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Sample records for shrew mole neurotrichus

  1. Talpid Mole Phylogeny Unites Shrew Moles and Illuminates Overlooked Cryptic Species Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kai; Shinohara, Akio; Helgen, Kristofer M; Springer, Mark S; Jiang, Xue-Long; Campbell, Kevin L

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian family Talpidae (moles, shrew moles, desmans) is characterized by diverse ecomorphologies associated with terrestrial, semi-aquatic, semi-fossorial, fossorial, and aquatic-fossorial lifestyles. Prominent specializations involved with these different lifestyles, and the transitions between them, pose outstanding questions regarding the evolutionary history within the family, not only for living but also for fossil taxa. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic relationships, divergence times, and biogeographic history of the family using 19 nuclear and 2 mitochondrial genes (∼16 kb) from ∼60% of described species representing all 17 genera. Our phylogenetic analyses help settle classical questions in the evolution of moles, identify an ancient (mid-Miocene) split within the monotypic genus Scaptonyx, and indicate that talpid species richness may be nearly 30% higher than previously recognized. Our results also uniformly support the monophyly of long-tailed moles with the two shrew mole tribes and confirm that the Gansu mole is the sole living Asian member of an otherwise North American radiation. Finally, we provide evidence that aquatic specializations within the tribes Condylurini and Desmanini evolved along different morphological trajectories, though we were unable to statistically reject monophyly of the strictly fossorial tribes Talpini and Scalopini. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Big insights from little animals: allosteric modulation and thermal sensitivity of shrew and mole hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, K.L.; Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    tissue mitochondria with sufficient O2 to fuel oxidative metabolism, such as blood with a high Bohr coefficient and half-saturation pressure (P50). However, a high P50 may drastically impede hemoglobin (Hb) saturation at low ambient PO2's and place a considerable strain on the hypoxia tolerance of shrews...

  3. Moles (Nevi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... watch his or her moles for change. Atypical mole (dysplastic) This type of mole can look like melanoma. ... had melanoma. Your dermatologist may call an atypical mole a dysplastic (dis-plas-tic) nevus. Nevus is the medical ...

  4. Shrew trap efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gambalemoke, Mbalitini; Mukinzi, Itoka; Amundala, Drazo

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of four trap types (pitfall, Sherman LFA, Victor snap and Museum Special snap traps) to capture shrews. This experiment was conducted in five inter-riverine forest blocks in the region of Kisangani. The total trapping effort was 6,300, 9,240, 5,280 and 5,460 trap...

  5. Atypical Moles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or if a new mole appears. Just as women who regularly examine their own breast are much more likely to be cured of breast cancer if it appears, self-exam of your skin once a month is the best defense against melanoma. Be sure to insist on a ...

  6. Comparative Morphology of the Penis and Clitoris in Four Species of Moles (Talpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Adriane Watkins; Glickman, Stephen; Catania, Kenneth; Shinohara, Akio; Baskin, Lawrence; Cunha, Gerald R

    2017-05-01

    The penile and clitoral anatomy of four species of Talpid moles (broad-footed, star-nosed, hairy-tailed, and Japanese shrew moles) were investigated to define penile and clitoral anatomy and to examine the relationship of the clitoral anatomy with the presence or absence of ovotestes. The ovotestis contains ovarian tissue and glandular tissue resembling fetal testicular tissue and can produce androgens. The ovotestis is present in star-nosed and hairy-tailed moles, but not in broad-footed and Japanese shrew moles. Using histology, three-dimensional reconstruction, and morphometric analysis, sexual dimorphism was examined with regard to a nine feature masculine trait score that included perineal appendage length (prepuce), anogenital distance, and presence/absence of bone. The presence/absence of ovotestes was discordant in all four mole species for sex differentiation features. For many sex differentiation features, discordance with ovotestes was observed in at least one mole species. The degree of concordance with ovotestes was highest for hairy-tailed moles and lowest for broad-footed moles. In relationship to phylogenetic clade, sex differentiation features also did not correlate with the similarity/divergence of the features and presence/absence of ovotestes. Hairy-tailed and Japanese shrew moles reside in separated clades, but they exhibit a high degree of congruence. Broad-footed and hairy-tailed moles reside within the same clade but had one of the lowest correlations in features and presence/absence of ovotestes. Thus, phylogenetic affinity and the presence/absence of ovotestes are poor predictors for most sex differentiation features within mole external genitalia. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Body Mole Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    DETECT Skin Cancer: Body Mole Map Follow these instructions regularly for a thorough skin-exam: 1. Learn what to look for 2. Examine ... taking note of all the spots on your body, from moles to freckles to age spots. Skin ...

  8. Mole gun injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

    2013-09-01

    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Contiguous allopatry of the masked shrew and southeastern shrew in the Southern Appalachians: segregation along an elevational and habitat gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Mark Ford; Michael A. Menzel; Timothy S. McCay; Joshua Laerm

    2001-01-01

    Southeastern shrew. (Sorex longirostris) and masked shrew (Sorex cinereus) distributions converge in the Southern Appalachians. A 306,454-pitfall--trapnight survey in Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina doc-umented the presence of southeastern shrews in the Cumberland Plateau, Ridge and Valley, Upper Piedmont, and...

  10. Trend of Complete Hydatidiform Mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Thapa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Complete Hydatidiform mole is one of the most frequent abnormal pregnancies. This review studies the trend of complete mole in Paropakar Maternity and Women's hospital and clinical ability to detect it. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 504 cases of complete hydatidiform mole recorded at Paropakar maternity and women's hospital, Kathmandu, during 2058-2065 B.S. Medical records were reviewed and incidence, clinical presentation and method of diagnosis were studied. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 13,9117 births and 504 complete moles, 12 partial moles, 48 persistent gestational tumours, six choriocarcinoma and four invasive moles recorded in the hospital. The incidence of complete mole was one per 276 births. It was prevalent among women younger than 29 years (80% and among the primigravidae (36.7%. More than 90% women presented in the first half of their pregnancy and vaginal bleeding was the main complaint (68.3%. Suction evacuation, dilation and evacuation followed by sharp curettage and abdominal hysterectomy were performed in 80.6%, 17.6% and 1.2% of the women respectively. Persistent mole and choriocarcinoma developed in 9.5% and 0.4% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Complete mole has the highest incidence. It affects mostly younger women and presents with vaginal bleeding most of the time, usually in the first half of their pregnancy. Keywords: complete hydatidiform mole, gestational trophoblastic disease, persistent gestational tumours.

  11. A tree shrew glioblastoma model recapitulates features of human glioblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Yaohui; Hao, Junjun; Tu, Qiu; Yu, Hualin; Yan, Lanzhen; Li, Yuan; Lv, Longbao; Wang, Fei; Iavarone, Antonio; Zhao, Xudong

    2017-01-01

    Tupaia belangeri (tree shrew), an animal species whose genome has significantly higher similarity to primates than rodents, has been used in biomedical research. To generate animal models that reproduce the human tumors more faithfully than rodents, we present the first report of a cancer model mimicking human tumor genetics in tree shrew. By engineering a lentiviral system for the transduction of mutant H-Ras and a shRNA against tree shrew p53, we successfully generated malignant glioma in t...

  12. A tree shrew glioblastoma model recapitulates features of human glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yaohui; Hao, Junjun; Tu, Qiu; Yu, Hualin; Yan, Lanzhen; Li, Yuan; Lv, Longbao; Wang, Fei; Iavarone, Antonio; Zhao, Xudong

    2017-03-14

    Tupaia belangeri (tree shrew), an animal species whose genome has significantly higher similarity to primates than rodents, has been used in biomedical research. To generate animal models that reproduce the human tumors more faithfully than rodents, we present the first report of a cancer model mimicking human tumor genetics in tree shrew. By engineering a lentiviral system for the transduction of mutant H-Ras and a shRNA against tree shrew p53, we successfully generated malignant glioma in tree shrew. The tree shrew glioma exhibited aggressive behavior and a relatively short latency, and markedly reduced animal survival. Remarkably, the biological features of human high-grade glioma (necrosis, microvascular proliferation, pseudopalisading) were all present in tree shrew glioma. Furthermore, genetic analysis of tree shrew glioma revealed that the tumors were clustered within the mesenchymal subgroup of human glioblastoma multiforme. Compared with the corresponding mouse glioma, tree shrew gliomas were markedly more similar to human glioblastoma at gene expression profile. The tree shrew glioma model provides colleagues working in the field of gliomas and cancer in general with a more accurate animal model.

  13. Atypical moles: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Allen; Duffy, R Lamar

    2015-06-01

    Atypical moles are benign pigmented lesions. Although they are benign, they exhibit some of the clinical and histologic features of malignant melanoma. They are more common in fair-skinned individuals and in those with high sun exposure. Atypical moles are characterized by size of 6 mm or more at the greatest dimension, color variegation, border irregularity, and pebbled texture. They are associated with an increased risk of melanoma, warranting enhanced surveillance, especially in patients with more than 50 moles and a family history of melanoma. Because an individual lesion is unlikely to display malignant transformation, biopsy of all atypical moles is neither clinically beneficial nor cost-effective. The ABCDE (asymmetry, border irregularity, color unevenness, diameter of 6 mm or more, evolution) mnemonic is a valuable tool for clinicians and patients to identify lesions that could be melanoma. Also, according to the "ugly duckling" concept, benign moles tend to have a similar appearance, whereas an outlier with a different appearance is more likely to be undergoing malignant change. Atypical moles with changes suggestive of malignant melanoma should be biopsied, using an excisional method, if possible.

  14. Field Research on the Great Dismal Swamp Shrew 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a progress report outlining the results of a study done on the evaluation of the distribution of the Dismal Swamp southeastern shrew in the refuge and areas...

  15. Tactile Experience Shapes Prey-Capture Behavior in Etruscan Shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eBrecht

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A crucial role of tactile experience for the maturation of neural response properties in the somatosensory system is well established, but little is known about the role of tactile experience in the development of tactile behaviors. Here we study how tactile experience affects prey capture behavior in Etruscan shrews, Suncus etruscus. Prey capture in adult shrews is a high-speed behavior that relies on precise attacks guided by tactile Gestalt cues. We studied the role of tactile experience by three different approaches. First, we analyzed the hunting skills of young shrews right after weaning. We found that prey capture in young animals is most but not all aspects similar to that of adults. Second we performed whisker trimming for three to four weeks after birth. Such deprivation resulted in a lasting disruption of prey capture even after whisker re-growth: attacks lacked precise targeting and had a lower success rate. Third, we presented adult shrews with an entirely novel prey species, the giant cockroach. The shape of this roach is very different from the shrew’s normal (cricket prey and the thorax – the preferred point of attack in crickets – is protected a heavy cuticle. Initially shrews attacked giant roaches the same way they attack crickets and targeted the thoracic region. With progressive experience, however, shrews adopted a new attack strategy targeting legs and underside of the roaches while avoiding other body parts. Speed and efficiency of attacks improved. These data suggest that tactile experience shapes prey capture behavior.

  16. Identification of Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Sequence and Expression Profiles in Tree Shrew (Tupaia belangeri)

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Qihui; Yun, Chenxia; Wang, Yingjun; Smith, Wanli W.; Leng, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) diverged from the primate order (Primates) and are classified as Scandentia, a separate taxonomic group of mammals. The tree shrew has been suggested to use an animal model to study human disease but the genomic sequences of tree shrew is largely unidentified. Here we identified the full-length cDNA sequence of a housekeeping gene, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH), in tree shrew. We further constructed a phylogenetic family tree base on GAPDH...

  17. Tool to Distinguish Moles from Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moles to Melanoma: Recognizing the ABCDE Features” presents photos that show changes in individual pigmented lesions over time, and describes the different appearances of moles, dysplastic nevi, and melanomas.

  18. The Formation and Extinction of Fear Memory in Tree Shrews

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    Shujiang eShang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fear is an emotion that is well studied due to its importance for animal survival. Experimental animals, such as rats and mice, have been widely used to model fear. However, higher animals such as nonhuman primates have rarely been used to study fear due to ethical issues and high costs. Tree shrews are small mammals that are closely related to primates; they have been used to model human-related psychosocial conditions such as stress and alcohol tolerance. Here, we describe an experimental paradigm to study the formation and extinction of fear memory in tree shrews. We designed an experimental apparatus of a light/dark box with a voltage foot shock. We found that tree shrews preferred staying in the dark box in the daytime without stimulation and showed avoidance to voltage shocks applied to the footplate in a voltage-dependent manner. Foot shocks applied to the dark box for 5 days (10 minutes per day effectively reversed the light–dark preference of the tree shrews, and this memory lasted for more than 50 days without any sign of memory decay (extinction in the absence of further stimulation. However, this fear memory was reversed with 4 days of reverse training by applying the same stimulus to the light box. When reducing the stimulus intensity during the training period, a memory extinction and subsequently reinstatement effects were observed. Thus, our results describe an efficient method of monitoring fear memory formation and extinction in tree shrews.

  19. Discovery of Novel Alphacoronaviruses in European Rodents and Shrews

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    Theocharis Tsoleridis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eight hundred and thirteen European rodents and shrews encompassing seven different species were screened for alphacoronaviruses using PCR detection. Novel alphacoronaviruses were detected in the species Rattus norvegicus, Microtus agrestis, Sorex araneus and Myodes glareolus. These, together with the recently described Lucheng virus found in China, form a distinct rodent/shrew-specific clade within the coronavirus phylogeny. Across a highly conserved region of the viral polymerase gene, the new members of this clade were up to 22% dissimilar at the nucleotide level to the previously described Lucheng virus. As such they might represent distinct species of alphacoronaviruses. These data greatly extend our knowledge of wildlife reservoirs of alphacoronaviruses.

  20. Exploring the diversity and molecular evolution of shrews (family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the life history characteristics of shrews (high metabolic rate in Soricinae, small body size, fast generation time and generally short life span), the metabolic theory predicts accelerated nucleotide turnover in this family. By examining the molecular evolution of the cytochrome b molecule, this study identifies both ...

  1. Rodents and Shrews as Vectors of Zoonotic Spirochetes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were collected from the captured animals and screened for infectious agents of public health importance, including; Trypanosoma spp., Plasmodium spp., Borrelia spp. and Bacillus spp. Out of 4,963 blood smears examined, 424 (8.5%) were from shrews and 4,539 (91.5%) were from rodents. Trypanosoma ...

  2. Sengi (elephant-shrew) observations from northern coastal Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biodiversity of northern coastal Kenya is poorly understood because security problems and poor infrastructure have discouraged access to the area. However, the wooded areas in the region have great potential for harbouring unique and rare species, including sengis or elephant-shrews (Macroscelidea). Based on ...

  3. Preliminary report of shrews and rodents in and around Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveys during October 2004 and July 2005, in and around Lake Bogoria National Reserve, Kenya, collected evidence of nine rodent species, and one species of shrew. The diversity of small mammals live-trapped within a single habitat type was low compared to similar studies in Africa. The low diversity may be due to the ...

  4. Mold, Mould, Mole-d: The Three M's of Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Norman E.

    2008-01-01

    The author explores a creative idea development process wherein one begins by applying the image of "breaking the mold" to career development and then extending the process further by considering other related images. In this article, the related images include synonyms for mold such as mould and mole-d (the mole is a small burrowing animal with…

  5. psychrometry: from partial pressures to mole fractions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1980-03-01

    Mar 1, 1980 ... ABSTRACT. This study uses the viria1 and interaction coefficients of the normal air components in deriving compressibility factors and thereafter a simple iterative formulation for mole fractions. Conversion from partial pressures to mole fractions now becomes tractable by means of determinate multipliers.

  6. Complete hydatidiform mole in a 57-year-old woman

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) represents a spectrum of lesions characterised by an abnormal proliferation of trophoblast, including complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole, invasive hydatidiform mole, choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumour, epithelioid trophoblastic tumour, placental ...

  7. Prevalence of SFTSV among Asian house shrews and rodents, China, January-August 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Wei; Wen, Hong-Ling; Fang, Li-Zhu; Zhang, Zhen-Tang; He, Shu-Ting; Xue, Zai-Feng; Ma, Dong-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Shuang; Wang, Tao; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Li; Yu, Xue-jie

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the role of small mammals as hosts of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), we tested serum samples from rodents and shrews in China, collected in 2013. SFTSV antibodies and RNA were detected, suggesting that rodents and shrews might be hosts for SFTSV.

  8. The Fetal Membranes of the Otter Shrews and a Synapomorphy for Afrotheria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony M.; Blankenship, T.N.; Enders, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    The otter shrews of mainland Africa are the closest relatives of the Madagascar tenrecs. We sought for similarities in placentation between the two groups and, in a wider context, with other mammals of the Afrotheria clade. Specimens of the Nimba otter shrew (Micropotamogale lamottei) were obtained...

  9. Moles and Mole Control on British Farms, Amenities and Gardens after Strychnine Withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra E. Baker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Moles are considered pests in Britain, but this issue has been little studied. Lower welfare standards have been tolerated for moles than for most other managed wild mammal species, as use of both the controversial poison, strychnine, and unregulated traps have been permitted. Strychnine was withdrawn in 2006 and there were fears that mole populations would increase as a result. In 2007, we conducted a comprehensive, nationwide survey of land manager perceptions, opinions and behaviour regarding moles and mole control on farms, amenities and domestic gardens in Britain. We surveyed 2150 land managers (achieving a 59% response rate and ground-truthed 29 responses. Moles were reported to be present on most farms and amenities, and 13% of gardens, and were more common in lighter soils. Where present, moles were usually considered pests, this being more likely in Wales, Scotland and northern England, on livestock and mixed farms, and on large, high-value amenities, e.g., racecourses and golf courses. Mole control followed similar patterns to mole presence. More control may occur than is economically, and therefore potentially ethically, justified. Control should be more carefully considered and, where necessary, more effectively targeted. Kill-trapping was the favoured recent and future method on farms and amenities, even if strychnine was to be reintroduced; however, because mole traps are currently unregulated, some might not meet current welfare standards if tested. We found no evidence for an increase in moles since a farm questionnaire survey conducted in 1992; this could have wider implications for future wildlife management policy changes.

  10. Yersinia spp. in Wild Rodents and Shrews in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsen, Suvi; Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Henttonen, Heikki; Niemimaa, Jukka; Voutilainen, Liina; Kallio, Eva R; Helle, Heikki; Korkeala, Hannu; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are important zoonotic bacteria causing human enteric yersiniosis commonly reported in Europe. All Y. pseudotuberculosis strains are considered pathogenic, while Y. enterocolitica include both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains which can be divided into six biotypes (1A, 1B, and 2-5) and about 30 serotypes. The most common types causing yersiniosis in Europe are Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:9. Strains belonging to biotype 1A are considered as nonpathogenic because they are missing important virulence genes like the attachment-invasion-locus (ail) gene in the chromosome and the virulence plasmid. The role of wild small mammals as a reservoir of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. is still obscure. In this study, the presence of Yersinia spp. was examined from 1840 wild small mammals, including voles, mice, and shrews, trapped in Finland during a 7-year period. We isolated seven Yersinia species. Y. enterocolitica was the most common species, isolated from 8% of the animals; while most of these isolates represented nonpathogenic biotype 1A, human pathogenic bioserotype 2/O:9 was also isolated from a field vole. Y. pseudotuberculosis of bioserotype 1/O:2 was isolated from two shrews. The ail gene, which is typically only found in the isolates of biotypes 1B and 2-5 associated with yersiniosis, was frequently (23%) detected in the nonpathogenic isolates of biotype 1A and sporadically (6%) in Yersinia kristensenii isolates. Our results suggest that wild small mammals, especially voles, may serve as carriers for ail-positive Y. enterocolitica 1A and Y. kristensenii. We also demonstrate that voles and shrews sporadically excrete pYV-positive Y. enterocolitica 2/O:9 and Y. pseudotuberculosis 1/O:2, respectively, in their feces and, thus, can serve as a contamination source for vegetables by contaminating the soil.

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Javan tree shrew [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Javan tree shrew Tupaia javanica Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Tupaia_java...nica_L.png Tupaia_javanica_NL.png Tupaia_javanica_S.png Tupaia_javanica_NS.png http://bioscienced...bc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javanica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+java...nica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javanica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javanica&t=NS ...

  12. Potassium oxonate induces acute hyperuricemia in the tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dong-Hong; Ye, You-Song; Wang, Chen-Yun; Li, Zhe-Li; Zheng, Hong; Ma, Kai-Li

    2017-08-05

    Potassium oxonate, a selectively competitive uricase inhibitor, produced hyperuricemia (HUA) in rodents in a previous study. In this study, we employed the tree shrew as an animal model to study potassium oxonate-induced HUA. The effect of allopurinol (ALLO), a uric acid reducer, was also examined in this model. Potassium oxonate at doses of 5, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 1,000 mg/kg was given intraperitoneally to tree shrews. The results showed that potassium oxonate can effectively increase the levels of uric acid in tree shrews at doses ranging from 40 to 100 mg/kg. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that the xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase (XDH/XO) mRNA expression level was significantly higher in the liver tissue of tree shrews with high levels of uric acid. There were no changes in serum urea nitrogen, or serum creatinine values. ALLO can significantly decrease serum uric acid levels (PXDH/XO mRNA expression levels in the liver tissue of tree shrews with HUA. XDH/XO mRNA expression levels did not change in untreated tree shrews. Studies on acute toxicity in the tree shrew did not show any significantly abnormal signs. There were no adverse effects at the macroscopic level up to doses ≤100 mg/kg. Potassium oxonate induced acute HUA in tree shrews at lower doses compared with other animal models. Potassium oxonate-treated tree shrews may be a potential animal model for studying pathogenic mechanism and evaluating a new therapeutic agent for treatment of HUA in humans.

  13. Can they dig it? Functional morphology and semifossoriality among small-eared shrews, genus Cryptotis (Mammalia, Soricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal; Gaffney, Sarah A

    2014-07-01

    Small-eared shrews (Mammalia: Soricidae: Cryptotis), exhibit modifications of the forelimb skeleton that have been interpreted as adaptations for semifossoriality. Most species inhabit remote regions, however, and their locomotory and foraging behaviors remain mostly speculative. To better understand the morphological modifications in the absence of direct observations, we quantified variation in these species by measuring 151 individuals representing 18 species and populations of Cryptotis and two species of moles (Talpidae) for comparison. From our measurements, we calculated 22 indices, most of which have been used previously to characterize substrate use among rodents and other taxa. We analyzed the indices using 1) average percentile ranks, 2) principal components analysis, and 3) cluster analysis. From these analyses, we determined that three basic modes of substrate adaptation are present within Cryptotis: 1) a primarily terrestrial mode, with species that are capable of burrowing, but lack adaptations to increase digging efficiency, 2) a semifossorial mode, with species whose forelimbs bones show strong muscle attachment areas and increased mechanical advantage, and 3) an intermediate mode. In addition to identifying new morphological characters and contributing to our understanding of the functional morphology of soricids, these analyses provide additional insight into the ecology of the species of interest. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Origin of the Mole Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, William B.

    2004-01-01

    German Chemist, August Wilhelm Hofmann first introduced the term "molar" (from the Latin moles, meaning "a large mass") into chemistry, around 1865. The particular use of the term molar gained currency in the physics literature, where it was in common use at least through the 1940s.

  15. Relating the Mole Concept and Fundamental Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kenneth L.

    The high percentage of students who have difficulty in solving free-response problems related to the mole concept was addressed by implementation of reading skill strategies and computer assisted instruction. Frayer models, semantic mapping, and graphic organizers from Reading in the Content Area (RICA) were used to increase student understanding…

  16. Spectrophotometry mole ratio and continuous variation experiments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mole-ratio method yield a ratio of 1M : 1L for the silver dithizonate complex and 1M : 3L for cobalt. Employing the continuous variation method give M : L ratio's of 1 : 3 for both nickel and cobalt. Formation constants are readily calculated from absorbance data. Complete methods, data, calculations and outcomes are ...

  17. Seewis Virus: Phylogeography of a Shrew-Borne Hantavirus in Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Sergey A.; Gutorov, Valery V.; Dupal, Tamara A.; Krivopalov, Anton V.; Panov, Victor V.; Danchinova, Galina A.; Vinogradov, Vladislav V.; Luchnikova, Ekaterina M.; Hay, John; Kang, Hae Ji; Yanagihara, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Hantaviral antigens were originally reported more than 20 years ago in tissues of the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), captured in European and Siberian Russia. The recent discovery of Seewis virus (SWSV) in this soricid species in Switzerland provided an opportunity to investigate its genetic diversity and geographic distribution in Russia. Methods Lung tissues from 45 Eurasian common shrews, 4 Laxmann's shrews (Sorex caecutiens), 3 Siberian large-toothed shrews (Sorex daphaenodon), 9 pygmy shrews (Sorex minutus), 28 tundra shrews (Sorex tundrensis), and 6 Siberian shrews (Crocidura sibirica), captured in 11 localities in Western and Eastern Siberia during June 2007 to September 2008, were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Results Hantavirus L and S segment sequences, detected in 11 S. araneus, 2 S. tundrensis, and 2 S. daphaenodon, were closely related to SWSV, differing from the prototype mp70 strain by 16.3–20.2% at the nucleotide level and 1.4–1.7% at the amino acid level. Alignment and comparison of nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed an intrastrain difference of 0–11.0% and 0% for the L segment and 0.2–8.5% and 0% for the S segment, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis, using neighbor-joining, maximum-likelihood, and Bayesian methods, showed geographic-specific clustering of SWSV strains in Western and Eastern Siberia. Conclusions This is the first definitive report of shrew-borne hantaviruses in Siberia, and demonstrates the impressive distribution of SWSV among phylogenetically related Sorex species. Coevolution and local adaptation of SWSV genetic variants in specific chromosomal races of S. araneus may account for their geographic distribution. PMID:20426688

  18. Insights: A LAP on Moles: Teaching an Important Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihde, John

    1985-01-01

    Describes a learning activity packet (LAP) designed to help students understand the basic concept of the mole as a chemical unit; know relationships between the mole and atomic weights in the periodic table; and solve basic conversion problems involving moles, atoms, and molecules. (JN)

  19. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in common moles (Talpa europaea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijger, I.M.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Wisselink, H.J.; Meerburg, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in common moles, Talpa europaea, was investigated in order to determine whether moles can serve as an indicator species for T. gondii infections in livestock. Findings In total, 86 moles were caught from 25 different sites in the Netherlands. Five

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of APOBEC3 family in tree shrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Meng-Ting; Fan, Yu; Mu, Dan; Yao, Yong-Gang; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2018-03-10

    The APOBEC3 family is a series antiviral factors that inhibit the replication of many viruses, such as HIV-1 and HBV. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) possess great potential as an animal model for human diseases and therapeutic responses. However, the APOBEC3 family is unknown in tree shrews. Recent work has showed the presence of the APOBEC3 family in tree shrews. In this work, the cDNA sequences of five APOBEC3 members were identified in tree shrews, namely, tsAPOBEC3A, -3C, -3F, -3G and -3H. The results showed that their sequences encoded a zinc (Z)-coordinating-domain as a characteristic of APOBEC3 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the tree shrew APOBEC3 (tsAPOBEC3) genes have occurred independently and that they are clustered with other mammalian APOBEC3 members. Transcript expression analysis indicated that tsAPOBEC3 genes are constitutively expressed, and high in immune-related tissues. tsAPOBEC3 gene expression was up-regulated in hepatocytes and PBMCs by IFN-α stimulation. Finally, tsAPOBEC3 proteins could edit both sides of DNA by inserting G→A and C→T hypermutations. Overall, the results suggest that the tsAPOBEC3 family could play a key role in defense immunity through distinct editing mechanisms. Our results provided insights into the genetic basis for the development of a tree shrew model for studying viral infection. Future studies will focus on deepening our understanding on the antiviral functions of these editing enzymes in tree shrew. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Composition and function of haemolymphatic tissues in the European common shrew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Bray

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of wild animals responding to their native parasites are essential if we are to understand how the immune system functions in the natural environment. While immune defence may bring increased survival, this may come at a resource cost to other physiological traits, including reproduction. Here, we tested the hypothesis that wild common shrews (Sorex araneus, which produce large numbers of offspring during the one breeding season of their short life span, forgo investment in immunity and immune system maintenance, as increased longevity is unlikely to bring further opportunities for mating. In particular, we predicted that adult shrews, with shorter expected lifespans, would not respond as effectively as young animals to infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined haemolymphatic tissues from wild-caught common shrews using light and transmission electron microscopy, applied in conjunction with immunohistology. We compared composition and function of these tissues in shrews of different ages, and the extent and type of inflammatory reactions observed in response to natural parasitic infections. All ages seemed able to mount systemic, specific immune responses, but adult shrews showed some signs of lymphatic tissue exhaustion: lymphatic follicles in adults (n = 21 were both smaller than those in sub-adults (n = 18; Wald = 11.1, p<0.05 and exhibited greater levels of depletion (Wald = 13.3, p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Contrary to our expectations, shrews respond effectively to their natural parasites, and show little indication of immunosenescence as adults. The pancreas of Aselli, a unique lymphoid organ, may aid in providing efficient immune responses through the storage of large numbers of plasma cells. This may allow older animals to react effectively to previously encountered parasites, but infection by novel agents, and eventual depletion of plasma cell reserves, could both still be factors in the near

  2. Relationships between body weight, fasting blood glucose concentration, sex and age in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X; Chang, Q; Zhang, Y; Zou, X; Chen, L; Zhang, L; Lv, L; Liang, B

    2013-12-01

    The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a squirrel-like lower primate or a close relative of primates, commonly used as an animal model in biomedical research. Despite more than three decades of usage in research, the clear relationships between body weight, fasting blood glucose concentration, sex and age among tree shrews remain unclear. Based on an investigation of 992 tree shrews (454 males and 538 females) aged between 4 months and 4 years old, we found that male tree shrews have significantly higher body weight and fasting blood glucose concentration than female tree shrews (p body weight in males (r = 0.152, p body weight, concentration of fasting blood glucose and waist circumference positively increased with age (p body weight (g)*0.33*1000/body length (cm)] above 290 had significantly higher body weight, waist circumference and glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) than non-obese tree shrews with a Lee index score below 290 (p body weight, fasting blood glucose concentration, sex and age in tree shrews, further improving our understanding of this relationship in metabolic syndrome (MetS). Given the similarity of tree shrews to humans and non-human primates, this finding supports their potential use as an animal model in the research of MetS. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Telemetric Study of Sleep Architecture and Sleep Homeostasis in the Day-Active Tree Shrew Tupaia belangeri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, Alex; Hoffmann, Kerstin; Barf, R. Paulien; Fuchs, Eberhard; Meerlo, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: In this study the authors characterized sleep architecture and sleep homeostasis in the tree shrew, Tupaia belangeri, a small, omnivorous, day-active mammal that is closely related to primates. Design: Adult tree shrews were individually housed under a 12-hr light/12-hr dark cycle

  4. Microgeographical distribution of shrews (Mammalia, Soricidae) in the Congo River basin (Kisangani, D.R. Congo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gambalemoke, Mbalitini; Mukinzi, Itoka; Amundala, Drazo

    2008-01-01

    Research on the biodiversity of shrews was conducted in eight forest blocks at eight sampling localities: Djabir, Maiko, Masako, Yoko, Yelenge, Baliko, Bomane-1 and Bomane-2. We used pitfall traps combined with Sherman LFA traps placed on transects. We collected 724 shrews from primary forests, s...

  5. Shedding of Infectious Borna Disease Virus-1 in Living Bicolored White-Toothed Shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobach, Daniel; Bourg, Manon; Herzog, Sibylle; Lange-Herbst, Hildburg; Encarnação, Jorge A; Eickmann, Markus; Herden, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Many RNA viruses arise from animal reservoirs, namely bats, rodents and insectivores but mechanisms of virus maintenance and transmission still need to be addressed. The bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon) has recently been identified as reservoir of the neurotropic Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1). Six out of eleven wild living bicoloured white-toothed shrews were trapped and revealed to be naturally infected with BoDV-1. All shrews were monitored in captivity in a long-term study over a time period up to 600 days that differed between the individual shrews. Interestingly, all six animals showed an asymptomatic course of infection despite virus shedding via various routes indicating a highly adapted host-pathogen interaction. Infectious virus and viral RNA were demonstrated in saliva, urine, skin swabs, lacrimal fluid and faeces, both during the first 8 weeks of the investigation period and for long time shedding after more than 250 days in captivity. The various ways of shedding ensure successful virus maintenance in the reservoir population but also transmission to accidental hosts such as horses and sheep. Naturally BoDV-1-infected living shrews serve as excellent tool to unravel host and pathogen factors responsible for persistent viral co-existence in reservoir species while maintaining their physiological integrity despite high viral load in many organ systems.

  6. The identity of the enigmatic "Black Shrew" (Sorex niger Ord, 1815)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal

    2013-01-01

    The scientific name Sorex niger Ord, 1815 (Mammalia, Soricidae) was originally applied to a North American species that George Ord called the “Black Shrew.” The origin of the name “Black Shrew,” however, was obscure, and Samuel Rhoads subsequently wrote that the species represented by this name could not be determined. The names Sorex niger Ord and Black Shrew have since been mostly forgotten. Two of Ord's contemporaries, however, noted that Ord's use of these names probably alluded to Benjamin Smith Barton's Black Shrew, whose discovery near Philadelphia was announced by Barton in 1806. Examination of two unpublished illustrations of the Black Shrew made by Barton indicates that the animal depicted is Blarina brevicauda (Say, 1822). Had the connection between Ord's and Barton's names been made more clearly, one of the most common mammals in eastern North America would bear a different scientific name today. This connection also would have affected the validity of Sorex niger Horsfield, 1851. While Sorex niger Ord remains a nomen nudum, the animal it referenced can now be identified.

  7. Shedding of Infectious Borna Disease Virus-1 in Living Bicolored White-Toothed Shrews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nobach

    Full Text Available Many RNA viruses arise from animal reservoirs, namely bats, rodents and insectivores but mechanisms of virus maintenance and transmission still need to be addressed. The bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon has recently been identified as reservoir of the neurotropic Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1.Six out of eleven wild living bicoloured white-toothed shrews were trapped and revealed to be naturally infected with BoDV-1. All shrews were monitored in captivity in a long-term study over a time period up to 600 days that differed between the individual shrews. Interestingly, all six animals showed an asymptomatic course of infection despite virus shedding via various routes indicating a highly adapted host-pathogen interaction. Infectious virus and viral RNA were demonstrated in saliva, urine, skin swabs, lacrimal fluid and faeces, both during the first 8 weeks of the investigation period and for long time shedding after more than 250 days in captivity.The various ways of shedding ensure successful virus maintenance in the reservoir population but also transmission to accidental hosts such as horses and sheep. Naturally BoDV-1-infected living shrews serve as excellent tool to unravel host and pathogen factors responsible for persistent viral co-existence in reservoir species while maintaining their physiological integrity despite high viral load in many organ systems.

  8. Drug target mining and analysis of the Chinese tree shrew for pharmacological testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    Full Text Available The discovery of new drugs requires the development of improved animal models for drug testing. The Chinese tree shrew is considered to be a realistic candidate model. To assess the potential of the Chinese tree shrew for pharmacological testing, we performed drug target prediction and analysis on genomic and transcriptomic scales. Using our pipeline, 3,482 proteins were predicted to be drug targets. Of these predicted targets, 446 and 1,049 proteins with the highest rank and total scores, respectively, included homologs of targets for cancer chemotherapy, depression, age-related decline and cardiovascular disease. Based on comparative analyses, more than half of drug target proteins identified from the tree shrew genome were shown to be higher similarity to human targets than in the mouse. Target validation also demonstrated that the constitutive expression of the proteinase-activated receptors of tree shrew platelets is similar to that of human platelets but differs from that of mouse platelets. We developed an effective pipeline and search strategy for drug target prediction and the evaluation of model-based target identification for drug testing. This work provides useful information for future studies of the Chinese tree shrew as a source of novel targets for drug discovery research.

  9. Influence of anthropogenic transformation of the forest ecosystems in Easten Fennoscandia on the populations of pygmy and masked shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanter Ernest

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the long-term (1965-2013 stationary and expedition studies in the Easten Fennoscandia, different species of shrews react differently to clear-cutting and the formation of transformed anthropogenic landscape. The dominant species (common shrew increases in the number in these conditions, however, the population becomes unstable, and the number fluctuates severely from year to year and from season to season (Kurhinen et al., 2006, but the other species - pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus L. and masked shrew (Sorex caecutiens Laxm. – respond to these changes otherwise. The first one reduces in the number, especially in highly transformed habitats, but in general, its populations acquire the necessary stability and sustainability, while the masked shrew is affected by the massive lumbering negatively. Nevertheless, the latter is regularly found in the newly formed coniferous plantations emerging after the radical forest devastation.

  10. Estimation of body surface area in the musk shrew ( Suncus murinus): a small animal for testing chemotherapy-induced emesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiseman, Julie L; Sciullo, Michael; Wang, Hong; Beumer, Jan H; Horn, Charles C

    2017-10-01

    Several cancer chemotherapies cause nausea and vomiting, which can be dose-limiting. Musk shrews are used as preclinical models for chemotherapy-induced emesis and for antiemetic effectiveness. Unlike rats and mice, shrews possess a vomiting reflex and demonstrate an emetic profile similar to humans, including acute and delayed phases. As with most animals, dosing of shrews is based on body weight, while translation of such doses to clinically equivalent exposure requires doses based on body surface area. In the current study body surface area in musk shrews was directly assessed to determine the Meeh constant (Km) conversion factor (female = 9.97, male = 9.10), allowing estimation of body surface area based on body weight. These parameters can be used to determine dosing strategies for shrew studies that model human drug exposures, particularly for investigating the emetic liability of cancer chemotherapeutic agents.

  11. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus) in two meadows in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Niels Martin; Olsen, Henrik; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    on the ungrazed controls. No differences in body mass, sex ratio, or reproductive output between Common shrew individuals from the various grazing treatments were found. Conclusion: No negative effects of low intensity grazing on Common shrew abundance were No negative effects of low intensity grazing on Common...... intensity had a significant negative effect on Common shrew number High grazing intensity had a significant negative effect on Common shrew number compared to low grazing intensity and no grazing. Common shrew abundance was generally, but  not significantly, higher on the low grazing intensity plots than...... as well as in most other European countries, the amount of land covered by semi-natural grassland has decreased dramatically during the 20th century concurrent with the general intensification of the agricultural production. To reverse this trend, actions are being taken in many places to either maintain...

  12. Mole guns in Turkey in 2003-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Riza; Birincioğlu, Ismail; Cakir, Ismail; Uner, H Bülent; Açikgöz, Dinç; Seçkin, Cetin

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the frequency of mole guns in Turkey by examining the cases sent to the Council of Forensic Medicine of Turkey between 2003 and 2005. In total, 11 mole guns were examined. Mole guns are manufactured to be used as a trap against detrimental animals. Although they are not meant to be used as a firearm, they are able to cause death. Mole guns appearing in regular casework were evaluated in terms of type of the gun, number of barrels, size and caliber, rifling, design, mechanism, fitness for use, legality, and geographical distribution. Ninety-one percent of the guns were 12 gauge. Most commonly they originate from Inner Anatolia. Mole guns are typically handmade. Some examples of injuries and deaths caused by mole guns are also offered.

  13. Complete Hydatidiform Mole Coexisting with a Live Fetus | Ezem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydatidiform mole co-existing with a normal fetus is very rare. We report a case of a 36 year old woman Para 4+0 who presented with amenorrhoea of twenty four weeks duration, vaginal bleeding , abdominal pain and pre-eclampsia. Ultrasound examination revealed a hydatidiform mole coexisting with a normal living fetus.

  14. Psychometry: From Partial Pressures to Mole Fractions | Ezeilo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study uses the viria1 and interaction coefficients of the normal air components in deriving compressibility factors and thereafter a simple iterative formulation for mole fractions. Conversion from partial pressures to mole fractions now becomes tractable by means of determinate multipliers. The results obtained compare ...

  15. Out-breeding behaviour and xenophobia in the Damaraland mole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ecology. Both species live in subterranean colonies in which only one female reproduces with 1-3 males. ... inbreeding avoidance and dispersal are related in mole-rats, as has been shown for other rodents (Caley ..... independently in two genera ofbathyergid mole-rats - but occurs in no other subterranean mammal. Behav.

  16. Hydatidiform mole in Aminu Kano teaching hospital, northwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study is aimed at determining the incidence of hydatidiform mole in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH), its age distribution, complication and outcome. Study Design: A retrospective review of case of hydatidiform mole managed in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano between 1st January, 2009 and 31st ...

  17. The bicolored white-toothed shrew Crocidura leucodon (HERMANN 1780 is an indigenous host of mammalian Borna disease virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Dürrwald

    Full Text Available Borna disease (BD is a sporadic neurologic disease of horses and sheep caused by mammalian Borna disease virus (BDV. Its unique epidemiological features include: limited occurrence in certain endemic regions of central Europe, yearly varying disease peaks, and a seasonal pattern with higher disease frequencies in spring and a disease nadir in autumn. It is most probably not directly transmitted between horses and sheep. All these features led to the assumption that an indigenous virus reservoir of BDV other than horses and sheep may exist. The search for such a reservoir had been unsuccessful until a few years ago five BDV-infected shrews were found in a BD-endemic area in Switzerland. So far, these data lacked further confirmation. We therefore initiated a study in shrews in endemic areas of Germany. Within five years 107 shrews of five different species were collected. BDV infections were identified in 14 individuals of the species bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon, HERMANN 1780, all originating from BD-endemic territories. Immunohistological analysis showed widespread distribution of BDV antigen both in the nervous system and in epithelial and mesenchymal tissues without pathological alterations. Large amounts of virus, demonstrated by presence of viral antigen in epithelial cells of the oral cavity and in keratinocytes of the skin, may be a source of infection for natural and spill-over hosts. Genetic analyses reflected a close relationship of the BDV sequences obtained from the shrews with the regional BDV cluster. At one location a high percentage of BDV-positive shrews was identified in four consecutive years, which points towards a self-sustaining infection cycle in bicolored white-toothed shrews. Analyses of behavioral and population features of this shrew species revealed that the bicolored white-toothed shrew may indeed play an important role as an indigenous host of BDV.

  18. The bicolored white-toothed shrew Crocidura leucodon (HERMANN 1780) is an indigenous host of mammalian Borna disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürrwald, Ralf; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Weissenböck, Herbert; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Borna disease (BD) is a sporadic neurologic disease of horses and sheep caused by mammalian Borna disease virus (BDV). Its unique epidemiological features include: limited occurrence in certain endemic regions of central Europe, yearly varying disease peaks, and a seasonal pattern with higher disease frequencies in spring and a disease nadir in autumn. It is most probably not directly transmitted between horses and sheep. All these features led to the assumption that an indigenous virus reservoir of BDV other than horses and sheep may exist. The search for such a reservoir had been unsuccessful until a few years ago five BDV-infected shrews were found in a BD-endemic area in Switzerland. So far, these data lacked further confirmation. We therefore initiated a study in shrews in endemic areas of Germany. Within five years 107 shrews of five different species were collected. BDV infections were identified in 14 individuals of the species bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon, HERMANN 1780), all originating from BD-endemic territories. Immunohistological analysis showed widespread distribution of BDV antigen both in the nervous system and in epithelial and mesenchymal tissues without pathological alterations. Large amounts of virus, demonstrated by presence of viral antigen in epithelial cells of the oral cavity and in keratinocytes of the skin, may be a source of infection for natural and spill-over hosts. Genetic analyses reflected a close relationship of the BDV sequences obtained from the shrews with the regional BDV cluster. At one location a high percentage of BDV-positive shrews was identified in four consecutive years, which points towards a self-sustaining infection cycle in bicolored white-toothed shrews. Analyses of behavioral and population features of this shrew species revealed that the bicolored white-toothed shrew may indeed play an important role as an indigenous host of BDV.

  19. Moles: Tool-Assisted Environment Isolation with Closures

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Halleux, Jonathan; Tillmann, Nikolai

    Isolating test cases from environment dependencies is often desirable, as it increases test reliability and reduces test execution time. However, code that calls non-virtual methods or consumes sealed classes is often impossible to test in isolation. Moles is a new lightweight framework which addresses this problem. For any .NET method, Moles allows test-code to provide alternative implementations, given as .NET delegates, for which C# provides very concise syntax while capturing local variables in a closure object. Using code instrumentation, the Moles framework will redirect calls to provided delegates instead of the original methods. The Moles framework is designed to work together with the dynamic symbolic execution tool Pex to enable automated test generation. In a case study, testing code programmed against the Microsoft SharePoint Foundation API, we achieved full code coverage while running tests in isolation without an actual SharePoint server. The Moles framework integrates with .NET and Visual Studio.

  20. Multilocus phylogeography and systematic revision of North American water shrews (genus: Sorex)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Panter, Nicholas; Cook, Joseph A.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Nagorsen, David W.

    2014-01-01

    North American water shrews, which have traditionally included Sorex alaskanus, S. bendirii, and S. palustris, are widely distributed through Nearctic boreal forests and adapted for life in semiaquatic environments. Molecular mitochondrial signatures for these species have recorded an evolutionary history with variable levels of regional divergence, suggesting a strong role of Quaternary environmental change in speciation processes. We expanded molecular analyses, including more-comprehensive rangewide sampling of specimens representing North American water shrew taxa, except S. alaskanus, and sequencing of 4 independent loci from the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. We investigated relative divergence of insular populations along the North Pacific Coast, and newly recognized diversity from southwestern montane locations, potentially representing refugial isolates. Congruent independent genealogies, lack of definitive evidence for contemporary gene flow, and high support from coalescent species trees indicated differentiation of 4 major geographic lineages over multiple glacial cycles of the late Quaternary, similar to a growing number of boreal taxa. Limited divergence of insular populations suggested colonization following the last glacial. Characterization of southwestern montane diversity will require further sampling but divergence over multiple loci is indicative of a relictual sky-island fauna. We have reviewed and revised North American water shrew taxonomy including the recognition of 3 species within what was previously known as S. palustris. The possibility of gene flow between most distantly related North American water shrew lineages coupled with unresolved early diversification of this group and other sibling species reflects a complex but potentially productive system for investigating speciation processes.

  1. Leucism in Mexican small-eared shrew Cryptotis mexicana (Mammalia : Soricomorpha), endemic to Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guevara, Lazaro; Ramirez-Chaves, Hector E.; Cervantes, Fernando A.

    Leucism is the partial or complete reduction of the fur pigmentation where eyes and skin maintain their normal coloration. In this paper, we report the record of an individual of the endemic Mexican shrew Cryptotis mexicana from Veracruz, Mexico, that displays leucism. This lack of pigmentation,

  2. Abundance of Common Shrew (Sorex Araneus in Selected Forest Habitats of Moravia (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Dokulilová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abundance of common shrew (Sorex araneus was evaluated on selected forest sites in Moravia, Czech Republic. Six types of habitats were assessed: forest clearings and mature forests in lowlands (173 – 233 m, uplands (360 – 600 m, and mountains (600 – 1200 m. Data were collected over five‑year‑long periods; 2006 – 2010 (uplands and 2007 – 2011 (lowlands and mountains. Small terrestrial mammals were captured using snap traps laid in lines. In total, 200 individuals of common shrew were trapped. Relative abundance among different habitats was statistically evaluated. The highest relative abundance was found in mountain forest clearings (n = 132, rA = 0.719. Lower abundance was in upland forest clearings (n = 15, rA = 0.384, in mature mountain forests (n = 32, rA = 0.355, and in the lowland forest clearings (n = 9, rA = 0.109. The lowest abundance was in mature upland forests (n = 9, rA = 0.031 and in mature lowland forests (n = 3, rA = 0.011. Differences between sites were statistically significant. Among all altitudes, shrew populations in plantations were significantly more numerous than those in mature forests. Mountain forest clearings with dense herb layer proved to be the most suitable habitat while mature lowland forests with less developed herbaceous layer were the least suitable. Forest clearings proved to be an important refuge for the populations of common shrew.

  3. The neurobiology and behavior of the American water shrew (Sorex palustris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2013-06-01

    American water shrews (Sorex palustris) are aggressive predators that dive into streams and ponds to find prey at night. They do not use eyesight for capturing fish or for discriminating shapes. Instead they make use of vibrissae to detect and attack water movements generated by active prey and to detect the form of stationary prey. Tactile investigations are supplemented with underwater sniffing. This remarkable behavior consists of exhalation of air bubbles that spread onto objects and are then re-inhaled. Recordings for ultrasound both above and below water provide no evidence for echolocation or sonar, and presentation of electric fields and anatomical investigations provide no evidence for electroreception. Counts of myelinated fibers show by far the largest volume of sensory information comes from the trigeminal nerve compared to optic and cochlear nerves. This is in turn reflected in the organization of the water shrew's neocortex, which contains two large somatosensory areas and much smaller visual and auditory areas. The shrew's small brain with few cortical areas may allow exceptional speed in processing sensory information and producing motor output. Water shrews can accurately attack the source of a water disturbance in only 50 ms, perhaps outpacing any other mammalian predator.

  4. Two new species of shrews (Soricidae) from the western highlands of Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The broad-clawed shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae: Cryptotis) encompass a clade of 5 species—Cryptotis alticolus (Merriam), C. goldmani (Merriam), C. goodwini Jackson, C. griseoventris Jackson, and C. peregrinus (Merriam)—that is known collectively as the Cryptotis goldmani group and is characterized by broadened forefeet, elongated and broadened fore claws, and broadened humeri. These shrews are distributed in highland regions from central Mexico to Honduras. Two broad-clawed shrews, C. goodwini and C. griseoventris, occur in southern Mexico and Guatemala and are presumed sister species whose primary distinguishing feature is the larger size of C. goodwini. In an investigation of variation within and between these 2 species, I studied characteristics of the postcranial skeleton. Statistical analyses of a variety of character suites indicate that the forelimb morphology in this group exhibits less intraspecific variation and greater interspecific variation than cranio-mandibular morphology, although most skull characters support groupings based on forelimb characters. Together, these characters define 4 distinct groups among the specimens examined. C. griseoventris is restricted to the northern highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, and C. goodwini occurs in the southern highlands of Chiapas and Guatemala. Herein, I describe 2 new species of broad-clawed shrews from the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, Guatemala.

  5. Chronic clomipramine treatment reverses core symptom of depression in subordinate tree shrews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    Full Text Available Chronic stress is the major cause of clinical depression. The behavioral signs of depression, including anhedonia, learning and memory deficits, and sleep disruption, result from the damaging effects of stress hormones on specific neural pathways. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis is an aggressive non-human primate with a hierarchical social structure that has become a well-established model of the behavioral, endocrine, and neurobiological changes associated with stress-induced depression. The tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine treats many of the core symptoms of depression in humans. To further test the validity of the tree shrew model of depression, we examined the effects of clomipramine on depression-like behaviors and physiological stress responses induced by social defeat in subordinate tree shrews. Social defeat led to weight loss, anhedonia (as measured by sucrose preference, unstable fluctuations in locomotor activity, sustained urinary cortisol elevation, irregular cortisol rhythms, and deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP. Clomipramine ameliorated anhedonia and irregular locomotor activity, and partially rescued the irregular cortisol rhythm. In contrast, weight loss increased, cortisol levels were even higher, and in vitro LTP was still impaired in the clomipramine treatment group. These results demonstrate the unique advantage of the tree shrew social defeat model of depression.

  6. Improved starch digestion of sucrase deficient shrews treated with oral glucoamylase enzyme supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although named because of its sucrose hydrolytic activity, this mucosal enzyme plays a leading role in starch digestion because of its maltase and glucoamylase activities. Sucrase deficient mutant shrews, Suncus murinus, were used as a model to investigate starch digestion in patients with Congenita...

  7. A potentially new giant sengi (elephant-shrew) from the Udzungwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on visual sightings and camera-trap photographs, an unusual form of giant sengi or elephant-shrew in the genus Rhynchocyon is identified from the Udzungwa Mountains of south-central Tanzania, which are already known for their extremely high biodiversity and endemism. This unique sengi appears to occur only ...

  8. Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kun [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Lin, Xian-Dan [Wenzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Wang, Wen [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Shi, Mang [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Wencheng Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Guo, Wen-Ping [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Zhang, Xiao-He [Wenzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Xing, Jian-Guang [Wencheng Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); and others

    2015-02-15

    To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses. - Highlights: • A novel arenavirus (Wenzhou virus) was identified in Zhejiang province, China. • The virus is highly circulating in five species of rats and one species of shrews • More efforts are needed to infer whether it is pathogenic to humans or not.

  9. Pigmentary characteristics and moles in relation to melanoma risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Perry, Ann E; Spencer, Steven K; Gibson, Jennifer J; Cole, Bernard F; Ernstoff, Marc S

    2005-08-10

    Although benign and atypical moles are considered key melanoma risk factors, previous studies of their influence were small and/or institution-based. We conducted a population-based case-control study in the state of New Hampshire. Individuals of ages 20-69 with an incident diagnosis of first primary cutaneous melanoma were ascertained through the New Hampshire State Cancer Registry. Controls were identified through New Hampshire driver's license lists and frequency-matched by age and gender to cases. We interviewed 423 eligible cases and 678 eligible controls. Host characteristics, including mole counts, were evaluated using logistic regression analyses. Our results showed that pigmentary factors, including eye color (OR = 1.57 for blue eyes compared to brown), hair color (OR = 1.85 for blonde/red hair color compared to brown/black), freckles before age 15 (OR = 2.39 for freckles present compared to absent) and sun sensitivity (OR = 2.25 for peeling sunburn followed by no tan or a light tan and 2.42 for sunburn followed by tan compared to tanning immediately), were related to melanoma risk; these associations held after adjustment for sun-related factors and for moles. In analyses confined to skin examination participants, the covariate-adjusted effects of benign and atypical moles were moderately strong. Compared to 0-4 benign moles, risk increased steadily for 5-14 moles (OR = 1.71), 15-24 moles (OR = 3.55) and >or= 25 moles (OR = 4.33). Risk also increased with the number of atypical moles; compared to none, the ORs for having 1, 2-3, or >or= 4 atypical moles were 2.08, 1.84 and 3.80, respectively. Although risk was highest for those with multiple benign and atypical moles, the interaction was not of statistical significance. Our findings, arising from the first population- and incidence-based study to evaluate atypical moles in relation to melanoma risk, confirm the importance of host susceptibility, represented by pigmentary factors and the tendency to

  10. Improved Starch Digestion of Sucrase-deficient Shrews Treated With Oral Glucoamylase Enzyme Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Buford L; Avery, Stephen E; Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto; Kilani, Shadi B; Lin, Amy Hui-Mei; Burrin, Douglas G; Hodges, Benjamin E; Chacko, Shaji K; Opekun, Antone R; Hindawy, Marwa El; Hamaker, Bruce R; Oda, Sen-Ichi

    2017-08-01

    Although named because of its sucrose hydrolytic activity, this mucosal enzyme plays a leading role in starch digestion because of its maltase and glucoamylase activities. Sucrase-deficient mutant shrews, Suncus murinus, were used as a model to investigate starch digestion in patients with congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency.Starch digestion is much more complex than sucrose digestion. Six enzyme activities, 2 α-amylases (Amy), and 4 mucosal α-glucosidases (maltases), including maltase-glucoamylase (Mgam) and sucrase-isomaltase (Si) subunit activities, are needed to digest starch to absorbable free glucose. Amy breaks down insoluble starch to soluble dextrins; mucosal Mgam and Si can either directly digest starch to glucose or convert the post-α-amylolytic dextrins to glucose. Starch digestion is reduced because of sucrase deficiency and oral glucoamylase enzyme supplement can correct the starch maldigestion. The aim of the present study was to measure glucogenesis in suc/suc shrews after feeding of starch and improvement of glucogenesis by oral glucoamylase supplements. Sucrase mutant (suc/suc) and heterozygous (+/suc) shrews were fed with C-enriched starch diets. Glucogenesis derived from starch was measured as blood C-glucose enrichment and oral recombinant C-terminal Mgam glucoamylase (M20) was supplemented to improve starch digestion. After feedings, suc/suc and +/suc shrews had different starch digestions as shown by blood glucose enrichment and the suc/suc had lower total glucose concentrations. Oral supplements of glucoamylase increased suc/suc total blood glucose and quantitative starch digestion to glucose. Sucrase deficiency, in this model of congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency, reduces blood glucose response to starch feeding. Supplementing the diet with oral recombinant glucoamylase significantly improved starch digestion in the sucrase-deficient shrew.

  11. Infections of horses and shrews with Bornaviruses in Upper Austria: a novel endemic area of Borna disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenböck, Herbert; Bagó, Zoltán; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Hager, Barbara; Palmetzhofer, Günter; Dürrwald, Ralf; Nowotny, Norbert

    2017-06-21

    Borna disease, a lethal infection with Borna disease virus-1 (BoDV-1), was diagnosed in four horses from Upper Austria in 2015 and 2016. All cases occurred in winter (two cases in February 2015 and two cases in December 2016), and the maximal distance of the affected stables was 17 km. To demonstrate whether the causative agent was also harbored by its reservoir host, the bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon), 28 shrews from this geographic area were collected in 2015 and investigated for the presence of BoDV-1. The shrew species were identified according to taxonomic clues and molecular barcodes. Affected horses and all shrews were investigated using histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and reverse transcription PCR. The horses exhibited severe nonpurulent encephalitis. Large amounts of BoDV-1 antigen were identified in their CNS. Among the 28 shrews, nine were identified as C. leucodon and 13 as Sorex araneus (Common shrew; Eurasian shrew). Six C. leucodon (66.7%) and one S. araneus (7.7%) had BoDV-1 infections. In accordance with previous findings, the IHC of C. leucodon exhibited a high amount of viral antigen in many neural and extraneural tissues. By contrast, the single positive S. araneus had an exclusively neural staining pattern. Of all positive samples, whole-genome BoDV-1 sequences were generated. The acquired sequences of the affected shrews were not identical to each other and clustered around the sequences of the diseased horses belonging, surprisingly, to the German 'strain V' cluster.

  12. Isolation and identification of symbiotic bacteria from the skin, mouth, and rectum of wild and captive tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gui; Lai, Ren; Duan, Gang; Lyu, Long-Bao; Zhang, Zhi-Ye; Liu, Huang; Xiang, Xun

    2014-11-18

    Endosymbionts influence many aspects of their hosts' health conditions, including physiology, development, immunity, metabolism, etc. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) have attracted increasing attention in modeling human diseases and therapeutic responses due to their close relationship with primates. To clarify the situation of symbiotic bacteria from their body surface, oral cavity, and anus, 12 wild and 12 the third generation of captive tree shrews were examined. Based on morphological and cultural characteristics, physiological and biochemical tests, as well as the 16S rDNA full sequence analysis, 12 bacteria strains were isolated and identified from the wild tree shrews: body surface: Bacillus subtilis (detection rate 42%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (25%), Staphlococcus aureus (33%), S. Epidermidis (75%), Micrococcus luteus (25%), Kurthia gibsonii (17%); oral cavity: Neisseria mucosa (58%), Streptococcus pneumonia (17%); anus: Enterococcus faecalis (17%), Lactococus lactis (33%), Escherichia coli (92%), Salmonella typhosa (17%); whereas, four were indentified from the third generation captive tree shrews: body surface: S. epidermidis (75%); oral cavity: N.mucosa (67%); anus: L. lactis (33%), E. coli (100%). These results indicate that S. epidermidis, N. mucosa, L. lactis and E. coli were major bacteria in tree shrews, whereas, S. aureus, M. luteus, K. gibsonii, E. faecalis and S. typhosa were species-specific flora. This study facilitates the future use of tree shrews as a standard experimental animal and improves our understanding of the relationship between endosymbionts and their hosts.

  13. The timing of the shrew: continuous melatonin treatment maintains youthful rhythmic activity in aging Crocidura russula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Magnanou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Laboratory conditions nullify the extrinsic factors that determine the wild expected lifespan and release the intrinsic or potential lifespan. Thus, wild animals reared in a laboratory often show an increased lifespan, and consequently an increased senescence phase. Senescence is associated with a broad suite of physiological changes, including a decreased responsiveness of the circadian system. The time-keeping hormone melatonin, an important chemical player in this system, is suspected to have an anti-aging role. The Greater White-toothed shrew Crocidura russula is an ideal study model to address questions related to aging and associated changes in biological functions: its lifespan is short and is substantially increased in captivity; daily and seasonal rhythms, while very marked the first year of life, are dramatically altered during the senescence process which starts during the second year. Here we report on an investigation of the effects of melatonin administration on locomotor activity of aging shrews. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 1 The diel fluctuations of melatonin levels in young, adult and aging shrews were quantified in the pineal gland and plasma. In both, a marked diel rhythm (low diurnal concentration; high nocturnal concentration was present in young animals but then decreased in adults, and, as a result of a loss in the nocturnal production, was absent in old animals. 2 Daily locomotor activity rhythm was monitored in pre-senescent animals that had received either a subcutaneous melatonin implant, an empty implant or no implant at all. In non-implanted and sham-implanted shrews, the rhythm was well marked in adults. A marked degradation in both period and amplitude, however, started after the age of 14-16 months. This pattern was considerably delayed in melatonin-implanted shrews who maintained the daily rhythm for significantly longer. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first long term study (>500 days observation of the

  14. Structure of corneal layers, collagen fibrils, and proteoglycans of tree shrew cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almubrad, Turki; Akhtar, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    The stroma is the major part of the cornea, in which collagen fibrils and proteoglycans are distributed uniformly. We describe the ultrastructure of corneal layers, collagen fibrils (CF), and proteoglycans (PGs) in the tree shrew cornea. Tree shrew corneas (5, 6, and 10 week old animals) and normal human corneas (24, 25, and 54 years old) were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde containing cuprolinic blue in a sodium acetate buffer. The tissue was processed for electron microscopy. The 'iTEM Olympus Soft Imaging Solutions GmbH' program was used to measure the corneal layers, collagen fibril diameters and proteoglycan areas. The tree shrew cornea consists of 5 layers: the epithelium, Bowman's layer, stroma, Descemet's membrane, and endothelium. The epithelium was composed of squamous cells, wing cells and basal cells. The Bowman's layer was 5.5±1.0 µm thick and very similar to a normal human Bowman's layer. The stroma was 258±7.00 µm thick and consisted of collagen fibril lamellae. The lamellae were interlaced with one another in the anterior stroma, but ran parallel to one another in the middle and posterior stroma. Collagen fibrils were decorated with proteoglycan filaments with an area size of 390 ±438 nm(2). The collagen fibril had a minimum diameter of 39±4.25 nm. The interfibrillar spacing was 52.91±6.07 nm. Within the collagen fibrils, very small electron-dense particles were present. The structure of the tree shrew cornea is very similar to that of the normal human cornea. As is the case with the human cornea, the tree shrew cornea had a Bowman's layer, lamellar interlacing in the anterior stroma and electron-dense particles within the collagen fibrils. The similarities of the tree shrew cornea with the human cornea suggest that it could be a good structural model to use when studying changes in collagen fibrils and proteoglycans in non-genetic corneal diseases, such as ectasia caused after LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis).

  15. Structure of corneal layers, collagen fibrils, and proteoglycans of tree shrew cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almubrad, Turki

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The stroma is the major part of the cornea, in which collagen fibrils and proteoglycans are distributed uniformly. We describe the ultrastructure of corneal layers, collagen fibrils (CF), and proteoglycans (PGs) in the tree shrew cornea. Methods Tree shrew corneas (5, 6, and 10 week old animals) and normal human corneas (24, 25, and 54 years old) were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde containing cuprolinic blue in a sodium acetate buffer. The tissue was processed for electron microscopy. The ‘iTEM Olympus Soft Imaging Solutions GmbH’ program was used to measure the corneal layers, collagen fibril diameters and proteoglycan areas. Results The tree shrew cornea consists of 5 layers: the epithelium, Bowman’s layer, stroma, Descemet’s membrane, and endothelium. The epithelium was composed of squamous cells, wing cells and basal cells. The Bowman’s layer was 5.5±1.0 µm thick and very similar to a normal human Bowman’s layer. The stroma was 258±7.00 µm thick and consisted of collagen fibril lamellae. The lamellae were interlaced with one another in the anterior stroma, but ran parallel to one another in the middle and posterior stroma. Collagen fibrils were decorated with proteoglycan filaments with an area size of 390 ±438 nm2. The collagen fibril had a minimum diameter of 39±4.25 nm. The interfibrillar spacing was 52.91±6.07 nm. Within the collagen fibrils, very small electron-dense particles were present. Conclusions The structure of the tree shrew cornea is very similar to that of the normal human cornea. As is the case with the human cornea, the tree shrew cornea had a Bowman's layer, lamellar interlacing in the anterior stroma and electron-dense particles within the collagen fibrils. The similarities of the tree shrew cornea with the human cornea suggest that it could be a good structural model to use when studying changes in collagen fibrils and proteoglycans in non-genetic corneal diseases, such as ectasia caused after LASIK (laser

  16. Rediscovery of the type series of the Sacred Shrew, Sorex religiosus I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1826, with additional notes on mummified shrews of ancient Egypt (Mammalia: Soricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal; Koch, Claudia; Hutterer, Rainer

    2017-10-30

    In 1826, Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire described the Sacred Shrew, Sorex religiosus [= Crocidura religiosa] from a series of 22 embalmed individuals that comprised a portion of the Italian archeologist Joseph Passalacqua's collection of Egyptian antiquities from an ancient necropolis near Thebes, central Egypt. Living members of the species were not discovered until the beginning of the 20th century and are currently restricted to the Nile Delta region, well north of the type locality. In 1968, the type series of S. religiosus was reported lost, and in 1978, a neotype was designated from among a small collection of modern specimens in the Natural History Museum, London. Our investigations have revealed, however, that the type series is still extant. Most of the specimens used by I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire to describe S. religiosus still form part of the Passalacqua Collection in the Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin, Germany. We summarize the taxonomic history of S. religiosus, review the history of the Passalacqua collection, and explain why the type series was thought to have been lost. We designate an appropriate lectotype from among the original syntypes of S. religiosus in the Ägyptisches Museum. Our examination of the shrew mummies in the Passalacqua collection also yielded a species previously unrecorded from either ancient or modern Egypt: Crocidura pasha Dollman, 1915. Its presence increases the number of soricid species embalmed in ancient Egypt to seven and provides additional evidence for a more diverse Egyptian shrew fauna in the archeological past. Finally, we provide details that will assist in better understanding the variety of mummification procedures used to preserve animals in ancient Egypt.

  17. New advances in tree shrew model in experimental studies of hepatitis B virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIN Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is the main cause of liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, and it is also a major health problem around the world. How to establish an efficient, reliable, and standardized animal model of chronic HBV infection is essential to the study of the pathogenesis and prevention strategies for HBV infection. This review summarizes the general research and new advances in using tree shrews as the model of HBV infection. We believe that tree shrews, as lower primates, will provide a vital platform and have a huge potential for building a proper animal model in the future, and could become the essential animal model for simulating the process of HBV infection in humans.

  18. Kisspeptin neurons mediate reflex ovulation in the musk shrew (Suncus murinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Naoko; Sasagawa, Karin; Ikai, Kotaro; Sasaki, Yuki; Tomikawa, Junko; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka; Uenoyama, Yoshihisa; Ohmori, Yasushige; Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Hondo, Eiichi; Maeda, Kei-ichiro; Tsukamura, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether kisspeptin–G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) signaling plays a role in mediating mating-induced ovulation in the musk shrew (Suncus murinus), a reflex ovulator. For this purpose, we cloned suncus Kiss1 and Gpr54 cDNA from the hypothalamus and found that suncus kisspeptin (sKp) consists of 29 amino acid residues (sKp-29). Injection of exogenous sKp-29 mimicked the mating stimulus to induce follicular maturation and ovulation. Administration of several kisspeptins and GPR54 agonists also induced presumed ovulation in a dose-dependent manner, and Gpr54 mRNA was distributed in the hypothalamus, showing that kisspeptins induce ovulation through binding to GPR54. The sKp-29–induced ovulation was blocked completely by pretreatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist, suggesting that kisspeptin activates GnRH neurons to induce ovulation in the musk shrew. In addition, in situ hybridization revealed that Kiss1-expressing cells are located in the medial preoptic area (POA) and arcuate nucleus in the musk shrew hypothalamus. The number of Kiss1-expressing cells in the POA or arcuate nucleus was up-regulated or down-regulated by estradiol, suggesting that kisspeptin neurons in these regions were the targets of the estrogen feedback action. Finally, mating stimulus largely induced c-Fos expression in Kiss1-positive cells in the POA, indicating that the mating stimulus activates POA kisspeptin neurons to induce ovulation. Taken together, these results indicate that kisspeptin–GPR54 signaling plays a role in the induction of ovulation in the musk shrew, a reflex ovulator, as it does in spontaneous ovulators. PMID:21987818

  19. AFLP diversity between the Novosibirsk and Tomsk chromosome races of the common shrew (Sorex araneus

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    Andrey Polyakov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity between of the Novosibirsk and Tomsk chromosome races of the common shrew (Sorex araneus was analyzed using 39 polymorphic AFLP (amplified fragments length polymorphism markers. Exact and F-statistics tests for population differentiation demonstrated significant interracial difference in allele frequencies and significant subdivision between the races. The value of the genetic distance between the chromosome races observed in this study corresponds to that found between subspecies of mammals studied so far.

