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  1. Mostly Heterosexual as a Distinct Sexual Orientation Group: A Systematic Review of the Empirical Evidence

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C.; Vrangalova, Zhana

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed empirical evidence regarding whether mostly heterosexual exists as a sexual orientation distinct from two adjacent groups on a sexual continuum--exclusively heterosexual and substantially bisexual. We addressed the question: Do mostly heterosexuals show a unique profile of sexual and romantic characteristics that distinguishes them as…

  2. Maintaining distinctions under threat: heterosexual men endorse the biological theory of sexuality when equality is the norm.

    Falomir-Pichastor, Juan M; Hegarty, Peter

    2014-12-01

    According to social identity theory, group members sometimes react to threats to their group's distinctiveness by asserting the distinctiveness of their group. In four studies (n = 261) we tested the hypothesis that heterosexual men with a greater propensity to be threatened by homosexuality would react to egalitarian norms by endorsing biological theories of sexuality. Heterosexual men, but not women, with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group endorsed biological theories the most (Study 1). Heterosexual men with higher gender self-esteem, with heterosexist attitudes, who endorsed traditional gender roles, and with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group, endorsed the biological theories more when egalitarian norms rather than anti-egalitarian norms (Studies 2 and 3) or pro-minority ideologies that emphasized group differences (Study 4) were made salient. These findings show group-level reactive distinctiveness among members of a high-status group in a context of threat to the unique privileges that they once enjoyed. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Six-Coordinate Ln(III Complexes with Various Coordination Geometries Showing Distinct Magnetic Properties

    Mei Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The syntheses, structural characterization, and magnetic properties of three lanthanide complexes with formulas [Ln(L13] (Ln = Dy (1Dy; Er (1Er; and [Dy(L22] (2Dy were reported. Complexes 1Dy and 1Er are isostructural with the metal ion in distorted trigonal-prismatic coordination geometry, but exhibit distinct magnetic properties due to the different shapes of electron density for DyIII (oblate and ErIII (prolate ions. Complex 1Dy shows obvious SMM behavior under a zero direct current (dc field with an effective energy barrier of 31.4 K, while complex 1Er only features SMM behavior under a 400 Oe external field with an effective energy barrier of 23.96 K. In stark contrast, complex 2Dy with the octahedral geometry only exhibits the frequency dependence of alternating current (ac susceptibility signals without χ″ peaks under a zero dc field.

  4. Soil Bacterial and Fungal Communities Show Distinct Recovery Patterns during Forest Ecosystem Restoration.

    Sun, Shan; Li, Song; Avera, Bethany N; Strahm, Brian D; Badgley, Brian D

    2017-07-15

    Bacteria and fungi are important mediators of biogeochemical processes and play essential roles in the establishment of plant communities, which makes knowledge about their recovery after extreme disturbances valuable for understanding ecosystem development. However, broad ecological differences between bacterial and fungal organisms, such as growth rates, stress tolerance, and substrate utilization, suggest they could follow distinct trajectories and show contrasting dynamics during recovery. In this study, we analyzed both the intra-annual variability and decade-scale recovery of bacterial and fungal communities in a chronosequence of reclaimed mined soils using next-generation sequencing to quantify their abundance, richness, β-diversity, taxonomic composition, and cooccurrence network properties. Bacterial communities shifted gradually, with overlapping β-diversity patterns across chronosequence ages, while shifts in fungal communities were more distinct among different ages. In addition, the magnitude of intra-annual variability in bacterial β-diversity was comparable to the changes across decades of chronosequence age, while fungal communities changed minimally across months. Finally, the complexity of bacterial cooccurrence networks increased with chronosequence age, while fungal networks did not show clear age-related trends. We hypothesize that these contrasting dynamics of bacteria and fungi in the chronosequence result from (i) higher growth rates for bacteria, leading to higher intra-annual variability; (ii) higher tolerance to environmental changes for fungi; and (iii) stronger influence of vegetation on fungal communities. IMPORTANCE Both bacteria and fungi play essential roles in ecosystem functions, and information about their recovery after extreme disturbances is important for understanding whole-ecosystem development. Given their many differences in phenotype, phylogeny, and life history, a comparison of different bacterial and fungal recovery

  5. Duct- and Acinar-Derived Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas Show Distinct Tumor Progression and Marker Expression

    Rute M.M. Ferreira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The cell of origin of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC has been controversial. Here, we show that identical oncogenic drivers trigger PDAC originating from both ductal and acinar cells with similar histology but with distinct pathophysiology and marker expression dependent on cell of origin. Whereas acinar-derived tumors exhibited low AGR2 expression and were preceded by pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs, duct-derived tumors displayed high AGR2 and developed independently of a PanIN stage via non-mucinous lesions. Using orthotopic transplantation and chimera experiments, we demonstrate that PanIN-like lesions can be induced by PDAC as bystanders in adjacent healthy tissues, explaining the co-existence of mucinous and non-mucinous lesions and highlighting the need to distinguish between true precursor PanINs and PanIN-like bystander lesions. Our results suggest AGR2 as a tool to stratify PDAC according to cell of origin, highlight that not all PanIN-like lesions are precursors of PDAC, and add an alternative progression route to the current model of PDAC development.

  6. THE SAYING / SHOWING DISTINCTION AGAINST THE NEW WITTGENSTEIN MOSTRAR E DIZER CONTRA A NOVA LEITURA

    Bernardo Alonso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to preserve the saying / showing tractarian distinction from the New Wittgenstein reading, which defends, among other things, that the Tractatus contains only strings of plain nonsense. The author presents a brief exposition of the language system of the Tractatus. Than he tries to interrelate three core theses, the analyticity theses, the contingency theses and the independency theses as unified by the picture theory. The latter provides the account of an elementary proposition, subject to the constraint that a proposition must show its sense. This work recognizes (without evaluating the late Wittgenstein's objections, but also recognizes that those objections relate to important philosophical theses, not to pure nonsense.O objetivo deste trabalho é salvaguardar a distinção dizer / mostrar da leitura New Wittgenstein, a qual defende, entre outras coisas, que o Tractatus contém apenas linhas de puro nonsense. O autor apresenta uma breve exposição do sistema de linguagem do Tractatus. Depois tenta inter-relacionar três teses centrais, a tese da Analiticidade, a tese da Independência e a tese da Contingência como unificadas pela Teoria da Figuração. Esta fornece uma explicação para uma proposição elementar, sujeita à restrição de que uma proposição deve mostrar o seu sentido. Este artigo reconhece (sem avaliar as objeções do segundo Wittgenstein, mas reconhece também que tais objeções referem-se a teses filosóficas, não puro nonsense. hilosophical theses, not to pure nonsense.

  7. Microarray profiling shows distinct differences between primary tumors and commonly used preclinical models in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Wang, Weining; Iyer, N. Gopalakrishna; Tay, Hsien Ts’ung; Wu, Yonghui; Lim, Tony K. H.; Zheng, Lin; Song, In Chin; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Huynh, Hung; Tan, Patrick O. B.; Chow, Pierce K. H.

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in therapeutics, outcomes for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain poor and there is an urgent need for efficacious systemic therapy. Unfortunately, drugs that are successful in preclinical studies often fail in the clinical setting, and we hypothesize that this is due to functional differences between primary tumors and commonly used preclinical models. In this study, we attempt to answer this question by comparing tumor morphology and gene expression profiles between primary tumors, xenografts and HCC cell lines. Hep G2 cell lines and tumor cells from patient tumor explants were subcutaneously (ectopically) injected into the flank and orthotopically into liver parenchyma of Mus Musculus SCID mice. The mice were euthanized after two weeks. RNA was extracted from the tumors, and gene expression profiling was performed using the Gene Chip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0. Principal component analyses (PCA) and construction of dendrograms were conducted using Partek genomics suite. PCA showed that the commonly used HepG2 cell line model and its xenograft counterparts were vastly different from all fresh primary tumors. Expression profiles of primary tumors were also significantly divergent from their counterpart patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models, regardless of the site of implantation. Xenografts from the same primary tumors were more likely to cluster together regardless of site of implantation, although heat maps showed distinct differences in gene expression profiles between orthotopic and ectopic models. The data presented here challenges the utility of routinely used preclinical models. Models using HepG2 were vastly different from primary tumors and PDXs, suggesting that this is not clinically representative. Surprisingly, site of implantation (orthotopic versus ectopic) resulted in limited impact on gene expression profiles, and in both scenarios xenografts differed significantly from the original primary tumors, challenging the long

  8. Non-Heterosexuality, Relationships, and Young Women's Contraceptive Behavior.

    Ela, Elizabeth J; Budnick, Jamie

    2017-06-01

    Non-heterosexual young women have a higher rate of unintended pregnancy than their heterosexual peers, but their fertility behaviors are understudied. We use longitudinal data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life study to investigate mechanisms contributing to non-heterosexual women's higher pregnancy risk. These data include weekly reports of relationships, sex, and contraceptive use over 30 months. We compare the relationships and fertility behaviors of three groups: exclusively heterosexual (consistent heterosexual behavior, identity, and attraction); mostly heterosexual (heterosexual identity with same-sex behavior and/or same-sex attraction); and LGBTQ (any non-heterosexual identity). We find that mostly heterosexual and LGBTQ women behave differently from exclusively heterosexual women in ways likely to elevate their risk of unintended pregnancy: more distinct partners during the study period, more sexual intercourse with men, less frequent contraceptive use, less use of a dual method (condom plus hormonal method), and more gaps in contraceptive coverage. Mostly heterosexual women resemble LGBTQ women in their contraceptive behavior but have significantly more intercourse with men, which may increase their pregnancy risk relative to both LGBTQ and exclusively heterosexual women. We conclude by considering implications for LGBTQ health and the measurement of sexual minority populations.

  9. Complexity analyses show two distinct types of nonlinear dynamics in short heart period variability recordings

    Porta, Alberto; Bari, Vlasta; Marchi, Andrea; De Maria, Beatrice; Cysarz, Dirk; Van Leeuwen, Peter; Takahashi, Anielle C. M.; Catai, Aparecida M.; Gnecchi-Ruscone, Tomaso

    2015-01-01

    Two diverse complexity metrics quantifying time irreversibility and local prediction, in connection with a surrogate data approach, were utilized to detect nonlinear dynamics in short heart period (HP) variability series recorded in fetuses, as a function of the gestational period, and in healthy humans, as a function of the magnitude of the orthostatic challenge. The metrics indicated the presence of two distinct types of nonlinear HP dynamics characterized by diverse ranges of time scales. These findings stress the need to render more specific the analysis of nonlinear components of HP dynamics by accounting for different temporal scales. PMID:25806002

  10. Retroviral DNA integration: ASLV, HIV, and MLV show distinct target site preferences.

    Rick S Mitchell

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The completion of the human genome sequence has made possible genome-wide studies of retroviral DNA integration. Here we report an analysis of 3,127 integration site sequences from human cells. We compared retroviral vectors derived from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, avian sarcoma-leukosis virus (ASLV, and murine leukemia virus (MLV. Effects of gene activity on integration targeting were assessed by transcriptional profiling of infected cells. Integration by HIV vectors, analyzed in two primary cell types and several cell lines, strongly favored active genes. An analysis of the effects of tissue-specific transcription showed that it resulted in tissue-specific integration targeting by HIV, though the effect was quantitatively modest. Chromosomal regions rich in expressed genes were favored for HIV integration, but these regions were found to be interleaved with unfavorable regions at CpG islands. MLV vectors showed a strong bias in favor of integration near transcription start sites, as reported previously. ASLV vectors showed only a weak preference for active genes and no preference for transcription start regions. Thus, each of the three retroviruses studied showed unique integration site preferences, suggesting that virus-specific binding of integration complexes to chromatin features likely guides site selection.

  11. The wild tomato species Solanum chilense shows variation in pathogen resistance between geographically distinct populations.

    Stam, Remco; Scheikl, Daniela; Tellier, Aurélien

    2017-01-01

    Wild tomatoes are a valuable source of disease resistance germplasm for tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) breeders. Many species are known to possess a certain degree of resistance against certain pathogens; however, evolution of resistance traits is yet poorly understood. For some species, like Solanum chilense , both differences in habitat and within species genetic diversity are very large. Here we aim to investigate the occurrence of spatially heterogeneous coevolutionary pressures between populations of S. chilense . We investigate the phenotypic differences in disease resistance within S. chilense against three common tomato pathogens ( Alternaria solani , Phytophthora infestans and a Fusarium sp .) and confirm high degrees of variability in resistance properties between selected populations. Using generalised linear mixed models, we show that disease resistance does not follow the known demographic patterns of the species. Models with up to five available climatic and geographic variables are required to best describe resistance differences, confirming the complexity of factors involved in local resistance variation. We confirm that within S. chilense , resistance properties against various pathogens show a mosaic pattern and do not follow environmental patterns, indicating the strength of local pathogen pressures. Our study can form the basis for further investigations of the genetic traits involved.

  12. The wild tomato species Solanum chilense shows variation in pathogen resistance between geographically distinct populations

    Remco Stam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild tomatoes are a valuable source of disease resistance germplasm for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum breeders. Many species are known to possess a certain degree of resistance against certain pathogens; however, evolution of resistance traits is yet poorly understood. For some species, like Solanum chilense, both differences in habitat and within species genetic diversity are very large. Here we aim to investigate the occurrence of spatially heterogeneous coevolutionary pressures between populations of S. chilense. We investigate the phenotypic differences in disease resistance within S. chilense against three common tomato pathogens (Alternaria solani, Phytophthora infestans and a Fusarium sp. and confirm high degrees of variability in resistance properties between selected populations. Using generalised linear mixed models, we show that disease resistance does not follow the known demographic patterns of the species. Models with up to five available climatic and geographic variables are required to best describe resistance differences, confirming the complexity of factors involved in local resistance variation. We confirm that within S. chilense, resistance properties against various pathogens show a mosaic pattern and do not follow environmental patterns, indicating the strength of local pathogen pressures. Our study can form the basis for further investigations of the genetic traits involved.

  13. The wild tomato species Solanum chilense shows variation in pathogen resistance between geographically distinct populations

    Scheikl, Daniela; Tellier, Aurélien

    2017-01-01

    Wild tomatoes are a valuable source of disease resistance germplasm for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) breeders. Many species are known to possess a certain degree of resistance against certain pathogens; however, evolution of resistance traits is yet poorly understood. For some species, like Solanum chilense, both differences in habitat and within species genetic diversity are very large. Here we aim to investigate the occurrence of spatially heterogeneous coevolutionary pressures between populations of S. chilense. We investigate the phenotypic differences in disease resistance within S. chilense against three common tomato pathogens (Alternaria solani, Phytophthora infestans and a Fusarium sp.) and confirm high degrees of variability in resistance properties between selected populations. Using generalised linear mixed models, we show that disease resistance does not follow the known demographic patterns of the species. Models with up to five available climatic and geographic variables are required to best describe resistance differences, confirming the complexity of factors involved in local resistance variation. We confirm that within S. chilense, resistance properties against various pathogens show a mosaic pattern and do not follow environmental patterns, indicating the strength of local pathogen pressures. Our study can form the basis for further investigations of the genetic traits involved. PMID:28133579

  14. Bipolar disorder type I and II show distinct relationships between cortical thickness and executive function.

    Abé, C; Rolstad, S; Petrovic, P; Ekman, C-J; Sparding, T; Ingvar, M; Landén, M

    2018-06-15

    Frontal cortical abnormalities and executive function impairment co-occur in bipolar disorder. Recent studies have shown that bipolar subtypes differ in the degree of structural and functional impairments. The relationships between cognitive performance and cortical integrity have not been clarified and might differ across patients with bipolar disorder type I, II, and healthy subjects. Using a vertex-wise whole-brain analysis, we investigated how cortical integrity, as measured by cortical thickness, correlates with executive performance in patients with bipolar disorder type I, II, and controls (N = 160). We found focal associations between executive function and cortical thickness in the medial prefrontal cortex in bipolar II patients and controls, but not in bipolar I disorder. In bipolar II patients, we observed additional correlations in lateral prefrontal and occipital regions. Our findings suggest that bipolar disorder patients show altered structure-function relationships, and importantly that those relationships may differ between bipolar subtypes. The findings are line with studies suggesting subtype-specific neurobiological and cognitive profiles. This study contributes to a better understanding of brain structure-function relationships in bipolar disorder and gives important insights into the neuropathophysiology of diagnostic subtypes. © 2018 The Authors Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Satellite III non-coding RNAs show distinct and stress-specific patterns of induction

    Sengupta, Sonali; Parihar, Rashmi; Ganesh, Subramaniam

    2009-01-01

    The heat shock response in human cells is associated with the transcription of satellite III repeats (SatIII) located in the 9q12 locus. Upon induction, the SatIII transcripts remain associated with the locus and recruit several transcription and splicing factors to form the nuclear stress bodies (nSBs). The nSBs are thought to modulate epigenetic changes during the heat shock response. We demonstrate here that the nSBs are induced by a variety of stressors and show stress-specific patterns of induction. While the transcription factor HSF1 is required for the induction of SatIII locus by the stressors tested, its specific role in the transcriptional process appears to be stress dependent. Our results suggest the existence of multiple transcriptional loci for the SatIII transcripts and that their activation might depend upon the type of stressors. Thus, induction of SatIII transcripts appears to be a generic response to a variety of stress conditions.

  16. Landscape design and allocation for demonstrating the distinctive germplasm resources of SHNU offers in 2015 Shanghai International Flower Show

    CHEN Jiaying

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Combing with its theme——″The Delicate Horticulture & The Beautiful Homeland″,the 2015 Shanghai International Flower Show offers SHNU a special outdoor stand for distinctive germplasm resources to shine in different aspects of subject creativity.Many properties of the landscaping,such as landscape arrangement,season reflection,color configuration,personal training,identification,landscaping,season reflection,afforested maintenance,were discused and analyzed in this study.A proposal on how to improve the achievements in scientific research and application of the splendid germplasm resources to a further step was provided as well.The practice of the doemonstration for SHNU′s of germplasm resources in the show gave us a lot of inspirations such as doing more study and develop more plant varieties in order to meeting the social demands,furthermore,promoting the development of the horticulture industry.

  17. ASD and schizophrenia show distinct developmental profiles in common genetic overlap with population-based social communication difficulties.

    St Pourcain, B; Robinson, E B; Anttila, V; Sullivan, B B; Maller, J; Golding, J; Skuse, D; Ring, S; Evans, D M; Zammit, S; Fisher, S E; Neale, B M; Anney, R J L; Ripke, S; Hollegaard, M V; Werge, T; Ronald, A; Grove, J; Hougaard, D M; Børglum, A D; Mortensen, P B; Daly, M J; Davey Smith, G

    2018-02-01

    Difficulties in social communication are part of the phenotypic overlap between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia. Both conditions follow, however, distinct developmental patterns. Symptoms of ASD typically occur during early childhood, whereas most symptoms characteristic of schizophrenia do not appear before early adulthood. We investigated whether overlap in common genetic influences between these clinical conditions and impairments in social communication depends on the developmental stage of the assessed trait. Social communication difficulties were measured in typically-developing youth (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, N⩽5553, longitudinal assessments at 8, 11, 14 and 17 years) using the Social Communication Disorder Checklist. Data on clinical ASD (PGC-ASD: 5305 cases, 5305 pseudo-controls; iPSYCH-ASD: 7783 cases, 11 359 controls) and schizophrenia (PGC-SCZ2: 34 241 cases, 45 604 controls, 1235 trios) were either obtained through the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) or the Danish iPSYCH project. Overlap in genetic influences between ASD and social communication difficulties during development decreased with age, both in the PGC-ASD and the iPSYCH-ASD sample. Genetic overlap between schizophrenia and social communication difficulties, by contrast, persisted across age, as observed within two independent PGC-SCZ2 subsamples, and showed an increase in magnitude for traits assessed during later adolescence. ASD- and schizophrenia-related polygenic effects were unrelated to each other and changes in trait-disorder links reflect the heterogeneity of genetic factors influencing social communication difficulties during childhood versus later adolescence. Thus, both clinical ASD and schizophrenia share some genetic influences with impairments in social communication, but reveal distinct developmental profiles in their genetic links, consistent with the onset of clinical symptoms.

  18. Are transvestites necessarily heterosexual?

    Bullough, B; Bullough, V

    1997-02-01

    A survey of 372 male cross-dressers gathered data about present and childhood experiences and attitudes in light of the growing knowledge about transvestism. This article focuses on data related to sexual orientation, particularly in relationship to the definition of transvestism in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association. It is argued that transvestism is not necessarily a heterosexual phenomenon.

  19. Hepatitis B, C, and D virus infection showing distinct patterns between injection drug users and the general population.

    Chen, Fei; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Fengfan; Wen, Bo; Luo, Shan; Yuan, Dongping; Lin, Yingbiao; Ou, Wensheng; Tang, Ping; Dai, Guozhi; Li, Fangfang; Liu, Wenpei; Qu, Xiaowang

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis B, C, and D virus (HBV, HCV, and HDV) infections are known to be prevalent in injection drug users (IDUs); however, the relationship between the molecular epidemiologic features of hepatitis virus infection in high-risk individuals and the general population has not yet been established. In total, 1049 IDUs and 672 individuals who underwent physical examinations at Chenzhou hospital, Hunan Province, China, were enrolled. HBV, HCV, and HDV infections were screened with serologic tests in both populations. HBsAg-positive, anti-HCV IgG-positive, and anti-HDV IgG-positive samples were further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing. Significantly higher HBV (21.54 vs 16.52%, P = 0.01), HCV (45.95% vs 1.34%, P infections were detected in IDUs compared with the general population. The dual infection of HBV/HCV or HBV/HDV was also significantly higher in IDUs than in the general population. HBV genotype B and HDV genotype II were dominants in both populations. HCV infection showed genotype 6a (49.52%) dominant in IDUs, but genotype 1b accounted for 50% infection, which was followed by genotype 6a (33.33%) in the general population. Higher viral loads were associated with HBV genotype B and HCV genotype 6a compared with non-dominant genotypic infections. HBV and HDV infections shared similar patterns by IDUs and the general populations, and HCV infection exhibited distinct features between two populations. Our results suggest different molecular epidemiologic characteristics of HBV, HCV, and HDV infection in two populations. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. The transcriptional profile of mesenchymal stem cell populations in primary osteoporosis is distinct and shows overexpression of osteogenic inhibitors.

    Peggy Benisch

    Full Text Available Primary osteoporosis is an age-related disease characterized by an imbalance in bone homeostasis. While the resorptive aspect of the disease has been studied intensely, less is known about the anabolic part of the syndrome or presumptive deficiencies in bone regeneration. Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are the primary source of osteogenic regeneration. In the present study we aimed to unravel whether MSC biology is directly involved in the pathophysiology of the disease and therefore performed microarray analyses of hMSC of elderly patients (79-94 years old suffering from osteoporosis (hMSC-OP. In comparison to age-matched controls we detected profound changes in the transcriptome in hMSC-OP, e.g. enhanced mRNA expression of known osteoporosis-associated genes (LRP5, RUNX2, COL1A1 and of genes involved in osteoclastogenesis (CSF1, PTH1R, but most notably of genes coding for inhibitors of WNT and BMP signaling, such as Sclerostin and MAB21L2. These candidate genes indicate intrinsic deficiencies in self-renewal and differentiation potential in osteoporotic stem cells. We also compared both hMSC-OP and non-osteoporotic hMSC-old of elderly donors to hMSC of ∼30 years younger donors and found that the transcriptional changes acquired between the sixth and the ninth decade of life differed widely between osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic stem cells. In addition, we compared the osteoporotic transcriptome to long term-cultivated, senescent hMSC and detected some signs for pre-senescence in hMSC-OP.Our results suggest that in primary osteoporosis the transcriptomes of hMSC populations show distinct signatures and little overlap with non-osteoporotic aging, although we detected some hints for senescence-associated changes. While there are remarkable inter-individual variations as expected for polygenetic diseases, we could identify many susceptibility genes for osteoporosis known from genetic studies. We also found new candidates, e.g. MAB21L

  1. Mood Dimensions Show Distinct Within-Subject Associations With Non-exercise Activity in Adolescents: An Ambulatory Assessment Study

    Elena D. Koch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is known to preserve both physical and mental health. However, the physical activity levels of a large proportion of adolescents are insufficient. This is critical, since physical activity levels in youth have been shown to translate into adulthood. Whereas in adult populations, mood has been supposed to be one important psychological factor that drives physical activity in everyday life, this issue has been poorly studied in adolescent populations. Ambulatory Assessment is the state-of-the-art approach to investigate how mood and non-exercise activity fluctuate within persons in everyday life. Through assessments in real time and real life, this method provides ecological validity, bypassing several limitations of traditional assessment methods (e.g., recall biases. To investigate whether mood is associated with non-exercise activity in adolescents, we equipped a community-based sample comprising 113 participants, aged 12–17 years, with GPS-triggered e-diaries querying for valence, energetic arousal, and calmness, and with accelerometers continuously measuring physical activity in their everyday lives for 1 week. We excluded all acceleration data due to participants' exercise activities and thereafter we parameterized non-exercise activity as the mean value across 10-min intervals of movement acceleration intensity following each e-diary prompt. We used multilevel analyses to compute the effects of the mood dimensions on non-exercise activity within 10-min intervals directly following each e-diary prompt. Additionally, we conducted explorative analyses of the time course of the effects, i.e., on different timeframes of non-exercise activity up to 300 min following the mood assessment. The results showed that valence (p < 0.001 and energetic arousal (p < 0.001 were positively associated with non-exercise activity within the 10 min interval, whereas calmness (p < 0.001 was negatively associated with non-exercise activity

  2. Enhancing masculinity by slandering homosexuals: the role of homophobic epithets in heterosexual gender identity.

    Carnaghi, Andrea; Maass, Anne; Fasoli, Fabio

    2011-12-01

    The current studies investigate the effects of homophobic labels on the self-perception of heterosexual males, hypothesizing that when exposed to homophobic epithets, they are motivated to underline their masculinity and claim a distinctly heterosexual identity by taking distance from homosexuals and, to a lesser degree, from women. Heterosexual male participants were subliminally (Study 1) and supraliminally (Study 2) primed either by a homophobic epithet or by a category label, and completed the Traditional Beliefs About Gender and Gender Identity scale. Participants stressed their heterosexual identity, but not their gender distinctiveness, when exposed to homophobic epithets, compared to category labels. Study 2 demonstrated that the relation between the homophobic label and the participants' heterosexual identity was mediated by how negatively they reacted to the antigay label. Heterosexual identity was enhanced in reaction to homophobic labels but not to an equally derogatory label referring to regional identity. Results are discussed within an intergroup framework.

  3. Homotolerance and Heterosexuality as Norwegian Values

    Rothing, Ase; Svendsen, Stine Helena Bang

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, equality between homosexual and heterosexual relationships has increasingly been presented as a marker for Norwegian values. Norwegian schooling encourages tolerance toward homosexuals, and the state shows active interest in counteracting bullying against LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) youth by supporting research…

  4. ASD and schizophrenia show distinct developmental profiles in common genetic overlap with population-based social-communication difficulties

    St Pourcain, B.; Robinson, E.; Anttila, V.; Sullivan, B.; Maller, J.; Golding, J.; Skuse, D.; Ring, S.; Evans, D.; Zammit, S.; Fisher, S.; Neale, B.; Anney, R.; Ripke, S.; Hollegaard, M.

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties in social communication are part of the phenotypic overlap between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and\\ud schizophrenia. Both conditions follow, however, distinct developmental patterns. Symptoms of ASD typically occur during early\\ud childhood, whereas most symptoms characteristic of schizophrenia do not appear before early adulthood. We investigated whether\\ud overlap in common genetic influences between these clinical conditions and impairments in social communication depends ...

  5. Lateralization for Processing Facial Emotions in Gay Men, Heterosexual Men, and Heterosexual Women.

    Rahman, Qazi; Yusuf, Sifat

    2015-07-01

    This study tested whether male sexual orientation and gender nonconformity influenced functional cerebral lateralization for the processing of facial emotions. We also tested for the effects of sex of poser and emotion displayed on putative differences. Thirty heterosexual men, 30 heterosexual women, and 40 gay men completed measures of demographic variables, recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN), IQ, and the Chimeric Faces Test (CFT). The CFT depicts vertically split chimeric faces, formed with one half showing a neutral expression and the other half showing an emotional expression and performance is measured using a "laterality quotient" (LQ) score. We found that heterosexual men were significantly more right-lateralized when viewing female faces compared to heterosexual women and gay men, who did not differ significantly from each other. Heterosexual women and gay men were more left-lateralized for processing female faces. There were no significant group differences in lateralization for male faces. These results remained when controlling for age and IQ scores. There was no significant effect of CGN on LQ scores. These data suggest that gay men are feminized in some aspects of functional cerebral lateralization for facial emotion. The results were discussed in relation to the selectivity of functional lateralization and putative brain mechanisms underlying sexual attraction towards opposite-sex and same-sex targets.

  6. ASD and schizophrenia show distinct developmental profiles in common genetic overlap with population-based social communication difficulties

    St Pourcain, B; Robinson, E B; Anttila, V

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties in social communication are part of the phenotypic overlap between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia. Both conditions follow, however, distinct developmental patterns. Symptoms of ASD typically occur during early childhood, whereas most symptoms characteristic......-developing youth (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, N⩽5553, longitudinal assessments at 8, 11, 14 and 17 years) using the Social Communication Disorder Checklist. Data on clinical ASD (PGC-ASD: 5305 cases, 5305 pseudo-controls; iPSYCH-ASD: 7783 cases, 11 359 controls) and schizophrenia (PGC-SCZ2: 34...... 241 cases, 45 604 controls, 1235 trios) were either obtained through the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) or the Danish iPSYCH project. Overlap in genetic influences between ASD and social communication difficulties during development decreased with age, both in the PGC-ASD and the iPSYCH-ASD...

