshihiro; Doi, Junichi; Itou, Kousuke; Ciucchi, Bernard; Pashley, David H

    2003-02-01

    To investigate the microtensile bond strength (microTBS) of a self-etching priming adhesive system to normal, caries-affected and caries-infected dentin, and to observe the ultrastructure of the resin-dentin interface by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Twelve extracted human molar teeth with deep occlusal caries were stained with caries detector solution and ground flat occlusally. The red-stained soft dentin was classified as caries-infected. The surrounding discolored dentin was classified as caries-affected dentin. The surrounding normal dentin served as a control. The entire flat surface was bonded with Clearfil Liner Bond 2V (CV) and covered with resin composite to form a composite crown 5 mm high. One day later the specimens were serially sectioned vertically into multiple slabs 0.8 mm thick. Under microscopic observation, the specimens were divided into normal or caries-infected or caries-affected dentin. These regions were isolated by cutting away the remaining dentin to form hour-glass shapes with the smallest surface area at the test site. After measuring the areas, the specimens were fixed to a microtensile tester and pulled under tension to failure. Additional slabs that were not used for bond strength tests were processed for TEM. Bond strength data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparisons. The microTBS of CV to normal, caries-affected and caries-infected dentin were 45 +/- 10 MPa, 30 +/- 10 MPa, 10 +/- 5 MPa, respectively. TEM images showed that CV formed thin hybrid layers that were less than 1 microm thick in normal dentin, but that were between 6-8 microm thick in caries-affected dentin. Bacteria were only sparsely observed in the dentin tubules of bonded caries-affected dentin. However, in caries-infected dentin, an unusual interface was seen in which carious bacteria within disorganized non-banded collagen fibrils could be seen embedded by the adhesive. The hybrid layer in caries

  19. Thermal protection optimization for the space shuttle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, F., Jr.; Fowler, W. T.

    1972-01-01

    This paper discusses optimal entry trajectories for the space shuttle that minimize the weight of an entry thermal protection system. The analysis was made using mathematical models of two types of thermal protection systems that were under consideration for the space shuttle: a metallic thermal protection system, and a reusable surface insulation thermal protection system. Optimal entries were generated using maximum orbiter nose temperature as a parameter. Thermal protection system weights were computed for both fixed and variable angles of attack using three-dimensional entry trajectories. Results indicated that variable angle-of-attack entries require less thermal protection system weight than entries at a constant angle of attack (35 deg) for both systems considered. Results also showed that 95 to 99 per cent of the thermal protection system weight requirement resulted from flight regimes in which the flow was still laminar.

  20. STS-76 liftoff - aft end of shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The chase to catch up with the Russian Space Station Mir gets under way with an on-time liftoff, as the Space Shuttle Atlantis hurtles skyward from Launch Pad 39B at 3:13:04 a.m. EST, March 22. On board for Mission STS-76 -- also the 76th Shuttle flight - - are a crew of six: Mission Commander Kevin P. Chilton; Pilot Richard A. Searfoss; Payload Commander Ronald M. Sega; and Mission Specialists Michael Richard 'Rich' Clifford, Linda M. Godwin, and Shannon W. Lucid. During the course of the planned nine-day flight, Atlantis will rendezvous and dock with Mir for athe third time. Lucid will transfer to the station for an approximately four-and-a-half month stay, becoming the first American woman to live on Mir. In addition, Godwin and Clifford will perform an extravehicular activity later in the mission, the first around the mated Atlantis-Mir assembly.