  20. High density lipoproteins and prevention of experimental atherosclerosis with special reference to tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, M P; Xia, R Y; Ran, B F; Wong, Z L

    1990-01-01

    According to data obtained from epidemiological and experimental survey, serum HDL level is known to be correlated conversely with the incidence of atherosclerosis. Experimental data collected in this article explained part of its mechanism, which is described in four parts as follows: 1. The result of 3 successive experiments on experimental atherosclerosis in tree shrews (total of 96 animals available including 40 as the controls) showed that the serum HDL level had been kept persistantly to 69-88% of the total serum lipoproteins even after a high cholesterol intake for 32 weeks. The incidence of atheromatous lesions developed was only 0-9%, but the incidence of gall stone was very high, 48-84% by gross examination by the end of these experiments. 2. HDL are also capable of (1) promotion of monocyte migration activity; (2) enhancement of cholesterol clearance rate of aortic smooth muscle cells originally isolated from either rabbits or tree shrews; (3) inhibition of 20% of LDL degradation but with no inhibitory effect obtained on Ac-LDL degradation in the endothelial cells; (4) presence of specific binding sites for apo E free HDL on the surface of aortic smooth muscle cells from either rabbits or tree shrews which recognizes apo A1 as a ligand. 3. Data from 2 successive experiments in rabbits showed that HDL lipoproteins (mainly apo A1) possess an inhibitory effect on the development of atheromatous plaques, but not a very strong one. 4. The colesterol clearance effect of smooth muscle cells was markedly enhanced by apo A1/phospholipid liposomes (the apo A1 used was isolated from either rabbit's or tree shrew's serum) in vitro.

  1. Molecular Survey on Brucellosis in Rodents and Shrews - Natural Reservoirs of Novel Brucella Species in Germany?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, J A; Ulrich, R G; Imholt, C; Scholz, H C; Jacob, J; Kratzmann, N; Nöckler, K; Al Dahouk, S

    2017-04-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease introduced from animal reservoirs to humans. In Germany, bovine and ovine/caprine brucellosis were eradicated more than a decade ago and mandatory measures in livestock have been implemented to keep the officially brucellosis-free status. In contrast, surveillance of wildlife is still challenging, and reliable data on the prevalence of brucellae in small mammal populations do not exist. To assess the epidemiology of Brucella spp. in rodents and shrews, a molecular survey was carried out. A total of 537 rodents and shrews were trapped in four federal states located throughout Germany and investigated for the presence of Brucella. Using a two-step molecular assay based on the detection of the Brucella-specific bcsp31 and IS711 sequences in tissue samples, 14.2% (n = 76) of the tested animals were positive. These originated mainly from western and south-western Germany, where preliminary analyses indicate population density-dependent Brucella prevalence in voles (Myodes glareolus) and mice (Apodemus spp.). recA typing revealed a close relationship to a potentially novel Brucella species recently isolated from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Austria. The molecular detection of brucellae in various rodent taxa and for the first time in shrew species shows that these animals may be naturally infected or at least have a history of exposure to Brucella spp. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Varied behavioral responses induced by morphine in the tree shrew: a possible model for human opiate addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang eShen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tree shrews represent a suitable animal model to study the pathogenesis of human diseases as they are phylogenetically close to primates and have a well-developed central nervous system that possesses many homologies with primates. Therefore, in our study, we investigated whether tree shrews can be used to explore the addictive behaviors induced by morphine. Firstly, to investigate the psychoactive effect of morphine on tree shrews’ behavior, the number of jumping and shuttling, which represent the vertical and horizontal locomotor activity respectively, was examined following the injection of different dosage of morphine. Our results showed intramuscular (IM injection of morphine (5 or 10 mg/kg significantly increased the locomotor activity of tree shrews 30-60 min post-injection. Then, using the conditioned place preference/aversion (CPP/CPA paradigm, we found morphine-conditioned tree shrews exhibited place preference in the morphine-paired chamber on the test day. In addition, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal induced place aversion in the chronic morphine-dependent tree shrews. We evaluated the craving for morphine drinking by assessing the break point that reflects the maximum effort animals will expend to get the drug. Our data showed the break point was significantly increased when compared to the baseline on the 1st, 7th and 14th day after the abstinence. Moreover, in the intravenous morphine self-administration experiment, tree shrews conditioned with morphine responded on the active lever significantly more frequently than on the inactive lever after training. These results suggest that tree shrew may be a potential candidate for study the addictive behaviors and the underling neurological mechanisms.

  3. Epidemiological Factors and Pathomorphologic Characteristics of Hydatidiform Mole

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    Lejla Muminhodžić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hydatidiform mole is a gestational trophoblastic disease characterized by a range of disorders of abnormal trophoblastic proliferation.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 70 singletone pregnancies until the 12th week of gestational age diagnosed with hydatidiform mole or spontaneously aborted physiological pregnancy. The pregnantwomen had almost similar demographic features and were divided into two groups. 35 pregnant women with a molar pregnancy were included in the study group; while 35 pregnant women with physiologicalpregnancy spontaneously aborted were included in the control group. Analyzed parameters included a pregnant woman’s age, blood type, parity and previous pregnancies (course and outcomes.Results: In the study group 11.43% of cases had hydatidiform mola during previous pregnancies as well as the advanced average gestational age of an ongoing pregnancy (9.63±1.83 in contrast to 8.25±2.03in the control group. The pregnant women with the hydatidiform mole were reported to have statistically significantly greater number of irregular villous borders (71.43%; slightly enlarged villi (54.29%; moderatedpresence of cisterns (65.71% as well as mild avascularisation of villi (57.14%.Conclusion: It was concluded that a previous molar pregnancy represents the highest risk for hydtidiforme mole and the pathomorphologic analysis of vilous changes can be a reliable parameter for establishingproper diagnosis of partial hydatidiform mole.

  4. A case of nephrotic syndrome associated with hydatiform mole

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    Tarlan Hamidehkhou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present case study is on a 16-year-old woman who was suffering from nephritic syndrome after recovery from complete type of hydatiform mole. She admitted in hospital because of proteinurea and hematuria. In her past medical history she had a suction curettage for hydatiform mole. After she received 4 courses chemotherapy, she completely recovered and βhCG has fallen from 1980 IU/L to under 10 IU/mL. Then she showed generalized edema, proteinurea and hematuria compatible with nephritic syndrome. After six courses chemotherapy the symptoms of nephrotic syndrome and invasive mole diminished, she released from hospital and scheduled for follow-up.

  5. Density compensation in allopatric populations of the pygmy shrewSorex minutus on Gotland and the outer hebrides: evidence for the effect of interspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmquist, Mats

    1986-09-01

    Pygmy shrewsSorex minutus occur allopatrically in Ireland, the Outer Hebrides and Gotland in Sweden, and sympatrically with common shrewsS. minutus on the European mainland and in England. Competition theory redicts higher population density in allopatric populations as a consequence of relaxed competition. Here this prediction is tested by comparing allopatric populations of pygmy shrews in the Outer Hebrides and in Gotland with sympatric populations on the Swedish mainland. Population densities were higher in allopatry than in sympatry. Lower summed densities in allopatry, which is predicted by niche theory, was found on the Outer Hebrides, but not on Gotland. Size distributions of carabids, which are important food items, could not explain the differences in population densities. Since both avian predators and snakes are present in all areas, population density of pygmy shrews during autumn in concluded to be regulated primarly by competition with common shrews in areas of sympatry.

  6. A distinct chromosome race of the common shrew (Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 within the Arctic Circle in European Russia

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    S Pavlova

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A unique arm chromosome combination detected in the common shrew karyotype from a Karelian locality within the Arctic Circle (Kandalaksha State Nature Reserve, European Russia is interpreted as a new chromosome race - Poyakonda. According to the standard nomenclature of G-banded chromosomes of Sorex araneus the karyotype contains the species specific bi-armed autosomes af, bc, jl, tu and the typical complex sex chromosome system (two metacentrics XX in the female and one metacentric/two acrocentrics XY1Y2 in the male. A group of race specific chromosomes includes 4 metacentric combinations (hn, ip, kq, mo and two acrocentric chromosomes (g and r. In all 5 shrew specimens examined the same homozygous autosome complement 2Na=20 was found. Data available from neighbouring regions in Russia and, in particular, from adjacent Fennoscandian countries reveal complex relationships between karyotypes of common shrews from the European North.

  7. Development and characterization of 21 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the barren-ground shrew, Sorex ugyunak (Mammalia: Sorcidae), through next-generation sequencing, and cross-species amplification in the masked shrew, S. cinereus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, S.A.; Sage, G.K.; Fowler, M.; Hope, A.G.; Cook, J.A.; Talbot, S.L.

    2013-01-01

    We used next generation shotgun sequencing to develop 21 novel microsatellite markers for the barren-ground shrew (Sorex ugyunak), which were polymorphic among individuals from northern Alaska. The loci displayed moderate allelic diversity (averaging 6.81 alleles per locus) and heterozygosity (averaging 70 %). Two loci deviated from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) due to heterozygote deficiency. While the population did not deviate from HWE overall, it showed significant linkage disequilibrium suggesting this population is not in mutation-drift equilibrium. Nineteen of 21 loci were polymorphic in masked shrews (S. cinereus) from interior Alaska and exhibited linkage equilibrium and HWE overall. All loci yielded sufficient variability for use in population studies.

  8. Hydatidiform moles among patients with incomplete abortion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SHS

    ated risk factors of HM among patients with incomplete abortion evacuated at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC) and Sekou. Toure Regional ... of conception were collected and analyzed using Haemotoxylin and Eosin staining technique for hydatidiform moles. Results: ... countries (North America, Australia, New Zealand and.

  9. Burrow architecture of the Damaraland mole-rat ( Fukomys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burrow architecture (length, internal dimensions, fractal dimension of tunnel systems, number of nesting chambers and surface mounds) was investigated in the Damaraland mole-rat (Fukomys damarensis). A total of 31 animals were caught from five different colonies and their burrow systems were excavated in their ...

  10. Validation of a Learning Hierarchy for the Mole Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Alan K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Three psychometric methods for validating learning hierarchies were applied to one data set derived from student responses (N=269) to items representing skills in a hypothesized hierarchy for the mole concept. The hierarchy derived from the analysis was supported by a test for transfer of learning from subordinate to superordinate skills.…

  11. Hydatidiform moles among patients with incomplete abortion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prevalence of hydatidiform mole is not clearly defined, partly because most studies have reported different prevalence rates from different regions. However, there is no previous study that has determined the prevalence and associated risk factors of HM among patients with incomplete abortion evacuated at ...

  12. Ground sounds: Seismic detection in the golden mole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narins, Peter M.; Lewis, Edwin R.

    2004-05-01

    The Namib Desert golden mole is a nocturnal, surface-foraging mammal, possessing a massively hypertrophied malleus which presumably confers low-frequency, substrate-vibration sensitivity through inertial bone conduction. Foraging trails are punctuated with characteristic sand disturbances in which the animal's head dips under the sand. The function of this behavior is not known but it is thought that it may be used to obtain a seismic fix on the next mound to be visited. To test this, we measured the local seismic vibrations both on the top of a mound and on the flats. The spectrum recorded on the flats shows a relatively low-amplitude peak at about 120 Hz, whereas the spectral peak recorded from the mound is nearly 17 dB greater in amplitude and centered at 310 Hz. This suggests that mounds act as seismic beacons for the golden moles that would be detectable from distances corresponding to typical intermound distances of 20-25 m. In addition, out of the 117 species for which data are available, these golden moles have the greatest ossicular mass relative to body size (Mason, personal communication). Functionally, they appear to be low-frequency specialists, and it is likely that golden moles hear through substrate conduction. [Work supported by NIH.

  13. Placentation in the Hottentot golden mole, Amblysomus hottentotus (Afrosoricida: Chrysochloridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, C J P; Carter, A M; Bennett, N C

    2009-01-01

    The placentation of the Hottentot golden mole (Amblysomus hottentotus) has been examined using light and electron microscopy and lectin histochemistry of nine specimens at both mid and late gestation. The placentae were lobulated towards the allantoic surface and the lobules contained roughly par...

  14. ACTIVITY PATTERNS IN THE MOLE-RATS TACHYORYCTES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This short-term rhythm wi thin the overall daily periodicity has been shown to occur in many small rodents and insectivores (Ashby. 1972). Observations of the feeding times of captive mole-rats showed that both Tachyoryctes and. Heliophobius fed at irregular intervals throughout the day and night (Jarvis, unpublished).

  15. Clipboard: Of pungency, pain, and naked mole rats: chili peppers ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-08-12

    Aug 12, 2009 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 34; Issue 3. Clipboard: Of pungency, pain, and naked mole rats: chili peppers revisited. Renee M Borges. Volume 34 Issue 3 September 2009 pp 349-351. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. ACTIVITY PATTERNS IN THE MOLE-RATS TACHYORYCTES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %. .... At the end of the study period all the mole-rats in the study area were caught. The population was found to consist of ..... during surface foraging the hind feet are kept in the burrow and are braced for rapid retreat should the need arise.

  17. Hydatidiform moles among patients with incomplete abortion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SHS

    ated risk factors of HM among patients with incomplete abortion evacuated at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC) and Sekou ... Cite as: Kitange B, Matovelo D, Konje E, Massinde A, Rambau P. Hydatidiform moles among patients with incomplete abortion in Mwanza ..... Seckl, M. J., & Newlands, E. S. Risk of recurrent hy-.

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of the full-length cDNA encoding the tree shrew (tupaia belangeri) CD28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Yan, Yan; Wang, Sha; Wang, Qinying; Shi, Jian; Shao, Zhanshe; Dai, Jiejie

    2017-11-01

    CD28 is one of the most important co-stimulatory molecules expressed by naive and primed T cells. The tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), as an ideal animal model for analyzing mechanism of human diseases receiving extensive attentions, demands essential research tools, in particular in the study of cellular markers and monoclonal antibodies for immunological studies. However, little is known about tree shrew CD28 (tsCD28) until now. In this study, a 663 bp of the full-length CD28 cDNA, encoding a polypeptide of 220 amino acids was cloned from tree shrew spleen lymphocytes. The nucleotide sequence of the tsCD28 showed 85%, 76%, and 75% similarities with human, rat, and mouse, respectively, which showed the affinity relationship between tree shrew and human is much closer than between human and rodents. The open reading frame (ORF) sequence of tsCD28 gene was predicted to be in correspondence with the signal sequence, immunoglobulin variable-like (IgV) domain, transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail, respectively.We also analyzed its molecular characteristics with other mammals by using biology software such as Clustal W 2.0 and so forth. Our results showed that tsCD28 contained many features conserved in CD28 genes from other mammals, including conserved signal peptide and glycosylation sites, and several residues responsible for binding to the CD28R, and the tsCD28 amino acid sequence were found a close genetic relationship with human and monkey. The crystal structure and surface charge revealed most regions of tree shrew CD28 molecule surface charges are similar as human. However, compared with human CD28 (hCD28) regions, in some areas, the surface positive charge of tsCD28 was less than hCD28, which may affect antibody binding. The present study is the first report of cloning and characterization of CD28 in tree shrew. This study provides a theoretical basis for the further study the structure and function of tree shrew CD28 and utilize tree shrew as an effective

  19. [Significance of the smell of a conspecific for the spatial distribution of the common shrew Sorex araneus L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumas'ian, F A; Shchipanova, N A

    2013-01-01

    The significance of smell marks of conspecifics for the spatial distribution of common shrews was studied. The existence of two groups of individuals, which differ in their reaction to the smell of a conspecific, was shown. Individuals with different reactions were shown to have reliable differences in the sizes of the areas visited by them, the mutual location of their plots, and the percent of activity combined with the activity of the neighbor. The significance of such differences in reactions for the formation of the social system of shrews is discussed.

  20. Musk shrews selectively bred for motion sickness display increased anesthesia-induced vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Charles C; Meyers, Kelly; Oberlies, Nicholas

    2014-01-30

    Susceptibility to motion sickness is a predictor of postoperative nausea and vomiting, and studies in humans suggest that genetic factors determine sensitivity to motion sickness. The aim of the current study was to determine if a preclinical model could be selectively bred for motion-induced emesis and to assess a potential relationship to anesthesia-induced emesis. Musk shrews were tested for motion-induced emesis using a shaker plate (10min, 1Hz, and 4cm of lateral displacement). Animals were rank ordered for motion-induced emesis and selectively bred to produce high and low response strains. Shrews were also tested with nicotine (5mg/kg, sc), copper sulfate (CuSO4; 120mg/kg, ig), and isoflurane anesthesia (10min; 3%) to measure responses to a panel of emetic stimuli. High response strain shrews demonstrated significantly more emetic episodes to motion exposure compared to low response strain animals in the F1 and F2 generations. In F2 animals, there were no significant differences in total emetic responses or emetic latency between strains after nicotine injection or CuSO4 gavage. However, isoflurane exposure stimulated more emesis in F1 and F2 high versus low strain animals, which suggests a relationship between vestibular- and inhalational anesthesia-induced emesis. Overall, these results indicate genetic determinants of motion sickness in a preclinical model and a potential common mechanism for motion sickness and inhalational anesthesia-induced emesis. Future work may include genetic mapping of potential "emetic sensitivity genes" to develop novel therapies or diagnostics for patients with high risk of nausea and vomiting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Comparative Analysis of the Endocannabinoid System in the Retina of Mice, Tree Shrews, and Monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouskila, Joseph; Javadi, Pasha; Elkrief, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    is known about the distribution of the enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of these eCBs. We therefore examined the expression and localization of the main components of the eCB system in the retina of mice, tree shrews, and monkeys. We found that CB1R and FAAH distributions are well...... of the outer retina and in retinal neurons of the inner retina; in monkeys, CB2R is restricted to Müller cells. Finally, the expression patterns of MAGL and DAGLα are differently expressed across species. Overall, these results provide evidence that the eCB system is differently expressed in the retina...

  2. Resting-associated vocalization emitted by captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus: acoustic structure and variability in an unusual mammalian vocalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Schneiderová

    Full Text Available Shrews have rich vocal repertoires that include vocalizations within the human audible frequency range and ultrasonic vocalizations. Here, we recorded and analyzed in detail the acoustic structure of a vocalization with unclear functional significance that was spontaneously produced by 15 adult, captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus while they were lying motionless and resting in their nests. This vocalization was usually emitted repeatedly in a long series with regular intervals. It showed some structural variability; however, the shrews most frequently emitted a tonal, low-frequency vocalization with minimal frequency modulation and a low, non-vocal click that was clearly noticeable at its beginning. There was no effect of sex, but the acoustic structure of the analyzed vocalizations differed significantly between individual shrews. The encoded individuality was low, but it cannot be excluded that this individuality would allow discrimination of family members, i.e., a male and female with their young, collectively resting in a common nest. The question remains whether the Asian house shrews indeed perceive the presence of their mates, parents or young resting in a common nest via the resting-associated vocalization and whether they use it to discriminate among their family members. Additional studies are needed to explain the possible functional significance of resting-associated vocalizations emitted by captive Asian house shrews. Our study highlights that the acoustic communication of shrews is a relatively understudied topic, particularly considering that they are highly vocal mammals.

  3. Mole Penetrator Driven by an Electromagnetic Direct Drive (EMOLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygorczuk, J.; Kedziora, B.; Dobrowolski, M.; Drogosz, M.; Graczyk, R.; Krasowski, J.; Tokarz, M.; Wisniewski, L.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a new generation of mole type penetrators driven by an electromagnetic direct drive. EMOLE is a low-speed penetrator capable of underground mobility within regolith carrying scientific instruments (such as sampling tools or thermal sensors) in planetary missions, where Mars and the Moon are the mostly foreseen destinations. EMOLE combines new ideas and earlier achievements, both of which had influence on the concept and would demonstrate the technology. In consequence, a laboratory model device was successively developed. Its principle of operation is based on the interaction of the three masses of the device between which the energy exchange is performed and, as a result, a hammering action is achieved. The major novelty of the EMOLE concept is twofold - the penetrator’s drive will be much more reliable in comparison to the spring driven moles, and its new drive system will be fit to have power settings.

  4. For Mole Problems, Call Avogadro: 602-1023

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthe, R. E.

    2002-10-01

    General education students who have never encountered Avogadro’s number often have difficulty grasping its magnitude and the resulting implications for sizes and numbers of particles in common materials they see around them. I have surveyed the approaches used by several chemical educators. This article describes the techniques I find best help introductory students in General College at the University of Minnesota become familiar with Avogadro’s number and mole calculations. They involve estimating numbers of common objects and then calculating the length of time needed to count large numbers of them. For example, the immense amount of time required to count a mole of sand grains at one grain per second greatly exceeds the age of the universe. The calculations also reinforce procedures for manipulating exponents and applying problem-solving techniques.

  5. Tree shrew models: a chronic social defeat model of depression and a one-trial captive conditioning model of learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Tian, Men; Yang, Yue-Xiong; Xu, Lin

    2011-02-01

    Recent genome studies indicate that tree shrew is in the order or a closest sister of primates, and thus may be one of the best animals to model human diseases. In this paper, we report on a social defeat model of depression in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis). Two male tree shrews were housed in a pair-cage consisting of two independent cages separated by a wire mesh partition with a door connecting the two cages. After one week adaptation, the connecting door was opened and a brief fighting occurs between the two male tree shrews and this social conflict session consisted of 1 h direct conflict (fighting) and 23 h indirect influence (e.g. smell, visual cues) per day for 21 days. The defeated tree shrew was considered the subordinate. Compared with naive animals, subordinate tree shrews at the final week of social conflict session showed alterations in body weight, locomotion, avoidance behavior and urinary cortisol levels. Remarkably, these alterations persisted for over two weeks. We also report on a novel captive conditioning model of learning and memory in tree shrew. An automatic trapping cage was placed in a small closed room with a freely-moving tree shrew. For the first four trials, the tree shrew was not trapped when it entered the cage and ate the bait apple, but it was trapped and kept in the cage for 1 h on the fifth trial. Latency was defined as the time between release of the tree shrew and when it entered the captive cage. Latencies during the five trials indicated adaptation. A test trial 24 h later was used to measure whether the one-trial trapping during the fifth trial could form captive memory. Tree shrews showed much longer trapping latencies in the test trial than the adaptation trials. The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.2 mg/kg, i.p.), known to prevent the formation of memory, did not affect latencies in the adaptation trails, but did block captive memory as it led to much shorter trapping latencies compared

  6. Unpacking the Meaning of the Mole Concept for Secondary School Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Su-Chi; Hart, Christina; Clarke, David

    2014-01-01

    The "mole" is a fundamental concept in quantitative chemistry, yet research has shown that the mole is one of the most perplexing concepts in the teaching and learning of chemistry. This paper provides a survey of the relevant literature, identifies the necessary components of a sound understanding of the mole concept, and unpacks and…

  7. The Mole. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit S1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on the mole is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, designed to help students consolidate some of the ideas about the mole learned in previous courses, consists of two levels. The first level focuses on: (1) relative mass; (2) the concept of the mole as the unit…

  8. Teaching the Mole Concept Using a Conceptual Change Method at College Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uce, Musa

    2009-01-01

    Chemistry is a subject area that is difficult to understand for some students as it contains abstract concepts, such as mole, molecule and particle. The mole concept is one of the most important topics in which students have difficulty in understanding. There are many studies in the literature on the mole concept. Students who do not fully…

  9. Vampire bat, shrew, and bear: comparative physiology and chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Michael A

    2002-06-01

    In the typical mammal, energy flux, protein metabolism, and renal excretory processes constitute a set of closely linked and quantitatively matched functions. However, this matching has limits, and these limits become apparent when animals adapt to unusual circumstances. The vampire bat and shrew have an extremely high protein intake, and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is not commensurate with the large urea load to be excreted. The vampire bat is chronically azotemic (blood urea concentration 27-57 mmol/l); yet there is no information as to how this animal has adjusted to such an azotemic internal environment. A high protein intake should also lead to chronic glomerular hyperfiltration; yet neither animal appears to develop progressive renal failure. The American black bear, on the other hand, has adapted to a prolonged period without intake or urine output. Despite continued amino acid catabolism with urea production, this mammal is able to completely salvage and reutilize urea nitrogen for protein synthesis, although the signals that initiate this metabolic adaptation are not known. The vampire bat, shrew, and bear are natural models adapted to circumstances analogous to chronic renal failure. Unraveling these adaptations could lead to new interventions for the prevention/treatment of chronic renal failure.

  10. A Comparative Analysis of the Endocannabinoid System in the Retina of Mice, Tree Shrews, and Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Bouskila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid (eCB system is widely expressed in various parts of the central nervous system, including the retina. The localization of the key eCB receptors, particularly CB1R and CB2R, has been recently reported in rodent and primate retinas with striking interspecies differences. Little is known about the distribution of the enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of these eCBs. We therefore examined the expression and localization of the main components of the eCB system in the retina of mice, tree shrews, and monkeys. We found that CB1R and FAAH distributions are well-preserved among these species. However, expression of NAPE-PLD is circumscribed to the photoreceptor layer only in monkeys. In contrast, CB2R expression is variable across these species; in mice, CB2R is found in retinal neurons but not in glial cells; in tree shrews, CB2R is expressed in Müller cell processes of the outer retina and in retinal neurons of the inner retina; in monkeys, CB2R is restricted to Müller cells. Finally, the expression patterns of MAGL and DAGLα are differently expressed across species. Overall, these results provide evidence that the eCB system is differently expressed in the retina of these mammals and suggest a distinctive role of eCBs in visual processing.

  11. "The Taming of the Shrew": authority and love at the origin of the modern nuclear family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Piazza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The lesson on William Shakespeare’s The Taming of the Shrew was written on occasion of the day against the astonishing number of women murdered by men especially men who pretended to love them. This phenomenon is not to be associated to a sort of archaic culture, but, on the contrary, it is related to modernity. In fact, violence and conflicts in a heterosexual couple come explicitly to the fore with and after the institution of the patriarchal nuclear family which at the origins of modernity posits love as the motivation of marriage and the formation of a family. Shakespeare and the Elizabethan theatre face the question both in tragedies and in comedies as in the case of The Taming of the Shrew where the shrew’s final monologue problematically sounds as the manifesto of the acknowledgment of the inferiority of women and so of the husband’s right to the woman’s subjection to her husband.

  12. Conditioned flavor preference and the US postexposure effect in the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke eSawa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The house musk shrew (Suncus murinus is the only species of insectivore that can be used as a laboratory animal and is an interesting subject in terms of evolutional and comparative aspects. The present study on the learning faculties of shrews examines the possibility of acquiring a conditioned flavor preference and the effects of US postexposure. Subjects were allowed to a drink sucrose solution with flavor A and tap water with flavor B during training. Two extinction tests were administered after every four conditioning trials, and a significant preference for flavor A was observed. After each test, the animals were divided into two groups. Subjects in Group US were presented with a sucrose solution without flavor, while those in Group Water were given tap water. After these trials, all subjects received choice tests where they were presented with water containing the two flavors. The preference ratio was lower in Group US than in Group Water, suggesting a postexposure effect. The findings were discussed in terms of habituation to the US.

  13. Alkoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activities and polychlorinated biphenyl patterns in shrews as biomarkers in environmental risk assessments: sensitivity and specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den N.W.; Bosveld, A.T.C.

    2005-01-01

    Alkoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (AROD) biomarkers are useful indicators of the exposure of organisms to dioxin-like compounds. In the current study, an in vivo validation of the use of such biomarkers in shrews was conducted. Furthermore, the use of changes in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) patterns as

  14. Tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis, a novel non-obese animal model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linqiang Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is becoming a severe public health problem that is affecting a large proportion of the world population. Generally, NAFLD in patients is usually accompanied by obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance (IR and type 2 diabetes (T2D, for which numerous animal models have been generated in order to explore the pathogenesis and therapies of NAFLD. On the contrary, quite a number of NAFLD subjects, especially in Asian regions, are non-obese and non-diabetic; however, few animal models are available for the research of non-obese NAFLD. Here, four approaches (here called approach 1 to 4 corresponding to the variable compositions of diets were used to treat tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis, which have a closer evolutionary relationship to primates than rodents. Analysis of plasma biochemical parameters, hepatic histology, and the expression of hepatic lipid metabolic genes revealed that all four approaches led to hepatic lipid accumulation, liver injury and hypercholesterolemia, but had no effect on body weight and adipose tissue generation, or glycemia. Hepatic gene expression in tree shrews treated by approach 4 might suggest a different or non-canonical pathway leading to hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the tree shrew displays hepatic steatosis and dyslipidemia, but remains non-obese and non-diabetic under high energy diets, which suggests that the tree shrew may be useful as a novel animal model for the research of human non-obese NAFLD.

  15. Inference Based on Transitive Relation in Tree Shrews ("Tupaia belangeri") and Rats ("Rattus norvegicus") on a Spatial Discrimination Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Ushitani, Tomokazu; Fujita, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    Six tree shrews and 8 rats were tested for their ability to infer transitively in a spatial discrimination task. The apparatus was a semicircular radial-arm maze with 8 arms labeled A through H. In Experiment 1, the animals were first trained in sequence on 4 discriminations to enter 1 of the paired adjacent arms, AB, BC, CD, and DE, with right…

  16. Tree shrews (tupaia belangeri exhibit novelty preference in the novel location memory task with 24-hour retention periods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakrishnan H R Nair

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Novelty preference is pervasive in mammalian species, and describes an inherent tendency to preferentially explore novelty. The novel location memory task studied here assesses the ability of animals to form accurate memories of a spatial configuration, consisting of several identical objects placed within an arena. Tree shrews were first familiarized with a particular object configuration during several sessions, and then an object was displaced during a test session. Tree shrews exhibited enhanced exploration when confronted with this novel configuration. The most reliable indicator associated with novelty preference was an enhancement in directed exploration towards the novel object, although we also observed a non-specific overall increase in exploration in one experiment. During the test session, we also observed an exploration of the location, which had previously been occupied by the displaced object, an effect termed empty quadrant. Our behavioral findings suggest multiple stages of spatial memory formation in tree shrews that are associated with various forms of behavioral responses to novelty. Reduced novelty preference has been linked to major depressive disorder in human patients. Given the established social conflict depression model in tree shrews, we anticipate that the study of the neural circuits of novelty preference and their malfunction during depression may have implications for understanding or treating depression in humans.

  17. Colonization of Ireland: revisiting ‘the pygmy shrew syndrome' using mitochondrial, Y chromosomal and microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, A D; Vega, R; Rambau, R V; Yannic, G; Herman, J S; Hayden, T J; Searle, J B

    2011-01-01

    There is great uncertainty about how Ireland attained its current fauna and flora. Long-distance human-mediated colonization from southwestern Europe has been seen as a possible way that Ireland obtained many of its species; however, Britain has (surprisingly) been neglected as a source area for Ireland. The pygmy shrew has long been considered an illustrative model species, such that the uncertainty of the Irish colonization process has been dubbed ‘the pygmy shrew syndrome'. Here, we used new genetic data consisting of 218 cytochrome (cyt) b sequences, 153 control region sequences, 17 Y-intron sequences and 335 microsatellite multilocus genotypes to distinguish between four possible hypotheses for the colonization of the British Isles, formulated in the context of previously published data. Cyt b sequences from western Europe were basal to those found in Ireland, but also to those found in the periphery of Britain and several offshore islands. Although the central cyt b haplotype in Ireland was found in northern Spain, we argue that it most likely occurred in Britain also, from where the pygmy shrew colonized Ireland as a human introduction during the Holocene. Y-intron and microsatellite data are consistent with this hypothesis, and the biological traits and distributional data of pygmy shrews argue against long-distance colonization from Spain. The compact starburst of the Irish cyt b expansion and the low genetic diversity across all markers strongly suggests a recent colonization. This detailed molecular study of the pygmy shrew provides a new perspective on an old colonization question. PMID:21673740

  18. Mole Mapping for Management of Pigmented Skin Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk-Krauss, Juliana; Polsky, David; Stein, Jennifer A

    2017-10-01

    Identifying new or changing melanocytic lesions, particularly in patients with numerous or atypical nevi, can be challenging. Total-body photography and sequential digital dermoscopy imaging, together known as digital follow-up, are 2 prominent forms of noninvasive imaging technology used in mole mapping that have been found to improve diagnostic accuracy, detect earlier-stage melanomas, and reduce costs. Digital follow-up, in combination with direct-to-consumer applications and teledermatology, is already revolutionizing the ways in which physicians and patients participate in melanoma surveillance and will likely continue to enhance early detection efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mammals of South America, Volume 1, Marsupials, Xenarthrans, Shrews, and Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    The vast terrain between Panama and Tierra del Fuego contains some of the world?s richest mammalian fauna, but until now it has lacked a comprehensive systematic reference to the identification, distribution, and taxonomy of its mammals. The first such book of its kind and the inaugural volume in a three-part series, Mammals of South America both summarizes existing information and encourages further research of the mammals indigenous to the region. Containing identification keys and brief descriptions of each order, family, and genus, the first volume of Mammals of South America covers marsupials, shrews, armadillos, sloths, anteaters, and bats. Species accounts include taxonomic descriptions, synonymies, keys to identification, distributions with maps and a gazetteer of marginal localities, lists of recognized subspecies, brief summaries of natural history information, and discussions of issues related to taxonomic interpretations. Highly anticipated and much needed, this book will be a landmark contribution to mammalogy, zoology, tropical biology, and conservation biology.

  20. Effect of land cover, habitat fragmentation and ant colonies on the distribution and abundance of shrews in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakkonen, Juha; Fisher, Robert N.; Case, Ted J.

    2001-01-01

    Because effects of habitat fragmentation and anthropogenic disturbance on native animals have been relatively little studied in arid areas and in insectivores, we investigated the roles of different land covers, habitat fragmentation and ant colonies on the distribution and abundance of shrews, Notiosorex crawfordi and Sorex ornatus, in southern California.Notiosorex crawfordi was the numerically dominant species (trap-success rate 0·52) occurring in 21 of the 22 study sites in 85% of the 286 pitfall arrays used in this study.Sorex ornatus was captured in 14 of the sites, in 52% of the arrays with a total trap-success rate of 0·2. Neither of the species was found in one of the sites.The population dynamics of the two shrew species were relatively synchronous during the 4–5-year study; the peak densities usually occurred during the spring. Precipitation had a significant positive effect, and maximum temperature a significant negative effect on the trap-success rate of S. ornatus.Occurrence and abundance of shrews varied significantly between sites and years but the size of the landscape or the study site had no effect on the abundance of shrews. The amount of urban edge had no significant effect on the captures of shrews but increased edge allows invasion of the Argentine ants, which had a highly significant negative impact on the abundance of N. crawfordi.At the trap array level, the percentage of coastal sage scrub flora had a significant positive, and the percentage of other flora had a significant negative effect on the abundance of N. crawfordi. The mean canopy height and the abundance of N. crawfordi had a significant positive effect on the occurrence of S. ornatus.Our study suggests that the loss of native coastal sage scrub flora and increasing presence of Argentine ant colonies may significantly effect the distribution and abundance of N. crawfordi. The very low overall population densities of both shrew species in most study sites make both species

  1. Characterization of tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) interleukin-6 and its expression pattern in response to exogenous challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuanyuan; Sun, Xiaomei; Kuang, Dexuan; Tong, Pinfen; Lu, Caixia; Wang, Wenguang; Li, Na; Chen, Yang; Wang, Xiaoping; Dai, Jiejie; Zhang, Huatang

    2017-12-01

    Tree shrews, one of the closest relatives of primates, have attracted increasing attention as a model of human diseases, particularly for viral infections. As the first line of defense against microbial pathogens, the innate immune system is crucial in tree shrews. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is important in the pathophysiology of infection, inflammation and cancer, where it promotes disease development or sustains immune reactions. The present study aimed to obtain further insight into the tree shrew IL-6 (tsIL-6) system, and the function of tsIL-6 in the antiviral and antibacterial response. In the present study, the mRNA and genomic sequence of the tsIL-6 gene were characterized, and the tissue distribution and expression profile of this gene were analyzed in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) treatment. The full-length tsIL-6 mRNA consisted of 1,152 bp with an open reading frame of 627 bp encoding 208 amino acids, a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 62 bp, and a 3'-UTR of 436 bp. The genome sequence of the tsIL-6 gene was 5,265 bp in length, comprising of five exons and four introns. The predicted tsIL-6 protein contained a 25-amino-acid-long signal peptide and a conserved IL-6 domain. Phylogenetic analysis based on the coding sequences revealed that tsIL-6 was closely related to IL-6 in humans. Residues crucial for receptor binding were completely conserved in the tree shrew protein. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that tsIL-6 mRNA was expressed in all examined tissues of healthy tree shrews, with high levels in the muscle and spleen. Following poly I:C challenge, the expression levels of tsIL-6 were upregulated in four tissues associated with immune system, the liver, spleen, kidney and intestine. Taken together, the molecular and bioinformatics analyses based on the IL-6 sequence revealed that the tree shrew has a close phylogenetic association with humans. These results

  2. Solar radiation during rewarming from torpor in elephant shrews: supplementation or substitution of endogenous heat production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michelle L; Mzilikazi, Nomakwezi; Bennett, Nigel C; McKechnie, Andrew E

    2015-01-01

    Many small mammals bask in the sun during rewarming from heterothermy, but the implications of this behaviour for their energy balance remain little understood. Specifically, it remains unclear whether solar radiation supplements endogenous metabolic thermogenesis (i.e., rewarming occurs through the additive effects of internally-produced and external heat), or whether solar radiation reduces the energy required to rewarm by substituting (i.e, replacing) metabolic heat production. To address this question, we examined patterns of torpor and rewarming rates in eastern rock elephant shrews (Elephantulus myurus) housed in outdoor cages with access to either natural levels of solar radiation or levels that were experimentally reduced by means of shade cloth. We also tested whether acclimation to solar radiation availability was manifested via phenotypic flexibility in basal metabolic rate (BMR), non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity and/or summit metabolism (Msum). Rewarming rates varied significantly among treatments, with elephant shrews experiencing natural solar radiation levels rewarming faster than conspecifics experiencing solar radiation levels equivalent to approximately 20% or 40% of natural levels. BMR differed significantly between individuals experiencing natural levels of solar radiation and conspecifics experiencing approximately 20% of natural levels, but no between-treatment difference was evident for NST capacity or Msum. The positive relationship between solar radiation availability and rewarming rate, together with the absence of acclimation in maximum non-shivering and total heat production capacities, suggests that under the conditions of this study solar radiation supplemented rather than substituted metabolic thermogenesis as a source of heat during rewarming from heterothermy.

  3. Reproductive outcomes after hydatiform mole and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadducci, Angiolo; Lanfredini, Nora; Cosio, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease includes complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) or partial hydatidiform mole (PHM) and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). Given the very high-curability rate of trophoblastic disease, the risk of further molar pregnancy after CHM or PHM as well as the risk of second primary tumors and fertility compromise after chemotherapy for GTN represent major concerns. The incidence of subsequent molar pregnancy ranges from 0.7 to 2.6% after one CHM or PHM, and is approximately 10% after two previous CHMs. Among patients who have received chemotherapy, there is an increased risk of myeloid leukemia which is mainly related to the cumulative dose of etoposide. Resumption of normal menses occurs in approximately 95% of women treated with chemotherapy, but menopause occurs 3 years earlier compared with those non-treated with chemotherapy. Term live birth rates higher than 70% without increased risk of congenital abnormalities have been reported in these women, and pregnancy outcomes are comparable to those of general population, except a slightly increased risk of stillbirth. Fertility-sparing treatment for placental site trophoblastic tumor is a therapeutic option reserved to highly selected, young women who do not present markedly enlarged uterus or diffuse multifocal disease within the uterus.

  4. Extraordinary multilocus genetic organization in mole crickets, Gryllotalpidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, E; Beiles, A; Korol, A B; Robin, Y I; Pavlicek, T; Hamilton, W

    2000-04-01

    Allozymic diversity at 21 loci was analyzed in 470 individuals of three species of mole cricket superspecies, Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa (two new chromosomal species, G. tali and G. marismortui) and G. africana in Israel, which are distributed along a southward transect of increasing aridity. Two outstanding findings emerged in G. tali and G. marismortui: (1) genetic polymorphism was high but heterozygosity very low, indicating significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations; and (2) significant linkage disequilibria at an unprecedented level for outbreeders and remarkable intersite differences. The results may characterize subterranean gryllotalpids worldwide because a single sample of Neocurtilla hexadactyla from Tefé, Amazonia, shows the same features. Significant variation of heterozygote paucity among loci, combined with the biology of the species, rejects the simple explanation of inbreeding or any other single explanatory model. Likewise, direct selection against heterozygotes or specific multilocus associations can explain, but is not necessary nor likely to explain, the observed results in mole crickets. To explain these results, we developed a multiple-factor mathematical model combining niche viability selection, niche choice, and positive assortative mating. This model involves a special case of Wahlund effect and inbreeding. Simulations based on this model showed that a combination of these three mechanisms may produce the observed distribution of alleles, via selection on a few loci, to affect the entire genome organization.

  5. Morphological and sequence analysis of Mycoplasma sp. isolated from the oral cavity of a house musk shrew (Suncus murinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Kazuo; Yasuda, Masahiko; Hayashimoto, Nobuhito; Ebukuro, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    Mycoplasma sp. strain EDS-4 was isolated from the oral cavity of EDS line of a house musk shrew (Suncus murinus) originated from Bangladesh, and was distinguished from all previously described mollicutes. It lacks a cell wall; ferments glucose; does not produce film and spots; and does not hydrolyse arginine and urea. The strain could be distinguished from all previously described mollicutes by 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons. The results suggest that the isolate is new species of mollicutes originated from the shrew. The strain EDS-4 has been deposited with Japan collection of Microorganisms, Bioresource Center, RIKEN in Japan (JCM15930). The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain EDS-4 is available through the DDBJ under accession number (AB469852).

  6. Discovery of Natural Infection by Metagonimus hakubaensis Shimazu, 1999 (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) in Japanese Water Shrews (Chimarrogale platycephala) in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    KUDO, Noboru; SHIGETA, Kai; MATSUMOTO, Koji; OYAMADA, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT ABSTRACT. A total of 611 preserved adult Metagonimus spp. specimens recovered from 32 of 53 Japanese water shrews (Chimarrogale platycephala) that had previously been collected in Aomori Prefecture between June 1994 and August 1996, were examined in this study. Morphological examination revealed that 603 of these flukes were identical to M. hakubaensis Shimazu, 1999, and that the others were M. takahashii Suzuki, 1930 (n=4), M. otsurui Saito et Shimizu, 1968 (n=2), and M. miyatai Saito et al., 1997 (n=2). Each of the 32 Japanese water shrews infected with M. hakubaensis contained between 1 and 83 flukes. This is the first record of the natural final host for M. hakubaensis, since this fluke species was described. PMID:25131808

  7. Blarina toxin, a mammalian lethal venom from the short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda: Isolation and characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Kita, M; Nakamura, Y; Okumura, Y.; Ohdachi, SD; Oba, Y; Yoshikuni, M; Kido, H; Uemura, D

    2004-01-01

    Venomous mammals are rare, and their venoms have not been characterized. We have purified and characterized the blarina toxin (BLTX), a lethal mammalian venom with a tissue kallikrein-like activity from the submaxillary and sublingual glands of the short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda. Mice administered BLTX i.p. developed irregular respiration, paralysis, and convulsions before dying. Based on the amino acid sequence of purified protein, we cloned the BLTX cDNA. It consists of a prosequence...

  8. Mole: an open near real-time database-centric Earthworm subsystem

    OpenAIRE

    Quintiliani, Matteo; Pintore, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Mole is an open-source and cross-platform Earthworm subsystem made up of a MySQL database schema, an Earthworm module, and a web interface. Although it sprang from INGV requirements, Mole is as general-purpose as possible in order to provide a high-level communication layer to Earthworm. In this sense, Mole intends to be a starting point for the Earthworm community to fire up a development effort for a new “Open Interactive Earthworm”.

  9. A new species of small-eared shrew in the Cryptotis thomasi species group from Costa Rica (Mammalia: Eulipotyphla: Soricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal; Timm, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a new species of small-eared shrew, genus Cryptotis Pomel, 1848 (Eulipotyphla: Soricidae), from near the community of Monteverde in the Tilarán highlands of northwestern Costa Rica. The new species is immediately distinguished from all other Costa Rican shrews its large size and long tail. Morphologically, it belongs to the Cryptotis thomasi group of small-eared shrews, a clade that is more typically distributed in the Andes Cordillera and other highland regions of northern South America. The new Costa Rican species and the Panamanian endemic Cryptotis endersi Setzer, 1950 are the only two members of this species group known to occur in Central America. Like most other members of the C. thomasi group for which the postcranial skeleton has been studied, the new species tends be more ambulatory (rather than semi-fossorial) when compared with other members of the genus. Our survey efforts over several decades failed to locate a population of the new species, and we discuss its conservation status in light of its limited potential distribution in the Tilarán highlands and the significant climatic change that has been documented in the Monteverde region during the past four decades.

  10. Carving out turf in a biodiversity hotspot: multiple, previously unrecognized shrew species co-occur on Java Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselstyn, Jacob A; Maharadatunkamsi; Achmadi, Anang S; Siler, Cameron D; Evans, Ben J

    2013-10-01

    In theory, competition among species in a shared habitat results in niche separation. In the case of small recondite mammals such as shrews, little is known about their autecologies, leaving open questions regarding the degree to which closely related species co-occur and how or whether ecological niches are partitioned. The extent to which species are able to coexist may depend on the degree to which they exploit different features of their habitat, which may in turn influence our ability to recognize them as species. We explored these issues in a biodiversity hotspot, by surveying shrew (genus Crocidura) diversity on the Indonesian island of Java. We sequenced portions of nine unlinked genes in 100-117 specimens of Javan shrews and incorporated homologous data from most known Crocidura species from other parts of island South-East Asia. Current taxonomy recognizes four Crocidura species on Java, including two endemics. However, our phylogenetic, population genetic and species delimitation analyses identify five species on the island, and all are endemic to Java. While the individual ranges of these species may not overlap in their entirety, we found up to four species living syntopically and all five species co-occurring on one mountain. Differences in species' body size, use of above ground-level habitats by one species and habitat partitioning along ecological gradients may have facilitated species diversification and coexistence. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Possible incipient sympatric ecological speciation in blind mole rats (Spalax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadid, Yarin; Tzur, Shay; Pavlícek, Tomáš; Šumbera, Radim; Šklíba, Jan; Lövy, Matěj; Fragman-Sapir, Ori; Beiles, Avigdor; Arieli, Ran; Raz, Shmuel; Nevo, Eviatar

    2013-02-12

    Sympatric speciation has been controversial since it was first proposed as a mode of speciation. Subterranean blind mole rats (Spalacidae) are considered to speciate allopatrically or peripatrically. Here, we report a possible incipient sympatric adaptive ecological speciation in Spalax galili (2n = 52). The study microsite (0.04 km(2)) is sharply subdivided geologically, edaphically, and ecologically into abutting barrier-free ecologies divergent in rock, soil, and vegetation types. The Pleistocene Alma basalt abuts the Cretaceous Senonian Kerem Ben Zimra chalk. Only 28% of 112 plant species were shared between the soils. We examined mitochondrial DNA in the control region and ATP6 in 28 mole rats from basalt and in 14 from chalk habitats. We also sequenced the complete mtDNA (16,423 bp) of four animals, two from each soil type. Remarkably, the frequency of all major haplotype clusters (HC) was highly soil-biased. HCI and HCII are chalk biased. HC-III was abundant in basalt (36%) but absent in chalk; HC-IV was prevalent in basalt (46.5%) but was low (20%) in chalk. Up to 40% of the mtDNA diversity was edaphically dependent, suggesting constrained gene flow. We identified a homologous recombinant mtDNA in the basalt/chalk studied area. Phenotypically significant divergences differentiate the two populations, inhabiting different soils, in adaptive oxygen consumption and in the amount of outside-nest activity. This identification of a possible incipient sympatric adaptive ecological speciation caused by natural selection indirectly refutes the allopatric alternative. Sympatric ecological speciation may be more prevalent in nature because of abundant and sharply abutting divergent ecologies.

  12. Sleep in the blind mole rat Spalax ehrenbergi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, I; Deboer, T

    2001-03-15

    The mole rat, Spalax ehrenbergi, is an interesting species for sleep because of its pronounced specialization to a fossorial life. These rodents spend most of their life-time underground, and are less exposed to many of the environmental stimuli and challenges that are common to non-fossorial rodents. A prominent adaptation is their blindness, which is due to an atrophy of the eyes. Continuous 24-h recordings of EEG, EMG and cortical temperature, and EEG spectral analysis were performed in six individuals caught in the wild and adapted to the laboratory for several months. N/A. N/A. N/A. Total sleep time (52% of recording time) and the amount of REM sleep (8% of recording time) in these subterranean rodents are in the range of values found in the laboratory rat, mouse and hamster recorded under similar conditions. In contrast to these species, the polyphasic sleep-wakefulness distribution in mole rats was more distinct. A predominance of sleep in the dark period was only minor and not present in all individuals, which resembles sleep in the guinea pig. As in all other mammals investigated, the daily time course of EEG slow-wave activity (SWA) in nonREM sleep closely followed the polyphasic sleep-wake pattern and the light-dark preference. The transitions from non REM sleep to REM sleep were characterized, as in other rodents, by a gradual increase in EEG activity in the theta and sigma frequency bands before the transition. However, the power surge in these frequencies massively exceeded that found in other rodents. This feature may be related to adaptations of the brain to the requirements of the subterranean habitat. It is remarkable that large ecological differences between species within the same order have relatively small effects on many sleep features. The time course of SWA confirmed its predictability on the basis of the previous sleep-wake history.

  13. Two Investigations of Students' Understanding of the Mole Concept and Its Use in Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staver, John R.; Lumpe, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Examines the following research questions and others: (1) How do students define the mole concept? and (2) Is there a connection between student's definition of the mole concept and their explanations of the numerical identity between the atomic or molecular mass and molar mass of a substance? Results are discussed in terms of research in chemical…

  14. Constructing Understandings of the Mole Concept: Interactions of Chemistry Text, Teacher and Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jane O.

    Due to its abstract, theoretical nature, the mole concept has been recognized as one of the most difficult topics to teach and learn within the chemistry curriculum. The purpose of this study was to chronicle the development of high school students' conceptions of the mole following a period of instruction in a chemistry class. This investigation…

  15. Analyzing Difficulties with Mole-Concept Tasks by Using Familiar Analog Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Dorothy; Sherwood, Robert D.

    1984-01-01

    Determined whether chemistry students (N=332) understood analog tasks that could be used for teaching the mole concept. Also identified possible difficulties that students might have in solving mole problems. Seven major conclusions are reported and discussed, including the finding that two-step problems were more difficult to solve than one-step…

  16. A Content Analysis of the Presentation of the Mole Concept in Chemistry Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staver, John R.; Lumpe, Andrew T.

    1993-01-01

    Examined the means used by textbook authors to introduce, define, and explain the mole concept in high school and introductory college chemistry textbooks (n=29). Among the conclusions are that the presentation and definitions of moles in the textbooks are most frequently abstract and theoretical in nature. (PR)

  17. Genome sequencing reveals insights into physiology and longevity of the naked mole rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Eun Bae; Fang, Xiaodong; Fushan, Alexey A

    2011-01-01

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a strictly subterranean, extraordinarily long-lived eusocial mammal. Although it is the size of a mouse, its maximum lifespan exceeds 30 years, making this animal the longest-living rodent. Naked mole rats show negligible senescence, no age-related in...

  18. Twin Gestation Consisting of Hydatidiform Mole and a Live Fetus: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultrasonography revealed hydatidiform mole and a viable fetus. She had suction curettage at 16weeks gestational age because of heavy vaginal bleeding. Histology confirmed benign hydatidiform mole. Urinary HCG level declined progressively and was negative by 4 weeks post-evacuation. Eight months after, she was 20 ...

  19. The risk of persistent trophoblastic disease after hydatidiform mole classified by morphology and ploidy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Isa; Hansen, Estrid S; Sunde, Lone

    2007-01-01

    influence the development of morphologic features in hydatidiform moles. We recommend that gestations suspected of hydatidiform mole are subjected to histopathologic examination. If hydatidiform change and trophoblastic hyperplasia are identified, the ploidy should be used to identify patients with a high...... risk of persistent trophoblastic disease. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Feb...

  20. Decreased type III and V collagen expression in chorionic villi of hydatidiform mole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahashi, M; Muragaki, Y; Ooshima, A; Nakano, R

    2001-07-01

    To investigate the characteristic structure of hydatidiform mole, various types of collagen expression were determined in human villous tissues obtained from normal pregnancies (n = 17) and complete hydatidiform moles (n = 10). Indirect immunofluorescent staining was performed to detect type I, III, and VI collagen with specific monoclonal antibodies. Collagens were also extracted from the villous tissues obtained from normal pregnancy and hydatidiform mole by the salt precipitation method. Immunohistochemical staining for type I, III, and VI collagen revealed weak staining of the villous stroma in hydatidiform mole compared with that in normal pregnancy. Both the ratios of type III to type I collagen and the ratios of type V to type I collagen in the villous tissues were significantly decreased (P collagen might play an important role in determining the pathophysiology and structure of hydatidiform mole.

  1. Radiation ecology issues associated with murine rodents and shrews in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschak, Sergey P; Maklyuk, Yulia A; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the "soil-to-plant" chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy h(-1) in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the "Red Forest"). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy h(-1), respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy h(-1), respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  2. RADIATION ECOLOGY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH MURINE RODENTS AND SHREWS IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals, and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the 'soil-to-plant' chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy hr{sup -1} in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the 'Red Forest'). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  3. Bibliography of studies on hybrid zones of the common shrew chromosome races distributed in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadjafova, Rena S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, has become a model species for cytogenetic and evolutionary studies after discovery of extraordinary Robertsonian polymorphism at the within-species level. Development of differential staining techniques (Q-, R-and G-banding) made it possible to identify the chromosomal arms and their combination in racial karyotypes. Entering into contact with each other, the chromosomal races might form hybrid zones which represent a great interest for understanding of the process of speciation. Until recently all known hybrid zones of S. araneus were localized in Western Europe and only one was identified in Siberia (Russia) between Novosibirsk and Tomsk races (Aniskin and Lukianova 1989, Searle and Wójcik 1998, Polyakov et al. 2011). However, a rapidly growing number of reports on discovery of interracial hybrid zones of Sorex araneus in the European part of Russia and neighboring territories appeared lately. The aim of the present work is to compile the bibliography of all studies covering this topic regardless of the original language and the publishing source which hopefully could make research data more accessible to international scientists. It could also be a productive way to save current history of Sorex araneus researches in full context of the ISACC (International Sorex araneus Cytogenetics Committee) heritage (Searle et al. 2007, Zima 2008).

  4. Bibliography of studies on hybrid zones of the common shrew chromosome races distributed in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rena Nadjafova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, has become a model species for cytogenetical and evolutionary studies after discovery of extraordinary Robertsonian polymorphism at the within-species level. Development of differential staining techniques (Q-, R-and G-banding made it possible to identify the chromosomal arms and their combination in racial karyotypes. Entering into contact with each other, the chromosomal races might form hybrid zones which represent a great interest for understanding of the process of speciation. Until recently all known hybrid zones of S. araneus were localized in Western Europe and only one was identified in Siberia (Russia between Novosibirsk and Tomsk races (Aniskin and Lukianova 1989, Searle and Wójcik 1998, Polyakov et al. 2011. However, rapidly growing number of reports on discovery of interracial hybrid zones of Sorex araneus in the European part of Russia and neighboring territories appeared lately. The aim of the present work is to compile the bibliography of all studies covering this topic regardless of the original language and the publishing source which hopefully could make research data more accessible to international scientists.It could also be a productive way to save current history of Sorex araneus researches in full context of the ISACC (International Sorex araneus Cytogenetics Committee heritage (Searle et al. 2007, Zima 2008.

  5. Sticky snack for sengis: The Cape rock elephant-shrew, Elephantulus edwardii (Macroscelidea), as a pollinator of the Pagoda lily, Whiteheadia bifolia (Hyacinthaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Petra

    2010-12-01

    Following the recent discovery of rodent pollination in the Pagoda lily, Whiteheadia bifolia (Hyacinthaceae) in South Africa, now the Cape rock elephant-shrew, Elephantulus edwardii (Macroscelidea, Afrotheria) is reported as an additional pollinator. Elephant-shrews, live-trapped near W. bifolia plants, were released in two terraria, containing the plants. The animals licked nectar with their long and slender tongues while being dusted with pollen and touching the stigmas of the flowers with their long and flexible noses. The captured elephant-shrews had W. bifolia pollen in their faeces, likely as a result of grooming their fur as they visited the flowers without eating or destroying them. The animals mostly preferred nectar over other food. This is the first record of pollination and nectar consumption in the primarily insectivorous E. edwardii, contributing to the very sparse knowledge about the behaviour of this unique clade of African mammals, as well as pollination by small mammals.

  6. Eye development in the Cape dune mole rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, Natalya V; Kidson, Susan H

    2014-03-01

    Studies on mammalian species with naturally reduced eyes can provide valuable insights into the evolutionary developmental mechanisms underlying the reduction of the eye structures. Because few naturally microphthalmic animals have been studied and eye reduction must have evolved independently in many of the modern groups, novel evolutionary developmental models for eye research have to be sought. Here, we present a first report on embryonic eye development in the Cape dune mole rat, Bathyergus suillus. The eyes of these animals contain all the internal structures characteristic of the normal eye but exhibit abnormalities in the anterior chamber structures. The lens is small but develops normally and exhibits a normal expression of α- and γ-crystallins. One of the interesting features of these animals is an extremely enlarged and highly pigmented ciliary body. In order to understand the molecular basis of this unusual feature, the expression pattern of an early marker of the ciliary zone, Ptmb4, was investigated in this animal. Surprisingly, in situ hybridization results revealed that Ptmb4 expression was absent from the ciliary body zone of the developing Bathyergus eye.

  7. Teaching the mole concept with sub-micro level: Do the students perform better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriyanti, Nurma Yunita; Barke, Hans-Dieter

    2017-08-01

    The concept of mole is an abstract concept of sub-micro level. The main problem in chemistry that should be encounter by educators is students' inability to transfer understanding between macro level and sub-micro level. Particle-oriented approach is created due to improper expression in the term of mole on books and classroom learning. A mole is the amount of substance of a system, which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0,012 kg of carbon-12. When the mole is used, the elementary entities must be specified; they may be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other particles, or specified groups of such particles. The study presented here focuses on students' activity and response taught by mole triangle implemented in German and Indonesian classroom. Two classes of grade-10 were involved in each country. The way of students perform in the test was analyzed. Hands-on activities were used as an entrance and followed by particle-oriented expression. In worksheets of each hands-on experience, students should write the correct expression of mole concept. The results of the study indicated that there is different level of understanding in representing knowledge in learning the mole. The use of correct expression will ensure that students see meaningful relationships and can easily go back and forth between macro, sub-micro and symbolic level.

  8. Gestational trophoblastic disease I: epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation and diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease, and management of hydatidiform mole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurain, John R

    2010-12-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease includes hydatidiform mole (complete and partial) and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumor, and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor). The epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of each of these trophoblastic disease variants are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to management of hydatidiform mole, including evacuation, twin mole/normal fetus pregnancy, prophylactic chemotherapy, and follow-up. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Invading and Expanding: Range Dynamics and Ecological Consequences of the Greater White-Toothed Shrew (Crocidura russula) Invasion in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Allan D.; Montgomery, W. Ian; Tosh, David G.; Lusby, John; Reid, Neil; White, Thomas A.; McDevitt, C. Damien; O'Halloran, John; Searle, Jeremy B.; Yearsley, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Establishing how invasive species impact upon pre-existing species is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology. The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) is an invasive species in Ireland that was first recorded in 2007 and which, according to initial data, may be limiting the abundance/distribution of the pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus), previously Ireland's only shrew species. Because of these concerns, we undertook an intensive live-trapping survey (and used other data from live-trapping, sightings and bird of prey pellets/nest inspections collected between 2006 and 2013) to model the distribution and expansion of C. russula in Ireland and its impacts on Ireland's small mammal community. The main distribution range of C. russula was found to be approximately 7,600 km2 in 2013, with established outlier populations suggesting that the species is dispersing with human assistance within the island. The species is expanding rapidly for a small mammal, with a radial expansion rate of 5.5 km/yr overall (2008–2013), and independent estimates from live-trapping in 2012–2013 showing rates of 2.4–14.1 km/yr, 0.5–7.1 km/yr and 0–5.6 km/yr depending on the landscape features present. S. minutus is negatively associated with C. russula. S. minutus is completely absent at sites where C. russula is established and is only present at sites at the edge of and beyond the invasion range of C. russula. The speed of this invasion and the homogenous nature of the Irish landscape may mean that S. minutus has not had sufficient time to adapt to the sudden appearance of C. russula. This may mean the continued decline/disappearance of S. minutus as C. russula spreads throughout the island. PMID:24955824

  10. Invading and expanding: range dynamics and ecological consequences of the greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula invasion in Ireland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan D McDevitt

    Full Text Available Establishing how invasive species impact upon pre-existing species is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology. The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula is an invasive species in Ireland that was first recorded in 2007 and which, according to initial data, may be limiting the abundance/distribution of the pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus, previously Ireland's only shrew species. Because of these concerns, we undertook an intensive live-trapping survey (and used other data from live-trapping, sightings and bird of prey pellets/nest inspections collected between 2006 and 2013 to model the distribution and expansion of C. russula in Ireland and its impacts on Ireland's small mammal community. The main distribution range of C. russula was found to be approximately 7,600 km2 in 2013, with established outlier populations suggesting that the species is dispersing with human assistance within the island. The species is expanding rapidly for a small mammal, with a radial expansion rate of 5.5 km/yr overall (2008-2013, and independent estimates from live-trapping in 2012-2013 showing rates of 2.4-14.1 km/yr, 0.5-7.1 km/yr and 0-5.6 km/yr depending on the landscape features present. S. minutus is negatively associated with C. russula. S. minutus is completely absent at sites where C. russula is established and is only present at sites at the edge of and beyond the invasion range of C. russula. The speed of this invasion and the homogenous nature of the Irish landscape may mean that S. minutus has not had sufficient time to adapt to the sudden appearance of C. russula. This may mean the continued decline/disappearance of S. minutus as C. russula spreads throughout the island.

  11. What Are Students' Initial Ideas about "Amount of Substance"? "Is There a Specific Weight for a Mole?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesgens, Jennifer; Stacy, Angelica

    Analyzes the role of students' prior knowledge in their emerging understanding of the mole. The research question this study seeks to answer is what knowledge, if any, do student have regarding the mole and what prior knowledge do they access when presented problems regarding the nature of the mole. Data collection focuses on student knowledge…

  12. Invasive mole of the uterus: A description of two cases managed by hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Samy El-agwany

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD is a term used for a group of pregnancy-related tumors. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN, is recognized as the most curable gynecologic malignancy. However, many cases are resistant to first line chemotherapy. We present cases of invasive mole. They were diagnosed as a vesicular mole on ultrasonography and underwent suction and evacuation but vaginal bleeding recurred with plateau and rising B-hcg with intramyometrial vascular lesion. Hysterectomy was done that indicated invasive mole. Patients were cured of their symptoms. Surgical therapy (hysterectomy with chemotherapy has shown to achieve remission in these cases especially with resistance to chemotherapy and in perimenopause.

  13. Tourism potentials of Mole National Park in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad Wuleka Kuuder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor access and long distances from major cities/towns have always been major problems debarring the full utilization of nature-related touristic resources. Despite this, some adventuresome tourists still make efforts to such wildlife sanctuaries to have a feel of nature. This study explores tourism exploits at Mole National Park (the largest in Ghana which is located in the northern sector of the country. An inventory of facilities through field visits and observations were ‘exacted’ to identify different types of landforms, species of wildlife, vegetation and culture which were of touristic significance around the Park and also to have an overview of tourists’ “traffic” to the Park. With regard to data collection, the questionnaire method including personal observation were employed to obtain information from the four communities that surround the Park, the Park officials and tourists who visited the facility from April to May, 2011. The results analysed revealed that turn out was comparatively low due to the remote location of the Park including poor accessibility and low income among Ghanaians. Tourism awareness among community members was found to be high. Tourists found the Park impressive in terms of its variety in wildlife and services rendered therein. It was discovered that the Park has a high tourism potential which can be harnessed to attract both domestic and international tourists and bring socio-economic benefits to Ghana. The paper suggests that improvements in road network to and in the Park and stiffer sanctions to curb poaching were major ways to enhance tourism/recreation in the Park and making it sustainable.

  14. Is evolution of blind mole rats determined by climate oscillations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadid, Yarin; Németh, Attila; Snir, Sagi; Pavlíček, Tomáš; Csorba, Gábor; Kázmér, Miklós; Major, Agnes; Mezhzherin, Sergey; Rusin, Mikhail; Coşkun, Yüksel; Nevo, Eviatar

    2012-01-01

    The concept of climate variability facilitating adaptive radiation supported by the "Court Jester" hypothesis is disputed by the "Red Queen" one, but the prevalence of one or the other might be scale-dependent. We report on a detailed, comprehensive phylo-geographic study on the ∼4 kb mtDNA sequence in underground blind mole rats of the family Spalacidae (or subfamily Spalacinae) from the East Mediterranean steppes. Our study aimed at testing the presence of periodicities in branching patterns on a constructed phylogenetic tree and at searching for congruence between branching events, tectonic history and paleoclimates. In contrast to the strong support for the majority of the branching events on the tree, the absence of support in a few instances indicates that network-like evolution could exist in spalacids. In our tree, robust support was given, in concordance with paleontological data, for the separation of spalacids from muroid rodents during the first half of the Miocene when open, grass-dominated habitats were established. Marine barriers formed between Anatolia and the Balkans could have facilitated the separation of the lineage "Spalax" from the lineage "Nannospalax" and of the clade "leucodon" from the clade "xanthodon". The separation of the clade "ehrenbergi" occurred during the late stages of the tectonically induced uplift of the Anatolian high plateaus and mountains, whereas the separation of the clade "vasvarii" took place when the rapidly uplifting Taurus mountain range prevented the Mediterranean rainfalls from reaching the Central Anatolian Plateau. The separation of Spalax antiquus and S. graecus occurred when the southeastern Carpathians were uplifted. Despite the role played by tectonic events, branching events that show periodicity corresponding to 400-kyr and 100-kyr eccentricity bands illuminate the important role of orbital fluctuations on adaptive radiation in spalacids. At the given scale, our results supports the "Court Jester

  15. Traceability of pH to the Mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Camões

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Free acidity of aqueous solutions was initially defined in 1909 by Søren Peter Lauritz Sørensen as pH = −lgcH+ (c/mol·dm−3 or m/mol·kg−1 of the free hydrogen ions in solution, H+ soon (1910 was changed to pH = paH+ = −lgaH+, integrating the new concepts of activity, ai and activity coefficient γi, for the ionic species i under concern, H+ in this case; it is ai = −lg(miγi. Since individual ions do not exist alone in solution, primary pH values cannot be assigned solely by experimental measurements, requiring extra thermodynamic model assumptions for the activity coefficient, γH+, which has put pH in a unique situation of not being fully traceable to the International System of Units (SI. Also the concept of activity is often not felt to be as perceptible as that of concentration which may present difficulties, namely with the interpretation of data. pH measurements on unknown samples rely on calibration of the measuring setup with adequate reference pH buffers. In this work, the assignment of pH values to buffers closely matching the samples, e.g., seawater, is revisited. An approach is presented to assess the quantity pmH+ = −lgmH+ profiting from the fact that, contrary to single ion activity coefficients, mean activity coefficients,   can be assessed based on experimentally assessed quantities alone, γExp ±, thus ensuring traceability to the mole, the SI base unit for amount of substance. Compatibility between γExp ± and mean activity coefficient calculated by means of Pitzer model equations, γPtz ±, validates the model for its intended use.