  7. Neural Correlates of Sexual Orientation in Heterosexual, Bisexual, and Homosexual Men

    Safron, Adam; Sylva, David; Klimaj, Victoria; Rosenthal, A. M.; Li, Meng; Walter, Martin; Bailey, J. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Studies of subjective and genital sexual arousal in monosexual (i.e. heterosexual and homosexual) men have repeatedly found that erotic stimuli depicting men’s preferred sex produce strong responses, whereas erotic stimuli depicting the other sex produce much weaker responses. Inconsistent results have previously been obtained in bisexual men, who have sometimes demonstrated distinctly bisexual responses, but other times demonstrated patterns more similar to those observed in monosexual men. We used fMRI to investigate neural correlates of responses to erotic pictures and videos in heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual men, ages 25–50. Sixty participants were included in video analyses, and 62 were included in picture analyses. We focused on the ventral striatum (VS), due to its association with incentive motivation. Patterns were consistent with sexual orientation, with heterosexual and homosexual men showing female-favoring and male-favoring responses, respectively. Bisexual men tended to show less differentiation between male and female stimuli. Consistent patterns were observed in the whole brain, including the VS, and also in additional regions such as occipitotemporal, anterior cingulate, and orbitofrontal cortices. This study extends previous findings of gender-specific neural responses in monosexual men, and provides initial evidence for distinct brain activity patterns in bisexual men. PMID:28145518

  8. Heterosexual transmission of HIV in Greece.

    Roumelioutou-Karayannis, A; Nestoridou, K; Mandalaki, T; Stefanou, T; Papaevangelou, G

    1988-06-01

    To provide further evidence for the heterosexual transmission of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Greece we examined 53 Greek female steady heterosexual partners of 53 anti-HIV-positive men. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission was estimated by the detection of anti-HIV antibodies. Our results showed that 27.8% (5 of 18) of the female partners of bisexuals, 33.3% (2 of 6) of intravenous drug abusers (IVDA), and 100% (4 of 4) of those who had lived for a long time in Africa were found anti-HIV positive. In contrast, only 4% (1 of 25) of the studied sexual partners of hemophiliac carriers were found to be HIV seropositive. The use of condoms seemed to be the most important factor in reducing HIV transmission. According to our results the duration of sexual relationships and the practice of anal intercourse did not increase the possibility of seroconversion. These results confirm the heterosexual transmission of HIV. However, further studies should be conducted to evaluate the relative role of various risk factors and the overall importance of heterosexual spread of HIV infections.

  9. A Toxin-Antitoxin System VapBC15 from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Shows Distinct Regulatory Features

    Qian Fei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Type II toxin–antitoxin (TA systems play important roles in bacterial stress survival by regulating cell growth or death. They are highly abundant in cyanobacteria yet remain poorly characterized. Here, we report the identification and regulation of a putative type II TA system from Synechocystis PCC6803, VapBC15. The VapBC15 system is encoded by the chromosomal operon vapBC15. Exogenous expression of VapC15 dramatically arrested cell growth of Escherichia coli and reduced the numbers of colony-forming units (CFU. The VapC15 toxicity could be which was counteracted neutralized by simultaneous or delayed production of VapB15. Biochemical analysis demonstrated the formation of VapB15-VapC15 complexes by the physical interaction between VapB15 and VapC15. Notably, the VapB15 antitoxin up-regulated the transcription of the vapBC15 operon by directly binding to the promoter region, and the VapC15 toxin abolished the up-regulatory effect by destabilizing the binding. Moreover, VapB15 can be degraded by the proteases Lons and ClpXP2s from Synechocystis PCC6803, thus activating the latent toxicity of VapBC15. These findings suggest that VapBC15 represents a genuine TA system that utilizes a distinct mechanism to regulate toxin activity.

  10. Systematic assessment of prognostic gene signatures for breast cancer shows distinct influence of time and ER status

    Zhao, Xi; Rødland, Einar Andreas; Sørlie, Therese; Vollan, Hans Kristian Moen; Russnes, Hege G; Kristensen, Vessela N; Lingjærde, Ole Christian; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to assess and compare prognostic power of nine breast cancer gene signatures (Intrinsic, PAM50, 70-gene, 76-gene, Genomic-Grade-Index, 21-gene-Recurrence-Score, EndoPredict, Wound-Response and Hypoxia) in relation to ER status and follow-up time. A gene expression dataset from 947 breast tumors was used to evaluate the signatures for prediction of Distant Metastasis Free Survival (DMFS). A total of 912 patients had available DMFS status. The recently published METABRIC cohort was used as an additional validation set. Survival predictions were fairly concordant across most signatures. Prognostic power declined with follow-up time. During the first 5 years of followup, all signatures except for Hypoxia were predictive for DMFS in ER-positive disease, and 76-gene, Hypoxia and Wound-Response were prognostic in ER-negative disease. After 5 years, the signatures had little prognostic power. Gene signatures provide significant prognostic information beyond tumor size, node status and histological grade. Generally, these signatures performed better for ER-positive disease, indicating that risk within each ER stratum is driven by distinct underlying biology. Most of the signatures were strong risk predictors for DMFS during the first 5 years of follow-up. Combining gene signatures with histological grade or tumor size, could improve the prognostic power, perhaps also of long-term survival

  11. Why Different Drought Indexes Show Distinct Future Drought Risk Outcomes in the U.S. Great Plains?

    Feng, S.; Hayes, M. J.; Trnka, M.

    2015-12-01

    Vigorous discussions and disagreements about the future changes in drought intensity in the US Great Plains have been taking place recently within the literature. These discussions have involved widely varying estimates based on drought indices and model-based projections of the future. To investigate and understand the causes for such a disparity between these previous estimates, we analyzed 10 commonly-used drought indexes using the output from 26 state-of-the-art climate models. These drought indices were computed using potential evapotranspiration estimated by the physically-based Penman-Monteith method (PE_pm) and the empirically-based Thornthwaite method (PE_th). The results showed that the short-term drought indicators are similar to modeled surface soil moisture and show a small but consistent drying trend in the future. The long-term drought indicators and the total column soil moisture, however, are consistent in projecting more intense future drought. When normalized, the drought indices with PE_th all show unprecedented and possibly unrealistic future drying, while the drought indices with PE_pm show comparable dryness with the modeled soil moisture. Additionally, the drought indices with PE_pm are closely related to soil moisture during both the 20th and 21st Centuries. Overall, the drought indices with PE_pm, as well as the modeled total column soil moisture, suggest a widespread and very significant drying of the Great Plains region toward the end of the Century. Our results suggested that the sharp contracts about future drought risk in the Great Plains discussed in previous studies are caused by 1) comparing the projected changes in short-term droughts with that of the long-term droughts, and/or 2) computing the atmospheric evaporative demand using the empirically-based method (e.g., PE_th). Our analysis may be applied for drought projections in other regions across the globe.

  12. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nef Proteins Show Distinct Patterns and Mechanisms of Src Kinase Activation

    Greenway, Alison L.; Dutartre, Hélène; Allen, Kelly; McPhee, Dale A.; Olive, Daniel; Collette, Yves

    1999-01-01

    The nef gene from human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV) regulates cell function and viral replication, possibly through binding of the nef product to cellular proteins, including Src family tyrosine kinases. We show here that the Nef protein encoded by SIVmac239 interacts with and also activates the human Src kinases Lck and Hck. This is in direct contrast to the inhibitory effect of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) Nef on Lck catalytic activity. Unexpectedly, however, the interaction of SIV Nef with human Lck or Hck is not mediated via its consensus proline motif, which is known to mediate HIV-1 Nef binding to Src homology 3 (SH3) domains, and various experimental analyses failed to show significant interaction of SIV Nef with the SH3 domain of either kinase. Instead, SIV Nef can bind Lck and Hck SH2 domains, and its N-terminal 50 amino acid residues are sufficient for Src kinase binding and activation. Our results provide evidence for multiple mechanisms by which Nef binds to and regulates Src kinases. PMID:10364375

  13. Youth masculinities: compelling male heterosexuality.

    Richardson, Diane

    2010-12-01

    This article seeks to extend understandings of heterosexual masculine identities through an examination of young men's constructions of what motivates young men to engage in heterosexual practices and relationships, and what not having sex might mean for them. Using the masculinity literature and work on heterosexuality to frame the discussion and to contextualize the findings, it explores the complex dynamics that frame the relationship between masculinity and heterosexuality. Specifically, how dominant or 'hegemonic' discourses of heterosexuality shape young men's identities, beliefs and behaviour. It considers these questions using empirical data from a qualitative study of young people living in close-knit working-class communities in the North East of England, with a specific focus on cultural and social attitudes towards sexuality and sexual practices. Peer group networks are a key site for the construction and (re)production of masculinity and, therefore, an important arena within which gendered social approval and acceptance is both sought and gained. In this article, I explore the reasons why young men engage in specific types of heterosexual practice in order to gain social approval. A central question is the extent to which heterosexuality is compelling for young men. That young men do feel compelled to behave in certain ways sexually, behaviours that they may be uncomfortable with and/or dislike, and the fact that they feel they are restricted in terms of how they can talk about their experiences within their peer group networks, demonstrates the power of dominant discourses of masculinity in everyday life. This is addressed through an examination of the restrictive effects of normative discourses about male heterosexuality, including their privatizing effects, which suggest that youth masculinities are often experienced in ways that are highly contradictory requiring young men to adopt a range of strategies to deal with this.

  14. Spitzenkorper, exocyst, and polarisome components in Candida albicans hyphae show different patterns of localization and have distinct dynamic properties.

    Jones, Laura A; Sudbery, Peter E

    2010-10-01

    During the extreme polarized growth of fungal hyphae, secretory vesicles are thought to accumulate in a subapical region called the Spitzenkörper. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans can grow in a budding yeast or hyphal form. When it grows as hyphae, Mlc1 accumulates in a subapical spot suggestive of a Spitzenkörper-like structure, while the polarisome components Spa2 and Bud6 localize to a surface crescent. Here we show that the vesicle-associated protein Sec4 also localizes to a spot, confirming that secretory vesicles accumulate in the putative C. albicans Spitzenkörper. In contrast, exocyst components localize to a surface crescent. Using a combination of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) experiments and cytochalasin A to disrupt actin cables, we showed that Spitzenkörper-located proteins are highly dynamic. In contrast, exocyst and polarisome components are stably located at the cell surface. It is thought that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae exocyst components are transported to the cell surface on secretory vesicles along actin cables. If each vesicle carried its own complement of exocyst components, then it would be expected that exocyst components would be as dynamic as Sec4 and would have the same pattern of localization. This is not what we observe in C. albicans. We propose a model in which a stream of vesicles arrives at the tip and accumulates in the Spitzenkörper before onward delivery to the plasma membrane mediated by exocyst and polarisome components that are more stable residents of the cell surface.

  15. Do Infants Show Distinct Negative Facial Expressions for Fear and Anger? Emotional Expression in 11-Month-Old European American, Chinese, and Japanese Infants

    Camras, Linda A.; Oster, Harriet; Bakeman, Roger; Meng, Zhaolan; Ujiie, Tatsuo; Campos, Joseph J.

    2007-01-01

    Do infants show distinct negative facial expressions for different negative emotions? To address this question, European American, Chinese, and Japanese 11-month-olds were videotaped during procedures designed to elicit mild anger or frustration and fear. Facial behavior was coded using Baby FACS, an anatomically based scoring system. Infants'…

  16. Non-heterosexual disclosure at the workplace

    Voergård-Olesen, Rikke Karen; Eskerod, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    a strategic choice concerning (non-)disclosure. Based on an empirical study, we contribute to the understanding of non-heterosexuals’ disclosure strategies and experiences at the workplace. Individual, semi-structured interviews on personal experiences and thoughts were conducted. The interviewees were eight...... non-heterosexual women, 34-44 years old, working in Denmark, open (to some degree) about their sexual orientation, and representing more industries and educational backgrounds. Even though the informants claimed openness, significant differences concerning disclosure were identified - across...... informants and across situations in the working life, e.g. at the job-interview, dealing with customers, at lunch breaks, at workplace-related parties. The empirical study shows that disclosure is not a matter of ‘once and for all’. Non-heterosexuals are on a continuous basis confronted with choice...

  17. Homicides between heterosexual intimates: Criminological and victimological characteristics

    Simeunović-Patić Biljana J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of homicidal violence between heterosexual intimates is analyzed, and the need for its treatment as a specific criminological issue denoted, having in mind many of its distinctive etiological and victimological dimensions. The presented findings of an empirical research on intimate homicides committed in Belgrade from 1985 to 1993 allowed for a testing of some hypotheses related to the factors of homicidal criminalization and victimization within the context of the intimate heterosexual relationships. The evidence on history and dynamics of deeply disturbed intimate relations, as well as some typical characteristics of male intimate partners in violent heterosexual relationships, are particularly considered. On the bases of research findings, it seems possible that the plausible preventive strategies can be developed.

  18. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective

    Lin eZHANG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals’ social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies towards potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection.

  19. Testis-expressed profilins 3 and 4 show distinct functional characteristics and localize in the acroplaxome-manchette complex in spermatids

    Rothkegel Martin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple profilin isoforms exist in mammals; at least four are expressed in the mammalian testis. The testis-specific isoforms profilin-3 (PFN3 and profilin-4 (PFN4 may have specialized roles in spermatogenic cells which are distinct from known functions fulfilled by the "somatic" profilins, profilin-1 (PFN1 and profilin-2 (PFN2. Results Ligand interactions and spatial distributions of PFN3 and PFN4 were compared by biochemical, molecular and immunological methods; PFN1 and PFN2 were employed as controls. β-actin, phosphoinositides, poly-L-proline and mDia3, but not VASP, were confirmed as in vitro interaction partners of PFN3. In parallel experiments, PFN4 bound to selected phosphoinositides but not to poly-L-proline, proline-rich proteins, or actin. Immunofluorescence microscopy of PFN3 and PFN4 revealed distinct subcellular locations in differentiating spermatids. Both were associated first with the acroplaxome and later with the transient manchette. Predicted 3D structures indicated that PFN3 has the actin-binding site conserved, but retains only approximately half of the common poly-L-proline binding site. PFN4, in comparison, has lost both, polyproline and actin binding sites completely, which is well in line with the experimental data. Conclusion The testis-specific isoform PFN3 showed major hallmarks of the well characterized "somatic" profilin isoforms, albeit with distinct binding affinities. PFN4, on the other hand, did not interact with actin or polyproline in vitro. Rather, it seemed to be specialized for phospholipid binding, possibly providing cellular functions which are distinct from actin dynamics regulation.

  20. Gender-Specificity in Viewing Time Among Heterosexual Women.

    Xu, Yin; Rahman, Qazi; Zheng, Yong

    2017-07-01

    Measures of sexual interest tend to be more gender-specific in heterosexual men than in heterosexual women. Cognitive measures, such as viewing time to attractive stimuli, may also show similar patterns of gender-specificity or nonspecificity among men and women and thus serve as useful adjuncts to more direct measures of sexual interest. The objectives of the present research were to determine the extent of gender-specificity in women's viewing times for female pictures (varying in their perceived physical attractiveness) and explore the influence of social comparison of physical appearance on these patterns of responses. In Study 1, we recorded only women's viewing times for pictures of both genders, measured self-reported menstrual cycle phase, and manipulated the waist-to-hip ratio of the women in the female pictures. In Study 2, we recorded women's and men's viewing times, self-reported sexual attraction to pictures of males and females, and physical appearance social comparison. Study 1 found that heterosexual women's viewing time toward female pictures was not associated with manipulation of the perceived attractiveness of those pictures. Study 2 found that heterosexual men were more gender-specific than heterosexual women in their viewing time patterns. We also found that reported sexual attraction and physical appearance social comparison were associated with heterosexual women's viewing times for female pictures, while heterosexual men's viewing times were associated with sexual attraction only. Our results are discussed in relation to the utility of viewing time as an indicator of visual attention toward attractive or sexually appealing visual stimuli.

  1. Structural Properties of Cruciferin and Napin of Brassica napus (Canola Show Distinct Responses to Changes in pH and Temperature

    Suneru P. Perera

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The two major storage proteins identified in Brassica napus (canola were isolated and studied for their molecular composition, structural characteristics and the responses of structural features to the changes in pH and temperature. Cruciferin, a complex of six monomers, has a predominantly β-sheet-containing secondary structure. This protein showed low pH unstable tertiary structure, and distinctly different solubility behaviour with pH when intact in the seed cellular matrix. Cruciferin structure unfolds at pH 3 even at ambient temperature. Temperature-induced structure unfolding was observed above the maximum denaturation temperature of cruciferin. Napin was soluble in a wider pH range than cruciferin and has α-helices dominating secondary structure. Structural features of napin showed less sensitivity to the changes in medium pH and temperature. The surface hydrophobicity (S0 and intrinsic fluorescence of tryptophan residue appear to be good indicators of cruciferin unfolding, however they were not the best to demonstrate structural changes of napin. These two storage proteins of B. napus have distinct molecular characteristics, therefore properties and functionalities they provide are contrasting rather than complementary.

  2. The Effects of Premarital Heterosexual and Homosexual Experience on Dating and Marriage Desirability.

    Williams, John D.; Jacoby, Arthur P.

    1989-01-01

    Surveyed 365 college students to investigate their attitudes toward the effects of past sexual behavior, both heterosexual and homosexual, on one's acceptability as a dating or marriage partner. Results showed that both men and women prefer partners without previous coital or oral heterosexual experience, and both strongly rejected those with any…

  3. Reactive, anxious and possessive forms of jealousy and their relation to relationship quality among heterosexuals and homosexuals.

    Barelds, Dick P H; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between relational quality and three different types of jealousy-reactive, anxious and possessive jealousy. The sample consisted of 76 gay men, 79 lesbians, 70 heterosexual women and 70 heterosexual men. Findings show that different types of jealousy affect relationship quality differently and do so differently for homosexuals and heterosexuals. Among heterosexuals and especially gay men--but not among lesbians--anxious jealousy was negatively related to relationship quality. In contrast, among heterosexuals--but not among gay men or lesbians--reactive jealousy was positively related to relationship quality. The present study shows that distinguishing between different types of jealousy is necessary to entangle the diverse effects of jealousy on the quality of homosexual and heterosexual relationships.

  4. Positive erotic picture stimuli for emotion research in heterosexual females.

    Jacob, Gitta Anne; Arntz, Arnoud; Domes, Gregor; Reiss, Neele; Siep, Nicolette

    2011-12-30

    In most experimental studies, emotional pictures are widely used as stimulus material. However, there is still a lack of standardization of picture stimuli displaying erotic relationships, despite the association between a number of psychological problems and severe impairments and problems in intimate relationships. The aim of the study was to test a set of erotic stimuli, with the potential to be used in experimental studies, with heterosexual female subjects. Twenty International Affective Picture System (IAPS) pictures and an additional 100 pictures showing romantic but not explicitly sexual scenes and/or attractive single males were selected. All pictures were rated with respect to valence, arousal, and dominance by 41 heterosexual women and compared to pictures with negative, positive, and neutral emotional valence. Erotic IAPS pictures and our additional erotic pictures did not differ in any of the evaluation dimensions. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) for valence, arousal, and dominance comparing different picture valence categories showed strong effects for category. However, valence was not significantly different between erotic and positive pictures, while arousal and control were not significantly different between positive and neutral pictures. The pictures of our new set are as positive for heterosexual women as highly positive IAPS pictures, but higher in arousal and dominance. The picture set can be used in experimental psychiatric studies requiring high numbers of stimuli per category. Limitations are the restriction of stimuli application to heterosexual females only and to self-report data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. HIV Among MSM and Heterosexual Women in the United States: An Ecologic Analysis.

    Raymond, H Fisher; Al-Tayyib, Alia; Neaigus, Alan; Reilly, Kathleen H; Braunstein, Sarah; Brady, Kathleen A; Sey, Ekow; Risser, Jan; Padget, Paige; Lalota, Marlene; Schacht, John-Mark; Forrest, David W; Macomber, Katie; Griffin, Vivian; Higgins, Emily; Robinson, William T; Zarwell, Meagan C; Opoku, Jenevieve; Magnus, Manya; Kuo, Irene; Burt, Richard; Thiede, Hanne; Glick, Sara; Flynn, Colin; German, Danielle

    2017-07-01

    Phylogenetic studies show links between heterosexual women and men who have sex with men (MSM) that are more numerous than from heterosexual men to women suggesting that HIV infections among heterosexual women may stem from MSM. Poor communities have been associated with high rates of HIV among heterosexual women. Our analysis investigates potential transmission of HIV between MSM and female heterosexuals. National HIV Behavioral Surveillance data describe transmission risk behaviors of MSM, and HIV case reporting data describe the percentages of cases that are attributed to transmission risk categories. We examined correlations between the percentages of men who were MSM who also have sex with women and female heterosexual cases. We also examined census data to characterize each city in terms of poverty level and race/ethnicity makeup. There was a high correlation (0.93) between the percentage of reported living HIV cases attributed to male heterosexual contact and female heterosexual contact and a moderate nonsignificant correlation (0.49) between the percentage of MSM who were men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) in National HIV Behavioral Surveillance and the percentage of reported cases that were attributed to female heterosexual contact suggesting some potential overlap. Cities with high levels of poverty and African American/Black residents had higher levels of MSMW and higher levels of heterosexual female cases. Addressing HIV in cities with high levels of MSMW may have the dual effect of improving the health of MSM populations that have a high burden of HIV and to improve the health of their larger communities.

  6. Sexual identities and lifestyles among non-heterosexual urban Chiang Mai adolescents: implications for health

    Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Banwell, Cathy; Carmichael, Gordon; Utomo, Iwu Dwisetyani; Sleigh, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon quantitative and qualitative data we explore perspectives on and experiences of sexual lifestyles and relationships among more than 1,750 adolescents aged 17-20 years who reside in urban Chiang Mai, Thailand. We focus on respondents’ representations and understandings of their sexual/gender identities derived mainly from in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, supplemented with observations and field notes. Our results show that while many young Thais described themselves as heterosexual males or females others described themselves as gay, kathoey, tom, dii, bisexual or something else. Some were still questioning their own identities. The terms gay, kathoey, tom and dii are commonly used by these Thais to describe a range of sexual/gender identities relating to persons who are sexually or romantically attracted to the same biological sex. We use case studies to illustrate the distinctive characterizations, sexual lifestyles and relationships of each of these identities. We conclude that the sexual lifestyles encountered among Northern Thai non-heterosexual adolescents could lead to negative health consequences and indicated a need for improved relationship education, counselling and sensitive sexual health services. PMID:20665299

  7. Effects of attractiveness and status in dating desire in homosexual and heterosexual men and women.

    Ha, Thao; van den Berg, Judith E M; Engels, Rutger C M E; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna

    2012-06-01

    The present study examined partner preferences of homosexual and heterosexual men and woman, focusing on attractiveness and status. Homosexual (N=591 men; M age=28.87 years, SD=10.21; N=249 women; M age=33.36 years, SD=13.12) and heterosexual participants (N=346 men; M age=39.74 years, SD=14.26; N=400 women; M age=35.93 years, SD=13.72) rated the importance of attractiveness and social status of potential partners and then, in a vignette test, expressed their desire to date hypothetical potential partners based on photographs that varied in attractiveness and status-related profiles. With ratings, heterosexual men valued attractiveness the most, followed by homosexual men, heterosexual women, and homosexual women. Heterosexual women rated social status as most important. When status profiles were manipulated and accompanied with photographs of faces, the pattern of differences between homosexuals and heterosexuals supported the self-reported results. Overall, homosexual men and women have similar mate preferences to heterosexual men and women by showing more dating desire for attractive and high social status persons. Compared to attractiveness, status played a smaller role in dating desire.

  8. A case of familial heterosexual transvestism.

    Buhrich, N

    1977-03-01

    A brief review of the literature concerning familial transvestism is given. The case history of father-son heterosexual transvestism is presented. The son appears to have been ignorant of his father's transvestism. Early childhood experiences as an aetiological factor seem inadequate to explain the similarities of the two subjects' transvestite behaviour. It is suggested that constitutional factors play a part in the aetiology of heterosexual transvestism.

  9. Comparing Heterosexuals' and Gay Men/Lesbians' Responses to Relationship Problems and the Effects of Internalized Homophobia on Gay Men/Lesbians' Responses to Relationship Problems in Turkey.

    Okutan, Nur; Buyuksahin Sunal, Ayda; Sakalli Ugurlu, Nuray

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold: (1) to investigate the effects of sexual orientation (heterosexuals and gay men/lesbians) and gender difference on responses to romantic relationship problems (Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect [EVLN] responses) and of perceived partner's EVLN responses in Turkey, and (2) to examine whether internalized homophobia was associated with EVLN responses and perceived partner's EVLN responses for gay men and lesbians. Responses to Dissatisfaction Scale-Accommodation Instrument, Internalized Homophobia, and Demographics Information were administered to 187 participants (44 lesbians, 44 gay men, 53 heterosexual women, 46 heterosexual men).The MANCOVA results showed that men reported higher loyalty than women, whereas women presented more exit responses than men. Further, the interactions between gender and sexual orientation on the participants' EVLN responses and on the perceived partner's EVLN responses were significant. With respect to heterosexual women, heterosexual men displayed more loyalty responses. Lesbians had higher scores on loyalty than did heterosexual women. Lesbians also had higher scores on perceived partner's exit response than did heterosexual women and gay men. On the contrary, heterosexual women reported more perceived partner's voice response than lesbians. In addition, lesbians reported higher perceived partner's neglect responses than heterosexual women. Compared to heterosexual women, heterosexual men reported higher perceived partner's exit response. Finally, internalized homophobia was associated with destructive responses for both lesbians and gay men.

  10. Dual orexin receptor antagonists show distinct effects on locomotor performance, ethanol interaction and sleep architecture relative to gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor modulators

    Andres D. Ramirez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs are a potential treatment for insomnia that function by blocking both the orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors. The objective of the current study was to further confirm the impact of therapeutic mechanisms targeting insomnia on locomotor coordination and ethanol interaction using DORAs and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A receptor modulators of distinct chemical structure and pharmacologic properties in the context of sleep-promoting potential. The current study compared rat motor co-ordination after administration of DORAs, DORA-12 and almorexant, and GABA-A receptor modulators, zolpidem, eszopiclone and diazepam, alone or each in combination with ethanol. Motor performance was assessed by measuring time spent walking on a rotarod apparatus. Zolpidem, eszopiclone and diazepam (0.3–30 mg/kg administered orally [PO] impaired rotarod performance in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, all three GABA-A receptor modulators potentiated ethanol- (0.25–1.25 g/kg induced impairment on the rotarod. By contrast, neither DORA-12 (10–100 mg/kg, PO nor almorexant (30–300 mg/kg, PO impaired motor performance alone or in combination with ethanol. In addition, distinct differences in sleep architecture were observed between ethanol, GABA-A receptor modulators (zolpidem, eszopiclone and diazepam and DORA-12 in electroencephalogram studies in rats. These findings provide further evidence that orexin receptor antagonists have an improved motor side-effect profile compared with currently available sleep-promoting agents based on preclinical data and strengthen the rationale for further evaluation of these agents in clinical development.

  11. Reactive, anxious and possessive forms of jealousy and their relation to relationship quality among heterosexuals and homosexuals

    Barelds, Dick P. H.; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between relational quality and three different types of jealousy-reactive, anxious and possessive jealousy. The sample consisted of 76 gay men, 79 lesbians, 70 heterosexual women and 70 heterosexual men. Findings show that different types of jealousy

  12. A Latent Class Analysis of Heterosexual Young Men's Masculinities.

    Casey, Erin A; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J

    2016-07-01

    Parallel bodies of research have described the diverse and complex ways that men understand and construct their masculine identities (often termed "masculinities") and, separately, how adherence to traditional notions of masculinity places men at risk for negative sexual and health outcomes. The goal of this analysis was to bring together these two streams of inquiry. Using data from a national, online sample of 555 heterosexually active young men, we employed latent class analysis (LCA) to detect patterns of masculine identities based on men's endorsement of behavioral and attitudinal indicators of "dominant" masculinity, including sexual attitudes and behaviors. LCA identified four conceptually distinct masculine identity profiles. Two groups, termed the Normative and Normative/Male Activities groups, respectively, constituted 88 % of the sample and were characterized by low levels of adherence to attitudes, sexual scripts, and behaviors consistent with "dominant" masculinity, but differed in their levels of engagement in male-oriented activities (e.g., sports teams). Only eight percent of the sample comprised a masculinity profile consistent with "traditional" ideas about masculinity; this group was labeled Misogynistic because of high levels of sexual assault and violence toward female partners. The remaining four percent constituted a Sex-Focused group, characterized by high numbers of sexual partners, but relatively low endorsement of other indicators of traditional masculinity. Follow-up analyses showed a small number of differences across groups on sexual and substance use health indicators. Findings have implications for sexual and behavioral health interventions and suggest that very few young men embody or endorse rigidly traditional forms of masculinity.

  13. Unlocking the Karyological and Cytogenetic Diversity of Iris from Lebanon: Oncocyclus Section Shows a Distinctive Profile and Relative Stasis during Its Continental Radiation.

    Abdel Samad, Nour; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, Magda; Hidalgo, Oriane; El Zein, Rana; Douaihy, Bouchra; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an important target of conservation concern and horticultural interest, Lebanese irises yet have a confusing taxonomic history and species' delimitation is often considered problematic, more especially among royal irises (Iris section Oncocyclus). Indeed, these irises of exceptionally large and spectacular flowers have radiated across Caucasus and eastern Mediterranean giving rise to a number of strict endemic taxa, many of them being considered under threat. Whilst efforts have mostly focused on clarifying the evolutionary relationships in the group based on morphological and molecular data, karyological and cytogenetic characters have been comparatively overlooked. In this study, we established for the first time the physical mapping of 35S rDNA loci and heterochromatin, and obtained karyo-morphological data for ten Lebanese Iris species belonging to four sections (Iris, Limniris, Oncocyclus and Scorpiris). Our results evidenced distinctive genomic profiles for each one of the sections, where Oncocyclus irises, while having the lowest chromosome numbers, exhibit both the highest number of 35S loci and CMA3+ sites. The continental radiation of royal irises has been accompanied by a relative karyological and cytogenetic stasis, even though some changes were observed regarding karyotype formula and asymmetry indexes. In addition to that, our results enabled taxonomic differentiation between I. germanica and I. mesopotamica-two taxa currently considered as synonyms-and highlighted the need for further studies on populations of I. persica and I. wallasiae in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

  14. Heterosexual and nonheterosexual young university students' involvement in traditional and cyber forms of bullying.

    Wensley, Kate; Campbell, Marilyn

    2012-12-01

    Research has consistently found that school students who do not identify as self-declared completely heterosexual are at increased risk of victimization by bullying from peers. This study examined heterosexual and nonheterosexual university students' involvement in both traditional and cyber forms of bullying, as either bullies or victims. Five hundred twenty-eight first-year university students (M=19.52 years old) were surveyed about their sexual orientation and their bullying experiences over the previous 12 months. The results showed that nonheterosexual young people reported higher levels of involvement in traditional bullying, both as victims and perpetrators, in comparison to heterosexual students. In contrast, cyberbullying trends were generally found to be similar for heterosexual and nonheterosexual young people. Gender differences were also found. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of intervention and prevention of the victimization of nonheterosexual university students.

  15. [Heterosexual transmission of HIV infection

    Coulaud, J P

    1993-02-01

    The AIDS epidemic has spread rapidly in Africa among the urban impoverished where multiple sexual partners and sexually transmitted diseases are common. Over 80% of the 9 million Africans who will develop AIDS before the year 2000 will have been contaminated sexually. Poverty, multiple sexual partners in the framework of prostitution, and drug addiction are responsible for rapid spread of HIV infection in Southeast Asia, the West India, and Brazil. Drug addiction has played a major role in diffusion of HIV into the general population of Europe and the US. Prevalence rates are much higher in sexually transmitted disease centers in France and the US than among blood donors or pregnant women. Sexually transmitted diseases and heterosexual transmission have been studied in Africas since diagnostic tests became available. Several studies, the majority conducted among prostitutes in Nairobi or Kinshasa and their clients, allow establishment of a list of sexually transmitted diseases associated with increased risk of seroconversion. Genital ulcers within the past 6 months presented a relative risk of 2-4 depending on the series. Urethral or cervical gonorrhea has a lower relative risk of 1.2 in most studies. Absence of circumcision was also a risk factor. Studies were subsequently conducted in Europe on factors favoring sexual transmission. 513 heterosexual couples together for a minimum duration of 18 months and an average of 38 months were included in the Multicenter European Study conducted in 10 centers in 9 countries. The "index" subject was male in 400 cases and female in 113. At entry into the study, 73 of 400 males (18.2%) and 10 of 113 females (8.8%) had already infected their partners. Duration of union, frequency of intercourse, mode of transmission of the index subject, and oral contraceptive use had no effect on risk of transmission. Factors increasing risk of infection included the severity of immunosuppression of the index subject, whether judged by

  16. Ambient workplace heterosexism: Implications for sexual minority and heterosexual employees.

    Miner, Kathi N; Costa, Paula L

    2018-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between ambient workplace heterosexism, emotional reactions (i.e., fear and anger), and outcomes for sexual minority and heterosexual employees. Five hundred thirty-six restaurant employees (68% female, 77% White) completed an online survey assessing the variables of interest. Results showed that greater experiences of ambient workplace heterosexism were associated with heightened fear and anger and, in turn, with heightened psychological distress (for fear) and greater physical health complaints, turnover intentions, and lowered job satisfaction (for anger). Fear also mediated the relationship between ambient workplace heterosexism and psychological distress. In addition, sexual orientation moderated the relationship between ambient workplace heterosexism and fear such that sexual minority employees reported more fear than heterosexuals with greater ambient heterosexism. These effects occurred after controlling for personal experiences of interpersonal discrimination. Our findings suggest that ambient workplace heterosexism can be harmful to all employees, not only sexual minorities or targeted individuals. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Transcriptomic Analysis of Lung Tissue from Cigarette Smoke-Induced Emphysema Murine Models and Human Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Show Shared and Distinct Pathways.

    Yun, Jeong H; Morrow, Jarrett; Owen, Caroline A; Qiu, Weiliang; Glass, Kimberly; Lao, Taotao; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Perrella, Mark A; Silverman, Edwin K; Zhou, Xiaobo; Hersh, Craig P

    2017-07-01

    Although cigarette smoke (CS) is the primary risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the underlying molecular mechanisms for the significant variability in developing COPD in response to CS are incompletely understood. We performed lung gene expression profiling of two different wild-type murine strains (C57BL/6 and NZW/LacJ) and two genetic models with mutations in COPD genome-wide association study genes (HHIP and FAM13A) after 6 months of chronic CS exposure and compared the results to human COPD lung tissues. We identified gene expression patterns that correlate with severity of emphysema in murine and human lungs. Xenobiotic metabolism and nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2-mediated oxidative stress response were commonly regulated molecular response patterns in C57BL/6, Hhip +/- , and Fam13a -/- murine strains exposed chronically to CS. The CS-resistant Fam13a -/- mouse and NZW/LacJ strain revealed gene expression response pattern differences. The Fam13a -/- strain diverged in gene expression compared with C57BL/6 control only after CS exposure. However, the NZW/LacJ strain had a unique baseline expression pattern, enriched for nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2-mediated oxidative stress response and xenobiotic metabolism, and converged to a gene expression pattern similar to the more susceptible wild-type C57BL/6 after CS exposure. These results suggest that distinct molecular pathways may account for resistance to emphysema. Surprisingly, there were few genes commonly modulated in mice and humans. Our study suggests that gene expression responses to CS may be largely species and model dependent, yet shared pathways could provide biologically significant insights underlying individual susceptibility to CS.

  18. Recombinant production and characterisation of two related GH5 endo-β-1,4-mannanases from Aspergillus nidulans FGSC A4 showing distinctly different transglycosylation capacity

    Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held

    2011-01-01

    The glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5) endo-β-1,4-mannanases ManA and ManC from Aspergillus nidulans FGSC A4 were produced in Pichia pastoris X33 and purified in high yields of 120 and 145mg/L, respectively, from the culture supernatants. Both enzymes showed increasing catalytic efficiency (kcat...

  19. Analysis of genetic distance between Peruvian Alpaca (Vicugna Pacos showing two distinct fleece phenotypes, Suri and Huacaya, by means of microsatellite markers

    Carlo Renieri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Two coat phenotypes exist in Alpaca, Huacaya and Suri. The two coats show different fleece structure, textile characteristics and prices on the market. Although present scientific knowledge suggests a simple genetic model of inheritance, there is a tendency to manage and consider the two phenotypes as two different breeds. A 13 microsatellite panel was used in this study to assess genetic distance between Suri and Huacaya alpacas in a sample of non-related animals from two phenotypically pure flocks at the Illpa-Puno experimental station in Quimsachata, Peru. The animals are part of a germplasm established approximately 20 years ago and have been bred separately according to their coat type since then. Genetic variability parameters were also calculated. The data were statistically analyzed using the software Genalex 6.3, Phylip 3.69 and Fstat 2.9.3.2. The sample was tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE and after strict Bonferroni correction only one locus (LCA37 showed deviation from equilibrium (Ploci associations showed significant disequilibrium. Observed heterozygosis (Ho= 0.766; SE=0.044, expected heterozygosis (He=0.769; SE=0.033, number of alleles (Na=9.667, SE=0.772 and Fixation index (F=0.004; SE=0.036 are comparable to data from previous studies. Measures of genetic distance were 0.06 for Nei’s and 0.03 for Cavalli-Sforza’s. The analysis of molecular variance reported no existing variance between populations. Considering the origin of the animals, their post domestication evolution and the reproductive practices in place, the results do not show genetic differentiation between the two populations for the studied loci.

  20. Neural activation toward erotic stimuli in homosexual and heterosexual males.

    Kagerer, Sabine; Klucken, Tim; Wehrum, Sina; Zimmermann, Mark; Schienle, Anne; Walter, Bertram; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2011-11-01

    Studies investigating sexual arousal exist, yet there are diverging findings on the underlying neural mechanisms with regard to sexual orientation. Moreover, sexual arousal effects have often been confounded with general arousal effects. Hence, it is still unclear which structures underlie the sexual arousal response in homosexual and heterosexual men. Neural activity and subjective responses were investigated in order to disentangle sexual from general arousal. Considering sexual orientation, differential and conjoint neural activations were of interest. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study focused on the neural networks involved in the processing of sexual stimuli in 21 male participants (11 homosexual, 10 heterosexual). Both groups viewed pictures with erotic content as well as aversive and neutral stimuli. The erotic pictures were subdivided into three categories (most sexually arousing, least sexually arousing, and rest) based on the individual subjective ratings of each participant. Blood oxygen level-dependent responses measured by fMRI and subjective ratings. A conjunction analysis revealed conjoint neural activation related to sexual arousal in thalamus, hypothalamus, occipital cortex, and nucleus accumbens. Increased insula, amygdala, and anterior cingulate gyrus activation could be linked to general arousal. Group differences emerged neither when viewing the most sexually arousing pictures compared with highly arousing aversive pictures nor compared with neutral pictures. Results suggest that a widespread neural network is activated by highly sexually arousing visual stimuli. A partly distinct network of structures underlies sexual and general arousal effects. The processing of preferred, highly sexually arousing stimuli recruited similar structures in homosexual and heterosexual males. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. The consequences of the heterosexual norm

    Anna Johansson

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Librarians may exclude people accidentally. This is so because there is a widespread use of classifications and subject headings reflecting the heterosexual norm. Critical classification theory tackles this norm for the reason that it affects the retrieval of gay literature. In order to allow a reconsideration of this exclusive practice in the LIS community I challenge two main questions: Firstly, how does the heterosexual norm appear in classification systems and subject headings lists? And secondly, what are the consequences of that practice for the retrieval of gay literature?This paper focuses on the professional practise in Swedish public libraries. If subject cataloguing prevents Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals and Transgender (LGBT finding their literatures, then Swedish public libraries are upholders of the exclusive heterosexual norm in society.

  2. Does typing of Chlamydia trachomatis using housekeeping multilocus sequence typing reveal different sexual networks among heterosexuals and men who have sex with men?

    Versteeg, Bart; Bruisten, Sylvia M; van der Ende, Arie; Pannekoek, Yvonne

    2016-04-18

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections remain the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. To gain more insight into the epidemiology and transmission of C. trachomatis, several schemes of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) have been developed. We investigated the clustering of C. trachomatis strains derived from men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexuals using the MLST scheme based on 7 housekeeping genes (MLST-7) adapted for clinical specimens and a high-resolution MLST scheme based on 6 polymorphic genes, including ompA (hr-MLST-6). Specimens from 100 C. trachomatis infected men who have sex with men (MSM) and 100 heterosexual women were randomly selected from previous studies and sequenced. We adapted the MLST-7 scheme to a nested assay to be suitable for direct typing of clinical specimens. All selected specimens were typed using both the adapted MLST-7 scheme and the hr-MLST-6 scheme. Clustering of C. trachomatis strains derived from MSM and heterosexuals was assessed using minimum spanning tree analysis. Sufficient chlamydial DNA was present in 188 of the 200 (94 %) selected samples. Using the adapted MLST-7 scheme, full MLST profiles were obtained for 187 of 188 tested specimens resulting in a high success rate of 99.5 %. Of these 187 specimens, 91 (48.7 %) were from MSM and 96 (51.3 %) from heterosexuals. We detected 21 sequence types (STs) using the adapted MLST-7 and 79 STs using the hr-MLST-6 scheme. Minimum spanning tree analyses was used to examine the clustering of MLST-7 data, which showed no reflection of separate transmission in MSM and heterosexual hosts. Moreover, typing using the hr-MLST-6 scheme identified genetically related clusters within each of clusters that were identified by using the MLST-7 scheme. No distinct transmission of C. trachomatis could be observed in MSM and heterosexuals using the adapted MLST-7 scheme in contrast to using the hr-MLST-6. In addition, we compared clustering of both MLST schemes and

  3. Novel Method To Identify Source-Associated Phylogenetic Clustering Shows that Listeria monocytogenes Includes Niche-Adapted Clonal Groups with Distinct Ecological Preferences

    Nightingale, K. K.; Lyles, K.; Ayodele, M.

    2006-01-01

    population are identified (TreeStats test). Analysis of sequence data for 120 L. monocytogenes isolates revealed evidence of clustering between isolates from the same source, based on the phylogenies inferred from actA and inlA (P = 0.02 and P = 0.07, respectively; SourceCluster test). Overall, the Tree...... are biologically valid. Overall, our data show that (i) the SourceCluster and TreeStats tests can identify biologically meaningful source-associated phylogenetic clusters and (ii) L. monocytogenes includes clonal groups that have adapted to infect specific host species or colonize nonhost environments......., including humans, animals, and food. If the null hypothesis that the genetic distances for isolates within and between source populations are identical can be rejected (SourceCluster test), then particular clades in the phylogenetic tree with significant overrepresentation of sequences from a given source...

  4. Comparative sequence, structure and redox analyses of Klebsiella pneumoniae DsbA show that anti-virulence target DsbA enzymes fall into distinct classes.

    Fabian Kurth

    Full Text Available Bacterial DsbA enzymes catalyze oxidative folding of virulence factors, and have been identified as targets for antivirulence drugs. However, DsbA enzymes characterized to date exhibit a wide spectrum of redox properties and divergent structural features compared to the prototypical DsbA enzyme of Escherichia coli DsbA (EcDsbA. Nonetheless, sequence analysis shows that DsbAs are more highly conserved than their known substrate virulence factors, highlighting the potential to inhibit virulence across a range of organisms by targeting DsbA. For example, Salmonella enterica typhimurium (SeDsbA, 86 % sequence identity to EcDsbA shares almost identical structural, surface and redox properties. Using comparative sequence and structure analysis we predicted that five other bacterial DsbAs would share these properties. To confirm this, we characterized Klebsiella pneumoniae DsbA (KpDsbA, 81 % identity to EcDsbA. As expected, the redox properties, structure and surface features (from crystal and NMR data of KpDsbA were almost identical to those of EcDsbA and SeDsbA. Moreover, KpDsbA and EcDsbA bind peptides derived from their respective DsbBs with almost equal affinity, supporting the notion that compounds designed to inhibit EcDsbA will also inhibit KpDsbA. Taken together, our data show that DsbAs fall into different classes; that DsbAs within a class may be predicted by sequence analysis of binding loops; that DsbAs within a class are able to complement one another in vivo and that compounds designed to inhibit EcDsbA are likely to inhibit DsbAs within the same class.

  5. Duplicated Gephyrin Genes Showing Distinct Tissue Distribution and Alternative Splicing Patterns Mediate Molybdenum Cofactor Biosynthesis, Glycine Receptor Clustering, and Escape Behavior in Zebrafish*

    Ogino, Kazutoyo; Ramsden, Sarah L.; Keib, Natalie; Schwarz, Günter; Harvey, Robert J.; Hirata, Hiromi

    2011-01-01

    Gephyrin mediates the postsynaptic clustering of glycine receptors (GlyRs) and GABAA receptors at inhibitory synapses and molybdenum-dependent enzyme (molybdoenzyme) activity in non-neuronal tissues. Gephyrin knock-out mice show a phenotype resembling both defective glycinergic transmission and molybdenum cofactor (Moco) deficiency and die within 1 day of birth due to starvation and dyspnea resulting from deficits in motor and respiratory networks, respectively. To address whether gephyrin function is conserved among vertebrates and whether gephyrin deficiency affects molybdoenzyme activity and motor development, we cloned and characterized zebrafish gephyrin genes. We report here that zebrafish have two gephyrin genes, gphna and gphnb. The former is expressed in all tissues and has both C3 and C4 cassette exons, and the latter is expressed predominantly in the brain and spinal cord and harbors only C4 cassette exons. We confirmed that all of the gphna and gphnb splicing isoforms have Moco synthetic activity. Antisense morpholino knockdown of either gphna or gphnb alone did not disturb synaptic clusters of GlyRs in the spinal cord and did not affect touch-evoked escape behaviors. However, on knockdown of both gphna and gphnb, embryos showed impairments in GlyR clustering in the spinal cord and, as a consequence, demonstrated touch-evoked startle response behavior by contracting antagonistic muscles simultaneously, instead of displaying early coiling and late swimming behaviors, which are executed by side-to-side muscle contractions. These data indicate that duplicated gephyrin genes mediate Moco biosynthesis and control postsynaptic clustering of GlyRs, thereby mediating key escape behaviors in zebrafish. PMID:20843816

  6. Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies shows altered fractional anisotropy occurring in distinct brain areas in association with depression

    Murphy, Melissa L

    2011-09-27

    Abstract Fractional anisotropy anomalies occurring in the white matter tracts in the brains of depressed patients may reflect microstructural changes underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy abnormalities occurring in major depressive disorder using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging studies. Using the Embase, PubMed and Google Scholar databases, 89 relevant data sets were identified, of which 7 (including 188 patients with major depressive disorder and 221 healthy controls) met our inclusion criteria. Authors were contacted to retrieve any additional data required. Coordinates were extracted from clusters of significant white matter fractional anisotropy differences between patients and controls. Relevant demographic, clinical and methodological variables were extracted from each study or obtained directly from authors. The meta-analysis was carried out using Signed Differential Mapping. Patients with depression showed decreased white matter fractional anisotropy values in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and increased fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-occipital fasciculus compared to controls. Using quartile and jackknife sensitivity analysis, we found that reduced fractional anisotropy in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus was very stable, with increases in the right fronto-occipital fasciculus driven by just one study. In conclusion, our meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, which may ultimately play an important role in the pathology of depression.

  7. Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies shows altered fractional anisotropy occurring in distinct brain areas in association with depression.

    Murphy, Melissa L

    2011-09-01

    Fractional anisotropy anomalies occurring in the white matter tracts in the brains of depressed patients may reflect microstructural changes underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy abnormalities occurring in major depressive disorder using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging studies. Using the Embase, PubMed and Google Scholar databases, 89 relevant data sets were identified, of which 7 (including 188 patients with major depressive disorder and 221 healthy controls) met our inclusion criteria. Authors were contacted to retrieve any additional data required. Coordinates were extracted from clusters of significant white matter fractional anisotropy differences between patients and controls. Relevant demographic, clinical and methodological variables were extracted from each study or obtained directly from authors. The meta-analysis was carried out using Signed Differential Mapping. Patients with depression showed decreased white matter fractional anisotropy values in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and increased fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-occipital fasciculus compared to controls. Using quartile and jackknife sensitivity analysis, we found that reduced fractional anisotropy in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus was very stable, with increases in the right fronto-occipital fasciculus driven by just one study. In conclusion, our meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, which may ultimately play an important role in the pathology of depression.

  8. Small-angle scattering studies show distinct conformations of calmodulin in its complexes with two peptides based on the regulatory domain of the catalytic subunit of phosphorylase kinase

    Trewhella, J.; Blumenthal, D.K.; Rokop, S.E.; Seeger, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering have been used to study the solution structures of calmodulin complexed with synthetic peptides corresponding to residues 342-366 and 301-326, designated PhK5 and PhK13, respectively, in the regulatory domain of the catalytic subunit of skeletal muscle phosphorylase kinase. The scattering data show that binding of PhK5 to calmodulin induces a dramatic contraction of calmodulin, similar to that previously observed when calmodulin is complexed with the calmodulin-binding domain peptide from rabbit skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase. In contrast, calmodulin remains extended upon binding PhK13. In the presence of both peptides, calmodulin also remains extended. Apparently, the presence of PhK13 inhibits calmodulin from undergoing the PhK5-induced contraction. These data indicate that there is a fundamentally different type of calmodulin-target enzyme interaction in the case of the catalytic subunit of phosphorylase kinase compared with that for myosin light chain kinase

  9. Gas exchange at whole plant level shows that a less conservative water use is linked to a higher performance in three ecologically distinct pine species

    Salazar-Tortosa, D.; Castro, J.; Rubio de Casas, R.; Viñegla, B.; Sánchez-Cañete, E. P.; Villar-Salvador, P.

    2018-04-01

    Increasing temperatures and decreasing precipitation in large areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming will affect plant growth and survival. However, the impact of climatic conditions will differ across species depending on their stomatal response to increasing aridity, as this will ultimately affect the balance between carbon assimilation and water loss. In this study, we monitored gas exchange, growth and survival in saplings of three widely distributed European pine species (Pinus halepensis, P. nigra and P. sylvestris) with contrasting distribution and ecological requirements in order to ascertain the relationship between stomatal control and plant performance. The experiment was conducted in a common garden environment resembling rainfall and temperature conditions that two of the three species are expected to encounter in the near future. In addition, gas exchange was monitored both at the leaf and at the whole-plant level using a transient-state closed chamber, which allowed us to model the response of the whole plant to increased air evaporative demand (AED). P. sylvestris was the species with lowest survival and performance. By contrast, P. halepensis showed no mortality, much higher growth (two orders of magnitude), carbon assimilation (ca. 14 fold higher) and stomatal conductance and water transpiration (ca. 4 fold higher) than the other two species. As a consequence, P. halepensis exhibited higher values of water-use efficiency than the rest of the species even at the highest values of AED. Overall, the results strongly support that the weaker stomatal control of P. halepensis, which is linked to lower stem water potential, enabled this species to maximize carbon uptake under drought stress and ultimately outperform the more water conservative P. nigra and P. sylvestris. These results suggest that under a hotter drought scenario P. nigra and P. sylvestris would very likely suffer increased mortality, whereas P. halepensis could maintain

  10. Western blot data using two distinct anti-O-GlcNAc monoclonal antibodies showing unique glycosylation status on cellular proteins under 2-deoxy-d-glucose treatment

    Tetsuya Okuda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Protein modification by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation is one of the post transcriptional modifications occurring on cellular proteins. This paper provides a data set relating to the O-GlcNAcylation of cellular proteins detected by RL2 and CTD110.6 antibodies, which are commonly used for detection of protein O-GlcNAcylation, in 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG-treated human teratocarcinoma NCCIT cells in support of the research article entitled “A novel, promoter-based, target-specific assay identifies 2-deoxy-d-glucose as an inhibitor of globotriaosylceramide biosynthesis” (Okuda et al., 2009 [1]. The main article described a suppressive effect of 2DG on an Sp1 target gene in NCCIT cells and discussed the relationship between the effect of 2DG and O-GlcNAcylation status of Sp1. The data in this paper complements this relationship by Western blotting and clearly showed that the 2DG treatment increased O-GlcNAcylation of cellular proteins in NCCIT cells, whereas the RL2 and CTD110.6 epitopes were detected in a different manner. The RL2 epitope was detected on Sp1 during 2DG treatment, and the level was transiently increased at 24 h. In contrast, the CTD110.6 epitope became detectable on Sp1 over 72 h after 2DG treatment, and then the other proteins containing CTD110.6 epitopes also appeared in the cell lysates and the anti-Sp1 antibody precipitates.

  11. A simple method for analyzing exome sequencing data shows distinct levels of nonsynonymous variation for human immune and nervous system genes.

    Jan Freudenberg

    Full Text Available To measure the strength of natural selection that acts upon single nucleotide variants (SNVs in a set of human genes, we calculate the ratio between nonsynonymous SNVs (nsSNVs per nonsynonymous site and synonymous SNVs (sSNVs per synonymous site. We transform this ratio with a respective factor f that corrects for the bias of synonymous sites towards transitions in the genetic code and different mutation rates for transitions and transversions. This method approximates the relative density of nsSNVs (rdnsv in comparison with the neutral expectation as inferred from the density of sSNVs. Using SNVs from a diploid genome and 200 exomes, we apply our method to immune system genes (ISGs, nervous system genes (NSGs, randomly sampled genes (RSGs, and gene ontology annotated genes. The estimate of rdnsv in an individual exome is around 20% for NSGs and 30-40% for ISGs and RSGs. This smaller rdnsv of NSGs indicates overall stronger purifying selection. To quantify the relative shift of nsSNVs towards rare variants, we next fit a linear regression model to the estimates of rdnsv over different SNV allele frequency bins. The obtained regression models show a negative slope for NSGs, ISGs and RSGs, supporting an influence of purifying selection on the frequency spectrum of segregating nsSNVs. The y-intercept of the model predicts rdnsv for an allele frequency close to 0. This parameter can be interpreted as the proportion of nonsynonymous sites where mutations are tolerated to segregate with an allele frequency notably greater than 0 in the population, given the performed normalization of the observed nsSNV to sSNV ratio. A smaller y-intercept is displayed by NSGs, indicating more nonsynonymous sites under strong negative selection. This predicts more monogenically inherited or de-novo mutation diseases that affect the nervous system.

  12. Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea Show More Distinct Biogeographic Distribution Patterns than Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria across the Black Soil Zone of Northeast China.

    Liu, Junjie; Yu, Zhenhua; Yao, Qin; Sui, Yueyu; Shi, Yu; Chu, Haiyan; Tang, Caixian; Franks, Ashley E; Jin, Jian; Liu, Xiaobing; Wang, Guanghua

    2018-01-01

    Black soils (Mollisols) of northeast China are highly productive and agriculturally important for food production. Ammonia-oxidizing microbes play an important role in N cycling in the black soils. However, the information related to the composition and distribution of ammonia-oxidizing microbes in the black soils has not yet been addressed. In this study, we used the amoA gene to quantify the abundance and community composition of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) across the black soil zone. The amoA abundance of AOA was remarkably larger than that of AOB, with ratios of AOA/AOB in the range from 3.1 to 91.0 across all soil samples. The abundance of AOA amoA was positively correlated with total soil C content ( p 0.05). In contrast, the abundance of AOB amoA positively correlated with soil pH ( p = 0.009) but not with total soil C. Alpha diversity of AOA did not correlate with any soil parameter, however, alpha diversity of AOB was affected by multiple soil factors, such as soil pH, total P, N, and C, available K content, and soil water content. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the AOA community was mainly affected by the sampling latitude, followed by soil pH, total P and C; while the AOB community was mainly determined by soil pH, as well as total P, C and N, water content, and sampling latitude, which highlighted that the AOA community was more geographically distributed in the black soil zone of northeast China than AOB community. In addition, the pairwise analyses showed that the potential nitrification rate (PNR) was not correlated with alpha diversity but weakly positively with the abundance of the AOA community ( p = 0.048), whereas PNR significantly correlated positively with the richness ( p = 0.003), diversity ( p = 0.001) and abundance ( p < 0.001) of the AOB community, which suggested that AOB community might make a greater contribution to nitrification than AOA community in the black soils when

  13. The inventory of dyadic heterosexual preferences: development and psychometric evaluation.

    Purnine, D M; Carey, M P; Jorgensen, R S

    1996-04-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of an instrument that measures preferences for specific sexual behaviors of heterosexual men and women in a dyadic context. In Study 1, 74 statements of preference were reduced to 46 on the basis of reliability and range of responses. Factor analysis revealed that 27 of the 46 items loaded on 6 factors: Erotophilia, Use of Contraception, Conventionality, Use of Erotica, Use of Drugs/Alcohol, and Romanticism. In Study 2, factor analysis of fresh data from a second sample cross-validated these results. To establish construct validity of the revised 27-item Inventory of Dyadic Heterosexual Preferences (IDHP), relationships between each of its 6 scales and 6 criterion measures were examined. These analyses suggested that the last scale is more accurately characterized by the term Romantic Foreplay. We conclude that the IDHP measures 6 distinct domains of sexual preference with a brief, psychometrically sound instrument. Potential applications of the IDHP, suggestions for future research, and strengths and limitations of the current investigation are discussed.

  14. Young Children, Gender and the Heterosexual Matrix

    Paechter, Carrie

    2017-01-01

    In this paper I consider the adult focus of current mainstream gender theory. I relate this to how the concept of the heterosexual matrix originates in a social contract which excludes children from civil society. I argue that this exclusion is problematic both for theoretical reasons and from the perspective of children themselves. I start by…

  15. Conceptions of heterosexuality and attitudes toward non-heterosexuals of Psychology students from Córdoba

    Imhoff, Débora

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the conceptions of heterosexuality of Psychology students at Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, and explores its associations with attitudes towards homosexuality. An exploratory research design was conducted, mixing qualitative and quantitative approaches, with a non probabilistic sample, 89 students (64 of the initial section of the career and 25 of the final section. Students answered a written self-report about the question: "Heterosexuality, is it natural? Why?". Seven types of conceptions of heterosexuality were identified, four of them based on essentialists views, and three presented socio-constructionist arguments. Data suggests an association between negative attitudes toward homosexuals and essentialists conceptions of heterosexuality, especially in lower grades students. This study generated questions and reflections about future therapist sexualities and gender-blind training.

  16. Neural circuits of disgust induced by sexual stimuli in homosexual and heterosexual men: An fMRI study

    Zhang Minming; Hu Shaohua; Xu Lijuan; Wang Qidong; Xu Xiaojun; Wei Erqing; Yan Leqin; Hu Jianbo; Wei Ning; Zhou Weihua; Huang Manli; Xu Yi

    2011-01-01

    Few studies demonstrated neural circuits related to disgust were influenced by internal sexual orientation in male. Here we used fMRI to study the neural responses to disgust in homosexual and heterosexual men to investigate that issue. Thirty-two healthy male volunteers (sixteen homosexual and sixteen heterosexual) were scanned while viewing alternating blocks of three types of erotic film: heterosexual couples (F-M), male homosexual couples (M-M), and female homosexual couples (F-F) engaged in sexual activity. All the participants rated their level of disgust and sexual arousal as well. The F-F and M-M stimuli induced disgust in homosexual and heterosexual men, respectively. The common activations related to disgusting stimuli included: bilateral frontal gyrus and occipital gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, right cerebellum, and right thalamus. Homosexual men had greater neural responses in the left medial frontal gyrus than did heterosexual men to the sexual disgusting stimuli; in contrast, heterosexual men showed significantly greater activation than homosexual men in the left cuneus. ROI analysis showed that negative correlation were found between the magnitude of MRI signals in the left medial frontal gyrus and scores of disgust in homosexual subjects (p < 0.05). This study indicated that there were regions in common as well as regions specific for each type of erotic stimuli during disgust of homosexual and heterosexual men.