  16. Is evolution of blind mole rats determined by climate oscillations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarin Hadid

    Full Text Available The concept of climate variability facilitating adaptive radiation supported by the "Court Jester" hypothesis is disputed by the "Red Queen" one, but the prevalence of one or the other might be scale-dependent. We report on a detailed, comprehensive phylo-geographic study on the ∼4 kb mtDNA sequence in underground blind mole rats of the family Spalacidae (or subfamily Spalacinae from the East Mediterranean steppes. Our study aimed at testing the presence of periodicities in branching patterns on a constructed phylogenetic tree and at searching for congruence between branching events, tectonic history and paleoclimates. In contrast to the strong support for the majority of the branching events on the tree, the absence of support in a few instances indicates that network-like evolution could exist in spalacids. In our tree, robust support was given, in concordance with paleontological data, for the separation of spalacids from muroid rodents during the first half of the Miocene when open, grass-dominated habitats were established. Marine barriers formed between Anatolia and the Balkans could have facilitated the separation of the lineage "Spalax" from the lineage "Nannospalax" and of the clade "leucodon" from the clade "xanthodon". The separation of the clade "ehrenbergi" occurred during the late stages of the tectonically induced uplift of the Anatolian high plateaus and mountains, whereas the separation of the clade "vasvarii" took place when the rapidly uplifting Taurus mountain range prevented the Mediterranean rainfalls from reaching the Central Anatolian Plateau. The separation of Spalax antiquus and S. graecus occurred when the southeastern Carpathians were uplifted. Despite the role played by tectonic events, branching events that show periodicity corresponding to 400-kyr and 100-kyr eccentricity bands illuminate the important role of orbital fluctuations on adaptive radiation in spalacids. At the given scale, our results supports the

  17. Behavioral patterns associated with chemotherapy-induced emesis: A potential signature for nausea in musk shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Christopher Horn

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nausea and vomiting are common symptoms in patients with many diseases, including cancer and its treatments. Although the neurological basis of vomiting is reasonably well known, an understanding of the physiology of nausea is lacking. The primary barrier to mechanistic research on the nausea system is the lack of an animal model. Indeed investigating the effects of anti-nausea drugs in preclinical models is difficult because the primary readout is often emesis. It is known that animals show a behavioral profile of sickness, associated with reduced feeding and movement, and possibly these general measures are signs of nausea. Studies attempting to relate the occurrence of additional behaviors to emesis have produced mixed results. Here we applied a statistical method, t-pattern (temporal pattern analysis, to determine patterns of behavior associated with emesis. Musk shrews were injected with the chemotherapy agent cisplatin (a gold standard in emesis research to induce acute (< 24 h and delayed (> 24 h emesis. Emesis and other behaviors were coded and tracked from video files. T-pattern analysis revealed hundreds of non-random patterns of behavior associated with emesis, including sniffing, changes in body contraction, and locomotion. There was little evidence that locomotion was inhibited by the occurrence of emesis. Eating and drinking, and other larger body movements including rearing, grooming, and body rotation, were significantly less common in emesis-related behavioral patterns in real versus randomized data. These results lend preliminary evidence for the expression of emesis-related behavioral patterns, including reduced ingestive behavior, grooming and exploratory behaviors. In summary, this statistical approach to behavioral analysis in a pre-clinical emesis research model could be used to assess the more global effects and limitations of drugs used to control nausea and its potential correlates, including reduced feeding and

  18. Local and regional scale genetic variation in the Cape dune mole-rat, Bathyergus suillus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Visser, Jacobus H; Bennett, Nigel C; Jansen van Vuuren, Bettine

    2014-01-01

    .... In this study we attempt to elucidate the impacts of a subterranean lifestyle coupled with a heterogeneous landscape on genetic partitioning by using a subterranean mammal species, the Cape dune mole-rat (Bathyergus suillus), as our model...

  19. Fructose-driven glycolysis supports anoxia resistance in the naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Thomas J; Reznick, Jane; Peterson, Bethany L; Blass, Gregory; Omerbašić, Damir; Bennett, Nigel C; Kuich, P Henning J L; Zasada, Christin; Browe, Brigitte M; Hamann, Wiebke; Applegate, Daniel T; Radke, Michael H; Kosten, Tetiana; Lutermann, Heike; Gavaghan, Victoria; Eigenbrod, Ole; Bégay, Valérie; Amoroso, Vince G; Govind, Vidya; Minshall, Richard D; Smith, Ewan St J; Larson, John; Gotthardt, Michael; Kempa, Stefan; Lewin, Gary R

    2017-04-21

    The African naked mole-rat's (Heterocephalus glaber) social and subterranean lifestyle generates a hypoxic niche. Under experimental conditions, naked mole-rats tolerate hours of extreme hypoxia and survive 18 minutes of total oxygen deprivation (anoxia) without apparent injury. During anoxia, the naked mole-rat switches to anaerobic metabolism fueled by fructose, which is actively accumulated and metabolized to lactate in the brain. Global expression of the GLUT5 fructose transporter and high levels of ketohexokinase were identified as molecular signatures of fructose metabolism. Fructose-driven glycolytic respiration in naked mole-rat tissues avoids feedback inhibition of glycolysis via phosphofructokinase, supporting viability. The metabolic rewiring of glycolysis can circumvent the normally lethal effects of oxygen deprivation, a mechanism that could be harnessed to minimize hypoxic damage in human disease. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Atypical mole syndrome and dysplastic nevi: identification of populations at risk for developing melanoma - review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Hypólito Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Atypical Mole Syndrome is the most important phenotypic risk factor for developing cutaneous melanoma, a malignancy that accounts for about 80% of deaths from skin cancer. Because the diagnosis of melanoma at an early stage is of great prognostic relevance, the identification of Atypical Mole Syndrome carriers is essential, as well as the creation of recommended preventative measures that must be taken by these patients.

  1. Genome sequencing reveals insights into physiology and longevity of the naked mole rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Bae; Fang, Xiaodong; Fushan, Alexey A; Huang, Zhiyong; Lobanov, Alexei V; Han, Lijuan; Marino, Stefano M; Sun, Xiaoqing; Turanov, Anton A; Yang, Pengcheng; Yim, Sun Hee; Zhao, Xiang; Kasaikina, Marina V; Stoletzki, Nina; Peng, Chunfang; Polak, Paz; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Kiezun, Adam; Zhu, Yabing; Chen, Yuanxin; Kryukov, Gregory V; Zhang, Qiang; Peshkin, Leonid; Yang, Lan; Bronson, Roderick T; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Wang, Bo; Han, Changlei; Li, Qiye; Chen, Li; Zhao, Wei; Sunyaev, Shamil R; Park, Thomas J; Zhang, Guojie; Wang, Jun; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2011-10-12

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a strictly subterranean, extraordinarily long-lived eusocial mammal. Although it is the size of a mouse, its maximum lifespan exceeds 30 years, making this animal the longest-living rodent. Naked mole rats show negligible senescence, no age-related increase in mortality, and high fecundity until death. In addition to delayed ageing, they are resistant to both spontaneous cancer and experimentally induced tumorigenesis. Naked mole rats pose a challenge to the theories that link ageing, cancer and redox homeostasis. Although characterized by significant oxidative stress, the naked mole rat proteome does not show age-related susceptibility to oxidative damage or increased ubiquitination. Naked mole rats naturally reside in large colonies with a single breeding female, the 'queen', who suppresses the sexual maturity of her subordinates. They also live in full darkness, at low oxygen and high carbon dioxide concentrations, and are unable to sustain thermogenesis nor feel certain types of pain. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of the naked mole rat genome, which reveals unique genome features and molecular adaptations consistent with cancer resistance, poikilothermy, hairlessness and insensitivity to low oxygen, and altered visual function, circadian rythms and taste sensing. This information provides insights into the naked mole rat's exceptional longevity and ability to live in hostile conditions, in the dark and at low oxygen. The extreme traits of the naked mole rat, together with the reported genome and transcriptome information, offer opportunities for understanding ageing and advancing other areas of biological and biomedical research.

  2. Helminth associations in white-toothed shrews Crocidura russula (Insectivora: Soricidae) from the Albufera Natural Park, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portolés, Enrique; Granel, Pedro; Esteban, J Guillermo; Cabaret, Jacques

    2004-06-01

    The helminths of 218 white-toothed shrews from 29 sites in 2 biotopes in the Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain) were examined from July 1990 to August 1991. An association analysis of helminths occurring at a prevalence of more than 4% was carried out for 4 species of cestodes located in the intestine (Hymenolepis pistillum, H. scalaris, H. tiara, and Pseudhymenolepis redonica) and 3 species of nematodes (Pseudophysaloptera sp. located in the stomach, Stammerinema rhopocephala larvae in the intestine and abdominal cavity, and Porrocaecum sp. in the thoracic and abdominal cavities). Bivariate (species pairs) versus multivariate analyses (associations within the entire set of species) were performed of presence-absence and of quantitative records (influence of intensity on associations). The associations were evaluated with respect to the sex and age of the host and to the sampling date and sites. The host and environment played a limited role, and the major determinant of species assemblage was phylogenetic. Positive associations were found among both the cestodes and the nematodes, whereas negative associations were found between cestodes and nematodes. The type of life cycle was probably the second greatest determinant of species associations. Nematodes using shrews as a paratenic host or as their definitive host were both positively associated.

  3. Identification of novel Bartonella spp. in bats and evidence of Asian gray shrew as a new potential reservoir of Bartonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jen-Wei; Hsu, Yuan-Man; Chomel, Bruno B; Lin, Liang-Kong; Pei, Jai-Chyi; Wu, Sheng-Hai; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2012-04-23

    Many studies indicated that small mammals are important reservoirs for Bartonella species. Using molecular methods, several studies have documented that bats could harbor Bartonella. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship of Bartonella spp. identified in bats and small mammals living in the same ecological environment. During May 2009 and March 2010, a total of 102 blood specimens were collected. By whole blood culture and molecular identification, a total of 6 bats, 1 rodent and 9 shrews were shown to be infected by Bartonella species. After sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the sequences of gltA, ftsZ, rpoB and ribC genes, these specific isolates from bats were not similar to the known Bartonella species (the similarity values were less than 91.2%, 90.5%, 88.8%, and 82.2%, respectively); these isolates formed an independent clade away from other known Bartonella type strains. The Bartonella spp. isolated from small mammals, which were closely related to Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella elizabethae, Bartonella grahamii, Bartonella rattimassiliensis and Bartonella queenslandensis, were similar to the findings in previous studies worldwide. Therefore, the results implied that the species of Bartonella strains isolated from small mammals were different from those identified in bats. Our results strongly suggested that the bat isolate could be a new Bartonella species. This study is also the first one to isolate Bartonella organisms from Asian gray shrews, Crocidura attenuata tanakae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Areal specialization of pyramidal cell structure in the visual cortex of the tree shrew: a new twist revealed in the evolution of cortical circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, Guy N; Elston, Alejandra; Casagrande, Vivien; Kaas, Jon H

    2005-05-01

    Cortical pyramidal cells, while having a characteristic morphology, show marked phenotypic variation in primates. Differences have been reported in their size, branching structure and spine density between cortical areas. In particular, there is a systematic increase in the complexity of the structure of pyramidal cells with anterior progression through occipito-temporal cortical visual areas. These differences reflect area-specific specializations in cortical circuitry, which are believed to be important for visual processing. However, it remains unknown as to whether these regional specializations in pyramidal cell structure are restricted to primates. Here we investigated pyramidal cell structure in the visual cortex of the tree shrew, including the primary (V1), second (V2) and temporal dorsal (TD) areas. As in primates, there was a trend for more complex branching structure with anterior progression through visual areas in the tree shrew. However, contrary to the trend reported in primates, cells in the tree shrew tended to become smaller with anterior progression through V1, V2 and TD. In addition, pyramidal cells in V1 of the tree shrew are more than twice as spinous as those in primates. These data suggest that variables that shape the structure of adult cortical pyramidal cells differ among species.

  5. How does the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, responds to long-term heavy metal contamination? - A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Carla Cristina [Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Departamento Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: ccmarques@fc.ul.pt; Sanchez-Chardi, Alejandro [Departament Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gabriel, Sofia Isabel [Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Departamento Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Nadal, Jacint [Departament Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Viegas-Crespo, Ana Maria [Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Departamento Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Luz Mathias, Maria da [Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Departamento Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2007-04-15

    Heavy metals accumulation in parallel with the evaluation of physiological and biochemical effects resulting from continued metal exposure were considered here using for the first time the great white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula as an in vivo model. Shrews were originated from an abandoned lead/zinc mining area and from a reference area, both in Alentejo, southern Portugal. Hepatic contents of nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, mercury and lead were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). Haematological parameters (white blood cells, red blood cells, haemoglobin and haematocrit) were obtained in a Coulter Counter Analyser and biochemical markers of the redox balance (glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) activities were measured spectrophotometrically using a Duo-50 spectrophotometer. Compared with control animals, significantly higher concentration of hepatic cadmium (9.29 vs. 1.18 {mu}g/g dry weight) and nickel (1.56 vs. 0.343 {mu}g/g dry weight) were detected in the shrews collected in the mining area. However, no significant changes were observed on haematological or enzymatic parameters in animals exposed to metal pollution. The obtained results show that shrews are good bioaccumulators of toxic heavy metals, but very tolerant to their effects, revealing an interesting long-term adaptation to polluted environments. In addition, this study provides reference values for haematological parameters and antioxidant enzymes levels in C. russula, which may be relevant for comparative purposes in further studies.

  6. Influence of elevation and forest type on community assemblage and species distribution of shrews in the central and southern Appalachian mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Mark Ford; Timothy S. McCay; Michael A. Menzel; W. David Webster; Cathryn H. Greenberg; John F. Pagels; Joseph F. Merritt; Joseph F. Merritt

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed shrew community data from 398,832 pitfall trapnights at 303 sites across the upper Piedmont, Blue Ridge, northern Ridge and Valley, southern Ridge and Valley, Cumberland Plateau and Allegheny Mountains and Plateau sections of the central and southern Appalachian Mountains from Alabama to Pennsylvania. The objectives of our research were to describe regional...

  7. Emerging infectious disease implications of invasive mammalian species: the greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) is associated with a novel serovar of pathogenic Leptospira in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) is an invasive mammalian species that was first recorded in Ireland in 2007. It currently occupies an area of approximately 7,600 km2 on the island. C. russula is normally distributed in Northern Africa and Western Europe, and was previously absent...

  8. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Krüppel-like transcription factor (KLF) gene family in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ming; Ge, Guang-Zhe; Liu, Wen-Jing; Xiao, Ji; Xia, Hou-Jun; Fan, Yu; Zhao, Feng; He, Bao-Li; Chen, Ceshi

    2017-03-07

    Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) are a family of zinc finger transcription factors regulating embryonic development and diseases. The phylogenetics of KLFs has not been studied in tree shrews, an animal lineage with a closer relationship to primates than rodents. Here, we identified 17 KLFs from Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis). KLF proteins are highly conserved among humans, monkeys, rats, mice and tree shrews compared to zebrafish and chickens. The CtBP binding site, Sin3A binding site and nuclear localization signals are largely conserved between tree shrews and human beings. Tupaia belangeri (Tb) KLF5 contains several conserved post-transcriptional modification motifs. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression patterns of multiple tbKLFs are tissue-specific . TbKLF5, like hKLF5, significantly promotes NIH3T3 cell proliferation in vitro. These results provide insight for future studies regarding the structure and function of the tbKLF gene family.

  9. The emetic activity of staphylococcal enterotoxins, SEK, SEL, SEM, SEN and SEO in a small emetic animal model, the house musk shrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hisaya K; Hirose, Shouhei; Naito, Ikunori; Sato'o, Yusuke; Asano, Krisana; Hu, Dong-Liang; Omoe, Katsuhiko; Nakane, Akio

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by Staphylococcus aureus are the most recognizable causative agents of emetic food poisoning in humans. New types of SEs and SE-like (SEl) toxins have been reported. Several epidemiological investigations have shown that the SEs and SEl genes, particularly, SEK, SEL, SEM, SEN and SEO genes, are frequently detected in strains isolated from patients with food poisoning. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the emetic activity of recently identified SEs using a small emetic animal model, the house musk shrew. The emetic activity of these SEs in house musk shrews was evaluated by intraperitoneal administration and emetic responses, including the number of shrews that vomited, emetic frequency and latency of vomiting were documented. It was found that SEs induce emetic responses in these animals. This is the first time to demonstrate that SEK, SEL, SEM, SEN and SEO possess emetic activity in the house musk shrew. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Influence of elevation and forest type on community assemblage and species distribution of shrews in the central and southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Mark Ford; Timothy S. McCay; Michael A. Menzel; W. David Webster; Cathryn H. Greenberg; John F. Pagels; Joseph F. Merritt

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed shrew community data from 398,832 pitfall trapnights at 303 sites across the upper Piedmont, Blue Ridge, northern Ridge and Valley, southern Ridge and Valley, Cumberland Plateau and Allegheny Mountains and Plateau sections of the central and southern Appalachian Mountains from Alabama to Pennsylvania. The objectives of our research were to describe regional...

  11. Influence of elevation and forest type on community assemblage and species distribution of shrews in the central and southern Appalachian mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Mark Ford; Timothy S. McCay; Michael A. Menzel; W. David Webster; Cathryn H. Greenberg; John F. Pagels; Joseph F. Merritt

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed shrew community data from 398,832 pitfall trapnights at 303 sites across the upper Piedmont, Blue ridge, northern Ridge and Valley, southern Ride and Valley, Cumberland Plateau and Allegheny Mountains and Plateau sections of the central and southern Appalachian Mountains from Alabama to Pennsylvania. The objectives of our research were to describe regional...

  12. Low cholesteryl ester transfer protein and phospholipid transfer protein activities are the factors making tree shrew and beijing duck resistant to atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Bing

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tree shrew and beijing duck are regarded as animal models resistant to atherosclerosis (AS. This study was carried out to discover the potential mechanism. Methods Blood samples were collected from healthy men and male animals. Plasma lipid profile and activities of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP were measured, compared and analyzed in human, tree shrew, and Beijing duck. Results The results showed that there were species differences on plasma lipid profile and activities of CETP and PLTP in the three species. Compared with human, tree shrew and beijing duck had higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C/total cholesterol (TC and HDL-C/low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C ratios, but lower CETP and PLTP activities. In the three species, CETP and PLTP activities were negatively related with the ratio of HDL-C/LDL-C. Conclusions The present study suggested that low plasma CETP and PLTP activities may lead to a high HDL-C/LDL-C ratio and a high resistance to AS finally in tree shrew and beijing duck. Moreover, low PLTP activity may also make the animals resistant to AS by the relative high vitamin E content of apoB-containing lipoproteins and high anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of HDL particles. A detailed study in the future is recommended.

  13. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Comments on recent proposals for redefining the mole and kilogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, B. P.

    2010-06-01

    The fundamental concept of the mole requires the number of entities comprising one mole, i.e. Avogadro's number, to be exactly equal to the gram-to-dalton mass ratio. If this compatibility condition is to be satisfied, the mole, the kilogram and the dalton cannot all be defined independently. This note concerns recent Metrologia publications that do, however, propose independent definitions of all three quantities: the mole by fixing the value of Avogadro's number and the kilogram by fixing the value of the Planck constant, while retaining the current carbon-12-based dalton. Adoption of these incompatible definitions would likely cause serious widespread confusion and might even result in a split in scholarly and technical communication between the quantum physics and chemistry communities. Other entirely compatible alternatives are possible: either retaining the current (inexact) carbon-12-based mole and dalton with an independently redefined kilogram or redefining the mole by fixing the value of Avogadro's number, with a compatible dalton that is exact in terms of the redefined kilogram.

  14. Assessment of naked mole-rat distribution and threats in Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengistu Wale

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the distribution, threats and community attitudes towards naked molerat in Eastern Ethiopia. Methods: Data were collected through direct observation and interview and Chi-square at 95% confidence interval was used for significance test. Results: Naked mole-rat was identified in Fafan, City/Shinele, Eastern Hararghe Zone and Dire Dawa Administrative. The main threats of naked mole-rat identified were agricultural expansion, human killing and lack of awareness. From a total of 100 respondents, 92% of them considered naked mole-rat as pest as a result that 46% of them participated in direct killing. Literacy rate significantly affects the willingness to participate in the conservation of naked mole-rat (χ2 = 7.478, df = 1, P < 0.05. From a total of 26% respondents who did not show the willingness to participate in the conservation, 80.8% of them were illiterate. Conclusions: Naked mole-rat is fairly common in many of the study sites. However, rapid shift from nomadic life style to cultivation of crops and lacks of awareness were the main threats of naked mole-rat. Therefore, since there is no conservation action currently, further comprehensive study is required to design conservation plan for this species.

  15. High Autophagy in the Naked Mole Rat may Play a Significant Role in Maintaining Good Health

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    Shanmin Zhao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The maximum lifespan of the naked mole rat is over 28.3 years, which exceeds that of any other rodent species, suggesting that age-related changes in its body composition and functionality are either attenuated or delayed in this extraordinarily long-lived species. However, the mechanisms underlying the aging process in this species are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether long-lived naked mole rats display more autophagic activity than short-lived mice. Methods: Hepatic stellate cells isolated from naked mole rats were treated with 50 nM rapamycin or 20 mM 3-methyladenine (3-MA for 12 or 24 h. Expression of the autophagy marker proteins LC3-II and beclin 1 was measured with western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The induction of apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: Our results demonstrate that one-day-old naked mole rats have higher levels of autophagy than one-day-old short-lived C57BL/6 mice, and that both adult naked mole rats (eight months old and adult C57BL/6 mice (eight weeks old have high basal levels of autophagy, which may be an important mechanism inhibiting aging and reducing the risk of age-related diseases. Conclusion: Here, we report that autophagy facilitated the survival of hepatic stellate cells from the naked mole rat, and that treatment with 3-MA or rapamycin increased the ratio of apoptotic cells to normal hepatic stellate cells.

  16. Fossil shrews from Honduras and their significance for late glacial evolution in body size (Mammalia: Soricidae: Cryptotis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, N.; Croft, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Our study of mammalian remains excavated in the 1940s from McGrew Cave, north of Copan, Honduras, yielded an assemblage of 29 taxa that probably accumulated predominantly as the result of predation by owls. Among the taxa present are three species of small-eared shrews, genus Cryptotis. One species, Cryptotis merriami, is relatively rare among the fossil remains. The other two shrews, Cryptotis goodwini and Cryptotis orophila, are abundant and exhibit morpho metrical variation distinguishing them from modern populations. Fossils of C. goodwini are distinctly and consistently smaller than modern members of the species. To quantify the size differences, we derived common measures of body size for fossil C. goodwini using regression models based on modern samples of shrews in the Cryptotis mexicana-group. Estimated mean length of head and body for the fossil sample is 72-79 mm, and estimated mean mass is 7.6-9.6 g. These numbers indicate that the fossil sample averaged 6-14% smaller in head and body length and 39-52% less in mass than the modern sample and that increases of 6-17% in head and body length and 65-108% in mass occurred to achieve the mean body size of the modern sample. Conservative estimates of fresh (wet) food intake based on mass indicate that such a size increase would require a 37-58% increase in daily food consumption. In contrast to C. goodwini, fossil C. orophila from the cave is not different in mean body size from modern samples. The fossil sample does, however, show slightly greater variation in size than is currently present throughout the modern geographical distribution of the taxon. Moreover, variation in some other dental and mandibular characters is more constrained, exhibiting a more direct relationship to overall size. Our study of these species indicates that North American shrews have not all been static in size through time, as suggested by some previous work with fossil soricids. Lack of stratigraphic control within the site and our

  17. The Mole as an Explanatory Device: How Do You Know a Mole if You See One? A Manual for Chemistry Students. Sample Teaching Materials: The Explanatory Modes Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Douglas A.

    This booklet is designed to supplement the study of introductory chemistry. It deals particularly with the mole concept but also includes ideas for analyzing the kinds of statements that appear in all science textbooks and scientific writing. The material in the booklet should be studied after the completion of an introductory textbook study of…

  18. Chronic psychosocial stressors in adulthood: Studies in mice, rats and tree shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Pryce

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human psychological stress is the major environmental risk factor for major depression and certain of the anxiety disorders. Psychological stressors often occur in the context of the adult social environment, and they or the memory formed of them impact on the individual across an extended period, thereby constituting chronic psychosocial stress (CPS. Psychosocial stressors often involve loss to the individual, such as the ending of a social relationship or the onset of interpersonal conflict leading to loss of social control and predictability. Given the difficulty in studying the etio-pathophysiological processes mediating between CPS and brain and behavior pathologies in human, considerable effort has been undertaken to study manipulations of the social environment that constitute adulthood chronic psychosocial stressors in other mammals. The majority of such research has been conducted in rodents; the focus for a considerable time period was on rats and more recently both rats and mice have been investigated, the latter species in particular providing the opportunity for essential gene x chronic psychosocial stressor interaction studies. Key studies in the tree shrew demonstrate that this approach should not be limited to rodents, however. The animal adult CPS paradigms are based on resident-intruder confrontations. These are typified by the intruder-subject's brief proximate interactions with and attacks by, and otherwise continuous distal exposure to, the resident stressor. In contrast to humans where cognitive capacities are such that the stressor pertains in its physical absence, the periods of continuous distal exposure are apparently essential in these species. Whilst the focus of this review is on the stressor rather than the stress response, we also describe some of the depression- and anxiety disorder-relevant effects on behavior, physiology and brain structure-function of chronic psychosocial stressors, as well as evidence for the

  19. Structural Analysis Of CD59 Of Chinese Tree Shrew: A New Reference Molecule For Human Immune System Specific CD59 Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Subhamay; Kumari, Leena; Panda, Santamay

    2017-11-17

    Chinese tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) bear several characteristics that are considered to be very crucial for utilizing in animal experimental models in biomedical research. Subsequent to the identification of key aspects and signaling pathways in nervous and immune systems, it is revealed that tree shrews acquires shared common as well as unique characteristics, and hence offers a genetic basis for employing this animal as a prospective model for biomedical research. CD59 glycoprotein, commonly referred to as MAC-inhibitory protein (MAC-IP), membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis (MIRL), or protectin, is encoded by the CD59 gene in human beings. It is the member of the LY6/uPAR/alpha-neurotoxin protein family. With this initial point the objective of this study was to determine a comparative composite based structure of CD59 of Chinese tree shrew. The additional objective of this study was to examine the distribution of negatively and positively charged amino acid over molecular modeled structure, distribution of secondary structural elements, hydrophobicity molecular surface analysis and electrostatic potential analysis with the assistance of several bioinformatical analytical tools. CD59 Amino acid sequence of Chinese tree shrew collected from the online database system of National Centre for Biotechnology Information. SignalP 4.0 online server was employed for detection of signal peptide instance within the protein sequence of CD59. Molecular model structure of CD59 protein was generated by the Iterative Threading ASSEmbly Refinement (I-TASSER) suite. The confirmation for three-dimensional structural model was evaluated by structure validation tools. Location of negatively and positively charged amino acid over molecular modeled structure, distribution of secondary structural elements, and hydrophobicity molecular surface analysis was performed with the help of Chimera tool. Electrostatic potential analysis was carried out with the adaptive Poisson

  20. The mole, amount of substance and primary methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Оригинал опубликован в журнале Metrologia (2013. V. 50. № 5. P. 158-163 под названием "The mole, amount of substance and primary methods". Материал получен 25 февраля 2013 г., в окончательной форме - 8 марта 2013 г., опубликован 2 апреля 2013 г. Оригинальный текст доступен на сайте IOP Science. URL:stacks.Iop.org/Met/50/158. В данном докладе представлены принципы, разработанные для применения метрологии в сфере химии и, в частности, аналитической химии. Доклад начинается с обсуждения моля, основной единицы Международной системы единиц (СИ, которая более всего относится к аналитической химии. Моль стал предметом отдельной дискуссии совсем недавно, с момента публикации предложений дать ему новое определение вместе с тремя другими основными единицами СИ. Эта дискуссия также породила интерес к происхождению термина «количество вещества», которое используется как количество, а моль - как единица. В данном докладе рассматривается происхождение термина и объясняется, почему недостаточно было бы заменить его альтернативными вариантами, такими как «число единиц». В заключение идет дискуссия о том, как используется моль в первичных

  1. Prophylactic chemotherapy for hydatidiform mole to prevent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuyi; Fu, Jing; Hu, Lina; Fang, Fang; Xie, Lingxia; Chen, Hengxi; He, Fan; Wu, Taixiang; Lawrie, Theresa A

    2017-09-11

    This is an update of the original Cochrane Review published in Cochrane Library, Issue 10, 2012.Hydatidiform mole (HM), also called a molar pregnancy, is characterised by an overgrowth of foetal chorionic tissue within the uterus. HMs may be partial (PM) or complete (CM) depending on their gross appearance, histopathology and karyotype. PMs usually have a triploid karyotype, derived from maternal and paternal origins, whereas CMs are diploid and have paternal origins only. Most women with HM can be cured by evacuation of retained products of conception (ERPC) and their fertility preserved. However, in some women the growth persists and develops into gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN), a malignant form of the disease that requires treatment with chemotherapy. CMs have a higher rate of malignant transformation than PMs. It may be possible to reduce the risk of GTN in women with HM by administering prophylactic chemotherapy (P-Chem). However, P-Chem given before or after evacuation of HM to prevent malignant sequelae remains controversial, as the risks and benefits of this practice are unclear. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of P-Chem to prevent GTN in women with a molar pregnancy. To investigate whether any subgroup of women with HM may benefit more from P-Chem than others. For the original review we performed electronic searches in the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 2, 2012), MEDLINE (1946 to February week 4, 2012) and Embase (1980 to 2012, week 9). We developed the search strategy using free text and MeSH. For this update we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 5, 2017), MEDLINE (February 2012 to June week 1, 2017) and Embase (February 2012 to 2017, week 23). We also handsearched reference lists of relevant literature to identify additional studies and searched trial registries. We included randomised controlled trials

  2. Lethal disease in infant and juvenile Syrian hamsters experimentally infected with Imjin virus, a newfound crocidurine shrew-borne hantavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Se Hun; Kim, Young-Sik; Baek, Luck Ju; Kurata, Takeshi; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-12-01

    To gain insights into the pathogenicity of Imjin virus (MJNV), a newfound hantavirus isolated from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura), groups of Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) of varying ages (hamsters, aged 21 days or less, exhibited reduced activity, weight loss, respiratory distress, hind-limb paralysis and seizures. Death ensued 1 to 6 days after onset of clinical disease. MJNV RNA was detected in brain and other major organs by RT-PCR and real time-PCR. Histopathological examination showed alveolar hemorrhage, interstitial pneumonia and severe pulmonary congestion; focal hepatic necrosis and portal inflammation; and acute meningoencephalitis. By immunohistochemistry, MJNV antigen was detected in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells and glial cells. Older hamsters (35 and 56 days of age) developed subclinical infection without histopathological changes. Future studies are warranted to determine the pathophysiologic bases for the differential age susceptibility of Syrian hamsters to lethal MJNV disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. How well do tall-tower measurements characterize the CO2 mole fraction distribution in the planetary boundary layer?

    OpenAIRE

    Haszpra, L.; Z. Barcza; Haszpra, T.; Pátkai, Zs.; K. J. Davis

    2015-01-01

    Planetary boundary layer (PBL) CO2 mole fraction data are needed by transport models and carbon budget models as both input and reference for validation. The height of in situ CO2 mole fraction measurements is usually different from that of the model levels where the data are needed; data from short towers, in particular, are difficult to utilize in atmospheric models that do not simulate the surface layer well. Tall-tower CO2 mole fraction measurements observed at heights r...

  4. Evaluation of the MoleMateTM training program for assessment of suspicious pigmented lesions in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel Wood

    2008-05-01

    Conclusion The MoleMateTM training program is a potentially effective and acceptable informatics tool to teach practitioners to recognise the features of SPLs identified by the MoleMateTM system. It will be used as part of the intervention in a randomised controlled trial to compare the diagnostic accuracy and appropriate referral rates of practitioners using the MoleMateTM system with best practice in primary care.

  5. Hydatidiform mole and fetus with normal karyotype: support of a separate entity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejerslev, L O; Sunde, L; Hansen, B F

    1991-01-01

    analysis was consistent with a single conception. With incomplete genetic information, a hydatidiform mole with coexistent normal fetus is generally considered to result from dizygous twinning comprising an androgenetic complete mole and a normal conception. In the present gestations, the results based......Repetitive hydatidiform mole was observed in four pregnancies. The pregnancies presented with heavy bleeding and vomiting, but the post-evacuation courses were uncomplicated, with rapid regression of serum hCG levels. Cytogenetic investigations, analyses of restriction fragment length polymorphisms......, and flow cytometry in three pregnancies were consistent with diploid, biparental conception as the origin of fetal tissue and molar and nonmolar villi. In one pregnancy, the analyses of cytogenetic markers suggested the coexistence of two different cell lines of dizygotic, biparental origin, whereas DNA...

  6. A Mole for Warm Magnetic and Optical Measurements of LHC Dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Deferne, G; Glöckner, C; Jansen, H; Köster, A; Legrand, P; Rijllart, A; Sievers, P

    2000-01-01

    A new rotating coil probe (a mole) has been developed for the simultaneous measurement of the magnetic field and magnetic axis of warm superconducting LHC dipoles and associated corrector windings. The mole houses a radial rotating coil and travels inside the magnet aperture by means of an externally driven two-way traction belt. The coil is rotated by an on-board piezo motor, being tested in view of future devices for cold measurements as the only type of motor compatible with strong magnetic fields. A virtual light spot is generated in the coil center by a LED source. The position of this light spot is measured from the outside by a system including a telescope, a CCD camera and a DSP. Jigs on reference granite tables are used to transfer the optical measurements to the magnet fiducials. We describe here the main characteristics and performance of the mole

  7. Role of immunoexpression of cyclin D1, D3, retinoblastoma (Rb mutant and clinical risk factors on complete mole as risk factors of persistent mole

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    Yudi M Hidayat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Changes in complete hydatidiform mole (CHM that become persistent are difficult to handle because the malignant pathogenesis of CHM is still unclear. The growth of abnormal cells in CHM is thought to be caused by cell cycle abnormalities. Some components that play a role in this phase include cyclin D and retinoblastoma (Rb. The aim of our study was to determine the role of clinical risk factors, as well as cyclin D1, cyclin D3 and Rb-protein, in the occurrence of persistent moles. Materials and Method: This study involves 68 CHM cases at Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital from 2007–2011. The protein expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D3, and Rb were determined by immunohistochemistry. The results were analyzed by comparing the two groups of CHM that became persistent to those that returned to normal, as determined by a Mochizuki regression curve assessment. Results: 20 cases (29% of CHM became persistent and that 48 cases (71% returned to normal. Significant clinical variables were age (p 0.05. Conclusion: There is a strong relationship between clinical risk factors of age, excessive proliferation histopathology, serum βhCG levels ≥100,000 mU/mL, cyclin D1 and Rb mutations with the incidence of persistent moles after the evacuation of the CHM. We proposed a model to predict the risks of persistent moles with a cut-off point of 2.384, which can be used as a reference for patients with CHM.

  8. Antioxidant activity and prevention of pork meat lipid oxidation using traditional Mexican condiments (pasilla dry pepper, achiote, and mole sauce)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; Mercado-Mercado, Gilberto; La Rosa, Laura Alejandra De; Díaz, José Alberto López; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; González-Aguilar, Gustavo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    ... (mole sauce, achiote, and pasilla hot pepper) were analyzed for their total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, antioxidant activity, and protective effect against lipid oxidation in chopped pork meat...

  9. Mechanical performance of rat, mouse and mole spring traps, and possible implications for welfare performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra E Baker

    Full Text Available Lethal spring traps are widely used for killing small mammals in the UK. Many require government approval, based primarily on humaneness. However, mole traps and break-back traps for rats and mice are exempt; those available vary widely in price and apparent quality. The EU is considering implementing a Trapping Directive that would alter UK legislation, and a recent report advised the EU that trapping legislation should cover all trapped species and encourage improvement of traps. Mechanical trap performance is often used as an indicator of welfare impact. We examined the mechanical evidence for scope to improve the welfare standards of rat, mouse and mole spring traps. We measured mechanical performance among a range of rat, mouse and mole traps. Impact momentum values varied 6-8 fold, and clamping force values 4-5.5 fold, among traps for killing each species. There was considerable overlap in the performance of rat and mouse traps. Trap-opening angle and spring type were related to impact momentum and clamping force in traps for both species. There was no relationship between price and mechanical performance in traps for any species, except talpa mole traps. We are unable to judge the direct welfare impact of the traps tested, but rather the potential welfare threat associated with their exemption from approval. The wide variation in mechanical performance in traps for each species, overlap in performance between rat and mouse traps and increasing availability of weaker plastic rodent traps indicate considerable scope for improving the humaneness of spring traps for rats, mice and moles. We conclude that all such traps should be subject to the UK approval process. New welfare categories might improve trap standards further. Our results could also help improve rodent trap design and assist consumers in selecting more powerful traps. Many thousands of rats, mice and moles might benefit.

  10. The Naked Mole-Rat Response to Oxidative Stress: Just Deal with It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N.; Andziak, Blazej; Yang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The oxidative stress theory of aging has been the most widely accepted theory of aging providing insights into why we age and die for over 50 years, despite mounting evidence from a multitude of species indicating that there is no direct relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and longevity. Here we explore how different species, including the longest lived rodent, the naked mole-rat, have defied the most predominant aging theory. Recent Advances: In the case of extremely long-lived naked mole-rat, levels of ROS production are found to be similar to mice, antioxidant defenses unexceptional, and even under constitutive conditions, naked mole-rats combine a pro-oxidant intracellular milieu with high, steady state levels of oxidative damage. Clearly, naked mole-rats can tolerate this level of oxidative stress and must have mechanisms in place to prevent its translation into potentially lethal diseases. Critical Issues: In addition to the naked mole-rat, other species from across the phylogenetic spectrum and even certain mouse strains do not support this theory. Moreover, overexpressing or knocking down antioxidant levels alters levels of oxidative damage and even cancer incidence, but does not modulate lifespan. Future Directions: Perhaps, it is not oxidative stress that modulates healthspan and longevity, but other cytoprotective mechanisms that allow animals to deal with high levels of oxidative damage and stress, and nevertheless live long, relatively healthy lifespans. Studying these mechanisms in uniquely long-lived species, like the naked mole-rat, may help us tease out the key contributors to aging and longevity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1388–1399. PMID:23025341

  11. Extended longevity of reproductives appears to be common in Fukomys mole-rats (Rodentia, Bathyergidae.

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    Philip Dammann

    Full Text Available African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia contain several social, cooperatively breeding species with low extrinsic mortality and unusually high longevity. All social bathyergids live in multigenerational families where reproduction is skewed towards a few breeding individuals. Most of their offspring remain as reproductively inactive "helpers" in their natal families, often for several years. This "reproductive subdivision" of mole-rat societies might be of interest for ageing research, as in at least one social bathyergid (Ansell's mole-rats Fukomys anselli, breeders have been shown to age significantly slower than non-breeders. These animals thus provide excellent conditions for studying the epigenetics of senescence by comparing divergent longevities within the same genotypes without the inescapable short-comings of inter-species comparisons. It has been claimed that many if not all social mole-rat species may have evolved similar ageing patterns, too. However, this remains unclear on account of the scarcity of reliable datasets on the subject. We therefore analyzed a 20-year breeding record of Giant mole-rats Fukomys mechowii, another social bathyergid species. We found that breeders indeed lived significantly longer than helpers (ca. 1.5-2.2fold depending on the sex, irrespective of social rank or other potentially confounding factors. Considering the phylogenetic positions of F. mechowii and F. anselli and unpublished data on a third Fukomys-species (F. damarensis showing essentially the same pattern, it seems probable that the reversal of the classic trade-off between somatic maintenance and sexual reproduction is characteristic of the whole genus and hence of the vast majority of social mole-rats.

  12. Moles of a Substance per Cell Is a Highly Informative Dosing Metric in Cell Culture.

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    Claire M Doskey

    Full Text Available The biological consequences upon exposure of cells in culture to a dose of xenobiotic are not only dependent on biological variables, but also the physical aspects of experiments e.g. cell number and media volume. Dependence on physical aspects is often overlooked due to the unrecognized ambiguity in the dominant metric used to express exposure, i.e. initial concentration of xenobiotic delivered to the culture medium over the cells. We hypothesize that for many xenobiotics, specifying dose as moles per cell will reduce this ambiguity. Dose as moles per cell can also provide additional information not easily obtainable with traditional dosing metrics.Here, 1,4-benzoquinone and oligomycin A are used as model compounds to investigate moles per cell as an informative dosing metric. Mechanistic insight into reactions with intracellular molecules, differences between sequential and bolus addition of xenobiotic and the influence of cell volume and protein content on toxicity are also investigated.When the dose of 1,4-benzoquinone or oligomycin A was specified as moles per cell, toxicity was independent of the physical conditions used (number of cells, volume of medium. When using moles per cell as a dose-metric, direct quantitative comparisons can be made between biochemical or biological endpoints and the dose of xenobiotic applied. For example, the toxicity of 1,4-benzoquinone correlated inversely with intracellular volume for all five cell lines exposed (C6, MDA-MB231, A549, MIA PaCa-2, and HepG2.Moles per cell is a useful and informative dosing metric in cell culture. This dosing metric is a scalable parameter that: can reduce ambiguity between experiments having different physical conditions; provides additional mechanistic information; allows direct comparison between different cells; affords a more uniform platform for experimental design; addresses the important issue of repeatability of experimental results, and could increase the

  13. Oxygen-Binding Characteristics of Hemoglobins from Hypoxia and Hypercapnia Tolerant African Mole Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.; Jarvis, Jennifer U. M; Fago, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Inhabiting complex, deep and sealed burrow systems, mole rats exhibit a suit of striking anatomical, behavioral and physiological specializations, including eusociality (living in large colonies with a single breeding ‘queen’), extraordinary longevity, variable body temperatures, high immunity...... transport of respiratory gases, we analysed hematological characters, as well as the Hb-O2 affinities and their sensitivities to pH (the Bohr effect), CO2, temperature and to the major red cell allosteric effector, DPG, in 4 eusocial and 2 strictly-solitary species of African mole rats (family Bathyergidae...

  14. Twin pregnancy with both complete hydatiform mole and coexistent alive fetus: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achour Radhouane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Twin pregnancy consisting of a complete hydatidiform mole coexisting with a live fetus is a rare condition with an incidence of 1 in 22000 to 1 in 100000 pregnancies. Clinical information is limited and management is difficult due to the risk of pregnancy complications such as fetal death, vaginal bleeding, preeclampsia, hyperthyroidism, and the risk of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease. Thus, the report described about the change of size and implantation site of the molar mass coexisting with a live fetus is rare especially about sonographic findings such as echo patterns. Recently we experienced a case of complete hydatidiform mole with a healthy infant delivered at term.

  15. Bioaccumulation of lead, mercury, and cadmium in the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, from the Ebro Delta (NE Spain); Sex- and age-dependent variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Chardi, Alejandro [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: a.sanchez.chardi@ub.edu; Lopez-Fuster, Maria Jose [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Nadal, Jacint [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-01-15

    We quantified bioaccumulation of lead, mercury, and cadmium in bones from 105 greater white-toothed shrews (Crocidura russula) collected at the Ebro Delta, a polluted area, and the Medas Islands, a control site. Lead and mercury levels varied with site, age, and sex, although statistical significances depended on each factor. Globally, shrews from the polluted area exhibited significantly higher concentrations of Pb and Hg. Increment of Pb with age was particularly remarkable in wetland animals and was interpreted in relation to human activities, namely hunting. Unlike males, females from the Ebro Delta maintained low Hg levels, which were associated with gestation and lactation. Cadmium levels did not differ between sites, sexes, or ages. This study provides the first data on heavy metals in mammals from this wetland and suggests that C. russula is a good bioindicator of metal pollution. We concluded that sex and age may represent an important source of variation in the bioaccumulation of these metals in wild populations. - Bioaccumulation patterns of Pb and Hg reveal sex and age-related differences in the large bones of the greater white-toothed shrew from a polluted Mediterranean wetland.

  16. Distribution of Borna disease virus antigen and RNA in tissues of naturally infected bicolored white-toothed shrews, Crocidura leucodon, supporting their role as reservoir host species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puorger, M E; Hilbe, M; Müller, J-P; Kolodziejek, J; Nowotny, N; Zlinszky, K; Ehrensperger, F

    2010-03-01

    Borna disease is a severe viral-induced disorder of the central nervous system of horses, sheep, and a few other animal species, occurring in certain areas of central Europe. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of natural Borna disease virus (BDV) infections are still not fully understood; several unique epidemiologic features, however, point toward the existence of BDV reservoir populations other than the final hosts. In this study, 69 mice and 12 shrews were trapped and examined. The virus distribution was investigated in detail in 2 BDV-positive bicolored white-toothed shrews, Crocidura leucodon, by immunohistochemistry and TaqMan real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RT-PCR amplification products were sequenced, and the sequences were compared. These shrews had been collected in a BDV-endemic geographical region using live traps and did not show obvious clinical or pathological disease signs. BDV antigen and nucleic acid were identified in several organs, including the brain, mainly in nerve tissue and neurons, respectively, but also in parenchymal cells (eg, hepatocytes, Leydig cells) and epithelial cells, particularly of the respiratory and urogenital tract.

  17. Identification and distribution of the Olympic Shrew (Eulipotyphla: Soricidae), Sorex rohweri Rausch et al., 2007 in Oregon and Washington, based on USNM specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal; Fisher, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Review of specimens of long-tailed shrews (Mammalia, Soricidae, Sorex) from the northwestern United States in the National Museum of Natural History (USNM), Washington, DC, has revealed the presence of the Olympic Shrew, Sorex rohweri Rausch et al., 2007, in the Coastal Range west of the Willamette Valley in Oregon. This determination nearly doubles the documented distribution for this species and increases the species diversity of soricids in Oregon to eleven. Sorex rohweri is relatively uncommon, but it occurs in a variety of forest successional stages and even clear cuts, as long as there is nearby forest and trees are allowed to regenerate. All USNM specimens from Washington formerly identified as S. cinereus streatori Merriam, 1895 are instead referable to the Olympic Shrew. The distribution of S. c. streatori is thereby restricted to the Pacific coasts of British Columbia north of the lower Frasier River and south central Alaska. Our study highlights the importance of taking and preserving high-quality voucher specimens in a collection where they are readily available for re-study.

  18. Variability and constraint of vertebral formulae and proportions in colugos, tree shrews, and rodents, with special reference to vertebral modification by aerodynamic adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Thorington, Richard W; Bohaska, Paula W; Sato, Fumi

    2017-07-13

    The aim of the present study is to provide the first large data set on vertebral formulae and proportions, and examine their relationship with different locomotive modes in colugos (Dermoptera), tree shrews (Scandentia), and rodents (Rodentia), which have been considered less variable because they were thought to have a plesiomorphic number of 19 thoracolumbar vertebrae. The data included 33 colugos and 112 tree shrews, which are phylogenetically sister taxa, and 288 additional skeletons from 29 other mammalian species adapted to different locomotive modes, flying, gliding, arboreal, terrestrial, digging, and semi-aquatic habitats. The following results were obtained: (1) intra-/interspecies variability and geographical variation in thoracic, lumbar, and thoracolumbar counts were present in two gliding colugo species and 12 terrestrial/arboreal tree shrew species; (2) in our examined mammals, some aerodynamic mammals, such as colugos, southern flying squirrels, scaly-tailed squirrels, and bats, showed exceptionally high amounts of intraspecific variation of thoracic, lumbar, and thoracolumbar counts, and sugar gliders and some semi-aquatic rodents also showed some variation; (3) longer thoracic and shorter lumbar vertebrae were typically shared traits among the examined mammals, except for flying squirrels (Pteromyini) and scaly-tailed squirrels (Anomaluridae). Our study reveals that aerodynamic adaptation could potentially lead to strong selection and modification of vertebral formulae and/or proportions based on locomotive mode despite evolutionary and developmental constraints.

  19. Hydatidiform mole and fetus with normal karyotype: support of a separate entity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejerslev, L O; Sunde, L; Hansen, B F

    1991-01-01

    Repetitive hydatidiform mole was observed in four pregnancies. The pregnancies presented with heavy bleeding and vomiting, but the post-evacuation courses were uncomplicated, with rapid regression of serum hCG levels. Cytogenetic investigations, analyses of restriction fragment length polymorphis...

  20. Exploring the Effects of General Remediation on Ninth-Graders' Achievement of the Mole Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappetta, Eugene L.; McBride, John W.

    1980-01-01

    Reported is a study involving a modification of the mastery learning technique designed to determine the effects of general remediation on the achievement of the mole concept by 99 ninth-grade physical science students. Results of one way analysis of covariance did not indicate a significant difference in mean scores between treatments. (DS)

  1. Difficulties in Teaching the Concepts of "Amount of Substance" and "Mole."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furio, Carlos; Azcona, Rafael; Guisasola, Jenaro; Ratcliffe, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the origin and evolution of the meanings of the concepts 'amount of substance' and 'mole'. Identifies serious disagreements about these concepts among chemistry teachers and the recommendations of the international scientific community. Also draws attention to the didactic implications that these epistemological difficulties may have for…

  2. The Vital Role of Basic Mathematics in Teaching and Learning the Mole Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Alka; Koul, Anjni

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the importance of activity-based teaching in understanding the mole concept and the vital role of basic mathematical operations. It describes needs-based training for teachers in a professional development programme in India. Analysis of test results before and after the training indicates that teachers improved their…

  3. Effectiveness of Using Computer-Assisted Supplementary Instruction for Teaching the Mole Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcinalp, Serpil; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the effect of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on students' understanding of chemical formulas and mole concept, and their attitudes toward chemistry and CAI. Reports that students who used the CAI accompanied with lectures scored significantly higher and demonstrated significant improvement in attitudes compared to the control group…

  4. Identifying the Critical Components for a Conceptual Understanding of the Mole in Secondary Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Su-Chi; Hart, Christina; Clarke, David

    2016-01-01

    The amount of substance and its unit the mole is a basic concept in chemistry. However, previous research has shown that teaching and learning the concept are challenging tasks for both teachers and students. The purpose of this study was to pinpoint the problems which emerge in the teaching and learning process, and provide integrated suggestions…

  5. Difficulties Encountered by Biology Students in Understanding and Applying the Mole Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ian

    1983-01-01

    A brief review of the mole concept and its application is given, major problem areas are highlighted, and suggestions are made for a unified approach to alleviate some of the student misunderstanding when preparing solutions, calculating concentrations, and determining effects of dilution. (Author/JN)

  6. The Atomic Mass Unit, the Avogadro Constant, and the Mole: A Way to Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Numerous articles have been published that address problems encountered in teaching basic concepts of chemistry such as the atomic mass unit, Avogadro's number, and the mole. The origin of these problems is found in the concept definitions. If these definitions are adjusted for teaching purposes, understanding could be improved. In the present…

  7. Investigation of Secondary School Students' Understanding of the Mole Concept in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervellati, R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Discusses: (1) how mole concept is defined/used in textbooks; (2) development and administration of a multiple-choice test to secondary school pupils (N=783) in Bologna and the surrounding district; and (3) results of the diagnostic examination, focusing on student mistakes and misconceptions. (Author/JN)

  8. A Mole in the Sole: Case Report on Eccrine Poroma | Das | Internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eccrine poroma is a benign tumor which arises from the intraepidermal portion of the eccrine sweat glands. 81 year old diabetic grandma worried about her persistently uncontrolled blood sugar owing to a painless mole in the sole of right foot for 2 years. Excisional biopsy revealed a sweat duct benign eccrine poroma.

  9. Recurrent gestational trophoblastic disease after hCG normalization following hydatidiform mole in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkmeijer, L.G.W.; Wielsma, S.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Thomas, C.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk for recurrent trophoblastic disease after spontaneous normalization of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels in patients with hydatidiform mole and to determine the risk for tumor relapse after apparent remission following chemotherapy in patients with low- and

  10. A new species of Gryllotalpa mole cricket (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae: Gryllotalpinae) from Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ming Kai; Kamaruddin, Khairul Nizam

    2016-01-19

    A new species of Gryllotalpa mole cricket (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) is described from Bukit Larut, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia: Gryllotalpa permai sp. n. Acoustic analysis of the male calling songs were also provided for Gryllotalpa permai sp. n. and the morphologically similar Gryllotalpa fulvipes.

  11. The reproductive biology of the giant Zambian mole-rat, Cryptomys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Mr. LZool. 1995,30(1). The reproductive biology of the giant Zambian mole-rat, Cryptomys mechowi. (Rodentia: 8athyergidae). N.C. BenneW and G.H. Aguilar. Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, 7700 Republic of South Africa. Received 29 September 1994; accepted 18 November 1994.

  12. Earlier diagnosis and serum human chorionic gonadotropin regression in complete hydatidiform moles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkmeijer, L.G.W.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Kate-Booij, M.J. ten; Sweep, F.C.; Thomas, C.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) regression in uneventful complete hydatidiform moles before and after the introduction of routine first-trimester ultrasonography. METHODS: Gestational age, maternal age, preevacuation hCG concentrations, serum hCG regression, and hCG

  13. Reading about the Power of Music: "Mole Music" and "Children of the Stone"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I review two books that address the power of music for the individual and group. Both books address the benefits of making, learning, and listening to music during times of conflict. The first brief review is David McPhail's picture book "Mole Music." The second is "Children of the Stone: The Power of Music in a…

  14. Trauma and humanitarian translation in Liberia: the tale of open mole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Sharon Alane

    2010-06-01

    The focus of this paper is the intercultural process through which Open Mole and trauma-related mental illnesses are brought together in the postconflict mental health encounter. In this paper, I explore the historical dimension of this process by reviewing the history of Open Mole, and the ways in which it has been interpreted, acted on, and objectified by external observers over the last half-century. Moving into Liberia's recent war and postconflict period, I examine the process by which Open Mole is transformed from a culture-bound disorder into a local idiom of trauma, and how it has become a gateway diagnosis of PTSD-related mental illnesses, and consider how it is produced as an objectified experience of psychiatric disorder in clinical humanitarian contexts. By studying how Open Mole is transformed in the humanitarian encounter, I address the structure and teleology of the humanitarian encounter and challenge some of the foundational assumptions about cultural sensitivity and community-based mental health care in postconflict settings that are prevalent in scholarship and practice today.

  15. The Impact of Elephants on the Woody Vegetation of Mole National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elephant damage on trees ≥ 2 m tall involving uprooting and main trunk breakage, as well as debarking was assessed in the upper- to middle-slope and lower-slope savannas of the elephantoccupied section of Mole National Park. Elephant damage on trees in either vegetation type was light, but varied among the ...

  16. The eye of the African mole-rat Cryptomys anselli : to see or not to see?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cernuda-Cernuda, R; Garcia-Fernandez, JM; Gordijn, MCM; Bovee-Geurts, PHM; DeGrip, WJ; de Grip, W.J.

    In an attempt to clarify its possible physiological role, we studied the eye of the Zambian mole rat Cryptomys anselli by light, electron and confocal microscopy using conventional staining as well as immunolabelling with rod and cone cell markers. The small eyes of Cryptomys are located

  17. Hardness evaluation of cured urea-formaldehyde resins with different formaldehyde/urea mole ratios using nanoindentation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byung-Dae Park; Charles R. Frihart; Yan Yu; Adya P. Singh

    2013-01-01

    To understand the influence of formaldehyde/urea (F/U) mole ratio on the properties of urea–formaldehyde (UF) resins, this study investigated hardness of cured UF resins with different F/U mole ratios using a nanoindentation method. The traditional Brinell hardness (HB) method was also used...

  18. An Investigation into Chemical Engineering Students' Understanding of the Mole and the Use of Concrete Activities To Promote Conceptual Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jennifer M.; Fraser, Duncan M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes an investigation of first-year chemical engineering students' understanding of the mole concept. Finds that a series of activities designed to provide students with visual or experiential points of reference for the mole concept had a strong positive effect on student misconceptions. Contains 16 references. (Author/WRM)

  19. Screening of Common Chromosomal Disorders in Iranian Women with Hydatidiform Mole using QF-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Barari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Hydatidiform Mole is a benign trophoblastic tumor is made of ectopic preg-nancy. Abnormalities in the number or structure of chromosomes are causes of Hydatidiform Mole common numerical disorders resulted from proliferating repetitive sequences markers as called STR were studied in the region of chromosome X, Y, 13, 18 and 21. This study aimed to investigate chromosomal disorders prevalent in women with hydatidiform mole, that was performed using QF-PCR techniques. Materials and Methods: In this study, 50 women with hydatidiform mole and 80 healthy women as controls were selected. For studying the chromosomal abnormalities resulted of proliferating STR, Chromo Quant QF-PCR kit was used. Polymerase chain reaction was performed in PCR machine. Then electrophoresis was performed on Genetic Analyzer. Finally, amplified fragment were analyzed by Gene Marker software Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 19, and t-test. Data were expressed as mean ± SD. In this test, p <0.05 represents significant level between two groups. Results: In this study ،of 50 samples, 8 samples of 47XXY (16%, 40 samples of trisomy 21 (80% and 2 cases of trisomy 18 (4% were identified. Conclusion: Anomalies Trisomy 21 (41 ± 1.58 and 47XXY (9.62 ± 1.36 are significantly associated with mydatidiform mole disease (p <0.001. The highest percentage of samples with tri-somy 21 and 47XXY had the disease. So, it indicates that these anomalies have the highest percentage in the disease.

  20. Estimating uncertainty of the WMO mole fraction scale for carbon dioxide in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cong Long; Tans, Pieter P.

    2006-04-01

    The current WMO CO2 Mole Fraction Scale consists of a set of 15 CO2-in-air primary standard calibration gases ranging in CO2 mole fraction from 250 to 520 μmol mol-1. Since the WMO CO2 Expert Group transferred responsibility for maintaining the WMO Scale from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) to the Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) in 1995, the 15 WMO primary standards have been calibrated, first at SIO and then at regular intervals, between 1 and 2 years, by the CMDL manometric system. The uncertainty of the 15 primary standards was estimated to be 0.069 μmol mol-1 (one-sigma) in the absolute sense. Manometric calibrations results indicate that there is no evidence of overall drift of the Primaries from 1996 to 2004. In order to lengthen the useful life of the Primary standards, CMDL has always transferred the scale via NDIR analyzers to the secondary standards. The uncertainties arising from the analyzer random error and the propagation error due to the uncertainty of the reference gas mole fraction are discussed. Precision of NDIR transfer calibrations was about 0.014 μmol mol-1 from 1979 to present. Propagation of the uncertainty was calculated theoretically. In the case of interpolation the propagation error was estimated to be between 0.06 and 0.07 μmol mol-1 when the Primaries were used as the reference gases via NDIR transfer calibrations. The CMDL secondary standard calibrations are transferred via NDIR analyzers to the working standards, which are used routinely for measuring atmospheric CO2 mole fraction in the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch monitoring program. The uncertainty of the working standards was estimated to be 0.071 μmol mol-1 in the one-sigma absolute scale. Consistency among the working standards is determined by the random errors of downward transfer calibrations at each level and is about 0.02 μmol mol-1. For comparison with an independent absolute scale, the five gravimetric standards from the National

  1. Reproducible Large-Scale Neuroimaging Studies with the OpenMOLE Workflow Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passerat-Palmbach, Jonathan; Reuillon, Romain; Leclaire, Mathieu; Makropoulos, Antonios; Robinson, Emma C; Parisot, Sarah; Rueckert, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    OpenMOLE is a scientific workflow engine with a strong emphasis on workload distribution. Workflows are designed using a high level Domain Specific Language (DSL) built on top of Scala. It exposes natural parallelism constructs to easily delegate the workload resulting from a workflow to a wide range of distributed computing environments. OpenMOLE hides the complexity of designing complex experiments thanks to its DSL. Users can embed their own applications and scale their pipelines from a small prototype running on their desktop computer to a large-scale study harnessing distributed computing infrastructures, simply by changing a single line in the pipeline definition. The construction of the pipeline itself is decoupled from the execution context. The high-level DSL abstracts the underlying execution environment, contrary to classic shell-script based pipelines. These two aspects allow pipelines to be shared and studies to be replicated across different computing environments. Workflows can be run as traditional batch pipelines or coupled with OpenMOLE's advanced exploration methods in order to study the behavior of an application, or perform automatic parameter tuning. In this work, we briefly present the strong assets of OpenMOLE and detail recent improvements targeting re-executability of workflows across various Linux platforms. We have tightly coupled OpenMOLE with CARE, a standalone containerization solution that allows re-executing on a Linux host any application that has been packaged on another Linux host previously. The solution is evaluated against a Python-based pipeline involving packages such as scikit-learn as well as binary dependencies. All were packaged and re-executed successfully on various HPC environments, with identical numerical results (here prediction scores) obtained on each environment. Our results show that the pair formed by OpenMOLE and CARE is a reliable solution to generate reproducible results and re-executable pipelines. A

  2. Study of male–mediated gene flow across a hybrid zone in the common shrew (Sorex araneus using Y chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei V. Polyakov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite many studies, the impact of chromosome rearrangements on gene flow between chromosome races of the common shrew (Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 remains unclear. Interracial hybrids form meiotic chromosome complexes that are associated with reduced fertility. Nevertheless comprehensive investigations of autosomal and mitochondrial markers revealed weak or no barrier to gene flow between chromosomally divergent populations. In a narrow zone of contact between the Novosibirsk and Tomsk races hybrids are produced with extraordinarily complex configurations at meiosis I. Microsatellite markers have not revealed any barrier to gene flow, but the phenotypic differentiation between races is greater than may be expected if gene flow was unrestricted. To explore this contradiction we analyzed the distribution of the Y chromosome SNP markers within this hybrid zone. The Y chromosome variants in combination with race specific autosome complements allow backcrosses to be distinguished and their proportion among individuals within the hybrid zone to be evaluated. The balanced ratio of the Y variants observed among the pure race individuals as well as backcrosses reveals no male mediated barrier to gene flow. The impact of reproductive unfitness of backcrosses on gene flow is discussed as a possible mechanism of the preservation of race-specific morphology within the hybrid zone.

  3. Blarina toxin, a mammalian lethal venom from the short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda: Isolation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Masaki; Nakamura, Yasuo; Okumura, Yuushi; Ohdachi, Satoshi D; Oba, Yuichi; Yoshikuni, Michiyasu; Kido, Hiroshi; Uemura, Daisuke

    2004-05-18

    Venomous mammals are rare, and their venoms have not been characterized. We have purified and characterized the blarina toxin (BLTX), a lethal mammalian venom with a tissue kallikrein-like activity from the submaxillary and sublingual glands of the short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda. Mice administered BLTX i.p. developed irregular respiration, paralysis, and convulsions before dying. Based on the amino acid sequence of purified protein, we cloned the BLTX cDNA. It consists of a prosequence and an active form of 253 aa with a typical catalytic triad of serine proteases, with a high identity with tissue kallikreins. BLTX is an N-linked microheterogeneous glycoprotein with a unique insertion of 10 residues, L(106)TFFYKTFLG(115). BLTX converted kininogens to kinins, which may be one of the toxic pathogens, and had dilatory effects on the blood vessel walls. The acute toxicity and proteolytic activity of BLTX were strongly inhibited by aprotinin, a kallikrein inhibitor, suggesting that its toxicity is due to a kallikrein-like activity of the venom.

  4. Twin Pregnancy with Hydatidiform Mole and Coexisting Fetus: Report of Three Cases and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Yarandi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A twin pregnancy with a coexisting complete hydatidiform mole and a healthy fetus (CMCF is rare. Here we report three cases of CMCF with different clinical courses but similar outcome without a surviving neonate. Two women required uterine evacuation before 20 weeks of gestational age because of vaginal bleeding and medical complications and the other patient underwent termination of her pregnancy at 24 weeks of gestation due to severe pre-eclampsia. The pathologic diagnosis of complete hydatidiform mole was confirmed in each case and the chromosome complement was 46XX in two molar gestations and 46XY in one gestation. One of the three women required chemotherapy for treatment of low-risk gestational trophoblastic disease. The hCG level was normalized after 4 cycles and the patient was free of disease at 1 year follow-up. Review of the literature discussing the diagnostic tools, clinical features, management and outcome of pregnancies with CMCF are presented.

  5. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on mole rats kidney: A histopathologic and ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Türker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to realize the ultrastructural effects of ultraviolet radiation on the kidney tissue cells of mole rats (Spalax leucodon. The mole rats of 180–200 g body weight were divided into the control and radiation-trial groups. The control group was not given any radiation. The other groups were irradiated with artificially produced UVC radiation for 14, 28 and 60 days. The kidney tissue samples were prepared at the end of experiments and analyzed by the light and electron microscope. Several effects were observed in the kidney tissues cells analyzed in accordance with the dose magnitude of radiation. These results clearly show the detrimental effects of UVC radiation on kidney tissue cells in exposure periods dependent on radiation dose and exposure time.

  6. Analysis of internal doses to Mole voles inhabiting the East-Ural radioactive trace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinovsky, G.; Yarmoshenko, I. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS (Russian Federation); Chibiryak, M.; Vasil' ev, A. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Substantial task of development of approaches to radiation protection of non-human biota is investigation of relationships of exposure to dose, and dose to effects. Small mammals inhabiting territory of the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) are affected to ionizing radiation for many generations after accident at Mayak plutonium production in 1957. According to results of numerous studies a number of effects of exposure are observed. It is remarkable that the revealed effects are both negative and adaptive. In particular, the analysis of the variability of morphological structures of the axial skull and lower jaw in the population of northern mole vole (Ellobius talpinus Pall.), the burrowing rodent inhabiting the EURT, is of great interest. At the same time there is no reliable assessment of the radiation doses to these animals. Earlier we developed the approach to assess internal doses to mouse-like rodents (mice and voles) caused by incorporated {sup 90}Sr, which is the main dose contributing radionuclide at the EURT. Dose assessments are based on the results of beta-radiometry of intact bone. Routine methods for measuring the activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in skeleton require ashing of samples, however in morphometric studies the destruction of material should be avoided: the skulls of mole voles are stored in the environmental samples depository of IPAE. Coefficients linking results of beta-radiometry of intact bone and activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in skull of mouse was obtained basing on comparison of results of beta-radiometry of intact bone and bone ash. Obtained coefficients cannot be directly applied for calculating activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in mole vole skulls because they are significantly larger. Therefore the additional study is required to assess proper coefficient of conversion from beta-radiometry to activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr. Developed dose assessment procedure includes application of the published values of

  7. On flows from a clay soil—Seasonal changes and the effect of mole drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M.; Mulqueen, J.; Burke, W.

    1987-06-01

    Six years' data were collected from a sloping grassland site with a clay soil. The high rainfall, together with a shallow topsoil on a much more impermeable subsoil, led to frequent surface saturation and a rapid storm response. A third of the annual rainfall was discharged in the surface 10 cm thick root layer of the topsoil. With artificial drainage by mole drains, surface layer flow was almost completely eliminated and, in winter and early spring, peak drain flows were less than surface flows from undrained land. However, the reverse was the case in the autumn when, following the opening up of shrinkage cracks in summer, there was rapid flow generation to the mole drains resulting in much higher discharges than those from the undrained site. This pattern was observed in each of the five years after drainage and was applicable for a wide range of storm sizes and intensities. Such seasonal behaviour is probably much more widespread than is generally realised.

  8. On the Mole-Rat (Cryptomys Hottentotus Damarensis (Rodentia in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G de Graaff

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the ecology and distribution of the Damara mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus damarensis are discussed relative to its life in the arid Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. The value of coat colour as a taxonomic criterion for the subspecies is discussed. Notes are also presented on reproduction, aspects of behaviour such as: habitat, nests, orientation, activity, locomotion, voice, food, feeding and social life, symbiosis, commensalism, parasites and predators.

  9. Digital dissection of the masticatory muscles of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber (Mammalia, Rodentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip G. Cox

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber, of the family Bathyergidae is a subterranean rodent that feeds on underground roots and tubers and digs extensive tunnel systems with its incisors. It is a highly unusual mammal with regard to its social structure, longevity, pain insensitivity and cancer resistance, all of which have made it the subject of a great deal of research in recent years. Yet, much of the basic anatomy of this species remains undocumented. In this paper, we describe the morphology of the jaw-closing musculature of the naked mole-rat, as revealed by contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography. This technique uses an iodine stain to enable the imaging of soft tissues with microCT. The iodine-enhanced scans were used to create 3D reconstructions of the naked mole-rat masticatory muscles from which muscle masses were calculated. The jaw-closing musculature of Heterocephalus glaber is relatively very large compared to other rodents and is dominated by the superficial masseter, the deep masseter and the temporalis. The temporalis in particular is large for a rodent, covering the entirety of the braincase and much of the rear part of the orbit. The morphology of the masseter complex described here differs from two other published descriptions of bathyergid masticatory muscles, but is more similar to the arrangement seen in other rodent families. The zygomaticomandibularis (ZM muscle does not protrude through the infraorbital foramen on to the rostrum and thus the naked mole-rat should be considered protrogomorphous rather than hystricomorphous, and the morphology is consistent with secondarily lost hystricomorphy as has been previously suggested for Bathyergidae. Overall, the morphology of the masticatory musculature indicates a species with a high bite force and a wide gape–both important adaptations for a life dominated by digging with the incisors.

  10. Naked mole-rat mortality rates defy Gompertzian laws by not increasing with age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, J Graham; Smith, Megan

    2018-01-01

    The longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), has a reported maximum lifespan of >30 years and exhibits delayed and/or attenuated age-associated physiological declines. We questioned whether these mouse-sized, eusocial rodents conform to Gompertzian mortality laws by experiencing an exponentially increasing risk of death as they get older. We compiled and analyzed a large compendium of historical naked mole-rat lifespan data with >3000 data points. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed a substantial portion of the population to have survived at 30 years of age. Moreover, unlike all other mammals studied to date, and regardless of sex or breeding-status, the age-specific hazard of mortality did not increase with age, even at ages 25-fold past their time to reproductive maturity. This absence of hazard increase with age, in defiance of Gompertz’s law, uniquely identifies the naked mole-rat as a non-aging mammal, confirming its status as an exceptional model for biogerontology. PMID:29364116

  11. Raman line imaging for spatially and temporally resolved mole fraction measurements in internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, P C

    1999-03-20

    An optical diagnostic system based on line imaging of Raman-scattered light has been developed to study the mixing processes in internal combustion engines. The system permits multipoint, single laser-shot measurements of CO(2), O(2), N(2), C(3)H(8), and H(2)O mole fractions with submillimeter spatial resolution. Selection of appropriate system hardware is discussed, as are subsequent data reduction and analysis procedures. Results are reported for data obtained at multiple crank angles and in two different engine flow fields. Measurements are made at 12 locations simultaneously, each location having measurement volume dimensions of 0.5 mm x 0.5 mm x 0.9 mm. The data are analyzed to obtain statistics of species mole fractions: mean, rms, histograms, and both spatial and cross-species covariance functions. The covariance functions are used to quantify the accuracy of the measured rms mole fraction fluctuations, to determine the integral length scales of the mixture inhomogeneities, and to quantify the cycle-to-cycle fluctuations in bulk mixture composition under well-mixed conditions.

  12. Cutaneous and periodontal inputs to the cerebellum of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber

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    Diana K Sarko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber is a small fossorial rodent with specialized dentition that is reflected by the large cortical area dedicated to representation of the prominent incisors. Due to naked mole-rats’ behavioral reliance on the incisors for digging and for manipulating objects, as well as their ability to move the lower incisors independently, we hypothesized that expanded somatosensory representations of the incisors would be present within the cerebellum in order to accommodate a greater degree of proprioceptive, cutaneous, and periodontal input. Multiunit electrophysiological recordings targeting the ansiform lobule were used to investigate tactile inputs from receptive fields on the entire body with a focus on the incisors. Similar to other rodents, a fractured somatotopy appeared to be present with discrete representations of the same receptive fields repeated within each folium of the cerebellum. These findings confirm the presence of somatosensory inputs to a large area of the naked mole-rat cerebellum with particularly extensive representations of the lower incisors and mystacial vibrissae. We speculate that these extensive inputs facilitate processing of tactile cues as part of a sensorimotor integration network that optimizes how sensory stimuli are acquired through active exploration and in turn adjusts motor outputs (such as independent movement of the lower incisors. These results highlight the diverse sensory specializations and corresponding brain organizational schemes that have evolved in different mammals to facilitate exploration of and interaction with their environment.

  13. Analyzing difficulties with mole-concept tasks by using familiar analog tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Dorothy; Sherwood, Robert D.

    This study was conducted to determine which skills and concepts students have that are prerequisites for solving moles problems through the use of analog tasks. Two analogous tests with four forms of each were prepared that corresponded to a conventional moles test. The analogs used were oranges and granules of sugar. Slight variations between test items on various forms permitted comparisons that would indicate specific conceptual and mathematical difficulties that students might have in solving moles problems. Different forms of the two tests were randomly assigned to 332 high school chemistry students of five teachers in four schools in central Indiana. Comparisons of total test score, subtest scores, and the number of students answering an item correctly using appropriate t-test and chi square tests resulted in the following conclusions: (1) the size of the object makes no difference in the problem difficulty; (2) students understand the concepts of mass, volume, and particles equally well; (3) problems requiring two steps are harder than those requiring one step; (4) problems involving scientific notation are more difficult than those that do not; (5) problems involving the multiplication concept are easier than those involving the division concept; (6) problems involving the collective word bag are easier to solve than those using the word billion; (7) the use of the word a(n) makes the problem more difficult than using the number 1.

  14. Hydatidiform mole

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of a pregnancy. It is a type of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) . ... Bouchard-Fortier G, Covens A. Gestational trophoblastic disease: hydatidiform ... Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Lentz GM, Valea FA, eds. ...

  15. Fiber type distribution in the shoulder muscles of the tree shrew, the cotton-top tamarin, and the squirrel monkey related to shoulder movements and forelimb loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Manuela; Schilling, Nadja

    2007-04-01

    Muscle fiber type composition of intrinsic shoulder muscles was examined in tree shrews, cotton-top tamarins, and squirrel monkeys with respect to their shoulder kinematics and forelimb loading during locomotion. Enzyme- and immunohistochemical techniques were applied to differentiate muscle fiber types on serial cross-sections of the shoulder. In the majority of the shoulder muscles, the proportions of fatigue resistant slow-twitch fibers (SO) and fatigable fast-twitch fibers (FG) were inversely related to each other, whereas the percentage of intermediate FOG-fibers varied independently. A segregation of fatigue resistant SO-fibers into deep muscle regions is indicative of differential activation of histochemically distinct muscle regions in which deep regions stabilize the joint against gravitational loading. In all three species, this antigravity function was demonstrated for both the supraspinatus and the cranial subscapularis muscle, which prevent passive joint flexion during the support phase of the limb. The infraspinatus muscle showed a high content of SO-fibers in the primate species but not in the tree shrew, which demonstrates the "new" role of the infraspinatus muscle in joint stabilization related to the higher degree of humeral protraction in primates. In the tree shrew and the cotton-top tamarin, a greater proportion of the body weight is carried on the forelimb, but the squirrel monkey exhibits a weight shift to the hind limbs. The lower amount of forelimb loading is reflected by an overall lower proportion of fatigue resistant muscle fibers in the shoulder muscles of the squirrel monkey. Several muscles such as the deltoid no longer function as joint stabilizers and allow the humerus to move beyond the scapular plane. These differences among species demonstrate the high plasticity of the internal muscle architecture and physiology which is suggested to be the underlying reason for different muscle activity patterns in homologous muscles

  16. Investigation of the presence and antinociceptive function of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kristine B.; Krogh-Jensen, Karen; Pickering, Darryl S

    2016-01-01

    with [3H]-N-methylscopolamine. The BLAST test revealed 95 % protein sequence homology showing the naked mole-rat to have the genetic potential to express all five muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. A significant reduction in pain behavior was demonstrated after administration of 8.4 mg......The present study investigated the cholinergic system in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) with focus on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes M1 and M4. The protein sequences for the subtypes m 1–5 of the naked mole-rat were compared to that of the house mouse (Mus...... musculus) using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST). The presence and function of M1 and M4 was investigated in vivo, using the formalin test with the muscarinic receptor agonists xanomeline and VU0152100. Spinal cord tissue from the naked mole-rat was used for receptor saturation binding studies...

  17. Nomenclatural notes and identification of small-eared shrews (Mammalia: genus Cryptotis) from Cobán, Guatemala, in The Natural History Museum, London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal

    2011-01-01

    A small series of shrews collected in Guatemala and registered in the British Museum between 1843 and 1907 includes parts of type series for three species: Corsira tropicalis Gray (1843), Sorex micrurus Tomes (1862), and Blarina tropicalis Merriam (1895). These three names are now considered equivalent, but my recent review of the specimens comprising the series indicates that they include three distinct species: Cryptotis merriami Choate (1970), Cryptotis oreoryctes Woodman (2011), and Cryptotis tropicalis (Merriam 1895). I review the taxonomic history of these specimens, provide current identifications tied directly to museum register numbers, describe how to distinguish the three species, and provide revised synonymies for these species.

  18. Efficacy of NETDC (New England Trophoblastic Disease Center prognostic index score to predict gestational trophoblastic tumor from hydatidiform mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khrismawan Khrismawan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A prospective longitudinal analytic study assessing the efficacy of NETDC (New England Trophoblastic Disease Center prognostic index score in predicting malignancy after hydatidiform mole had been performed. Of the parameter evaluated; age of patients, type of hydatidiform mole, uterine enlargement, serum hCG level, lutein cyst, and presence of complicating factors were significant risk factors for malignancy after hydatidiform mole were evacuated (p<0.032. The study were done on 50 women diagnosed with hydatidiform mole with 1 year observation (January 2001-December 2002 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mohammad Hoesin Hospital, Palembang. The results showed that the NETDC prognostic index score predicted malignancy in 50% of high risk group and 10% in low risk group (p<0.05. This showed a higher number than that found by the WHO (19%-30%. The risk for incidence of  malignancy after hydatidiform mole in the high risk group is 9.0 times higher compared to that of the low risk group (CI: 1.769-45.786. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 40-6 Keywords: New England Trophoblastic Disease Center (NETDC, gestational trophoblastic tumor, hydatidiform mole, high and low risk

  19. Genetic signatures for enhanced olfaction in the African mole-rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Stathopoulos

    Full Text Available The Olfactory Receptor (OR superfamily, the largest in the vertebrate genome, is responsible for vertebrate olfaction and is traditionally subdivided into 17 OR families. Recent studies characterising whole-OR subgenomes revealed a 'birth and death' model of evolution for a range of species, however little is known about fine-scale evolutionary dynamics within single-OR families. This study reports the first assessment of fine-scale OR evolution and variation in African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, a family of subterranean rodents endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. Because of the selective pressures of life underground, enhanced olfaction is proposed to be fundamental to the evolutionary success of the Bathyergidae, resulting in a highly diversified OR gene-repertoire. Using a PCR-sequencing approach, we analysed variation in the OR7 family across 14 extant bathyergid species, which revealed enhanced levels of functional polymorphisms concentrated across the receptors' ligand-binding region. We propose that mole-rats are able to recognise a broad range of odorants and that this diversity is reflected throughout their OR7 gene repertoire. Using both classic tests and tree-based methods to test for signals of selection, we investigate evolutionary forces across the mole-rat OR7 gene tree. Four well-supported clades emerged in the OR phylogeny, with varying signals of selection; from neutrality to positive and purifying selection. Bathyergid life-history traits and environmental niche-specialisation are explored as possible drivers of adaptive OR evolution, emerging as non-exclusive contributors to the positive selection observed at OR7 genes. Our results reveal unexpected complexity of evolutionary mechanisms acting within a single OR family, providing insightful perspectives into OR evolutionary dynamics.

  20. Cleaning the IceMole: collection of englacial samples from Blood Falls, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikucki, J.; Digel, I.; Chua, M.; Davis, J.; Ghosh, D.; Lyons, W. B.; Welch, K. A.; Purcell, A.; Francke, G.; Feldmann, M.; Espe, C.; Heinen, D.; Dachwald, B.; Kowalski, J.; Tulaczyk, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Minimally Invasive Direct Glacial Access project (MIDGE) used a maneuverable thermoelectric melting probe called the IceMole to collect the first englacial samples of brine from Blood Falls, Antarctica. In order to maintain the scientific integrity of samples collected and minimize impact to this specially protected ecosystem, microbial and chemical contamination of the IceMole needed to be minimized. Guidelines have been established for research in Antarctic subglacial systems by the scientific and regulatory community and have been detailed by the "Code of Conduct for the Exploration and Research of Subglacial Aquatic Environments" put forth by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) Action Group, and was submitted to the Antarctic Treaty System. This Code of Conduct (CoC) recognizes the ecological importance and pristine nature of subglacial habitats and recommends a path forward towards clean exploration. Similarly, the US and European space agencies (NASA and ESA) have detailed instrument preparation protocols for the exploration of icy worlds in our solar system for planetary protection. Given the synergistic aims of these two groups we have adopted protocols from both subglacial and space exploration approaches. Here we present our approach to cleaning the IceMole in the field and report on ability to reduce the bioload inherent on the melter. Specifically our protocol reduced the exterior bio-load by an order of magnitude, to levels common in most clean rooms, and 1-3 orders of magnitude below that of Taylor Glacier ice surrounding Blood Falls. Our results indicate that the collection of englacial samples for microbiological analysis is feasible with melting probes.

  1. Multidimensional MRI-CT atlas of the naked mole-rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko eSeki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Naked mole-rats have a variety of distinctive features such as the organisation of a hierarchical society (known as eusociality, extraordinary longevity, and cancer resistance; thus, it would be worthwhile investigating these animals in detail. One important task is the preparation of a brain atlas database that provide comprehensive information containing multidimensional data with various image contrasts, which can be achievable using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Advanced MRI techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, which generates high contrast images of fibre structures, can characterise unique morphological properties in addition to conventional MRI. To obtain high spatial resolution images, MR histology, DTI, and X-ray computed tomography (CT were performed on the fixed adult brain. Skull and brain structures were segmented as well as reconstructed in stereotaxic coordinates. Data were also acquired for the neonatal brain to allow developmental changes to be observed. Moreover, in vivo imaging of naked mole-rats was established as an evaluation tool of live animals. The data obtained comprised three-dimensional (3D images with high tissue contrast as well as stereotaxic coordinates. Developmental differences in the visual system were highlighted in particular by DTI. Although it was difficult to delineate optic nerves in the mature adult brain, parts of them could be distinguished in the immature neonatal brain. From observation of cortical thickness, possibility of high somatosensory system development replaced to the visual system was indicated. 3D visualisation of brain structures in the atlas as well as the establishment of in vivo imaging would promote neuroimaging researches towards detection of novel characteristics of eusocial naked mole-rats.

  2. Clinical management and diagnostic possibilities in hydatidiform mole with coexistent fetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejerslev, L O

    1991-01-01

    without possibility of a surviving child. First trimester ultrasound demonstration of a partially cystic placenta and abnormal high se-hCG values should initiate prenatal diagnosis for evaluation of the fetal karyotype, before deciding whether to abort or continue the pregnancy......., when mole and karyotypically normal child are detected by first or second trimester prenatal diagnosis. Fifty-two pregnancies (59.8 per cent) proceeded to the 28th week without spontaneous abortion or interruption of pregnancy. None of the children delivered before week 28 survived. Of the pregnancies...

  3. Fine structure of the uteri in two hymenolepidid tapeworm Skrjabinacanthus diplocoronatus and Urocystis prolifer (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) parasitic in shrews that display different fecundity of the strobilae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneva, Janetta V; Kornienko, Svetlana A; Jones, Malcolm K

    2012-10-01

    Adult specimens of Skrjabinacanthus diplocoronatus and Urocystis prolifer were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy, and data on the uterine organization in these species are presented. The interrelationships of morphological changes of the uterus and developing eggs on the one hand with fecundities of the strobilae of cyclophyllidean cestodes on the other hand are investigated. The development of the excretory system forming a network of excretory ducts close to the uterus is characteristic of S. diplocoronatus. Numerous excretory ducts are located near the uterus or contact the uterine epithelium and are also found in uterine cords. Accumulation of lipids is observed in the cavity of excretory ducts, in muscular cells, and in the lumen of the uterus as well as in the developing eggs. This species displays the largest fecundity among cestode parasites of the shrew. U. prolifer has one of the lowest fecundities among cestodes from shrews. A small amount of lipids found in cells of gravid proglottids could serve as a supply of nutrients. It seems that some cestodes with great fecundity possess specific paths by which eggs are supplied with nutrients. As a result, diverse modifications of the uterus in Cyclophyllidea are formed.

  4. Inference in a social context: A comparative study of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), and rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Ueno, Yoshikazu; Fujita, Kazuo

    2015-11-01

    Four species (capuchin monkeys, tree shrews, rats, and hamsters) performed an inference task situated in a social context. In Experiment 1, capuchin monkeys first explored food sites under 1 of 2 conditions: In 1 condition, food was refilled after it was eaten (replenished condition), whereas it was not refilled (depleted condition) in the other condition. Two food sites were presented for each condition. In the test phase, a subject watched a conspecific demonstrator visit 1 of the food sites in either the replenished or depleted condition. A screen placed in front of the sites prevented the subject from seeing the demonstrator actually eat the food. When the demonstrator was removed, the subject explored the cage. Three of 4 monkeys tended to go to the unvisited sites in the depleted condition, but tended to go to the visited site in the replenished condition. This suggests that they inferred that there was no food because the demonstrator had eaten it. In Experiment 2, using the same procedure, 2 nongroup-living species (tree shrews and hamsters) were indifferent to demonstrator behavior and visited sites only randomly, and group-living rats showed a strong tendency to follow demonstrators, irrespective of the type of food site. These tendencies were unchanged when olfactory information was added in Experiment 3 and when motivation to compete increased in Experiment 4. These results suggest that only capuchin monkeys have the ability to solve an inference task when cued by social information. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. A wide hybrid zone of chromosome races of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 (Mammalia, between the Dnieper and Berezina Rivers (Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Borisov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Karyological study of 75 specimens of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, from 8 localities in the Berezina River basin (eastern Belarus was carried out. A wide hybrid zone (not less than 100 km between the northern West Dvina chromosome race (XX / XYY, af, bc, gm, hk, ip, jl, no, qr, tu and the southern Turov race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g, h/k, i, jl, m, n, o, p, q, r, tu was revealed in this region. Frequencies of fused-unfused arms comprising four diagnostic metacentrics of the West Dvina race (g/m, h/k, n/o, q/r were calculated in all capture sites. Taking into consideration the absence of metacentric ip in specimens from six northern localities, the Borisov (Bs race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g/m, h/k, i, jl, n/o, p, q/r, tu (Orlov, Borisov, 2009 was distinguished in these sites. Common shrews from two southern localities on the right and left banks of the Berezina River (Berezino vicinity were referred to the Turov race. The presence of four metacentrics descended from the West Dvina race in the Bs race testifies to the hypothesis expressed earlier that the polymorphic populations of the S. araneus between the Dnieper and Berezina Rivers originated as a result of the West Dvina race spreading from the north and of hybridization between this race and local populations with acrocentric chromosomes.

  6. Absence of histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat and "rescue" by Substance P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewin Gary R

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent research has proposed a pathway in which sensory neurons expressing the capsaicin activated ion channel TRPV1 are required for histamine-induced itch and subsequent scratching behavior. We examined histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber and found that although naked mole-rats display innate scratching behavior, histamine was unable to evoke increased scratching as is observed in most mouse strains. Using calcium imaging, we examined the histamine sensitivity of naked mole-rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons and identified a population of small diameter neurons activated by histamine, the majority of which are also capsaicin-sensitive. This suggested that naked mole-rat sensory neurons are activated by histamine, but that spinal dorsal horn processing of sensory information is not the same as in other rodents. We have previously shown that naked mole-rats naturally lack substance P (SP in cutaneous C-fibers, but that the neurokinin-1 receptor is expressed in the superficial spinal cord. This led us to investigate if SP deficiency plays a role in the lack of histamine-induced scratching in this species. After intrathecal administration of SP into the spinal cord we observed robust scratching behavior in response to histamine injection. Our data therefore support a model in which TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons are important for histamine-induced itch. In addition, we demonstrate a requirement for active, SP-induced post-synaptic drive to enable histamine sensitive afferents to drive itch-related behavior in the naked mole-rat. These results illustrate that it is altered dorsal horn connectivity of nociceptors that underlies the lack of itch and pain-related behavior in the naked mole-rat.

  7. Detecting CO2 and CH4 Urban Emissions using Column-Integrated Dry Air mole Fractions, In-Situ Tower Dry Air Mole Fractions, and WRF Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyard, P. W.; Lauvaux, T.; Podolske, J. R.; Iraci, L. T.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Davis, K.; Roehl, C. M.; Wunch, D.; Wennberg, P. O.; Blavier, J. F.; Allen, N.; Barrow, E.; Deng, A.

    2015-12-01

    Total column measurements of atmospheric gases are important because of their ability to be performed via satellites that provide global coverage. Here we will present measurements of CO2 and CH4 dry air mole fractions obtained using a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) as part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Nework (TCCON). These measurements were performed in Indianapolis as part of the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX). We will extract urban emission signals using high resolution modeling and in-situ tower measurements of CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios. In addition to quantifying the influence of surface emissions on the column measurements, we will also decompose the atmospheric columns into sub-layers to identify the origin of air masses at various altitudes. We will show that the variability in the origins of air masses increases the complexity of the observed signals in the column, which limits our ability to combine surface and column measurements. This work will also highlight the potential application of using total column measurements to detect local urban signals. We conclude that the deployment of multiple column sensors is required in order to measure the upwind (background) and downwind (urban) conditions. Such work provides a test case for using these methods with satellite measurements such as GOSAT and OCO-2 that provide global coverage.

  8. Enhancing skin self-examination with imaging: evaluation of a mole-mapping program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, M A; Nguyen, F Q; Martin, R A

    2004-01-01

    To enhance early detection of melanoma with thorough skin self-examination, we have enrolled patients in a mole-mapping program that uses digital imaging of the skin. The goal of our study was to evaluate the impact of participation in the mole-mapping program on performance of thorough skin self-examination. The study was carried out by telephone survey of 64 program participants, using self-report to assess impact. Participants were generally satisfied and found the program useful and effective; 97% would recommend it. Almost half (45%) of those who were not performing thorough skin self-examination before participation reported performing it after receiving their images. After participation, a partner such as a spouse or friend was more commonly assisting in these examinations. We also noted a correlation (of borderline statistical significance) between sun protection and performance of self-examination, and differences among different definitions of thorough skin self-examination. Interventions centered around imaging have the potential to substantially enhance and encourage the performance of thorough skin self-examination for the early detection of melanoma.

  9. In situ measurement of calling metabolic rate in an Australian mole cricket, Gryllotalpa monanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Craig R; Matthews, Philip G D; Seymour, Roger S

    2008-06-01

    Examination of the energetics of sound production usually requires measurement of species that will produce normal calls under unnatural circumstances. Such measurements are potentially compromised by stress-related changes in calling input (through a reduction in calling effort) or output (through forced use of sub-optimal singing burrows). To determine if such measurements are indeed affected by abstraction from a natural setting, we measured the energetics of song production in undisturbed mole crickets Gryllotalpa monanka and employed a new approach where the animal's singing chamber replaces the respirometry chamber normally used in studies of this type. It was therefore possible to measure metabolic rate (MR) of calling crickets in situ for animals within self-constructed burrows under natural conditions. Calling MR measured under these conditions averaged 13.5-fold higher than standard MR and 2.2-fold higher than MR measured during burrowing in the lab. The calling MR of G. monanka was similar to that measured for other calling insects, and to endothermic insects, but was only 10% of that allometrically predicted for a similarly sized insect (0.89 g) during flight. A male mole cricket is estimated to consume 5.9 ml of oxygen during construction of a calling burrow and a 1-h calling bout; by comparison, a flying female would consume a similar volume in less than 6 min.

  10. Adaptations to a Subterranean Environment and Longevity Revealed by the Analysis of Mole Rat Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Fang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Subterranean mammals spend their lives in dark, unventilated environments that are rich in carbon dioxide and ammonia and low in oxygen. Many of these animals are also long-lived and exhibit reduced aging-associated diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. We sequenced the genome of the Damaraland mole rat (DMR, Fukomys damarensis and improved the genome assembly of the naked mole rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber. Comparative genome analyses, along with the transcriptomes of related subterranean rodents, revealed candidate molecular adaptations for subterranean life and longevity, including a divergent insulin peptide, expression of oxygen-carrying globins in the brain, prevention of high CO2-induced pain perception, and enhanced ammonia detoxification. Juxtaposition of the genomes of DMR and other more conventional animals with the genome of NMR revealed several truly exceptional NMR features: unusual thermogenesis, an aberrant melatonin system, pain insensitivity, and unique processing of 28S rRNA. Together, these genomes and transcriptomes extend our understanding of subterranean adaptations, stress resistance, and longevity.

  11. MOLE: A Multidisciplinary Observatory and Laboratory of Experiments in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Dresen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure and mechanics of active Low Angle Normal Faults (LANFs have for decades b s been posing questions—in particular, if low angle normal faults accommodate crustal extension, and if they generate large magnitude earthquakes, or if they move aseismically. To shed new light on these challenging questions, MOLE intends to drill (down to 4–5 km an active LANF in the Umbria-Marche sector of the northern Apennines (Fig. 1 and to establish a deep borehole observatory. The target site offers a unique opportunity to reach a LANF at drillable seismogenic depth to unravel the “low angle normal fault mechanical paradox” (Wernicke, 1995; Axen, 2007. In order to discuss the scientific background and plan the MOLE project, ixty-two scientists from various research fields attended an international workshop in Spoleto, Italy, on 5–8 May 2008. The workshop focused on the following goals that need to be achieved: (I to collect new observational data at depth for constraining the fault zone structure; (II to perform laboratory experiments with gouge and fault zone materials to understand frictional properties and weakeningmechanisms; (III to record microearthquakes at distance comparable to the source radius, and (IV to obtain stress and strain measurements and geochemical data in and near the fault zone at depth to understand the mechanics of earthquakes and faulting.

  12. Effects of Freshwater Discharge in Sandy Beach Populations: The Mole Crab Emerita brasiliensis in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lercari, D.; Defeo, O.

    1999-10-01

    Sandy beaches are ecosystems which are heavily affected by human activities. An example of this is freshwater discharges, which are known to change salinity, temperature and nutrient regimes and degrade nearshore environments. However, the effects of this kind of disturbance on sandy beach fauna have been little studied. This paper reports the spatial effects of a man-made freshwater canal discharge on the population structure, abundance and reproductive characteristics of the sandy beach mole crab Emerita brasiliensis. Along the 22 km of sandy beach sampled, the mole crab showed a marked longshore variability in population structure and abundance. Abundance of different population components (juveniles, males, females and ovigerous females) significantly decreased towards the canal. Population structure by sex and size, individual weight, fecundity and female maturity patterns at size also displayed a non-linear response to the distance from the freshwater discharge. Only the size structure of males did not follow this pattern. For males, spatial heterogeneity enhanced the detection of density-dependence at less disturbed sites. The authors conclude that artificial freshwater discharges could significantly influence the distribution, abundance and life-history traits of the biota of sandy beaches, and that further study of these ecosystems should include human activities as important factors affecting spatial and temporal trends. The need to consider different spatial and temporal scales in order to detect the effect of anthropogenically-driven impacts in sandy beach populations is stressed.

  13. Donut shape plasma jet plumes generated by microwave pulses even without air mole fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaoquan; Liu, Xiaodong; Zou, Changlin; Song, Xiao; Li, Ping; Hu, Yelin; Qiu, Hanbiao; Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Zhu, Mengzhou

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that the plasma jets driven by lower frequency voltages or pulsed DC power supply normally present with donut shaped cross sections, especially at where the diffused air mole fractions are less than 0.01. Thence, it is interesting to further study whether the donut shape is still in truth for the pulsed microwave plasma jet or not. In this letter, the cross sectional structures of atmospheric pressure plasma jet plumes driven by pulsed microwaves have been experimented on a cylindrical coaxial transmission line resonator. The plasma jet plumes demonstrate particular characteristics, like argon plasma with a donut shape but helium plasma with an uniform lighten cross section, despite whether the air mole fraction exists or not. For argon discharge, the fast images show that the donut shaped cross section only occurs at the end of each microwave pulses. In combination with helium discharge, the cross sectional patterns are immediately determined by the dominant ionization front of the plasma jet plumes, which are resonantly generated by the local enhanced electric field of ionization waves.

  14. A stable algorithm for calculating phase equilibria with capillarity at specified moles, volume and temperature using a dynamic model

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2017-09-30

    Capillary pressure can significantly affect the phase properties and flow of liquid-gas fluids in porous media, and thus, the phase equilibrium calculation incorporating capillary pressure is crucial to simulate such problems accurately. Recently, the phase equilibrium calculation at specified moles, volume and temperature (NVT-flash) becomes an attractive issue. In this paper, capillarity is incorporated into the phase equilibrium calculation at specified moles, volume and temperature. A dynamical model for such problem is developed for the first time by using the laws of thermodynamics and Onsager\\'s reciprocal principle. This model consists of the evolutionary equations for moles and volume, and it can characterize the evolutionary process from a non-equilibrium state to an equilibrium state in the presence of capillarity effect at specified moles, volume and temperature. The phase equilibrium equations are naturally derived. To simulate the proposed dynamical model efficiently, we adopt the convex-concave splitting of the total Helmholtz energy, and propose a thermodynamically stable numerical algorithm, which is proved to preserve the second law of thermodynamics at the discrete level. Using the thermodynamical relations, we derive a phase stability condition with capillarity effect at specified moles, volume and temperature. Moreover, we propose a stable numerical algorithm for the phase stability testing, which can provide the feasible initial conditions. The performance of the proposed methods in predicting phase properties under capillarity effect is demonstrated on various cases of pure substance and mixture systems.

  15. Protocol for the MoleMate UK Trial: a randomised controlled trial of the MoleMate system in the management of pigmented skin lesions in primary care [ISRCTN 79932379].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Fiona M; Morris, Helen C; Humphrys, Elka; Hall, Per N; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Prevost, A Toby; Wilson, Edward Cf; Burrows, Nigel; Norris, Paul; Johnson, Margaret; Emery, Jon

    2010-05-11

    Suspicious pigmented lesions are a common presenting problem in general practice consultations; while the majority are benign a small minority are melanomas. Differentiating melanomas from other pigmented lesions in primary care is challenging: currently, 95% of all lesions referred to a UK specialist are benign. The MoleMate system is a new diagnostic aid, incorporating a hand-held SIAscopy scanner with a primary care diagnostic algorithm. This trial tests the hypothesis that adding the MoleMate system to current best primary care practice will increase the proportion of appropriate referrals of suspicious pigmented lesions to secondary care compared with current best practice alone. The MoleMate UK Trial is a primary care based multi-centre randomised controlled trial, with randomisation at patient level using a validated block randomisation method for two age groups (45 years and under; 46 years and over). We aim to recruit adult patients seen in general practice with a pigmented skin lesion that cannot immediately be diagnosed as benign and the patient reassured. The trial has a 'two parallel groups' design, comparing 'best practice' with 'best practice' plus the MoleMate system in the intervention group. The primary outcome is the positive predictive value (PPV) of referral defined as the proportion of referred lesions seen by secondary care experts that are considered 'clinically significant' (i.e. biopsied or monitored). Secondary outcomes include: the sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value (NPV) of the decision not to refer; clinical outcomes (melanoma thickness, 5 year melanoma incidence and mortality); clinician outcomes (Index of Suspicion, confidence, learning effects); patient outcomes (satisfaction, general and cancer-specific worry), and cost-utility. The MoleMate UK Trial tests a new technology designed to improve the management of suspicious pigmented lesions in primary care. If effective, the MoleMate system could reduce the burden

  16. How well do tall tower measurements characterize the CO2 mole fraction distribution in the planetary boundary layer?

    OpenAIRE

    Haszpra, L.; Z. Barcza; Haszpra, T.; Z. Pátkai; K. J. Davis

    2014-01-01

    Planetary boundary layer (PBL) CO2 mole fraction data are needed by transport models and carbon budget models as both input and reference for validation. The height of in situ CO2 mole fraction measurements is usually different from that of the model levels where the data are needed; data from short towers, in particular, are difficult to utilize in atmospheric models that do not simulate the surface layer well. Tall tower CO2 mole fraction measurements observed at he...

  17. Current transport mechanism in graphene/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with various Al mole fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhishma Pandit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current transport mechanism of graphene formed on AlxGa1−xN/GaN heterostructures with various Al mole fractions (x = 0.15, 0.20, 0.30, and 0.40 is investigated. The current–voltage measurement from graphene to AlGaN/GaN shows an excellent rectifying property. The extracted Schottky barrier height of the graphene/AlGaN/GaN contacts increases with the Al mole fraction in AlGaN. However, the current transport mechanism deviates from the Schottky-Mott theory owing to the deterioration of AlGaN crystal quality at high Al mole fractions confirmed by reverse leakage current measurement.

  18. Antioxidant activity and prevention of pork meat lipid oxidation using traditional Mexican condiments (pasilla dry pepper, achiote, and mole sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the extensive use of hot peppers and spicy sauces in the Mexican cuisine, in the present paper, three widely consumed Mexican condiments (mole sauce, achiote, and pasilla hot pepper were analyzed for their total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, antioxidant activity, and protective effect against lipid oxidation in chopped pork meat. All samples were extracted first with methanol and then with acetone, and the extracts were compared. Pasilla pepper showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid content in both solvents, followed by mole and achiote. Achiote showed the highest proanthocyanidin concentration. All samples showed high antioxidant activity, and good correlations with phenolic compounds and flavonoids, while no correlation was observed in the case of condensed tannins. Mole sauce methanolic extract showed the highest inhibition of pork meat oxidation, followed by pasilla pepper, and finally achiote paste extracts. These results suggest that these condiments are useful to prevent meat lipid oxidation during storage.

  19. Estimating regional methane surface fluxes: the relative importance of surface and GOSAT mole fraction measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fraser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We use an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF, together with the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model, to estimate regional monthly methane (CH4 fluxes for the period June 2009–December 2010 using proxy dry-air column-averaged mole fractions of methane (XCH4 from GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite and/or NOAA ESRL (Earth System Research Laboratory and CSIRO GASLAB (Global Atmospheric Sampling Laboratory CH4 surface mole fraction measurements. Global posterior estimates using GOSAT and/or surface measurements are between 510–516 Tg yr−1, which is less than, though within the uncertainty of, the prior global flux of 529 ± 25 Tg yr−1. We find larger differences between regional prior and posterior fluxes, with the largest changes in monthly emissions (75 Tg yr−1 occurring in Temperate Eurasia. In non-boreal regions the error reductions for inversions using the GOSAT data are at least three times larger (up to 45% than if only surface data are assimilated, a reflection of the greater spatial coverage of GOSAT, with the two exceptions of latitudes >60° associated with a data filter and over Europe where the surface network adequately describes fluxes on our model spatial and temporal grid. We use CarbonTracker and GEOS-Chem XCO2 model output to investigate model error on quantifying proxy GOSAT XCH4 (involving model XCO2 and inferring methane flux estimates from surface mole fraction data and show similar resulting fluxes, with differences reflecting initial differences in the proxy value. Using a series of observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs we characterize the posterior flux error introduced by non-uniform atmospheric sampling by GOSAT. We show that clear-sky measurements can theoretically reproduce fluxes within 10% of true values, with the exception of tropical regions where, due to a large seasonal cycle in the number of measurements because of clouds and aerosols, fluxes are within 15% of true fluxes. We evaluate our

  20. An analysis of the horizontal burrow morphology of the oriental mole cricket (Gryllotalpa orientalis) and the distribution pattern of surface vegetation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Endo, C

    2008-01-01

    .... The burrowing patterns of the oriental mole cricket (Gryllotalpa orientalis Brumeister, 1838) (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) were investigated based on analyses of the relation between burrow morphology and plant distribution...

  1. How well do tall tower measurements characterize the CO2 mole fraction distribution in the planetary boundary layer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haszpra, L.; Barcza, Z.; Haszpra, T.; Pátkai, Z.; Davis, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    Planetary boundary layer (PBL) CO2 mole fraction data are needed by transport models and carbon budget models as both input and reference for validation. The height of in situ CO2 mole fraction measurements is usually different from that of the model levels where the data are needed; data from short towers, in particular, are difficult to utilize in atmospheric models that do not simulate the surface layer well. Tall tower CO2 mole fraction measurements observed at heights ranging from 10 to 115 m a.g.l. at a rural site in Hungary and regular airborne vertical mole fraction profile measurements (136 vertical profiles) above the tower allowed us to estimate how well a tower of a given height could estimate the CO2 mole fraction above the tower in the PBL. The statistical evaluation of the height-dependent bias between the real PBL CO2 mole fraction profile (measured by the aircraft) and the measurement at a given elevation above the ground was performed separately for the summer and winter half years to take into account the different dynamics of the lower troposphere and the different surface CO2 flux in the different seasons. The paper presents: (1) how accurately the vertical distribution of CO2 in the PBL can be estimated from the measurements on the top of a tower of height H, (2) how tall a tower would be needed for the satisfaction of different requirements on the accuracy of the estimation of the CO2 vertical distribution, (3) how accurate a CO2 vertical distribution estimation can be expected from the existing towers; and (4) how much improvement can be achieved in the accuracy of the estimation of CO2 vertical distribution applying the virtual tall tower concept.

  2. How well do tall-tower measurements characterize the CO2 mole fraction distribution in the planetary boundary layer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haszpra, L.; Barcza, Z.; Haszpra, T.; Pátkai, Zs.; Davis, K. J.

    2015-04-01

    Planetary boundary layer (PBL) CO2 mole fraction data are needed by transport models and carbon budget models as both input and reference for validation. The height of in situ CO2 mole fraction measurements is usually different from that of the model levels where the data are needed; data from short towers, in particular, are difficult to utilize in atmospheric models that do not simulate the surface layer well. Tall-tower CO2 mole fraction measurements observed at heights ranging from 10 to 115 m above ground level at a rural site in Hungary and regular airborne vertical mole fraction profile measurements (136 vertical profiles) above the tower allowed us to estimate how well a tower of a given height could estimate the CO2 mole fraction above the tower in the PBL. The statistical evaluation of the height-dependent bias between the real PBL CO2 mole fraction profile (measured by the aircraft) and the measurement at a given elevation above the ground was performed separately for the summer and winter half years to take into account the different dynamics of the lower troposphere and the different surface CO2 flux in the different seasons. The paper presents (1) how accurately the vertical distribution of CO2 in the PBL can be estimated from the measurements on the top of a tower of height H; (2) how tall of a tower would be needed for the satisfaction of different requirements on the accuracy of the estimation of the CO2 vertical distribution; (3) how accurate of a CO2 vertical distribution estimation can be expected from the existing towers; and (4) how much improvement can be achieved in the accuracy of the estimation of CO2 vertical distribution by applying the virtual tall-tower concept.

  3. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem-Cell Transplantation Promotes Functional Improvement Associated with CNTF-STAT3 Activation after Hemi-Sectioned Spinal Cord Injury in Tree Shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu-Lin Xiong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemi-sectioned spinal cord injury (hSCI can lead to spastic paralysis on the injured side, as well as flaccid paralysis on the contralateral side, which can negatively affect a patient’s daily life. Stem-cell therapy may offer an effective treatment option for individuals with hSCI. To examine the role of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs transplantation on hSCI and explore related mechanisms in the tree shrews, here, we created a model of hSCI by inducing injury at the tenth thoracic vertebra (T10. Hoechst 33342-labeled BMSCs derived from adult tree shrews were isolated, cultured, and implanted into the spinal cord around the injury site at 9 days after injury. The isolated BMSCs were able to survive, proliferate and release a variety of neurotrophic factors (NTFs both in vitro and in vivo. At 28 days after injury, compared with the sham group, the hSCI group displayed scar formation and dramatic elevations in the mean interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β density and cell apoptosis level, whereas the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF mRNA was reduced. Following BMSC transplantation, motoneurons extent of shrinkage were reduced and the animals’ Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB locomotion scale scores were significantly higher at 21 and 28 days after injury when compared with the injured group. Moreover, the hSCI-induced elevations in scar formation, IL-1β, and cell apoptosis were reduced by BMSC transplantation to levels that were close to those of the sham group. Corresponding elevations in the expression of STAT3 and CNTF mRNA were observed in the hSCI + BMSCs group, and the levels were not significantly different from those observed in the sham group. Together, our results support that grafted BMSCs can significantly improve locomotor function in tree shrews subjected to hSCI and that this improvement is associated with the upregulation of CNTF and STAT3

  4. Gis-approach for variability assessment of soil electric conductivity under pedoturbation activity of mole rat (Spalax microphthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. М. Konovalova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the investigation of the impact of the mole rat’s activity on soil electric conductivity have been presented. GIS-technology have been shown to be effective for assessment of the pedoturbation activity effect on the soil surface heterogeneity formation. Method of the one-dimension spatial coordinated array transformation into matrix form has been proposed for following multidimension statistic analysis application. The quantity estimation of the mole rats role in formation of the habitat nanorelief-level diversity has been obtained by means of indexes of the landscape complexity and diversity.

  5. Ultrastructural effects of ultraviolet C radiation on the stratum basale of mole rats epidermis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of the epidermis of mole rats (Spalax leucodon was studied after irradiation with ultraviolet (UV light (λmax = 254 nm; 0.00147 J cm−2 s−1; for periods of 52, 112 and 168 h by using transmission electron microscope (TEM. After irradiation, Vacuolation in cytoplasm and mitochondria, and wrinkled nucleus were found in the stratum basal cells. Also, pathological aggregations of tonofilaments are formed in the desmosomes in these cells. These findings clearly demonstrated the harmful effects of ultraviolet C radiation on the stratum basale. The degree of pathological changes occurred depending on exposure time and radiation dosage applied.

  6. Incidental Finding of Persistent Hydatidiform Mole in an Adolescent on Depo-Provera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olukayode Akinlaja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Molar pregnancies represent an uncommon yet important obstetric problem with potentially fatal outcomes. Patients typically present with signs and symptoms of early pregnancy, and physicians most often suspect nonmolar pregnancy complications initially; however a hydatidiform mole should be included in the differential diagnosis of a woman with a positive pregnancy test and abnormal vaginal bleeding irrespective of the use of contraception. Our case is that of an adolescent female on Depo-Provera injectable contraceptive with increased vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting who was incidentally found to be pregnant and subsequently diagnosed with a molar pregnancy despite persistent denial of having initiated sexual intercourse. Though gestational trophoblastic disease is uncommon with an incidence of about 1-2 cases per 1,000 pregnancies, a clinician has to display a high index of suspicion when dealing with patients at extremes of age in order to avoid potentially life-threatening outcomes.

  7. Whack-A-Mole Model: Towards unified description of biological effect caused by radiation-exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Manabe, Yuichiro; Tsunoyama, Yuichi; Nakajima, Hiroo; Nakamura, Issei; Bando, Masako

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel model to estimate biological effects caused by artificial radiation exposure, Whack-a-mole (WAM) model. It is important to take account of the recovery effects during the time course of the cellular reactions. The inclusion of the dose-rate dependence is essential in the risk estimation of low dose radiation, while nearly all the existing theoretical models relies on the total dose dependence only. By analyzing the experimental data of the relation between the radiation dose and the induced mutation frequency of 5 organisms, mouse, drosophila, chrysanthemum, maize and tradescantia, we found that all the data can be reproduced by WAM model. Most remarkably, a scaling function, which is derived from WAM model, consistently accounts for the observed mutation frequencies of 5 organisms. This is the first rationale to account for the dose rate dependence as well as to give a unified understanding of a general feature of organisms.

  8. Sarcomas de partes moles: experiência cirúrgica de cinco anos em hospital escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Amaral Nunes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO Os sarcomas de partes moles compõem um grupo heterogêneo de neoplasias malignas com diferentes padrões morfológicos da linhagem mesenquimal. O Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA é um centro de referência para tratamento desta doença, interessando, por isso, o conhecimento de dados demográficos, clínicos, anátomo-patológicos e terapêuticos dos casos aqui tratados. OBJETIVO Estudar retrospectivamente os registros de pacientes operados por sarcomas de partes moles no HCPA nos últimos cinco anos e cotejar os resultados com os encontrados na literatura, como estadiamento, tipo histológico, localização e tratamento.  MÉTODOS Foram revisados os prontuários eletrônicos de pacientes com 18 ou mais anos de idade, que foram submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico de sarcoma de partes moles, no período entre 2006-2011. Os dados foram registrados em banco de dados no Microsoft Excel, no qual se coletaram informações referentes a idade, sexo, características histopatológicas, estadiamento, tipo de cirurgia, margens cirúrgicas, complicações cirúrgicas, tempo livre de doença, sobrevida e tratamentos complementares. RESULTADOS Os prontuários de 141 pacientes foram avaliados. Excluídos os casos com cirurgia em outra instituição e os que não foram tratados com cirurgia, 40 prontuários compuseram esta amostra. Os tipos histológicos mais frequentes foram histiocitoma fibroso maligno (27,5% e fibrossarcoma (15%, tumor desmoide (12,5%, leiomiossarcoma (10% e GIST (10%. Os locais mais acometidos foram os membros inferiores (40% e o abdome (30%. A maioria dos pacientes apresentava doença em estádio avançado (III no momento da cirurgia, principalmente devido ao grande tamanho do tumor (média de 12,2 cm e ao alto grau histológico (G3, encontrado em 50% dos pacientes. Cirurgias conservadoras de extremidades foram realizadas em 85% dos pacientes. Em 80% dos casos foi indicado tratamento complementar. A média do

  9. Comparative analysis of genome maintenance genes in naked mole rat, mouse, and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Sheila L; Zhang, Quanwei; Lemetre, Christophe; Seim, Inge; Calder, Robert B; Hoeijmakers, Jan; Suh, Yousin; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Vijg, Jan; Zhang, Zhengdong D

    2015-04-01

    Genome maintenance (GM) is an essential defense system against aging and cancer, as both are characterized by increased genome instability. Here, we compared the copy number variation and mutation rate of 518 GM-associated genes in the naked mole rat (NMR), mouse, and human genomes. GM genes appeared to be strongly conserved, with copy number variation in only four genes. Interestingly, we found NMR to have a higher copy number of CEBPG, a regulator of DNA repair, and TINF2, a protector of telomere integrity. NMR, as well as human, was also found to have a lower rate of germline nucleotide substitution than the mouse. Together, the data suggest that the long-lived NMR, as well as human, has more robust GM than mouse and identifies new targets for the analysis of the exceptional longevity of the NMR. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Are seismic communication signals transmitted by bone conduction in the blind mole rat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado, R; Himelfarb, M; Arensburg, B; Terkel, J; Wollberg, Z

    1989-08-01

    The anatomy of the middle ear of the blind mole rat, a subterranean rodent that uses seismic signals for long distance communication, is described qualitatively and quantitatively. The ossicular chain is of the parallel type with a lever arms ratio of 0.55 and an effective areal ratio of stapedial footplate to eardrum of 0.09. Assuming an ideal mechanical transform, the calculated fraction of acoustical energy theoretically transmitted to the cochlea, indicate low efficiency for airborne sounds. This is in accordance with the relatively high electrophysiological and behavioral threshold, shown previously. We suggest that a unique morphology of the middle ear and of the articulation between the lower jaw and the skull, as well as a peculiar 'jaw listening behavior' enable seismic vibrations to be transmitted to the inner ear mainly by bone conduction, thereby compensating for the limitation in receiving airborne signals.

  11. Ethnotaxonomical Study of Mole Crab (Crustacea:Hippoidea on Coastal Community of Cilacap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Bhagawati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Local wisdom is a cultural heritage that needs to be preserved. The Cilacap’s coastal communities have traditional taxonomy knowledge that hasn’t been informed, especially about mole crab. This study aimed to explore the ethnotaxonomy knowledge of sand crabs (Crustacea: Hippoidea in Widarapayung coastal communities. The purposive snowball sampling was used for the method, followed by observation and semi-structured interviews with 30 respondents. Data were analyzed descriptively based on observations and interviews. The results showed that the coastal communities in Widarapayung tourist areas could be divided into five groups, namely catchers, collectors, processors, traders, and consumers. The catcher was able to recognize and describe three types of sand crabs based on the shape of the body and their catchment areas. Captured crabs had the local name of ‘yutuk jambe’ (Emerita emeritus Linnaeus 1767, the appellation was based on carapace shape that resembled the shape of areca fruit; ‘Yutuk bathok’ (Hippa adactyla Fabricius 1787, had the carapace shape resembling a coconut shell, and ‘yutuk Kethek’ (Albunea symmysta Linnaeus 1758, had ornaments on the carapace surface similar with a monkey face, there were dense setae on the edge of the carapace, spiny long antennas and aggressively pinch when captured. The knowledge and skills of sand crabs classification and local name entitlement acquired by the people were in accordance with the Berlin’s model. How to CiteBhagawati, D., Anggoro, S., Zainuri, M. & Sya’rani, L. (2016. Ethnotaxonomical Study of Mole Crab (Crustacea:Hippoidea on Coastal Community of Cilacap. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 222-230.

  12. Conversion of NOAA atmospheric dry air CH4 mole fractions to a gravimetrically prepared standard scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugokencky, E. J.; Myers, R. C.; Lang, P. M.; Masarie, K. A.; Crotwell, A. M.; Thoning, K. W.; Hall, B. D.; Elkins, J. W.; Steele, L. P.

    2005-09-01

    Sixteen mixtures of methane (CH4) in dry air were prepared using a gravimetric technique to define a CH4 standard gas scale covering the nominal range 300-2600 nmol mol-1. It is designed to be suitable for measurements of methane in air ranging from those extracted from glacial ice to contemporary background atmospheric conditions. All standards were prepared in passivated, 5.9 L high-pressure aluminum cylinders. Methane dry air mole fractions were determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection, where the repeatability of the measurement is typically better than 0.1% (≤1.5 nmol mol-1) for ambient CH4 levels. Once a correction was made for 5 nmol mol-1 CH4 in the diluent air, the scale was used to verify the linearity of our analytical system over the nominal range 300-2600 nmol mol-1. The gravimetrically prepared standards were analyzed against CH4 in air standards that define the Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) CMDL83 CH4 in air scale, showing that CH4 mole fractions in the new scale are a factor of (1.0124 ± 0.0007) greater than those expressed in the CMDL83 scale. All CMDL measurements of atmospheric CH4 have been adjusted to this new scale, which has also been accepted as the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) CH4 standard scale; all laboratories participating in the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch program should report atmospheric CH4 measurements to the world data center on this scale.

  13. Peripheral administration of oxytocin increases social affiliation in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Skyler J; Douglas, Natasha R; Holmes, Melissa M

    2014-04-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin regulates a wide variety of social behaviors across diverse species. However, the types of behaviors that are influenced by this hormone are constrained by the species in question and the social organization that a particular species exhibits. Therefore, the present experiments investigated behaviors regulated by oxytocin in a eusocial mammalian species by using the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber). In Experiment 1, adult non-breeding mole-rats were given intraperitoneal injections of either oxytocin (1mg/kg or 10mg/kg) or saline on alternate days. Animals were then returned to their colony and behavior was recorded for minutes 15-30 post-injection. Both doses of oxytocin increased huddling behavior during this time period. In Experiment 2, animals received intraperitoneal injections of either oxytocin (1mg/kg), an oxytocin-receptor antagonist (0.1mg/kg), a cocktail of oxytocin and the antagonist, or saline across 4 testing days in a counterbalanced design. Animals were placed in either a 2-chamber arena with a familiar conspecific or in a small chamber with 1week old pups from their home colony and behaviors were recorded for minutes 15-30 post-injection. Oxytocin increased investigation of, and time spent in close proximity to, a familiar conspecific; these effects were blocked by the oxytocin antagonist. No effects were seen on pup-directed behavior. These data suggest that oxytocin is capable of modulating affiliative-like behavior in this eusocial species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Life history plasticity does not confer resilience to environmental change in the mole salamander (Ambystoma talpoideum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney L. Davis,; David A.W. Miller,; Walls, Susan; Barichivich, William J.; Riley, Jeffrey W.; Brown, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    Plasticity in life history strategies can be advantageous for species that occupy spatially or temporally variable environments. We examined how phenotypic plasticity influences responses of the mole salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum, to disturbance events at the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge (SMNWR), FL, USA from 2009 to 2014. We observed periods of extensive drought early in the study, in contrast to high rainfall and expansive flooding events in later years. Flooding facilitated colonization of predatory fishes to isolated wetlands across the refuge. We employed multistate occupancy models to determine how this natural experiment influenced the occurrence of aquatic larvae and paedomorphic adults and what implications this may have for the population. We found that, in terms of occurrence, responses to environmental variation differed between larvae and paedomorphs, but plasticity (i.e. the ability to metamorphose rather than remain in aquatic environment) was not sufficient to buffer populations from declining as a result of environmental perturbations. Drought and fish presence negatively influenced occurrence dynamics of larval and paedomorphic mole salamanders and, consequently, contributed to observed short-term declines of this species. Overall occurrence of larval salamanders decreased from 0.611 in 2009 to 0.075 in 2014 and paedomorph occurrence decreased from 0.311 in 2009 to 0.121 in 2014. Although variation in selection pressures has likely maintained this polyphenism previously, our results suggest that continued changes in environmental variability and the persistence of fish in isolated wetlands could lead to a loss of paedomorphosis in the SMNWR population and, ultimately, impact regional persistence in the future.

  15. EVALUATION OF VIRULENCE OF STEINERNEMA CARPOCAPSAE TO EUROPEAN MOLE CRICKET GRYLLOTALPA GRYLOTALPA L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovska, T; Pisdlisnyuk, V

    2014-01-01

    Common European mole cricket (CEML) Grillotalpa grillotalpa L causes damage to field, vegetable crops, and small fruits growing at commercial plantations and nurseries. Chemical control if insecticides are used in poison bates, soil application or seedling/bulbs treatment is not environmentally friendly. Inundative and innoculative release of CTVL biocontrol agents, in particularly, Entomopathogenic nematode is a reliable alternative to chemical control. At the laboratory study the comparison of the ability of commercial strain (Nemastar) and local Ukrainian isolate of Steinernema carpocapsae in various concentrations to parasite in last instar nymph and adults of G. grillotalpa was investigated. Grillotalpa grillotalpa was found as a susceptible host for both commercial and local strains of S. carpocapsae. The life cycle of S. carpocapsae both strains in the adults of G. grillotapla with concentration 50 IJs per larva has been completed 12-15 days at t=25 C. Two generations of S. carpocapsae were able to develop in mole cricket for both strains. Two strains of S. carpocapsae nematode species tested were pathogenic to adults of G. grillotalpa. The mortalities of G. grillotapla last last instars' larva caused by S. carpocapsae were recorded in every concentration tested at least 20 to 150 IJs per larva. Mean larval mortality ranged from 48% to 95% depending upon nematode strain and rate of application. Larval mortality generally increased with increasing of nematode rates. It was significant for both S. carpocapsae strains (Ukr. Isolate F = 26 > 2,86) and commercial strain (Nemastar F = 102,95 > 2,86). Ukrainian local isolate caused a greater percentage of mortality of G. grillotapla adult than commercial strain of S. carpocapsae tested but interactions between nematode strains, application rates were not significant. This study presents new data on effect of S. carpocapsae isolated for Ukraine to key agricultural polyphagous pest G. grillotalpa susceptibility

  16. Effect of Temperature and Mole Ratio on the Synthesis Yield of Rhenium-Tetrofosmin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyastuti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Technetium-99m (99mTc tetrofosmin is widely used in nuclear medicine as a diagnostic agent for myocardial perfusion and as a tumor imaging agent. As a parenteral preparation it requires an evaluation of its pharmacokinetics and stability in-vivo. Since 99mTc has a short half-life and is only available in very low concentrations, it is impossible to characterize its chemical properties and presence in the body. Due to this reason, only technetium-99 (T1/2 = 5 × 105 years, which is available in macro quantities, or natural rhenium can be used for this purpose. In this study rhenium-188 (188Re tetrofosmin will be synthesized and applied, because non-radioactive Re can be easily obtained. Synthesis and radiochemical purity analysis of carrier-added 188Re-tetrofosmin were carried out as a model to study the in-vivo stability of technetium-99m tetrofosmin. Rhenium-188 was used as a tracer to identify the formation of rhenium tetrofosmin. Rhenium gluconate was synthesized first prior to the formation of rhenium tetrofosmin. The quality of labeling for both rhenium gluconate and rhenium tetrofosmin was analyzed using paper- and thin-layer chromatography, respectively. Rhenium gluconate can be synthesized with high labeling yield within 1 hour, whereas rhenium tetrofosmin was synthesized both in room temperature and in an elevated temperature with various tetrofosmin-to-rhenium mole ratios.The results showed that heating at 95oC led to a higher yield of more than 90% within 30 minutes. Rhenium tetrofosmin could be produced in high radiochemical purity using an excess of tetrofosmin with mole ratio of 2000. It is concluded that rhenium tetrofosmin could be synthesized through the formation of rhenium gluconate, and a higher yield could be obtained in a shorter time by heating process.

  17. Adaptation of pelage color and pigment variations in Israeli subterranean blind mole rats, Spalax ehrenbergi [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Singaravelan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concealing coloration in rodents is well established. However, only a few studies examined how soil color, pelage color, hair-melanin content, and genetics (i.e., the causal chain synergize to configure it. This study investigates the causal chain of dorsal coloration in Israeli subterranean blind mole rats, Spalax ehrenbergi. METHODS: We examined pelage coloration of 128 adult animals from 11 populations belonging to four species of Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies (Spalax galili, Spalax golani, Spalax carmeli, and Spalax judaei and the corresponding coloration of soil samples from the collection sites using a digital colorimeter. Additionally, we quantified hair-melanin contents of 67 animals using HPLC and sequenced the MC1R gene in 68 individuals from all four mole rat species. RESULTS: Due to high variability of soil colors, the correlation between soil and pelage color coordinates was weak and significant only between soil hue and pelage lightness. Multiple stepwise forward regression revealed that soil lightness was significantly associated with all pelage color variables. Pelage color lightness among the four species increased with the higher southward aridity in accordance to Gloger's rule (darker in humid habitats and lighter in arid habitats. Darker and lighter pelage colors are associated with darker basalt and terra rossa, and lighter rendzina soils, respectively. Despite soil lightness varying significantly, pelage lightness and eumelanin converged among populations living in similar soil types. Partial sequencing of the MC1R gene identified three allelic variants, two of which were predominant in northern species (S. galili and S. golani, and the third was exclusive to southern species (S. carmeli and S. judaei, which might have caused the differences found in pheomelanin/eumelanin ratio. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Darker dorsal pelage in darker basalt and terra rossa soils in the north and lighter pelage in rendzina and

  18. Adaptation of pelage color and pigment variations in Israeli subterranean blind mole rats, Spalax ehrenbergi [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravelan, Natarajan; Raz, Shmuel; Tzur, Shay; Belifante, Shirli; Pavlicek, Tomas; Beiles, Avigdor; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Nevo, Eviatar

    2013-01-01

    Concealing coloration in rodents is well established. However, only a few studies examined how soil color, pelage color, hair-melanin content, and genetics (i.e., the causal chain) synergize to configure it. This study investigates the causal chain of dorsal coloration in Israeli subterranean blind mole rats, Spalax ehrenbergi. We examined pelage coloration of 128 adult animals from 11 populations belonging to four species of Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies (Spalax galili, Spalax golani, Spalax carmeli, and Spalax judaei) and the corresponding coloration of soil samples from the collection sites using a digital colorimeter. Additionally, we quantified hair-melanin contents of 67 animals using HPLC and sequenced the MC1R gene in 68 individuals from all four mole rat species. Due to high variability of soil colors, the correlation between soil and pelage color coordinates was weak and significant only between soil hue and pelage lightness. Multiple stepwise forward regression revealed that soil lightness was significantly associated with all pelage color variables. Pelage color lightness among the four species increased with the higher southward aridity in accordance to Gloger's rule (darker in humid habitats and lighter in arid habitats). Darker and lighter pelage colors are associated with darker basalt and terra rossa, and lighter rendzina soils, respectively. Despite soil lightness varying significantly, pelage lightness and eumelanin converged among populations living in similar soil types. Partial sequencing of the MC1R gene identified three allelic variants, two of which were predominant in northern species (S. galili and S. golani), and the third was exclusive to southern species (S. carmeli and S. judaei), which might have caused the differences found in pheomelanin/eumelanin ratio. Darker dorsal pelage in darker basalt and terra rossa soils in the north and lighter pelage in rendzina and loess soils in the south reflect the combined results of crypsis and

  19. Anovulation in non-reproductive female Damaraland mole-rats (Cryptomys damarensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molteno, A J; Bennett, N C

    2000-05-01

    Within colonies of Damaraland mole-rats (Cryptomys damarensis), anovulation in non-reproductive females is thought to play an important role in maintaining reproductive skew. Pituitary sensitivity and ovarian structure were examined in three groups of females that differed with respect to their social environment and breeding status to determine whether anovulation is due to inhibitory social cues or is merely the result of a lack of copulatory stimulation. The contribution of gonadal steroid negative feedback to neuroendocrine differences in the reproductive systems of the respective groups was also investigated. LH secretion after a 0.5 micrograms GnRH challenge in females that had been removed from the presence of the breeding individuals for at least 6 months (removed non-reproductive females) was significantly higher than in non-reproductive females in the colony, but significantly lower than in reproductive females. In both removed non-reproductive females and reproductive females, corpora lutea were observed in ovaries of seven of eight females, indicating that ovulation occurs spontaneously in subordinate females on removal from the breeding pair. Circulating progesterone concentrations in removed non-reproductive females were significantly higher than in non-reproductive females, indicating that circulating progesterone is not responsible for infertility in non-reproductive females. Indeed, after hystero-ovariectomy, reproductive females continued to show significantly greater GnRH-stimulated LH secretion than non-reproductive females. Thus, differential inhibition of gonadotrophin secretion in breeding and non-breeding females occurs independently of gonadal steroids. It is concluded that female Damaraland mole-rats are spontaneous ovulators and that anovulation results from inhibitory social cues within the colony, not a lack of copulatory stimulation. Since non-reproductive females are infertile, inhibition of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis has

  20. Lipid profile and serum characteristics of the blind subterranean mole rat, Spalax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J Nasser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spalax (blind subterranean mole rat, is a mammal adapted to live in fluctuating oxygen levels, and can survive severe hypoxia and hypercapnia. The adaptive evolution of Spalax to underground life resulted in structural and molecular-genetic differences comparing to above-ground mammals. These differences include higher myocardial maximal oxygen consumption, increased lung diffusion capacity, increased blood vessels density, and unique expression patterns of cancer and angiogenesis related genes such as heparanase, vascular endothelial growth factor, and P53. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we elucidate the main characteristics of Spalax lipid profile, as well as its main antioxidant and serum parameters. Compared to human, Spalax possesses lower total-cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL and triglycerides levels, and higher levels of high density lipoproteins (HDL. Apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B-100 were significantly lower in Spalax compared to human. Paraoxonase (PON 1 arylesterase activity, was higher in Spalax compared to both human and mouse serum levels. Analysis of serum chemistry of Spalax revealed special features in this mammal. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Spalax possesses a unique lipid profile with high HDL and low LDL lipoproteins. The antioxidant serum content in the mole rat is higher than that of human and mouse. Serum C reactive protein (CRP levels are significantly lower in Spalax compared to that of human or mouse, reflecting low levels of inflammation. These differences between Spalax, human and mouse are due to several factors including the intensive activity life-style that Spalax pursue underground, dietary components, and evolutionary genetic adaptations. Unfolding the genetic basis of these differences will probably result in unique treatments for a variety of human diseases such as dyslipedemias, inflammation and cancer.