  17. Neural circuits of disgust induced by sexual stimuli in homosexual and heterosexual men: An fMRI study

    Zhang Minming [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Hu Shaohua [Department of Mental Health, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 79 Qing Chun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 310003 (China); Xu Lijuan [National Laboratory of Pattern Recognition, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Wang Qidong [Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Xu Xiaojun [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Wei Erqing [College of Pharmacology, Zhejiang University (China); Yan Leqin [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Virginia Harris Cockrell Cancer Research Center, University of Texas, Austin (United States); Hu Jianbo; Wei Ning; Zhou Weihua; Huang Manli [Department of Mental Health, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 79 Qing Chun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 310003 (China); Xu Yi, E-mail: xuyi61@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Mental Health, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 79 Qing Chun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 310003 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Few studies demonstrated neural circuits related to disgust were influenced by internal sexual orientation in male. Here we used fMRI to study the neural responses to disgust in homosexual and heterosexual men to investigate that issue. Thirty-two healthy male volunteers (sixteen homosexual and sixteen heterosexual) were scanned while viewing alternating blocks of three types of erotic film: heterosexual couples (F-M), male homosexual couples (M-M), and female homosexual couples (F-F) engaged in sexual activity. All the participants rated their level of disgust and sexual arousal as well. The F-F and M-M stimuli induced disgust in homosexual and heterosexual men, respectively. The common activations related to disgusting stimuli included: bilateral frontal gyrus and occipital gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, right cerebellum, and right thalamus. Homosexual men had greater neural responses in the left medial frontal gyrus than did heterosexual men to the sexual disgusting stimuli; in contrast, heterosexual men showed significantly greater activation than homosexual men in the left cuneus. ROI analysis showed that negative correlation were found between the magnitude of MRI signals in the left medial frontal gyrus and scores of disgust in homosexual subjects (p < 0.05). This study indicated that there were regions in common as well as regions specific for each type of erotic stimuli during disgust of homosexual and heterosexual men.

  18. Gender-related traits of heterosexual and homosexual men and women.

    Lippa, Richard A

    2002-02-01

    Two studies investigated the relation between sexual orientation and gender-related traits. Analyzing data from an Internet survey, Study 1 found that gay men and lesbians differed from same-sex heterosexuals most strongly on gender diagnosticity (GD) measures, which assess male- versus female-typicality of occupational preferences (effect sizes were 1.14 for men and 0.53 for women) and least strongly on instrumentality (I) and expressiveness (E). Study 2 found that GD measures showed large differences between 289 gay and 200 heterosexual men (d = 0.95) and between 296 lesbian and 435 heterosexual women (d = 1.32), whereas I and E showed much smaller differences. In Study 2 homosexual-heterosexual diagnosticity measures, computed from men's and women's occupational preferences, correlated very strongly with GD measures (r = 0.88 for men and 0.89 for women), indicating that occupational preference items that distinguished men from women also tended to distinguish heterosexual from homosexual individuals. LISREL 8 analyses showed that self-ascribed masculinity-femininity did not mediate the strong relation between sexual orientation and GD for men or for women.

  19. Heterosexual Attitudes towards Same-Sex Marriage

    Moskowitz, David A.; Rieger, Gerulf; Roloff, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However, the attitudinal difference between gay male and lesbian marriage was related to homophobia in men but not in women. That is, for men only, being less homophobic towards lesbians than towards gay men was associated with favoring lesbian over gay men marriage. Considering these results, the role of gender in attitudes toward same-sex marriage seems to be as an important moderator of homophobia. PMID:20390996

  20. Heterosexual attitudes toward same-sex marriage.

    Moskowitz, David A; Rieger, Gerulf; Roloff, Michael E

    2010-01-01

    Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However, the attitudinal difference between gay male and lesbian marriage was related to homophobia in men but not in women. That is, for men only, being less homophobic toward lesbians than toward gay men was associated with favoring lesbian over gay men marriage. Considering these results, the role of gender in attitudes toward same-sex marriage seems to be as an important moderator of homophobia.

  1. Heterosexual men's attitudes toward the female condom.

    Seal, D W; Ehrhardt, A A

    1999-04-01

    This article addresses heterosexual men's familiarity with the female condom and their attitudes toward this barrier method. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 71 ethnically diverse and heterosexually active men who were recruited in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics or through word of mouth in communities with high HIV/STD seroprevalence in New York City during fall 1994 to fall 1995. Only one man reported previous experience with the female condom. The large majority of men had no or limited knowledge of the female condom. Men's reactions to learning about this method ranged from positive to negative, although most men reported willingness to have sex with a partner who wanted to use the female condom. Positive reactions included: endorsement of a woman-controlled condom and her right to use it, the potential for enhancing one's sexual pleasure, and an eagerness to have a new sexual experience. Negative reactions centered on the "strangeness" and "bigness" of the female condom, concerns about prevention efficacy, and concerns about reductions in sexual pleasure. Our findings highlight the need for HIV prevention programs that target heterosexual men and promote the use of the female condom.

  2. "I'm not gay. . . . I'm a real man!": Heterosexual Men's Gender Self-Esteem and Sexual Prejudice.

    Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel; Mugny, Gabriel

    2009-09-01

    Five studies examined the hypothesis that heterosexual men, but not heterosexual women, endorse negative attitudes toward homosexuality (i.e., sexual prejudice) in order to maintain a positive gender-related identity that is unambiguously different from a homosexual identity. Studies 1 and 2 showed that men's (but not women's) gender self-esteem (but not personal self-esteem) was positively related to sexual prejudice: The more positive heterosexual men's gender self-esteem, the more negative their attitude toward homosexuality. Studies 3 and 4 showed that this link appears specifically among men motivated to maintain psychological distance from gay men. Study 5 experimentally manipulated the perceived biological differences between homosexual and heterosexual men. The previously observed link between men's gender self-esteem and sexual prejudice appeared in the control and no-differences conditions but disappeared in the differences condition. These findings are discussed in terms of men's attitudes as a defensive function against threat to masculinity.

  3. Gender differences regarding preferences for specific heterosexual practices.

    Purnine, D M; Carey, M P; Jorgensen, R S

    1994-01-01

    Few investigations of sexual attitudes have restricted their focus to individuals' preferences for specific behaviors within a heterosexual relationship. None have examined gender differences in a broad and multidimensional array of such behavioral particulars. As part of an effort to develop a measure of preferred scripts in heterosexual couples, 258 men and women reported how much they agreed or disagreed with 74 statements of preference. A reduced and factor analyzed questionnaire included 38 items and was administered to a second sample (N = 228). Results offer qualified support that, compared to women, men are more erotophilic and show a stronger preference for incorporating erotic materials as well as drugs and alcohol into sexual relations with their partner. These results were more robust in the second sample, in which almost half of the subjects were tested in same-sex groups. Across both samples, women showed stronger preferences for activities reflecting romanticism. No gender differences were evident in sexual conventionality or in preference regarding the general use of contraceptives. However, results suggest that both sexes respond more favorably to a partner-focused or unspecified contraceptive method than to a self-focused method.

  4. Neural circuits of disgust induced by sexual stimuli in homosexual and heterosexual men: an fMRI study.

    Zhang, Minming; Hu, Shaohua; Xu, Lijuan; Wang, Qidong; Xu, Xiaojun; Wei, Erqing; Yan, Leqin; Hu, Jianbo; Wei, Ning; Zhou, Weihua; Huang, Manli; Xu, Yi

    2011-11-01

    Few studies demonstrated neural circuits related to disgust were influenced by internal sexual orientation in male. Here we used fMRI to study the neural responses to disgust in homosexual and heterosexual men to investigate that issue. Thirty-two healthy male volunteers (sixteen homosexual and sixteen heterosexual) were scanned while viewing alternating blocks of three types of erotic film: heterosexual couples (F-M), male homosexual couples (M-M), and female homosexual couples (F-F) engaged in sexual activity. All the participants rated their level of disgust and sexual arousal as well. The F-F and M-M stimuli induced disgust in homosexual and heterosexual men, respectively. The common activations related to disgusting stimuli included: bilateral frontal gyrus and occipital gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, right cerebellum, and right thalamus. Homosexual men had greater neural responses in the left medial frontal gyrus than did heterosexual men to the sexual disgusting stimuli; in contrast, heterosexual men showed significantly greater activation than homosexual men in the left cuneus. ROI analysis showed that negative correlation were found between the magnitude of MRI signals in the left medial frontal gyrus and scores of disgust in homosexual subjects (pmen. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of sexual orientation ("gaydar") by homosexual and heterosexual women.

    Lyons, Minna; Lynch, Aoife; Brewer, Gayle; Bruno, Davide

    2014-02-01

    Although there has been considerable research investigating the ability to identify sexual orientation from static images, or "gaydar," few studies have considered the role of female sexual orientation or sexual interest (for example, sociosexual orientation) in judgment accuracy. In two studies, we investigated the sexuality detection ability, and masculinity and femininity as cues used in judgment. In Study 1, we recruited heterosexual (N = 55) and homosexual (N = 71) women to rate the sexual orientation of homosexual and heterosexual male and female targets (N = 80: 20 heterosexual men, 20 homosexual men, 20 heterosexual women, and 20 homosexual women). We found that detection accuracy was better than chance levels for both male and female targets and that male targets were more likely to be falsely labeled as homosexual than female targets were. Overall, female faces were more accurately identified as heterosexual or homosexual than male faces and homosexual female raters were biased towards labeling targets as homosexual. Sociosexuality did not influence the accuracy with which targets were identified as heterosexual or homosexual. In Study 2, 100 heterosexual and 20 homosexual women rated the stimulus for masculinity and femininity. Heterosexual women were rated as more feminine and less masculine than homosexual women and homosexual men were rated as more feminine and less masculine than heterosexual men. Sexual orientation of the judges did not affect the ratings. The results were discussed with a reference to evolutionary and cultural influences affecting sexual orientation judgment accuracy.

  6. The Relationship between Gender and Heterosexual Attitudes toward Homosexuality at a Conservative Christian University

    LaFave, Adam D.; Helm, Herbert W., Jr.; Gomez, Omar

    2014-01-01

    This research looked at the relationships and differences between sex and race as it relates to religious fundamentalism, attitudes, and comfortability toward homosexuality. Patterns in previous research have shown that men and women do differ in their attitudes toward homosexuals. This study proposed that heterosexual men will show a…

  7. Parenting behaviors of homosexual and heterosexual fathers.

    Bigner, J J; Jacobsen, R B

    1989-01-01

    Responses of 33 homosexual (gay) fathers were compared with those of 33 heterosexual (nongay) fathers on the Iowa Parent Behavior Inventory, an empirical measure of dimensions of parenting behavior. Gay fathers did not differ significantly from nongay fathers in their reported degree of involvement nor in intimacy level with children. Gay fathers tended to be more strict, more responsive to children's needs, and to provide reasons for appropriate behavior to children more consistently than nongay fathers. Several explanations are explored for these similarities and differences in parenting styles.

  8. Normalizing Heterosexuality: Mothers' Assumptions, Talk, and Strategies with Young Children

    Martin, Karin A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, social scientists have identified not just heterosexism and homophobia as social problems, but also heteronormativity--the mundane, everyday ways that heterosexuality is privileged and taken for granted as normal and natural. There is little empirical research, however, on how heterosexuality is reproduced and then normalized for…

  9. Relationship between interaction parent-child with addictability rate and heterosexual orientation in students

    Abbas Ali Hosseinkhanzadeh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the purpose of this study was to study relationship between interaction parent-child with addictability rate and heterosexual orientation in students. Method: The statistical population consisted of all students of Guilan University in 2012-2013 academic year, which among them a sample of 200 students were selected by random cluster sampling method and they completed preparation to addiction scale relationship between parent–child scale and attitude and heterosexual orientation before marriage. Findings: Correlation analysis indicated a significant negative correlation between addictability in female students and male students with relationship with father, and positive affect, interlace and communication subscales. The relationship between female students’ addictability with relationship with mother and positive affect, hurt and confusion and communication subscales was observed significant negative correlation, also there is a significant negative relationship between male students’ addictability with the relationship with mother. There is significant negative relationship between heterosexual orientations in male students with relation with father, positive affects and interlace. Results of regression analysis showed that relationship with father and relationship with mother can anticipate addict ability in female and male students. Conclusion: If parents cannot establish an appropriate and constructive interaction with their child cause child face with affection and emotional deprivation and this poor emotional and affection deprivation may cause he or she bring to the addict ability and heterosexual orientation.

  10. Heterosexual assumptions in verbal and non-verbal communication in nursing.

    Röndahl, Gerd; Innala, Sune; Carlsson, Marianne

    2006-11-01

    This paper reports a study of what lesbian women and gay men had to say, as patients and as partners, about their experiences of nursing in hospital care, and what they regarded as important to communicate about homosexuality and nursing. The social life of heterosexual cultures is based on the assumption that all people are heterosexual, thereby making homosexuality socially invisible. Nurses may assume that all patients and significant others are heterosexual, and these heteronormative assumptions may lead to poor communication that affects nursing quality by leading nurses to ask the wrong questions and make incorrect judgements. A qualitative interview study was carried out in the spring of 2004. Seventeen women and 10 men ranging in age from 23 to 65 years from different parts of Sweden participated. They described 46 experiences as patients and 31 as partners. Heteronormativity was communicated in waiting rooms, in patient documents and when registering for admission, and nursing staff sometimes showed perplexity when an informant deviated from this heteronormative assumption. Informants had often met nursing staff who showed fear of behaving incorrectly, which could lead to a sense of insecurity, thereby impeding further communication. As partners of gay patients, informants felt that they had to deal with heterosexual assumptions more than they did when they were patients, and the consequences were feelings of not being accepted as a 'true' relative, of exclusion and neglect. Almost all participants offered recommendations about how nursing staff could facilitate communication. Heterosexual norms communicated unconsciously by nursing staff contribute to ambivalent attitudes and feelings of insecurity that prevent communication and easily lead to misconceptions. Educational and management interventions, as well as increased communication, could make gay people more visible and thereby encourage openness and awareness by hospital staff of the norms that they

  11. [The association of bullying with suicide ideation, plan, and attempt among adolescents with GLB or unsure sexual identity, heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction or behavior, or heterosexual identity without same-sex attraction or behavior].

    Montoro, Richard; Thombs, Brett; Igartua, Karine J

    age of initial sexual contact were controlled. The reference group was heterosexual students without same-sex attraction or behavior and no bullying. When these students were bullied, they were more likely to have suicidal ideation (odds ratio [OR] = 2.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.52-2.92) but not suicide attempts. Non-heterosexual students with no bullying were twice as likely to have suicidal ideation (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.24-4.48) and four times as likely when bullied (OR = 4.44, 95% CI = 2.26-8.72). Similarly for suicide attempts, they were not at increased risk when not bullied, but they were almost three times as likely when bullied (OR = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.43-5.78). Heterosexual students with same-sex attraction or behavior were never more likely on any of the suicide measures compared to the reference group, even when bullied.Conclusion This study was the first to show that adolescent students with a non-heterosexual identity will have a disproportionate increase in their suicide parameters when subject to harassment, but that heterosexually identified students with same-sex attraction or behavior did not have an increased risk over heterosexually identified students without same-sex attraction. This suggests that same-sex attraction and behavior on their own are not contributory to suicide risk, and that the efforts of future research as well as public health efforts may be better served by examining the interface between sexual identity and the school, family, and larger culture that surrounds the sexual minority youth. Longitudinal studies looking at the interplay between all these factors are needed.

  12. [Development of the Heterosexual Love Assessment Scale for Alcoholics].

    Sugawarai, Tazuko; Morita, Noriaki; Nakatani, Youji

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a scale for assessing the attributes of the heterosexual love of alcoholics. Using the characteristics and categories related to the heterosexual love of alcoholics found in previous research, we created a "Heterosexual Love Assessment Scale for Alcoholics" and conducted a survey among 110 alcoholics (80 men and 30 women). The following three factors were extracted from the results: "mutual respect", "superficial intimacy", and "fear of being disliked", A high level of reliability was obtained on the scales indicated below (alpha = 63-82), and concurrent validity was confirmed between these and the Adult Attachment Scale (ECR: Experiences in Close Relationships inventory). Further, correlations were found between "mutual respect" and the benefit of heterosexual love in recovery, and between the other two factors and the impediment of heterosexual love, and between the Denial & Awareness Scale (for alcoholic). As this scale can be used to assess the type of heterosexual love of alcoholics, we predict that it will be useful in examining the effects of heterosexual love on recovery and as a tool for offering advice.

  13. Mental Health Trainees' Explicit and Implicit Attitudes Toward Transracial Adoptive Families Headed by Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Couples.

    Tan, Tony Xing; Jordan-Arthur, Brittany; Garafano, Jeffrey S; Curran, Laura

    2017-01-01

    We investigated 109 (79.8% female; 76% White, and 83.5% Heterosexual) mental health trainees' explicit and implicit attitudes toward heterosexual, lesbian, and gay White couples adopting and raising Black children. To determine explicit attitudes, we used a vignette depicting a Black child ready for adoption and three types of equally qualified White families who were headed by a heterosexual couple, gay couple, or lesbian couple. The trainees were asked to indicate which type of family they preferred to adopt the child. To determine implicit attitudes, we used the computer programed latency-based multifactor implicit association test (IAT) protocol. The IAT data were collected from each participant individually. Explicit data showed that over 80% of the participants indicated no strong preference in terms of which type of family should adopted the child. However, IAT data showed that the trainees implicitly preferred lesbian couples. Overall, the degree of congruence between explicit and implicit was very low. Implications for training were discussed.

  14. A Latent Class Analysis of Heterosexual Young Men’s Masculinities

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Parallel bodies of research have described the diverse and complex ways that men understand and construct their masculine identities (often termed“masculinities”) and, separately, how adherence to traditional notions of masculinity places men at risk for negative sexual and health outcomes. The goal of this analysis was to bring together these two streams of inquiry. Using data from a national, online sample of 555 hetero-sexually active young men, we employed latent class analysis (LCA) to detect patterns of masculine identities based on men’s endorsement of behavioral and attitudinal indicators of“dominant” masculinity, including sexual attitudes and behaviors. LCA identified four conceptually distinct masculine identity profiles. Twogroups, termed the Normative and Normative/Male Activities groups, respectively, constituted 88 % of the sample and were characterized by low levels of adherence to attitudes, sexual scripts, and behaviors consistent with“dominant”masculinity, but differed in their levels of engagement in male-oriented activities (e.g., sports teams). Only eight percent of the sample comprised a masculinity profile consistent with “traditional” ideas about masculinity; this group was labeled Misogynistic because of high levels of sexual assault and violence toward female partners. The remaining four percent constituted a Sex-Focused group, characterized by high numbers of sexual partners, but relatively low endorsement of other indicators of traditional masculinity. Follow-up analyses showed a small number of differences across groups on sexual and substance use health indicators. Findings have implications for sexual and behavioral health interventions and suggest that very few young men embody or endorse rigidly traditional forms of masculinity. PMID:26496914

  15. The Influence on Premarital Heterosexual Relationships on Marital Timing and Marital Desire among College Students in Tehran

    فريده خلج‌آبادي‌فراهاني

    2015-04-01

    In the first phase of the survey, 2031 university students aged 18-40 from among 7 universities (both public and private in Tehran were selected using two stage stratified cluster sampling method. Data collection was completed between January 2010 and May 2011 using an anonymous self-administer valid and reliable questionnaire. The mean age of respondents was 22.5, 12% were married with a mean age at marriage of 27(SD=6.32. The influence of premarital heterosexual relationships on marriage age was assessed among married and on desire to marry among single students. The results show that after control of gender, economic and cultural situation of the family, the experience of progressive (sexual relationship between opposite sex is one of the determinant factors of marriage age among university students. Reporting experience of progressive premarital heterosexual relationships and intimacy are associated with about two years delay in marriage (b-coefficient=1.7, P<0/05 Moreover, There is a gender difference in the relations between premarital heterosexual relationships and desire for marriage. So as, both heterosexual friendships and intimacy was significantly linked with greater desire for marriage among females, while among men, only progressive intimacy was inversely linked with desire for marriage. Men with greater experiences showed lower desire for marriage, while premarital heterosexual friendship was not associated with marital desire and propensity.  The changes in trends of premarital heterosexual relationships among young people and recent types of partnerships needs to be considered more than before in evolution of marriage and the family in Iran and also differing implications of such relationships between men and women needs greater consideration.

  16. Tackling femininity: the heterosexual paradigm and women's soccer in South Africa.

    Engh, Mari Haugaa

    2011-01-01

    Sport is a social institution that perpetuates gendered ideologies in the wider society through appealing to discourses of the naturalness of men's privilege and domination in society. Heteronormativity regulates the roles, behaviours, appearances and sexualities of, and relationships between and among, women and men. Moreover, heteronormative discourses normalise a particular relationship between sex, gender and sexuality that posits woman/feminine/heterosexual (and man/masculine/heterosexual) as a natural order from which variance is considered a punishable deviance. This paper outlines the effects of heteronormative discourses in the lives of women footballers in South Africa, through drawing on interviews with a wide range of women footballers. The paper shows how heteronormative discourses nurture homophobic attitudes that serve to regulate the appearances and performances of South African women.

  17. Self-reported sexual and psychosocial health among non-heterosexual Danes

    Graugaard, Christian; Giraldi, Annamaria; Frisch, Morten

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the sexual and psychosocial health of non-heterosexual Danes. Based on a large population study, the aim of this article was to compare quality-of-life-related key variables of heterosexual and non-heterosexual men and women, aged 16-66. MATERIALS AND METHODS......: Cross-sectional data from the nationwide, representative Health and Morbidity Survey (n = 8496) were used to compare variables concerning both general and sexual well-being of self-identified heterosexual and non-heterosexual respondents. RESULTS: Nearly twice as many non-heterosexual than heterosexual...... men rated their sexual life as bad or very bad (22.5% versus 12.8%), while no statistical difference was seen among women (13.6% versus 10.6%). For both genders, significantly more non-heterosexuals than heterosexuals stated that their sexual needs were not met (17.9% versus 7.7% for men and 14...

  18. Determinants of Heterosexual Adolescents Having Sex with Female Sex Workers in Singapore.

    Junice Y S Ng

    Full Text Available We assessed the proportion of and socio-ecological factors associated with ever having had sex with female sex workers (FSWs among heterosexual adolescents. We also described the characteristics of the adolescents who reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs.This is a cross-sectional study (response rate: 73% of 300 heterosexually active male adolescents of 16 to 19 years attending a national STI clinic in Singapore between 2009 and 2014. We assessed the ecological factors (individual, parental, peer, school and medial influences and sexual risk behaviors using a self-reported questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to obtain the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR and confidence intervals (CI.The proportion of heterosexual male adolescents who had ever had sex with FSWs was 39%. Multivariate analysis showed that significant factors associated with ever having had sex with FSWs were sex initiation before 16 years old (aPR 1.79 CI: 1.30-2.46, never had a sexually active girlfriend (aPR 1.75 CI 1.28-2.38, reported lower self-esteem score (aPR 0.96 CI: 0.93-0.98, higher rebelliousness score (aPR 1.03 CI: 1.00-1.07 and more frequent viewing of pornography (aPR 1.47 CI: 1.04-2.09. Lifetime inconsistent condom use with FSWs was 30%.A significant proportion of heterosexual male adolescents attending the public STI clinic had ever had sex with FSWs. A targeted intervention that addresses different levels of influence to this behavior is needed. This is even more so because a considerable proportion of adolescents reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs, who may serve as a bridge of STI transmission to the community. National surveys on adolescent health should include the assessment of frequency of commercial sex visits and condom use with FSWs for long-term monitoring and surveillance.

  19. HIV-1 subtype F1 epidemiological networks among Italian heterosexual males are associated with introduction events from South America.

    Lai, Alessia; Simonetti, Francesco R; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; De Luca, Andrea; Micheli, Valeria; Meraviglia, Paola; Corsi, Paola; Bagnarelli, Patrizia; Almi, Paolo; Zoncada, Alessia; Paolucci, Stefania; Gonnelli, Angela; Colao, Grazia; Tacconi, Danilo; Franzetti, Marco; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Zazzi, Maurizio; Balotta, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    About 40% of the Italian HIV-1 epidemic due to non-B variants is sustained by F1 clade, which circulates at high prevalence in South America and Eastern Europe. Aim of this study was to define clade F1 origin, population dynamics and epidemiological networks through phylogenetic approaches. We analyzed pol sequences of 343 patients carrying F1 subtype stored in the ARCA database from 1998 to 2009. Citizenship of patients was as follows: 72.6% Italians, 9.3% South Americans and 7.3% Rumanians. Heterosexuals, Homo-bisexuals, Intravenous Drug Users accounted for 58.1%, 24.0% and 8.8% of patients, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 70% of sequences clustered in 27 transmission networks. Two distinct groups were identified; the first clade, encompassing 56 sequences, included all Rumanian patients. The second group involved the remaining clusters and included 10 South American Homo-bisexuals in 9 distinct clusters. Heterosexual modality of infection was significantly associated with the probability to be detected in transmission networks. Heterosexuals were prevalent either among Italians (67.2%) or Rumanians (50%); by contrast, Homo-bisexuals accounted for 71.4% of South Americans. Among patients with resistant strains the proportion of clustering sequences was 57.1%, involving 14 clusters (51.8%). Resistance in clusters tended to be higher in South Americans (28.6%) compared to Italian (17.7%) and Rumanian patients (14.3%). A striking proportion of epidemiological networks could be identified in heterosexuals carrying F1 subtype residing in Italy. Italian Heterosexual males predominated within epidemiological clusters while foreign patients were mainly Heterosexual Rumanians, both males and females, and South American Homo-bisexuals. Tree topology suggested that F1 variant from South America gave rise to the Italian F1 epidemic through multiple introduction events. The contact tracing also revealed an unexpected burden of resistance in epidemiological

  20. Distinctive Citizenship

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2009-01-01

    The refugee, in India's Partition history, appears as an enigmatic construct - part pitiful, part heroic, though mostly shorn of agency - representing the surface of the human tragedy of Partition. Yet this archetype masks the undercurrent of social distinctions that produced hierarchies of post...

  1. HIV testing behaviour among heterosexual migrants in Amsterdam.

    Stolte, I G; Gras, M; Van Benthem, B H; Coutinho, R A; van den Hoek, J A

    2003-08-01

    This cross-sectional study among heterosexual migrant groups in south-eastern Amsterdam, the city area where the largest migrant groups live, provides an insight into HIV testing behaviour in this particular group. Participants were recruited at street locations (May 1997-July 1998) and interviewed using structured questionnaires. They also donated saliva for HIV testing. In total, 705 males and 769 females were included in this study (Afro-Surinamese (45%), Dutch-Antilleans (15%) and West Africans (40%)). Prior HIV testing was reported by 38% of all migrants (556/1479), of which only a minority (28%) had actively requested HIV testing. Multivariate logistic regression showed that not actively requesting HIV testing was more likely among younger (migrants, especially women (ORwomen: 4.79, p risk should be facilitated by promoting HIV testing and by improving accurate self-assessment of risk for HIV infection, especially among the groups that do not actively request HIV testing. This would increase HIV awareness and provide the opportunity of better medical care earlier in HIV infection.

  2. Substance use of lesbian, gay, bisexual and heterosexual college students.

    Kerr, Dianne L; Ding, Kele; Chaya, Julie

    2014-11-01

    To compare self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students to heterosexual peers and to each other on alcohol, tobacco and other drug (ATOD) measures and alcohol use consequences. Preexisting data (Falls 2009-2011) from the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA-II) were analyzed. Bisexual college students had greater odds of ATOD use than heterosexual and gay/lesbian students. Bisexual women had the highest levels of use. LGB students had more serious consequences due to alcohol use. ATOD use among LGB students was more prevalent than heterosexuals during the past 30 days, year, and life-time. LGB students report more negative alcohol consequences.

  3. Comparing the Rates of Early Childhood Victimization across Sexual Orientations: Heterosexual, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Mostly Heterosexual.

    Christopher Zou

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the rates of childhood victimization among individuals who identify as "mostly heterosexual" (MH in comparison to other sexual orientation groups. For the present study, we utilized a more comprehensive assessment of adverse childhood experiences to extend prior literature by examining if MH individuals' experience of victimization more closely mirrors that of sexual minority individuals or heterosexuals. Heterosexual (n = 422 and LGB (n = 561 and MH (n = 120 participants were recruited online. Respondents completed surveys about their adverse childhood experiences, both maltreatment by adults (e.g., childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and childhood household dysfunction and peer victimization (i.e., verbal and physical bullying. Specifically, MH individuals were 1.47 times more likely than heterosexuals to report childhood victimization experiences perpetrated by adults. These elevated rates were similar to LGB individuals. Results suggest that rates of victimization of MH groups are more similar to the rates found among LGBs, and are significantly higher than heterosexual groups. Our results support prior research that indicates that an MH identity falls within the umbrella of a sexual minority, yet little is known about unique challenges that this group may face in comparison to other sexual minority groups.

  4. Heterosexual sexual behaviour in a sample of homosexually active men.

    Fitzpatrick, R; Hart, G; Boulton, M; McLean, J; Dawson, J

    1989-01-01

    Three hundred and fifty six homosexually active men were recruited in 1988 for a study by interview of sexual behaviour. Thirty two per cent had homosexual passive anal sex in the previous month and 60% in the year before interview. Anal sex and unprotected anal sex were more common with regular than non-regular partners. Heterosexual sex was reported by 4% of men in the last month and 10% for the last year. Sixteen per cent of heterosexually active men reported anal sex with a female partner...