  1. The anti-asthmatic drug pranlukast suppresses the delayed-phase vomiting and reverses intracellular indices of emesis evoked by cisplatin in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmani, Nissar A; Chebolu, Seetha; Zhong, Weixia; Kim, William D; Narlesky, Matthew; Adams, Joia; Dong, Fanglong

    2017-08-15

    The introduction of second generation serotonin 5-HT 3 receptor (5-HT 3 ) antagonist palonosetron combined with long-acting substance P neurokinin NK 1 receptor (NK 1 ) antagonists (e.g. netupitant) has substantially improved antiemetic therapy against early- and delayed-phases of emesis caused by highly emetogenic chemotherapeutics such as cisplatin. However, the improved efficacy comes at a cost that many patients cannot afford. We introduce a new class of antiemetic, the antiasthmatic leukotriene CysLT1 receptor antagonist pranlukast for the suppression of cisplatin-evoked vomiting. Pranlukast (10mg/kg) by itself significantly reduced the mean frequency of vomits (70%) and fully protected least shrews from vomiting (46%) during the delayed-phase of cisplatin (10mg/kg)-evoked vomiting. Although, pranlukast tended to substantially reduce both the mean frequency of vomits and the number of shrews vomiting during the early-phase, these reductions failed to attain significance. When combined with a first (tropisetron)- or a second (palonosetron)-generation 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist, pranlukast potentiated their antiemetic efficacy during both phases of vomiting. In addition, pranlukast by itself prevented several intracellular signal markers of cisplatin-evoked delayed-vomiting such as phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PKA. When pranlukast was combined with either palonosetron or tropisetron, these combinations suppressed the evoked phosphorylation of: i) ERK1/2 during both acute- and delayed-phase, ii) PKCα/β at the peak acute-phase, and iii) PKA at the peak delayed-phase. The current and our published findings suggest that overall behavioral and intracellular signaling effects of pranlukast via blockade of CysLT1 receptors generally appear to be similar to the NK 1 receptor antagonist netupitant with some differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The wavelength composition and temporal modulation of ambient lighting strongly affect refractive development in young tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawne, Timothy J; Siegwart, John T; Ward, Alexander H; Norton, Thomas T

    2017-02-01

    Shortly after birth, the eyes of most animals (including humans) are hyperopic because the short axial length places the retina in front of the focal plane. During postnatal development, an emmetropization mechanism uses cues related to refractive error to modulate the growth of the eye, moving the retina toward the focal plane. One possible cue may be longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA), to signal if eyes are getting too long (long [red] wavelengths in better focus than short [blue]) or too short (short wavelengths in better focus). It could be difficult for the short-wavelength sensitive (SWS, "blue") cones, which are scarce and widely spaced across the retina, to detect and signal defocus of short wavelengths. We hypothesized that the SWS cone retinal pathway could instead utilize temporal (flicker) information. We thus tested if exposure solely to long-wavelength light would cause developing eyes to slow their axial growth and remain refractively hyperopic, and if flickering short-wavelength light would cause eyes to accelerate their axial growth and become myopic. Four groups of infant northern tree shrews (Tupaia glis belangeri, dichromatic mammals closely related to primates) began 13 days of wavelength treatment starting at 11 days of visual experience (DVE). Ambient lighting was provided by an array of either long-wavelength (red, 626 ± 10 nm) or short-wavelength (blue, 464 ± 10 nm) light-emitting diodes placed atop the cage. The lights were either steady, or flickering in a pseudo-random step pattern. The approximate mean illuminance (in human lux) on the cage floor was red (steady, 527 lux; flickering, 329 lux), and blue (steady, 601 lux; flickering, 252 lux). Refractive state and ocular component dimensions were measured and compared with a group of age-matched normal animals (n = 15 for refraction (first and last days); 7 for ocular components) raised in broad spectrum white fluorescent colony lighting (100-300 lux). During the 13 day

  3. Altered gene expression in tree shrew retina and retinal pigment epithelium produced by short periods of minus-lens wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li; Frost, Michael R; Siegwart, John T; Norton, Thomas T

    2018-01-09

    Hyperopic refractive error is detected by retinal neurons, which generate GO signals through a direct emmetropization signaling cascade: retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) into choroid and then into sclera, thereby increasing axial elongation. To examine signaling early in this cascade, we measured gene expression in the retina and RPE after short exposure to hyperopia produced by minus-lens wear. Gene expression in each tissue was compared with gene expression in combined retina + RPE. Starting 24 days after normal eye opening, three groups of juvenile tree shrews (n = 7 each) wore a monocular -5 D lens. The untreated fellow eye served as a control. The "6h" group wore the lens for 6 h; the "24h" group wore the lens for 24 h; each group provided separate retina and RPE tissues. Group "24hC" wore the lens for 24 h and provided combined retina + RPE tissue. Quantitative PCR was used to measure the relative differences (treated eye vs. control eye) in mRNA levels for 66 candidate genes. In the retina after 6 h, mRNA levels for seven genes were significantly regulated: EGR1 and FOS (early intermediate genes) were down-regulated in the treated eyes. Genes with secreted protein products, BMP2 and CTGF, were down-regulated, whilst FGF10, IL18, and SST were up-regulated. After 24 h the pattern changed; only one of the seven genes still showed differential expression; BMP2 was still down-regulated. Two new genes with secreted protein products, IGF2 and VIP, were up-regulated. In the RPE, consistent with its role in receiving, processing, and transmitting GO signaling, differential expression was found for genes whose protein products are at the cell surface, intracellular, in the nucleus, and are secreted. After 6 h, mRNA levels for 17 genes were down-regulated in the treated eyes, whilst four genes (GJA1, IGF2R, LRP2, and IL18) were up-regulated. After 24 h the pattern was similar; mRNA levels for 14 of the same genes were still down-regulated; only LRP2

  4. Dynamic Thermodynamics with Internal Energy, Volume, and Amount of Moles as States : Application to Liquefied Gas Tank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendsen, A. R. J.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic models for process design, optimization, and control usually solve a set of heat and/or mass balances as a function of time and/or position in the process. To obtain more robust dynamic models and to minimize the amount of assumptions, internal energy, volume, and amount of moles are chosen

  5. Development of Two-Tier Diagnostic Test Pictorial-Based for Identifying High School Students Misconceptions on the Mole Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswaningsih, W.; Firman, H.; Zackiyah; Khoirunnisa, A.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the two-tier pictorial-based diagnostic test for identifying student misconceptions on mole concept. The method of this study is used development and validation. The development of the test Obtained through four phases, development of any items, validation, determination key, and application test. Test was developed in the form of pictorial consisting of two tier, the first tier Consist of four possible answers and the second tier Consist of four possible reasons. Based on the results of content validity of 20 items using the CVR (Content Validity Ratio), a number of 18 items declared valid. Based on the results of the reliability test using SPSS, Obtained 17 items with Cronbach’s Alpha value of 0703, the which means that items have accepted. A total of 10 items was conducted to 35 students of senior high school students who have studied the mole concept on one of the high schools in Cimahi. Based on the results of the application test, student misconceptions were identified in each label concept in mole concept with the percentage of misconceptions on the label concept of mole (60.15%), Avogadro’s number (34.28%), relative atomic mass (62, 84%), relative molecule mass (77.08%), molar mass (68.53%), molar volume of gas (57.11%), molarity (71.32%), chemical equation (82.77%), limiting reactants (91.40%), and molecular formula (77.13%).

  6. Stoichiometry, Unit 1: The Mole Concept. A Computer-Enriched Module for Introductory Chemistry. Student's Guide and Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert C.

    Presented are the teacher's guide and student manual for one of a series of self-instructional, computer-based learning modules for an introductory, undergraduate chemistry course. The student manual for this unit on the concept of the mole includes objectives, prerequisites, discussion, problem exercises, and 20 problem sets. Included in the…

  7. A recurrent intragenic genomic duplication, other novel mutations in NLRP7 and imprinting defects in recurrent biparental hydatidiform moles

    Science.gov (United States)

    A complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) is an abnormal pregnancy with hyperproliferative vesicular trophoblast and no fetal development. Most CHM are sporadic and androgenetic, but recurrent HM have biparental inheritance (BiHM) with disrupted DNA methylation at differentially methylated regions (DMRs) o...

  8. Clinical utility of hyperglycosylated hCG in serum taken before hydatidiform mole evacuation to predict persistent trophoblastic disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duc, H.N.; Trommel, N.E. van; Sweep, C.G.J.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Thomas, C.M.G.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is widely used in the management of hydatidiform mole and persistent trophoblastic disease (PTD). Studies on hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin (invasive trophoblast antigen, ITA) in PTD are limited. In serum samples taken before evacuation

  9. Effect of mole (Talpaеuropаеa digging activity on soil microflora in case of soil cadmium pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Pakhomov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of fossorial activity of European mole Talpa еuropаеа on number and distribution of soil microorganisms under conditions of cadmium pollution of the soil is characterized. Mammals’ fossorial activity is an important natural ecological factor that contributes to microflora rehabilitation and development under conditions of contamination.

  10. Effect of mole (Talpaеuropаеa) digging activity on soil microflora in case of soil cadmium pollution

    OpenAIRE

    O. Y. Pakhomov; L. V. Gracheva

    2006-01-01

    Influence of fossorial activity of European mole Talpa еuropаеа on number and distribution of soil microorganisms under conditions of cadmium pollution of the soil is characterized. Mammals’ fossorial activity is an important natural ecological factor that contributes to microflora rehabilitation and development under conditions of contamination.

  11. Triplet Pregnancy Complicated with One Hydatidiform Mole and Preeclampsia in a 46, XY Female with Gonadal Dysgenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chun Ko

    2007-09-01

    Conclusion: This is the first report of triplet pregnancy complicated with one complete hydatidiform mole and preeclampsia in a 46, XY female with gonadal dysgenesis. Our case demonstrated that prolonged gestation with both surviving fetuses was possible by applying intensive monitoring of the whole pregnancy.

  12. HP3 on ExoMars - Cutting airbag cloths with the sharp tip of a mechanical mole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, C.; Izzo, M.; Re, E.; Mehls, C.; Richter, L.; Coste, P.

    2009-04-01

    The HP3 - Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package - is planned to be one of the Humboldt lander-based instruments on the ESA ExoMars mission. HP3 will allow the measurement of the subsurface temperature gradient and physical as well as thermophysical properties of the subsurface regolith of Mars down to a depth of 5 meters. From these measurements, the planetary heat flux can be inferred. The HP³ instrument package consists of a mole trailing a package of thermal and electrical sensors into the regolith. Beside the payload elements Thermal Excitation and Measurement Suite and a Permittivity Probe the HP3 experiment includes sensors to detect the forward motion and the tilt of the HP3 payload compartment. The HP3 experiment will be integrated into the lander platform of the ExoMars mission. The original accommodation featured a deployment device or a robotic arm to place HP3 onto the soil outside the deflated lander airbags. To avoid adding such deployment devices, it was suggested that the HP3 mole should be capable of piercing the airbags under the lander. The ExoMars lander airbag is made of 4 Kevlar layers (2 abrasive and 2 bladders). A double fold of the airbag (a worst case) would represent a pile of 12 layers. An exploratory study has examined the possibility of piercing airbag cloths by adding sharp cutting blades on the tip of a penetrating mole. In the experimental setup representative layers were laid over a Mars soil simulant. Initial tests used a hammer-driven cutting tip and had moderate to poor results. More representative tests used a prototype of the HP3 mole and were fully successful: the default 4 layer configuration was pierced as well as the 12 layer configuration, the latter one within 3 hours and about 3000 mole strokes This improved behaviour is attributed to the use of representative test hardware where guidance and suppression of mole recoil were concerned. The presentation will provide an explanation of the technical requirements on

  13. shrew, Croeidura bieolor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mealworms, used as a supplement when insect catches were low, were not preferred and dung beetles were refused. On March 14, at 22h50 the female gave birth to two offspring (sexes undetermined). Parturition of the first young was not seen but that of the second was followed to com- pletion. A typical parturition posture ...

  14. Protocol for the MoleMate™ UK Trial: a randomised controlled trial of the MoleMate system in the management of pigmented skin lesions in primary care [ISRCTN 79932379

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Suspicious pigmented lesions are a common presenting problem in general practice consultations; while the majority are benign a small minority are melanomas. Differentiating melanomas from other pigmented lesions in primary care is challenging: currently, 95% of all lesions referred to a UK specialist are benign. The MoleMate system is a new diagnostic aid, incorporating a hand-held SIAscopy scanner with a primary care diagnostic algorithm. This trial tests the hypothesis that adding the MoleMate system to current best primary care practice will increase the proportion of appropriate referrals of suspicious pigmented lesions to secondary care compared with current best practice alone. Methods/design The MoleMate UK Trial is a primary care based multi-centre randomised controlled trial, with randomisation at patient level using a validated block randomisation method for two age groups (45 years and under; 46 years and over). We aim to recruit adult patients seen in general practice with a pigmented skin lesion that cannot immediately be diagnosed as benign and the patient reassured. The trial has a 'two parallel groups' design, comparing 'best practice' with 'best practice' plus the MoleMate system in the intervention group. The primary outcome is the positive predictive value (PPV) of referral defined as the proportion of referred lesions seen by secondary care experts that are considered 'clinically significant' (i.e. biopsied or monitored). Secondary outcomes include: the sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value (NPV) of the decision not to refer; clinical outcomes (melanoma thickness, 5 year melanoma incidence and mortality); clinician outcomes (Index of Suspicion, confidence, learning effects); patient outcomes (satisfaction, general and cancer-specific worry), and cost-utility. Discussion The MoleMate UK Trial tests a new technology designed to improve the management of suspicious pigmented lesions in primary care. If effective, the

  15. Protocol for the MoleMate™ UK Trial: a randomised controlled trial of the MoleMate system in the management of pigmented skin lesions in primary care [ISRCTN 79932379

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Edward CF

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suspicious pigmented lesions are a common presenting problem in general practice consultations; while the majority are benign a small minority are melanomas. Differentiating melanomas from other pigmented lesions in primary care is challenging: currently, 95% of all lesions referred to a UK specialist are benign. The MoleMate system is a new diagnostic aid, incorporating a hand-held SIAscopy scanner with a primary care diagnostic algorithm. This trial tests the hypothesis that adding the MoleMate system to current best primary care practice will increase the proportion of appropriate referrals of suspicious pigmented lesions to secondary care compared with current best practice alone. Methods/design The MoleMate UK Trial is a primary care based multi-centre randomised controlled trial, with randomisation at patient level using a validated block randomisation method for two age groups (45 years and under; 46 years and over. We aim to recruit adult patients seen in general practice with a pigmented skin lesion that cannot immediately be diagnosed as benign and the patient reassured. The trial has a 'two parallel groups' design, comparing 'best practice' with 'best practice' plus the MoleMate system in the intervention group. The primary outcome is the positive predictive value (PPV of referral defined as the proportion of referred lesions seen by secondary care experts that are considered 'clinically significant' (i.e. biopsied or monitored. Secondary outcomes include: the sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value (NPV of the decision not to refer; clinical outcomes (melanoma thickness, 5 year melanoma incidence and mortality; clinician outcomes (Index of Suspicion, confidence, learning effects; patient outcomes (satisfaction, general and cancer-specific worry, and cost-utility. Discussion The MoleMate UK Trial tests a new technology designed to improve the management of suspicious pigmented lesions in primary care

  16. Antagonistic Coevolution Drives Whack-a-Mole Sensitivity in Gene Regulatory Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeewoen Shin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Robustness, defined as tolerance to perturbations such as mutations and environmental fluctuations, is pervasive in biological systems. However, robustness often coexists with its counterpart, evolvability--the ability of perturbations to generate new phenotypes. Previous models of gene regulatory network evolution have shown that robustness evolves under stabilizing selection, but it is unclear how robustness and evolvability will emerge in common coevolutionary scenarios. We consider a two-species model of coevolution involving one host and one parasite population. By using two interacting species, key model parameters that determine the fitness landscapes become emergent properties of the model, avoiding the need to impose these parameters externally. In our study, parasites are modeled on species such as cuckoos where mimicry of the host phenotype confers high fitness to the parasite but lower fitness to the host. Here, frequent phenotype changes are favored as each population continually adapts to the other population. Sensitivity evolves at the network level such that point mutations can induce large phenotype changes. Crucially, the sensitive points of the network are broadly distributed throughout the network and continually relocate. Each time sensitive points in the network are mutated, new ones appear to take their place. We have therefore named this phenomenon "whack-a-mole" sensitivity, after a popular fun park game. We predict that this type of sensitivity will evolve under conditions of strong directional selection, an observation that helps interpret existing experimental evidence, for example, during the emergence of bacterial antibiotic resistance.

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of ATX1 cDNA from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Iksoo; Lee, Kwang Sik; Hwang, Jae Sam; Ahn, Mi Young; Yun, Eun Young; Li, Jian Hong; Sohn, Hung Dae; Jin, Byung Rae

    2006-04-01

    To search for an insect homologue of antioxidant protein 1 (ATX1), a mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis, cDNA library was screened and a cDNA clone, which encodes a 73 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 8.0 kDa and pI of 5.68, was isolated. The G. orientalis ATX1 (GoATX1) cDNA features both a MTCXXC copper-binding site in the N-terminus and a KTGK lysine-rich region in the C-terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence of the GoATX1 cDNA showed 63% identity to Drosophila melanogaster ATX1 and 55% to Ixodes pacificus ATX1. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of GoATX1 transcripts in midgut, fat body, and epidermis. When H2O2 was injected into the body cavity of G. orientalis adult, GoATX1 mRNA expression was up-regulated in the fat body tissue. Fat body expression level of GoATX1 mRNA in the fat body was increased following exposure to low (4 degrees C) and high (37 degrees C) temperatures, suggesting that GoATX1 plays a protective role against oxidative stress caused by temperature shock. This is the first report about a functional role of insect ATX1 in antioxidant defense. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Renal Pathology in a Nontraditional Aging Model: The Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, M A; Kinsel, M J; Treuting, P M

    2016-03-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR; Heterocephalus glaber) is growing in popularity as a model for aging research due to its extreme longevity (up to 30 years), highly adapted physiology, and resistance to cancer, particularly when compared with traditional aging models such as laboratory mice and rats. Despite the NMR's seemingly lengthy health span, several age-related lesions have been documented. During a 15-year retrospective evaluation of a zoo-housed population, histologic changes in the kidneys were reported in 127 of 138 (92%) adult NMRs. Of these, renal tubular mineralization was very common (115 of 127; 90.6%) and found in NMRs without concurrent renal lesions (36 of 127; 28.3%). Many of the other described lesions were considered progressive stages of a single process, generally referred to as chronic nephritis or nephropathy, and diagnosed in 73 of 127 (57.5%), while end-stage renal disease was reported in only 12 (9.4%) NMRs. Renal lesions of these NMRs were comparable to disease entities reported in laboratory rats and certain strains of inbred and noninbred mice. Although many lesions of NMR kidneys were similar to those found in aged laboratory rodents, some common urinary diseases were not represented in the examined colonies. The goal of this study was to describe renal lesions in NMRs from a zoologic setting to familiarize investigators and pathologists with an apparently common and presumably age-related disease in this nontraditional model. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Stress, adaptation, and speciation in the evolution of the blind mole rat, Spalax, in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Eviatar

    2013-02-01

    Environmental stress played a major role in the evolution of the blind mole rat superspecies Spalax ehrenbergi, affecting its adaptive evolution and ecological speciation underground. Spalax is safeguarded all of its life underground from aboveground climatic fluctuations and predators. However, it encounters multiple stresses in its underground burrows including darkness, energetics, hypoxia, hypercapnia, food scarcity, and pathogenicity. Consequently, it evolved adaptive genomic, proteomic, and phenomic complexes to cope with those stresses. Here I describe some of these adaptive complexes, and their theoretical and applied perspectives. Spalax mosaic molecular and organismal evolution involves reductions or regressions coupled with expansions or progressions caused by evolutionary tinkering and natural genetic engineering. Speciation of Spalax in Israel occurred in the Pleistocene, during the last 2.00-2.35 Mya, generating four species associated intimately with four climatic regimes with increasing aridity stress southwards and eastwards representing an ecological speciational adaptive trend: (Spalax golani, 2n=54→S. galili, 2n=52→S. carmeli, 2n=58→S. judaei, 2n=60). Darwinian ecological speciation occurred gradually with relatively little genetic change by Robertsonian chromosomal and genic mutations. Spalax genome sequencing has just been completed. It involves multiple adaptive complexes to life underground and is an evolutionary model to a few hundred underground mammals. It involves great promise in the future for medicine, space flight, and deep-sea diving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Adaptive methylation regulation of p53 pathway in sympatric speciation of blind mole rats, Spalax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Tang, Jia-Wei; Yang, Zhi; Cao, Yi-Bin; Ren, Ji-Long; Ben-Abu, Yuval; Li, Kexin; Chen, Xue-Qun; Du, Ji-Zeng; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-02-23

    Epigenetic modifications play significant roles in adaptive evolution. The tumor suppressor p53, well known for controlling cell fate and maintaining genomic stability, is much less known as a master gene in environmental adaptation involving methylation modifications. The blind subterranean mole rat Spalax eherenbergi superspecies in Israel consists of four species that speciated peripatrically. Remarkably, the northern Galilee species Spalax galili (2n = 52) underwent adaptive ecological sympatric speciation, caused by the sharply divergent chalk and basalt ecologies. This was demonstrated by mitochondrial and nuclear genomic evidence. Here we show that the expression patterns of the p53 regulatory pathway diversified between the abutting sympatric populations of S. galili in sharply divergent chalk-basalt ecologies. We identified higher methylation on several sites of the p53 promoter in the population living in chalk soil (chalk population). Site mutagenesis showed that methylation on these sites linked to the transcriptional repression of p53 involving Cut-Like Homeobox 1 (Cux1), paired box 4 (Pax 4), Pax 6, and activator protein 1 (AP-1). Diverse expression levels of p53 between the incipiently sympatrically speciating chalk-basalt abutting populations of S. galili selectively affected cell-cycle arrest but not apoptosis. We hypothesize that methylation modification of p53 has adaptively shifted in supervising its target genes during sympatric speciation of S. galili to cope with the contrasting environmental stresses of the abutting divergent chalk-basalt ecologies.

  1. Mola hidatiforme e doença trofoblástica gestacional Hydatidiform mole and gestational trophoblastic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandyr Moreira de Andrade

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A mola hidatiforme é uma complicação relativamente infrequente da gravidez, mas com potencial para evolução para formas que necessitam de tratamento sistêmico e podem ser ameaçadoras da vida. Sob a denominação de mola hidatiforme há duas entidades histopatológicas e clínicas: a mola parcial e a completa. As diferenças entre estas duas formas são importantes, devido ao risco de evolução para formas persistentes, ou seja, mais alto para as completas. O diagnóstico da mola hidatiforme, seu tratamento e seguimento após o tratamento inicial sofreram alterações importantes nos últimos anos. O número de pacientes assintomáticas tem aumentado devido ao emprego de ultrassonografia no início da gravidez. Para a resolução da mola hidatiforme é necessário evitar o emprego de medicamentos que induzam contrações uterinas e usar a vácuo-aspiração. Deve ser prescrito o método contraceptivo hormonal logo após o esvaziamento da mola. O seguimento é baseado nas dosagens seriadas semanais de gonadotrofinas coriônicas. É importante que o método empregado detecte todas as formas das gonadotrofinas coriônicas (molécula intacta, hiperglicosilada, subunidade β livre e fragmento central da subunidade β.The hydatiform mole is a relatively rare pregnancy complication, but with potential to evolve to forms which need systemic treatment and can be a threat to life. There are two histopathological and clinical entities under the name of hydatiform mole: the partial and the complete mole. The differences between the two forms are important due to risk of evolution to persistent forms, which is higher for the complete moles. The diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of hydatiform mole have been under important changes in the last years. The number of asymptomatic patients has increased, due to the use of ultrasonography at the onset of pregnancy. The use of medication that induces uterine contractions must be avoided, and vacuum

  2. Twin pregnancy with a coexisting hydatiform mole and liveborn infant: complicated by maternal hyperthyroidism and neonatal hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, Deanna K; Thomsett, Michael; Liley, Helen; Chitturi, Sridhar; Cincotta, Robert; Morton, Adam; Cotterill, Andrew

    2007-09-01

    A twin pregnancy with a coexisting complete hydatiform mole and a healthy fetus is rare. Associated with this condition are potentially serious maternal and fetal complications. We describe a case of a woman, 23/40 pregnant, who was diagnosed with a twin pregnancy complicated by a hydatiform mole, vaginal bleeding, hyperthyroidism and preterm labour at 26/40. Her hyperthyroidism was successfully treated with propylthiouracil. The preterm labour resulted in the livebirth of a healthy male infant. The baby developed biochemical hypothyroidism post-natally. The baby's thyroid function tests were unexpected, revealing a low T4 and a low-normal thyroid stimulating hormone. This is the first case reported in the literature to describe an infant's clinical and biochemical thyroid status after gestational trophoblastic disease complicated by hyperthyroidism.

  3. O2 binding and CO2 sensitivity in haemoglobins of subterranean African mole rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.; Jarvis, Jennifer U. M.; Fago, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Inhabiting deep and sealed subterranean burrows, mole rats exhibit a remarkable suite of specializations, including eusociality (living in colonies with single breeding queens), extraordinary longevity, cancer immunity and poikilothermy, and extreme tolerance of hypoxia and hypercapnia. With little...... and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG, the major allosteric modulator of Hb-O2 affinity in red blood cells) in four social and two solitary species of African mole rats (family Bathyergidae) originating from different biomes and soil types across Central and Southern Africa. We found no consistent patterns...... in haematocrit (Hct) and blood and red cell DPG and Hb concentrations or in intrinsic Hb-O2 affinity and its sensitivity to pH and DPG that correlate with burrowing, sociality and soil type. However, the results reveal low specific (pH independent) effects of CO2 on Hb-O2 affinity compared with humans...

  4. Transcriptome sequencing of the blind subterranean mole rat, Spalax galili: utility and potential for the discovery of novel evolutionary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Assaf; Korol, Abraham; Hübner, Sariel; Hernandez, Alvaro G; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Ali, Shahjahan; Glaser, Fabian; Paz, Arnon; Avivi, Aaron; Band, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The blind subterranean mole rat (Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies) is a model animal for survival under extreme environments due to its ability to live in underground habitats under severe hypoxic stress and darkness. Here we report the transcriptome sequencing of Spalax galili, a chromosomal type of S. ehrenbergi. cDNA pools from muscle and brain tissues isolated from animals exposed to hypoxic and normoxic conditions were sequenced using Sanger, GS FLX, and GS FLX Titanium technologies. Assembly of the sequences yielded over 51,000 isotigs with homology to ∼12,000 mouse, rat or human genes. Based on these results, it was possible to detect large numbers of splice variants, SNPs, and novel transcribed regions. In addition, multiple differential expression patterns were detected between tissues and treatments. The results presented here will serve as a valuable resource for future studies aimed at identifying genes and gene regions evolved during the adaptive radiation associated with underground life of the blind mole rat.

  5. Antioxidant activity and prevention of pork meat lipid oxidation using traditional Mexican condiments (pasilla dry pepper, achiote, and mole sauce)

    OpenAIRE

    Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla; Gilberto Mercado-Mercado; Laura Alejandra De La Rosa; José Alberto López Díaz; Abraham Wall-Medrano; Gustavo Adolfo González-Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    Considering the extensive use of hot peppers and spicy sauces in the Mexican cuisine, in the present paper, three widely consumed Mexican condiments (mole sauce, achiote, and pasilla hot pepper) were analyzed for their total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, antioxidant activity, and protective effect against lipid oxidation in chopped pork meat. All samples were extracted first with methanol and then with acetone, and the extracts were compared. Pasilla pepper showed the highest phe...

  6. [Twin pregnancy with both complete hydatiform mole and coexistent alive fetus: report of a non-antenatal diagnosed case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnais, Anne-Laure; Le Breton, Frédérique; Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Mojgan; Huissoud, Cyril; Massardier, Jérôme; Quilichini, Benoit; Allias, Fabienne

    2011-08-01

    Twin pregnancy with both complete hydatiform mole and coexistent fetus is a rare situation and a challenging diagnosis. We report an unusual case of twin pregnancy with complete mole diagnosed after pathological examination of the placenta. A 30-year-old woman, 14 weeks gestation, presented with vaginal bleeding. The abdominal ultrasound examination revealed an heterogeneous aspect of inferior placenta, which was interpreted as a hematoma, and, a multilacunar placental aspect with an oligoamnios respectively at initial follow-up and 22 weeks gestation. The karyotype from chorionic villi was normal (46 XY). At 25 weeks, after a spontaneous abortion, she delivered a 950g newborn who died quickly. On placental gross examination two distinct but connected masses were identified: one exhibited a normal placental aspect and the other vesicular villi with necrotic and hemorrhagic fragments. On microscopic examination, the normal placenta showed well-developed chorionic villi and the multicystic placenta showed molar villi. Immunohistochemical study and fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed a complete hydatiform mole. No persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia was observed during the follow-up. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of total-body digital photography on cancer worry in patients with atypical mole syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Molly S; King, Sallyann M C; Rice, Zakiya P; DeLong, Laura K; Seidler, Anne M; Veledar, Emir; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Chen, Suephy C

    2015-02-01

    Cancer worry about developing melanoma in at-risk patients may affect one's quality of life and adherence to screening. Little is known about melanoma-related worry in patients with atypical mole syndrome (AMS). To quantify levels and elucidate predictors of worry related to developing melanoma in patients with AMS and to determine whether total-body digital photography (TBDP) in pigmented lesion clinics (PLCs) reduces worry. In this pretest-posttest study, patients with AMS from PLCs at 2 academic medical centers were recruited from June 1, 2005, through October 31, 2008, to answer questions about cancer worry before and after undergoing TBDP. Questionnaires used included the new melanoma and recurrent melanoma Revised Impact of Event Scale (RIES), the Melanoma Worry Scale (MWS), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Life Orientation Test. All patients underwent TBDP. Changes in the MWS and new melanoma RIES scores. A total of 138 patients completed baseline questionnaires; 108 patients (78.3%) completed questionnaires after TBDP. Baseline levels of worry were low and reduced further after TBDP. In patients with a personal history of melanoma, worry was reduced on all scales. In patients without a personal history of melanoma, only the new melanoma RIES score was significantly decreased. Predictors of baseline MWS scores include female sex, personal history of melanoma, and higher Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores, adjusted for demographics, family history of melanoma, and Life Orientation Test scores. Adjusted predictors of the baseline new melanoma RIES score were similar but also included lower educational level and did not include sex. Patients with AMS have low levels of melanoma-related worry, which is similar to data from other populations at high risk of cancers. We found that TBDP is a clinically useful tool that can be used in PLCs to help decrease worry about developing melanoma in at-risk patients.

  8. Single haplotype assembly of the human genome from a hydatidiform mole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Karyn Meltz; Schneider, Valerie A; Graves-Lindsay, Tina A; Fulton, Robert S; Agarwala, Richa; Huddleston, John; Shiryev, Sergey A; Morgulis, Aleksandr; Surti, Urvashi; Warren, Wesley C; Church, Deanna M; Eichler, Evan E; Wilson, Richard K

    2014-12-01

    A complete reference assembly is essential for accurately interpreting individual genomes and associating variation with phenotypes. While the current human reference genome sequence is of very high quality, gaps and misassemblies remain due to biological and technical complexities. Large repetitive sequences and complex allelic diversity are the two main drivers of assembly error. Although increasing the length of sequence reads and library fragments can improve assembly, even the longest available reads do not resolve all regions. In order to overcome the issue of allelic diversity, we used genomic DNA from an essentially haploid hydatidiform mole, CHM1. We utilized several resources from this DNA including a set of end-sequenced and indexed BAC clones and 100× Illumina whole-genome shotgun (WGS) sequence coverage. We used the WGS sequence and the GRCh37 reference assembly to create an assembly of the CHM1 genome. We subsequently incorporated 382 finished BAC clone sequences to generate a draft assembly, CHM1_1.1 (NCBI AssemblyDB GCA_000306695.2). Analysis of gene, repetitive element, and segmental duplication content show this assembly to be of excellent quality and contiguity. However, comparison to assembly-independent resources, such as BAC clone end sequences and PacBio long reads, indicate misassembled regions. Most of these regions are enriched for structural variation and segmental duplication, and can be resolved in the future. This publicly available assembly will be integrated into the Genome Reference Consortium curation framework for further improvement, with the ultimate goal being a completely finished gap-free assembly. © 2014 Steinberg et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. Challenges in the Routine Praxis Diagnosis of Hydatidiform Mole: a Tertiary Health Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelic, Melisa; Fatusic, Zlatan; Iljazovic, Ermina; Ramic, Suada; Markovic, Sergije; Alicelebic, Selma

    2017-08-01

    Hydatidiform moles (HM), presenting as complete (CHM) and partial (PHM) form, are rare pregnancy disorder. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, ultrasound imaging findings and pathological examination of products of conception. Protein p57, encoded by CKDN1C gene, is paternally imprinted and maternally expressed gene and provides quick insight in genetic basis of HM and allows distinction of CHM from all other conceptions. compare the preevacuational and pathohistological diagnosis with outcome of p57 immunostaining. All cases of HM diagnosed between January 2011 and December 2015 were included in this research. Maternal age, gestational age and input diagnosis data were recored. p57 immunostaining was performed in order to evaluate the diagnosis based on tissue slides examination. There were 198 cases of histologically confirmed HM, 185 PHM, 12 CHM and one case of undefined HM. Mean maternal age in the CHM group was 24,7 and in the PHM group 26,9 years, with no significant differences among these two groups (p=0,27). For CHM mean gestational age was estimated at eight and for PHM 9,2 gestational weeks. Pregnant woman older than 40 years present significant earlier compared with younger woman (p<0,01), and those younger than 20 years tend to present at the beginning of the second trimester more often than older women (p<0,05). In the CHM group, 9 (75%) input diagnoses were mola in obs, and 3 (25%) of them were signed as abortion, unlike the PHM where 126 (67%) were qualified as abortion, 35 (19%) as blighted ovum, and 26 (14%) were suggestive for molar pregnancy. p57 immunostaining results confirmed all pathohistological diagnosis of CHM whereas 8% of PHM demonstrated divergent p57 expression. PHM, compared with CHM, represent a greater diagnostic challenge for both gynecologist and pathologist even when presenting in more advanced pregnancies.

  10. Mola Completa em Gravidez Gemelar: relato de Caso Complete Mole in Twin Pregnancy: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izildinha Maestá

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A gravidez gemelar na qual coexistem um feto normal e uma mola completa é um evento raro. Complicações clínicas e aumento de risco de malignização são de importância nesta patologia. Este trabalho descreve um caso de diagnóstico tardio em decorrência da presença do feto. Este diagnóstico foi feito no momento da resolução da gestação e confirmado por estudo histopatológico e citometria de fluxo. A resolução da gestação foi por via transpélvica em decorrência de hemorragia uterina maciça. O seguimento pós-molar evidenciou a persistência de níveis elevados de bhCG, obtendo-se remissão completa da doença com o uso do metotrexato. À luz deste caso, discutem-se o diagnóstico, a história natural e a conduta desta rara intercorrência na clínica obstétrica.Twin pregnancy in which a normal fetus and a complete mole develop at the same time is a rare event. Clinical complications and malignancy are frequent in this type of disease.This report is about a case of a late diagnosis due to the presence of the fetus. The diagnosis was made when the pregnancy was interrupted and then confirmed by histopathological study and flow cytometry. The pregnancy was terminated transpelvically due to massive uterine hemorrhage. The post-molar follow-up showed the persistence of high levels of bhCG. The patient's complete recovery was achieved after the administration of methotrexate. The diagnosis, natural history, and procedures for this rare disease are discussed in view of this case.

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of a peroxiredoxin gene from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Iksoo; Lee, Kwang Sik; Hwang, Jae Sam; Ahn, Mi Young; Li, Jianhong; Sohn, Hung Dae; Jin, Byun Rae

    2005-04-01

    We report the cloning, expression and characterization of a cDNA encoding the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin (Prx) from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis. The G. orientalis Prx (GoPrx) cDNA contains an open reading frame of 660 bp encoding 220 amino acid residues and possesses one cysteine residue that is characteristic of the 1-Cys subgroup of the peroxiredoxin family. The deduced amino acid sequence of the GoPrx cDNA showed 69% identity to Drosophila melanogaster DPx-2540, 50% to D. melanogaster DPx-6005, and 47% to Glossina morsitans morsitans Prx. Phylogenetic analysis further confirmed a closer relationship of the deduced amino acid sequences of the GoPrx gene to the DPx-2540 within the 1-Cys Prx cluster. The cDNA encoding GoPrx was expressed as a 27-kDa polypeptide in baculovirus-infected insect Sf9 cells. The purified recombinant GoPrx was shown to reduce H(2)O(2) in the presence of electrons donated by dithiothreitol, but did not show the activity in the presence of thioredoxin as electron donor. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of GoPrx transcripts in all tissues examined. When H(2)O(2) was injected into the body cavity of G. orientalis adult, GoPrx mRNA expression was up-regulated in the fat body tissues. Furthermore, the expression levels of GoPrx mRNA in the fat body were particularly high when G. orientalis adult was exposed at low (4 degrees C) and high (37 degrees C) temperatures, suggesting that the GoPrx seems to play a protective role against oxidative stress caused by temperature shock.

  12. The number of benign moles excised for each malignant melanoma: the number needed to treat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, S; Bodger, O; Williams, N; Roberts, D L

    2012-01-01

    The ratio of benign moles excised for each malignant melanoma (MM) diagnosed, i.e. the number needed to treat (NNT), may be a useful indicator of diagnostic accuracy and the efficient use of healthcare resources, and may have personal implications for the patient. To assess the NNT for a group of consultant dermatologists serving a population of 600,000, and to compare this with similar studies from other countries. This was a retrospective analysis of data on pigmented lesions excised over a 5-year period (2005-2009). The lesions were divided into three groups: benign naevi (BN), dysplastic naevi (DN) and MM. The NNT ratio was calculated as (BN + DN + MM)/MM. In total, 4691 lesions were examined. The overall mean NNT was 6.3, with a range of 4.9-11.3 for each of nine consultant dermatologists. The mean NNT was 7.6 for female and 4.8 for male patients. There were more patients with BN (n = 3534; 75%) than with DN (n = 407; 9%) or MM (n = 750; 16%). The gender representation was similar in the DN and MM groups, but had a disproportionately female bias in the BN group (67% female, 33% male patients). Overall, there were more female patients in all three groups [2962 female patients (63%) and 1729 male patients (37%)]. The NNT of 6.3 in this study compares favourably with NNT ratios from studies of dermatologists from other countries. This study may encourage other countries and individual doctors to assess their NNT ratios, as it may be an important indicator of the efficient use of resources and the avoidance of unnecessary surgery for patients. © The Author(s). CED © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. Local and regional scale genetic variation in the Cape dune mole-rat, Bathyergus suillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Jacobus H; Bennett, Nigel C; Jansen van Vuuren, Bettine

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of genetic variation is determined through the interaction of life history, morphology and habitat specificity of a species in conjunction with landscape structure. While numerous studies have investigated this interplay of factors in species inhabiting aquatic, riverine, terrestrial, arboreal and saxicolous systems, the fossorial system has remained largely unexplored. In this study we attempt to elucidate the impacts of a subterranean lifestyle coupled with a heterogeneous landscape on genetic partitioning by using a subterranean mammal species, the Cape dune mole-rat (Bathyergus suillus), as our model. Bathyergus suillus is one of a few mammal species endemic to the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of the Western Cape of South Africa. Its distribution is fragmented by rivers and mountains; both geographic phenomena that may act as geographical barriers to gene-flow. Using two mitochondrial fragments (cytochrome b and control region) as well as nine microsatellite loci, we determined the phylogeographic structure and gene-flow patterns at two different spatial scales (local and regional). Furthermore, we investigated genetic differentiation between populations and applied Bayesian clustering and assignment approaches to our data. Nearly every population formed a genetically unique entity with significant genetic structure evident across geographic barriers such as rivers (Berg, Verlorenvlei, Breede and Gourits Rivers), mountains (Piketberg and Hottentots Holland Mountains) and with geographic distance at both spatial scales. Surprisingly, B. suillus was found to be paraphyletic with respect to its sister species, B. janetta-a result largely overlooked by previous studies on these taxa. A systematic revision of the genus Bathyergus is therefore necessary. This study provides a valuable insight into how the biology, life-history and habitat specificity of animals inhabiting a fossorial system may act in concert with the structure of the surrounding

  14. The Insulin-Like Growth Factor System in the Long-Lived Naked Mole-Rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malene Brohus

    Full Text Available Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber (NMRs are the longest living rodents known. They show negligible senescence, and are resistant to cancers and certain damaging effects associated with aging. The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs have pluripotent actions, influencing growth processes in virtually every system of the body. They are established contributors to the aging process, confirmed by the demonstration that decreased IGF signaling results in life-extending effects in a variety of species. The IGFs are likewise involved in progression of cancers by mediating survival signals in malignant cells. This report presents a full characterization of the IGF system in the NMR: ligands, receptors, IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs, and IGFBP proteases. A particular emphasis was placed on the IGFBP protease, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A, shown to be an important lifespan modulator in mice. Comparisons of IGF-related genes in the NMR with human and murine sequences indicated no major differences in essential parts of the IGF system, including PAPP-A. The protease was shown to possess an intact active site despite the report of a contradictory genome sequence. Furthermore, PAPP-A was expressed and translated in NMRs cells and retained IGF-dependent proteolytic activity towards IGFBP-4 and IGF-independent activity towards IGFBP-5. However, experimental data suggest differential regulatory mechanisms for PAPP-A expression in NMRs than those described in humans and mice. This overall description of the IGF system in the NMR represents an initial step towards elucidating the complex molecular mechanisms underlying longevity, and how these animals have evolved to ensure a delayed and healthy aging process.

  15. FOREWORD: International Workshop on the Avogadro Constant and the Representation of the Silicon Mole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Giuseppe; Garfagnini, Raffaello; Mana, Giovanni; Peuto, Anna; Zosi, Gianfranco

    1994-01-01

    This special issue of Metrologia brings together contributions to the International Workshop on the Avogadro Constant and the Representation of the Silicon Mole, held in Turin, Italy, from 9 to 10 March 1994. It was organized by the Istituto di Metrologia "G Colonnetti" (IMGC) del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR) and the Istituto di Fisica Generale "A Avogadro" (IFG) dell'Università di Tonno. It was sponsored by the CNR, the University of Turin, the Regione Piemonte, and the Commission of the European Communities DG XII. The workshop was a follow-up to previous international meetings held in Turin to commemorate Amedeo Avogadro, one in 1911 (the centenary of the publication of his hypothesis) and another in 1957 (the centenary of his death). On this occasion the workshop was motivated by the requirements of researchers engaged in the international project on the determination of the Avogadro constant by the x-ray crystal density method. Sixty-four participants representing eight countries attended the workshop. Doctoral students in metrology from Turin University and researchers working in adjacent fields were also present. The lectures were chosen so as to review the different aspects of this project, to illustrate progress in research, and to indicate future developments to scientists working in different fields of physics, metrology and technology. Complementary approaches to the NA determination based on electrical measurements were also reported and analysed. During the workshop, a number of specialist meetings allowed experts to discuss specific topics, to exchange information on results and techniques, and to improve the coordination of their activities. In their opening addresses, Prof. C Castagnoli (Director of the IFG) and Prof. L Crovini (Director of the IMGC) welcomed the participants and introduced the work in progress with a view to making a more precise determination of the Avogadro constant. They mentioned the expected influence of this

  16. Experimental Investigation of InSight HP3 Mole Interaction with Martian Regolith Simulant. Quasi-Static and Dynamic Penetration Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jason P.; Hudson, Troy L.; Andrade, José E.

    2017-10-01

    The InSight mission launches in 2018 to characterize several geophysical quantities on Mars, including the heat flow from the planetary interior. This quantity will be calculated by utilizing measurements of the thermal conductivity and the thermal gradient down to 5 meters below the Martian surface. One of the components of InSight is the Mole, which hammers into the Martian regolith to facilitate these thermal property measurements. In this paper, we experimentally investigated the effect of the Mole's penetrating action on regolith compaction and mechanical properties. Quasi-static and dynamic experiments were run with a 2D model of the 3D cylindrical mole. Force resistance data was captured with load cells. Deformation information was captured in images and analyzed using Digitial Image Correlation (DIC). Additionally, we used existing approximations of Martian regolith thermal conductivity to estimate the change in the surrounding granular material's thermal conductivity due to the Mole's penetration. We found that the Mole has the potential to cause a high degree of densification, especially if the initial granular material is relatively loose. The effect on the thermal conductivity from this densification was found to be relatively small in first-order calculations though more complete thermal models incorporating this densification should be a subject of further investigation. The results obtained provide an initial estimate of the Mole's impact on Martian regolith thermal properties.

  17. Uterine artery Doppler flow velocimetry parameters for predicting gestational trophoblastic neoplasia after complete hydatidiform mole, a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Flavia Tarabini Castellani; Braga-Neto, Antonio Rodrigues; de Rezende-Filho, Jorge; Villas-Boas, Juliana Marques Simões; Charry, Rafael Cortés; Maesta, Izildinha

    2017-05-01

    Doppler ultrasonography can be used to assess neoangiogenesis, a characteristic feature of postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. However, there is limited information on whether uterine artery Doppler flow velocimetry parameters can predict gestational trophoblastic neoplasia following a complete hydatidiform mole. The purpose of this study was as follows: 1) to compare uterine blood flow before and after complete mole evacuation between women who developed postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and those who achieved spontaneous remission, 2) to assess the usefulness of uterine Doppler parameters as predictors of postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and to determine the best parameters and cutoff values for predicting postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. This prospective cohort study included 246 patients with a complete mole who were treated at three different trophoblastic diseases centers between 2013 and 2014. The pulsatility index, resistivity index, and systolic/diastolic ratio were measured by Doppler flow velocimetry before and 4-6 weeks after molar evacuation. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's test, logistic regression, and ROC analysis. No differences in pre- and post-evacuation Doppler measurements were observed in patients who developed postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. In those with spontaneous remission, the pulsatility index and systolic/diastolic ratio were increased after evacuation. The pre- and post-evacuation pulsatility indices were significantly lower in patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (odds ratio of 13.9-30.5). A pre-evacuation pulsatility index ≤1.38 (77% sensitivity and 82% specificity) and post-evacuation pulsatility index ≤1.77 (79% sensitivity and 86% specificity) were significantly predictive of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Uterine Doppler flow velocimetry measurements, particularly pre- and post-molar evacuation pulsatility indices, can be

  18. Extended Pile Driving Model to Predict the Penetration of the Insight/HP3 Mole into the Martian Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poganski, Joshua; Kömle, Norbert I.; Kargl, Günter; Schweiger, Helmut F.; Grott, Matthias; Spohn, Tilman; Krömer, Olaf; Krause, Christian; Wippermann, Torben; Tsakyridis, Georgios; Fittock, Mark; Lichtenheldt, Roy; Vrettos, Christos; Andrade, José E.

    2017-10-01

    The NASA InSight mission will provide an opportunity for soil investigations using the penetration data of the heat flow probe built by the German Aerospace Center DLR. The Heat flow and Physical Properties Probe (HP3) will penetrate 3 to 5 meter into the Martian subsurface to investigate the planetary heat flow. The measurement of the penetration rate during the insertion of the HP3 will be used to determine the physical properties of the soil at the landing site. For this purpose, numerical simulations of the penetration process were performed to get a better understanding of the soil properties influencing the penetration performance of HP3. A pile driving model has been developed considering all masses of the hammering mechanism of HP3. By cumulative application of individual stroke cycles it is now able to describe the penetration of the Mole into the Martian soil as a function of time, assuming that the soil parameters of the material through which it penetrates are known. We are using calibrated materials similar to those expected to be encountered by the InSight/HP3 Mole when it will be operated on the surface of Mars after the landing of the InSight spacecraft. We consider various possible scenarios, among them a more or less homogeneous material down to a depth of 3-5 m as well as a layered ground, consisting of layers with different soil parameters. Finally we describe some experimental tests performed with the latest prototype of the InSight Mole at DLR Bremen and compare the measured penetration performance in sand with our modeling results. Furthermore, results from a 3D DEM simulation are presented to get a better understanding of the soil response.

  19. Unusual ratio between free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine in a long-lived mole-rat species with bimodal ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Henning

    Full Text Available Ansell's mole-rats (Fukomys anselli are subterranean, long-lived rodents, which live in eusocial families, where the maximum lifespan of breeders is twice as long as that of non-breeders. Their metabolic rate is significantly lower than expected based on allometry, and their retinae show a high density of S-cone opsins. Both features may indicate naturally low thyroid hormone levels. In the present study, we sequenced several major components of the thyroid hormone pathways and analyzed free and total thyroxine and triiodothyronine in serum samples of breeding and non-breeding F. anselli to examine whether a their thyroid hormone system shows any peculiarities on the genetic level, b these animals have lower hormone levels compared to euthyroid rodents (rats and guinea pigs, and c reproductive status, lifespan and free hormone levels are correlated. Genetic analyses confirmed that Ansell's mole-rats have a conserved thyroid hormone system as known from other mammalian species. Interspecific comparisons revealed that free thyroxine levels of F. anselli were about ten times lower than of guinea pigs and rats, whereas the free triiodothyronine levels, the main biologically active form, did not differ significantly amongst species. The resulting fT4:fT3 ratio is unusual for a mammal and potentially represents a case of natural hypothyroxinemia. Comparisons with total thyroxine levels suggest that mole-rats seem to possess two distinct mechanisms that work hand in hand to downregulate fT4 levels reliably. We could not find any correlation between free hormone levels and reproductive status, gender or weight. Free thyroxine may slightly increase with age, based on sub-significant evidence. Hence, thyroid hormones do not seem to explain the different ageing rates of breeders and non-breeders. Further research is required to investigate the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the unusual proportion of free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine.

  20. Lesões bucais de tecido mole e ósseo em crianças e adolescentes

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcante, Ana Sueli R. [UNESP; Marsilio, Ana Lucia; Kühne, Sandra S.; Carvalho, Yasmim Rodarte

    2010-01-01

    Neste estudo, os autores avaliaram a prevalência das lesões bucais de tecido mole e ósseo encontradas no complexo maxilomandibular, em crianças e adolescentes de zero a 14 anos. A amostra foi constituída de 370 pacientes, de ambos os sexos, atendidos na Faculdade de Odontologia de São José dos Campos. Dentre as sessenta lesões pesquisadas, a de maior freqüência foi o mucocele, totalizando 94 dos 370 casos encontrados (25,40%), ...

  1. SEBARAN LENGAS TANAH AKIBAT PEMBUATAN LORONG PENGATUS DANGKAL PADA TANAH SAWAH (Soil Moisture Distribution as an Effect of Shallow Mole Drainage in Paddy Land

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    Siti Suharyatun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mole drainage is an alternative which can be used to increase the rate of soil moisture decrease in paddy soil at the end of the rainy season. By using mole drainage, the rate of soil moisture decrease goes up to a certain condition (from saturated to field capacity which is suitable for early growth of crops. This study aimed at describing changes and distribution of soil moisture in paddy soil in which shallow mole drainage had been formed. Those changes and distribution were used to predict the rate of soil moisture decrease in paddy soil after mole drainage was formed. The study was conducted in the laboratory using a soil bin, a model of mole plough, and soils that was kept homogeneous in the boxes. The experiment was conducted in the Laboratory of Energy and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University. The mole drainage was installed in three paddy soils with different clay content, namely 13.12% (A, 41.17% (B and 53.36% (C. Soil moisture content was measured periodically by using gypsum blocks. The results showed that the three types of soils in which shallow mole drainage was formed had different characteristics of soil moisture changes. The formation of mole drainage in soil with low clay content (A had no effect for the declining rate of soil moisture. On the contrary, the shallow mole drainage formed in the soil with higher contents of clay B and C influenced the rate of soil moisture decrease. High rate of soil moisture decrease in the soil B and C occurred at the beginning of the formation of mole drainage and went on up to the 3th hours of observation. Based on the distribution of soil moisture at different points at some distances from the center of mole drainage and the equation of the rate of soil moisture decrease found in the experiment, it could be inferred that moles formed in soils B and C could be used as mole drainage and the rate of soil moisture decrease in soil C was

  2. Effect of extracts from the Chinese and European mole cricket on wound epithelialization and neovascularization: in vivo studies in the hairless mouse ear wound model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Markus M; Frank, Johannes; Barker, John H; Becker, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Until the end of World War II, oily extracts from the European mole cricket, Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa Linné, were used for treating nonhealing wounds and burns. In traditional Chinese medicine, extracts from the Chinese mole cricket, Gryllotalpa africana Beauvois, have been used to treat boils, abscesses, and ulcers successfully for over two centuries and are still being used today. The aim of this study was twofold: first, to measure the effect mole cricket extracts have on wound epithelialization and neovascularization, and second, to identify the active compounds in the Chinese and German mole cricket extracts. For the first aim, the hairless mouse ear wound model was used. The findings showed that wounds treated with the mole cricket extracts epithelialized significantly faster than control wounds 12.7+/-0.9 and 13.2+/-1.4 days vs. 16.3+/-2.2 days (mean+/-SD, p<0.05), respectively. While the rate of wound neovascularization was significantly increased in the first 3 days postwounding from that point on, the rate in treated wounds was the same as in controls. To identify the active compounds in the mole cricket extracts, the extracts were fractionated and tested in a foreskin basal keratinocyte cell culture assay. In this assay, the migration of keratinocytes is similar to skin cell migration or reepithelialization in a healing wound. Using this method, we found the active compound in the mole cricket extracts to be linoleic acid methyl ester. All other fatty acid structures that were isolated were found to be inactive.

  3. Emerging Infectious Disease Implications of Invasive Mammalian Species: The Greater White-Toothed Shrew (Crocidura russula) Is Associated With a Novel Serovar of Pathogenic Leptospira in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nally, Jarlath E; Arent, Zbigniew; Bayles, Darrell O; Hornsby, Richard L; Gilmore, Colm; Regan, Siobhan; McDevitt, Allan D; Yearsley, Jon; Fanning, Séamus; McMahon, Barry J

    2016-12-01

    The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) is an invasive mammalian species that was first recorded in Ireland in 2007. It currently occupies an area of approximately 7,600 km2 on the island. C. russula is normally distributed in Northern Africa and Western Europe, and was previously absent from the British Isles. Whilst invasive species can have dramatic and rapid impacts on faunal and floral communities, they may also be carriers of pathogens facilitating disease transmission in potentially naive populations. Pathogenic leptospires are endemic in Ireland and a significant cause of human and animal disease. From 18 trapped C. russula, 3 isolates of Leptospira were cultured. However, typing of these isolates by standard serological reference methods was negative, and suggested an, as yet, unidentified serovar. Sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA and secY indicated that these novel isolates belong to Leptospira alstonii, a unique pathogenic species of which only 7 isolates have been described to date. Earlier isolations were limited geographically to China, Japan and Malaysia, and this leptospiral species had not previously been cultured from mammals. Restriction enzyme analysis (REA) further confirms the novelty of these strains since no similar patterns were observed with a reference database of leptospires. As with other pathogenic Leptospira species, these isolates contain lipL32 and do not grow in the presence of 8-azagunaine; however no evidence of disease was apparent after experimental infection of hamsters. These isolates are genetically related to L. alstonii but have a novel REA pattern; they represent a new serovar which we designate as serovar Room22. This study demonstrates that invasive mammalian species act as bridge vectors of novel zoonotic pathogens such as Leptospira.

  4. Mercury in soil, earthworms and organs of voles Myodes glareolus and shrew Sorex araneus in the vicinity of an industrial complex in Northwest Russia (Cherepovets).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komov, V T; Ivanova, E S; Poddubnaya, N Y; Gremyachikh, V A

    2017-03-01

    The characteristic properties of uptake and distribution of mercury in terrestrial ecosystems have received much lesser attention compared to aquatic particularly in Russia. Terrestrial ecosystems adjacent to large industrial manufactures-potential sources of mercury inflow into the environment frequently remain unstudied. This is the first report on mercury (Hg) levels in the basic elements of terrestrial ecosystems situated close to a large metallurgical complex.Mean values of mercury concentration (mg Hg/kg dry weight) in the vicinity of city of Cherepovets were the following: 0.056 ± 0.033-in the humus layer of soil; 0.556 ± 0.159-in earthworms; in the organs of voles Myodes glareolus (kidneys-0.021 ± 0.001; liver-0.014 ± 0.003; muscle-0.014 ± 0.001; brain-0.008 ± 0.002); in the organs of shrew Sorex araneus (kidneys-0.191 ± 0.016; liver-0.124 ± 0.011; muscle-0.108 ± 0.009; brain-0.065 ± 0.000). Correlation dependences between Hg content in soil and earthworms (r s  = 0.85, p mercury content in the studied objects was significantly lower than values of corresponding parameters in the soils and biota from industrial (polluted) areas of Great Britain, the USA, and China.

  5. ‘Misrule’ and ‘Flyting’: the language of inversion in William Shakespeare’s The Taming of the Shrew

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    Bianca Del Villano

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to analyze some specific aspects of the relationship between Shakespeare’s comedic language and the popular culture of the English Renaissance, starting from the application and redefinition of Bakhtin’s interpretative paradigm of the Carnival. Though not identical to the French and European Carnival, many Medieval popular festivities in England were characterized by a similar world-upside-down logic. For example, the election of a Lord of Misrule – linked to a very popular collective festivity – was responsible for a parodic reorganization of the ‘real life’, in which the King – at least for one day – belonged to the lowest rank of the population and was given the power of mocking and ridiculing any member of the community, including the most authoritative ones. When the disintegration of the Medieval communal world reaches its highpoint in the sixteenth century, under the weight of the economy of enclosures, the new mercantilism and the move from country to city, the motif of the inversion of roles becomes central throughout the Elizabethan theater, and in particular in Shakespeare’s drama, in which it is used to problematize and re-conceptualize a world challenged by an unprecedented social mobility. Significant, in this sense, appears to be The Taming of the Shrew, in which the trope of the inversion is shaped as a 'reverse inversion', a dramatic device that reinterprets the Misrule of tradition through: 1 metatheatrical devices; 2 language games, such as flyting; 3 the questioning of social and gender roles. This paper focuses specifically on these aspects of the play.

  6. Emerging Infectious Disease Implications of Invasive Mammalian Species: The Greater White-Toothed Shrew (Crocidura russula Is Associated With a Novel Serovar of Pathogenic Leptospira in Ireland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarlath E Nally

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula is an invasive mammalian species that was first recorded in Ireland in 2007. It currently occupies an area of approximately 7,600 km2 on the island. C. russula is normally distributed in Northern Africa and Western Europe, and was previously absent from the British Isles. Whilst invasive species can have dramatic and rapid impacts on faunal and floral communities, they may also be carriers of pathogens facilitating disease transmission in potentially naive populations. Pathogenic leptospires are endemic in Ireland and a significant cause of human and animal disease. From 18 trapped C. russula, 3 isolates of Leptospira were cultured. However, typing of these isolates by standard serological reference methods was negative, and suggested an, as yet, unidentified serovar. Sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA and secY indicated that these novel isolates belong to Leptospira alstonii, a unique pathogenic species of which only 7 isolates have been described to date. Earlier isolations were limited geographically to China, Japan and Malaysia, and this leptospiral species had not previously been cultured from mammals. Restriction enzyme analysis (REA further confirms the novelty of these strains since no similar patterns were observed with a reference database of leptospires. As with other pathogenic Leptospira species, these isolates contain lipL32 and do not grow in the presence of 8-azagunaine; however no evidence of disease was apparent after experimental infection of hamsters. These isolates are genetically related to L. alstonii but have a novel REA pattern; they represent a new serovar which we designate as serovar Room22. This study demonstrates that invasive mammalian species act as bridge vectors of novel zoonotic pathogens such as Leptospira.

  7. Transcriptome sequencing of the blind subterranean mole rat, Spalax galili: Utility and potential for the discovery of novel evolutionary patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Malik, Assaf

    2011-08-12

    The blind subterranean mole rat (Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies) is a model animal for survival under extreme environments due to its ability to live in underground habitats under severe hypoxic stress and darkness. Here we report the transcriptome sequencing of Spalax galili, a chromosomal type of S. ehrenbergi. cDNA pools from muscle and brain tissues isolated from animals exposed to hypoxic and normoxic conditions were sequenced using Sanger, GS FLX, and GS FLX Titanium technologies. Assembly of the sequences yielded over 51,000 isotigs with homology to ~12,000 mouse, rat or human genes. Based on these results, it was possible to detect large numbers of splice variants, SNPs, and novel transcribed regions. In addition, multiple differential expression patterns were detected between tissues and treatments. The results presented here will serve as a valuable resource for future studies aimed at identifying genes and gene regions evolved during the adaptive radiation associated with underground life of the blind mole rat. 2011 Malik et al.

  8. Evaluation on Morphological Characters of European Mole cricket, Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa (Orth.: Gryllotalpidae in the North-west of Iran

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    M.H. Kazemi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The European mole cricket is considered to be of the most important insect pests of Iran, especially in Azerbaijan province. Its damage in some area economically is very high. In this study, morphological characteristics, including the length of various parts of the pest body, were evaluated. Analyzing of the size of fore and hind wings results of the adults in this species, showed that there were seasonal dimorphism as long-winged (L.W. and short-winged (S.W. among the insects. Based on the literature available seasonal dimorphism in this species is the first report in the world, and probably each morph of this species is various in different both in the biology and behavior. Sexual dimorphism can be distinguished by study pattern of venation in the forewings of sexes. One of the important characteristics in distinguishing mole cricket species is arrangement spines in the fore and hind tibia where their numbers and sizes of these spines in various species are different. The fore tibia of insect has four wide and strong dactyls in its apex, but lateral margin of the hind tibia armed with five sharp spines with seven spines at the end of its tibia.

  9. Transcriptome sequencing of the blind subterranean mole rat, Spalax galili: utility and potential for the discovery of novel evolutionary patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaf Malik

    Full Text Available The blind subterranean mole rat (Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies is a model animal for survival under extreme environments due to its ability to live in underground habitats under severe hypoxic stress and darkness. Here we report the transcriptome sequencing of Spalax galili, a chromosomal type of S. ehrenbergi. cDNA pools from muscle and brain tissues isolated from animals exposed to hypoxic and normoxic conditions were sequenced using Sanger, GS FLX, and GS FLX Titanium technologies. Assembly of the sequences yielded over 51,000 isotigs with homology to ∼12,000 mouse, rat or human genes. Based on these results, it was possible to detect large numbers of splice variants, SNPs, and novel transcribed regions. In addition, multiple differential expression patterns were detected between tissues and treatments. The results presented here will serve as a valuable resource for future studies aimed at identifying genes and gene regions evolved during the adaptive radiation associated with underground life of the blind mole rat.

  10. Negligible senescence in the longest living rodent, the naked mole-rat: insights from a successfully aging species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2008-05-01

    Aging refers to a gradual deterioration in function that, over time, leads to increased mortality risk, and declining fertility. This pervasive process occurs in almost all organisms, although some long-lived trees and cold water inhabitants reportedly show insignificant aging. Negligible senescence is characterized by attenuated age-related change in reproductive and physiological functions, as well as no observable age-related gradual increase in mortality rate. It was questioned whether the longest living rodent, the naked mole-rat, met these three strict criteria. Naked mole-rats live in captivity for more than 28.3 years, approximately 9 times longer than similar-sized mice. They maintain body composition from 2 to 24 years, and show only slight age-related changes in all physiological and morphological characteristics studied to date. Surprisingly breeding females show no decline in fertility even when well into their third decade of life. Moreover, these animals have never been observed to develop any spontaneous neoplasm. As such they do not show the typical age-associated acceleration in mortality risk that characterizes every other known mammalian species and may therefore be the first reported mammal showing negligible senescence over the majority of their long lifespan. Clearly physiological and biochemical processes in this species have evolved to dramatically extend healthy lifespan. The challenge that lies ahead is to understand what these mechanisms are.

  11. Walking the Oxidative Stress Tightrope: A Perspective from the Naked Mole-Rat, the Longest-Living Rodent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Karl A.; Wywial, Ewa; Perez, Viviana I.; Lambert, Adrian J.; Edrey, Yael H.; Lewis, Kaitlyn N.; Grimes, Kelly; Lindsey, Merry L.; Brand, Martin D.; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), by-products of aerobic metabolism, cause oxidative damage to cells and tissue and not surprisingly many theories have arisen to link ROS-induced oxidative stress to aging and health. While studies clearly link ROS to a plethora of divergent diseases, their role in aging is still debatable. Genetic knock-down manipulations of antioxidants alter the levels of accrued oxidative damage, however, the resultant effect of increased oxidative stress on lifespan are equivocal. Similarly the impact of elevating antioxidant levels through transgenic manipulations yield inconsistent effects on longevity. Furthermore, comparative data from a wide range of endotherms with disparate longevity remain inconclusive. Many long-living species such as birds, bats and mole-rats exhibit high-levels of oxidative damage, evident already at young ages. Clearly, neither the amount of ROS per se nor the sensitivity in neutralizing ROS are as important as whether or not the accrued oxidative stress leads to oxidative-damage-linked age-associated diseases. In this review we examine the literature on ROS, its relation to disease and the lessons gleaned from a comparative approach based upon species with widely divergent responses. We specifically focus on the longest lived rodent, the naked mole-rat, which maintains good health and provides novel insights into the paradox of maintaining both an extended healthspan and lifespan despite high oxidative stress from a young age. PMID:21736541

  12. Temperature and water mole fraction measurements by time-domain-based supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy in a flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werblinski, Thomas; Mittmann, Frank; Altenhoff, Michael; Seeger, Thomas; Zigan, Lars; Will, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we present the first quantitative multi-scalar measurements by time-domain-based supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy in a flame. Temperature and mole fraction are determined simultaneously from broadband spectra ranging from 1,340 to 1,485 nm by a multi-peak least square fit between experiments and simulated spectra. To this end, a combination of the most comprehensive databases, namely the Barber-Tennyson database (BT2) and HITRAN2012, is used. Line strength values listed in BT2 are combined with averaged broadening coefficients and temperature exponents based on the upper rotational quantum number J from the latest HITRAN database to precisely model the line shape function for each transition. The height-dependent temperature and mole fraction profiles of a premixed one-dimensional flame of a McKenna type burner are reconstructed by direct comparison of experimental spectra with theory. For verification, the temperature data obtained are compared with a profile determined by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering.

  13. Walking the oxidative stress tightrope: a perspective from the naked mole-rat, the longest-living rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Karl A; Wywial, Ewa; Perez, Viviana I; Lambert, Adriant J; Edrey, Yael H; Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Grimes, Kelly; Lindsey, Merry L; Brand, Martin D; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), by-products of aerobic metabolism, cause oxidative damage to cells and tissue and not surprisingly many theories have arisen to link ROS-induced oxidative stress to aging and health. While studies clearly link ROS to a plethora of divergent diseases, their role in aging is still debatable. Genetic knock-down manipulations of antioxidants alter the levels of accrued oxidative damage, however, the resultant effect of increased oxidative stress on lifespan are equivocal. Similarly the impact of elevating antioxidant levels through transgenic manipulations yield inconsistent effects on longevity. Furthermore, comparative data from a wide range of endotherms with disparate longevity remain inconclusive. Many long-living species such as birds, bats and mole-rats exhibit high-levels of oxidative damage, evident already at young ages. Clearly, neither the amount of ROS per se nor the sensitivity in neutralizing ROS are as important as whether or not the accrued oxidative stress leads to oxidative-damage-linked age-associated diseases. In this review we examine the literature on ROS, its relation to disease and the lessons gleaned from a comparative approach based upon species with widely divergent responses. We specifically focus on the longest lived rodent, the naked mole-rat, which maintains good health and provides novel insights into the paradox of maintaining both an extended healthspan and lifespan despite high oxidative stress from a young age.

  14. Trophic systems and chorology: data from shrews, moles and voles of Italy preyed by the barn owl / Sistemi trofici e corologia: dati su Soricidae, Talpidae ed Arvicolidae d'Italia predati da Tyto alba (Scopoli 1769

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    Longino Contoli

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In small Mammals biogeography, available data are up to now by far too scanty for elucidate the distribution of a lot of taxa, especially with regard to the absence from a given area. In this respect, standardized quantitative sampling techniques, like Owl pellets analysis can enable not only to enhance faunistic knowledges, but also to estimate the actual absence probability of a given taxon "m", lacking from the diet of an individual raptor. For the last purpose, the relevant frequencies of "m" in the other ecologically similar sites of the same raptor species diets are averaged ($f_m$ : the relevant standard error (multiplicated by a coefficient, according to the desired degree of accuracy, in relation of the integral of probabilities subtracted ($overline{F}_m - a E$: then, the probability that a single specimen is not pertaining to "m" is obtained ($P_0 = 1 - F_m + a E$; lastly, the desiderate accuracy probability ($P_d$ is chosen. Now, "$N_d$" (the number of individuals of all prey species in a single site needed for obtain, with the desired probability, a specimen at least of "m" is obtained through $$N = frac{ln P_d}{ln P_0}$$ Obviously, every site-diet with more than "N" preyed individuals and without any "i" specimen is considered to be lacking of such taxon. A "usefulness index" for the above purposes is outlined and checked about three raptors. Some exanples about usefulness of the Owl pellet analysis method in biogeography are given, concerning Tyto alba diets in peninsular Italy about: - Sorex minutus, lacking in some quite insulated areas; - Sorex araneus (sensu stricto, after GRAF et al., 1979, present also in lowland areas in Emilia-Romagna; - Crocidura suaveolens and - Suncus etruscus, present also in the southermost part of Calabria (Reggio province; - Talpa caeca, present also in the Antiapennines of Latium (Cimini mounts; - Talpa romana, present also in the middle of Tuscany; - Clethrionomys glareolus, lacking in few small, insulated areas, but present in coastal woodlands; - Microtus (Pitymys sp., apparently lacking only in some coastal areas of Toscana and Liguria, or in some Etna slopes (Linguaglossa. Riassunto Un metodo standardizzato e quantitativo di raccolta dei dati quale l'esame delle borre di rapaci consente non solo di integrare le conoscenze faunistiche, ma pure di tentare una valutazione della probabilità di assenza di un dato taxon da un'area geografica. In proposito, vengono presentati esempi originali circa Sorex minutus, Sorex araneus, Crocidura suaveolens, Suncus etruscus, Talpa caeca, Microtus (Pitymys savii e Microtus (Pitymys multiplex in Italia peninsulare.

  15. The Stephen H. Long Expedition (1819?1820), Titian R. Peale?s field illustrations, and the lost holotypes of the North American shrews Sorex brevicaudus Say and Sorex parvus Say (Mammalia: Soricidae) from the Philadelphia Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, N.

    2009-01-01

    While encamped for the winter of 1819?1820 at Engineer Cantonment along the Missouri River in present-day eastern Nebraska, members of Major Stephen Harriman Long?s Expedition to the Rocky Mountains collected a number of animals that were previously unknown. Among the mammals were two soricids that were subsequently described by Thomas Say as Sorex brevicaudus (Northern Short-tailed Shrew, Blarina brevicauda) and Sorex parvus (Least Shrew, Cryptotis parvus). The holotypes of these species were deposited and placed on public exhibit in the Philadelphia Museum, the predominant North American systematic collection of the early nineteenth century. Like most private museums of that era, the Philadelphia Museum eventually went out of business, and its collections were dispersed and, for the most part, lost. Fortunately, Titian R. Peale made a detailed field sketch of the two specimens soon after their capture and subsequently executed a watercolor based on that sketch. In addition, an engraving of the holotypes was published in the decade following the discovery of the two species. Illustrations of holotypes are taxonomically useful when they depict diagnostic characters of species. They take on added taxonomic significance in the absence of the holotypes. In the cases of Sorex brevicaudus and Sorex parvus, pictures provide strong confirmation of the taxonomic identities of these two species, as well as recording the early history of the specimens.

  16. Synaptonemal complex analysis of interracial hybrids between the Moscow and Neroosa chromosomal races of the common shrew Sorex araneus showing regular formation of a complex meiotic configuration (ring-of-four).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveevsky, Sergey N; Pavlova, Svetlana V; Maret M Acaeva; Oxana L Kolomiets

    2012-01-01

    Immunocytochemical and electron microscopic analysis of synaptonemal complexes (SCs) was carried out for the first time in homozygotes and complex Robertsonian heterozygotes (hybrids) of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, from a newly discovered hybrid zone between the Moscow and the Neroosa chromosomal races. These races differ in four monobrachial homologous metacentrics, and closed SC tetravalent is expected to be formed in meiosis of a hybrid. Indeed, such a multivalent was found at meiotic prophase I in hybrids. Interactions between multivalent and both autosomes and/or the sex chromosomes were observed. For the first time we have used immunocytochemical techniques to analyse asynapsis in Sorex araneus and show that the multivalent pairs in an orderly fashion with complete synapsis. Despite some signs of spermatocytes arrested in the meiotic prophase I, hybrids had large number of active sperm. Thus, Moscow - Neroosa hybrid males that form a ring-of-four meiotic configuration are most likely not sterile. Our results support previous demonstrations that monobrachial homology of metacentrics of the common shrew does not lead to complete reproductive isolation between parapatric chromosomal races of the species.

  17. Synaptonemal complex analysis of interracial hybrids between the Moscow and Neroosa chromosomal races of the common shrew Sorex araneus showing regular formation of a complex meiotic configuration (ring-of-four

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Matveevsky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Immunocytochemical and electron microscopic analysis of synaptonemal complexes (SCs was carried out for the first time in homozygotes and complex Robertsonian heterozygotes (hybrids of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, from a newly discovered hybrid zone between the Moscow and the Neroosa chromosomal races. These races differ in four monobrachial homologous metacentrics, and closed SC tetravalent is expected to be formed in meiosis of a hybrid. Indeed, such a multivalent was found at meiotic prophase I in hybrids. Interactions between multivalent and both autosomes and/or the sex chromosomes were observed. For the first time we have used immunocytochemical techniques to analyse asynapsis in S. araneus and show that the multivalent pairs in an orderly fashion with complete synapsis. Despite some signs of spermatocytes arrested in the meiotic prophase I, hybrids had large number of active sperm. Thus, Moscow – Neroosa hybrid males that form a ring-of-four meiotic configuration are most likely not sterile. Our results support previous demonstrations that monobrachial homology of metacentrics of the common shrew does not lead to complete reproductive isolation between parapatric chromosomal races of the species.

  18. Trends in ectopic pregnancy, hydatidiform mole and miscarriage in the largest obstetrics and gynaecology hospital in China from 2003 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Lian; Du, Dan-Feng; Chen, Shang-Jie; Zheng, Sai-Hua; Lee, Arier C; Chen, Qi

    2016-05-20

    Ectopic pregnancies, miscarriages and hydatidiform moles are the major types of pathological pregnancies in the early gestations of pregnancy and constitute an important public health problem. The trends and incidences of these pathological pregnancies may vary by ethnicity and geographical regions. This has not been fully investigated in the Chinese population. In this study we retrospectively report the trends of pathological pregnancies in Chinese population. Data on 22,511 women with ectopic pregnancy, hydatidiform mole and miscarriage were collected from the largest obstetrics and gynaecology hospital in China from 2003 to 2013. Data included age at diagnosis and the annual number of women with diagnosed ectopic pregnancy, hydatidiform mole and miscarriage. The total number of ectopic pregnancy, hydatidiform mole and miscarriage was increased 3.5folds in 2013 compared to 2003. Ectopic pregnancy is the leading pathological pregnancy and miscarriage is increasing at a greater rate among the pathological pregnancies. The median age of women with hydatidiform mole at diagnosis significantly increased from 25.5 years to 29 years (p = 0.002), however the median age for other pathological pregnancies was not different between 2003 and 2013. The number of women with hydatidiform mole at diagnosis who were over 40 years old has increased. The mean maternal age is increased from 28.1 years old in 2003 to 29.4 years old in 2013 in this hospital. We speculate that the increased maternal age may contribute to the increase in these pathological pregnancies between 2003 and 2013 in China.

  19. Familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome in an adult Indian male-case report and literature review

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    Radhika C G Raj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome (FAMMMS is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by multiple melanocytic nevi, usually more than 50, and a family history of melanoma. It is known to be associated with carcinoma of pancreas and other malignancies involving gastrointestinal tract, breast, lung, larynx, and skin in the kindred. There is no published report of FAMMMS in dark-skinned individuals. We report a case of FAMMMS in a dark-skinned adult Indian male, who had multiple extensive nevi all over the body and oral mucosa; associated with malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (Marjolin′s ulcer, and carcinoma of pancreas. His father had died of carcinoma of lung and his sister had a partial phenotypic expression. The clinical presentation of the case is discussed with review of literature.

  20. Ultrastructural patterns of the flagellar axoneme in the non-motile part of the mole-cricket sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallai, R; Afzelius, B A

    1990-01-01

    The mole-cricket spermatozoon (Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa) has a motile anterior tail region and an immotile posterior region. The posterior portion appears stiff and its microtubular doublets and central singlet microtubules are swollen, apparently due to an excess of material within them. In particular, doublet number 6 is of an unusually large size. The general organization of the axoneme is also modified by a loss of dynein arms and spokes in the posterior portion. When studied by a fixation technique that involves tannic acid to outline the protein molecules and PA-TCH-Ag method for staining polysaccharides it could be seen that the microtubular doublets and accessory microtubules contain rounded globules surrounded by polysaccharides. The arrangement of protofilaments within the microtubular walls is visible both in the anterior tail region with normal doublets and in the posterior region with degenerated doublets.

  1. Reactive scattering of halogen molecules. [Angular and velocity distributions, stabilities 6. 8 to 17. 7 kcal/mole, FORTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentini, J.J.

    1976-11-01

    A study of the endoergic, bimolecular reactions of F/sub 2/ with I/sub 2/, ICl, and HI in a crossed molecular beam experiment is described. The trihalogens IIF, ClIF, and HIF were directly observed as the products of these reactions. At high collision energies a second reactive channel producing IF becomes important. Product angular and velocity distributions show that this IF does not result from a four-center exchange reaction. Measured threshold energies for the formation of IIF, ClIF, and HIF yield lower bounds to the stabilities of these molecules, with respect to the separated atoms, of 69, 81, and 96 kcal/mole, respectively. Analysis of product center-of-mass angular distributions indicates that a slightly nonlinear approach is most effective in bringing about reaction to form the stable triatomic radical. Also described is a crossed molecular beam study of the Cl + Br/sub 2/ ..-->.. BrCl + Br reaction at collision energies from 6.8 to 17.7 kcal/mole. The results indicate that this reaction has the characteristics of an exoergic reaction on an attractive potential energy surface with early energy release. Reagent translational energy is very efficiently channeled into product internal energy. At high collision energy the reaction appears to approach the spectator stripping limit. Finally, a series of computer programs which can be used to carry out the requisite data analysis for crossed molecular beam reactive scattering experiments are described. These programs recover the reactive scattering center-of-mass flux distribution from the measured angular and velocity distributions of the products.

  2. Automatic processing of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 mole fractions at the ICOS Atmosphere Thematic Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazan, Lynn; Tarniewicz, Jérôme; Ramonet, Michel; Laurent, Olivier; Abbaris, Amara

    2016-09-01

    The Integrated Carbon Observation System Atmosphere Thematic Centre (ICOS ATC) automatically processes atmospheric greenhouse gases mole fractions of data coming from sites of the ICOS network. Daily transferred raw data files are automatically processed and archived. Data are stored in the ICOS atmospheric database, the backbone of the system, which has been developed with an emphasis on the traceability of the data processing. Many data products, updated daily, explore the data through different angles to support the quality control of the dataset performed by the principal operators in charge of the instruments. The automatic processing includes calibration and water vapor corrections as described in the paper. The mole fractions calculated in near-real time (NRT) are automatically revaluated as soon as a new instrument calibration is processed or when the station supervisors perform quality control. By analyzing data from 11 sites, we determined that the average calibration corrections are equal to 1.7 ± 0.3 µmol mol-1 for CO2 and 2.8 ± 3 nmol mol-1 for CH4. These biases are important to correct to avoid artificial gradients between stations that could lead to error in flux estimates when using atmospheric inversion techniques. We also calculated that the average drift between two successive calibrations separated by 15 days amounts to ±0.05 µmol mol-1 and ±0.7 nmol mol-1 for CO2 and CH4, respectively. Outliers are generally due to errors in the instrument configuration and can be readily detected thanks to the data products provided by the ATC. Several developments are still ongoing to improve the processing, including automated spike detection and calculation of time-varying uncertainties.

  3. Spatial and temporal activity patterns of the free-living giant mole-rat (Fukomys mechowii, the largest social bathyergid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matěj Lövy

    Full Text Available Despite the considerable attention devoted to the biology of social species of African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia, knowledge is lacking about their behaviour under natural conditions. We studied activity of the largest social bathyergid, the giant mole-rat Fukomys mechowii, in its natural habitat in Zambia using radio-telemetry. We radio-tracked six individuals during three continuous 72-h sessions. Five of these individuals, including a breeding male, belonged to a single family group; the remaining female was probably a solitary disperser. The non-breeders of the family were active (i.e. outside the nest 5.8 hours per 24h-day with the activity split into 6.5 short bouts. The activity was more concentrated in the night hours, when the animals also travelled longer distances from the nest. The breeding male spent only 3.2 hours per day outside the nest, utilizing less than 20% of the whole family home range. The dispersing female displayed a much different activity pattern than the family members. Her 8.0 hours of outside-nest activity per day were split into 4.6 bouts which were twice as long as in the family non-breeders. Her activity peak in the late afternoon coincided with the temperature maximum in the depth of 10 cm (roughly the depth of the foraging tunnels. Our results suggest that the breeding individuals (at least males contribute very little to the work of the family group. Nevertheless, the amount of an individual's activity and its daily pattern are probably flexible in this species and can be modified in response to actual environmental and social conditions.

  4. Profile of Antiemetic Activity of Netupitant Alone or in Combination with Palonosetron and Dexamethasone in Ferrets and Suncus murinus (House Musk Shrew).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, John A; Ngan, Man P; Lu, Zengbing; Higgins, Guy A; Giuliano, Claudio; Lovati, Emanuela; Pietra, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced acute and delayed emesis involves the activation of multiple pathways, with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) playing a major role in the initial response. Substance P tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists can reduce emesis induced by disparate emetic challenges and therefore have a clinical utility as broad inhibitory anti-emetic drugs. In the present studies, we investigate the broad inhibitory anti-emetic profile of a relatively new NK1 receptor antagonist, netupitant, alone or in combination with the long acting 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, palonosetron, for a potential to reduce emesis in ferrets and shrews. Ferrets were pretreated with netupitant and/or palonosetron, and then administered apomorphine (0.125 mg/kg, s.c.), morphine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.), ipecacuanha (1.2 mg/kg, p.o.), copper sulfate (100 mg/kg, intragastric), or cisplatin (5-10 mg/kg, i.p.); in other studies netupitant was administered to Suncus murinus before motion (4 cm horizontal displacement, 2 Hz for 10 min). Netupitant (3 mg/kg, p.o.) abolished apomorphine-, morphine-, ipecacuanha- and copper sulfate-induced emesis. Lower doses of netupitant (0.03-0.3 mg/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently reduced cisplatin (10 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced emesis in an acute (8 h) model, and motion-induced emesis in S. murinus. In a ferret cisplatin (5 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced acute and delayed emesis model, netupitant administered once at 3 mg/kg, p.o., abolished the first 24 h response and reduced the 24-72 h response by 94.6%; the reduction was markedly superior to the effect of a three times per day administration of ondansetron (1 mg/kg, i.p.). A single administration of netupitant (1 mg/kg, p.o.) plus palonosetron (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.) combined with dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, i.p., once per day), also significantly antagonized cisplatin-induced acute and delayed emesis and was comparable with a once-daily regimen of ondansetron (1 mg/kg, p.o.) plus aprepitant (1 mg/kg, p.o.) in combination with dexamethasone

  5. Relationships among Four Learner Variables and the Performance of Selected Jamaican 11th-Graders on Some Structured Questions on the Mole Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis-Hall, Nadine; Soyibo, Kola

    2004-01-01

    This study sought to find out if (a) the performance of 113 Jamaican 11th-graders on a mole concept test was satisfactory or not; (b) there were significant differences in their performance linked to their chemical and mathematical abilities, gender and socioeconomic background (SEB); and, (c) there were significant relationships among the four…

  6. Effect of Na2O/SiO2 mole ratio on the crystal type of zeolite synthesized from coal fly ash

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vucinic, Dusica; Miljanovic, Igor; Rosic, Aleksandra; Lazic, Predrag

    2003-01-01

    .... The results showed that NaP1 zeolite is obtained when the Na2O/SiO2 mole ratio was 0.7. Hydroxysodalite is the dominant zeolite phase in modified fly ash treated with a higher Na2O concentration solution (Na2O/SiO2 = 1.3...

  7. Final report of CCQM-K129 Measurement of Mole Fractions of Cu, In, Ga and Se in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. J.; Kim, A. S.; Jang, J. S.; Suh, J. K.; Wirth, T.; Unger, W.; Hodoroaba, V.-D.; Araujo, J. R.; Archanjo, B. S.; Galhardo, C. E.; Damasceno, J.; Achete, C. A.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Bennett, J.; Simon, D.; Kurokawa, A.; Terauchi, S.; Fujimoto, T.; Streeck, C.; Beckhoff, B.; Spencer, S.; Shard, A.

    2016-01-01

    CCQM key comparison K-129 for the quantitative analysis of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) films has been performed by the Surface Analysis Working Group (SAWG) of the Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance (CCQM). The objective of this key comparison is to compare the equivalency of the National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and Designated Institutes (DIs) for the measurement of mole fractions of Cu, In, Ga and Se in a thin CIGS film. The measurand of this key comparison is the average mole fractions of Cu, In, Ga and Se of a test CIGS alloy film in the unit of mole fraction (mol/mol). Mole fraction with the metrological unit of % mol/mol can be practically converted to atomic fraction with the unit of at %. In this key comparison, a CIGS film with certified mole fractions was supplied as a reference specimen to determine the relative sensitivity factors (RSFs) of Cu, In, Ga and Se. The mole fractions of the reference specimen were certified by isotope dilution - inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID-ICP/MS). A total number counting (TNC) method was recommended as a method to determine the signal intensities of the constituent elements acquired in the depth profiles by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). Seven NMIs and one DI participated in this key comparison. The mole fractions of the CIGS films were measured by depth profiling based-SIMS, AES and XPS. In this key comparison, the average degrees of equivalence uncertainties for Cu, In, Ga and Se are 0.0093 mol/mol, 0.0123 mol/mol, 0.0047 mol/mol and 0.0228 mol/mol, respectively. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  8. Effects of laboratory housing on exploratory behaviour, novelty discrimination and spatial reference memory in a subterranean, solitary rodent, the Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kathleen Oosthuizen

    Full Text Available A large number of laboratory and field based studies are being carried out on mole-rats, both in our research group and others. Several studies have highlighted the development of adverse behaviours in laboratory animals and have emphasised the importance of enrichment for captive animals. Hence we were interested in evaluating how laboratory housing would affect behavioural performance in mole-rats. We investigated exploratory behaviour, the ability to discriminate between novel and familiar environments and reference memory in the solitary Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis. Our data showed that both wild and captive animals readily explore open spaces and tunnels. Wild animals were however more active than their captive counterparts. In the Y maze two trial discrimination task, wild animals failed to discriminate between novel and familiar environments, while laboratory housed mole-rats showed preferential spatial discrimination in terms of the length of time spent in the novel arm. The performance of the laboratory and wild animals were similar when tested for reference memory in the Y maze, both groups showed a significant improvement compared to the first day, from the 3rd day onwards. Wild animals made more mistakes whereas laboratory animals were slower in completing the task. The difference in performance between wild and laboratory animals in the Y-maze may be as a result of the lower activity of the laboratory animals. Laboratory maintained Cape mole-rats show classic behaviours resulting from a lack of stimulation such as reduced activity and increased aggression. However, they do display an improved novelty discrimination compared to the wild animals. Slower locomotion rate of the laboratory animals may increase the integration time of stimuli, hence result in a more thorough inspection of the surroundings. Unlike the captive animals, wild animals show flexibility in their responses to unpredictable events, which is an important

  9. Effects of laboratory housing on exploratory behaviour, novelty discrimination and spatial reference memory in a subterranean, solitary rodent, the Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, Maria Kathleen; Scheibler, Anne-Gita; Bennett, Nigel Charles; Amrein, Irmgard

    2013-01-01

    A large number of laboratory and field based studies are being carried out on mole-rats, both in our research group and others. Several studies have highlighted the development of adverse behaviours in laboratory animals and have emphasised the importance of enrichment for captive animals. Hence we were interested in evaluating how laboratory housing would affect behavioural performance in mole-rats. We investigated exploratory behaviour, the ability to discriminate between novel and familiar environments and reference memory in the solitary Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis). Our data showed that both wild and captive animals readily explore open spaces and tunnels. Wild animals were however more active than their captive counterparts. In the Y maze two trial discrimination task, wild animals failed to discriminate between novel and familiar environments, while laboratory housed mole-rats showed preferential spatial discrimination in terms of the length of time spent in the novel arm. The performance of the laboratory and wild animals were similar when tested for reference memory in the Y maze, both groups showed a significant improvement compared to the first day, from the 3rd day onwards. Wild animals made more mistakes whereas laboratory animals were slower in completing the task. The difference in performance between wild and laboratory animals in the Y-maze may be as a result of the lower activity of the laboratory animals. Laboratory maintained Cape mole-rats show classic behaviours resulting from a lack of stimulation such as reduced activity and increased aggression. However, they do display an improved novelty discrimination compared to the wild animals. Slower locomotion rate of the laboratory animals may increase the integration time of stimuli, hence result in a more thorough inspection of the surroundings. Unlike the captive animals, wild animals show flexibility in their responses to unpredictable events, which is an important requirement under

  10. Development of a melanoma risk prediction model incorporating MC1R genotype and indoor tanning exposure: impact of mole phenotype on model performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A Penn

    Full Text Available Identifying individuals at increased risk for melanoma could potentially improve public health through targeted surveillance and early detection. Studies have separately demonstrated significant associations between melanoma risk, melanocortin receptor (MC1R polymorphisms, and indoor ultraviolet light (UV exposure. Existing melanoma risk prediction models do not include these factors; therefore, we investigated their potential to improve the performance of a risk model.Using 875 melanoma cases and 765 controls from the population-based Minnesota Skin Health Study we compared the predictive ability of a clinical melanoma risk model (Model A to an enhanced model (Model F using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. Model A used self-reported conventional risk factors including mole phenotype categorized as "none", "few", "some" or "many" moles. Model F added MC1R genotype and measures of indoor and outdoor UV exposure to Model A. We also assessed the predictive ability of these models in subgroups stratified by mole phenotype (e.g. nevus-resistant ("none" and "few" moles and nevus-prone ("some" and "many" moles.Model A (the reference model yielded an area under the ROC curve (AUC of 0.72 (95% CI = 0.69, 0.74. Model F was improved with an AUC = 0.74 (95% CI = 0.71-0.76, p<0.01. We also observed substantial variations in the AUCs of Models A & F when examined in the nevus-prone and nevus-resistant subgroups.These results demonstrate that adding genotypic information and environmental exposure data can increase the predictive ability of a clinical melanoma risk model, especially among nevus-prone individuals.

  11. Dental peculiarities in the silvery mole-rat: an original model for studying the evolutionary and biological origins of continuous dental generation in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Gomes Rodrigues

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Unravelling the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms that have impacted the mammalian dentition, since more than 200 Ma, is an intricate issue. Interestingly, a few mammal species, including the silvery mole-rat Heliophobius argenteocinereus, are able to replace their dentition by the addition of supernumerary molars at the back of jaw migrating then toward the front. The aim here was to demonstrate the potential interest of further studying this rodent in order to better understand the origins of continuous dental replacement in mammals, which could also provide interesting data concerning the evolution of limited dental generation occurring in first mammals. In the present study, we described the main stages of the dental eruptive sequence in the silvery mole-rat and the associated characteristics of horizontal replacement using X-ray microtomography. This was coupled to the investigation of other African mole-rats which have no dental replacement. This method permitted to establish evidence that the initial development of the dentition in Heliophobius is comparable to what it is observed in most of African mole-rats. This rodent first has premolars, but then identical additional molars, a mechanism convergent to manatees and the pygmy rock-wallaby. Evidence of continuous replacement and strong dental dynamics were also illustrated in Heliophobius, and stressed the need to deeply investigate these aspects for evolutionary, functional and developmental purposes. We also noticed that two groups of extinct non-mammalian synapsids convergently acquired this dental mechanism, but in a way differing from extant mammals. The discussion on the diverse evolutionary origins of horizontal dental replacement put emphasis on the necessity of focusing on biological parameters potentially involved in both continuous and limited developments of teeth in mammals. In that context, the silvery mole-rat could appear as the most appropriate candidate to do so.

  12. Pronounced cancer resistance in a subterranean rodent, the blind mole-rat, Spalax: in vivo and in vitro evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manov, Irena; Hirsh, Mark; Iancu, Theodore C; Malik, Assaf; Sotnichenko, Nick; Band, Mark; Avivi, Aaron; Shams, Imad

    2013-08-09

    Subterranean blind mole rats (Spalax) are hypoxia tolerant (down to 3% O2), long lived (>20 years) rodents showing no clear signs of aging or aging related disorders. In 50 years of Spalax research, spontaneous tumors have never been recorded among thousands of individuals. Here we addressed the questions of (1) whether Spalax is resistant to chemically-induced tumorigenesis, and (2) whether normal fibroblasts isolated from Spalax possess tumor-suppressive activity. Treating animals with 3-Methylcholantrene (3MCA) and 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a) anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (DMBA/TPA), two potent carcinogens, confirmed Spalax high resistance to chemically induced cancers. While all mice and rats developed the expected tumors following treatment with both carcinogens, among Spalax no tumors were observed after DMBA/TPA treatment, while 3MCA induced benign fibroblastic proliferation in 2 Spalax individuals out of12, and only a single animal from the advanced age group developed malignancy 18 months post-treatment. The remaining animals are still healthy 30 months post-treatment. In vitro experiments showed an extraordinary ability of normal Spalax cultured fibroblasts to restrict malignant behavior in a broad spectrum of human-derived and in newly isolated Spalax 3MCA-induced cancer cell lines. Growth of cancer cells was inhibited by either direct interaction with Spalax fibroblasts or with soluble factors released into culture media and soft agar. This was accompanied by decreased cancer cell viability, reduced colony formation in soft agar, disturbed cell cycle progression, chromatin condensation and mitochondrial fragmentation. Cells from another cancer resistant subterranean mammal, the naked mole rat, were also tested for direct effect on cancer cells and, similar to Spalax, demonstrated anti-cancer activity. No effect on cancer cells was observed using fibroblasts from mouse, rat or Acomys. Spalax fibroblast conditioned media had no effect on

  13. Mola hidatiforme completa e eclâmpsia: relato de caso Complete hydatidiform mole and eclampsia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izildinha Maestá

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de pré-eclâmpsia ou eclâmpsia antes da 20ª semana deve levar à suspeita de mola hidatiforme. Descrevemos um caso de mola hidatiforme completa (MHC e eclâmpsia concomitante em paciente com 20 anos que apresentava sangramento genital, anemia, tamanho uterino excessivo e cistos de ovário, associados a hipertensão arterial e proteinúria. Os níveis de b-hCG estavam elevados e a função tiroidiana, alterada. A ultra-sonografia mostrou-se compatível com MHC. Após o esvaziamento uterino apresentou cefaléia e alterações visuais, seguidas por convulsões tônico-clônicas que cessaram com sulfato de magnésio hepta-hidratado a 50%. No seguimento pós-molar foi diagnosticado tumor trofoblástico gestacional (TTG prontamente tratado com quimioterapia. A associação de MHC e eclâmpsia determina esvaziamento uterino imediato e seguimento pós-molar rigoroso, pelo risco aumentado de desenvolvimento de TTG.Development of preeclampsia/eclampsia prior to 20 weeks of pregnancy should raise the suspicion of hydatidiform mole. We report a case of complete hydatidiform mole (CHM concurrent with eclampsia in a 20-year-old patient with vaginal bleeding, anemia, large uterine size, and ovary cysts associated with hypertension and proteinuria. Plasmatic b-hCG levels were high and there was abnormal thyroid function. The ultrasonographic findings were compatible with CHM. After uterine evacuation, the patient had headache and visual alterations, followed by tonic-clonic seizures, which ceased with the administration of 50% magnesium sulfate. At post-molar follow-up, a gestational trophoblastic tumor (GTT was diagnosed and promptly treated with chemotherapy. Association between CHM and eclampsia requires immediate uterine evacuation and strict post-molar follow-up, due to increased risk of GTT development.

  14. Thapsigargin-induced activation of Ca(2+)-CaMKII-ERK in brainstem contributes to substance P release and induction of emesis in the least shrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Weixia; Chebolu, Seetha; Darmani, Nissar A

    2016-04-01

    Cytoplasmic calcium (Ca(2+)) mobilization has been proposed to be an important factor in the induction of emesis. The selective sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) inhibitor thapsigargin, is known to deplete intracellular Ca(2+) stores, which consequently evokes extracellular Ca(2+) entry through cell membrane-associated channels, accompanied by a prominent rise in cytosolic Ca(2+). A pro-drug form of thapsigargin is currently under clinical trial as a targeted cancer chemotherapeutic. We envisioned that the intracellular effects of thapsigargin could cause emesis and planned to investigate its mechanisms of emetic action. Indeed, thapsigargin did induce vomiting in the least shrew in a dose-dependent and bell-shaped manner, with maximal efficacy (100%) at 0.5 mg/kg (i.p.). Thapsigargin (0.5 mg/kg) also caused increases in c-Fos immunoreactivity in the brainstem emetic nuclei including the area postrema (AP), nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNX), as well as enhancement of substance P (SP) immunoreactivity in DMNX. In addition, thapsigargin (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) led to vomit-associated and time-dependent increases in phosphorylation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase IIα (CaMKIIα) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in the brainstem. We then explored the suppressive potential of diverse chemicals against thapsigargin-evoked emesis including antagonists of: i) neurokinin-1 receptors (netupitant), ii) the type 3 serotonin receptors (palonosetron), iii) store-operated Ca(2+) entry (YM-58483), iv) L-type Ca(2+) channels (nifedipine), and v) SER Ca(2+)-release channels inositol trisphosphate (IP3Rs) (2-APB)-, and ryanodine (RyRs) (dantrolene)-receptors. In addition, the antiemetic potential of inhibitors of CaMKII (KN93) and ERK1/2 (PD98059) were investigated. All tested antagonists/blockers attenuated emetic parameters to varying degrees except palonosetron, however a combination of non

  15. Profile of Antiemetic Activity of Netupitant Alone or in Combination with Palonosetron and Dexamethasone in Ferrets and Suncus murinus (house musk shrew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Rudd

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Chemotherapy-induced acute and delayed emesis involves the activation of multiple pathways, with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin playing a major role in the initial response. Substance P tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists can reduce emesis induced by disparate emetic challenges and therefore have a clinical utility as broad inhibitory anti-emetic drugs. In the present studies, we investigate the broad inhibitory anti-emetic profile of a relatively new NK1 receptor antagonist, netupitant, alone or in combination with the long acting 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, palonosetron, for a potential to reduce emesis in ferrets and shrews.Materials and Methods: Ferrets were pretreated with netupitant and/or palonosetron, or their combination, and then administered apomorphine (0.125 mg/kg, s.c., morphine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c., ipecacuanha (1.2 mg/kg, p.o., copper sulphate (100 mg/kg, intragastric, or cisplatin (5-10 mg/kg, i.p.; in other studies netupitant was administered to Suncus murinus before motion (4 cm horizontal displacement, 2 Hz for 10 min.Results: Netupitant (3 mg/kg, p.o. abolished apomorphine-, morphine-, ipecacuanha- and copper sulphate-induced emesis. Lower doses of netupitant (0.03-0.3 mg/kg, p.o. dose-dependently reduced cisplatin (10 mg/kg, i.p.-induced emesis in an acute (8 h model, and motion-induced emesis in Suncus murinus. In a ferret cisplatin (5 mg/kg, i.p.-induced acute and delayed emesis model, netupitant administered once at 3 mg/kg, p.o., abolished the first 24 h response and reduced the 24-72 h response by 94.6 %; the reduction was markedly superior to the effect of a three times per day administration of ondansetron (1 mg/kg, i.p.. A single administration of netupitant (1 mg/kg, p.o. plus palonosetron (0.1 mg/kg, p.o. combined with dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, i.p., once per day, also significantly antagonized cisplatin-induced acute and delayed emesis and was comparable with a once-daily regimen of

  16. Flow Cytometric DNA Analysis and Histopathologic Re-Evaluation of Paraffin Embedded Samples from Hydatidiform Moles and Hydropic Abortions

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    Narges Izadi-Mood

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Distinction of hydatidiform moles (HMs from non-molar abortions and sub-classification of HMs are important for clinical practice; yet, diagnosis based solely on morphology is affected by interobserver variability. The objective of this study was to determine the role of DNA flow cytometry in distinguishing molar from non-molar pregnancies. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Pathology, Women’s Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, between 2006 and 2010. DNA ploidy analysis and histopathologic re-evaluation were performed on paraffin-embedded tissue from 36 (17 complete and 19 partial molar and 24 hydropic abortus (HA cases which were previously diagnosed based on histomorphologic study. Results: Of the 17 cases initially diagnosed as complete HM (CHM, 9 were diploid, 2 were triploid, 5 were tetraploid and 1 was aneuploid. Of the 19 initial partial HMs (PHMs, 2, 8, 1 and 8 cases were diploid, triploid, tetraploid and aneuploid, respectively. In the initial HA category (n=24, 14 diploid, 1 triploid, 5 tetraploid, and 4 aneuploid cases existed. Following flow cytometry and histopathologic reevaluation, 1 case with previous diagnosis of HA was reclassified as PHM, 2 initial PHMs were reclassified as CHM and 2 initial CHMs were categorized as PHM. Conclusion: The results show that correct diagnosis of PMH is the main challenge in histological diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD. DNA flow cytometric analysis could be an informative supplement to the histological interpretation of molar and hydropic placentas.

  17. Recurrent hydatidiform mole: A case report of six consecutive molar pregnancies complicated by choriocarcinoma, and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlam A Al-Ghamdi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatidiform mole (HM is the most common form of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Recurrence of HM is extremely rare. Here, we report the case of a patient with six consecutive partial HMs without normal pregnancy. A 42-year-old lady who was referred to us at King Fahad Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, initially as a case of 26-year-old with persistent trophoblastic disease after three recurrent molar pregnancies that were confirmed histologically in the referring hospital. She underwent evacuation and curettage and was followed up by serial β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels, and did not require chemotherapy. She then had three more molar pregnancies in 1995, 1996, and 2004; all molar pregnancies were evacuated by suction curettage at her base hospital, but in the last event, she complained of shortness of breath and abdominal pain. Diagnostic workup in our hospital confirmed choriocarcinoma, for which she received multiple regimen chemotherapy and was cured. Unfortunately, she lately presented with symptoms suggestive of premature menopause.

  18. The complete nucleotide sequence and gene organization of the mitochondrial genome of the oriental mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Iksoo; Cha, So Young; Yoon, Myung Hee; Hwang, Jae Sam; Lee, Sang Mong; Sohn, Hung Dae; Jin, Byung Rae

    2005-07-04

    The complete nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the oriental mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae), were determined. The 15,521-bp-long G. orientalis mitogenome contains typical gene complement, base composition, and codon usage found in metazoan mitogenomes. The G. orientalis mitogenome contains the third lowest A+T content (70.5%) among the complete insects mt genome sequences. The initiation codon for the G. orientalis COI gene appears to be ATG, instead of the tetranucleotides, which have been postulated to act as initiation codon for Locusta migratoria and some lepidopteran COI genes. The initiation codon for ND2 appears to be GTG, which is rare, but has been designated as an initiator of Tricholepidion gertschi ND2. All anticodons of G. orientalis tRNAs were identical to Drosophila yakuba and L. migratoria. The tRNA(Ser)(AGN) could not form a stable stem loop structure in the DHU arm as shown in many other insect tRNA(Ser)(AGN). Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequence information from all mt genes supported a monophyletic Diptera, a monophyletic Lepidoptera, a monophyletic Coleoptera, a monophyletic Mecopterida (Diptera+Lepidoptera), and a monophyletic Endopterygota (Diptera+Lepidoptera+Coleoptera), suggesting that the complete insect mitogenome sequence has a resolving power to the diversification events within Endopterygota. However, the relationships of ancient insect orders were unstable, indicating the limited use of mitogenome information at deeper phylogenetic depth.

  19. Effect of Na{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} mole ratio on the crystal type of zeolite synthesized from coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusica Vucinic; Igor Miljanovic; Aleksandra Rosic; Predrag Lazic

    2003-07-01

    Coal fly ash was modified to zeolitic materials by hydrothermal treatment at 90{sup o}C. The zeolite synthesis was studied as a function of the mole ratio of Na{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} in the reaction mixtures. The results showed that NaP1 zeolite is obtained when the Na{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} mole ratio was 0.7. Hydroxysodalite is the dominant zeolite phase in modified fly ash treated with a higher Na{sub 2}O concentration solution (Na{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} = 1.3). The IR and XRD methods were used to determine the phases present in the starting sample and in the zeolitic materials.

  20. Effect of Na2O/SiO2 mole ratio on the crystal type of zeolite synthesized from coal fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PREDRAG LAZIC

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Coal fly ash was modified to zeolitic materials by hydrothermal treatment at 90ºC. The zeolite synthesis was studied as a function of the mole ratio of Na2O/SiO2 in the reaction mixtures. The results showed that NaP1 zeolite is obtained when the Na2O/SiO2 mole ratio was 0.7. Hydroxysodalite is the dominant zeolite phase in modified fly ash treated with a higher Na2O concentration solution (Na2O/SiO2 = 1.3. The IR and XRD methods were used to determine the phases present in the starting sample and in the zeolitic materials.

  1. Comparative gastrointestinal morphology of Tachyoryctes splendens (Rüppell, 1835) and Heliophobius emini, (Noack, 1894) two species of East African mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahd, Lauren; Pereira, Daniella L; Bennett, Nigel C; Kotzé, Sanet H

    2017-06-01

    Tachyoryctes splendens (Northeast African mole-rat) and Heliophobius emini (Emin's mole-rat) are two African mole-rats that represent separate allopatric rodent families namely Spalacidae and Bathyergidae respectively. While these species consume a similar diet of underground plant storage organs such as roots and tubers, T. splendens has been reported to additionally consume small amounts of aerial foliage. This study aims to provide detailed gross morphological and histological morphometric analyses of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of these two subterranean species. The formalin fixed gastrointestinal tracts of T. splendens (n = 9) and H. emini (n = 6) were photographed, weighed and measured. The length and basal surface areas were calculated for each anatomically distinct region. Representative histological samples were prepared and stained using Hematoxylin and Eosin. Microscopic luminal measurements were used to calculate a surface enlargement factor and the luminal surface area of each region. Tachyoryctes splendens had a large double chambered hemi-glandular stomach with a macroscopically visible transition from keratinized stratified squamous epithelium to glandular epithelium. The cecum was large and the luminal surface revealed a single spiral fold. The ascending colon of T. splendens was arranged in a spiral, with two centripetal and two centrifugal windings. The descending colon was arranged in a single parallel loop, similar to H. emini. A narrow colonic groove was accompanied by V-shaped folds on either side. Heliophobius emini had a simple glandular stomach, a large, haustrated cecum that displayed a cecal appendix and the descending colon was arranged in a single parallel loop. The internal aspect of the colon revealed a wide colonic groove extending from the ceco-colic junction to distal colon. As both species originate from a similar geographical region and ingest very similar diets, it is likely that the differences in the GIT

  2. Numerical Investigation of the Effect of C/O Mole Ratio on the Performance of Rotary Hearth Furnace Using a Combined Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wen, Zhi; Lou, Guofeng; Li, Zhi; Yong, Haiquan; Feng, Xiaohong

    2014-12-01

    In a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) the direct reduction of composite pellets and processes of heat and mass transfer as well as combustion in the chamber of RHF influence each other. These mutual interactions should be considered when an accurate model of RHF is established. This paper provides a combined model that incorporates two sub-models to investigate the effects of C/O mole ratio in the feed pellets on the reduction kinetics and heat and mass transfer as well as combustion processes in the chamber of a pilot-scale RHF. One of the sub-models is established to describe the direct reduction process of composite pellets on the hearth of RHF. Heat and mass transfer within the pellet, chemical reactions, and radiative heat transfer from furnace walls and combustion gas to the surface of the pellet are considered in the model. The other sub-model is used to simulate gas flow and combustion process in the chamber of RHF by using commercial CFD software, FLUENT. The two sub-models were linked through boundary conditions and heat, mass sources. Cases for pellets with different C/O mole ratio were calculated by the combined model. The calculation results showed that the degree of metallization, the total amounts of carbon monoxide escaping from the pellet, and heat absorbed by chemical reactions within the pellet as well as CO and CO2 concentrations in the furnace increase with the increase of C/O mole ratio ranging from 0.6 to 1.0, when calculation conditions are the same except for C/O molar ratio. Carbon content in the pellet has little influence on temperature distribution in the furnace under the same calculation conditions except for C/O mole ratio in the feed pellets.

  3. The long gestation of the small naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber Ruppell, 1842 studied with ultrasound biomicroscopy and 3D-ultrasonography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Roellig

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber is one of the two known mammalian species that live in a eusocial population structure. Here we investigate the exceptionally long gestation period of 70 days observed in the mole-rat queen. The course of seven successful pregnancies in two individuals was recorded in a colony of captive naked mole-rats using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM and 3D-ultrasonography. We establish a catalogue of basic reference ultrasound data for this species by describing the ultrasonographic appearance of reproductive organs, calculating growth curves to predict gestational age and defining ultrasonographic milestones to characterize pregnancy stages. Mean litter size was 10.9±2.7, of which 7.2±1.5 survived the weaning period. Mean interbirth interval was 128.8±63.0 days. The reproductive success in our colony did not differ from previously published data. In the queen the active corpora lutea had an anechoic, fluid filled centre. Using UBM, pregnancy could be detected 53 days before parturition. The period of embryonic development is assumed to last until 30 days before parturition. Embryonic resorptions were detected frequently in the queen, indicating that this might be an ordinary event in this species. We discuss the extraordinary long gestation period of this small rodent and postulate that the long gestation is beneficial to both the eusocial structure and longevity. An increased litter size, twice as large as for other rodents of similar size, seemingly compensates for the doubling of pregnancy length. We demonstrate that the lifetime reproductive effort of a naked mole-rat queen is equivalent to the mass of offspring that would be produced if all of the females of a colony would be reproducing.

  4. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijun; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang; Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen

    2016-01-01

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H2O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm(-1) (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm(-1) (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.

  5. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijun; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang; Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen

    2016-01-01

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H2O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm-1 (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm-1 (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.

  6. [Molecular variability in the commom shrew Sorex araneus L. from European Russia and Siberia inferred from the length polymorphism of DNA regions flanked by short interspersed elements (Inter-SINE PCR) and the relationships between the Moscow and Seliger chromosome races].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannikova, A A; Bulatova, N Sh; Kramerov, D A

    2006-06-01

    Genetic exchange among chromosomal races of the common shrew Sorex araneus and the problem of reproductive barriers have been extensively studied by means of such molecular markers as mtDNA, microsatellites, and allozymes. In the present study, the interpopulation and interracial polymorphism in the common shrew was derived, using fingerprints generated by amplified DNA regions flanked by short interspersed repeats (SINEs)-interSINE PCR (IS-PCR). We used primers, complementary to consensus sequences of two short retroposons: mammalian element MIR and the SOR element from the genome of Sorex araneus. Genetic differentiation among eleven populations of the common shrew from eight chromosome races was estimated. The NP and MJ analyses, as well as multidimensional scaling showed that all samples examined grouped into two main clusters, corresponding to European Russia and Siberia. The bootstrap support of the European Russia cluster in the NJ and MP analyses was respectively 76 and 61%. The bootstrap index for the Siberian cluster was 100% in both analyses; the Tomsk race, included into this cluster, was separated with the bootstrap support of NJ/MP 92/95%.

  7. Long-term analysis of carbon dioxide and methane column-averaged mole fractions retrieved from SCIAMACHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Schneising

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 are the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT (launch 2002 was the first and is now with TANSO onboard GOSAT (launch 2009 one of only two satellite instruments currently in space whose measurements are sensitive to CO2 and CH4 concentration changes in the lowest atmospheric layers where the variability due to sources and sinks is largest.

    We present long-term SCIAMACHY retrievals (2003–2009 of column-averaged dry air mole fractions of both gases (denoted XCO2 and XCH4 derived from absorption bands in the near-infrared/shortwave-infrared (NIR/SWIR spectral region focusing on large-scale features. The results are obtained using an upgraded version (v2 of the retrieval algorithm WFM-DOAS including several improvements, while simultaneously maintaining its high processing speed. The retrieved mole fractions are compared to global model simulations (CarbonTracker XCO2 and TM5 XCH4 being optimised by assimilating highly accurate surface measurements from the NOAA/ESRL network and taking the SCIAMACHY averaging kernels into account. The comparisons address seasonal variations and long-term characteristics.

    The steady increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide primarily caused by the burning of fossil fuels can be clearly observed with SCIAMACHY globally. The retrieved global annual mean XCO2 increase agrees with CarbonTracker within the error bars (1.80±0.13 ppm yr−1 compared to 1.81±0.09 ppm yr−1. The amplitude of the XCO2 seasonal cycle as retrieved by SCIAMACHY, which is 4.3±0.2 ppm for the Northern Hemisphere and 1.4±0.2 ppm for the Southern Hemisphere, is on average about 1 ppm larger than for CarbonTracker.

    An investigation of the boreal forest carbon uptake during the

  8. An energy stable evolution method for simulating two-phase equilibria of multi-component fluids at constant moles, volume and temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2016-02-25

    In this paper, we propose an energy-stable evolution method for the calculation of the phase equilibria under given volume, temperature, and moles (VT-flash). An evolution model for describing the dynamics of two-phase fluid system is based on Fick’s law of diffusion for multi-component fluids and the Peng-Robinson equation of state. The mobility is obtained from diffusion coefficients by relating the gradient of chemical potential to the gradient of molar density. The evolution equation for moles of each component is derived using the discretization of diffusion equations, while the volume evolution equation is constructed based on the mechanical mechanism and the Peng-Robinson equation of state. It is proven that the proposed evolution system can well model the VT-flash problem, and moreover, it possesses the property of total energy decay. By using the Euler time scheme to discretize this evolution system, we develop an energy stable algorithm with an adaptive choice strategy of time steps, which allows us to calculate the suitable time step size to guarantee the physical properties of moles and volumes, including positivity, maximum limits, and correct definition of the Helmhotz free energy function. The proposed evolution method is also proven to be energy-stable under the proposed time step choice. Numerical examples are tested to demonstrate efficiency and robustness of the proposed method.

  9. Effect of SiO2/Na2O mole ratio on the properties of foam geopolymers fabricated from circulating fluidized bed fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze; Shao, Ning-ning; Huang, Tian-yong; Qin, Jun-feng; Wang, Dong-min; Yang, Yu

    2014-06-01

    Geopolymers are three-dimensional aluminosilicates formed in a short time at low temperature by geopolymerization. In this paper, alkali-activated foam geopolymers were fabricated from circulating fluidized bed fly ash (CFA), and the effect of SiO2/Na2O mole ratio (0.91-1.68) on their properties was studied. Geopolymerization products were characterized by mechanical testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that SiO2/Na2O mole ratio plays an important role in the mechanical and morphological characteristics of geopolymers. Foam samples prepared in 28 d with a SiO2/Na2O mole ratio of 1.42 exhibit the greatest compressive strength of 2.52 MPa. Morphological analysis reveals that these foam geopolymers appear the relatively optimized pore structure and distribution, which are beneficial to the structure stability. Moreover, a combination of the Si/Al atomic ratio ranging between 1.47 and 1.94 with the Na/Al atomic ratio of about 1 produces the samples with high strength.

  10. Semen analysis by electron and fluorescence microscopy in a case of partial hydatidiform mole reveals a high incidence of abnormal morphology, diploidy, and tetraploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzimeletiou, Katerina; Sioga, Antonia; Oikonomou, Louisa; Charalampidou, Sophia; Kantartzi, Persa; Zournatzi, Vasiliki; Panidis, Dimitrios; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Papadimas, Ioannis; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2011-06-01

    To perform a highly detailed semen analysis in a man whose wife had a partial mole. Case report. Gynecology departments of two university hospitals and a laboratory of histology/embryology. A 32-year-old man whose wife had a partial mole. Sperm characteristics were examined by light microscopy, morphology was analysed by electron microscopy (TEM), DNA fragmentation was evaluated by TUNEL using fluorescence microscopy, and chromosomal abnormalities were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization using probes for chromosomes 13, 15, 16, 18, 21, 22, X, and Y. Sperm count, motility, morphology, DNA fragmentation, and incidence of diploidy, tetraploidy, and aneuploidy. Sperm concentration was 61 million/mL, with 31% progressive motility and 4% normal morphology. TEM revealed a high incidence of head, neck, and tail abnormalities as well as the presence of phagocytes. DNA fragmentation was within normal limits (11.6%). Aneuploidy levels were low for all chromosomes tested. However, there was a high level of diploidy, with XY, XX, and YY constitution. Tetraploid sperm (XXYY) were also noted. Semen analysis revealed a high incidence of abnormal morphology and increased diploidy. It may be important to perform FISH testing, to verify increased diploidy in sperm, in men whose wives have had partial moles. These couples could be informed of the option to have preimplantation genetic diagnosis as a means to distinguish between diploid and triploid embryos arising from fertilization of a haploid egg by diploid sperm. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Seismic communication signals in the blind mole-rat (Spalax ehrenbergi): electrophysiological and behavioral evidence for their processing by the auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado, R; Terkel, J; Wollberg, Z

    1998-10-01

    Based on morphological and behavioral findings we suggest that the seismic vibratory signals that blind mole-rats (Spalax ehrenbergi) use for intraspecific communication are picked up from the substrate by bone conduction and processed by the auditory system. An alternative hypothesis, raised by others, suggest that these signals are processed by the somatosensory system. We show here that brain stem and middle latency responses evoked by vibrations are similar to those evoked by high-intensity airborne clicks but are larger in their amplitudes, especially when the lower jaw is in close contact with the vibrating substrate. Bilateral deafening of the mole-rat or high-intensity masking noise almost completely eliminated these responses. Deafening also gradually reduced head-drumming behavior until its complete elimination about 4-6 weeks after surgery. Successive vibrations, at a rate of 0.5 vibrations/s, elicited prominent responses. At rates higher than 2 vibrations/s the amplitude of the brain stem response did not change, yet the middle latency response disappeared almost completely. It is concluded that the seismic signals that mole rate use for long distance communication are indeed processed primarily by the auditory system.

  12. Adaptive patterns in the p53 protein sequence of the hypoxia- and cancer-tolerant blind mole rat Spalax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domankevich, Vered; Opatowsky, Yarden; Malik, Assaf; Korol, Abraham B; Frenkel, Zeev; Manov, Irena; Avivi, Aaron; Shams, Imad

    2016-09-02

    The subterranean blind mole rat, Spalax (genus Nannospalax) endures extreme hypoxic conditions and fluctuations in oxygen levels that threaten DNA integrity. Nevertheless, Spalax is long-lived, does not develop spontaneous cancer, and exhibits an outstanding resistance to carcinogenesis in vivo, as well as anti-cancer capabilities in vitro. We hypothesized that adaptations to similar extreme environmental conditions involve common mechanisms for overcoming stress-induced DNA damage. Therefore, we aimed to identify shared features among species that are adapted to hypoxic stress in the sequence of the tumor-suppressor protein p53, a master regulator of the DNA-damage response (DDR). We found that the sequences of p53 transactivation subdomain 2 (TAD2) and tetramerization and regulatory domains (TD and RD) are more similar among hypoxia-tolerant species than expected from phylogeny. Specific positions in these domains composed patterns that are more frequent in hypoxia-tolerant species and have proven to be good predictors of species' classification into stress-related categories. Some of these positions, which are known to be involved in the interactions between p53 and critical DDR proteins, were identified as positively selected. By 3D modeling of p53 interactions with the coactivator p300 and the DNA repair protein RPA70, we demonstrated that, compared to humans, these substitutions potentially reduce the binding of these proteins to Spalax p53. We conclude that extreme hypoxic conditions may have led to convergent evolutionary adaptations of the DDR via TAD2 and TD/RD domains of p53.

  13. Transcription pattern of p53-targeted DNA repair genes in the hypoxia-tolerant subterranean mole rat Spalax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Imad; Malik, Assaf; Manov, Irena; Joel, Alma; Band, Mark; Avivi, Aaron

    2013-04-12

    The tumor suppressor gene p53 induces growth arrest and/or apoptosis in response to DNA damage/hypoxia. Inactivation of p53 confers a selective advantage to tumor cells under a hypoxic microenvironment during tumor progression. The subterranean blind mole rat, Spalax, spends its life underground at low-oxygen tensions, hence developing a wide range of respiratory/molecular adaptations to hypoxic stress, including critical changes in p53 structure and signaling pathway. The highly conserved p53 Arg(R)-172 is substituted by lysine (K) in Spalax, identical with a tumor-associated mutation. Functionality assays revealed that Spalax p53 is unable to activate apoptotic target genes but is still capable of activating cell cycle arrest genes. Furthermore, we have shown that the transcription patterns of representative p53-induced genes (Apaf1 and Mdm2) in Spalax are influenced by hypoxia. Cell cycle arrest allows the cells to repair DNA damage via different DNA repair genes. We tested the transcription pattern of three p53-related DNA repair genes (p53R2, Mlh1, and Msh2) under normoxia and short-acute hypoxia in Spalax, C57BL/6 wild-type mice, and two strains of mutant C57BL/6 mice, each carrying a different mutation at the R172 position. Our results show that while wild-type/mutant mice exhibit strong hypoxia-induced reductions of repair gene transcript levels, no such inhibition is found in Spalax under hypoxia. Moreover, unlike mouse p53R2, Spalax p53R2 transcript levels are strongly elevated under hypoxia. These results suggest that critical repair functions, which are known to be inhibited under hypoxia in mice, remain active in Spalax, as part of its unique hypoxia tolerance mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Linkage of two human pregnancy-specific. beta. sub 1 -glycoprotein genes: One is associated with hydatidiform mole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie, K.K.; Watanabe, Shuichiro; Lei, Kejian; Chou, D.Y.; Plouzek, C.A.; Deng, Hweichuang; Torres, J.; Chou, J.Y. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-08-01

    A genomic clone containing two linked human pregnancy-specific {beta}{sub 1}-glycoprotein (PS{beta}G) genes has been isolated and characterized. The two genes are arranged in the same 5{prime} {yields} 3{prime} orientation; the 3{prime} region (including the A2 and B-C exons) of the upstream gene, PSGGA, is linked to the 5{prime} region (including the 5{prime}/L and L/N exons) of PSGGB, the downstream gene. Depending upon the domains compared, PSGGA and PSGGB share 92-98% nucleotide and 86-95% amino acid sequence identity with PSG93, the most abundant PS{beta}G transcript. Northern blot hybridization performed with a PSGGB-specific oligonucleotide probe to the N domain revealed that PSGGB or a PSGGB-like gene encodes a major 1.7-kilobase mRNA in hydatidiform mole tissues and a major 2.0-kilobase mRNA in term placenta tissues. Moreover, the PSGGB-specific probe hybridized most strongly with mRNA from molar trophoblastic tissue, suggesting that the PSGGB-like species may be the gene preferentially expressed in gestational trophoblastic disease. Additionally, the sequence of a 2,315-base-pair PS{beta}G cDNA (PSG95) that contains an N-A1-A2-B2-C domain arrangement is reported. The coding region of PSG95 is identical to the previously reported cDNA clones PSG1d and FL-NCA, but PSG95 contains an additional 518 and 523 base pairs in the 3{prime} end as compared with PSG1d and FL-NCA, respectively.

  15. Pigmentary Markers in Danes--Associations with Quantitative Skin Colour, Nevi Count, Familial Atypical Multiple-Mole, and Melanoma Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johansen

    Full Text Available To investigate whether pigmentation genes involved in the melanogenic pathway (melanogenesis contributed to melanoma predisposition, we compared pigmentary genetics with quantitative skin pigmentation measurements, the number of atypical nevi, the total nevus count, and the familial atypical multiple mole and melanoma (FAMMM syndrome. We typed 32 pigmentary SNP markers and sequenced MC1R in 246 healthy individuals and 116 individuals attending periodic control for malignant melanoma development, 50 of which were diagnosed with FAMMM. It was observed that individuals with any two grouped MC1R variants (missense, NM_002386:c. 456C > A (p.TYR152*, or NM_002386:c.83_84insA (p.Asn29Glnfs*14 had significantly (p<0.001 lighter skin pigmentation of the upper-inner arm than those with none or one MC1R variant. We did not observe any significant association of the MC1R variants with constitutive pigmentation measured on the buttock area. We hypothesize that the effect of MC1R variants on arm pigmentation is primarily reflecting the inability to tan when subjected to UVR. A gender specific effect on skin pigmentation was also observed, and it was found that the skin pigmentation of females on average were darker than that of males (p<0.01. We conclude that MC1R variants are associated with quantitative skin colour in a lightly pigmented Danish population. We did not observe any association between any pigmentary marker and the FAMMM syndrome. We suggest that the genetics of FAMMM is not related to the genetics of the pigmentary pathway.

  16. Immunohistochemical characterization of the chemosensory pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies in the naked mole-rat reveals a unique adaptive phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Pan

    Full Text Available The pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs constitute polymodal airway chemosensors for monitoring and signaling ambient gas concentrations (pO2, pCO2/H+ via complex innervation to the brain stem controlling breathing. NEBs produce the bioactive amine, serotonin (5-HT, and a variety of peptides with multiple effects on lung physiology and other organ systems. NEBs in mammals appear prominent and numerous during fetal and neonatal periods, and decline in the post-natal period suggesting an important role during perinatal adaptation. The naked mole-rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber, has adapted to the extreme environmental conditions of living in subterranean burrows in large colonies (up to 300 colony mates. The crowded, unventilated burrows are environments of severe hypoxia and hypercapnia. However, NMRs adjust readily to above ground conditions. The chemosensory NEBs of this species were characterized and compared to those of the conventional Wistar rat (WR to identify similarities and differences that could explain the NMR's adaptability to environments. A multilabel immunohistochemical analysis combined with confocal microscopy revealed that the expression patterns of amine, peptide, neuroendocrine, innervation markers and chemosensor component proteins in NEBs of NMR were similar to that of WR. However, we found the following differences: 1 NEBs in both neonatal and adult NMR lungs were significantly larger and more numerous as compared to WR; 2 NEBs in NMR had a more variable compact cell organization and exhibited significant differences in the expression of adhesion proteins; 3 NMR NEBs showed a significantly greater ratio of 5-HT positive cells with an abundance of 5-HT; 4 NEBs in NMR expressed the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and the neurogenic gene (MASH1 indicating active proliferation and a state of persistent differentiation. Taken together our findings suggest that NEBs in lungs of NMR are in a hyperactive, functional

  17. Non-Breeding Eusocial Mole-Rats Produce Viable Sperm--Spermiogram and Functional Testicular Morphology of Fukomys anselli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Garcia Montero

    Full Text Available Ansell's mole-rats (Fukomys anselli are subterranean rodents living in families composed of about 20 members with a single breeding pair and their non-breeding offspring. Most of them remain with their parents for their lifetime and help to maintain and defend the natal burrow system, forage, and care for younger siblings. Since incest avoidance is based on individual recognition (and not on social suppression we expect that non-breeders produce viable sperm spontaneously. We compared the sperm of breeding and non-breeding males, obtained by electroejaculation and found no significant differences in sperm parameters between both groups. Here, we used electroejaculation to obtain semen for the first time in a subterranean mammal. Spermiogram analysis revealed no significant differences in sperm parameters between breeders and non-breeders. We found significantly larger testes (measured on autopsies and on living animals per ultrasonography of breeders compared to non-breeders (with body mass having a significant effect. There were no marked histological differences between breeding and non-breeding males, and the relative area occupied by Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules on histological sections, respectively, was not significantly different between both groups. The seminiferous epithelium and to a lesser degree the interstitial testicular tissue are characterized by lesions (vacuolar degenerations, however, this feature does not hinder fertilization even in advanced stages of life. The continuous production of viable sperm also in sexually abstinent non-breeders might be best understood in light of the mating and social system of Fukomys anselli, and the potential to found a new family following an unpredictable and rare encounter with an unfamiliar female ("provoked or induced dispersal". Apparently, the non-breeders do not reproduce because they do not copulate but not because they would be physiologically infertile. The significantly

  18. Non-Breeding Eusocial Mole-Rats Produce Viable Sperm—Spermiogram and Functional Testicular Morphology of Fukomys anselli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Montero, Angelica; Vole, Christiane; Burda, Hynek; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Holtze, Susanne; Morhart, Michaela; Saragusty, Joseph; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.; Begall, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Ansell’s mole-rats (Fukomys anselli) are subterranean rodents living in families composed of about 20 members with a single breeding pair and their non-breeding offspring. Most of them remain with their parents for their lifetime and help to maintain and defend the natal burrow system, forage, and care for younger siblings. Since incest avoidance is based on individual recognition (and not on social suppression) we expect that non-breeders produce viable sperm spontaneously. We compared the sperm of breeding and non-breeding males, obtained by electroejaculation and found no significant differences in sperm parameters between both groups. Here, we used electroejaculation to obtain semen for the first time in a subterranean mammal. Spermiogram analysis revealed no significant differences in sperm parameters between breeders and non-breeders. We found significantly larger testes (measured on autopsies and on living animals per ultrasonography) of breeders compared to non-breeders (with body mass having a significant effect). There were no marked histological differences between breeding and non-breeding males, and the relative area occupied by Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules on histological sections, respectively, was not significantly different between both groups. The seminiferous epithelium and to a lesser degree the interstitial testicular tissue are characterized by lesions (vacuolar degenerations), however, this feature does not hinder fertilization even in advanced stages of life. The continuous production of viable sperm also in sexually abstinent non-breeders might be best understood in light of the mating and social system of Fukomys anselli, and the potential to found a new family following an unpredictable and rare encounter with an unfamiliar female (“provoked or induced dispersal”). Apparently, the non-breeders do not reproduce because they do not copulate but not because they would be physiologically infertile. The significantly increased

  19. The product of the imprinted gene IPL marks human villous cytotrophoblast and is lost in complete hydatidiform mole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, A; Frank, D; Panichkul, P; Van den Veyver, I B; Tycko, B; Thaker, H

    2003-01-01

    The IPL/TSSC3 gene is expressed nearly exclusively from the maternal allele, and its protein product acts to limit placental growth in mice. This protein specifically marks Type II trophoblast in the labyrinthine layer of the mouse placenta. To investigate mouse-human homologies, we carried out immunohistochemistry with antibodies against human IPL. There was strong expression of IPL in villous cytotrophoblast of the human placenta, contrasting with complete lack of expression in syncytiotrophoblast. Staining for IPL was weak in cells of the villous mesenchyme and extravillous trophoblast, including the cytotrophoblast columns in the basal plate and the intervillous trophoblast islands. The IPL and p57(KIP2)/CDKN1C genes are closely linked and coordinately imprinted, and immunostaining showed that their protein products are co-expressed in villous cytotrophoblast. However, other cell types, including extravillous cytotrophoblast and cells in various non-placental tissues, expressed p57(KIP2), but not IPL. IPL protein was absent in both of two cases of androgenetic complete hydatidiform mole examined by immunostaining, and IPL mRNA was absent in an additional three cases of this neoplasm examined by northern blotting. In the mouse, Ipl-expressing cells disappear at mid- to late-gestation when placental growth ceases, but persistent IPL mRNA and protein expression was observed throughout human gestation, correlating with the continuous growth of the human placenta. These findings highlight dosage regulation of human IPL by imprinting and, more generally, suggest homology between Type II labyrinthine trophoblast in the mouse and villous cytotrophoblast in humans, both of which are proliferative stem cell-like compartments.

  20. [Richard C. M. Mole: The Baltic states from the Soviet Union to the European Union. Identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Mole, Richard C. M. The Baltic States from the Soviet Union to the European Union : identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. London ; New York : Routledge, 2012, 2013

  1. Trophoblast subtype-specific EGFR/ERBB4 expression correlates with cell cycle progression and hyperplasia in complete hydatidiform moles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fock, Valerie; Plessl, Kerstin; Fuchs, Roman; Dekan, Sabine; Milla, Stephanie K; Haider, Sandra; Fiala, Christian; Knöfler, Martin; Pollheimer, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Do trophoblast subtypes differ in their expression of erythroblastic leukaemia viral oncogene homologue (ERBB) receptor family members and responsiveness towards specific growth factor ligands? Our data reveal a reciprocal expression pattern of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ERBB4 in proliferative and ERBB2/ERBB3 in invasive trophoblast subtypes, as well as a restricted responsiveness to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and heparin-binding (HB)-EGF. EGFR is expressed by villous cytotrophoblasts (vCTBs), but absent from extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs), which specifically up-regulate ERBB2. Tissue samples of human first trimester placentae (n = 50) and deciduae (n = 5) obtained from elective pregnancy terminations were used to study trophoblast subtype-specific ERBB receptor expression and responsiveness to recombinant human EGF and HB-EGF. Age-matched complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) placentae (n = 12) were assessed for EGFR and ERBB4 expression in proliferation-competent regions. ERBB receptor expression was analysed in primary trophoblast cell isolates by means of microarray, quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting, as well as immunofluorescence stainings of placental and decidual tissue sections. EGF and HB-EGF were tested for their potential to activate ERBB receptors in purified EGFR(+) and HLA-G(+) trophoblasts. 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation assays were performed to study the effect of both ligands on the proliferative capacity of primary trophoblasts as well as of vCTBs and proximal cell column trophoblasts (pCCTs) in placental floating explants. Finally, the average number of EGFR(+) vCTB and pCCT layers was determined in CHM placentae and compared with healthy age-matched controls. Proliferative vCTBs and pCCTs co-express EGFR and ERBB4, but are devoid of ERBB2 and ERBB3. In contrast, HLA-G(+) trophoblast subtypes exhibit an EGFR/ERBB4(-) and ERBB2/ERBB3(+) phenotype. EGF and HB-EGF activate EGFR, ERBB4, AKT and extracellular signal

  2. Effect of the Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio on the reaction products and reaction mechanism in an Al–Ti–B{sub 4}C powder mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jingjing [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Light Metal Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Moo, E-mail: jmoolee@kims.re.kr [Light Metal Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young-Hee; Kim, Su-Hyeon [Light Metal Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Huashun [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2014-10-15

    The effect of the Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio on the fabrication behavior of Al composites is investigated using Al–Ti–B{sub 4}C powder mixtures as reactants. The quick spontaneous infiltration (QSI) process combined with the combustion reaction and DTA analysis were used. According to the thermodynamic predictions, which are verified in the experimental results, TiB{sub 2} is formed in all the samples whereas TiC is only formed in reactants with a Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio of more than two. The C atoms from the reacted B{sub 4}C do not move into TiC but instead they move into Al{sub 3}BC or Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} when the Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio is less than two. In addition, the reaction mechanism with a Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio of 0.75 is investigated extensively. - Highlights: • The critical role of the Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio on the reaction products of Al–Ti–B{sub 4}C was studied using experiments. • The experimental results are also supported by thermodynamic calculations presented in this paper. • The reaction mechanism with a Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio of 0.75 is investigated extensively.

  3. Frequência de mola hidatiforme em tecidos obtidos por curetagem uterina Frequency of hydatidiform mole in tissue obtained by curettage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Biscaro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a frequência de mola hidatiforme em tecidos obtidos por curetagem uterina. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, prospectivo e descritivo que incluiu pacientes submetidas à curetagem uterina por diagnóstico de aborto ou mola hidatiforme cujo material obtido foi encaminhado para exame anatomopatológico. Foram excluídas aquelas que não aceitaram participar da pesquisa, recusando-se a assinar o Termo de Consentimento Informado Livre e Esclarecido. Foram analisadas as seguintes variáveis: achados anatomopatológicos, idade, raça/cor, número de gestações e abortos prévios, idade gestacional no momento do diagnóstico, níveis séricos quantitativos da fração beta da gonadotrofina coriônica humana e achados ultrassonográficos. As variáveis foram empregadas para a verificação com o diagnóstico histológico, considerado o padrão-ouro. Os dados foram armazenados e analisados no software Microsoft Excel® e no programa Epi-Info, versão 6.0 (STATCALC e os resultados apresentados como frequência (porcentagem ou média±desvio padrão. Para a associação entre variáveis qualitativas foi usado o teste do χ², e admitiu-se significância estatística quando pPURPOSE: To determine the frequency of hydatiform mole in tissues obtained by curettage. METHODS: A cross-sectional, prospective and descriptive conducted on patients who underwent curretage due to a diagnosis of abortion or hydatiform mole whose material was sent for pathological examination. We excluded women who did not accept to participate and refused to sign the free informed consent form. We studied the following variables: pathological findings, age, race, number of pregnancies and previous abortions, gestational age at diagnosis, quantitative serum beta fraction of human chorionic gonadotropin and ultrasound findings. The data were compared to the to histological diagnosis, considered to be the gold standard. Data were stored and analyzed in Microsoft Excel

  4. Structural Changes and Lack of HCN1 Channels in the Binaural Auditory Brainstem of the Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessele, Nikodemus; Garcia-Pino, Elisabet; Omerbašić, Damir; Park, Thomas J; Koch, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) live in large eu-social, underground colonies in narrow burrows and are exposed to a large repertoire of communication signals but negligible binaural sound localization cues, such as interaural time and intensity differences. We therefore asked whether monaural and binaural auditory brainstem nuclei in the naked mole-rat are differentially adjusted to this acoustic environment. Using antibody stainings against excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic structures, namely the vesicular glutamate transporter VGluT1 and the glycine transporter GlyT2 we identified all major auditory brainstem nuclei except the superior paraolivary nucleus in these animals. Naked mole-rats possess a well structured medial superior olive, with a similar synaptic arrangement to interaural-time-difference encoding animals. The neighboring lateral superior olive, which analyzes interaural intensity differences, is large and elongated, whereas the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, which provides the contralateral inhibitory input to these binaural nuclei, is reduced in size. In contrast, the cochlear nucleus, the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus and the inferior colliculus are not considerably different when compared to other rodent species. Most interestingly, binaural auditory brainstem nuclei lack the membrane-bound hyperpolarization-activated channel HCN1, a voltage-gated ion channel that greatly contributes to the fast integration times in binaural nuclei of the superior olivary complex in other species. This suggests substantially lengthened membrane time constants and thus prolonged temporal integration of inputs in binaural auditory brainstem neurons and might be linked to the severely degenerated sound localization abilities in these animals.