  5. Children's gender identity in lesbian and heterosexual two-parent families

    Bos, H.; Sandfort, T.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared gender identity, anticipated future heterosexual romantic involvement, and psychosocial adjustment of children in lesbian and heterosexual families; it was furthermore assessed whether associations between these aspects differed between family types. Data were obtained in the

  6. Contraceptive Use Effectiveness and Pregnancy Prevention Information Preferences Among Heterosexual and Sexual Minority College Women.

    Blunt-Vinti, Heather D; Thompson, Erika L; Griner, Stacey B

    2018-04-14

    Previous research shows that sexual minority women have higher rates of unintended pregnancy than heterosexual women, but has not considered the wide range of contraceptive method effectiveness when exploring this disparity. We examine contraceptive use effectiveness and desire for pregnancy prevention information among college women across sexual orientation identity as a risk factor for unintended pregnancy. Using the National College Health Assessment Fall-2015 dataset, restricted to women who reported engaging in vaginal sex and not wanting to be pregnant (N = 6,486), logistic regression models estimated the odds of contraceptive method effectiveness and desire for pregnancy prevention information by sexual orientation. Most women (57%) reported using a moderately effective contraceptive method (e.g., pill, patch, ring, shot) at last vaginal sex. Compared with heterosexual women, bisexual (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.62), lesbian (aOR, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.02-0.06), pansexual/queer (aOR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.25-.56) and other (aOR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.30-0.81) women were significantly less likely to have used a moderately effective method compared with no method. Only 9% of the sample used a highly effective method; asexual (aOR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37-0.92) and lesbian (aOR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.03-0.20) women were significantly less likely than heterosexual women to have used these methods. Pansexual/queer and bisexual women were more likely than heterosexual women to desire pregnancy prevention information. Several groups of sexual minority women were less likely than heterosexual women to use highly or moderately effective contraceptive methods, putting them at increased risk for unintended pregnancy, but desired pregnancy prevention information. These findings bring attention to the importance of patient-centered sexual and reproductive care to reduce unintended pregnancy. Copyright © 2018 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published

  7. Anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis show distinct patterns of brain glucose metabolism in 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography.

    Wegner, Florian; Wilke, Florian; Raab, Peter; Tayeb, Said Ben; Boeck, Anna-Lena; Haense, Cathleen; Trebst, Corinna; Voss, Elke; Schrader, Christoph; Logemann, Frank; Ahrens, Jörg; Leffler, Andreas; Rodriguez-Raecke, Rea; Dengler, Reinhard; Geworski, Lilli; Bengel, Frank M; Berding, Georg; Stangel, Martin; Nabavi, Elham

    2014-06-20

    Pathogenic autoantibodies targeting the recently identified leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein and the subunit 1 of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor induce autoimmune encephalitis. A comparison of brain metabolic patterns in 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography of anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis patients has not been performed yet and shall be helpful in differentiating these two most common forms of autoimmune encephalitis. The brain 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake from whole-body positron emission tomography of six anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis patients and four patients with anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein encephalitis admitted to Hannover Medical School between 2008 and 2012 was retrospectively analyzed and compared to matched controls. Group analysis of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate encephalitis patients demonstrated regionally limited hypermetabolism in frontotemporal areas contrasting an extensive hypometabolism in parietal lobes, whereas the anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein syndrome was characterized by hypermetabolism in cerebellar, basal ganglia, occipital and precentral areas and minor frontomesial hypometabolism. This retrospective 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography study provides novel evidence for distinct brain metabolic patterns in patients with anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis.

  8. Social Support and Psychological Well-Being in Lesbian and Heterosexual Preadoptive Couples

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines predictors of social support and mental health among 36 lesbian and 39 heterosexual couples who were waiting to adopt. Lesbian preadoptive partners perceived less support from family than heterosexual partners but similar levels of support from friends. Lesbian and heterosexual partners reported similar levels of well-being.…

  9. Experiences of Attachment Injury in Heterosexual Couple Relationships

    Pelling, Cate; Arvay-Buchanan, Marla

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the lived experience of women's attachment injuries within heterosexual couple relationships. An interpretative, phenomenological approach (van Manen, 1990) was used in this exploratory study. Four women participated in three separate research interviews in order to illuminate the phenomenon of "attachment…

  10. Recollections of Sexual Socialisation among Marginalised Heterosexual Black Men

    Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen; Graves, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the sexual socialisation process of marginalised, drug-using heterosexual black men, focusing primarily on the sources and content of sexual information. Analysing qualitative interview data, we discovered that the men in our sample both learn about sex and become sexually active at an early age. They most often learn about…

  11. Predictors of Heterosexual College Students' Attitudes toward LGBT People

    Woodford, Michael R.; Silverschanz, Perry; Swank, Eric; Scherrer, Kristin S.; Raiz, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies the predictors of U.S. heterosexual undergraduate and graduate college students' attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people as a group rather than toward individual identities. Findings suggest that affirming LGBT attitudes are most strongly associated with liberal political ideology and whether…

  12. HIV testing behaviour among heterosexual migrants in Amsterdam

    Stolte, I. G.; Gras, M.; van Benthem, B. H.; Coutinho, R. A.; van den Hoek, J. A. R.

    2003-01-01

    This cross-sectional study among heterosexual migrant groups in south-eastern Amsterdam, the city area where the largest migrant groups live, provides an insight into HIV testing behaviour in this particular group. Participants were recruited at street locations (May 1997-July 1998) and interviewed

  13. The heterosexual singles scene: putting danger into pleasure.

    Peart, R; Rosenthal, D; Moore, S

    1996-06-01

    The juxtaposition of pleasure and danger has engaged many feminist theorists and researchers in the field of sexuality. This article presents a theoretical analysis of the ambiguous and complex relationship between 'pleasure', 'danger' and contemporary feminist theory. In doing so, it offers an understanding of the ways in which the categories of pleasure and danger operate within the discourses of heterosexuality to construct perceptions of risk in the context of HIV/AIDS. Data were collected from a study of the sexual attitudes and practices of 112 sexually-active, single, heterosexual adults (58 men and 54 women), aged 20 to 40 years (mean = 27 years) who agreed to be interviewed when approached at night-clubs and public "singles' bars around Melbourne, Australia. The qualitative analysis presented here is consistent with a poststructuralist feminism. First, we discuss how sexuality cannot be cast solely as pleasurable or dangerous. Second, we demonstrate how heterosexualized notions of pleasure and danger operate to provide misperceptions of risk from HIV/AIDS transmission. Third, we identify the ways in which the logic of identity functions to obscure risk within the discourse of heterosexuality, and finally we attempt to forge new ways of practising pleasure which disrupt heterosexist discourses and allow for pleasures which incorporate danger.

  14. Characteristics of adenovirus urethritis among heterosexual men and men who have sex with men: a review of clinical cases.

    Samaraweera, Geethani R; Garcia, Katherine; Druce, Julian; Williams, Henrietta; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Fairley, Christopher K; Chow, Eric Pf; Denham, Ian M; Read, Timothy R H; Chen, Marcus Y

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the clinical features of adenovirus urethritis in men and to compare the frequency of these between heterosexual men and men who have sex with men (MSM). This was a review of the clinical and laboratory information from men diagnosed with PCR-confirmed adenovirus urethritis at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between January 2006 and April 2014. 102 adenovirus urethritis cases were reported, among which 61 were heterosexual men and 41 MSM. Eighty-nine per cent (n=91) had signs of meatitis or conjunctivitis: 51% had meatitis only; 32% meatitis together with conjunctivitis and 6% with conjunctivitis only. The distribution of symptoms and signs was similar among heterosexual men and MSM (p values >0.1). Adenovirus was the sole pathogen found in 93% of cases, excluding gonorrhoea, chlamydia, Mycoplasma genitalium and herpes simplex virus. Only 37% had ≥5 polymorphs per high-power field from a urethral smear. Where samples were still available for adenoviral sequencing (n=20), all were subgroup D. The clinical features of adenovirus urethritis in men can be distinctive and aid diagnosis, distinguishing it from other treatable causes of male urethritis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Disparities between online assisted reproduction patient education for same-sex and heterosexual couples.

    Jin, Helen; Dasgupta, Shoumita

    2016-10-01

    Does the prevalence of online education in fertility center websites differ for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) couples compared to online education for heterosexual couples? This review of fertility center websites showed that the majority of websites with patient education for heterosexual couples do not have similar materials for LGBT couples. In order to have biologically related children, LGBT individuals or couples utilize assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Fertility clinic websites provide online education to familiarize patients with the different ART procedures; however, no studies have examined the prevalence of educational information for LGBT couples compared to information for heterosexual couples utilizing ART. This website review evaluated Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-reported fertility center websites. Websites were reviewed in 2014 using the latest 2011 CDC report, and reviewed again in 2015 with the latest 2013 CDC report. Patient education information was coded using categories determined after a sample review, and differences were analyzed with χ(2) tests, with P-values calculated with Fisher's exact test. In 2014, 31.1% (121) of 389 websites with information for heterosexual couples also contained information for LGBT couples. In 2015, the number of fertility centers with information for LGBT couples increased by 52.9% to 185 (P online information on fertility center websites may not directly reflect the quality of care LGBT individuals or couples receive in the clinic, and the effect of this absence of online information on the clinical experiences of LGBT patients is unknown. These findings add to the growing body of work showing disparities in the treatment of LGBT persons compared to the overall population. To overcome these discrepancies, healthcare providers should adapt their practice to include this growing and underserved patient population. Funding was provided by the Medical Student Summer

  16. Sexual and romantic jealousy in heterosexual and homosexual adults.

    Harris, Christine R

    2002-01-01

    Several theorists have claimed that men are innately more upset by a mate's sexual infidelity and women are more upset by a mate's emotional infidelity because the sexes faced different adaptive problems (for men, cuckoldry; for women, losing a mate's resources). The present work examined this theory of jealousy as a specific innate module in 196 adult men and women of homosexual and heterosexual orientations. As in previous work, heterosexuals' responses to a forced-choice question about hypothetical infidelity yielded a gender difference. However no gender differences were found when participants recalled personal experiences with a mate's actual infidelity. Men and women, regardless of sexual orientation, on average focused more on a mate's emotional infidelity than on a mate's sexual infidelity. Responses to hypothetical infidelity were uncorrelated with reactions to actual infidelity. This finding casts doubt on the validity of the hypothetical measures used in previous research.

  17. The accomplishment of happiness : feminism, pleasure, heterosexuality and consumption

    Robinson, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    This article explores some of the available sociological orientations towards happiness, linking these with feminist debates about pleasure, heterosexuality, agency and consumption, as well as utilizing my own autobiographical narrative from working with other feminists over the years in academia. Its central premise is that feminist debates and concerns can take forward sociological debates on happiness in new directions and in more nuanced ways. Conversely, current sociological theorizing o...

  18. Prevalence of Physical and Psychological Violence among Heterosexual Couples

    Laura López Angulo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: there are few studies at the population level on the prevalence of violence in heterosexual relationships. This study demonstrated the reality of this phenomenon in our context. Objective: to determine the prevalence of psychological and physical violence among heterosexual couples in the city of Cienfuegos in 2010. Methods: a cross-sectional study of adults aged 15 to 74 years was conducted in six health areas. An equal probability sample of 1873 subjects was selected. The variables included psychological and physical violence, sex, age, skin color, marital status, educational level and history of living in troubled homes. The results were processed using SPSS 15.0. Results: prevalence of psychological and physical violence among couples was approximately six out of ten with different frequency levels. Psychological violence rose to 82.3 % and physical violence to 96.3 % when the couple lived together. Women reported being victims of violence from age 35 to 44 and men from age 25 to 34. Seventy point eight percent of couples who had middle school education reported suffering physical violence while 63 % of those with university education reported psychological violence. Fifty-one point eight percent of the study population was victim of physical violence during childhood. Conclusions: prevalence of psychological and physical violence among heterosexual couples in the sample studied in Cienfuegos is higher than the mean in the general population.

  19. Practicing vaginistic femininity: Doing bodies, enacting normative heterosexuality

    Stephanie Stelko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaginismus is a female sexual pain disorder, characterized by contractions of the pubococcygeus (PC muscle that surrounds the outer third of the vagina, which makes penetrative penile-vaginal intercourse (coitus, insertion of a finger or tampon and gynecological examinations hard or impossible, and painful for the woman. The condition is believed to be associated with negative beliefs, attitudes or experiences related to sex. Vaginismus has important social repercussions in everyday life, which acquire meaning in the context of hegemonic heterosexuality. In line with theories of performativity, heterosexuality and gender are normatively and performatively linked sets of practices, with coitus being the central practice of heterosexuality and thus defining for one’s gender. Thus, the inability of vaginistic women to perform coitus impairs their performance of normative heterogender. In this article I address gender experiences of women with primary vaginismus, by looking at social and bodily practices they engage in. In the first part of the article, I explore how women with primary vaginismus do (vaginistic heterogender. In the second part I address the practices they do in order to ‘overcome’ vaginismus, thus improving their performance of normative heterogender, and argue that these practices are gendering themselves.

  20. Gay and lesbian couples in Italy: comparisons with heterosexual couples.

    Antonelli, Paolo; Dèttore, Davide; Lasagni, Irene; Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina

    2014-12-01

    Assessing couple relationships across diverse languages and cultures has important implications for both clinical intervention and prevention. This is especially true for nontraditional relationships potentially subject to various expressions of negative societal evaluation or bias. Few empirically validated measures of relationship functioning have been developed for cross-cultural applications, and none have been examined for their psychometric sufficiency for evaluating same-sex couples across different languages and cultures. The current study examined the psychometric properties of an Italian translation of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory - Revised (MSI-R), a 150-item 13-scale measure of couple relationship functioning, for its use in assessing the intimate relationships of gay and lesbian couples in Italy. Results for these couples were compared to data from heterosexual married and unmarried cohabiting couples from the same geographical region, as well as to previously published data for gay, lesbian, and unmarried heterosexual couples from the United States. Findings suggest that, despite unique societal pressures confronting Italian same-sex couples, these relationships appear resilient and fare well both overall and in specific domains of functioning compared to heterosexual couples both in Italy and the United States. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  1. Different Achilles Tendon Pathologies Show Distinct Histological and Molecular Characteristics

    Franka Klatte-Schulz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reasons for the development of chronic tendon pathologies are still under debate and more basic knowledge is needed about the different diseases. The aim of the present study was therefore to characterize different acute and chronic Achilles tendon disorders. Achilles tendon samples from patients with chronic tendinopathy (n = 7, chronic ruptures (n = 6, acute ruptures (n = 13, and intact tendons (n = 4 were analyzed. The histological score investigating pathological changes was significantly increased in tendinopathy and chronic ruptures compared to acute ruptures. Inflammatory infiltration was detected by immunohistochemistry in all tendon pathology groups, but was significantly lower in tendinopathy compared to chronic ruptures. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis revealed significantly altered expression of genes related to collagens and matrix modeling/remodeling (matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in tendinopathy and chronic ruptures compared to intact tendons and/or acute ruptures. In all three tendon pathology groups markers of inflammation (interleukin (IL 1β, tumor necrosis factor α, IL6, IL10, IL33, soluble ST2, transforming growth factor β1, cyclooxygenase 2, inflammatory cells (cluster of differentaition (CD 3, CD68, CD80, CD206, fat metabolism (fatty acid binding protein 4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, adiponectin, and innervation (protein gene product 9.5, growth associated protein 43, macrophage migration inhibitory factor were detectable, but only in acute ruptures significantly regulated compared to intact tendons. The study gives an insight into structural and molecular changes of pathological processes in tendons and might be used to identify targets for future therapy of tendon pathologies.

  2. Microbial Communities Show Parallels at Sites with Distinct

    Ságová-Marečková, M.; Omelka, M.; Čermák, L.; Kameník, Zdeněk; Olšovská, J.; Hackl, E.; Kopecký, J.; Hadacek, F.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 21 (2011), s. 7560-7567 ISSN 0099-2240 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : 16S RIBOSOMAL-RNA * LENGTH-POLYMORPHISM ANALYSIS * MULTIPLE SEQUENCE ALIGNMENT Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.829, year: 2011

  3. Agent-based and phylogenetic analyses reveal how HIV-1 moves between risk groups: injecting drug users sustain the heterosexual epidemic in Latvia

    Graw, Frederik; Leitner, Thomas; Ribeiro, Ruy M.

    2012-01-01

    Injecting drug users (IDU) are a driving force for the spread of HIV-1 in Latvia and other Baltic States, accounting for a majority of cases. However, in recent years, heterosexual cases have increased disproportionately. It is unclear how the changes in incidence patterns in Latvia can be explained, and how important IDU are for the heterosexual sub-epidemic. We introduce a novel epidemic model and use phylogenetic analyses in parallel to examine the spread of HIV-1 in Latvia between 1987 and 2010. Using a hybrid framework with a mean-field description for the susceptible population and an agent-based model for the infecteds, we track infected individuals and follow transmission histories dynamically formed during the simulation. The agent-based simulations and the phylogenetic analysis show that more than half of the heterosexual transmissions in Latvia were caused by IDU, which sustain the heterosexual epidemic. Indeed, we find that heterosexual clusters are characterized by short transmission chains with up to 63% of the chains dying out after the first introduction. In the simulations, the distribution of transmission chain sizes follows a power law distribution, which is confirmed by the phylogenetic data. Our models indicate that frequent introductions reduced the extinction probability of an autonomously spreading heterosexual HIV-1 epidemic, which now has the potential to dominate the spread of the overall epidemic in the future. Furthermore, our model shows that social heterogeneity of the susceptible population can explain the shift in HIV-1 incidence in Latvia over the course of the epidemic. Thus, the decrease in IDU incidence may be due to local heterogeneities in transmission, rather than the implementation of control measures. Increases in susceptibles, through social or geographic movement of IDU, could lead to a boost in HIV-1 infections in this risk group. Targeting individuals that bridge social groups would help prevent further spread of the

  4. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms Among HIV-Positive Concordant and Discordant Heterosexual Couples in China.

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Lin, Chunqing; Ji, Guoping; Xiao, Yongkang

    2017-03-01

    HIV seropositive individuals and their heterosexual partners/spouses, either seropositive or seronegative, are facing several mental health challenges. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in depressive symptoms among HIV-positive concordant and HIV-discordant couples. We identified heterosexual couples from participants of a randomized controlled trial conducted in Anhui province, China. A total of 265 couples, comprising 129 HIV+ male/HIV- female couples, 98 HIV- male/HIV+ female couples, and 38 HIV-positive concordant couples, were included in the analyses. We collected data using the computer-assisted personal interview method. We used a linear mixed-effects regression model to assess whether gender differences in depressive symptoms varied across couple types. HIV-positive women reported a significantly higher level of depressive symptoms than their partners/spouses. HIV-positive women with HIV-positive partners had higher depressive symptoms than those with HIV-negative partners, whereas HIV-positive men reported similar levels of depressive symptoms regardless of their partners' serostatus. Among the concordant couples, those with the highest annual family income showed the greatest gender differences in depressive symptoms. We suggest that family interventions should be gender- and couple-type specific and that mental health counseling is warranted not only for HIV-positive women but also for HIV-negative women in an HIV-affected relationship.

  5. Who Wears the Pants: The Implications of Gender and Power for Youth Heterosexual Relationships.

    Bay-Cheng, Laina Y; Maguin, Eugene; Bruns, Anne E

    2018-01-01

    Relationships in which power is equally distributed are consistently associated with greater quality (e.g., deeper intimacy, less turmoil, more pleasure), but it can be difficult to strike such a balance. Furthermore, dominant gender scripts and norms are complexly intertwined with power in heterosexual relationships. We studied the joint implications of power and gender for relationship quality using 114 U.S. emerging adults' quantitative and qualitative assessments of 395 heterosexual relationships. Linear mixed method analyses indicated that participants found relationships in which they shared power or were dominant to be more intimate and stable than those in which they felt subordinate, but we found no link between power and pleasure. Gender acted as a moderator such that women rated relationships in which they felt subordinate as less intimate and more tumultuous than those in which they felt dominant, whereas men's ratings did not vary by whether they felt subordinate or dominant. Qualitative data also showed power imbalances to be more problematic for women: Of the 17 relationships involving an abusive or controlling partner, 15 were reported by women. We conclude that while both young men and young women may feel subordinate in relationships, the consequences thereof are more detrimental for young women.

  6. Application of Theory of Planned Behavior in Predicting of effective Factors on heterosexual relationship in girls Adolescence of Birjand city

    Narges Sarzehi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Puberty is one of the most critical periods in life that makes individual to feel and behave in a different way. One of the major issues faced young people is the conflict between spiritual values, customary and familiar to the freedom or non-freedom of heterosexual relationships and how to deal with it. Therefore, this study aimed to determine Predicting Factors heterosexual relationship in girls Adolescence of Birjand city. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, samples were collected from   girl students in high schools in different regions of Birjand in 2015. The survey was carried out via simple random sampling of 395 students. Data were collected by the validated and reliable questionnaire based on theory of planned behavior. The gathered data were analyzed using SPSS20 and descriptive statistical tests and , Pearson correlation, logistic regression , t- test and ANOVA tests in significant level less than 0.05... Results: Among the adolescents participating in this study 43.9% with an average duration was about 15±7 months. Logistic regression analysis showed that attitudes (P≤0.001, intention (P≤0.001, mother's occupation (p=0.03, family size (p=0.01, birth (p=0.03 and the satellite programs watching (p=0.01 strong predictor for the heterosexual relationship individuals were studied. Conclusion: According to the results of this study showed that the attitude and intention for the relationship with the opposite sex were strong predictors. So the theory of planned behavior can be used as an effective method for planning and intervention to prevent heterosexual relationship.

  7. Heterosexual anal intercourse and HIV infection risks in the context of alcohol serving venues, Cape Town, South Africa

    Carey Kate B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most efficient sexual behavior for HIV transmission is unprotected receptive anal intercourse. However, it is unclear what role heterosexual unprotected anal sex is playing in the world's worst HIV epidemics of southern Africa. The objective is to examine the prevalence of heterosexual unprotected anal intercourse among men and women who drink at informal alcohol serving establishments (shebeens in South Africa. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were collected from a convenience sample of 5037 patrons of 10 shebeens in a peri-urban township of Cape Town, South Africa. Analyses concentrated on establishing the rates of unprotected anal intercourse practiced by men and women as well as the factors associated with practicing anal intercourse. Results We found that 15% of men and 11% of women reported anal intercourse in the previous month, with 8% of men and 7% of women practicing any unprotected anal intercourse. Multiple logistic regression showed that younger age, having primary and casual sex partners, and meeting sex partners at shebeens were independently associated with engaging in anal intercourse. Mathematical modeling showed that individual risks are significantly impacted by anal intercourse but probably not to the degree needed to drive a generalized HIV epidemic. Conclusions Anal intercourse likely plays a significant role in HIV infections among a small minority of South Africans who patronize alcohol serving establishments. Heterosexual anal intercourse, the most risky sexual behavior for HIV transmission, should not be ignored in HIV prevention for South African heterosexuals. However, this relatively infrequent behavior should not become the focus of prevention efforts.

  8. Sexual violence victimization history and sexual risk indicators in a community-based urban cohort of "mostly heterosexual" and heterosexual young women.

    Austin, S Bryn; Roberts, Andrea L; Corliss, Heather L; Molnar, Beth E

    2008-06-01

    We sought to examine sexual violence victimization in childhood and sexual risk indicators in young adulthood in a primarily Latina and Black cohort of "mostly heterosexual" and heterosexual women in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). In 2000, a comprehensive survey that assessed sexual orientation, sexual risk indicators, and sexual abuse victimization was completed by 391 young women (aged 18 to 24 years) who had participated in PHDCN. We used multivariable regression methods to examine sexual orientation group differences in sexual risk indicators and to assess whether childhood sexual abuse may mediate relationships. Compared with self-reported heterosexual women, self-reported "mostly heterosexual" women were more likely to report having been the victim of childhood sexual abuse, to have had a sexually transmitted infection, to report an earlier age of first sexual intercourse, and to have had more sexual partners. Childhood sexual abuse did not mediate relationships between sexual orientation and sexual risk indicators. Our findings add to the evidence that "mostly heterosexual" women experience greater health risk than do heterosexual women. In addition, "mostly heterosexual" women are at high risk for having experienced childhood sexual abuse.

  9. Perceived Similarity With Gay Men Mediates the Effect of Antifemininity on Heterosexual Men's Antigay Prejudice.

    Martínez, Carmen; Vázquez, Carolina; Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that heterosexual men's motivation to differentiate themselves from gay men mediates the relationship between the antifemininity norm of masculinity and antigay prejudice. We assessed masculinity through three concepts: status, thoughness, and antifemininity. Participants then reported their perceived similarity with gay men and their antigay prejudice. The results showed that antifemininity was the best predictor of both perceived similarity and antigay prejudice: The more people endorsed the antifemininity norm, the more they perceived themselves as dissimilar from gay men and showed antigay prejudice. More important, perceived similarity mediated the effect of antifemininity on antigay prejudice. These findings provide direct evidence for the link between masculinity and the motivation to differentiate oneself from gay men, and they suggest that antigay prejudice accomplishes the identity function of maintaining unambiguous gender boundaries.

  10. Heterosexuals and HIV transmission: where do we go from here?

    Kippax, S; Crawford, J

    1991-07-01

    A number of reports from Australia and abroad, detailing the results of surveys of heterosexuals' sexual practice, have indicated that most heterosexuals are not changing their sexual behavior despite the present context of a global HIV/AIDS pandemic, and despite there being a reasonably accurate knowledge of HIV transmission among survey respondents. However, it does appear that safe sex messages are getting through to and bringing about the gradual adoption of risk reduction behavior among young university students. Findings are reported from surveys of 18-19-year-old male and female students at Macquarie and Sydney Universities during 1987-90. 55 and 66 students were surveyed in 1987 and 1989, respectively, at the University of Sydney, while 700, 564, and 709 students were surveyed in 1988, 1989, and 1990, respectively, at Macquarie University. 45-55% of students had experienced oral/genital sex, 45-60% vaginal intercourse, and 4-7% anal sex. The students generally know that kissing and masturbation are safe sex practices, and they also appear to accept that condom use decreases the risk of exposure to HIV. The most dangerous sex practices were judged to be unprotected intercourse with regular and casual partners, but especially with casual partners, and withdrawal and oral/genital sex with casual partners. When compared with older students, these 18-19 year old students were significantly more likely to use condoms in vaginal intercourse with both regular and casual partners.

  11. Effects of Attractiveness and Status in Dating Desire in Homosexual and Heterosexual Men and Women

    Ha, P.T.; Berg, J.E.M. van den; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined partner preferences of homosexual and heterosexual men and woman, focusing on attractiveness and status. Homosexual (N = 591 men; M age = 28.87 years, SD = 10.21; N = 249 women; M age = 33.36 years, SD = 13.12) and heterosexual participants (N = 346 men; M age = 39.74

  12. Effect of Psychopathy on Physical Aggression Toward Gay and Heterosexual Men

    Parrott, Dominic J.; Zeichner, Amos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of psychopathy on antigay aggression. Participants were 84 heterosexual men who competed in an aggression paradigm in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a randomly determined fictitious opponent (heterosexual male, gay male) during a competitive reaction time…

  13. Changes in Diversity Course Student Prejudice and Attitudes toward Heterosexual Privilege and Gay Marriage

    Case, Kim A.; Stewart, Briana

    2010-01-01

    This study examined diversity course influence on student prejudice against lesbians and gay men, awareness of heterosexual privilege, and support for gay marriage. The study included heterosexual female students in psychology of women, introduction to women's studies, and nondiversity psychology courses. Students in diversity courses expressed…

  14. A Comparison of Lesbian, Bisexual, and Heterosexual College Undergraduate Women on Selected Mental Health Issues

    Kerr, Dianne L.; Santurri, Laura; Peters, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate selected mental health characteristics of lesbians and bisexual undergraduate college women as compared with heterosexual college women. Participants: Self-identified lesbians and bisexual and heterosexual female college students who took part in the American College Health Association National College Health Assessment…

  15. Disparities in Depressive Symptoms Between Heterosexual and Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth in a Dutch Cohort : The TRAILS Study

    la Roi, Chaïm; Kretschmer, Tina; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Veenstra, René; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth experience elevated levels of depressive symptoms compared to heterosexual youth. This study examined how differences in depressive symptoms between heterosexual and LGB youth developed from late childhood to early adulthood. The association between sexual

  16. Perceptions of Threats to Physical Safety, Sexual Autonomy, Values, and of Discrimination Drive LGB Prejudices Toward Heterosexuals.

    Pirlott, Angela G; Rusten, Marta L; Butterfuss, Reese M

    2016-09-01

    Many studies have investigated heterosexuals' prejudices toward nonheterosexuals, yet LGB's prejudices toward heterosexuals remain largely unexplored. Therefore, we sought to determine the threats and opportunities (i.e., affordances) LGB perceive heterosexuals to pose and whether those affordances explain their sexual prejudices toward heterosexuals. Study 1 analyzed LGB's reasons for liking and disliking heterosexuals, which determined whether the threats predicted to be salient for LGB mirrored the affordances they generated. Study 2 measured these perceived affordances and examined the extent to which they drove LGB's prejudices toward heterosexuals. Generally, perceptions of discrimination and unreciprocated sexual interest threats drove anger, physical safety and sexual autonomy threats drove fear, and values threats drove moral disgust toward heterosexuals, although results varied slightly by perceiver and target groups. Goals to alleviate the tensions between heterosexuals and LGB require an understanding of the dynamics between these groups. This research provides preliminary insights into understanding those dynamics. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  17. Children's Gender Identity in Lesbian and Heterosexual Two-Parent Families.

    Bos, Henny; Sandfort, Theo G M

    2010-01-01

    This study compared gender identity, anticipated future heterosexual romantic involvement, and psychosocial adjustment of children in lesbian and heterosexual families; it was furthermore assessed whether associations between these aspects differed between family types. Data were obtained in the Netherlands from children in 63 lesbian families and 68 heterosexual families. All children were between 8 and 12 years old. Children in lesbian families felt less parental pressure to conform to gender stereotypes, were less likely to experience their own gender as superior and were more likely to be uncertain about future heterosexual romantic involvement. No differences were found on psychosocial adjustment. Gender typicality, gender contentedness and anticipated future heterosexual romantic involvement were significant predictors of psychosocial adjustment in both family types.

  18. Gendered power in cultural contexts: Part II. Middle class African American heterosexual couples with young children.

    Cowdery, Randi S; Scarborough, Norma; Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Seshadri, Gita; Lewis, Monique E; Mahoney, Anne Rankin

    2009-03-01

    When race and gender intersect, understanding gendered power may be complicated. The authors first describe the historical context that serves as important background for understanding gender and power in heterosexual African American relationships. Then they show how family solidarity in the face of social injustices often overrides gender equality as a goal for middle class African American couples with young children. The findings illustrate pragmatic equality within couple relationships and the willful suspension of gender roles for the well-being of the family as a whole. However, gendered power impacts couples in a variety of ways. Sometimes a woman's fear that the man might leave, for example, diminished her power in the relationship. Often a woman accommodated a man's greater power in the family because of her perception that he was often denied power in the larger society. Societal discrimination of women was less visible to couples. Implications for practice are provided.

  19. Relational Motives Reduce Attentional Adhesion to Attractive Alternatives in Heterosexual University Students in China.

    Zhang, Qiuli; Maner, Jon K; Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong

    2017-02-01

    In heterosexual individuals, attention is automatically captured by physically attractive members of the opposite sex. Although helpful for selecting new mates, attention to attractive relationship alternatives can threaten satisfaction with and commitment to an existing romantic relationship. The current study tested the hypothesis that although a mating prime would increase selective attention to attractive opposite-sex targets (relative to less attractive targets) among single participants, this effect would be reduced among people already committed to a long-term romantic partner. Consistent with hypotheses, whereas single participants responded to a mating prime with greater attentional adhesion to physically attractive opposite-sex targets (relative to less attractive targets), participants in a committed romantic relationship showed no such effect. These findings extend previous research suggesting the presence of relationship maintenance mechanisms that operate at early stages of social cognition.

  20. [Sexual Behavior and Self-Efficacy for the Negotiation of Safer Sex in Heterosexual Persons.

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Santiago-Rivas, Marimer; Serrano-García, Irma

    2009-05-01

    Self-efficacy has been defined as one of the factors that may facilitate or impede safer sex. Studies reveal that peoples in steady relationships practice safer sex less often that those in casual relationships. We conducted a study with 447 sexually active heterosexual adults. A self-administered questionnaire was designed to study the sexual behavior, the male condom use and the practice of mutual masturbation, and the self-efficacy toward these practices. Results show that most men are sexually active and that there is a low frequency of male condom use and the practice of mutual masturbation as safer sex. The majority of those who use the male condom are engage in casual relationships. However, participants have high levels of self-efficacy toward these practices. Although self-efficacy is one of the factors that influence in deciding to practice safer sex, it is not sufficient to reach this goal.

  1. Sexual economics: sex as female resource for social exchange in heterosexual interactions.

    Baumeister, Roy F; Vohs, Kathleen D

    2004-01-01

    A heterosexual community can be analyzed as a marketplace in which men seek to acquire sex from women by offering other resources in exchange. Societies will therefore define gender roles as if women are sellers and men buyers of sex. Societies will endow female sexuality, but not male sexuality, with value (as in virginity, fidelity, chastity). The sexual activities of different couples are loosely interrelated by a marketplace, instead of being fully separate or private, and each couple's decisions may be influenced by market conditions. Economic principles suggest that the price of sex will depend on supply and demand, competition among sellers, variations in product, collusion among sellers, and other factors. Research findings show gender asymmetries (reflecting the complementary economic roles) in prostitution, courtship, infidelity and divorce, female competition, the sexual revolution and changing norms, unequal status between partners, cultural suppression of female sexuality, abusive relationships, rape, and sexual attitudes.

  2. A Pilot Intervention to Promote Safer Sex in Heterosexual Puerto Rican Couples.

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David Wyatt; Ronis, David L

    2014-09-01

    Although the sexual transmission of HIV occurs in the context of an intimate relationship, preventive interventions with couples are scarce, particularly those designed for Hispanics. In this article, we present the effect of a pilot intervention directed to prevent HIV/AIDS in heterosexual couples in Puerto Rico. The intervention was theory-based and consisted of five three-hour group sessions. Primary goals included increasing male condom use and the practice of mutual masturbation as a safer sex method, and promoting favorable attitudes toward these behaviors. Twenty-six couples participated in this study. Fifteen were randomly assigned to the intervention group and eleven to a control group. Retention rates at post-intervention and follow-up were 82% for the whole sample. Results showed that there was a significant increase in the use of male condoms with main partners in the intervention group when compared with the control group. Couples in the intervention group also had better scores on secondary outcomes, such as attitudes toward condom use and mutual masturbation, HIV information, sexual decision-making, and social support. We found that these effects persisted over the three month follow up. A significant effect was also observed for the practice of mutual masturbation, but not for sexual negotiation. These results showed that promoting male condom use in dyadic interventions among heterosexual couples in Puerto Rico is feasible. Our findings suggest that because vaginal penetration has been constructed as the sexual script endpoint among many Hispanic couples, promoting other non-penetrative practices, such as mutual masturbation, may be difficult.

  3. A neuropsychologic profile of homosexual and heterosexual men and women.

    Wegesin, D J

    1998-02-01

    To examine the applicability of psychosexual differentiation theory to the development of sexual orientation, heterosexual (HT) women, HT men, lesbians, and gay men (20 per group) completed a lexical-decision/semantic monitoring task (LD/SM) to assess verbal ability, as well as a Water Level Task (WLT) and two Mental Rotation (MR) Tasks designed to assess spatial ability. All tests have been shown to differentiate HT men and women. Results replicated previously reported sex differences between the HT men and women. Further, gay men performed akin to HT women on the verbal task and the MR tasks, but not in the WLT. Lesbians, however, primarily performed in a sex-typical manner. The dissociation in sex-atypicality between lesbians and gay men is discussed in relation to neurobiological factors related to the development of both sex-dimorphic cognitive ability and sexual orientation.

  4. Swings and roundabouts: management of jealousy in heterosexual swinging couples.

    de Visser, Richard; McDonald, Dee

    2007-06-01

    Swinging involves consensual mutual involvement in extra-dyadic sex. Jealousy in swinging couples is an interesting topic for social psychological research, because it is a common and acceptable response to a romantic partner's real or imagined infidelity. This qualitative study examined the management of jealousy among four active heterosexual swinging couples living in southern England. Participants highlighted the importance of discussion and negotiation to develop a shared couple identity and shared rules and boundaries that allowed them to manage jealousy so that they could better enjoy swinging. Rather than seeking to eliminate jealousy, swingers may manage their feelings of jealousy in order to increase sexual excitement and arousal. This study adds to our understanding of jealousy among swingers and the broader issue of jealousy in intimate relationships.

  5. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men.

    Casey, Erin A; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk-related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners.

  6. Singleness, Marriage, and the Construction of Heterosexual Masculinities: Australian Men Teaching English in Japan

    Roslyn Appleby

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a study of Australian men and their accounts of living and working in Japan as English language teachers. In this site, recent research has explored Japanese discourses of desire for the West, Western men, and English language learning. These patterns of desire have afforded white Western men a privileged personal and professional status in Japan, and enabled access to employment opportunities as teachers of English language. At the same time, white Western men working as English language teachers face the challenge of negotiating competing discourses that threaten their social status. In particular, their employment in a lowly-regarded profession and a reputation for sexual promiscuity potentially position Western male language teachers as the ‘white trash’ of Asia. My analysis of interview data focuses on the ways in which the men negotiate these discourses, and construct ‘respectable’ Western heterosexual masculinities by mobilising a binary distinction between singleness and marriage. Marriage to a Japanese spouse is presented as a bulwark against alignment with problematic discourses that threaten the status of white masculinity: it is associated with fidelity and maturity, and with integration into Japanese social, linguistic and professional communities. However, the articulation of marital status also reinforces a marginalised position for teachers who do not conform to heteronormative expectations.

  7. Condom use by heterosexuals attending a department of GUM: attitudes and behaviour in the light of HIV infection.

    Sonnex, C; Hart, G J; Williams, P; Adler, M W

    1989-01-01

    The use of condoms to prevent the further spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is one of the main themes of the government's health education campaign against AIDS. A study of the use of and attitudes towards condoms in 222 heterosexual men and women attending a department of genitourinary medicine (GUM) in central London showed that 55% (50/91) to 59% (41/70) of men or women never, and 6% (6/95) to 15% (14/91) always, used condoms with their regular or non-regular sexual pa...

  8. Condom use and high-risk sexual acts in adult films: a comparison of heterosexual and homosexual films.

    Grudzen, Corita R; Elliott, Marc N; Kerndt, Peter R; Schuster, Mark A; Brook, Robert H; Gelberg, Lillian

    2009-04-01

    We compared the prevalence of condom use during a variety of sexual acts portrayed in adult films produced for heterosexual and homosexual audiences to assess compliance with state Occupational Health and Safety Administration regulations. We analyzed 50 heterosexual and 50 male homosexual films released between August 1, 2005, and July 31, 2006, randomly selected from the distributor of 85% of the heterosexual adult films released each year in the United States. Penile-vaginal intercourse was protected with condoms in 3% of heterosexual scenes. Penile-anal intercourse, common in both heterosexual (42%) and homosexual (80%) scenes, was much less likely to be protected with condoms in heterosexual than in homosexual scenes (10% vs 78%; P film industry, especially the heterosexual industry, is not adhering to state occupational safety regulations.

  9. Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Loneliness Among LGB Adults and Heterosexual Adults in China.

    Hu, Jingchu; Hu, Jize; Huang, Gang; Zheng, Xifu

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of life satisfaction have been linked to low self-esteem and loneliness, but this association has never been tested directly in LGB (lesbian/gay/bisexual) populations. We compared 275 Chinese LGB adults to 275 demographic-matched Chinese heterosexual controls on life satisfaction, self-esteem, and loneliness. LGB adults reported lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of loneliness than heterosexuals, but similar levels of overall life satisfaction. Self-esteem partially mediated (but did not moderate) the relationship between loneliness and life satisfaction in both groups. Hierarchical regressions indicated that demographic variables, loneliness, and self-esteem can predict life satisfaction in both LGB and heterosexual adults, but explained more variance of life satisfaction in the LGB group. Thus self-esteem and loneliness play a more important role in life satisfaction for LGB rather than heterosexual Chinese adults.

  10. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms Among HIV-Positive Concordant and Discordant Heterosexual Couples in China

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Lin, Chunqing; Ji, Guoping; Xiao, Yongkang

    2016-01-01

    HIV seropositive individuals and their heterosexual partners/spouses, either seropositive or seronegative, are facing several mental health challenges. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in depressive symptoms among HIV-positive concordant and HIV-discordant couples. We identified heterosexual couples from participants of a randomized controlled trial conducted in Anhui province, China. A total of 265 couples, comprising 129 HIV+ male/HIV− female couples, 98 HIV− ma...

  11. [Influence of growing experience on non-heterosexual orientation among male college students in Nanjing].

    Li, X S; Fang, K; Zhang, M; Du, G P; Wu, S S; Song, Y; Xu, Y Y; Yan, W J; Ge, Y; Ji, Y; Wei, P M

    2017-07-06

    Objective: To analyze the influence of growing experience on non-heterosexual orientation among male college students. Methods: From October to November in 2015, a total of 2 535 male students from 96 classes in 14 colleges/departments were recruited from two colleges that participated in the experimental work of AIDS prevention by cluster random sampling method. A structured questionnaire was administered in this study, including general demographic information, growing experience and Kinsey scale (to evaluate sexual orientation). Out of 2 500 questionnaires distributed in this study, 2 332 effective copies were withdrew, with the effective rate at 93.3%. Chi square test was used to analyze the differences of non-heterosexual orientation among the individuals with different social demographic characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors of non-heterosexual orientation. Results: Among the 2 332 individuals, the proportion of self-reported non-heterosexual was 6.2% (144).The proportions of male students who identify as non-heterosexual from freshman to junior year were 5.2%(63/1216),6.9%(65/941),11.7%(13/111) and 4.7%(3/64), respectively (χ(2)=9.06, P= 0.029). Compared with the individuals of very good relationship with parents, those with bad relationship ( OR= 3.3, 95 %CI: 1.7-6.5) and general relationship ( OR= 1.7, 95 %CI: 1.0-2.9) with parents had a higher risk of non-heterosexual orientation, respectively. Those encountered sexual assault had a higher risk of non-heterosexual orientation than those without encountered sexual assault ( OR= 5.9, 95 %CI: 3.2-10.9). Conclusions: This study reported a high proportion of self-reported non-heterosexual among college male students in Nanjing, and highlighted the importance of targeting students with poor parental relationships and who subjected to sexually abused.

  12. Determinants of lesbian and gay affirmative practice among heterosexual therapists.

    Alessi, Edward J; Dillon, Frank R; Kim, Hillary Mi-Sung

    2015-09-01

    The current study tested a conceptual model based on social-cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986), highlighting the influence of attitudes toward sexual minority individuals, training hours, affirmative counseling self-efficacy, and beliefs about affirmative practice on therapist engagement in lesbian and gay affirmative practice. We recruited via the Internet 443 heterosexual psychologists (n = 270), clinical social workers (n = 110), and marriage and family therapists (n = 63) residing in various parts of the United States. The majority of participants identified as female (70%) and White (88%). A path analysis indicated that beliefs and affirmative counseling self-efficacy mediated associations between attitudes and therapist engagement in affirmative practice. Furthermore, self-efficacy mediated the relation between training hours and engagement in affirmative practice. Results suggest that more affirmative attitudes are linked with higher levels of affirmative counseling self-efficacy and more positive beliefs, which in turn positively influences therapist engagement in affirmative practice. Additionally, more hours of training influence affirmative counseling self-efficacy, which in turn correlates with higher levels of therapist engagement in affirmative practice. The discussion includes implications for affirmative practice training. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents' Experiences in Preschool Environments.

    Goldberg, Abbie E

    2014-01-01

    Little research has examined the school experiences of lesbian/gay (LG) parent families or adoptive parent families. The current exploratory study examined the experiences of 79 lesbian, 75 gay male, and 112 heterosexual adoptive parents of preschool-age children with respect to their (a) level of disclosure regarding their LG parent and adoptive family status at their children's schools; (b) perceived challenges in navigating the preschool environment and advocating on behalf of their children and families; and (c) recommendations to teachers and schools about how to create affirming school environments with respect to family structure, adoption, and race/ethnicity. Findings revealed that the majority of parents were open about their LG and adoptive family status, and had not encountered challenges related to family diversity. Those parents who did experience challenges tended to describe implicit forms of marginalization, such as insensitive language and school assignments. Recommendations for teachers included discussing and reading books about diverse families, tailoring assignments to meet the needs of diverse families, and offering school community-building activities and events to help bridge differences across families.

  14. Intimacy and Emotion Work in Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Relationships.

    Umberson, Debra; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Lodge, Amy C

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge about how gender shapes intimacy is dominated by a heteronormative focus on relationships involving a man and a woman. In this study, the authors shifted the focus to consider gendered meanings and experiences of intimacy in same-sex and different-sex relationships. They merged the gender-as-relational perspective-that gender is co-constructed and enacted within relationships-with theoretical perspectives on emotion work and intimacy to frame an analysis of in-depth interviews with 15 lesbian, 15 gay, and 20 heterosexual couples. They found that emotion work directed toward minimizing and maintaining boundaries between partners is key to understanding intimacy in long-term relationships. Moreover, these dynamics, including the type and division of emotion work, vary for men and women depending on whether they are in a same-sex or different-sex relationship. These findings push thinking about diversity in long-term relationships beyond a focus on gender difference and toward gendered relational contexts.

  15. Intimacy and Emotion Work in Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Relationships

    Umberson, Debra; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Lodge, Amy C.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about how gender shapes intimacy is dominated by a heteronormative focus on relationships involving a man and a woman. In this study, the authors shifted the focus to consider gendered meanings and experiences of intimacy in same-sex and different-sex relationships. They merged the gender-as-relational perspective—that gender is co-constructed and enacted within relationships—with theoretical perspectives on emotion work and intimacy to frame an analysis of in-depth interviews with 15 lesbian, 15 gay, and 20 heterosexual couples. They found that emotion work directed toward minimizing and maintaining boundaries between partners is key to understanding intimacy in long-term relationships. Moreover, these dynamics, including the type and division of emotion work, vary for men and women depending on whether they are in a same-sex or different-sex relationship. These findings push thinking about diversity in long-term relationships beyond a focus on gender difference and toward gendered relational contexts. PMID:25814771

  16. The Symbolic Nature of Trust in Heterosexual Adolescent Romantic Relationships.

    Norona, Jerika C; Welsh, Deborah P; Olmstead, Spencer B; Bliton, Chloe F

    2017-08-01

    Trust contributes to young people's capacity for sustaining current and future successful relationships. To date, research has yet to examine the meaning of trust in early dating relationships and reasons for its deterioration. The present study focused on video-recorded conversations about trust between 34 heterosexual adolescent couples in dating relationships living in the U.S. Transcripts from these conversations were qualitatively analyzed using thematic analysis to identify adolescents' meanings of trust and reasons they provided for a lack of trust in their romantic partners. All 34 couples identified concerns specifically related to infidelity. Six major themes for not trusting romantic partners emerged. Results suggested that the lack of trust in romantic relationships might stem from several areas that are directly and indirectly related to the current relationship, including low self-esteem, the experience of betrayal in past romantic relationships, partners' extradyadic behaviors, and gossip among peers. Importantly, peers can play a defining role in influencing young people's perceptions of their romantic partners and developing or sustaining trust in their romantic relationships.

  17. Positive aspects of being a heterosexual ally to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people.

    Rostosky, Sharon S; Black, Whitney W; Riggle, Ellen D B; Rosenkrantz, Dani

    2015-07-01

    Research on heterosexual allies has focused on heterosexual identity development models and pathways to ally activism. The positive aspects or positive experiences of identifying as an ally to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) identified individuals and communities have received little attention. Using an online survey of participants recruited from LGBT ally related social media, we collected open-ended responses to a question about the positive aspects of self-identifying as a heterosexual ally. A final analytic sample of 292 self-identified male and female heterosexual adults (age 18-71, M = 33.47, SD = 13.32) provided responses that generated 8 themes. Positive aspects of being a heterosexual ally were: (a) increased knowledge and awareness, (b) upholding values of justice, (c) beneficial individual relationships, (d) community belonging, (e) educating others, (f) being a role model, (g) using social privilege, and (h) speaking out and taking a stand. The findings suggest that being a heterosexual ally is rewarding and may enhance individual well-being. These findings provide information that may contribute to effective ally development efforts. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Dogma disputed: potential endemic heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in Australia.

    Chapman, S

    1992-06-01

    The concept of tertiary sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been central to government efforts to communicate notions of risk to heterosexuals in Australia. Data on heterosexually transmitted acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and HIV for Australia are reviewed with emphasis given to the probability of misclassification bias in the heterosexually acquired and 'other/undetermined' categories. Tertiary cases are almost certainly rare in Australia, with little evidence of any increase in their incidence since the first cases were recorded. Three factors (low probability of exposure, the infectivity of HIV and a comparatively low rate of sexual partner change) make it improbable that Australian heterosexuals with no risk factors will experience endemic HIV infection, with a caveat to this conclusion lying in the potential of Australian sex tourism to Southeast Asia for introducing HIV into the Australian heterosexual population. Four hegemonic factors which have acted to suppress any serious debate of the notion that HIV in Australia is unlikely to become endemic among heterosexuals are discussed: the political 'democratization' of risk inspired by concerns that gay men should not be further vilified as a victim group; the preventive imperative; a reluctance among health educators to question the very foundations of the message they are employed to deliver; and a reluctance to curtail 'Trojan horse' benefits to sexually transmissible disease prevention engendered by HIV education promoting safe sex messages.

  19. Quantum Distinction: Quantum Distinctiones!

    Zeps, Dainis

    2009-01-01

    10 pages; How many distinctions, in Latin, quantum distinctiones. We suggest approach of anthropic principle based on anthropic reference system which should be applied equally both in theoretical physics and in mathematics. We come to principle that within reference system of life subject of mathematics (that of thinking) should be equated with subject of physics (that of nature). For this reason we enter notions of series of distinctions, quantum distinction, and argue that quantum distinct...

  20. Sexual orientation, theory of mind and empathy: a comparison of male homosexual and male and female heterosexuals.

    Shapouri, Soheil; Nejati, Vahid; Eftekhar Ardebili, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have been investigating similarities of and differences between homosexuals and heterosexuals for past few decades. Several studies have shown that in the particular domain (e.g., spatial ability), male homosexuals would resemble female heterosexuals better than male heterosexuals. Executive function, however, has received more attention than social cognition in this line of research. This study focuses on theory of mind and empathy as two important components of social cognition in male homosexuals (N=14), male heterosexuals (N=15) and female heterosexuals (N=14). Applying Reading the Mind in the Eyes test and the Empathy Quotient, no significant difference between groups was identified. This study suggests that similarities of male homosexuals and female heterosexuals may be confined to executive function and not extended to some social cognition abilities like theory of mind or empathy.

  1. Implicit sexual attitude of heterosexual, gay and bisexual individuals: disentangling the contribution of specific associations to the overall measure.

    Pasquale Anselmi

    Full Text Available The article aims to measure implicit sexual attitude in heterosexual, gay and bisexual individuals. A Many-Facet Rasch Measurement analysis was used to disentangle the contribution of specific associations to the overall IAT measure. A preference for heterosexuals relative to homosexuals is observed in heterosexual respondents, driven most by associating positive attributes with heterosexuals rather than negative attributes with homosexuals. Differently, neither the negative nor the positive evaluation of any of the target groups play a prominent role in driving the preference for homosexuals observed in gay respondents. A preference for heterosexuals relative to homosexuals is observed in bisexual respondents, that results most from ascribing negative attributes to homosexuals rather than positive attributes to heterosexuals. The results are consistent with the expression of the need for achieving a positive self-image and with the influence of shared social norms concerning sexuality.

  2. Upset Over Sexual versus Emotional Infidelity Among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Adults.

    Frederick, David A; Fales, Melissa R

    2016-01-01

    One hypothesis derived from evolutionary perspectives is that men are more upset than women by sexual infidelity and women are more upset than men by emotional infidelity. The proposed explanation is that men, in contrast to women, face the risk of unwittingly investing in genetically unrelated offspring. Most studies, however, have relied on small college or community samples of heterosexual participants. We examined upset over sexual versus emotional jealousy among 63,894 gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual participants. Participants imagined which would upset them more: their partners having sex with someone else (but not falling in love with them) or their partners falling in love with someone else (but not having sex with them). Consistent with this evolutionary perspective, heterosexual men were more likely than heterosexual women to be upset by sexual infidelity (54 vs. 35 %) and less likely than heterosexual women to be upset by emotional infidelity (46 vs. 65 %). This gender difference emerged across age groups, income levels, history of being cheated on, history of being unfaithful, relationship type, and length. The gender difference, however, was limited to heterosexual participants. Bisexual men and women did not differ significantly from each other in upset over sexual infidelity (30 vs. 27 %), regardless of whether they were currently dating a man (35 vs. 29 %) or woman (28 vs. 20 %). Gay men and lesbian women also did not differ (32 vs. 34 %). The findings present strong evidence that a gender difference exists in a broad sample of U.S. adults, but only among heterosexuals.

  3. Automatic Direction of Spatial Attention to Male Versus Female Stimuli: A Comparison of Heterosexual Men and Women.

    Snowden, Robert J; Curl, Catriona; Jobbins, Katherine; Lavington, Chloe; Gray, Nicola S

    2016-05-01

    Abundant research has shown that men's sexual attractions are more category-specific in relation to gender than women's are. We tested whether the early automatic allocation of spatial attention reflects these sexual attractions. The dot-probe task was used to assess whether spatial attention was attracted to images of either male or female models that were naked or partially clothed. In Experiment 1, men were faster if the target appeared after the female stimulus, whereas women were equally quick to respond to targets after male or female stimuli. In Experiment 2, neutral cues were introduced. Men were again faster to female images in comparison to male or neutral images, but showed no bias on the male versus neutral test. Women were faster to both male and female pictures in comparison to neutral pictures. However, in this experiment they were also faster to female pictures than to male pictures. The results suggest that early attentional processes reveal category-specific interest to the preferred sexual category for heterosexual men, and suggest that heterosexual women do not have category-specific guidance of attentional mechanisms. The technique may have promise in measuring sexual interest in other situations where participants may not be able, or may not be willing, to report upon their sexual interests (e.g., assessment of paedophilic interest).

  4. Marketing HIV prevention for heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women: the Hombres Sanos campaign.

    Fernández Cerdeño, Araceli; Martínez-Donate, Ana P; Zellner, Jennifer A; Sañudo, Fernando; Carrillo, Héctor; Engelberg, Moshe; Sipan, Carol; Hovell, Melbourne

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development process of Hombres Sanos, a social marketing campaign to promote HIV testing and condom use for heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women. The steps included qualitative formative research and a social marketing analytic framework to understand our target audience better, identify incentives and barriers to risk reduction, guide product development, define an optimal promotional campaign, and inform the selection of campaign platforms. A better grasp of the authors' target beneficiaries' needs and values led to an innovative dual strategy for audience segmentation and targeting. The campaign had consumer-centered, culturally sensitive, and theory-driven communication materials. The authors found communication materials and events to be appealing and effective. The campaign was well received among the wider community, and evaluation showed promising results among Latino men in general and among heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women in particular. The authors provide a step-by-step overview of the project's formative research, including research methods and findings, and how these were translated into a social marketing campaign. In addition, the authors discuss the challenges encountered in this process and the potential of social marketing to reduce HIV risk among Latinos.

  5. Condom Use and High-Risk Sexual Acts in Adult Films: A Comparison of Heterosexual and Homosexual Films

    Elliott, Marc N.; Kerndt, Peter R.; Schuster, Mark A.; Brook, Robert H.; Gelberg, Lillian

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the prevalence of condom use during a variety of sexual acts portrayed in adult films produced for heterosexual and homosexual audiences to assess compliance with state Occupational Health and Safety Administration regulations. Methods. We analyzed 50 heterosexual and 50 male homosexual films released between August 1, 2005, and July 31, 2006, randomly selected from the distributor of 85% of the heterosexual adult films released each year in the United States. Results. Penile–vaginal intercourse was protected with condoms in 3% of heterosexual scenes. Penile–anal intercourse, common in both heterosexual (42%) and homosexual (80%) scenes, was much less likely to be protected with condoms in heterosexual than in homosexual scenes (10% vs 78%; P films. Conclusions. Heterosexual films were much less likely than were homosexual films to portray condom use, raising concerns about transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, especially among performers in heterosexual adult films. In addition, the adult film industry, especially the heterosexual industry, is not adhering to state occupational safety regulations. PMID:19218178

  6. Childhood family correlates of heterosexual and homosexual marriages: a national cohort study of two million Danes.

    Frisch, Morten; Hviid, Anders

    2006-10-01

    Children who experience parental divorce are less likely to marry heterosexually than those growing up in intact families; however, little is known about other childhood factors affecting marital choices. We studied childhood correlates of first marriages (heterosexual since 1970, homosexual since 1989) in a national cohort of 2 million 18-49 year-old Danes. In multivariate analyses, persons born in the capital area were significantly less likely to marry heterosexually, but more likely to marry homosexually, than their rural-born peers. Heterosexual marriage was significantly linked to having young parents, small age differences between parents, stable parental relationships, large sibships, and late birth order. For men, homosexual marriage was associated with having older mothers, divorced parents, absent fathers, and being the youngest child. For women, maternal death during adolescence and being the only or youngest child or the only girl in the family increased the likelihood of homosexual marriage. Our study provides population-based, prospective evidence that childhood family experiences are important determinants of heterosexual and homosexual marriage decisions in adulthood.

  7. "I Want to Feel Like a Full Man": Conceptualizing Gay, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Men's Sexual Difficulties.

    McDonagh, Lorraine K; Nielsen, Elly-Jean; McDermott, Daragh T; Davies, Nathan; Morrison, Todd G

    2018-01-01

    Current understandings of sexual difficulties originate from a model that is based on the study of heterosexual men and women. Most research has focused on sexual difficulties experienced by heterosexual men incapable of engaging in vaginal penetration. To better understand men's perceptions and experiences of sexual difficulties, seven focus groups and 29 individual interviews were conducted with gay (n = 22), bisexual (n = 5), and heterosexual (n = 25) men. In addition, the extent to which difficulties reported by gay and bisexual men differ from heterosexual men was explored. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis applying an inductive approach. Two intercorrelated conceptualizations were identified: penis function (themes: medicalization, masculine identity, psychological consequences, coping mechanisms) and pain (themes: penile pain, pain during receptive anal sex). For the most part, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men reported similar sexual difficulties; differences were evident regarding alternative masculinity, penis size competition, and pain during receptive anal sex. The results of this study demonstrate the complexity of men's sexual difficulties and the important role of sociocultural, interpersonal, and psychological factors. Limitations and suggested directions for future research are outlined.

  8. Overestimation of heterosexually attributed AIDS deaths is associated with immature psychological defence mechanisms and clitoral masturbation during penile-vaginal intercourse.