  5. Structural Changes and Lack of HCN1 Channels in the Binaural Auditory Brainstem of the Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikodemus Gessele

    Full Text Available Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber live in large eu-social, underground colonies in narrow burrows and are exposed to a large repertoire of communication signals but negligible binaural sound localization cues, such as interaural time and intensity differences. We therefore asked whether monaural and binaural auditory brainstem nuclei in the naked mole-rat are differentially adjusted to this acoustic environment. Using antibody stainings against excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic structures, namely the vesicular glutamate transporter VGluT1 and the glycine transporter GlyT2 we identified all major auditory brainstem nuclei except the superior paraolivary nucleus in these animals. Naked mole-rats possess a well structured medial superior olive, with a similar synaptic arrangement to interaural-time-difference encoding animals. The neighboring lateral superior olive, which analyzes interaural intensity differences, is large and elongated, whereas the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, which provides the contralateral inhibitory input to these binaural nuclei, is reduced in size. In contrast, the cochlear nucleus, the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus and the inferior colliculus are not considerably different when compared to other rodent species. Most interestingly, binaural auditory brainstem nuclei lack the membrane-bound hyperpolarization-activated channel HCN1, a voltage-gated ion channel that greatly contributes to the fast integration times in binaural nuclei of the superior olivary complex in other species. This suggests substantially lengthened membrane time constants and thus prolonged temporal integration of inputs in binaural auditory brainstem neurons and might be linked to the severely degenerated sound localization abilities in these animals.

  6. Absence of Maternal Methylation in Biparental Hydatidiform Moles from Women with NLRP7 Maternal-Effect Mutations Reveals Widespread Placenta-Specific Imprinting.

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    Marta Sanchez-Delgado

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Familial recurrent hydatidiform mole (RHM is a maternal-effect autosomal recessive disorder usually associated with mutations of the NLRP7 gene. It is characterized by HM with excessive trophoblastic proliferation, which mimics the appearance of androgenetic molar conceptuses despite their diploid biparental constitution. It has been proposed that the phenotypes of both types of mole are associated with aberrant genomic imprinting. However no systematic analyses for imprinting defects have been reported. Here, we present the genome-wide methylation profiles of both spontaneous androgenetic and biparental NLRP7 defective molar tissues. We observe total paternalization of all ubiquitous and placenta-specific differentially methylated regions (DMRs in four androgenetic moles; namely gain of methylation at paternally methylated loci and absence of methylation at maternally methylated regions. The methylation defects observed in five RHM biopsies from NLRP7 defective patients are restricted to lack-of-methylation at maternal DMRs. Surprisingly RHMs from two sisters with the same missense mutations, as well as consecutive RHMs from one affected female show subtle allelic methylation differences, suggesting inter-RHM variation. These epigenotypes are consistent with NLRP7 being a maternal-effect gene and involved in imprint acquisition in the oocyte. In addition, bioinformatic screening of the resulting methylation datasets identified over sixty loci with methylation profiles consistent with imprinting in the placenta, of which we confirm 22 as novel maternally methylated loci. These observations strongly suggest that the molar phenotypes are due to defective placenta-specific imprinting and over-expression of paternally expressed transcripts, highlighting that maternal-effect mutations of NLRP7 are associated with the most severe form of multi-locus imprinting defects in humans.

  7. Relic populations of Fukomys mole-rats in Tanzania: description of two new species F. livingstoni sp. nov. and F. hanangensis sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris G. Faulkes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of African mole-rats of the genera Heliophobius and Fukomys (Bathyergidae in the regions of East and south central Africa have revealed a diversity of species and vicariant populations, with patterns of distribution having been influenced by the geological process of rifting and changing patterns of drainage of major river systems. This has resulted in most of the extant members of the genus Fukomys being distributed west of the main Rift Valley. However, a small number of isolated populations are known to occur east of the African Rift Valley in Tanzania, where Heliophobius is the most common bathyergid rodent. We conducted morphological, craniometric and phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b sequences of two allopatric populations of Tanzanian mole-rats (genus Fukomys at Ujiji and around Mount Hanang, in comparison with both geographically adjacent and more distant populations of Fukomys. Our results reveal two distinct evolutionary lineages, forming clades that constitute previously unnamed species. Here, we formally describe and designate these new species F. livingstoni and F. hanangensis respectively. Molecular clock-based estimates of divergence times, together with maximum likelihood inference of biogeographic range evolution, offers strong support for the hypothesis that vicariance in the Western Rift Valley and the drainage patterns of major river systems has subdivided populations of mole-rats. More recent climatic changes and tectonic activity in the “Mbeya triple junction” and Rungwe volcanic province between Lakes Rukwa and Nyasa have played a role in further isolation of these extra-limital populations of Fukomys in Tanzania.

  8. Echinococcus multilocularis in Kyrgyzstan: similarity in the Asian EmsB genotypic profiles from village populations of Eastern mole voles (Ellobius tancrei) and dogs in the Alay valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, E; Knapp, J; Tête, N; Umhang, G; Rieffel, D; van Kesteren, F; Ziadinov, I; Craig, P S; Torgerson, P R; Giraudoux, P

    2015-11-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is a cestode that causes human alveolar echinococcosis, a lethal zoonosis of public health concern in central Asia and western China. In the present study, one of 42 Eastern mole voles (Ellobius tancrei) caught in Sary Mogol (Alay valley, southern Kyrgyzstan) presented liver lesions with E. multilocularis from which the EmsB target was amplified. The Asian profile obtained was almost identical to one amplified from domestic dog faeces collected in a nearby village. This observation adds additional information to the potential role of E. tancrei in the transmission of E. multilocularis, and to the known distribution range of E. multilocularis (Asian strain) in central Asia.

  9. Term delivery of a complete hydatidiform mole with a coexisting living fetus followed by successful treatment of maternal metastatic gestational trophoblastic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Huei Peng

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: A pregnancy with a complete hydatidiform mole and a living cotwin can be a serious threat to the health of both the mother and the fetus. Early diagnosis depends on a combination of detecting an unusually high level of serum beta-HCG and ultrasound examination. We suggest that continuation of the pregnancy may be an acceptable option and that the pregnancy may continue until term if a normal fetal anatomy is assured and maternal complications are under control. Patients require careful postpartum follow up and any recurrent disease should be managed aggressively.

  10. Alternativas de controle pós-colheita da podridão-parda e da podridão-mole em frutos de pessegueiro

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,Vicente Luiz de; Cunha,Rodrigo Luz da; Chalfun,Nilton Nagib Jorge; Moura,Pedro Henrique Abreu

    2009-01-01

    As exigências do consumidor são cada vez maiores com relação à qualidade de produtos in natura. As podridões, além de causar perdas na produção, reduzem a qualidade final do fruto, interferindo significativamente na comercialização. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a eficiência de produtos alternativos, aplicados na pós-colheita, no controle da podridão-parda (Monilinia fructicola) e da podridão-mole (Rhizopus spp.) em pêssegos. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Nepomuceno-M...

  11. Three years of greenhouse gas column-averaged dry air mole fractions retrieved from satellite – Part 2: Methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Schneising

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 are the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases. SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT is the first satellite instrument whose measurements are sensitive to concentration changes of the two gases at all altitude levels down to the Earth's surface where the source/sink signals are largest. We have processed three years (2003–2005 of SCIAMACHY near-infrared nadir measurements to simultaneously retrieve vertical columns of CO2 (from the 1.58 μm absorption band, CH4 (1.66 μm and oxygen (O2 A-band at 0.76 μm using the scientific retrieval algorithm WFM-DOAS. We show that the latest version of WFM-DOAS, version 1.0, which is used for this study, has been significantly improved with respect to its accuracy compared to the previous versions while essentially maintaining its high processing speed (~1 min per orbit, corresponding to ~6000 single measurements, and per gas on a standard PC. The greenhouse gas columns are converted to dry air column-averaged mole fractions, denoted XCO2 (in ppm and XCH4 (in ppb, by dividing the greenhouse gas columns by simultaneously retrieved dry air columns. For XCO2 dry air columns are obtained from the retrieved O2 columns. For XCH4 dry air columns are obtained from the retrieved CO2 columns because of better cancellation of light path related errors compared to using O2 columns retrieved from the spectrally distant O2 A-band. Here we focus on a discussion of the XCH4 data set. The XCO2 data set is discussed in a separate paper (Part 1. For 2003 we present detailed comparisons with the TM5 model which has been optimally matched to highly accurate but sparse methane surface observations. After accounting for a systematic low bias of ~2% agreement with TM5 is typically within 1–2%. We investigated to what extent the

  12. Lack of involvement of known DNA methyltransferases in familial hydatidiform mole implies the involvement of other factors in establishment of imprinting in the human female germline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picton H M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differential methylation of the two alleles is a hallmark of imprinted genes. Correspondingly, loss of DNA methyltransferase function results in aberrant imprinting and abnormal post-fertilization development. In the mouse, mutations of the oocyte-specific isoform of the DNA methyltransferase Dnmt1 (Dnmt1o and of the methyltransferase-like Dnmt3L gene result in specific failures of imprint establishment or maintenance, at multiple loci. We have previously shown in humans that an analogous inherited failure to establish imprinting at multiple loci in the female germline underlies a rare phenotype of recurrent hydatidiform mole. Results We have identified a human homologue of the murine Dnmt1o and assessed its pattern of expression. Human DNMT1o mRNA is detectable in mature oocytes and early fertilized embryos but not in any somatic tissues analysed. The somatic isoform of DNMT1 mRNA, in contrast, is not detectable in human oocytes. In the previously-described family with multi-locus imprinting failure, mutation of DNMT1o and of the other known members of this gene family has been excluded. Conclusions Mutation of the known DNMT genes does not underlie familial hydatidiform mole, at least in the family under study. This suggests that trans-acting factors other than the known methyltransferases are required for imprint establishment in humans, a concept that has indirect support from recent biochemical studies of DNMT3L.

  13. Changing presentation of complete hydatidiform mole at the New England Trophoblastic Disease Center over the past three decades: does early diagnosis alter risk for gestational trophoblastic neoplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sue Yazaki; Melamed, Alexander; Goldstein, Donald P; Bernstein, Marilyn R; Horowitz, Neil S; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Maestá, Izildinha; Braga, Antonio; Berkowitz, Ross S

    2015-07-01

    To compare the clinical presentation and incidence of postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) among recent (1994-2013) and historical (1988-1993) cases of complete hydatidiform mole (CHM). This study included two non-concurrent cohorts (1988-1993 versus 1994-2013) of patients from the New England Trophoblastic Disease Center (NETDC). Clinical and pathologic reports of patients diagnosed with CHM between 1994 and 2013 were reviewed. Gestational age at evacuation, features of clinical presentation, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels, and the rate of progression to GTN were compared. In the current cohort (1994 to 2013) the median gestational age at diagnosis continued to decline compared to our prior cohort (1988-1993) (9weeks versus 12weeks). Patients from the current cohort were significantly more likely to be diagnosed prior to the 11th week of gestation (56 versus 41%, p=0.04). Patients in the current cohort were also significantly less likely to present with vaginal bleeding (46 versus 84%, pgestation did not decrease the risk of developing GTN. This study indicates that complete mole continues to be diagnosed progressively earlier resulting in a further decrease in some classical presenting symptoms. However, despite earlier detection, the risk of development of postmolar GTN has not been affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reproduction is associated with a tissue-dependent reduction of oxidative stress in eusocial female Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis.

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    Christina M Schmidt

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated as both a physiological cost of reproduction and a driving force on an animal's lifespan. Since increased reproductive effort is generally linked with a reduction in survival, it has been proposed that oxidative stress may influence this relationship. Support for this hypothesis is inconsistent, but this may, in part, be due to the type of tissues that have been analyzed. In Damaraland mole-rats the sole reproducing female in the colony is also the longest lived. Therefore, if oxidative stress does impact the trade-off between reproduction and survival in general, this species may possess some form of enhanced defense. We assessed this relationship by comparing markers of oxidative damage (malondialdehyde, MDA; protein carbonyls, PC and antioxidants (total antioxidant capacity, TAC; superoxide dismutase, SOD in various tissues including plasma, erythrocytes, heart, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle between wild-caught reproductive and non-reproductive female Damaraland mole-rats. Reproductive females exhibited significantly lower levels of PC across all tissues, and lower levels of MDA in heart, kidney and liver relative to non-reproductive females. Levels of TAC and SOD did not differ significantly according to reproductive state. The reduction in oxidative damage in breeding females may be attributable to the unusual social structure of this species, as similar relationships have been observed between reproductive and non-reproductive eusocial insects.

  15. Analysis of the vascular profile and CD99 protein expression in the partial and complete hydatidiform moles using quantitative CD34 immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mahmoud Rezk Abdelwahed

    2010-12-01

    Hydatidiform mole is a gestational trophoblastic disease with two different types: complete (CHM) and partial hydatidiform moles (PHM). The villous stroma of CHM is avascular or contains primitive endothelial-lined vascular elements. CD99 is a leukocyte antigen expressed in both normal and neoplastic tissue. To examine the expression of CD99 and vascular profile in PHM and CHM compared to first trimester pregnancy termination (TOP). Fifty trophoblastic tissue specimens were immunostained using monoclonal antibodies decorating CD99 and CD34 antigens (vasculogenesis). CD99 expression and the vascular parameters were scored. In CHM and PHM, the number of blood vessels with distinct lumens in the villous stroma (centrally and peripherally located) was significantly reduced (preactivity was seen in the endothelial, decidual, fibroblastic and in trophoblastic cells (syncytiotrophoblasts and cytotrophoblasts). Weak to virtually absent CD99 reactivity was seen in the trophoblastic cells of chorionic villi with molar changes. Vasculogenesis can be initiated in the molar pregnancies despite the absence of embryos or maternal derived chromosomes. CD99 may have a possible role in the development of molar changes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. How attractive is the girl next door? An assessment of spatial mate acquisition and paternity in the solitary Cape dune mole-rat, Bathyergus suillus.

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    Timothy C Bray

    Full Text Available Behavioural observations of reproduction and mate choice in wild fossorial rodents are extremely limited and consequently indirect methods are typically used to infer mating strategies. We use a combination of morphological, reproductive, spatial, and genetic data to investigate the reproductive strategy of a solitary endemic species, the Cape dune mole-rat Bathyergus suillus. These data provide the first account on the population dynamics of this species. Marked sexual dimorphism was apparent with males being both significantly larger and heavier than females. Of all females sampled 36% had previously reproduced and 12% were pregnant at the time of capture. Post-partum sex ratio was found to be significantly skewed in favour of females. The paternity of fifteen litters (n = 37 was calculated, with sires assigned to progeny using both categorical and full probability methods, and including a distance function. The maximum distance between progeny and a putative sire was determined as 2149 m with males moving between sub-populations. We suggest that above-ground movement should not be ignored in the consideration of mate acquisition behaviour of subterranean mammals. Estimated levels of multiple paternity were shown to be potentially as high as 26%, as determined using sibship and sire assignment methods. Such high levels of multiple paternity have not been found in other solitary mole-rat species. The data therefore suggest polyandry with no evidence as yet for polygyny.

  17. Effect of Cu{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} mole ratio on structure of Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles prepared by radiation induced method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedini, Alam; Larki, Farhad; Saion, Elias; Noroozi, Monir [Putra Malaysia Univ., Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia). Dept. of Physics

    2013-07-15

    Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized by gamma irradiation technique in aqueous solutions containing metal chlorides as precursors, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent, isopropanol as a radical scavenger, and distilled water as a solvent. The Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible absorption spectrometry, powder X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The TEM, XRD, EDX, and absorption analyses confirmed the formation of core-shell structure of Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles at lower Cu{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} mole ratio, and the formation of Cu-Al alloy nanoparticles at higher Cu{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} mole ratio. The TEM analysis for particle size and size distribution revealed that the average particle size of Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles decreased with the increase of absorbed dose. It may be explained due to the competition between nucleation and aggregation processes in the formation of metallic nanoparticles under irradiation. (orig.)

  18. Gestação gemelar de mola hidatiforme completa com feto vivo Twin pregnancy with complete hydatidiform mole and living fetus

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    Daniela Angerame Yela

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A gestação gemelar de uma mola hidatiforme completa coexistindo com um feto vivo é uma entidade rara. Os poucos casos descritos na literatura mostram que, em geral, esse tipo de gestação cursa com risco aumentado de aborto espontâneo, parto prematuro, morte fetal intraútero, sangramento, pré-eclâmpsia e doença trofoblástica persistente. Neste artigo, descreveremos o caso de uma primigesta de 20 anos de idade que apresentou uma gestação gemelar de feto vivo com mola completa, a qual transcorreu sem intercorrências e complicações e cujo diagnóstico diferencial com degeneração da placenta foi feito com anatomopatológico.Twin pregnancy with a complete hydatidiform mole and a living fetus is a rare entity. According to the few cases described in the literature, this kind of gestation commonly has higher risks of miscarriage, preterm delivery, intrauterine fetal death, bleeding, preeclampsia and persistent trophoblastic disease. This study reports the case of a 20 years old primiparous patient with complete hydatidiform mole and living fetus, whose pregnancy was successfully carried to term. The differential diagnosis with placental degeneration was reached through anatomopathological investigation.

  19. The burying behavior of the mole crabs before and after an accident with urban sewage efluents in Bombinhas Beach, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ita Oliveira Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Several environmental factors may interfere in the behavior of mole crab (Emerita brasiliensis Schmitt, 1935, such as the discharge of urban pollutants on the shore, which can be toxic. During a study of the impact of human activities on a beach in Southern Brazil, opportunistically it was tested if burying behavior of the mole crab were affected after an accident causing the discharge of urban effluents. When comparing the period before (two days and after (one day the accident, there was a substantial increase in the concentration of ammonia in the seawater, but pH, water temperature, salinity, and the microclimatic conditions remained stable. During the increased ammonia phase, we captured individuals of smaller size, but the latency in an burying test conducted in an aquarium, immediately after the capture, remained unaltered. The discharge of organic pollutants seems affected the surf zone, where small individuals were more abundant, supposedly males and juveniles but not adult females. The maintenance of burying latency by males and juveniles seems to suggest a greater physiological resistance to a short term contamination by ammonia.

  20. Familial Melanoma Associated with Li-Fraumeni Syndrome and Atypical Mole Syndrome: Total-body Digital Photography, Dermoscopy and Confocal Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giavedoni, Priscila; Ririe, Marnie; Carrera, Cristina; Puig, Susana; Malvehy, Josep

    2017-06-09

    Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by a mutation in the p53 gene. Melanoma is considered to be a rare, controversial component of LFS. The aim of this study is to describe the utility of systematic screening for melanoma in patients with LFS and atypical mole syndrome. Two 28-year-old identical twin sisters with LFS and atypical moles were monitored by physical examination, total-body digital photography and dermoscopy be-tween 2006 and 2014. A total of 117, predominantly dark-brown, reticular naevi were identified on case 1 and 105 on case 2. Excisions were performed during the evaluation period of 1 in-situ melanoma and 3 basal cell carcinomas in case 1, and 1 in-situ melanoma and 1 early invasive melanoma in case 2. The remaining melanocytic lesions in both patients were stable during follow-up. The 3 melanomas were new atypical lesions detected with total-body photography and dermoscopy. In conclusion, monitoring LFS patients with total-body photography and dermoscopy may be useful to detect early melanoma.

  1. Three years of greenhouse gas column-averaged dry air mole fractions retrieved from satellite – Part 1: Carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Schneising

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 are the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases. SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT is the first satellite instrument whose measurements are sensitive to concentration changes of the two gases at all altitude levels down to the Earth's surface where the source/sink signals are largest. We have processed three years (2003–2005 of SCIAMACHY near-infrared nadir measurements to simultaneously retrieve vertical columns of CO2 (from the 1.58 μm absorption band, CH4 (1.66 μm and oxygen (O2 A-band at 0.76 μm using the scientific retrieval algorithm WFM-DOAS. We show that the latest version of WFM-DOAS, version 1.0, which is used for this study, has been significantly improved with respect to its accuracy compared to the previous versions while essentially maintaining its high processing speed (~1 min per orbit, corresponding to ~6000 single measurements, and per gas on a standard PC. The greenhouse gas columns are converted to dry air column-averaged mole fractions, denoted XCO2 (in ppm and XCH4 (in ppb, by dividing the greenhouse gas columns by simultaneously retrieved dry air columns. For XCO2 dry air columns are obtained from the retrieved O2 columns. For XCH4 dry air columns are obtained from the retrieved CO2 columns because of better cancellation of light path related errors compared to using O2 columns retrieved from the spectrally distant O2 A-band. Here we focus on a discussion of the XCO2 data set. The XCH4 data set is discussed in a separate paper (Part 2. In order to assess the quality of the retrieved XCO2 we present comparisons with Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (FTS XCO2 measurements at two northern hemispheric mid-latitude ground stations. To assess the quality globally, we present detailed comparisons with

  2. The generalist tick Ixodes ricinus and the specialist tick Ixodes trianguliceps on shrews and rodents in a northern forest ecosystem--a role of body size even among small hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysterud, Atle; Byrkjeland, Ragna; Qviller, Lars; Viljugrein, Hildegunn

    2015-12-16

    Understanding aggregation of ticks on hosts and attachment of life stages to different host species, are central components for understanding tick-borne disease epidemiology. The generalist tick, Ixodes ricinus, is a well-known vector of Lyme borrelioses, while the specialist tick, Ixodes trianguliceps, feeding only on small mammals, may play a role in maintaining infection levels in hosts. In a northern forest in Norway, we aimed to quantify the role of different small mammal species in feeding ticks, to determine the extent to which body mass, even among small mammals, plays a role for tick load, and to determine the seasonal pattern of the two tick species. Small mammals were captured along transects in two nearby areas along the west coast of Norway. All life stages of ticks were counted. Tick load, including both prevalence and intensity, was analysed with negative binomial models. A total of 359 rodents and shrews were captured with a total of 1106 I. ricinus (60.0 %) and 737 I. trianguliceps (40.4 %), consisting of 98.2 % larvae and 1.8 % nymphs of I. ricinus and 91.2 % larvae, 8.7 % nymphs and 0.1 % adult females of I. trianguliceps. Due to high abundance, Sorex araneus fed most of the larvae of both tick species (I. ricinus 61.9 %, I. trianguliceps 64.9 %) with Apodemus sylvaticus (I. ricinus 20.4 %, I. trianguliceps 10.0 %) and Myodes glareolus (I. ricinus 10.9 %, I. trianguliceps 9.5 %) as the next most important hosts. Individual A. sylvaticus and M. glareolus had higher infestation intensity than S. araneus, while Sorex minutus had markedly lower infestation intensity. The load of I. ricinus larvae and nymphs was related to body mass mainly up to ~10 g, while the load of I. trianguliceps was less dependent of body mass. The load of I. trianguliceps was higher in spring than in fall, while the seasonal pattern was reversed for I. ricinus with higher loads in fall. Body mass was important for explaining load of I. ricinus mainly up to a

  3. Identification of the sexually dimorphic gastrin-releasing peptide system in the lumbosacral spinal cord that controls male reproductive function in the mouse and Asian house musk shrew (Suncus murinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Kei; Kobayashi, Yasuhisa; Hirooka, Asuka; Takanami, Keiko; Oti, Takumi; Jogahara, Takamichi; Oda, Sen-Ichi; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Sakamoto, Hirotaka

    2017-05-01

    Several regions of the brain and spinal cord control male reproductive function. We previously demonstrated that the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) system, located in the lumbosacral spinal cord of rats, controls spinal centers to promote penile reflexes during male copulatory behavior. However, little information exists on the male-specific spinal GRP system in animals other than rats. The objective of this study was to examine the functional generality of the spinal GRP system in mammals using the Asian house musk shrew (Suncus murinus; suncus named as the laboratory strain), a specialized placental mammal model. Mice are also used for a representative model of small laboratory animals. We first isolated complementary DNA encoding GRP in suncus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that suncus preproGRP was clustered to an independent branch. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that GRP and its receptor mRNAs were both expressed in the lumbar spinal cord of suncus and mice. Immunohistochemistry for GRP demonstrated that the sexually dimorphic GRP system and male-specific expression/distribution patterns of GRP in the lumbosacral spinal cord in suncus are similar to those of mice. In suncus, we further found that most GRP-expressing neurons in males also express androgen receptors, suggesting that this male-dominant system in suncus is also androgen-dependent. Taken together, these results indicate that the sexually dimorphic spinal GRP system exists not only in mice but also in suncus, suggesting that this system is a conserved property in mammals. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1586-1598, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Synthesis Biodiesel from Palm Oil Through Interesterification Using Imobilized Lipase Enzym as Catalyst: The Effect of Amount of Biocatalyst, Mole Ratio of Reactan, Temperature to Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Widyawati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel usually synthesized by transesterification of triglyceride and alcohol by addition of acid or base catalyst so there is could produce a waste of chemical process. Alternative process is by using biocatalyst such as enzyme to synthesize biodiesel without chemical process waste. In this research, synthesis of biodiesel from Crude Palm Oil (CPO that through the process of degumming and methyl acetate as acyl donor has been investigated with using Lipozyme as biocatalyst. Variables in this research are amount of biocatalyst, mole ratio of reactant, and temperature, and its respond to the yield conversion of biodiesel that presented by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Yield raging from 15% - 68% were achived during 10 hours reaction time. The results showed that the most influential variable is amount of biocatalyst.

  5. The Importance of History and Philosophy of Science in Correcting Distorted Views of `Amount of Substance' and `Mole' Concepts in Chemistry Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Kira; Furio-Mas, Carles

    2008-04-01

    The knowledge of historical facts can help teachers and students to correctly appreciate a variety of scientific theories. It is important to be aware of the evolution of the basic concepts, particularly the ones our students find very abstract and therefore difficult to understand. Historical knowledge of chemical concepts will allow us to understand their difficulties and make them easier to teach successfully. In this paper we answer the following research questions: what was the historic and sociologic context in which chemical equivalent, mole and its magnitude amount of substance were introduced to science? How the lack of historic knowledge in science teaching contributes to the presence of distorted views of science and hampers meaningful learning?

  6. Study of effects of size and Ga mole content of In1-xGax As / GaAs quantum ring on excitonic properties using the variational calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mansour, Afef; Kehili, Mohamed Souhail; Melliti, Adnen; Maaref, Mohamed Ali

    2017-10-01

    This work aims to calculate the energy spectrum of semiconductor In1-xGax As / GaAs Quantum Ring (QR) using a three-dimensional model. The latter is modeled by a truncated torus residing on a thin In1-xWLGaxWL As wetting layer (WL). The main novelty of this work is to calculate electron and hole ground state energy using a variational method. The lattice-mismatch strain effect and the charge carrier confinement profile were considered in the calculation. For electron, the energy dependence of the effective mass was taken into account in solving the Schrödinger equation using the single band effective mass approximation. Moreover, variational estimate of the excitonic binding energy and the oscillator strength as a function of the QR radial width and Ga mole content were reported.

  7. Quantification of urban atmospheric boundary layer greenhouse gas dry mole fraction enhancements in the dormant season: Results from the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha L. Miles

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We assess the detectability of city emissions via a tower-based greenhouse gas (GHG network, as part of the Indianapolis Flux (INFLUX experiment. By examining afternoon-averaged results from a network of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and carbon monoxide (CO mole fraction measurements in Indianapolis, Indiana for 2011–2013, we quantify spatial and temporal patterns in urban atmospheric GHG dry mole fractions. The platform for these measurements is twelve communications towers spread across the metropolitan region, ranging in height from 39 to 136 m above ground level, and instrumented with cavity ring-down spectrometers. Nine of the sites were deployed as of January 2013 and data from these sites are the focus of this paper. A background site, chosen such that it is on the predominantly upwind side of the city, is utilized to quantify enhancements caused by urban emissions. Afternoon averaged mole fractions are studied because this is the time of day during which the height of the boundary layer is most steady in time and the area that influences the tower measurements is likely to be largest. Additionally, atmospheric transport models have better performance in simulating the daytime convective boundary layer compared to the nighttime boundary layer. Averaged from January through April of 2013, the mean urban dormant-season enhancements range from 0.3 ppm CO2 at the site 24 km typically downwind of the edge of the city (Site 09 to 1.4 ppm at the site at the downwind edge of the city (Site 02 to 2.9 ppm at the downtown site (Site 03. When the wind is aligned such that the sites are downwind of the urban area, the enhancements are increased, to 1.6 ppm at Site 09, and 3.3 ppm at Site 02. Differences in sampling height affect the reported urban enhancement by up to 50%, but the overall spatial pattern remains similar. The time interval over which the afternoon data are averaged alters the calculated urban enhancement by an average of 0.4 ppm

  8. Correlation analysis of reactivity in the oxidation of methionine by benzimidazolium fluorochromate in different mole fractions of acetic acid–water mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sheik Mansoor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of oxidation of methionine (Met by benzimidazolium fluorochromate (BIFC has been studied in the presence of chloroacetic acid. The reaction is first order with respect to methionine, BIFC and acid. The reaction rate has been determined at different temperatures and activation parameters calculated. With an increase in the mole fraction of acetic acid in its aqueous mixture, the rate increases. The solvent effect has been analyzed using the Kamlet’s multi parametric equation. A correlation of data with the Kamlet–Taft solvatochromic parameters (α, β, π∗ suggests that the specific solute–solvent interactions play a major role in governing the reactivity. The reaction does not induce polymerization of acrylonitrile. A suitable mechanism has been proposed.

  9. Assessing Animal Welfare Impacts in the Management of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, European Moles (Talpa europaea and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra E Baker

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1 establish whether an existing welfare assessment model could differentiate and rank the impacts of different wildlife management interventions (for decision-making purposes; 2 identify and evaluate any additional benefits of making formal welfare assessments; and 3 illustrate issues raised by application of the model. We applied the welfare assessment model to interventions commonly used with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, moles (Talpa europaea and crows (Corvus corone in the UK. The model ranked interventions for rabbits (least impact first: fencing, head shot, chest shot and crows (shooting, scaring, live trapping with cervical dislocation. For moles, managing molehills and tunnels scored least impact. Both spring trapping, and live trapping followed by translocation, scored greater impacts, but these could not be compared directly as they scored on different axes of the model. Some rankings appeared counter-intuitive, highlighting the need for objective formal welfare assessments. As well as ranking the humaneness of interventions, the model highlighted future research needs and how Standard Operating Procedures might be improved. The model is a milestone in assessing wildlife management welfare impacts, but our research revealed some limitations of the model and we discuss likely challenges in resolving these. In future, the model might be developed to improve its utility, e.g. by refining the time-scales. It might also be used to reach consensus among

  10. Cholecalciferol has no effect on calcium and inorganic phosphorus balance in a naturally cholecalciferol-deplete subterranean mammal, the naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffenstein, R; Yahav, S

    1991-04-01

    Naked mole rats, Heterocephalus glaber, have no obvious source of cholecalciferol (D3) available to them, given their underground habitat and tubiferous diet. They have undetectable levels of 25-OH-D3 and as such appear to be naturally deplete in D3. The effect of an oral D3 supplement on mineral balance and homeostasis was therefore investigated. This D3 treatment did not affect circulating levels of Ca2+ and inorganic phosphorus (P(i]. Nor did D3 treatment affect mineral intake and absorption. The Ca2+ and P(i) present in the food was efficiently extracted and absorbed, resulting in an apparent fractional absorption (AFA) efficiency exceeding 98%. Irrespective of D3 treatment, the amount of Ca2+ and P(i) absorbed was positively correlated with the amount ingested, suggesting that intestinal uptake is by a passive D3-independent process. After D3 supplementation urinary Ca2+ secretion was unchanged; however, the amount of P(i) excreted in the urine increased (P less than or equal to 0.05). This resulted in a concomitant decline in P(i) AFR (P less than or equal to 0.02 from 99.95 +/- 0.02% to 99.82 +/- 0.03%). Almost all the Ca2+ and P(i) in the glomerular filtrate were reabsorbed, facilitating AFR efficiencies that approach physiological maxima (greater than 99%). Changes in AFR efficiency with D3 supplementation are therefore of no biological significance. Net mineral flux of both elements, irrespective of D3 treatment, was positive. It is speculated that the ever-growing incisors of these animals act as mineral dumps and assist in the tight regulation of plasma Ca2+ and P(i). These data suggest that naked mole rats utilize mechanisms independent of D3 in regulating mineral homeostasis and are therefore well-adapted to an environment devoid of sunlight.

  11. Effects of KOH:ZnCl{sub 2} mole ratio on the phase formation, morphological and inhibitive properties of potassium zinc phosphate (PZP) pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askari, F. [Inorganic Pigment and Glazes Department, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran 1668814811 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Surface Coatings and Corrosion Department, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran 1668814811 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghasemi, E., E-mail: eghasemi@iust.ac.ir [Inorganic Pigment and Glazes Department, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran 1668814811 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezanzadeh, B.; Mahdavian, M. [Surface Coatings and Corrosion Department, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran 1668814811 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Graphical abstract: This figure illustrates the inhibition mechanism. The film precipitation on the anodic and cathodic regions of the metal surface causes a drop in dissolution rate of steel. - Highlights: • We synthesized the ZP pigments via coprecipitation method. • Effect of KOH:ZnCl{sub 2} on phase formation, morphology and inhibitive performance of pigment. • KOH:ZnCl{sub 2} ratio is effective on phase formation and morphology of ZP pigments. • KZn{sub 2}H(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} phase showed superior corrosion inhibition behavior than KZnPO{sub 4}. - Abstract: Different types of potassium zinc phosphate (PZP) pigments were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The PZPs were obtained through changing KOH:ZnCl{sub 2} mole ratio. The chemical composition of the pigments was studied by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Then, the extracts of the PZPs were prepared in 3.5% (w/w) NaCl solution. The inhibitive performance of the pigments was investigated by polarization technique and SEM surface analysis through dipping mild steel panels in the pigment extracts for different immersion times. Results showed that changing ZnCl{sub 2}/KOH mole ratio could influence formation of KZn{sub 2}H(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} and KZnPO{sub 4} phases. It was known that the KZn{sub 2}H(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} phase has a superior corrosion inhibition behavior in 3.5% NaCl solution than KZnPO{sub 4} phase.

  12. Extended Postnatal Brain Development in the Longest-Lived Rodent: Prolonged Maintenance of Neotenous Traits in the Naked Mole-Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Miranda E; Garbarino, Valentina R; Salinas, Angelica; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) is the longest-lived rodent with a maximum lifespan >31 years. Intriguingly, fully-grown naked mole-rats (NMRs) exhibit many traits typical of neonatal rodents. However, little is known about NMR growth and maturation, and we question whether sustained neotenous features when compared to mice, reflect an extended developmental period, commensurate with their exceptionally long life. We tracked development from birth to 3 years of age in the slowest maturing organ, the brain, by measuring mass, neural stem cell proliferation, axonal, and dendritic maturation, synaptogenesis and myelination. NMR brain maturation was compared to data from similar sized rodents, mice, and to that of long-lived mammals, humans, and non-human primates. We found that at birth, NMR brains are significantly more developed than mice, and rather are more similar to those of newborn primates, with clearly laminated hippocampi and myelinated white matter tracts. Despite this more mature brain at birth than mice, postnatal NMR brain maturation occurs at a far slower rate than mice, taking four-times longer than required for mice to fully complete brain development. At 4 months of age, NMR brains reach 90% of adult size with stable neuronal cytostructural protein expression whereas myelin protein expression does not plateau until 9 months of age in NMRs, and synaptic protein expression continues to change throughout the first 3 years of life. Intriguingly, NMR axonal composition is more similar to humans than mice whereby NMRs maintain expression of three-repeat (3R) tau even after brain growth is complete; mice experience an abrupt downregulation of 3R tau by postnatal day 8 which continues to diminish through 6 weeks of age. We have identified key ages in NMR cerebral development and suggest that the long-lived NMR may provide neurobiologists an exceptional model to study brain developmental processes that are compressed in common short-lived laboratory animal models.

  13. Surface and bulk modifications of 1.5 mole % Sr/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst with different Co, Ni, and Cu amounts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez C, S.L.; Fontal, B.; Moronta, D. [Laboratorio de Cinetica y Catalisis, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de los Andes, Merida 5101A, (Venezuela)

    2001-07-01

    The effects of Co, Ni and Cu oxide content on the surface and bulk of the 1.5 mole % Sr/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts were studied. Series of M/Sr-La catalysts (MCo, Ni, Cu) were prepared by successive immersion impregnation. The solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (Ftir), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) specific surface area measurements (BET) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The Sr/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} modified with different Co, Ni and Cu modified loading shows a strong metal oxide interaction with La{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This probably begins over anionic vacancies or structure defects favoring LaSrMO{sub x} solid solution formation with island-like structures according to a Volmer-Weber growth. It is proposed that the growth mode of La-Co, La-Ni and La-Cu stoichiometric phases occur from solid solutions. The formation of only a La-M single phase, probably non-stoichiometric, increases the material porosity while different phases favor the agglomeration or sintering of the particles. (Author)

  14. Sex, Status, and Sand: California Academy of Sciences' Teen Interns Examine Trends of the Pacific Mole Crab (Emerita analoga) at Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J. B.; Conrad-Saydah, A.; Cohen, S.; Tom, R.; Robins-Moloney, M.; Masters, D.; Mason, K.; Alfaro, F.

    2003-12-01

    Student interns from the California Academy of Sciences' Careers in Sciences program monitored the Pacific mole crab (Emerita analoga), or sand crabs, in collaboration with the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association. These small crustaceans live in the swash zone of the sandy beach habitat. Sand crabs are important in the food web, and therefore their status can help indicate the health of the larger environment. The interns helped the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary by monitoring the abundance and distribution of sand crabs at Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California. Students set up transects perpendicular to the shoreline, collected 10 samples along the transect, measured the carapace length, determined the sex of each crab, and checked for the presence of eggs. Students monitored June through September, 2003. Trends examined included differences in the gender ratio, size frequency, and distribution along the beach. Students also compared their data to other student data taken from other sites in San Francisco and Marin counties during 2001-2003 from the online database at http://www.sandcrabs.org. Using comparisons, interns were able to better understand the processes and significance of studying marine species. Implementation of the project was invaluable in aiding the interns in their understanding of the natural sciences and the role of monitoring habitats in environmental health.

  15. Whole-exome sequencing reveals genetic variants in ERC1 and KCNG4 associated with complete hydatidiform mole in Chinese Han women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Lu, Bingjian; Lu, Weiguo; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiuqin; Wang, Xinyu; Wan, Xiaoyun; Chen, Yaxia; Feng, Suwen; Jia, Yao; Yang, Ru; Tang, Fangxu; Li, Xiong; Zhang, Shulan; Wang, Xinyan; Wei, Heng; Peng, Zhilan; Lu, Lin; Zhong, Huizhen; Zhao, Linjun; Huang, Zhangqian; Lin, Lin; Shen, Weihong; Lu, Yan; Cao, Zhu; Zou, Jian; Ma, Yuejiang; Chen, Xiaojing; Tian, Qifang; Lu, Shiming; Liu, Pengyuan; Ma, Ding; Xie, Xing; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    Complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) is a rare pregnancy-related disease with invasive potential. The genetics underlying the sporadic form of CHM have not been addressed previously, but maternal genetic variants may be involved in biparental CHM. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 51 patients with CHM and 47 healthy women to identify genetic variants associated with CHM. In addition, candidate variants were analyzed using single base extension and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry in 199 CHM patients and 400 healthy controls. We validated candidate variants using Sanger sequencing in 250 cases and 652 controls, including 205 new controls. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms, c.G48C(p.Q16H) inERC1 and c.G1114A(p.G372S) in KCNG4, were associated with an increased risk of CHM (p<0.05). These variants may contribute to the pathogenesis of CHM and could be used to screen pregnant women for this genetic abnormality. PMID:29088863

  16. Cloning and characterization of the Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cDNA from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Iksoo; Lee, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Soo; Hwang, Jae Sam; Sohn, Hung Dae; Jin, Byung Rae

    2005-04-01

    A Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cDNA was cloned from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis. The G. orientalis SOD1 (GoSOD1) cDNA contains an open reading frame of 462 bp encoding 154 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 15.8 kDa and pI of 6.1, and possesses the typical metal binding ligands of six histidines and one aspartic acid common to SOD1s. The deduced amino acid sequence of the GoSOD1 cDNA showed 75% identity to Lasius niger SOD1, 73% to Apis mellifera SOD1, and 70-68% to SOD1 sequences from other insects. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of GoSOD1 transcripts in all tissues examined. The expression level of GoATX1 mRNA in the fat body was induced when G. orientalis adult was exposed at low (4 degrees C) and high (37 degrees C) temperatures, suggesting that the GoSOD1 seems to play a protective role against oxidative stress caused by temperature shock.

  17. Biomonitoring of the genotoxic effects and oxidative potentials of commercial edible dung beetles (Onitis sp.), grasshopper (Caelifera sp.) and mole crickets (Gryllotalpa sp.) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Kubra; Incekara, Umit; Turkez, Hasan

    2014-09-01

    In this investigation, the genotoxic and oxidative effects of water soluble extracts of dung beetles, flying grasshopper and mole crickets have been assessed on cultured human blood cells. The extracts were added to the culture tubes at 12 different concentrations (0-2000 ppm). Micronucleus test was used to monitor the DNA and the chromosomal damage produced by aqueous extracts in vitro. In addition, to assess the oxidative effects, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were also measured. Our results indicated that these extracts did not show genotoxic effects at the tested concentrations. However, the extracts caused dose-dependent alterations in both TAC and TOS levels. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the studied insects can be consumed safely, but it is necessary to consider the cellular damages which are likely to appear depending on oxidative stress at higher concentrations. It has also been suggested that this in vitro approach for oxidative and genotoxicity assessments may be useful to evaluate the potential health risks of edible insects. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of the green turtle and blue-tailed mole skink: statistical evidence for archosaurian affinity of turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, Y; Nishida, M

    1999-06-01

    Turtles have highly specialized morphological characteristics, and their phylogenetic position has been under intensive debate. Previous molecular studies have not established a consistent and statistically well supported conclusion on this issue. In order to address this, complete mitochondrial DNA sequences were determined for the green turtle and the blue-tailed mole skink. These genomes possess an organization of genes which is typical of most other vertebrates, such as placental mammals, a frog, and bony fishes, but distinct from organizations of alligators and snakes. Molecular evolutionary rates of mitochondrial protein sequences appear to vary considerably among major reptilian lineages, with relatively rapid rates for snake and crocodilian lineages but slow rates for turtle and lizard lineages. In spite of this rate heterogeneity, phylogenetic analyses using amino acid sequences of 12 mitochondrial proteins reliably established the Archosauria (birds and crocodilians) and Lepidosauria (lizards and snakes) clades postulated from previous morphological studies. The phylogenetic analyses further suggested that turtles are a sister group of the archosaurs, and this untraditional relationship was provided with strong statistical evidence by both the bootstrap and the Kishino-Hasegawa tests. This is the first statistically significant molecular phylogeny on the placement of turtles relative to the archosaurs and lepidosaurs. It is therefore likely that turtles originated from a Permian-Triassic archosauromorph ancestor with two pairs of temporal fenestrae behind the skull orbit that were subsequently lost. The traditional classification of turtles in the Anapsida may thus need to be reconsidered.

  19. Ten years of eddy covariance measurements in Basel, Switzerland: Seasonal and interannual variabilities of urban CO2 mole fraction and flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, M.; Vogt, R.; Feigenwinter, C.; Parlow, E.

    2016-07-01

    Eddy covariance (EC) measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) in urban environments are carried out widely since the late nineties. However, long-term time series are still rare and little is known about long-term tendencies, even though cities are major sources of CO2 globally. Here a full decade of EC measurements from Basel, Switzerland, is presented. An approach for the calculation of horizontal averages is presented. It improves the significance and comparability of measured fluxes from heterogeneous environments and emphasizes the need of adequate weighting by horizontal averaging in such heterogeneous urban environments, especially for the derivation of cumulative quantities like the annual net ecosystem exchange. The urban CO2 mole fraction (ρC) is compared with regional background measurements, and good agreement in terms of long-term trend and seasonal variability is found. Over the last decade an increase of 2 ppm y-1 is observed, both locally and globally. CO2 flux (FC) data are analyzed for diurnal and seasonal cycles as well as interannual variabilities. FC shows a large interannual variability in times of high source activity (e.g., during the day and in winter). In contrast, a relatively constant background flux of 5 µmol m-2 s-1 is found during periods of low source activity. The long-term trend of FC is mostly superimposed by the large temporal variability and is found to be -5% over the last 10 years.

  20. Common Moles, Atypical Moles (Dysplastic Nevi), and Risk of Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... greatly increases the chance of melanoma. Skin that burns easily : People who have fair (pale) skin that ... of developing melanoma. Selected References Tucker MA. Melanoma epidemiology. Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America 2009; 23( ...

  1. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lijun, E-mail: lijunxu@buaa.edu.cn; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang [School of Instrument Science and Opto-Electronic Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Ministry of Education’s Key Laboratory of Precision Opto-Mechatronics Technology, Beijing 100191 (China); Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-01-15

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm{sup −1} (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm{sup −1} (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.

  2. High specific activity N-Acetyl-3{sup H}-{alpha}-Aspartyl- L-Glutamic at micro mole scale; Sintesis de N-Acetil-3{sup H}- {alpha} -Aspartil-Glutamico a escala de Micromoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, C.

    1984-07-01

    High specific activity N-Acetyl-3{sup H}- {alpha} -Aspartyl-I-Glutamic acid at micro mole scale in prepared acetylating L- {alpha} -Aspartyl-L-glutamic with 3{sup H}-acetic anhydride in re distilled toluene. The product le purified through cationic and anionic columns. The radiochemical purity as determined by thin-layer chromatography is greater then 99% at the time preparation. (Author) 5 refs.

  3. Sox9 gene regulation and the loss of the XY/XX sex-determining mechanism in the mole vole Ellobius lutescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri-Fam, Stefan; Sreenivasan, Rajini; Bernard, Pascal; Knower, Kevin C; Sekido, Ryohei; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Just, Walter; Harley, Vincent R

    2012-01-01

    In most mammals, the Y chromosomal Sry gene initiates testis formation within the bipotential gonad, resulting in male development. SRY is a transcription factor and together with SF1 it directly up-regulates the expression of the pivotal sex-determining gene Sox9 via a 1.3-kb cis-regulatory element (TESCO) which contains an evolutionarily conserved region (ECR) of 180 bp. Remarkably, several rodent species appear to determine sex in the absence of Sry and a Y chromosome, including the mole voles Ellobius lutescens and Ellobius tancrei, whereas Ellobius fuscocapillus of the same genus retained Sry. The sex-determining mechanisms in the Sry-negative species remain elusive. We have cloned and sequenced 1.1 kb of E. lutescens TESCO which shares 75% sequence identity with mouse TESCO indicating that testicular Sox9 expression in E. lutescens might still be regulated via TESCO. We have also cloned and sequenced the ECRs of E. tancrei and E. fuscocapillus. While the three Ellobius ECRs are highly similar (94-97% sequence identity), they all display a 14-bp deletion (Δ14) removing a highly conserved SOX/TCF site. Introducing Δ14 into mouse TESCO increased both basal activity and SF1-mediated activation of TESCO in HEK293T cells. We propose a model whereby Δ14 may have triggered up-regulation of Sox9 in XX gonads leading to destabilization of the XY/XX sex-determining mechanism in Ellobius. E. lutescens/E. tancrei and E. fuscocapillus could have independently stabilized their sex determination mechanisms by Sry-independent and Sry-dependent approaches, respectively.

  4. Elevated protein carbonylation and oxidative stress do not affect protein structure and function in the long-living naked-mole rat: a proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waal, Eric M; Liang, Hanyu; Pierce, Anson; Hamilton, Ryan T; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Chaudhuri, Asish R

    2013-05-17

    The 'oxidative stress theory of aging' predicts that aging is primarily regulated by progressive accumulation of oxidized macromolecules that cause deleterious effects to cellular homeostasis and induces a decline in physiological function. However, our reports on the detection of higher level of oxidized protein carbonyls in the soluble cellular fractions of long-living rodent naked-mole rats (NMRs, lifespan ~30yrs) compared to short-lived mice (lifespan ~3.5yrs) apparently contradicts a key tenet of the oxidative theory. As oxidation often inactivates enzyme function and induces higher-order soluble oligomers, we performed a comprehensive study to measure global protein carbonyl level in different tissues of age-matched NMRs and mice to determine if the traditional concept of oxidation mediated impairment of function and induction of higher-order structures of proteins are upheld in the NMRs. We made three intriguing observations with NMRs proteins: (1) protein carbonyl is significantly elevated across different tissues despite of its exceptional longevity, (2) enzyme function is restored despite of experiencing higher level of protein carbonylation, and (3) enzymes show lesser sensitivity to form higher-order non-reducible oligomers compared to short-living mouse proteins in response to oxidative stress. These observations were made based on the global analysis of protein carbonyl and identification of two heavily carbonylated proteins in the kidney, triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) and cytosolic peroxiredoxin (Prdx1). These un-expected intriguing observations thus strongly suggest that oxidative modification may not be the only criteria for impairment of protein and enzyme function; cellular environment is likely be the critical determining factor in this process and may be the underlying mechanism for exceptional longevity of NMR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An optical method for carbon dioxide isotopes and mole fractions in small gas samples: Tracing microbial respiration from soil, litter, and lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Steven J; Huang, Wenjuan; Hammel, Kenneth E

    2017-11-30

    Carbon dioxide isotope (δ13 C value) measurements enable quantification of the sources of soil microbial respiration, thus informing ecosystem C dynamics. Tunable diode lasers (TDLs) can precisely measure CO2 isotopes at low cost and high throughput, but are seldom used for small samples (≤5 mL). We developed a TDL method for CO2 mole fraction ([CO2 ]) and δ13 C analysis of soil microcosms. Peaks in infrared absorbance following constant volume sample injection to a carrier were used to independently measure [12 CO2 ] and [13 CO2 ] for subsequent calculation of δ13 C values. Using parallel soil incubations receiving differing C substrates, we partitioned respiration from three sources using mixing models: native soil organic matter (SOM), added litter, and synthetic lignin containing a 13 C label at Cβ of the propyl side chain. Once-daily TDL calibration enabled accurate quantification of δ13 C values and [CO2 ] compared with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), with long-term external precision of 0.17 and 0.31‰ for 5 and 1 mL samples, respectively, and linear response between 400 and 5000 μmol mol-1 CO2 . Production of CO2 from native soil C, added litter, and lignin Cβ varied over four orders of magnitude. Multiple-pool first-order decay models fitted to data (R2  > 0.98) indicated substantially slower turnover for lignin Cβ (17 years) than for the dominant pool of litter (1.3 years) and primed soil C (3.9 years). Our TDL method provides a flexible, precise, and high-throughput (60 samples h-1 ) alternative to IRMS for small samples. This enables the use of C isotopes in increasingly sophisticated experiments to test biogeochemical controversies, such as the fate of lignins in soil. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Tratamento cirúrgico da onicocriptose: excisão do tecido mole circunjacente ao leito ungueal utilizando radioeletro-cirurgia e criocirurgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmélia Matos Santiago Reis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A onicocriptose ou unha encravada é processo doloroso originário dapenetração da lâmina ungueal no tecido mole circunjacente.Várias opções terapêuticas,cirúrgicas ou conservadoras são utilizadas. Em contraste com outros tratamentos invasivos,a técnica combinada da radioeletrocirurgia com criocirurgia não causa dano permanenteà matriz ou prega ungueal, tendo várias vantagens em relação aos tratamentos usuais.Objetivo: Avaliar eficácia e segurança da associação de radioeletrocirurgia e criocirurgiano tratamento da unha encravada.Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo observacional. Dezesseis pacientes com onicocriptose, foramsubmetidos à eletrocirurgia com radiofrequência para remoção do tecido de granulação pro-movendo a acomodação da lâmina ungueal, seguida de congelamento com nitrogêniolíquido.Resultados: Após 10 dias os pacientes relataram melhora do desconforto causado por suapatologia, podendo retomar o uso de sapatos.Durante o seguimento, de 24 meses, apenasum paciente apresentou recidiva em uma das unhas, sendo repetida a técnica.Conclusões: A técnica descrita mostrou-se conveniente devido à fácil execução, ao baixocusto, aos bons resultados cosméticos e à satisfação do paciente.

  7. Microhabitat types promote the genetic structure of a micro-endemic and critically endangered mole salamander (Ambystoma leorae of Central Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Sunny

    Full Text Available The reduced immigration and emigration rates resulting from the lack of landscape connectivity of patches and the hospitality of the intervening matrix could favor the loss of alleles through genetic drift and an increased chance of inbreeding. In order for isolated populations to maintain sufficient levels of genetic diversity and adapt to environmental changes, one important conservation goal must be to preserve or reestablish connectivity among patches in a fragmented landscape. We studied the last known population of Ambystoma leorae, an endemic and critically threatened species. The aims of this study were: (1 to assess the demographic parameters of A. leorae and to distinguish and characterize the microhabitats in the river, (2 to determine the number of existing genetic groups or demes of A. leorae and to describe possible relationships between microhabitats types and demes, (3 to determine gene flow between demes, and (4 to search for geographic locations of genetic discontinuities that limit gene flow between demes. We found three types of microhabitats and three genetically differentiated subpopulations with a significant level of genetic structure. In addition, we found slight genetic barriers. Our results suggest that mole salamander's species are very sensitive to microhabitat features and relatively narrow obstacles in their path. The estimates of bidirectional gene flow are consistent with the pattern of a stepping stone model between demes, where migration occurs between adjacent demes, but there is low gene flow between distant demes. We can also conclude that there is a positive correlation between microhabitats and genetic structure in this population.

  8. Uso de antagonistas e produtos alternativos no manejo pós-colheita de podridão mole em pimentão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Silva e Silva

    Full Text Available Visando o controle da podridão mole causada por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc em pimentão, foram avaliados 10 tratamentos: Bacillus spp.: isolado C116 (B. pumilus; Leveduras: isolados Lma (Rhodotorula aurantiaca e Lms (R. glutinis; Fosfito de potássio e cálcio; Fontes de cálcio: CaCl2, Ca(CO32 e Ca(SO42; fungicida/bactericida orgânico Antica®; antibiótico Kasumin®. Após a determinação da concentração dos antagonistas e produtos alternativos pelo teste do antibiograma, foi realizado o teste in vivo, pela inoculação do patógeno, seis horas após os tratamentos com os antagonistas e produtos alternativos. Foram determinados o Período de Incubação (PI, Severidade da doença (SEV, Redução da severidade da doença (RSD% e Área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD. Todos os tratamentos testados apresentaram maiores valores de PI e RSD% e menores valores de SEV e AACPD quando comparados à testemunha. Fosfito de cálcio, C116, Lms, Lma e fosfito de potássio foram significativamente superiores quando comparados como demais tratamentos. Pcc foi resistente ao Kasumin®, possuindo SEV e AACPD que não diferiram significativamente da testemunha.

  9. Surface and bulk modifications of 1.5 mole % Sr/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst with different Co, Ni, and Cu amounts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cortes, Sergio; Fontal, Bernardo [Universidad de los Andes, Merida (Venezuela); Moronta, Delfin [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2001-08-01

    The effects of Co, Ni and Cu oxide content on the surface and bulk of the 1.5 mole % Sr/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts were studied. Series of M/Sr-La catalysts (MCo, Ni, Cu) were prepared by successive immersion impregnation. The solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), specific surface area measurements (BET) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The Sr/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} modified with different Co, Ni, and Cu loading shows a strong metal oxide interaction with La{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This probably begin over anionic vacancies or structure defects favoring LaSrMO{sub x} solid solution formation with island-like structures according to a Volmer-Weber growth. It is proposed that the growth mode of La-Co, La-Ni and La-Cu stoichiometric phases occur from solid solutions. The formation of only a La-M single phase, probably non-stoichiometric, increases the material porosity while different phases favor the agglomeration or sintering of the particles. [Spanish] En este trabajo se estudia el efecto de la cantidad de cobalto, niquel y cobre sobre las estructuras superficial y masica del sistema 1.5% molar Sr/La{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Los catalizadores M/Sr-La (M = Co, Ni, Cu) fueron preparados por el metodo de impregnacion con exceso de solucion. Los solidos se caracterizaron por difraccion de rayos-X, espectroscopia infrarroja con transformada de Fourier, reduccion a temperatura programada, resonancia paramagnetica del electron, medidas del area superficial especifica por el metodo de BET y analisis termogravimetrico. El catalizador Sr/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} modificado con diferentes cantidades de Co, Ni y Cu muestra una interaccion fuerte con el oxido del metal de transicion, probablemente sobre las vacancias anionicas o defectos estructurales que favorecen la formacion de la solucion solida LaSrMox en forma de isla, segun el mecanismo de crecimiento de fase de Volmer

  10. Estimating surface CO2 fluxes from space-borne CO2 dry air mole fraction observations using an ensemble Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dance

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF to estimate 8-day regional surface fluxes of CO2 from space-borne CO2 dry-air mole fraction observations (XCO2 and evaluate the approach using a series of synthetic experiments, in preparation for data from the NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO. The 32-day duty cycle of OCO alternates every 16 days between nadir and glint measurements of backscattered solar radiation at short-wave infrared wavelengths. The EnKF uses an ensemble of states to represent the error covariances to estimate 8-day CO2 surface fluxes over 144 geographical regions. We use a 12×8-day lag window, recognising that XCO2 measurements include surface flux information from prior time windows. The observation operator that relates surface CO2 fluxes to atmospheric distributions of XCO2 includes: a the GEOS-Chem transport model that relates surface fluxes to global 3-D distributions of CO2 concentrations, which are sampled at the time and location of OCO measurements that are cloud-free and have aerosol optical depths 2 profiles to XCO2, accounting for differences between nadir and glint measurements, and the associated scene-dependent observation errors. We show that OCO XCO2 measurements significantly reduce the uncertainties of surface CO2 flux estimates. Glint measurements are generally better at constraining ocean CO2 flux estimates. Nadir XCO2 measurements over the terrestrial tropics are sparse throughout the year because of either clouds or smoke. Glint measurements provide the most effective constraint for estimating tropical terrestrial CO2 fluxes by accurately sampling fresh continental outflow over neighbouring oceans. We also present results from sensitivity experiments that investigate how flux estimates change with 1 bias and unbiased errors, 2 alternative duty cycles, 3 measurement density and correlations, 4 the spatial resolution of estimated flux estimates, and 5 reducing the length of the lag window and the

  11. Quantificação de danos e controle pós-colheita de podridão parda (Monilinia fructicola) e podridão mole (Rhizopus spp.) em pêssegos

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Marchi de Abreu

    2006-01-01

    O objetivo desse trabalho foi quantificar e caracterizar danos pós-colheita em pêssegos comercializados na Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazéns Gerais de São Paulo - CEAGESP e testar produtos sanificantes no controle de podridão parda (Monilinia fructicola) e podridão mole (Rhizopus spp.). Para tanto, foram realizadas vinte avaliações semanais, entre as safras de 2003 e 2004, amostrando-se 1% do total de caixas de pêssegos em cinco permissionários que comercializam esta fruta. As amostragens f...

  12. Efeito de sanificantes no controle pós-colheita da podridão parda (Monilinia fructicola) e da podridão mole (Rhizopus stolonifer) em pêssegos

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu,Fabiana Marchi de; Lourenço,Silvia Afonseca; Bassetto,Eliane; Gonçalves,Fabrício Packer; Martins,Marise Cagnim; Amorim,Lilian

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito in vitro e in vivo dos sanificantes cloreto de benzalcônio (Fegatex®), biomassa cítrica (Ecolife40®) e ozônio no controle da podridão parda (Monilinia fructicola) e da podridão mole (Rhizopus stolonifer) em pêssegos das cultivares Aurora, Dourado e Flor da Prince. Cloreto de benzalcônio e biomassa cítrica, aplicados in vitro, ambos na concentração de 1000 mL L-1, inibiram totalmente o crescimento radial (micelial) de M. fructicola, porém nenhum d...

  13. Absolute noninvasive measurement of CO2 mole fraction emitted by E. coli and S. aureus using calibration-free 2f WMS applied to a 2004  nm VCSEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarin, A S; Chakraborty, Arup Lal; Upadhyay, Abhishek

    2017-06-01

    We report the first demonstration, to the best of our knowledge, of accurate real-time noninvasive measurement of the absolute cumulative mole fraction of metabolic carbon dioxide emitted by Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus over a period of several hours of their life cycles using a recently developed calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy technique. A 1 mW vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser is used to interrogate a single rotational vibrational absorption line of carbon dioxide at 2003.5 nm. The measurements are immune to laser intensity fluctuations and variable optical coupling that is inevitable in such free-space coupled experiments that run over 10-18 h. The cumulative carbon dioxide mole fraction follows the characteristic modified Gompertz model that is typical of bacterial growth in batch cultures. The characteristic growth parameters are extracted from this curve. The technique can be readily extended to study multiple volatile organic compounds that bacteria are known to emit.

  14. Complete mole in a dichorionic twin pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection Mola hidatiforme completa em gravidez bicoriônica após injecção intracitoplasmática de espermatozoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago José Santos de Matos Ferraz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A dichorionic twin pregnancy with complete hydatidiform mole and coexistent fetus is a rare and challenging situation, whose pathogenesis has not been yet fully understood. We present a case of a 39-year-old woman who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection with two embryos transfer. The 12-week gestation ultrasound examination revealed normal fetus and placenta with features of hydatidiform mole, leading to pregnancy termination. Autopsy and histological examinations diagnosed a complete mole coexisting with a normal fetus, and the genetic analysis showed a diploid fetus with biparental genome and molar tissue with paternal diploidy. This case highlighted that complete molar pregnancies may still occur even though pregnancy is achieved after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. A review of the literature was performed by collecting data from the few similar reported cases and by commenting on the pathogenesis of this rare condition.Uma gravidez bicoriônica com mola hidatiforme completa e feto normal é uma situação rara e desafiadora, cuja patogênese não foi ainda totalmente compreendida. Apresenta-se o caso de uma mulher de 39 anos submetida à injeção intracitoplasmática de espermatozoides com transferência de dois embriões. Na ecografia pré-natal realizada na 12ª semana de gestação, foi identificado um embrião morfologicamente normal e uma placenta com características molares. Esta situação resultou na terminação eletiva da gravidez. A autópsia e o estudo histológico permitiram o diagnóstico definitivo de uma mola hidatiforme completa coexistindo com feto normal. A análise genética mostrou feto diploide com genoma biparental e tecido molar com diploidia paterna. Este caso ressaltou que as gestações com mola hidatiforme completa poderão ainda ocorrer, mesmo que a gravidez seja realizada após uma injeção intracitoplasmática de espermatozoides. Foram realizadas uma revisão dos raros casos descritos na literatura

  15. Biópsia percutânea por agulha grossa de tumores de partes moles guiada por tomografia computadorizada: resultados e correlação com análise da peça cirúrgica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Chojniak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia da biópsia percutânea por agulha grossa (BPAG de tumores de partes moles guiada por tomografia computadorizada (TC, em relação ao sucesso na obtenção de amostra para análise, e comparar o diagnóstico da BPAG com o resultado anatomopatológico da peça cirúrgica, quando disponível. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram revisados os prontuários e laudos diagnósticos de 262 pacientes com tumores de partes moles submetidos a BPAG guiada por TC em um centro de referência oncológico entre 2003 e 2009. RESULTADOS: Das 262 biópsias realizadas, foi possível a obtenção de amostra adequada em 215 (82,1%. Os tumores mais prevalentes foram os sarcomas (38,6%, carcinomas metastáticos (28,8%, tumores mesenquimais benignos (20,5% e linfomas (9,3%. Foi possível realizar graduação histológica em 92,8% dos pacientes com sarcoma, sendo a maioria (77,9% classificada como alto grau. Do total de pacientes, 116 (44,3% realizaram cirurgia para exérese e confirmação diagnóstica. A BPAG mostrou acurácia de 94,6% na identificação de sarcomas, com sensibilidade de 96,4% e especificidade de 89,5%. A graduação histológica teve concordância significativa entre a BPAG e a peça cirúrgica (p < 0,001; kappa = 0,75. CONCLUSÃO: A BPAG guiada por TC demonstrou elevada acurácia diagnóstica na avaliação de tumores de partes moles e na graduação histológica dos sarcomas, permitindo um adequado planejamento terapêutico.

  16. Efeito da data de sementeira na produtividade de trigo mole (Triticum Aestivum L. em condições mediterrânicas Effect of the sowing date on bread wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. productivity under mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Godinho Calado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A data de sementeira do trigo mole exerce uma influência relevante no crescimento e desenvolvimento da cultura, condicionando a sua produtividade. O seu efeito é, especial-mente, importante sob condições mediterrânicas. Por isso, neste trabalho procurou-se verificar a influência da data de sementeira no rendimento do trigo mole, a partir de um ensaio de quinze genótipos semeados em datas diferentes durante cinco anos (1994/95 a 1999/00 na região Alentejo. Com base na análise dos resultados conclui-se que a variação da época de sementeira em aproximadamente um mês, desde o fim de Outubro até ao fim de Novembro, pode permitir rendimentos viáveis do trigo mole nas zonas cerealíferas mediterrânicas, particularmente na região Alentejo. Todavia, as produções mais altas tendem a ser obtidas quando a sementeira é efectuada na primeira quinzena de Novembro. Ao avançar a sementeira para o mês de Dezembro decresce a produtividade e, em consequência, diminui a viabilidade da cultura.The sowing date of bread wheat has a great influence on the growth and development of the crop and its productivity, especially under Mediterranean conditions. This paper presents the results of trials conducted in the Alentejo region that studied the performance of fifteen wheat genotypes sown at different dates, repeated over 5 years (1994/95 to 1999/00. Despite a great variability between years, the results indicate that a satisfactory wheat productivity in the Alentejo can be obtained with sowing dates ranging from end of October until the end of November. Nonetheless, sowing dates in the first half of November tend to provide higher grain yields. Moving the sowing date into December results in reduced grain yields, thus compromising the economic viability of wheat growing.

  17. Tamanho de amostras para quantificação da podridão-mole da alface e da couve-chinesa Sample size for assessment of soft rot in lettuce and Chinese cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Márcio Freire Silva

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Os cultivos de alface e couve-chinesa podem ter a produção reduzida devido à ocorrência da podridão-mole, causada por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os tamanhos ideais das amostras para quantificação da incidência dessa doença em levantamentos no campo. Foram realizadas amostragens da incidência da podridão-mole em oito áreas de plantio de alface e cinco de couve-chinesa, situadas nos principais municípios produtores do Estado de Pernambuco. Considerando os resultados obtidos e um erro aceitável de 20%, em futuros levantamentos da incidência da podridão-mole em alface recomenda-se a amostragem de 32 parcelas de 4,5 m²/ha e 20 plantas/parcela, enquanto em couve-chinesa a amostragem de 22 parcelas de 10,5 m²/ha e 20 plantas/parcela. Para ambas as culturas não houve correlação significativa (P=0,05 entre os níveis de incidência da doença e os tamanhos das amostras.Lettuce and Chinese cabbage may present yield reduction due to the occurrence of soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. This study aimed to determine the ideal sample size for assessing disease incidence in field surveys. Samples of soft rot incidence were conducted in eight lettuce growing areas and five Chinese cabbage growing areas, located in the main production cities around Pernambuco State. Considering 20% of acceptable error, the results pointed out that future surveys of the soft rot incidence on lettuce should analyze 32 plots with 4.5 m²/ha and 20 plants/plot, while for Chinese cabbage the sample should include 32 plots with 10.5 m²/ha and 20 plants/plot. No significant correlation (P=0.05 was found between disease incidence levels and sample sizes for both crops.

  18. Relationship between lattice relaxation and electrical properties in polarization doping of graded AlGaN with high AlN mole fraction on AlGaN template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Toshiki; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Iwaya, Motoaki; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Akasaki, Isamu; Amano, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    We investigated polarization doping for hole generation in abrupt and graded GaN/Al0.7Ga0.3N interfaces on Al0.99Ga0.01N templates. The abrupt interface exhibited hole generation, whereas the graded interface exhibited electron generation. In the graded Al x Ga1- x N (x = 0.65-0), a graded part with an AlN mole fraction ranging from 0.2 to 0 showed a large relaxation. Theoretical estimation revealed that this part contained positive polarization charges, accumulating electrons. Via Mg doping in the graded AlGaN layer, we obtained a high hole concentration of 3 × 1013 cm-2. These results indicate that understanding the relaxation conditions in the graded layer is indispensable for polarization doping.

  19. Efeito da mobilização de tecidos moles nas concentrações de ácido láctico, após exercício intensivo

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Juliana Alves; Leite, Pedro Harry; Paquete, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Objectivo do estudo: verificar o efeito da mobilização dos tecidos moles nas concentrações de ácido láctico, após exercício intensivo. Critérios de exclusão: lesão ou cirurgia ao nível do membro inferior dominante; presença de qualquer doença neurológica, dermatológica, sistémica, cardiovascular ou vascular periférica; dor ao nível da musculatura em avaliação; não realizar qualquer tipo de tratamentos de Fisioterapia.

  20. Placentation in mammals once grouped as insectivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony; Enders, Allen

    2009-01-01

    nutrition involving columnar trophoblast cells. These range from areolae in moles through complexly folded hemophagous regions in tenrecs to the trophoblastic annulus in shrews. Of these placental characters, few offer support to current phylogenies. However, the case for placing hedgehogs and gymnures...

  1. Evidência molecular da ocorrência de um fitoplasma associado ao lenho mole da macieira Molecular evidence for an association of a phytoplasma with apple rubbery wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Caldeira Ribeiro

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O lenho mole da macieira é uma doença relevante em diversas partes do mundo. Sintomas típicos desta doença têm sido observados em pomares instalados em estados do sul do território brasileiro desde a década de oitenta. Enxertia tem revelado a natureza infecciosa da doença e a observação de corpúsculos filamentosos no floema tem evidenciado possível associação com fitoplasma. No presente trabalho plantas com sintomas de lenho mole foram coletadas em pomar comercial, visando demonstrar a presença de fitoplasma em tecido doente, bem como identificar molecularmente este fitoplasma. Através do emprego de duplo PCR com iniciadores universais R16mF2/R1 e R16F2n/R2, fitoplasma foi consistentemente detectado em plantas sintomáticas. A identificação conduzida com duplo PCR usando-se iniciadores específicos R16(IIIF2/R demonstrou que o fitoplasma detectado pertencia ao grupo 16SrIII. Análises de RFLP conduzidas com as endonucleases AluI, KpnI, HinfI, HpaII, MseI, RsaI e SauIIIA confirmaram que o fitoplasma era um representante típico do grupo 16SrIII. A detecção e identificação molecular se constitui numa forte evidência que um fitoplasma está associado ao lenho mole da macieira no Brasil, complementando os trabalhos realizados anteriormente com transmissão por enxertia e observação por microscopia eletrônica .Apple rubbery wood is an important disease occurring worldwide. Typical symptoms have been observed since 80' decade in orchards located in the South part of Brazil. In previous studies, grafting has evidenciated that the disease had infeccious etiology and visualization of filamentous bodies inside phloem had indicated that a phytoplasma could be associated with the disease. In the present study, plants with symptoms of rubbery wood were sampled in a commercial orchard in order to demonstrate the presence of phytoplasma in infected tissue and to identify molecularly that the organism. Using nested PCR with universal

  2. Phase structure and thermal evolution in coating films and powders obtained by sol-gel process: Part II. ZrO{sub 2}{minus}2.5mole {percent} Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, R.; Benavidez, E.; de Sanctis, O. [Laboratorio de Materiales Ceramicos, FCEIyA, IFIR, Av. Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Caracoche, M.C.; Rivas, P.C. [Programa TENAES, Departamento de Fisica, FCE, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, c.c. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Cervera, M. [Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, R.S. 184, 1864 Bernal (Argentina); Caneiro, A.; Serquis, A. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, CNEA, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)

    1997-10-01

    Powders and coatings of zirconia doped with 2.5 mole {percent} yttria have been produced via the sol-gel route. The phase structure and subsequent thermal evolution in heating and cooling cycles have been investigated using mainly perturbed angular correlations spectroscopy. Thermal analyses and XRD as a function of temperature have also been performed to obtain complementary information. Upon heating, the amorphous gels crystallized into the tetragonal structure and showed the same hyperfine pattern and thermal behavior as observed in tetragonal zorconia obtained by the ceramic route: the two configurations vacancies around zirconium ions denoted as t{sub 1} and t{sub 2} forms and their mutual t{sub 1}{r_arrow}t{sub 2} transformation. While the powder sample exhibited an incipient thermal instability above 1000{degree}C and underwent completely the t{sub 2} form to m{endash}ZrO{sub 2} transition during subsequent, gradual cooling below 500{degree}C, the coating retained the tetragonal phase within the whole temperature range investigated. Hyperfine results suggest that the tetragonal phase stabilization is favored by the highly defective nature of the t{sub 1} form and consequently hardened by the availability of oxygen. The PAC derived activation energy for the fast diffusion of the oxygen vacancies inherent to the t{sub 2} form was determined as 0.54{plus_minus}0.14eV. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  3. Effect of annealing temperature and copper mole ratio on the morphology, structure and magnetic properties of Mg0.5-xCuxZn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles prepared by the modified Pechini method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loghman-Estarki, M. R.; Torkian, S.; Rastabi, R. Amini; Ghasemi, A.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, magnesium copper zinc ferrite (MCZ) nanoparticles were synthesized by the modified Pechini method. In this approach, the magnesium nitrate, copper nitrate, zinc nitrate, iron nitrate, citric acid and diethylene glycol (instead of ethylene glycol in conventional Pechini method) were used as a source of Mg2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, complex and stabilizer and solvent agent, respectively. The effect of annealing temperature and copper mole ratio on the morphology, structural and magnetic properties of Mg0.5xCuxZn0.5Fe2O4 (x = 0-0.5) nanoparticles were investigated. Various characterization methods, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FeSEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray mapping, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), adsorption-desorption isotherm and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were used to study the phase, microstructure, particle size, elemental distribution, functional group determination, porosity and magnetic properties of nanoparticles, respectively. The results showed that cubic spinel phase with various morphologies such as semi-spherical, sheet-like shapes was obtained by the modified Pechini method. Furthermore, the nanoparticles with the x value of 0.2, annealed at 700 °C have the highest saturation magnetization (Ms = 56.5 emu/g) among the other synthesized MCZ ferrite nanoparticles.

  4. Calcium-free and low-calcium water production for aquaculture research = Produção de água mole e isenta de cálcio para experimentação em aquicultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Damasceno Pinheiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to obtain a mathematical expression to calculate the amount of EDTA required to produce calcium-free and low-calcium water ([Ca2+] O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a quantidade de EDTAnecessaria para se produzir agua sem calcio e agua mole ([Ca2+] < 5 mg L-1 para experimentacao em aquicultura. Inicialmente, realizou-se teste-piloto para confirmar a efetividade do EDTA como agente complexante do calcio presente na agua e avaliar seu efeito no pH da agua. No teste principal, cinco taxas de aplicacao de Na-EDTA (25, 50, 75, 100 e 125 mg L-1 foram avaliadas. A concentracao de calcio da agua foi determinada inicialmente (antes da aplicacao de EDTA e apos 1h. Analise de regressao linear foi feita para se descobrir a relacao entre a concentracao desejada de calcio na agua e a relacaoEDTA/dureza calcica inicial da agua necessaria. A expressao . = -0,0911x + 3,3628 (R2 = 0,933 foi obtida a partir da regressao realizada na qual x representa a concentracao desejada de calcio na agua e y a relacao EDTA/dureza calcica inicial da agua.

  5. Quitosana no controle pós-colheita da podridão mole em caqui 'rama forte' Chitosan on the postharvest control of soft rot in 'rama forte' persimmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Cia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da quitosana, aliada ao processo de destanização, no controle de Rhizopus stolonifer em caqui 'Rama Forte' e sobre o crescimento micelial do fungo in vitro. Caquis foram submetidos ao processo de destanização com CO2 (70% / 18 horas, em tambores herméticos, sendo em seguida submetidos à inoculação com suspensão de esporos de R. stolonifer (3x10(5 esporos mL-1. Após inoculação, os frutos permaneceram por 2 horas a 25 °C, quando foram imersos em quitosana (0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 e 2,0%, por 1 minuto. Os frutos foram mantidos a 25 °C / 80% UR e avaliados quanto à severidade e incidência da podridão mole, durante cinco dias. Após o período de armazenamento, avaliaram-se a coloração de casca, a firmeza e o índice de adstringência. In vitro, avaliou-se o crescimento micelial em placas contendo meio BDA incorporado com quitosana ou ácido cítrico. Os resultados mostraram que a quitosana, a 1,5%, reduz a severidade e a incidência da podridão mole em caquis e não influencia no processo de perda de adstringência, firmeza e na coloração de casca. In vitro, a quitosana inibe completamente o crescimento micelial de R. stolonifer, em concentração tão baixa quanto 0,5%.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of chitosan in addition to de-astringency process on the control of Rhizopus stolonifer in 'Rama Forte' persimmon and on in vitro mycelial growth. Persimmon were submitted to de-astringency process using CO2 (70% / 18 h, in hermetic chambers. Next, fruit were inoculated through subcuticular injections of a R. stolonifer spore suspension (3x10(5 spore mL-1 and 2 hours later at 25 °C immersed into chitosan (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0%, for 1 min. Fruit were stored at 25 °C / 80% RH, and checked for rot severity and incidence of soft rot, during 5-days of storage. After storage the skin color, firmness and astringency index were evaluated in persimmons. In vitro, mycelial

  6. Constituintes voláteis de cafés "gourmet" e mole do cerrado do triângulo mineiro em função da torra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Evandro Afonso do

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi estudada a variação da composição dos voláteis de dois cafés "gourmet" e de um café mole em função do grau de torrefação. Os cafés provenientes de Araguari, cerrado do Triângulo Mineiro, foram submetidos à torra americana (grãos marrons claros, média (grãos marrons e forte (grãos pretos e, em seguida, moídos e submetidos a uma destilação por arraste de vapor em contra-corrente com diclorometano. A análise de cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CG-EM dos constituintes voláteis mostrou que piridina, pirazina e derivados, furfural e derivados são os principais constituintes voláteis dos cafés analisados. Mostrou ainda que não é possível diferenciar os três tipos de café pelos compostos dominantes (concentração acima de 1% no aroma. Foi observado também que a torra afeta sensivelmente os resultados, sendo que a torra americana, usada normalmente na prova da xícara para classificação sensorial de cafés, produz alguns voláteis de forte impacto no aroma que não aparecem na torra média nem na forte, além de apresentar concentrações dos componentes mais comuns muito diferentes daquelas observadas nas outras duas torras.

  7. The management and outcome of women with post-hydatidiform mole ‘low-risk' gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, but hCG levels in excess of 100 000 IU l−1

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, S; Short, D; Harvey, R; Schmid, P; Savage, P M; Seckl, M J

    2010-01-01

    Background: Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) after a hydatidiform mole is either treated with single- or multi-agent chemotherapy determined by a multifactorial scoring system. Women with human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels >100 000 IU l−1 can remain within the low-risk/single-agent category and usually choose one drug therapy. Here we compare the success and duration of single- vs multi-agent chemotherapy in this patient group. Methods: Between 1980 and 2008, 65 women had a pre-treatment hCG >100 000 IU l−1 and were low risk. The initial hCG level, treatment regimens, changes and duration and overall survival were recorded. Results: Of 37 patients starting low-risk/single-agent treatment, 11 (29.7%) were treated successfully, whereas 26 (70.3%) required additional multi-agent chemotherapy to achieve complete remission (CR). Combination chemotherapy was initially commenced in 28 women, and 2 (7%) required additional drugs for CR. The overall duration of therapy for those commencing and completing single- or multi-agent chemotherapy was 130 and 123 days (P=0.78), respectively. The median-treatment duration for patients commencing single-agent but changing to multi-agent chemotherapy was 13 days more than those receiving high-risk treatment alone (136 vs 123 days; P=0.07). All 3 patients with an initial hCG >400 000 IU l−1 and treated with single-agent therapy developed drug resistance. Overall survival for all patients was 100%. Conclusion: Low-risk post-molar GTN patients with a pre-treatment hCG >100 000 and 400 000 IU l−1 should receive multi-agent chemotherapy from the outset. PMID:20160727

  8. Gryllotalpicola gen. nov., with descriptions of Gryllotalpicola koreensis sp. nov., Gryllotalpicola daejeonensis sp. nov. and Gryllotalpicola kribbensis sp. nov. from the gut of the African mole cricket, Gryllotalpa africana, and reclassification of Curtobacterium ginsengisoli as Gryllotalpicola ginsengisoli comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyangmi; Park, Doo-Sang; Oh, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Kang Hyun; Chung, Dong-Ho; Park, Ho-Yong; Park, Hee-Moon; Bae, Kyung Sook

    2012-10-01

    Strains RU-16(T), RU-28, RU-04(T) and PU-02(T) were isolated from the gut of the African mole cricket, Gryllotalpa africana. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strains belonged to the family Microbacteriaceae. All four strains were most closely related to Curtobacterium ginsengisoli DCY26(T) (below 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). These isolates were Gram-stain-positive, motile (by gliding), rod-shaped and exhibited ivory-coloured colonies. Their chemotaxonomic properties included MK-11 as the major respiratory quinone, ornithine as the cell-wall diamino acid, acetyl as the acyl type of the peptidoglycan, cyclohexyl-C(17:0) as the major fatty acid and phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol as the major polar lipids. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, we propose a new genus in the family Microbacteriaceae, Gryllotalpicola gen. nov., with three novel species, Gryllotalpicola daejeonensis sp. nov. (type strain RU-04(T)  =KCTC 13809(T)  =JCM 17590(T)), Gryllotalpicola koreensis sp. nov. (type strain RU-16(T)  = KCTC 13810(T)  =JCM 17591(T)) and Gryllotalpicola kribbensis sp. nov. (type strain PU-02(T)  =KCTC 13808(T)  =JCM 17593(T)). Gryllotalpicola koreensis is the type species of the genus. Additionally, we propose that Curtobacterium ginsengisoli should be reclassified in the genus as Gryllotalpicola ginsengisoli comb. nov. (type strain DCY26(T)  =KCTC 13163(T)  = JCM 14773(T)).

  9. Pediatric melanoma, moles, and sun safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawryluk, Elena B; Liang, Marilyn G

    2014-04-01

    Although pediatric melanoma is a rare disease, diagnosis and management of pigmented lesions in the pediatric population, particularly dysplastic nevi and Spitz nevi, can be challenging. In this article, we provide an overview of pigmented lesions in children, including melanoma and management of melanoma risk factors and melanocytic nevi in the pediatric population. Congenital melanocytic nevi, Spitz nevi, dysplastic and acquired nevi, and changes over time are reviewed. We discuss considerations for excision and management of pigmented lesions in children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. What Does a Mole Look Like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ...

  11. Melanoma risk factors and atypical moles.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, M. L.; Sagebiel, R W

    1994-01-01

    Despite important advances in the treatment of melanoma, the prognosis for advanced disease remains discouraging. This fact, in combination with a worldwide epidemic of melanoma among persons of white skin type, has focused attention on identifying melanoma in its early, surgically curable stages. Attention has also been directed toward pinpointing which persons are at increased risk for melanoma to reduce risk where possible and to aid early diagnosis. Essentially all epidemiologic studies h...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: recurrent hydatidiform mole

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... remains in the body. The cause of the retention of the pregnancy in women with KHDC3L gene ... Criteria for Links Data Files & API Site Map Customer Support USA.gov Copyright Privacy Accessibility FOIA Viewers & ...

  13. The influences of mole composition of strontium (x) on properties of barium strontium titanate (Ba{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3}) prepared by solid state reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandi, Dianisa Khoirum; Supriyanto, Agus; Iriani, Yofentina, E-mail: yopen-2005@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Sebelas Maret University (Indonesia); Jamaluddin, Anif [Physics Department, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Sebelas Maret University (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    Barium Strontium Titanate (Ba{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3}) or BST was prepared by solid state reaction method. Raw materials are BaCO{sub 3}, SrCO{sub 3}, and TiO{sub 2}. Those materials are mixed for 8 h, pressed, and sintered at temperature 1200°C for 2 h. Mole composition of Sr (x) was varied to study its influences on structural, morphological, and electrical properties of BST. Variation of (x) are x = 0; x = 0.1; and x = 0.5. XRD patterns showed a single phase of BST, which mean that mixture of raw materials was homogenous. Crystal structure was influenced by x. BaTiO{sub 3} and Ba{sub 0.9}Ti{sub 0.1}TiO{sub 3} have tetragonal crystal structure, while Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} is cubic. The diffraction angle shifted to right side (angle larger) as the increases of x. Crystalline size of BaTiO{sub 3}, Ba{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}TiO{sub 3}, and Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} are 38.13 nm; 38.62 nm; and 37.13 nm, respectively. SEM images showed that there are still of pores which were influenced by x. Ba{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}TiO{sub 3} has densest surface (pores are few and small in size). Sawyer Tower circuit showed that BaTiO{sub 3} and Ba{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1} TiO{sub 3} is ferroelectric, while Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} is paraelectric. The dielectric constants of BaTiO{sub 3}, Ba{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}TiO{sub 3} and Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} at frequency of 1 KHz are 156; 196; and 83, respectively. Ba{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}TiO{sub 3} has relatively highest dielectric constant. It is considered that Ba{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}TiO{sub 3} has densest surface.

  14. Uso de antibióticos e leveduras para controle da podridão-mole em couve-chinesa Use of antibiotics and yeasts for controlling Chinese cabbage soft rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MRF Mello

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A podridão-mole causada por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc pode ocorrer em plantios de couve-chinesa (Brassica pekinensis com até 67% de incidência. O trabalho visou avaliar a sensibilidade in vitro de Pcc a bactericidas, o efeito de Mycoshield® nas dosagens de 3,0 e 1,5 g L-1, e de leveduras a 10(8 cel/mL no controle da doença em casa de vegetação e em campo. As plantas foram pulverizadas com Mycoshield® (oxitetraciclina 20% e leveduras (Rh1 e Rh2 (Rhodotorula spp. e Sc1 (Saccharomyces cerevisae sete dias após o transplante, e inoculadas por picada com o isolado Pcc120, sete dias e 12 h após o tratamento, respectivamente. Em todos os experimentos foram avaliados os componentes epidemiológicos da doença. In vitro, 40 isolados de Pcc testados apresentaram resistência ao sulfato de cobre e sensibilidade a oxitetraciclina, estreptomicina, oxitetraciclina+estreptomicina e oxitetraciclina+sulfato de cobre, todos na concentração de 0,2 g L-1. Seis isolados de Pcc foram mais inibidos por Mycoshield® do que por Agri-Micina® (oxitetraciclina 1,5% + estreptomicina 15% ambos a 3,0 g L-1, não sendo inibidos por Kasumin® (casugamicina 2% (2,0 mL L-1. Em casa de vegetação, Mycoshield® (3,0 g L-1 reduziu a severidade e o índice de doença em até 47,4 e 19%; já a levedura Sc1 reduziu a severidade da doença e a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD em até 27,6 e 39,3%, respectivamente, enquanto Rh1 reduziu a AACPD em até 33,5%. Em campo, Mycoshield® reduziu o índice de doença (14,4% a severidade (15,5% e a AACPD (28,9%; enquanto que Rh1 reduziu o índice de doença (8,8% e Sc1 reduziu a AACPD (15,7%. Conclui-se que o Mycoshield® e as leveduras apresentaram baixa eficiência para controle da podridão-mole da couve-chinesa em campo.The soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc may occur in Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis plantations presenting till 67% of incidence

  15. The relative host status of rock elephant shrews Elephantulus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-10-18

    Oct 18, 1991 ... Nwnbers recovered. Relative. Percentage abundan<:e of animals. Tick species. Larvae Nymphs Total. % infested. Amblyomma. marmorelUl'l. 5. 0. 5. 0,Q3. 2,27. Haemaphysalis leachilspin.ulosa 26. 20. 46. 0,29. 5,30. Hyalomma. marginallUl'l nif'Pes. 0. 0,Q1. 0,76. IJ:Ot:ks. rubiclUldJu. 2365 1966. 4331.

  16. New status for two African giant forest shrews, Crocidura goliath ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A phylogenetic analysis including three mitochondrial (16S, cytb and COI) and one nuclear marker (BRCA) shows that C. g. nimbasilvanus is the sister taxon of C. nimbae, a species also endemic to West Africa. Crocidura g. goliath is part of the C. olivieri group and closely related to C. olivieri, C. viaria and C. fulvastra.

  17. Metabolism and thermoregulation in the tree shrew, Tupaia belangeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Maximum metabolic rate is a physiological limitation that is an important for animals' survival, reproduction and geographic. Basal metabolic rate (BMR, nonshivering thermogenesis (NST, and maximum metabolic rate (MMR were measured was in a small mammal species, Tupaia belangeri, which is a unique species of small-bodied mammals in the Oriental realm. Thermal neutral zone (TNZ was 30 - 35°C and BMR was 1.38±0.09 ml g-1 h-1. NST and MMR were 2.64±0.08 ml g-1 h-1 and 7.14±0.38 ml g-1 h-1 in summer, respectively. The ecophysiological properties of relatively high body temperature, wide TNZ, low BMR and thermogenic capacity enable this species to adapt to its environment.

  18. Preditores Clínicos e Histopatológicos de Tumor Trofoblástico Gestacional pós-Mola Hidatiforme Completa Clinical and Histopathological Predictors of Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor +after Complete Hydatidiform Mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izildinha Maestá

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: definir os preditores clínicos e histopatológicos mais eficientes da evolução da mola hidatiforme completa (MHC para tumor trofoblástico gestacional (TTG. Métodos: estudo prospectivo clínico e histopatológico de todas as portadoras de MHC, atendidas entre 1990 e 1998 no Hospital das Clínicas de Botucatu -- UNESP. A avaliação clínica pré-esvaziamento molar classificou a gravidez molar em: MHC de alto risco e MHC de baixo risco. Foram analisados os preditores clínicos para TTG, estabelecidos por Goldstein et al.¹ e por outros autores2--10. A avaliação histopatológica incluiu a determinação do diagnóstico de MHC, segundo os critérios de Szulman e Surti11, e o reconhecimento dos fatores de risco para TTG, de Ayhan et al.8. Os preditores clínicos e histopatológicos foram correlacionados com o desenvolvimento de TTG pós-molar. Resultados: em 65 portadoras de MHC, cistos do ovário maiores que 6 cm e tamanho uterino maior que 16 cm foram os preditores clínicos mais eficientes de TTG. A proliferação trofoblástica, a atipia nuclear, a necrose/hemorragia, a maturação trofoblástica e a relação cito/sinciciotrofoblasto não foram preditores significativos para TTG. A correlação entre preditor clínico e histopatológico para o desenvolvimento de TTG não foi possível porque nenhum parâmetro histopatológico foi significativo. Conclusões: mais estudos são necessários para avaliar possíveis preditores de persistência (TTG e sua aplicação no contexto clínico das MHC. Enquanto isso, a determinação seriada de hCG sérico permanece o único indicador prognóstico seguro para TTG pós-MHC.Purpose: to determine the most efficient clinical and histopathological predictors of complete hydatidiform mole (CHM after gestational trophoblastic tumors (GTT. Methods: a prospective clinical and histopathological study was performed on all patients with CHM treated at the University Hospital of Botucatu between 1990

  19. Tratamento pós-colheita com cálcio e microrganismos para controle da podridão-mole em tomate Postharvest treatments with calcium and microorganisms to control soft rot in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa M.A. Gomes

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Visando o controle da podridão-mole causada por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc em tomate, foram avaliadas três fontes de cálcio [CaCl2, Ca (CO32 e Ca (SO42], nas concentrações de 1; 2; 4; 6; e 8% (p/v, aplicadas pelo método de infiltração a vácuo. A inoculação do patógeno foi realizada 24 horas após o tratamento com cálcio, pela deposição de 10 ml de uma suspensão bacteriana com concentração de 10(8 UFC/ml, sobre ferimentos artificiais nos frutos tratados. A incubação foi feita em câmara úmida (umidade relativa de 92±4% e a avaliação realizada 48 h após, medindo-se o diâmetro da lesão em sentidos diametralmente opostos, e calculando-se a porcentagem de redução da severidade da doença (RSD em relação à testemunha. A melhor fonte e concentração de cálcio foi CaCl2 a 8% que reduziu a severidade da doença em 69,5%. Foram avaliados também os microrganismos Rhodotorula sp. (LD-19 e Pseudomonas sp. fluorescente (P-2 isoladamente e associados ao CaCl2 a 8%. O tratamento dos frutos com os microrganismos foi realizado depositando-se 10 ml das suspensões (DO580= 0,7 sobre os ferimentos 24 horas após a aplicação do cálcio e duas horas antes da inoculação de Pcc. Houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, destacando-se a combinação CaCl2 a 8% + LD19, com RSD% de 93%. Os isolados P-2 e LD-19 aplicados isoladamente, apresentaram baixos percentuais de RSD.The effect of three calcium sources [CaCl2, Ca (CO32 and Ca (SO42] at 1; 2; 4; 6 and 8% (w/v were evaluated on control of soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc in tomato fruits. The calcium sources were applied using vacuum infiltration. Fruits were inoculated with pathogen 24 h later by deposition of 10 ml of a bacterial suspension containing 10(8 CFU/ml, on artificial wounds. Fruits were incubated in a moist chamber at 92±4% relative humidity during 48 h and evaluated by measuring the lesion

  20. Mole Pi: Using New Technology to Teach the Magnitude of a Mole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    A modified technique for demonstrating the magnitude of Avogadro's number using a new Raspberry Pi computer and the Python language is described. The technique also provides students the opportunity to review dimensional analysis.

  1. Alternativas de controle pós-colheita da podridão-parda e da podridão-mole em frutos de pessegueiro Alternatives for post-harvest control of brown rot and soft rot in peach fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Luiz de Carvalho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available As exigências do consumidor são cada vez maiores com relação à qualidade de produtos in natura. As podridões, além de causar perdas na produção, reduzem a qualidade final do fruto, interferindo significativamente na comercialização. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a eficiência de produtos alternativos, aplicados na pós-colheita, no controle da podridão-parda (Monilinia fructicola e da podridão-mole (Rhizopus spp. em pêssegos. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Nepomuceno-MG, em talhão de pessegueiro da cultivar Diamante, com 10 anos de idade. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 7 tratamentos e 3 repetições. Para o estudo, foram selecionados frutos sem lesões e sem sintomas das doenças. Os frutos foram mergulhados por 30 segundos em solução contendo os seguintes tratamentos: 1-Óleo de cravo 0,01%; 2-Dióxido de cloro 0,1%; 3-Dióxido de cloro 0,05%; 4-Cloreto de benzalcônio 0,25%; 5-Dicloran 0,12%; 6-Iprodione 0,15% e 7-Testemunha (somente água. Após os tratamentos, os frutos, em número de 10, foram colocados em bandejas esterilizadas, em três repetições. O experimento foi conduzido em condições de ambiente não controlado, sendo feitas avaliações do desenvolvimento das doenças aos 3 e aos 5 dias após os tratamentos em 2005 e aos 3; 6 e aos 9 dias após o tratamento em 2006. O iprodione controlou a incidência e a severidade de M. fructicola e Rhizopus spp. O dicloran foi o tratamento mais eficiente para o controle do Rhizopus spp. e intermediário para M. fructicola. Os tratamentos com óleo de cravo e dióxido de cloro, na maior dose, reduziram a incidência de Rhizopus spp. e para severidade apresentaram resultados intermediários.The consumers demand are increasing with regard to the quality of in nature products. The rot, besides causing loss in production, reduce the quality of the product, interfering significantly in the marketing. The objective

  2. Óleos essenciais e extratos vegetais no controle da podridão mole em alface crespa Essential oils and plant extracts on the control of soft rot of crispy lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane L Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de óleos essenciais e extratos vegetais no controle da podridão mole em alface, bem como, a influência desses produtos nas características físico-químicas desta hortaliça. Nos testes in vitro, discos de papel de filtro foram embebidos em 11 óleos essenciais e 20 extratos vegetais nas concentrações 0,0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75 e 1% e 0,0; 10, 40, 70 e 100%, respectivamente, e depositados sobre meio de cultura contendo Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc A1. Os halos de inibição foram mensurados após 24 e 48 h de incubação. Em casa de vegetação, plantas de alface cv. Veneranda foram tratadas com 11 óleos nas concentrações de 0,5 e 1%, 20 extratos na concentração de 10% e Mycoshield® (3 g L-1, sendo inoculadas com o isolado Pcc A1 após 72 h. A severidade da doença foi avaliada a intervalos de seis até 48 h, calculando-se a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD. Em experimento similar, plantas tratadas com óleo de Corymbia citriodora, sete extratos e Mycoshield® foram analisadas quanto aos teores de sólidos solúveis, vitamina C, acidez titulável e pH. Pcc A1 não foi inibido in vitro. Dois óleos (C. citriodora e Citrus sinensis e sete extratos (Parkinsonia aculeata, Chamaecrista cytisoides, Sida galherensis, Polygala violaceae, Chamaecrista desvauxii e Pityrocarpa moniliformis reduziram significativamente a severidade da doença em relação à testemunha, não diferindo do controle Mycoshield®. Já a AACPD foi reduzida por oito óleos e dez extratos. Destacaram-se com eficiência similar ao Mycoshield® e diferindo da testemunha (7,5 e 132,3 nas duas variáveis analisadas, o óleo de C. citriodora a 0,5% e o extrato de S. galherensis a 10% com severidades de 3,6 e 3,5 e AACPD de 83,35 e 88,25, respectivamente. Os teores de vitamina C, acidez titulável e pH não foram alterados em folhas de alface tratadas com óleo de C. citriodora e extratos de P. aculeata e C. cytisoides

  3. Análise do perfil facial esquelético e de tecidos moles pré e pós-cirurgia ortognática em pacientes Classe II e III, e sua relação com a proporção áurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Ângelo WALEWSKI

    Full Text Available Resumo Introdução A proporção áurea, representada pela razão matemática 1:1.618, tem sido investigada na especialidade Ortodontia e no procedimento de Cirurgia Ortognática, a fim de ser estabelecida como um guia de sucesso clínico relacionado à estética facial. Objetivo Verificar a estética dos perfis faciais de pacientes Classes II e III de Angle, antes e após tratamento ortodôntico-cirúrgico, além de correlacionar 13 razões dentoesqueléticas e cinco razões de tecidos moles à proporção áurea. Material e método Um total de 94 radiografias cefalométricas laterais foram analisadas, em que 13 razões dentoesqueléticas e cinco razões em tecidos moles foram medidas e comparadas ao número áureo. Adicionalmente, uma análise subjetiva da estética facial pré e pós-tratamento foi realizada por 270 examinadores. Resultado As razões dentoesqueléticas 1, 3, 6, 7, 8 e 9 aproximaram-se do número áureo após a cirurgia ortognática, nos pacientes Classe III. Para o perfil mole, apenas a razão 4 se aproximou ao número áureo, em ambos os pacientes Classe II e III. Em relação à avaliação subjetiva da estética, 91,49% dos perfis faciais foram considerados mais harmônicos após o tratamento. Conclusão Frente à metodologia usada, pode-se concluir que a proporção áurea exerce pouca influência na avaliação da estética facial, não servindo como um guia para o planejamento e o tratamento ortodôntico-ortognático.

  4. Efeito de sanificantes no controle pós-colheita da podridão parda (Monilinia fructicola e da podridão mole (Rhizopus stolonifer em pêssegos Effect of sanitizing products on the postharvest control of brown rot (Monilinia fructicola and soft rot (Rhizopus stolonifer in peaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Marchi de Abreu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito in vitro e in vivo dos sanificantes cloreto de benzalcônio (Fegatex®, biomassa cítrica (Ecolife40® e ozônio no controle da podridão parda (Monilinia fructicola e da podridão mole (Rhizopus stolonifer em pêssegos das cultivares Aurora, Dourado e Flor da Prince. Cloreto de benzalcônio e biomassa cítrica, aplicados in vitro, ambos na concentração de 1000 mL L-1, inibiram totalmente o crescimento radial (micelial de M. fructicola, porém nenhum deles foi eficiente no controle de R. stolonifer. Cloreto de benzalcônio aplicado de forma preventiva, na concentração de 3000 mL L-1, reduziu a podridão parda em frutos inoculados sem ferimentos. Quando aplicado de forma curativa em frutos não feridos esse produto foi eficiente em todas as concentrações testadas. Nenhum produto aplicado nos frutos de forma curativa foi eficiente no controle da podridão parda, quando a inoculação do fungo foi realizada através de ferimentos. Nenhum dos produtos foi eficiente no controle da podridão mole. O ozônio (0,1 mL L-1 não foi eficiente no controle das podridões parda e mole.The purpose of this work was to study the in vitro and in vivo effects of the sanitizing products benzalkonium chloride (Fegatex®, citric biomass (Ecolife40® and ozone gas on the control of brown rot (Monilinia fructicola and soft rot (Rhizopus stolonifer in peaches cultivars "Aurora", "Dourado" and "Flor da Prince". Benzalkonium chloride and citric biomass, both at 1000 mL L-1, completely inhibited the radial (mycelial growth of M. fructicola, although none of them controlled R. stolonifer in vitro. The preventive use of benzalkonium chloride at 3000 mL L-1 reduced brown rot in non-injured peaches. Benzalkonium chloride applied as curative in non-injured peaches was effective against M. fructicola at all concentrations. None of the products tested curatively was effective in preventing the development of brown rot when the

  5. Effects of Zn/citric acid mole fraction on the structure and luminescence properties of the un-doped and 1.5% Pb{sup 2+} doped ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders synthesized by citrate sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motloung, S.V., E-mail: motloungsv@qwa.ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Dejene, F.B. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Swart, H.C.; Ntwaeaborwa, O.M. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa)

    2015-07-15

    Un-doped and 1.5% Pb{sup 2+}doped zinc aluminate (ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was successfully prepared at a relatively low temperature (~80 °C) using the sol–gel process. The Zn/citric acid (CA) mole fraction was varied from 0.083 to 1.3. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data revealed that most of the annealed samples consist of the cubic ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} structure with ZnO impurities. The surface morphology of the phosphors was influenced by the Zn/CA mole fractions. The increase in the CA content lead to the morphological evolution and transformation from small particles to rods-like-needles. The nanopowder samples exhibited violet luminescence that varied from 400 to 410 nm, which suggested that the CA content affected the bandgap energy of the host. The results suggest that the emission originated either from the host, Pb{sup 2+} or ZnO impurities. Emission at 400 nm is attributed to the oxygen vacancies (V{sub 0}{sup *}) in the host and emission peak at 410 nm is attributed to the intrinsic defects emission of ZnO, while the emission at 552 nm is attributed to the second order emission of the excitation wavelength. The emission intensity was influenced by the Zn/CA mole fractions. The CIE colour coordinates of all samples are close to each other in the blue region. Two distinct peaks were observed at around 160 and 385 °C in thermo luminescence (TL) glow curve, which indicates that there are two set of traps. - Highlights: • Un-doped and 1.5% Pb{sup 2+}doped zinc aluminate (ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was successfully prepared at a relatively low temperature (~80 °C) using the sol–gel process. • The increase in the catalyst content lead to the morphological evolution from small particles to rods-like-needles. • The catalyst content affected the band gap energy of the host. • Results showed that the emission can only arise from the host and ZnO impurities. • CIE colour coordinates of all samples is situated in the blue region of the chart.

  6. Influência do \\'biotipo periodontal\\' na remodelação dos tecidos moles e da tábua óssea vestibular em alvéolos pós-exodontia e implantes imediatos, com e sem enxerto xenógeno

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Prado Maia

    2014-01-01

    Após exodontia e instalação de implantes imediatos o sítio edêntulo sofre uma substancial remodelação óssea. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a remodelação dos tecidos moles e da tábua óssea vestibular em alvéolos pósexodontia e em implantes imediatos em cães com um biotipo periodontal fino, com a associação de um material de enxerto. Oito cães tiveram a espessura da gengiva de um lado da mandíbula reduzida, os pré-molares mandibulares extraídos em cirurgia sem retalho e 4 implantes ...

  7. Reaction of arracacha genotypes to the root soft rot caused by Pectobacterium chrysanthemi Reação de genótipos de mandioquinha-salsa à podridão-mole das raízes causada por Pectobacterium chrysanthemi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Paulo Henz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to screen thirty-two arracacha genotypes for their reaction to root soft rot. Twenty roots of each genotype were inoculated with two Pectobacterium chrysanthemi isolates in a randomized experiment (10 roots/isolate. After inoculation, roots were individually wrapped with PVC film and kept at 26ºC in closed plastic bags. Soft rot lesions were recorded after 36 hours and genotypes were grouped in four classes of susceptibility by cluster analysis: 10 were less susceptible, 16 intermediate, 3 susceptible and 3 very susceptible. All the tested arracacha genotypes showed only variation in the degree of susceptibility.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a reação de 32 genótipos de mandioquinha-salsa à podridão-mole das raízes. Vinte raízes de cada genótipo foram inoculadas com dois isolados de Pectobacterium chrysanthemi em um experimento casualizado (10 raízes/isolado. Após a inoculação, as raízes foram embaladas com filmes de PVC e mantidas a 26ºC em sacos de plástico. As lesões de podridão-mole foram avaliadas após 36 horas e os genótipos agrupados em quatro classes de suscetibilidade por análise de agrupamento: 10 foram menos suscetíveis, 16 intermediários, 3 suscetíveis e 3 muito suscetíveis. Todos os genótipos avaliados demonstraram apenas variação no grau de suscetibilidade.

  8. Cirurgia conservadora, radioterapia externa e reforço de dose com braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose: uma nova perspectiva no tratamento de sarcomas de partes moles do adulto Limb-sparing surgery, external beam radiotherapy and boost with high-dose rate brachytherapy: a new perspective for the treatment of soft tissue sarcomas in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cássio Assis Pellizzon

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência no controle local de pacientes adultos e portadores de sarcoma de partes moles em extremidades e submetidos a cirurgia conservadora do membro, com braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose (BATD como reforço para a radioterapia externa (RT. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 16 pacientes tratados, de 1993 até 1999. A RT foi utilizada com finalidade pré ou pós-operatória (30--55 Gy e BATD com dose de 18--36 Gy (fx 3--6 Gy BID. Com base no modelo linear quadrático calculou-se a dose efetiva biológica ("biological effective dose" - BED para o tumor e comparou-se seu valor a dados da literatura internacional, que utiliza tratamentos com RT e braquiterapia de baixa taxa de dose (BBTD. RESULTADOS: Os valores médios e medianos da BED para os sarcomas de partes moles foram de 78,5 Gy7 e 80 Gy7. A análise univariada mostrou que a BED para o tumor, quando utilizada BATD, era semelhante ao valor de 83 Gy7 quando utilizada BBTD (p = 0,008. As taxas de controle local, sobrevida livre de doença e sobrevida global atuarial em cinco anos foram de 83,2%, 75% e 93,7%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: A BATD, quando utilizada como método complementar no reforço de dose da RT no tratamento conservador dos sarcomas de partes moles, apresenta taxas de controle local equiparáveis às da literatura internacional; no entanto, estudos com número maior de pacientes e período maior de seguimento são ainda necessários para determinar o verdadeiro potencial da BATD em substituir a BBTD.PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence on local control in adult patients with soft tissue sarcomas of the limbs that underwent limb-sparing surgery and high-dose rate brachytherapy (HDRB in association with teletherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen patients treated from 1993 to 1999 were reviewed. Teletherapy was used pre- or postoperatively (30--55 Gy in association with HDRB in a dose range of 18--36 Gy (fx 3--6 Gy BID. The linear quadratic model was

  9. Molecular evidence for multiple origins of Insectivora and for a new order of endemic African insectivore mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Michael J.; Waddell, Victor G.; Madsen, Ole; de Jong, Wilfried; Hedges, S. Blair; Cleven, Gregory C.; Kao, Diana; Springer, Mark S.

    1998-01-01

    The traditional views regarding the mammalian order Insectivora are that the group descended from a single common ancestor and that it is comprised of the following families: Soricidae (shrews), Tenrecidae (tenrecs), Solenodontidae (solenodons), Talpidae (moles), Erinaceidae (hedgehogs and gymnures), and Chrysochloridae (golden moles). Here we present a molecular analysis that includes representatives of all six families of insectivores, as well as 37 other taxa representing marsupials, monotremes, and all but two orders of placental mammals. These data come from complete sequences of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA, tRNA-Valine, and 16S rRNA genes (2.6 kb). A wide range of different methods of phylogenetic analysis groups the tenrecs and golden moles (both endemic to Africa) in an all-African superordinal clade comprised of elephants, sirenians, hyracoids, aardvark, and elephant shrews, to the exclusion of the other four remaining families of insectivores. Statistical analyses reject the idea of a monophyletic Insectivora as well as traditional concepts of the insectivore suborder Soricomorpha. These findings are supported by sequence analyses of several nuclear genes presented here: vWF, A2AB, and α-β hemoglobin. These results require that the order Insectivora be partitioned and that the two African families (golden moles and tenrecs) be placed in a new order. The African superordinal clade now includes six orders of placental mammals. PMID:9707584

  10. Obstrução nasal total: estudo morfofuncional de um caso de sinéquia de palato mole e paredes faríngeas pós blastomicose Total nasal obstruction: a morphofunctional case study of post blastomicose palato and pharynx's lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Queiroz de Moraes Silveira Di Ninno

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: identificar as alterações morfofuncionais decorrentes de quinze anos de obstrução nasal total em um caso de sinéquia de palato mole e paredes faríngeas pós blastomicose. PROCEDIMENTOS: o trabalho foi baseado no estudo de caso de um adulto do gênero feminino, de 26 anos de idade, que chegou a um centro especializado em deformidades craniofaciais, com a queixa de não conseguir respirar pelo nariz. Sua dificuldade respiratória é decorrente de uma aderência total do palato mole com as paredes faríngeas, como sequela da blastomicose que teve no palato aos 11 anos de idade. RESULTADOS: na entrevista, a paciente relatou queixa de cefaléia, halitose, pouco rendimento físico, sonolência diurna e sono agitado durante a noite. Referiu também anosmia, mastigação lenta e engasgos frequentes. Durante a avaliação, observou-se respiração exclusivamente oral do tipo superior, mastigação bilateral alternada e lenta, deglutição adaptada e ressonância hiponasal de grau grave. Observou-se ainda face longa, perfil convexo, mandíbula retruída e olheiras. Os lábios da paciente encontravam-se entreabertos e ressecados, sendo o superior fino e o inferior evertido e avolumado e o palato duro apresenta-se atrésico, estreito e profundo. CONCLUSÃO: as características da paciente em questão são compatíveis com a Síndrome do Respirador Oral e pode-se supor que sejam consequências morfofuncionais de uma obstrução nasal total.BACKGROUND: to identify the consequences that arising from fifteen years of total nasal obstruction in a case of post blastomicose palato and pharynx's lesion. PROCEDURES: this article was based on a case report of a 26-years-old female subject, who came to a specialized center on craniofacial deformities, complaining about her mouth breathing. Her respiratory difficulty stems from a total tack of palate and pharynx, as a blastomicose sequel that she had when 11-year-old. RESULTS: during the interview, the

  11. Gênese de Lamelas (“estruturas de dissipação” Associadas à Evolução de Paleoargissolos em Rampa Arenosa, Praia Mole (Ilha de Santa Catarina / SC, Brasil: subsídios para uma interpretação paelogeomorfológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Paisani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Lamela é um termo descritivo morfológico usado para definir faixas de constituintes granulométricos finos em sedimentos arenosos espécificas. As lamelas podem pertencer a uma das quatro categorias quanto à origem: sedimentares, iluvio-sedimentares, iluviais, e e-iluviais. São interpretadas ora como estruturas sedimentares (estruturas de dissipação, ora como feições pedológicas. Na região sul do Brasil a gênese de lamelas em depósitos costeiros não é bem compreendida. Neste artigo são apresentadas evidências morfológicas (de campo e micromorfológicas (microscópicas de lamelas e-iluviais geradas em associação com a evolução de horizontes B texturais (Bt em paleoargissolos situados em rampa arenosa na Praia Mole - Ilha de Santa Catarina. Os fatos que sustentam a interpretação da origem e-iluvial são: a interlamelas desenvolvendo-se no topo dos horizontes Bt; b lamelas ligadas lateralmente a esses horizontes; c lamelas com topo plano e base irregular, semelhantes àquelas encontradas em solos atuais em processo de degradação de horizontes Bt; d separações plásmicas, segregação de óxidos de ferro e desenvolvimento de poros cavitários revelando o desmantelamento microestrutural de lamelas e horizontes Bt relacionados. Embora as lamelas sejam classificadas como e-iluviais, o processo de iluviação é secundário. Os resultados sinalizam na direção de que a pedogênese é posterior à sedimentação na rampa arenosa e se encontre em desequilíbrio atual por degradação dos horizontes Bt.

  12. Additional material of the enigmatic golden mole Cryptochloris zyli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two other specimens are now known to exist; one was discovered in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University, and the other, which has been mentioned in publication but overlooked, is in the Natural History Museum in London. Differentiation of C. zyli from sympatric chrysochlorids, and from its congener ...

  13. Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Using the Mole Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Provides an application of quantitative chemistry concepts in the context of motor vehicle emissions. Shows how carbon dioxide emissions from cars may be reduced by up to 25% by reducing motorway speeds from 70-75 mph to 60 mph. (Author/MM)

  14. Reproduction and longevity in female eusocial Damaraland mole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inverse relationship between reproduction and lifespan is one of the main concepts of life history theory. This association has been observed in most taxa, although exceptions have been found in which a breeding female outlives her non-reproductive cohorts. This relationship is well known in social insects, and it has ...

  15. Genetic analysis of repeated, biparental, diploid, hydatidiform moles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, L; Vejerslev, L O; Jensen, M P

    1993-01-01

    originated in separate conceptions, all conceptuses were diploid, and all had maternally as well as paternally derived genetic markers. By cytogenetic analysis, aberrant heteromorphisms were noted; no other abnormalities were observed in chromosome structure or in DNA sequence. Many different causes...

  16. A Mole's Eye View: Marcellus as Mosaic by Rachel Sager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, R.

    2013-12-01

    I am an artist living and working in the energy vortex of Southwestern Pennsylvania and am watching great upheaval, both good and bad, happen to my land and its citizens due to the phenomenon caused by our particular geologic formation; the Marcellus Shale. My work embraces the earth itself through the medium of mosaic, and I have found it to be a great communicator to many groups of people: landowners, gas industry workers, environmentalists. I tell the story of how I came to be so dependent on my native stone, coming from a long line of coal miners and farmers who taught me to be aware of what lies beneath my feet. With my stone hammer, I chop up shale, sandstone, limestone, and coal, transforming it into tiny, expressive pieces that tell stories and help people to grasp geologic concepts that can otherwise be overwhelming and mysterious. I address the industry itself by representing the controversial enterprise of fracking, but also delve intimately into building relationships with the stone that I gather, wash, categorize, cut, and lay into mortar. By depicting these layers of earth, I am building touchable, organic images of geologic time that are highly accessible to the human brain and sensibility. There is something personal and immediate about standing in front of one of these mosaics, being able to touch it that gives the viewer power over an idea that often leaves them feeling in the dark. As a classically trained mosaic artist, I bring back the skills, culture, and tradition of a Euro-centered art form and weave it into my North American geology. Through a highly detailed and dynamic PowerPoint presentation of my work, I help people to see the earth beneath their feet with new eyes. Rachel Sager, artist www.rachelsagermosaics.com Contemporary Art in a Geologic Medium: Rachel Sager Mosaics

  17. MoleCillat'lmprovement of Food Functional Properties of Soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was made to elucidate the three dimensional structure of soybean glydnin which is one of the dominant storage proteins of soybean seeds. Previously, the twodisulphide bonds Cys12-Cys45 and Cys88-Cys298 in the proglydnin AlaBlb subunit were deleted andCys residues were replaced by Gly and Ser by ...

  18. Notas clínicas: un caso de mole Hidatiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Isaza S.

    1933-01-01

    Full Text Available N. N., de 28 años de edad; natural de Pereira; lleva 10 años de matrimonio, en el curso del cual ha habido 9 embarazos, con distinta suerte: 6 niños a término y 3 abortos de más o menos dos meses: de los 6 hijos dos han muerto de afecciones gastro-intestinales. La fecha de la última regla fue el 28 de junio del presente año. Desde julio la enferma empezó a sentir decadencia general caracterizada por inapetencia, astenia, enflaquecimiento y cierto grado de anemia con náuseas y vómitos matinales.

  19. Optimal management of common acquired melanocytic nevi (moles: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardana K

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Kabir Sardana, Payal Chakravarty, Khushbu Goel Department of Dermatology and STD, Maulana Azad Medical College and Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, Delhi, India Abstract: Although common acquired melanocytic nevi are largely benign, they are probably one of the most common indications for cosmetic surgery encountered by dermatologists. With recent advances, noninvasive tools can largely determine the potential for malignancy, although they cannot supplant histology. Although surgical shave excision with its myriad modifications has been in vogue for decades, the lack of an adequate histological sample, the largely blind nature of the procedure, and the possibility of recurrence are persisting issues. Pigment-specific lasers were initially used in the Q-switched mode, which was based on the thermal relaxation time of the melanocyte (size 7 µm; 1 µsec, which is not the primary target in melanocytic nevus. The cluster of nevus cells (100 µm probably lends itself to treatment with a millisecond laser rather than a nanosecond laser. Thus, normal mode pigment-specific lasers and pulsed ablative lasers (CO2/erbium [Er]:yttrium aluminum garnet [YAG] are more suited to treat acquired melanocytic nevi. The complexities of treating this disorder can be overcome by following a structured approach by using lasers that achieve the appropriate depth to treat the three subtypes of nevi: junctional, compound, and dermal. Thus, junctional nevi respond to Q-switched/normal mode pigment lasers, where for the compound and dermal nevi, pulsed ablative laser (CO2/Er:YAG may be needed. If surgical excision is employed, a wide margin and proper depth must be ensured, which is skill dependent. A lifelong follow-up for recurrence and melanoma is warranted in predisposed individuals, although melanoma is decidedly uncommon in most acquired melanocytic nevi, even though histological markers may be seen on evaluation. Keywords: lasers, surgery, nevus, melanoma

  20. ACTIVITY PATTERNS IN THE MOLE-RATS TACHYORYCTES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activity in two unrelated genera of mol~rats, Tachyoryctes and Heiiophobius, was studied in the field by recording the .... Pieces of wire, about S mm long and with an approximate radioactivity of 0,5 mc, were encapsulated ... Using a portable Geiger-Miiller counter with earphones (Beta Probe Unit, type 1292A; connected to ...

  1. The phylogeny of mole crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpoidea: Gryllotalpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena-Castañeda, Oscar J

    2015-07-14

    The monophyly and phylogenetic relationships of the family Gryllotalpidae were researched. Twenty-six in-group taxa, representing all known genera of Gryllotalpidae were included in a cladistic analysis, based on 89, morphological characters (including genital characters of the males). The different analyses of the resulting data matrix supported the monophyly of Scapteriscinae and Gryllotalpinae and its internal group. Subfamilies, tribes and genera of Gryllotalpidae are fully diagnosed, illustrated and keys to their identification are provided. Four tribes are established (Indioscaptorini n. trib. (Scapteriscinae), Triamescaptorini n. trib., Gryllotalpellini n. trib. and Neocurtillini n. trib. (Gryllotalpinae)) and two other are fully delimited (Scapteriscini stat. rev. and Gryllotalpini stat. rev.). Two new genera are described (Neoscapteriscus n. gen. and Leptocurtilla n. gen.) and as well as seven new species: Gryllotalpella rehni n. sp., G. tindalei n. sp., G. lawrencei n. sp., Neocurtilla ingrischi n. sp., N. townsendi n. sp., Leptocurtilla juanmanueli n. sp. and L. chopardi n. sp. The following nomenclatural changes were made: All species previously placed in Scapteriscus s.l. are transferred to the new genus Neoscapteriscus, except Scapteriscus oxydactilus and S. headsi that are still placed in Scapteriscus, Gryllotalpa chilensis reinst. stat. and Leptocurtilla maranona, n. comb. Finally, previous contributions about the phylogenetic relationships of molecrickets are contrasted with the results of this research.

  2. Out-breeding behaviour and xenophobia in the Damaraland mole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This suggests that female avoidance of incest is responsible for outbreeding in this species. Resident males in reproductively quiescent colonies did not attack foreign males or females. However, resident males in actively breeding colonies attacked and kilted foreign males. Resident females in reproductively quiescent ...

  3. Keeping Government Secrecy Safe: Beyond Whack-a-Mole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtin, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of secrecy as a mechanism for not providing government information, on the one hand, and the commitment to openness of government, on the other, reflect certain historical understandings of the relationship between a government, citizens, officials and information. Within democratic

  4. ACTIVITY PATTERNS IN THE MOLE-RATS TACHYORYCTES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Activity in two unrelated genera of mol~rats, Tachyoryctes and Heiiophobius, was studied in the field by recording ... Heliophobius occurs over much of central and eastern Africa (de Graaff 1968). The foraging ...... soil moisture and. Miss S. Moorjani, Botany Department, University of Nairobi, identified the plants.

  5. Hydatidiform mole in university of Calabar teaching hospital, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suction evacuation was done in all the cases. About 63% of patients had 1-3 months follow up, while 2.9% continued beyond 1 year. The case fatality was 1.47%. However. 12 patients never came back to the hospital after evacuation. Conclusion : Molar pregnancy is a common cause of first trimester miscarriages and ...

  6. Abraham Sybant Tames the taming of the shrew for the Amsterdam stage (1654 Abraham Sybant Tames the taming of the shrew for the Amsterdam stage (1654

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ton Hoenselaars

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, translation studies have found themselves in a veritable flux. After decades of concentration on the purely linguistic correspondences between the so-called source text and the actual translation in the target language (an approach of interest only to the scholar bilingual in the two languages concerned, a clear tendency among translation critics and scholars now is to concentrate on matters contextual to the act and to the product of the act of translation. Shakespeare studies have profited greatly from this shift in emphasis. In recent years, translation studies have found themselves in a veritable flux. After decades of concentration on the purely linguistic correspondences between the so-called source text and the actual translation in the target language (an approach of interest only to the scholar bilingual in the two languages concerned, a clear tendency among translation critics and scholars now is to concentrate on matters contextual to the act and to the product of the act of translation. Shakespeare studies have profited greatly from this shift in emphasis.

  7. Histamine combined with melphalan in isolated limb perfusion for the treatment of locally advanced soft tissue sarcomas: preclinical studies in rats Histamina combinada ao melfalano na perfusão de membro isolado para o tratamento de sarcomas de partes moles localmente avançado: estudos pré-clínicos em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Brunstein

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the potential benefit of histamine combined with melphalan in the isolated limb perfusion (ILP as an alternative to TNF-alfa and melphalan combination, for the treatment of irressectable soft tissue sarcomas of the limbs in Brown Norway (BN rats. METHODS: 20 BN rats had small fragments of syngeneic BN-175 fibosarcoma inserted on the right hind limb. In 7-10 days the tumor reached a median diameter of 12-15 mm and they were randomly divided in four groups (sham, melphalan, histamine and escalating doses of histamine combined to melphalan being submitted to experimental ILP for 30 minutes. Tumors were measured daily with a caliper and the volume was calculated. RESULTS: Response curves showed a significant effect of the combination of histamine 200 mg/mL with melphalan, with 66% overall response, including 33% complete responses (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar o potencial benéfico da histamina combinada ao melfalano, na perfusão de membro isolado (PMI, como alternativa à combinação TNF-alfa mais melfalano, no tratamento de sarcomas de partes moles irressecaveis em extremidades, em ratos de linhagem Brown Norway (BN. MÉTODOS: 20 ratos BN foram submetidos a implantação de fragmentos de fibrosarcoma singênico BN-175 na pata traseira direita. Em cerca de 7-10 dias o tumor atingiu um diâmetro médio de 12-15 mm e foram aleatóriamente divididos em quatro grupos (controle, melfalano, histamina em doses progessivas combinada ao melfalano e histamina sendo submetidos a PMI experimental por 30 minutos. Os tumores foram então medidos diariamente com o uso de paquímetro e o volume tumoral calculado. RESULTADOS: As curvas de resposta mostram um efeito significativo da combinação de Histamina na concentração de 200 mg/mL ao melfalano, com 66% de resposta global incluindo 33% de respostas completas (p < 0.01. Não houve efeitos colaterais sistêmicos e localmente apenas edema leve e transitório nos animais tratados com histamine

  8. Hantaviruses: rediscovery and new beginnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Richard; Gu, Se Hun; Arai, Satoru; Kang, Hae Ji; Song, Jin-Won

    2014-07-17

    Virus and host gene phylogenies, indicating that antigenically distinct hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) segregate into clades, which parallel the molecular evolution of rodents belonging to the Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae and Sigmodontinae subfamilies, suggested co-divergence of hantaviruses and their rodent reservoirs. Lately, this concept has been vigorously contested in favor of preferential host switching and local host-specific adaptation. To gain insights into the host range, spatial and temporal distribution, genetic diversity and evolutionary origins of hantaviruses, we employed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to analyze frozen, RNAlater(®)-preserved and ethanol-fixed tissues from 1546 shrews (9 genera and 47 species), 281 moles (8 genera and 10 species) and 520 bats (26 genera and 53 species), collected in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America during 1980-2012. Thus far, we have identified 24 novel hantaviruses in shrews, moles and bats. That these newfound hantaviruses are geographically widespread and genetically more diverse than those harbored by rodents suggests that the evolutionary history of hantaviruses is far more complex than previously conjectured. Phylogenetic analyses indicate four distinct clades, with the most divergent comprising hantaviruses harbored by the European mole and insectivorous bats, with evidence for both co-divergence and host switching. Future studies will provide new knowledge about the transmission dynamics and pathogenic potential of these newly discovered, still-orphan, non-rodent-borne hantaviruses. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reconstructing the evolutionary origins and phylogeography of hantaviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Shannon N.; Gu, Se Hun; Kang, Hae Ji; Arai, Satoru; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Rodents have long been recognized as the principal reservoirs of hantaviruses. However, with the discovery of genetically distinct and phylogenetically divergent lineages of hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews, moles, and insectivorous bats from widely separated geographic regions, a far more complex landscape of hantavirus host distribution, evolution, and phylogeography is emerging. Detailed phylogenetic analyses, based on partial and full-length genomes of previously described rodent-borne hantaviruses and newly detected non-rodent-borne hantaviruses, indicate an Asian origin and support the emerging concept that ancestral non-rodent mammals may have served as the hosts of primordial hantaviruses. PMID:24852723

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF RATS AND SHREW IN ARGASOKA AND KUTABANJAR VILLAGE BANJARNEGARA SUB DISTRICT BANJARNEGARA DISTRICT 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri Anggi Widayani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKTikus (Ordo Rodentia merupakan hewan yang mempunyai peranan penting dalam kehidupan manusia baik bersifatmenguntungkan maupun merugikan. Spesies tikus mempunyai habitat masing-masing untuk berkembangbiak. Pemukimanmerupakan habitat tikus untuk memperoleh makanan. Tujuan penelitian untuk menggambarkan keberhasilan penangkapantikus dan mengidentifikasi tikus yang tertangkap di Kelurahan Argasoka dan Kutabanjarnegara. Metode penelitianmenggunakan survei dengan pendekatan cross sectional. Populasi adalah tikus yang berada di Kelurahan Argasoka danKelurahan Kutabanjarnegara. Sampel adalah tikus yang tertangkap menggunakan perangkap sebanyak 100 perangkapyang dipasang di lokasi penelitian selama 2 malam,dengan menggunakan umpan kelapa bakar dan ikan asin. Analisis datasecara deskriptif disajikan dalam bentuk narasi dan tabel distribusi frekuensi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan keberhasilanpenangkapan tikus di Kelurahan Argasoka sebesar 10,5% dan di Kelurahan Kutabanjarnegara sebesar 6%. Tikus yangtertangkap 25 ekor Rattus tanezumi (75,76%, 1ekor R. tiomanicus (3,03%, dan 7 ekor Suncus murinus (21,21%. Tikus dancecurut berjenis kelamin jantan lebih banyak ditemukan (54,54 % daripada betina (45,45 %.Kata kunci: tikus, keberhasilan penangkapan, identifikasiABSTRACTRat is an animal that have important role to human being, even its profitable or adverse. This species have their own habitatto each depression. The community settlement is one of rat habitat to get food. The research purpose is to measure the trapsuccess of rat and to identify rat species in Argasoka and Kutabanjar Village, Banjarnegara. The research used surveymethod with cross sectional approach. Population were rats those lived in Argasoka and Kutabanjar Village. The samplewere rats those caught using single live traps in Argasoka and Kutabanjar Village, Banjarnegara. Rat trapping wasconducted for 2 nights using 100 single live traps with the roasted coconut and salted fish. Technical analysis is useddescriptively and presented in narrative form and frequency distribution tables. The result showed that the trapped amongothers 25 rats (76% Rattus tanezumi, 1 rat (3,03% R. tiomanicus, and 7 rats (21,21% S. murinus. As much (54,54 %, weremale higher than female rat as much as (45,45 %. Trap success of 8,25 % dominated by R. Tanezumi were found inside thehome (75,76 %, while R. tiomanicus caught in the garden around village (3,03 %, and S. murinus caught inside andoutside home (21,21 %.Key words: rats, trap success, identification

  11. Homeostatic maintenance in excitability of tree shrew hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons after chronic stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kole, Maarten H. P.; Czéh, Boldizsár; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2004-01-01

    The experience of chronic stress induces a reversible regression of hippocampal CA3 apical neuron dendrites. Although such postsynaptic membrane reduction will obviously diminish the possibility of synaptic input, the consequences for the functional membrane properties of these cells are not well

  12. The role of rodents and shrews in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii to pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Meerburg, B.G.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Craeye, de S.; Vereijken, P.F.G.; Jongert, E.

    2008-01-01

    Inadequate rodent control is considered to play a role in Toxoplasma gondii infection of pigs. This issue was addressed in the current study by combining a 4-month rodent control campaign and a 7-month longitudinal analysis of T. gondii seroprevalence in slaughter pigs. Three organic pig farms with

  13. African shrews endemic to the Albertine Rift: two new species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two new species described herein, as well as other species of Myosorex from north of the Zambezi River, exhibit limited distributions and are confined to montane habitats, typically above 1000 m. Our new species of Myosorex from Kahuzi-Biega NP (DRC) is the second known species of Myosorex from that park where ...

  14. A potentially new giant sengi (elephant-shrew) from the Udzungwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A full description of this taxon, including formal naming, must await the collection and analysis of voucher specimens, which probably will take many months. In the meantime, it is important that conservationists focussing on the Eastern Arc Mountains be aware of the occurrence of this potentially new Rhynchocyon and field ...

  15. The list of the chromosome races of the common shrew Sorex araneus (updated 2002)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wójcik, J. M.; Borodin, P. M.; Fedyk, S.; Fredga, K.; Hausser, J.; Mishta, A. V.; Orlov, V. N.; Searle, J. B.; Volobouev, V. T.; Zima, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2003), s. 169-178 ISSN 0025-1461. [Evolution in the Sorex araneus group: cytogenetic and molecular aspects. Meeting of the International Sorex araneus Cytogenetics Committee (ISACC) and associated Symposium in Honour of Professor Karl Fredga /6./. Paris, 03.09.2002-07.09.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Sorex araneus * chromosome races * Robertsonian variation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.269, year: 2003

  16. A new species of mole cricket (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae: Gryllotalpinae) from Bukit Fraser, Malay Peninsula, with taxa notes on another similar mole cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ming Kai; Kamaruddin, Khairul Nizam

    2013-01-01

    One new species of Gryllotalpa from Bukit Fraser, Pahang of Malay Peninsula is described: Gryllotalpafraser sp. n. Pho tographs of Gryllotalpa hirsuta Burmeister, 1838 were examined and some remarks are made here, including a compari son with Gryllotalpafraser sp. n. and Gyllotalpa nymphicus Tan, 2012.

  17. Burrow architecture, family composition and habitat characteristics of the largest social African mole-rat: the giant mole-rat constructs really giant burrow systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šumbera, R.; Mazoch, V.; Patzenhauerová, Hana; Lövy, M.; Šklíba, J.; Bryja, Josef; Burda, H.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2012), s. 121-130 ISSN 0001-7051 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601410802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Fukomys mechowii * subterranean rodent * burrow system * kin structure * Bathyergidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.949, year: 2012

  18. Aging is accompanied by a subfield-specific reduction of serotonergic fibers in the tree shrew hippocampal formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuker, Jeanine I H; Keijser, Jan N.; Nyakas, Csaba; Luiten, Paul G.M.; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The hippocampal formation is a crucial structure for learning and memory, and serotonin together with other neurotransmitters is essential in these processes. Although the effects of aging on various neurotransmitter systems in the hippocampus have been extensively investigated, it is not entirely

  19. Flying lemurs – The 'flying tree shrews'? Molecular cytogenetic evidence for a Scandentia-Dermoptera sister clade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volobouev Vitaly

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flying lemurs or Colugos (order Dermoptera represent an ancient mammalian lineage that contains only two extant species. Although molecular evidence strongly supports that the orders Dermoptera, Scandentia, Lagomorpha, Rodentia and Primates form a superordinal clade called Supraprimates (or Euarchontoglires, the phylogenetic placement of Dermoptera within Supraprimates remains ambiguous. Results To search for cytogenetic signatures that could help to clarify the evolutionary affinities within this superordinal group, we have established a genome-wide comparative map between human and the Malayan flying lemur (Galeopterus variegatus by reciprocal chromosome painting using both human and G. variegatus chromosome-specific probes. The 22 human autosomal paints and the X chromosome paint defined 44 homologous segments in the G. variegatus genome. A putative inversion on GVA 11 was revealed by the hybridization patterns of human chromosome probes 16 and 19. Fifteen associations of human chromosome segments (HSA were detected in the G. variegatus genome: HSA1/3, 1/10, 2/21, 3/21, 4/8, 4/18, 7/15, 7/16, 7/19, 10/16, 12/22 (twice, 14/15, 16/19 (twice. Reverse painting of G. variegatus chromosome-specific paints onto human chromosomes confirmed the above results, and defined the origin of the homologous human chromosomal segments in these associations. In total, G. variegatus paints revealed 49 homologous chromosomal segments in the HSA genome. Conclusion Comparative analysis of our map with published maps from representative species of other placental orders, including Scandentia, Primates, Lagomorpha and Rodentia, suggests a signature rearrangement (HSA2q/21 association that links Scandentia and Dermoptera to one sister clade. Our results thus provide new evidence for the hypothesis that Scandentia and Dermoptera have a closer phylogenetic relationship to each other than either of them has to Primates.

  20. From `a shrew from the Orkneys´ to white indigene- the many re-Inventions of Eliza Fraser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia vanden Driesen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Few episodes in postcolonial Australian history have shown so remarkable a capacity to generate ever-increasing cross-fertilisations between myth, history and memory than the narratives centred on Eliza Fraser. The archive of materials surrounding the shipwreck of this British woman and her brief sojourn among the indigenous people of the Badtjala community of Fraser Island in the nineteenth century continues to grow. Kay Schaffer’s impressive work overtook earlier studies of the phenomenon but concentrates mainly on the many European re-constructions of the episode .The fecundity of the materials is far from exhausted. This paper explores some of the Aboriginal reactions to the tale but its main focus is Patrick White’s novel A Fringe of Leaves, which grew out of his own research and constructs a new myth with implications for the nation. It is a work with the potential for developing (in Jim Davidson’s words “a myth of reconciliation, and possibilities of growth.”This Paper shows White’s melding of history, myth, memory and imagination in this novel is illustrative of the literary artist’s contribution to “writing the nation.”