    Brody, S; Costa, R M

    2009-12-01

    Research shows that (1) greater use of immature psychological defence mechanisms (associated with psychopathology) is associated with lesser orgasmic consistency from penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI), but greater frequency of other sexual behaviours and greater condom use for PVI, and (2) unlike the vectors of receptive anal intercourse and punctures, HIV acquisition during PVI is extremely unlikely in reasonably healthy persons. However, the relationship between overestimation of AIDS deaths due to 'heterosexual transmission' (often misunderstood as only PVI), sexual behaviour and mental health has been lacking. Two hundred and twenty-one Scottish women completed the Defense Style Questionnaire, reported past month frequencies of their various sexual activities, and estimated the total number of women who died from AIDS in Scotland nominally as a result of heterosexual transmission in the UK from a partner not known to be an injecting drug user, bisexual or infected through transfusion. The average respondent overestimated by 226,000%. Women providing lower estimates were less likely to use immature psychological defences, and had a lower frequency of orgasms from clitoral masturbation during PVI and from vibrator use. The results indicate that those who perceive 'heterosexual transmission' led to many AIDS deaths have poorer psychological functioning, and might be less able to appreciate PVI.

  9. The relationship between age and brain response to visual erotic stimuli in healthy heterosexual males.

    Seo, Y; Jeong, B; Kim, J-W; Choi, J

    2010-01-01

    The various changes of sexuality, including decreased sexual desire and erectile dysfunction, are also accompanied with aging. To understand the effect of aging on sexuality, we explored the relationship between age and the visual erotic stimulation-related brain response in sexually active male subjects. Twelve healthy, heterosexual male subjects (age 22-47 years) were recorded the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals of their brain activation elicited by passive viewing erotic (ERO), happy-faced (HA) couple, food and nature pictures. Mixed effect analysis and correlation analysis were performed to investigate the relationship between the age and the change of brain activity elicited by erotic stimuli. Our results showed age was positively correlated with the activation of right occipital fusiform gyrus and amygdala, and negatively correlated with the activation of right insula and inferior frontal gyrus. These findings suggest age might be related with functional decline in brain regions being involved in both interoceptive sensation and prefrontal modulation while it is related with the incremental activity of the brain region for early processing of visual emotional stimuli in sexually healthy men.

  10. Heterosexual experience prevents the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    Ramírez-Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, Miriam B; Díaz-Estrada, Victor X; Chena-Becerra, Florencia; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Manzo, Jorge; Garcia, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2017-03-01

    Sexual partner preferences can be strengthened, weakened or even drastically modified via Pavlovian conditioning. For example, conditioned same-sex partner preference develops in sexually-naïve male rats that undergo same-sex cohabitation under the effects of quinpirole (QNP, D2 agonist). Here, we assessed the effect of prior heterosexual experience on the probability to develop a conditioned same-sex preference. Naïve or Sexually-experienced males received either Saline or QNP and cohabited during 24h with a male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4days for a total of three trials and resulted in four groups (Saline-naïve, Saline-experienced, QNP-naïve, QNP-experienced). Social and sexual preference were assessed four days after the last conditioning trial in a drug-free test in which experimental males chose between the scented familiar male and a novel sexually receptive female. Results showed that Saline-naïve, Saline-experienced and QNP-experienced displayed a clear preference for the female (opposite-sex). By contrast, only QNP-naïve males displayed a same-sex preference. Accordingly, QNP-experienced males were not affected by the conditioning process and continued to prefer females. We discuss the effects of copulation and D2 agonists on the facilitation and/or disruption of conditioned partner preferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimating the Number of Heterosexual Persons in the United States to Calculate National Rates of HIV Infection.

    Amy Lansky

    Full Text Available This study estimated the proportions and numbers of heterosexuals in the United States (U.S. to calculate rates of heterosexually acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Quantifying the burden of disease can inform effective prevention planning and resource allocation.Heterosexuals were defined as males and females who ever had sex with an opposite-sex partner and excluded those with other HIV risks: persons who ever injected drugs and males who ever had sex with another man. We conducted meta-analysis using data from 3 national probability surveys that measured lifetime (ever sexual activity and injection drug use among persons aged 15 years and older to estimate the proportion of heterosexuals in the United States population. We then applied the proportion of heterosexual persons to census data to produce population size estimates. National HIV infection rates among heterosexuals were calculated using surveillance data (cases attributable to heterosexual contact in the numerators and the heterosexual population size estimates in the denominators.Adult and adolescent heterosexuals comprised an estimated 86.7% (95% confidence interval: 84.1%-89.3% of the U.S. population. The estimate for males was 84.1% (CI: 81.2%-86.9% and for females was 89.4% (95% CI: 86.9%-91.8%. The HIV diagnosis rate for 2013 was 5.2 per 100,000 heterosexuals and the rate of persons living with diagnosed HIV infection in 2012 was 104 per 100,000 heterosexuals aged 13 years or older. Rates of HIV infection were >20 times as high among black heterosexuals compared to white heterosexuals, indicating considerable disparity. Rates among heterosexual men demonstrated higher disparities than overall population rates for men.The best available data must be used to guide decision-making for HIV prevention. HIV rates among heterosexuals in the U.S. are important additions to cost effectiveness and other data used to make critical decisions about resources for

  12. Attitudes of Heterosexual Men and Women Toward HIV Negative and Positive Gay Men.

    Norcini Pala, Andrea; Villano, Paola; Clinton, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Attitudes of Italian heterosexual men and women toward gay men, both HIV positive and negative, are poorly investigated. Italian culture is still extremely conservative and provides limited support to the gay community (e.g., lack of same-sex marriage recognition). Consequently, gay men experience social exclusion and disparities. The present study explores the association between homophobia and closeness with sexual orientation and HIV status. 261 heterosexual Italian men and women were assessed for feelings of closeness and homophobia after reading a vignette where the character was C1: heterosexual and HIV negative; C2: gay and HIV negative; or C3: gay and HIV positive. Experiences of homophobia and closeness varied depending on gender of participant and condition assigned, and higher levels of homophobia were correlated with lower levels of closeness regardless of HIV status. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  13. Examination of muscularity and body fat depictions in magazines that target heterosexual and gay men.

    Lanzieri, Nicholas; Cook, Brian J

    2013-03-01

    Previous content analyses of magazine images have typically examined within genres but failed to include comparisons between publications intended for various populations. The purpose of this study was to examine depictions of muscularity and thinness of male images in several widely distributed magazines that target male audiences from a variety of genres. Twenty-three magazine titles with the highest circulation rates that targeted heterosexual men, gay men, and general audiences were selected for image analyses. We found that magazines that target gay male audiences depicted images of men who were thinner in comparison to magazines targeting heterosexual men. Both gay and heterosexual magazines depicted male images with greater muscularity than magazines intended for general audiences. Differences in male image depictions in magazines may contribute to the promotion of an unattainable body ideal in some subgroups of gay culture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Condomless anal intercourse among males and females at high risk for heterosexual HIV infection

    German, Danielle; Nguyen, Trang; Ogbue, Christine Powell; Flynn, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding and addressing heterosexual HIV transmission requires attention to the range and context of heterosexual sexual behaviors. We sought to determine population-based prevalence of condomless anal intercourse (CAI) among individuals at increased heterosexual HIV risk in Baltimore and to identify demographic, behavioral, and health related correlates. Methods Data were from a cross-sectional study of 185 males and 198 females at increased heterosexual risk for HIV recruited using respondent driven sampling as part of CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance Project in Baltimore, August-December 2010. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression examined factors associated with heterosexual CAI. Results The sample was majority African-American, with mean age of 38 among men and 34 among women. Forty-two percent of men (95% C.I.: 30.9, 52.0%) and 38% of women (95% C.I.: 29.4, 47.2%) reported any CAI in the past year, with variance by partner type and gender. Among men, CAI was significantly associated with homelessness, casual and exchange partners, same sex partner in past year, and substance use. Among women, CAI was significantly associated with lower education, casual and exchange partners, same sex partner in past year, multiple partners, and substance use. In adjusted gender-specific models, males and females with increasing numbers of partners were more likely to engage in CAI. Conclusions It is important to recognize the efficiency of transmission of HIV and other STIs through CAI. There is a need to broaden heterosexual sexual health promotion and HIV/STI prevention to adequately and appropriately address risks and prevention strategies for anal intercourse. PMID:25970308

  15. Heterosexually acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection in women in Copenhagen: sexual behavior and other risk factors

    Smith, E; Kroon, S; Gerstoft, J

    1990-01-01

    antibodies: 35 (31%) were infected by heterosexual contact and 63 (55%) were intravenous drug users. Among the heterosexually transmitted cases 25 (71%) had intercourse with a man from a high risk group and nine women had intercourse with a known HIV antibody positive man without known risk factors. Use......In order to describe the risk pattern including sexual behaviour among HIV-infected women in Copenhagen we studied the charts of all women tested seropositive between January 1985 and August 1988 in the three main hospitals handling HIV/AIDS. One hundred and fifteen women were positive for HIV...

  16. "I Would Just like to Be Known as an Athlete": Managing Hegemony, Femininity, and Heterosexuality in Female Sport

    Mean, Lindsey J.; Kassing, Jeffrey W.

    2008-01-01

    The community of sport is a powerful site for the construction of masculinity, male identities, and heterosexuality. Consequently, the increased entry of women into the sporting arena has been actively resisted, with women athletes either excluded or framed within traditional, sexualized discourses of femininity and heterosexuality. Yet Title IX…

  17. Hombres Sanos: evaluation of a social marketing campaign for heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women.

    Martínez-Donate, Ana P; Zellner, Jennifer A; Sañudo, Fernando; Fernandez-Cerdeño, Araceli; Hovell, Melbourne F; Sipan, Carol L; Engelberg, Moshe; Carrillo, Hector

    2010-12-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of Hombres Sanos [Healthy Men] a social marketing campaign to increase condom use and HIV testing among heterosexually identified Latino men, especially among heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). Hombres Sanos was implemented in northern San Diego County, California, from June 2006 through December 2006. Every other month we conducted cross-sectional surveys with independent samples of heterosexually identified Latino men before (n = 626), during (n = 752), and after (n = 385) the campaign. Respondents were randomly selected from 12 targeted community venues to complete an anonymous, self-administered survey on sexual practices and testing for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. About 5.6% of respondents (n = 98) were heterosexually identified Latino MSMW. The intervention was associated with reduced rates of recent unprotected sex with both females and males among heterosexually identified Latino MSMW. The campaign was also associated with increases in perception of HIV risk, knowledge of testing locations, and condom carrying among heterosexual Latinos. Social marketing represents a promising approach for abating HIV transmission among heterosexually identified Latinos, particularly for heterosexually identified Latino MSMW. Given the scarcity of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions for these populations, this prevention strategy warrants further investigation.

  18. Reports of Parental Maltreatment during Childhood in a United States Population-Based Survey of Homosexual, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Adults.

    Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined childhood maltreatment among 2917 heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual adults. Homosexual/bisexual men reported higher rates than heterosexual men of childhood emotional and physical maltreatment by their mothers and major physical maltreatment by their fathers. Homosexual/bisexual women reported higher rates of major physical…

  19. The Influence of Body Mass Index on the Physical Attractiveness Preferences of Feminist and Nonfeminist Heterosexual Women and Lesbians

    Swami, Viren; Tovee, Martin J.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined associations between lesbian and feminist identity and predictors of female physical attractiveness. Seventy-two nonfeminist heterosexuals, 38 feminist heterosexuals, 75 nonfeminist lesbians, and 33 feminist lesbians were asked to rate according to physical attractiveness a set of images of real women with known body…

  20. Comparing Sexual-Minority and Heterosexual Young Women's Friends and Parents as Sources of Support for Sexual Issues

    Friedman, Carly K.; Morgan, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study provides a comparative analysis of sexual-minority and heterosexual emerging adult women's experiences seeking support for sexual issues from parents and friends. Participants included 229 college women (88 sexual-minority women; 141 heterosexual women), ranging from 18 to 25 years of age, who provided written responses to an…

  1. Conflict, social support, and relationship quality: an observational study of heterosexual, gay male, and lesbian couples' communication.

    Julien, Danielle; Chartrand, Elise; Simard, Marie-Claude; Bouthillier, Donald; Bégin, Jean

    2003-09-01

    Data from 42 heterosexual, 46 gay male, and 33 lesbian couples were used to assess the contribution of conflict and support discussions to relationship quality. Couples completed questionnaires, and videotaped discussions were coded for levels of negative and positive behaviors. Correlations showed that behaviors were associated with relationship quality in the expected directions. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses assessed the unique contributions of individual and dyadic behaviors to the variability of relationship quality. The findings indicated that, beyond the contribution of individual negative behaviors in the conflict task, the variables of dyadic positive behaviors in the conflict task, individual positive behaviors in the support task, and perceived help accounted for unexplained variance in relationship quality. There were no differences between types of couples on levels of behaviors or on their contributions to relationship quality.

  2. Partial protective effect of CCR5-Delta 32 heterozygosity in a cohort of heterosexual Italian HIV-1 exposed uninfected individuals

    Cauda Roberto

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite multiple sexual exposure to HIV-1 virus, some individuals remain HIV-1 seronegative (exposed seronegative, ESN. The mechanisms underlying this resistance remain still unclear, although a multifactorial pathogenesis can be hypothesised. Although several genetic factors have been related to HIV-1 resistance, the homozigosity for a mutation in CCR5 gene (the 32 bp deletion, i.e. CCR5-Delta32 allele is presently considered the most relevant one. In the present study we analysed the genotype at CCR5 locus of 30 Italian ESN individuals (case group who referred multiple unprotected heterosexual intercourse with HIV-1 seropositive partner(s, for at least two years. One hundred and twenty HIV-1 infected patients and 120 individuals representative of the general population were included as control groups. Twenty percent of ESN individuals had heterozygous CCR5-Delta 32 genotype, compared to 7.5% of HIV-1 seropositive and 10% of individuals from the general population, respectively. None of the analysed individuals had CCR5-Delta 32 homozygous genotype. Sequence analysis of the entire open reading frame of CCR5 was performed in all ESN subjects and no polymorphisms or mutations were identified. Moreover, we determined the distribution of C77G variant in CD45 gene, which has been previously related to HIV-1 infection susceptibility. The frequency of the C77G variant showed no significant difference between ESN subjects and the two control groups. In conclusion, our data show a significantly higher frequency of CCR5-Delta 32 heterozygous genotype (p = 0.04 among the Italian heterosexual ESN individuals compared to HIV-1 seropositive patients, suggesting a partial protective role of CCR5-Delta 32 heterozygosity in this cohort.

  3. HIV-1 transmission between MSM and heterosexuals, and increasing proportions of circulating recombinant forms in the Nordic Countries

    Esbjörnsson, Joakim; Mild, Mattias; Audelin, Anne; Fonager, Jannik; Skar, Helena; Bruun Jørgensen, Louise; Liitsola, Kirsi; Björkman, Per; Bratt, Göran; Gisslén, Magnus; Sönnerborg, Anders; Nielsen, Claus; Medstrand, Patrik; Albert, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Increased knowledge about HIV-1 transmission dynamics in different transmission groups and geographical regions is fundamental for assessing and designing prevention efforts against HIV-1 spread. Since the first reported cases of HIV infection during the early 1980s, the HIV-1 epidemic in the Nordic countries has been dominated by HIV-1 subtype B and MSM transmission. HIV-1 pol sequences and clinical data of 51 per cent of all newly diagnosed HIV-1 infections in Sweden, Denmark, and Finland in the period 2000–2012 (N = 3,802) were analysed together with a large reference sequence dataset (N = 4,537) by trend analysis and phylogenetics. Analysis of the eight dominating subtypes and CRFs in the Nordic countries (A, B, C, D, G, CRF01_AE, CRF02_AG, and CRF06_cpx) showed that the subtype B proportion decreased while the CRF proportion increased over the study period. A majority (57 per cent) of the Nordic sequences formed transmission clusters, with evidence of mixing both geographically and between transmission groups. Detailed analyses showed multiple occasions of transmissions from MSM to heterosexuals and that active transmission clusters more often involved single than multiple Nordic countries. The strongest geographical link was between Denmark and Sweden. Finally, Denmark had a larger proportion of heterosexual domestic spread of HIV-1 subtype B (75 per cent) compared with Sweden (49 per cent) and Finland (57 per cent). We describe different HIV-1 transmission patterns between countries and transmission groups in a large geographical region. Our results may have implications for public health interventions in targeting HIV-1 transmission networks and identifying where to introduce such interventions. PMID:27774303

  4. Condom Use among Heterosexual Immigrant Latino Men in the Southeastern United States

    Knipper, Emily; Rhodes, Scott D.; Lindstrom, Kristen; Bloom, Fred R.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Montano, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). We examined correlates of condom use among adult heterosexual Latino men who are members of a large multicounty soccer league in rural North Carolina. Of 222 participants, the mean (plus or minus SD) age…

  5. Heterosexual Persons' Perceptions Regarding Language Use in Counseling: Extending Dorland and Fischer (2001)

    Ross, Amanda D.; Waehler, Charles A.; Gray, Torie N.

    2013-01-01

    An important original study by Dorland and Fischer noted how the use of inclusive language can affect the therapeutic relationship positively for gay, lesbian, and bisexual clients. In this extension of that study with heterosexual participants ("N" = 179), there seemed to be low, but positive, salience of the language used by the…

  6. School Motivation in Secondary Schools: A Survey of LGB and Heterosexual Students in Flanders

    Aerts, Saskia; Van Houtte, Mieke; Dewaele, Alexis; Cox, Nele; Vincke, John

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the school motivation of LGB (lesbian, gay, and bisexual) students in Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, a fairly LGB-friendly country. The authors hypothesize that LGB students in Flemish secondary schools are less motivated for school than heterosexual students because they experience less sense of school belonging and…

  7. Social Support and Well-Being among Lesbian and Heterosexual Women: A Structural Modeling Approach.

    Wayment, Heidi A.; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    1995-01-01

    Examines the types of social support that lesbian and heterosexual women receive from their social networks and the link between support and psychological well-being. Results indicate that both groups reported receiving equivalent overall amounts of support from their social networks, and that coupled women reported greater well-being than single…

  8. The Masculinity of Mr. Right: Feminist Identity and Heterosexual Women's Ideal Romantic Partners

    Backus, Faedra R.; Mahalik, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Our study explored the relationship between feminist identity and women's report of an ideal male partner's conformity to masculine gender role norms. Heterosexual, mostly White, college women (N = 183) completed measures assessing feminist beliefs and the masculinity characteristics of an ideal male partner. Results indicated that feminist…

  9. Straight talk: HIV prevention for African-American heterosexual men: theoretical bases and intervention design.

    Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A

    2012-10-01

    In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full two-thirds of all heterosexually acquired HIV/AIDS cases between 2005 and 2008. Few demonstrated efficacious HIV prevention interventions designed specifically for adult, African-American heterosexual men exist. Here, we describe the process used to design a theory-based HIV prevention intervention to increase condom use, reduce concurrent partnering, and increase HIV testing among heterosexually active African-American men living in high HIV prevalence areas of New York City. The intervention integrated empowerment, social identity, and rational choices theories and focused on four major content areas: HIV/AIDS testing and education; condom skills training; key relational and behavioral turning points; and masculinity and fatherhood.

  10. the effect of heterosexual contact on libido and mating dexterity in ...

    stages of sexual development on adult behaviour are avail- able. Consequently. the present experiment was executed to determine the effects of total isolation as well as that of heterosexual contact during the pre· -and post-puberal phase on libido, mating dexterity and the occurrence of homosexuality in Karakul rams.

  11. Gender Differences in Beliefs about Condom Use among Young, Heterosexual Australian Adults

    Newton, Fiona J.; Newton, Joshua D.; Windisch, Lydia; Ewing, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate gender differences in beliefs about condom use among young, sexually active, heterosexual Australian adults. Design: Cross-sectional survey of 1,113 adults aged 18-26 years. Setting: Higher education institutions across New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Method: Participants were recruited during higher-education…

  12. Barriers to Use of Family Planning Methods Among Heterosexual Mexican Couples.

    Arias, María Luisa Flores; Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Soto, Norma Elva Sáenz; Tovar, Marlene; Dávila, Sandra Paloma Esparza

    2017-05-01

    Family planning has become increasingly important as a fundamental component of sexual health and as such is offered via public health systems worldwide. Identification of barriers to use of family planning methods among heterosexual couples living in Mexico is indicated to facilitate access to family planning methods. Barriers to family planning methods were assessed among Mexican heterosexual, sexually active males and females of reproductive age, using a modified Spanish version of the Barriers to the Use of Family Planning Methods scale (Cronbach's alpha = .89, subscales ranging from .53 to .87). Participants were recruited via convenience sampling in ambulatory care clinics within a metropolitan area in Central Mexico. Participants included 52 heterosexual couples aged 18-35 years (N = 104). Sociodemographic comparisons by gender identified older age and higher education, income, and numbers of sexual partners among men than women. More men (50%) than women (25%) were currently using family planning methods; however, 80% overall indicated intentions for its use. Overall, male condoms were used and intended for use most often by men than women. Significant gender-specific differences were found, with men (71.15%) reporting no family planning barriers, whereas women (55.66%) reported barriers including low socioeconomic status, medical concerns, and stigma. The modified Spanish translation demonstrated usefulness for measuring barriers to family planning methods use in Mexico among heterosexual males and females of reproductive age. Barriers identified by Mexican women in this study may be addressed to reduce potential barriers to family planning among Mexican populations.

  13. "That's so Gay": Heterosexual Male Undergraduates and the Perpetuation of Sexual Orientation Microagressions on Campus

    Woodford, Michael R.; Howell, Michael L.; Kulick, Alex; Silverschanz, Perry

    2013-01-01

    "That's so gay," a popular expression on campuses, is a sexual orientation microaggression that can contribute to a hostile environment for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students. Using data from a campus climate survey conducted at a large urban university, we investigated use of the phrase among heterosexual male undergraduates who…

  14. Finding your Soulmate: Homosexual and heterosexual age preferences in online dating

    Conway, J.R.; Noë, N.; Stulp, G.; Pollet, T.V.

    2015-01-01

    Heterosexual age preferences have been extensively studied by evolutionary psychologists, social psychologists, and demographers. Much less is known about such preferences in homosexual men and women. Around two decades ago, D. T. Kenrick, R. C. Keefe, A. Bryan, A. Barr, and S. Brown (1995) examined

  15. Heterosexual Privilege Awareness, Prejudice, and Support of Gay Marriage among Diversity Course Students

    Case, Kim; Stewart, Briana

    2010-01-01

    Although most research investigating diversity courses focuses on attitudes toward racial minorities and women, these courses may also influence student attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. The current study assessed student awareness of heterosexual privilege, prejudice against lesbians and gay men, and support for same-sex marriage. Students…

  16. Suicidality and Associated Risk Factors among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Compared to Heterosexual Austrian Adults

    Ploderl, Martin; Fartacek, Reinhold

    2005-01-01

    This is the first study in German-speaking countries to compare the suicidality of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults (n = 358) with matched heterosexual adults (n = 267). The former had significantly elevated incidences of current suicide ideation (28% vs. 13%) and lifetime suicide attempts defined in three ways (14% vs. 1% to 10% vs. 2%),…

  17. Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents' Perceptions of Inclusivity and Receptiveness in Early Childhood Education Settings

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Black, Kaitlin; Sweeney, Kristin; Moyer, April

    2017-01-01

    Little research has examined the experiences of lesbian/gay (LG) parent families or adoptive parent families in early childhood education settings. This study uses interview data to examine the perceptions and experiences of 45 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples (90 individuals) with 10 adopted children with respect to their (1) openness with…

  18. Coparenting among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Couples: Associations with Adopted Children's Outcomes

    Farr, Rachel H.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

    2013-01-01

    Coparenting is associated with child behavior in families with heterosexual parents, but less is known about coparenting among lesbian- and gay-parent families. Associations were studied among self-reported divisions of labor, coparenting observations, and child adjustment ("M[subscript age]" = 3 years) among 104 adoptive families headed…

  19. The Effects of Physical Attractiveness and Anxiety on Heterosexual Attraction Over a Series of Five Encounters

    Mathes, Eugene W.

    1975-01-01

    The "information availability model" of heterosexual attraction was tested by having subjects go on a series of five encounters. It was found that both physical attractiveness and the personality variable, anxiety, had early and continuous effects on liking. It was concluded the model is an inadequate explanation of heterosexual…

  20. Illicit Drug Use in a Community-Based Sample of Heterosexually Identified Emerging Adults

    Halkitis, Perry N.; Manasse, Ashley N.; McCready, Karen C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we assess lifetime and recent drug use patterns among 261 heterosexually identified 18- to 25-year-olds through brief street intercept surveys conducted in New York City. Marijuana, hallucinogens, powder cocaine, and ecstasy were the most frequently reported drugs for both lifetime and recent use. Findings further suggest significant…

  1. Gender-Typed Behavior Over Time in Children with Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Parents

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Garcia, Randi L.

    2016-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined patterns and predictors of parent-reported gender-typed play behavior in adopted boys and girls in lesbian, gay, and heterosexual two-parent families, across early childhood (Mage = 2.82 to 6.06 years). Specifically, using a sample of 181 couples (56 lesbian couples, 48 gay male couples, and 77 heterosexual couples), we examined parent reports of children’s gender-typed play behavior on the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI; Golombok & Rust, 1993) at three time points (mean age = 2.82 years at T1, 3.93 years at T2, and 6.06 years at T3). Family structure variables (i.e., parents’ gender and sexual orientation; children’s gender and sibling status) were included as predictors. At T1, according to parent reports, children in lesbian-parent families had less gender-differentiated behavior (boys were less masculine, girls were less feminine) than children in heterosexual- and gay-parent families, whereas the degree of gender differentiation did not differ between heterosexual- versus gay-parent families. Findings from a Common Fate Growth Model (Ledermann & Macho, 2014) revealed that, regardless of family type, the parent-reported gender-typed behavior of boys, but not girls, significantly changed over time (i.e., boys’ behavior became more masculine). Our findings have implications for researchers who study gender development in children and adolescents, particularly those who are being raised by two mothers or two fathers. PMID:27416364

  2. Heterosexual social competence, anxiety, avoidance and self-judged physical attractiveness.

    Mitchell, K R; Orr, F E

    1976-10-01

    The relationship between self-judged physical attractiveness and opposite-sex behavior was examined as part of a large survey on the interaction patterns of 963 college students. The findings suggest that a self-rated negative physical image is related to significantly high levels of heterosexual difficulties.

  3. Predictors of feminist activism among sexual-minority and heterosexual college women.

    Friedman, Carly K; Ayres, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Engagement in activism is related to several aspects of social development in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Therefore, it is important to examine the correlates of different forms of activism, such as feminist collective action, among all youth. However, previous research has not investigated young sexual-minority women's engagement with feminist collective action. This study examined predictors of college-aged heterosexual and sexual-minority women's commitment to and participation in feminist activism. Sexual orientation, number of years in college, social support, experiences with discrimination, and gender identity were tested as predictors of commitment to and participation in feminist activism with a sample of 280 college-aged women (173 heterosexuals and 107 sexual minorities). Similar predictors were related to both commitment to and participation in feminist activism. However, for sexual-minority women, but not heterosexual women, the number of years in college was correlated with participation in feminist activism. Young sexual-minority women reported more participation in feminist activism than did heterosexual women, even after controlling for social support, discrimination, and gender identity.

  4. Sexual Revictimization and Mental Health: A Comparison of Lesbians, Gay Men, and Heterosexual Women

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has several deleterious effects on health and well-being, including increased risk for rape in adulthood. Such revictimization experiences are linked to negative mental health outcomes. The vast majority of literature on prevalence and impact of sexual revictimization has focused on heterosexual women. In an effort to…

  5. Brief Report: Activities in Heterosexual Romantic Relationships--Grade Differences and Associations with Relationship Satisfaction

    Carlson, Wendy; Rose, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas much research addresses relations of youths' heterosexual romantic relationships with sexual and/or delinquent activities, less attention has been paid to youths' more normative, day-to-day activities with romantic partners. This gap in the literature is problematic given that these activities define the substance of the relationships and…

  6. Victimization Over the Life Span: A Comparison of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Siblings

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Rothblum, Esther D.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2005-01-01

    Lifetime victimization was examined in a primarily European American sample that comprised 557 lesbian/gay, 163 bisexual, and 525 heterosexual adults. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) participants were recruited via LGB e-mail lists, periodicals, and organizations; these participants recruited 1 or more siblings for participation in the study (81%…

  7. Marriage is not a safe place : Heterosexual marriage and HIV-related vulnerability in Indonesia

    Jacubowski, Nadja

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the link between heterosexual marriage and women's vulnerability to HIV in Indonesia. In this country, gender relations are currently dominated by traditional beliefs and practices and by religious morality. Data for the current study were collected by means of documentary

  8. Resourceful masculinities: exploring heterosexual Black men's vulnerability to HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    Husbands, Winston; Oakes, Wesley; Mbulaheni, Tola; Ongoïba, Fanta; Pierre-Pierre, Valérie; Luyombya, Henry

    2017-10-29

    Heterosexually active Black men are alleged to endorse masculine norms that increase their and their female partners' vulnerability to HIV. These norms include Black men's inability or reluctance to productively engage their own health-related personal and interpersonal vulnerabilities. We draw on data from the iSpeak research study in Ontario, Canada, to assess whether and how heterosexual Black men cope with personal and inter-personal vulnerability, namely that heterosexual Black men: avoid emotionally supportive relationships with other men (and women), which diminishes their capacity to productively acknowledge and resolve their health-related challenges; are reticent to productively acknowledge and address HIV and health on a personal level; and are pathologically secretive about their health, which compounds their vulnerability and precipitates poor health outcomes. iSpeak was implemented in 2011 to 2013, and included two focus groups with HIV-positive and HIV-negative self-identified heterosexual men (N = 14) in Toronto and London, a focus group with community-based health promotion practitioners who provide HIV-related services to Black communities in Ontario (N = 6), and one-on-one interviews with four researchers distinguished for their scholarship with/among Black communities in Toronto. Participants in the men's focus group were recruited discretely through word-of-mouth. Focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Team members independently read the transcripts, and then met to identify, discuss and agree on the emerging themes. We demonstrate that iSpeak participants (a) engage their personal and interpersonal vulnerabilities creatively and strategically, (b) complicate and challenge familiar interpretations of Black men's allegedly transgressive masculinity through their emotional and practical investment in their health, and (c) demonstrate a form of resourceful masculinity that ambiguously aligns with patriarchy. We conclude

  9. Development of muscularity and weight concerns in heterosexual and sexual minority males.

    Calzo, Jerel P; Corliss, Heather L; Blood, Emily A; Field, Alison E; Austin, S Bryn

    2013-01-01

    To examine the development of muscularity and weight concerns among heterosexual and sexual minority males in adolescence. Participants were 5,868 males from the Growing Up Today Study, a U.S. prospective cohort spanning ages 9-25 years. Generalized estimating equations were used to test sexual orientation differences in the development of muscularity concerns, weight gain attempts, and weight and shape concern. Desire for bigger muscles increased slightly each year across adolescence (β = .10, 95% C.I. = .09, .11) regardless of sexual orientation, but gay and bisexual participants reported greater desire for toned muscles than completely and mostly heterosexual males (β = .39, 95% C.I. = .21, .57). Desire for toned muscles did not change with age. Attempts to gain weight increased threefold across adolescence, with up to 30% reporting weight gain attempts by age 16. Although underweight males (the smallest weight status class) were most likely to attempt to gain weight, most of the observed weight gain attempts were by healthy (69%) and overweight/obese (27%) males, suggesting that most attempts were medically unnecessary and could lead to overweight. Sexual minority participants were 20% less likely to report weight gain attempts than completely heterosexual participants. Weight and shape concern increased with age, with gay and bisexual participants experiencing a significantly greater increase than heterosexual males. Sexual orientation modifies the development and expression of male weight and muscularity concerns. The findings have implications for early interventions for the prevention of obesity and eating disorder risk in heterosexual and sexual minority males. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. School absenteeism and mental health among sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth.

    Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent school absenteeism is associated with negative outcomes such as conduct disorders, substance abuse, and dropping out of school. Mental health factors, such as depression and anxiety, have been found to be associated with increased absenteeism from school. Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay, lesbian, or bisexual identity) are a group at risk for increased absenteeism due to fear, avoidance, and higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual peers. The present study used longitudinal data to compare sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth on excused and unexcused absences from school and to evaluate differences in the relations between depression and anxiety symptoms and school absences among sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth. A total of 108 14- to 19-years-old adolescents (71% female and 26% sexual minority) completed self-report measures of excused and unexcused absences and depression and anxiety symptoms. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported more excused and unexcused absences and more depression and anxiety symptoms. Sexual minority status significantly moderated the effects of depression and anxiety symptoms on unexcused absences such that depression and anxiety symptoms were stronger predictors of unexcused absences for sexual minority youth than for heterosexual youth. The results demonstrate that sexual minority status and mental health are important factors to consider when assessing school absenteeism and when developing interventions to prevent or reduce school absenteeism among adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Depression and Associated Factors Among Gay and Heterosexual Male University Students in Nigeria.

    Oginni, Olakunle A; Mosaku, Kolawole S; Mapayi, Boladale M; Akinsulore, Adesanmi; Afolabi, Temitope O

    2018-05-01

    Homosexuality is a recognized risk factor for depression in high-income countries; however, there is little research investigating the relationship between depression and sexual orientation in developing countries, especially in Africa. In this first study to investigate psychopathology in sexual minority men in Nigeria, the prevalence rates of depression in Nigerian gay and heterosexual individuals were compared as well as the explanatory power of risk and resilience factors in both groups. Eighty-one gay and 81 heterosexual male university students were, respectively, recruited from the Obafemi Awolowo University. Both groups were assessed for depression and other clinical factors, including alcohol and other substance use, suicidal ideation, and resilience. Gay students were further assessed for sexuality-related variables, including minority stress factors such as internalized homophobia and perceived stigma. The prevalence rates of depression among gay and heterosexual students were, respectively, 16 and 4.9% (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.15-11.82), and this increased likelihood for depression was significantly attenuated by resilience. Clinical factors correlated significantly with depression in both groups, explaining 31% of the variance in depression in gay and heterosexual students, respectively. Sexuality-related variables including internalized homophobia and perceived stigma were further associated with depression in gay students-accounting for a further 14% of the variance of depression in gay students. The findings highlight the importance of minority stress factors in understanding depression among non-heterosexual individuals in a developing country, and the need for further research to investigate the mechanisms of these relationships in such settings.

  12. Neurocognitive and personality factors in homo- and heterosexual pedophiles and controls.

    Kruger, Tillmann H C; Schiffer, Boris

    2011-06-01

    Several neuropsychological studies have suggested an association between pedophilia, neurocognitive disturbances, and specific personality profiles. However, inconsistencies in the findings have not been explained sufficiently, because many studies did not control for possible confounding factors, such as age, education level, or gender orientation. Therefore, the present investigation examined neurocognitive performance and personality profiles in pedophiles in dependence of sexual gender preferences and sexual deviance, as well as with regard to age and education level. Scores on the different neurocognitive tests, personality questionnaires, and Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV (SCID) interviews. An extensive neurocognitive test battery (including a reduced version of the German Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Wisconsin card-sorting test, d2 Attention-Deficit Test, and the Corsi block-tapping test) as well as two personality questionnaires (Minnessota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI-2] and the Multiphasic Sex Inventory [MSI]) were used to examine a consecutive sample of 20 psychiatrically assessed (SCID I and II) pedophile inpatients (nine exclusively attracted to females and 11 to males) from two high security forensic hospitals and 28 healthy controls (14 heterosexual, 14 homosexual). Compared with controls, pedophiles showed neurocognitive impairments and personality specifics in the majority of tests and questionnaires, such as reduced values on the intelligence scale and weaker performances in information processing, together with high scores for psychopathy and paranoia, and signs of sexual obsessiveness and sexual dysfunction. In contrast to previous reports, some of these alterations were at least partly explained by factors other than pedophilia, such as education level or age. These alterations may be seen to be in line with the hypothesis of a perturbation of

  13. Show-Bix &

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  14. "It's an Uphill Battle Everyday": Intersectionality, Low-Income Black Heterosexual Men, and Implications for HIV Prevention Research and Interventions.

    Bowleg, Lisa; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2013-01-01

    This interview study, the initial qualitative phase of a larger mixed methods HIV prevention study focused on Black heterosexual men, used intersectionality as a theoretical framework to explore: (1) How a sample of Black heterosexual men describe and experience the multiple intersections of race, gender, and SES; and (2) How these descriptions reflected interlocking systems of social inequality for Black men at the social-structural level. Participants were 30 predominantly low-income self-identified Black heterosexual men between the ages of 18 and 44. Analyses highlighted four themes that demonstrate how participants' individual-level experiences as Black men reflect macro social-structural inequality: (1) racial discrimination and microaggressions; (2) unemployment; (3) incarceration; and (4) police surveillance and harassment. We discuss the study's findings within the context of social-structural factors that disproportionately and adversely impact Black men. We also highlight the implications of the intersectionality perspective for HIV prevention research and interventions for Black heterosexual men.

  15. "Straight Talk" for African-American heterosexual men: results of a single-arm behavioral intervention trial.

    Frye, Victoria; Henny, Kirk; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Bond, Keosha T; Hoover, Donald R; Lucy, Debbie; Greene, Emily; Koblin, Beryl A

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, heterosexual transmission is the second leading cause of HIV/AIDS, and two-thirds of all heterosexually acquired cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2008 occurred among African-Americans. Few HIV prevention interventions have been designed specifically for African-American heterosexual men not seeking clinical treatment. Here we report results of a single-arm intervention trial of a theory-based HIV prevention intervention designed to increase condom use, reduce concurrent partnering and increase HIV testing among heterosexually active African-American men living in high HIV prevalence areas of New York City. We tested our hypothesis using McNemar discordant pairs exact test for binary variables and paired t-tests for continuous variables. We observed statistically significant declines in mean number of total and new female partners, unprotected sex partners, and partner concurrency in both primary and nonprimary sex partnerships between baseline and 3 months postintervention.

  16. Narcissism and self-esteem among homosexual and heterosexual male students.

    Rubinstein, Gidi

    2010-01-01

    According to orthodox psychoanalytical theory, narcissism and homosexuality are strongly associated. This association played a major role in pathologizing homosexuality. The present study compared self-esteem and two measures of narcissism among 90 homosexual and 109 heterosexual male students, who filled in a demographic questionnaire, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory, which addresses both grandiose and vulnerable subtypes of narcissism. The hypothesis, which is based on the Freudian connection between narcissism and homosexuality, is supported by the results, indicating that the homosexual students score higher in both measures of narcissism and lower on the self-esteem measure, compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Intra-psychic, as well as environmental, interpretations of the results are suggested in the discussion.

  17. Correlates of homophobia, transphobia, and internalized homophobia in gay or lesbian and heterosexual samples.

    Warriner, Katrina; Nagoshi, Craig T; Nagoshi, Julie L

    2013-01-01

    This research assessed the correlates of homophobia and transphobia in heterosexual and homosexual individuals, based on a theory of different sources of perceived symbolic threat to social status. Compared to 310 heterosexual college students, a sample of 30 gay male and 30 lesbian college students scored lower on homophobia, transphobia, and religious fundamentalism. Mean gender differences were smaller for gay men and lesbians for homophobia, aggressiveness, benevolent sexism, masculinity, and femininity. Fundamentalism, right-wing authoritarianism, and hostile and benevolent sexism were correlated only with homophobia in lesbians, whereas fundamentalism and authoritarianism were correlated only with transphobia in gay men. Correlates of internalized homophobia were different than those found for homophobia and transphobia, which was discussed in terms of gender differences in threats to status based on sexual orientation versus gender identity.

  18. Mental health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual siblings: effects of gender, sexual orientation, and family.

    Balsam, Kimberly F; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Mickey, Ruth M; Rothblum, Esther D

    2005-08-01

    Self-identified lesbian, gay male, and bisexual (LGB) individuals were recruited via convenience sampling, and they in turn recruited their siblings (79% heterosexual, 19% LGB). The resulting sample of 533 heterosexual, 558 lesbian or gay male, and 163 bisexual participants was compared on mental health variables and their use of mental health services. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that sexual orientation predicted suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, self-injurious behavior, use of psychotherapy, and use of psychiatric medications over and above the effects of family adjustment. Sexual orientation was unrelated to current psychological distress, psychiatric hospitalizations, and self-esteem. This is the 1st study to model family effects on the mental health of LGB participants and their siblings. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Coupling Processes and Experiences of Never Married Heterosexual Black Men and Women: A Phenomenological Study.

    Awosan, Christiana I; Hardy, Kenneth V

    2017-07-01

    Over the past decades, the decline in Black marriages and the upsurge of never-married Blacks have stimulated much theoretical focus, but researchers conducted few studies on never-married heterosexual Black adults' coupling unions. Guided by an integrated framework of Africana womanism and symbolic interactionism, this qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological study used comprehensive individual interviews to explore the experiences of 26 never-married heterosexual Black men and women between the ages 25 and 35 about their attempts to cultivate and maintain intimate romantic relationships as well as their desire for marriage. Findings revealed mixed emotions from participants' lived experiences in developing and sustaining romantic relationships. Clinical implications highlighted the need to effectively attend to Black romantic relationships and experiences in their sociohistorical and sociocultural contexts. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  20. Was an epidemic of gonorrhoea among heterosexuals attending an Adelaide sexual health services associated with variations in sex work policing policy?

    Li, Bin; Bi, Peng; Waddell, Russell; Chow, Eric Pf; Donovan, Basil; McNulty, Anna; Fehler, Glenda; Loff, Bebe; Shahkhan, Hana; Fairley, Christopher K

    2016-08-01

    A review of historical trends in gonococcal diagnoses made at the Adelaide Sexual Health Clinic (ASHC), South Australia, identified a substantial rise in diagnoses among heterosexuals between 2006 and 2010. Sex work is illegal in South Australia, regulated in Victoria and legal in New South Wales. This and other factors that could have influenced the epidemic were explored in this analysis. Retrospective analyses of gonorrhoea diagnoses made by sexual health services between 1990 and 2012 in three Australian state capitals, Melbourne (Victoria) and Sydney (New South Wales) were undertaken. At the ASHC the proportion of gonorrhoea diagnoses was higher between 2006 and 2010 among heterosexual men (5.34% vs 0.84%, p<0.001), non-sex worker women (0.64% vs 0.28%, p<0.001) and female sex workers (FSWs) (1.75% vs 0.24%, p<0.001) compared with other years. This relationship was not seen at the Melbourne Sexual Health Clinic and corresponding data from the Sydney Sexual Health Centre showed that FSWs were less likely to have gonorrhoea between 2006 and 2010 than the other groups (p=0.746, p=0.522, p=0.024, respectively). At ASHC FSWs were significantly more likely to be diagnosed between 2006 and 2010 (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.48 to 5.27, p=0.002). Charges against sex workers peaked in 2007/2008. A substantial, self-limiting rise in diagnoses of heterosexual gonorrhoea was seen in Adelaide FSWs between 2006 and 2010. Removing barriers to condom use is vital to the prevention of HIV and STI transmission. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Radical heterosexuality: Straight teacher activism in schools : Does ally-led activism work?

    Leigh Potvin

    2016-06-01

    Here, I explore the efficacy of straight teacher allies, the importance of understanding straight privilege, and the significance of radical heterosexuality for straight people doing LGBTQ activism. Relying on queer theory and decolonizing/Indigenous queer theory, I argue that it is necessary for straight teachers to acknowledge their straight privilege in order to challenge homophobia's companions: heterosexism and heteronormativity. In addressing the latter two covert forms of oppression in schools, teachers and students could shift into deeper, more effective resistance measures.

  2. Gender-typed behavior over time in children with lesbian, gay, and heterosexual parents.

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Garcia, Randi L

    2016-10-01

    The current longitudinal study examined patterns and predictors of parent-reported gender-typed play behavior in adopted boys and girls in lesbian, gay, and heterosexual 2-parent families, across early childhood (Mage = 2.82 to 6.06 years). Specifically, using a sample of 181 couples (56 lesbian couples, 48 gay male couples, and 77 heterosexual couples), we examined parent reports of children's gender-typed play behavior on the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI; Golombok & Rust, 1993) at 3 time points (mean age = 2.82 years at T1, 3.93 years at T2, and 6.06 years at T3). Family structure variables (i.e., parents' gender and sexual orientation; children's gender and sibling status) were included as predictors. At T1, according to parent reports, children in lesbian-parent families had less gender-differentiated behavior (boys were less masculine, girls were less feminine) than children in heterosexual- and gay-parent families, whereas the degree of gender differentiation did not differ between heterosexual- versus gay-parent families. Findings from a Common Fate Growth Model (Ledermann & Macho, 2014) revealed that, regardless of family type, the parent-reported gender-typed behavior of boys, but not girls, significantly changed over time (i.e., boys' behavior became more masculine). Our findings have implications for researchers who study gender development in children and adolescents, particularly those who are being raised by 2 mothers or 2 fathers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Molecular phylodynamics of the heterosexual HIV epidemic in the United Kingdom.

    Gareth J Hughes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The heterosexual risk group has become the largest HIV infected group in the United Kingdom during the last 10 years, but little is known of the network structure and dynamics of viral transmission in this group. The overwhelming majority of UK heterosexual infections are of non-B HIV subtypes, indicating viruses originating among immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. The high rate of HIV evolution, combined with the availability of a very high density sample of viral sequences from routine clinical care has allowed the phylodynamics of the epidemic to be investigated for the first time. Sequences of the viral protease and partial reverse transcriptase coding regions from 11,071 patients infected with HIV of non-B subtypes were studied. Of these, 2774 were closely linked to at least one other sequence by nucleotide distance. Including the closest sequences from the global HIV database identified 296 individuals that were in UK-based groups of 3 or more individuals. There were a total of 8 UK-based clusters of 10 or more, comprising 143/2774 (5% individuals, much lower than the figure of 25% obtained earlier for men who have sex with men (MSM. Sample dates were incorporated into relaxed clock phylogenetic analyses to estimate the dates of internal nodes. From the resulting time-resolved phylogenies, the internode lengths, used as estimates of maximum transmission intervals, had a median of 27 months overall, over twice as long as obtained for MSM (14 months, with only 2% of transmissions occurring in the first 6 months after infection. This phylodynamic analysis of non-B subtype HIV sequences representing over 40% of the estimated UK HIV-infected heterosexual population has revealed heterosexual HIV transmission in the UK is clustered, but on average in smaller groups and is transmitted with slower dynamics than among MSM. More effective intervention to restrict the epidemic may therefore be feasible, given effective diagnosis programmes.

  4. Repeat Chlamydia trachomatis testing among heterosexual STI outpatient clinic visitors in the Netherlands: a longitudinal study.

    Visser, Maartje; van Aar, Fleur; Koedijk, Femke D H; Kampman, Carolina J G; Heijne, Janneke C M

    2017-12-20

    Chlamydia infections are common in both men and women, are often asymptomatic and can cause serious complications. Repeat testing in high-risk groups is therefore indicated. In the Netherlands, guidelines on repeat chlamydia testing differ between testing facilities, and knowledge on repeat testing behaviour is limited. Here, we analyse the current repeat testing behaviour of heterosexual STI clinic visitors, and aim to identify groups for which repeat testing advice could be advantageous. Longitudinal surveillance data from all Dutch STI outpatient clinics were used, which included all STI clinic consultations carried out among heterosexual men and women between June 2014 and December 2015. Repeat testing was defined as returning to the same STI clinic between 35 days and 12 months after initial consultation. We calculated chlamydia positivity at repeat test stratified by initial test result and time between consultations. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of repeat testing, and predictors of having a chlamydia positive repeat test. In total, 140,486 consultations in 75,487 women and 46,286 men were available for analyses. Overall, 15.4% of women and 11.1% of men returned to the STI clinic within the study period. Highest chlamydia positivity at repeat test was seen 3-5 months after initial positive test. Among both women and men, repeat testing was associated with non-Western ethnicity, having had more than two sex partners in the past 6 months, reporting STI symptoms, having a history of STI, and having a chlamydia positive initial test. Among repeat testers, chlamydia positive repeat test was most strongly associated with younger age, followed by a chlamydia positive initial test. Repeat testing most often resulted in a positive test result among young heterosexuals (<25) and heterosexuals of any age with a chlamydia infection at the initial consultation. Further efforts are needed to determine optimal repeat testing strategies.

  5. A Pilot Intervention to Promote Safer Sex in Heterosexual Puerto Rican Couples

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David Wyatt; Ronis, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Although the sexual transmission of HIV occurs in the context of an intimate relationship, preventive interventions with couples are scarce, particularly those designed for Hispanics. In this article, we present the effect of a pilot intervention directed to prevent HIV/AIDS in heterosexual couples in Puerto Rico. The intervention was theory-based and consisted of five three-hour group sessions. Primary goals included increasing male condom use and the practice of mutual masturbation as a saf...

  6. Sexual scripts among young heterosexually active men and women: Continuity and change

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    While gendered sexual scripts are hegemonic at the cultural level, research suggests they may be less so at dyadic and individual levels. Understanding “disjunctures” between sexual scripts at different levels holds promise for illuminating mechanisms through which sexual scripts can change. Through interviews with 44 heterosexually active men and women aged 18-25, we delineated ways young people grappled with culture-level scripts for sexuality and relationships. Findings suggest that althou...

  7. The legacy of medicalising ‘homosexuality’: A discussion on the historical effects of non-heterosexual diagnostic classifications

    Anderson, Joël Raymond; Holland, Elise

    2015-01-01

    The classification of non-heterosexuality has changed considerably over the past century. Once considered as medical conditions attracting legal complications and serious social stigma, expressions of non-heterosexuality are now broadly considered to be normal variations of human sexuality. The historical inclusion of homosexuality in the psychiatric literature may still have implications for how sexual orientation is viewed today, including the ongoing treatment of homosexuality as an illnes...

  8. Transition to parenthood and quality of parenting among gay, lesbian and heterosexual couples who conceived through assisted reproduction

    Rubio, B; Vecho, O; Gross, M; Van Rijn-van Gelderen, L; Bos, H; Ellis-Davies, K; Winstanley, A; Golombok, S; Lamb, ME

    2017-01-01

    Little research has focused on the emotions felt during pregnancy and early parenthood as well as the initial quality of parenting displayed by first-time parents who conceived using assisted reproduction technologies (surrogacy, donor insemination, and in vitro fertilization). Research on primary and secondary caregivers in gay, lesbian, and heterosexual families is especially sparse. The current study examined 35 gay-father families, 58 lesbian-mother families and 41 heterosexual-parent fam...

  9. Childhood gender nonconformity and harassment as predictors of suicidality among gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual Austrians.

    Plöderl, Martin; Fartacek, Reinhold

    2009-06-01

    The role of childhood gender role nonconformity (CGNC) and childhood harassment (CH) in explaining suicidality (suicide ideation, aborted suicide attempts, and suicide attempts) was examined in a sample of 142 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults and 148 heterosexual adults in Austria. Current and previous suicidality, CGNC, and CH were significantly greater in LGB participants compared to heterosexual participants. After controlling for CGNC, the effect of sexual orientation on CH diminished. CGNC correlated significantly with current suicidality in the LGB but not in the heterosexual group, and only non-significant correlations were found for CGNC with previous suicidality. Controlling for CH and CGNC diminished the effect of sexual orientation on current suicidality. Bayesian multivariate analysis indicated that current suicidality, but not previous suicidality, depended directly on CGNC. CH and CGNC are likely implicated in the elevated levels of current suicidality among adult LGB participants. As for previous suicidality, the negative impact of CGNC on suicidality might be overshadowed by stress issues affecting sexual minorities around coming out. The association of CGNC with current suicidality suggests an enduring effect of CGNC on the mental health and suicide risk of LGB individuals.

  10. Anti-Gay Prejudice and All-Cause Mortality Among Heterosexuals in the United States

    Bellatorre, Anna; Muennig, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We determined whether individuals who harbor antigay prejudice experience elevated mortality risk. Methods. Data on heterosexual sexual orientation (n = 20 226, aged 18–89 years), antigay attitudes, and mortality risk factors came from the General Social Survey, which was linked to mortality data from the National Death Index (1988–2008). We used Cox proportional hazard models to examine whether antigay prejudice was associated with mortality risk among heterosexuals. Results. Heterosexuals who reported higher levels of antigay prejudice had higher mortality risk than those who reported lower levels (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09, 1.42), with control for multiple risk factors for mortality, including demographics, socioeconomic status, and fair or poor self-rated health. This result translates into a life expectancy difference of approximately 2.5 years (95% CI = 1.0, 4.0 years) between individuals with high versus low levels of antigay prejudice. Furthermore, in sensitivity analyses, antigay prejudice was specifically associated with increased risk of cardiovascular-related causes of death in fully adjusted models (HR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.04, 1.60). Conclusions. The findings contribute to a growing body of research suggesting that reducing prejudice may improve the health of both minority and majority populations. PMID:24328664

  11. Predictors of Relationship Dissolution in Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Garcia, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Little work has examined relationship dissolution or divorce in adoptive parents or same-sex parent couples. The current study examined predictors of relationship dissolution across the first 5 years of parenthood among a sample of heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male adoptive couples. Of the 190 couples in the study, 15 (7.9%) dissolved their relationships during the first 5 years of adoptive parenthood. Specifically, 7 of 57 lesbian couples (12.3%), 1 of 49 gay male couples (2.0%), and 7 of 84 heterosexual couples (8.3%) dissolved their unions. Results of our logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds of relationship dissolution were significantly higher for (a) couples who adopted a non-infant (i.e., older) child); (b) participants who reported feeling less prepared for the adoption, three months post-adoptive placement; and (c) couples in which both partners reported very low, or very high, pre-adoption levels of relationship maintenance behaviors. Findings have implications for adoption professionals seeking to support same-sex and heterosexual prospective adopters, as well as societal debates and policy regarding same-sex relationships and parenting. PMID:26053348

  12. Talking with TV shows

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  13. Talk Show Science.

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  14. Obesity in show cats.

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  16. Touch communicates distinct emotions.

    Hertenstein, Matthew J; Keltner, Dacher; App, Betsy; Bulleit, Brittany A; Jaskolka, Ariane R

    2006-08-01

    The study of emotional signaling has focused almost exclusively on the face and voice. In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether people can identify emotions from the experience of being touched by a stranger on the arm (without seeing the touch). In the 3rd study, they investigated whether observers can identify emotions from watching someone being touched on the arm. Two kinds of evidence suggest that humans can communicate numerous emotions with touch. First, participants in the United States (Study 1) and Spain (Study 2) could decode anger, fear, disgust, love, gratitude, and sympathy via touch at much-better-than-chance levels. Second, fine-grained coding documented specific touch behaviors associated with different emotions. In Study 3, the authors provide evidence that participants can accurately decode distinct emotions by merely watching others communicate via touch. The findings are discussed in terms of their contributions to affective science and the evolution of altruism and cooperation. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  17. The energy show

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  18. Plasma concentration of prolactin, testosterone might be associated with brain response to visual erotic stimuli in healthy heterosexual males.

    Seo, Younghee; Jeong, Bumseok; Kim, Ji-Woong; Choi, Jeewook

    2009-09-01

    Many studies have showed that excess or lack of sexual hormones, such as prolactin and testosterone, induced the sexual dysfunction in humans. Little, however, is known about the role of sexual hormones showing normal range in, especially, the basal state unexposed to any sexual stimulation. We hypothesized sexual hormones in the basal state may affect sexual behavior. We investigated the association of the sexual hormones level in the basal hormonal state before visual sexual stimulation with the sexual response-related brain activity during the stimulation. Twelve heterosexual men were recorded the functional MRI signals of their brain activation elicited by passive viewing erotic (ERO), happy-faced (HA) couple, food and nature pictures. Both plasma prolacitn and testosterone concentrations were measured before functional MR scanning. A voxel wise regression analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of sexual hormones in basal state and brain activity elicited by ERO minus HA, not food minus nature, contrast. The plasma concentration of prolactin in basal state showed positive association with the activity of the brain involving cognitive component of sexual behavior including the left middle frontal gyrus, paracingulate/superior frontal/anterior cingulate gyri, bilateral parietal lobule, right angular, bilateral precuneus and right cerebellum. Testosterone in basal state was positively associated with the brain activity of the bilateral supplementary motor area which related with motivational component of sexual behavior. Our results suggested sexual hormones in basal state may have their specific target regions or network associated with sexual response.

  19. Impact of relationship dynamics and gender roles in the protection of HIV discordant heterosexual couples: an exploratory study in the Puerto Rican context.

    Orengo-Aguayo, Rosaura; Pérez-Jiménez, David

    2009-03-01

    Most of the HIV/AIDS prevention efforts have not taken into consideration the context of the relationship and the gender constructs that influence relationship dynamics. These efforts have failed to view HIV prevention as a collaborative process between partners. Therefore, it is important to explore how relationship dynamics and gender constructs influence how men and women involved in an HIV discordant heterosexual relationship, visualize their role in the protection of their partners in order to design more effective prevention interventions. Five Puerto Rican HIV discordant heterosexual couples were interviewed via a qualitative semi-structured interview. The taped interviews were transcribed and analyzed using content analysis according to a set of defined categories. Women visualized their role as one of convincing their partners to use protection as well as being strong and firm in the demand of its use. Men viewed their role as one of being more supportive and willing to use protection, but recognized their resistance towards the use of condoms. Relationship dynamics such as communication and support promoted protection. Traditional and non-traditional gender roles were assumed by both men and women. Traditional gender roles inhibited protection but were also used in positive ways to promote it. Men showed a greater initiative to break with traditional gender norms. A positive relationship, marked by communication and support could serve as a facilitator in the protection and in the transformation of traditional gender norms. This points out to the need of viewing HIV/AIDS prevention as a collaborative rather than individualistic process.

  20. Showing Value (Editorial

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  1. Measurement Noninvariance of Safer Sex Self-Efficacy Between Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Black Youth.

    Gerke, Donald; Budd, Elizabeth L; Plax, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Black and lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning (LGBQ) youth in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Although self-efficacy is strongly, positively associated with safer sex behaviors, no studies have examined the validity of a safer sex self-efficacy scale used by many federally funded HIV/STD prevention programs. This study aims to test factor validity of the Sexual Self-Efficacy Scale by using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to determine if scale validity varies between heterosexual and LGBQ Black youth. The study uses cross-sectional data collected through baseline surveys with 226 Black youth (15 to 24 years) enrolled in community-based HIV-prevention programs. Participants use a 4-point Likert-type scale to report their confidence in performing 6 healthy sexual behaviors. CFAs are conducted on 2 factor structures of the scale. Using the best-fitting model, the scale is tested for measurement invariance between the 2 groups. A single-factor model with correlated errors of condom-specific items fits the sample well and, when tested with the heterosexual group, the model demonstrates good fit. However, when tested with the LGBQ group, the same model yields poor fit, indicating factorial noninvariance between the groups. The Sexual Self-Efficacy Scale does not perform equally well among Black heterosexual and LGBQ youth. Study findings suggest additional research is needed to inform development of measures for safer sex self-efficacy among Black LGBQ youth to ensure validity of conceptual understanding and to accurately assess effectiveness of HIV/STD prevention interventions among this population.

  2. Predictors of school engagement among same-sex and heterosexual adoptive parents of Kindergarteners.

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2014-10-01

    Little research has explored parental engagement in schools in the context of adoptive parent families or same-sex parent families. The current cross-sectional study explored predictors of parents' self-reported school involvement, relationships with teachers, and school satisfaction, in a sample of 103 female same-sex, male same-sex, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples (196 parents) of kindergarten-age children. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about positive or neutral topics (e.g., their child's good grades) reported more involvement and greater satisfaction with schools, regardless of family type. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about negative topics (e.g., their child's behavior problems) reported better relationships with teachers but lower school satisfaction, regardless of family type. Regarding the broader school context, across all family types, parents who felt more accepted by other parents reported more involvement and better parent-teacher relationships; socializing with other parents was related to greater involvement. Regarding the adoption-specific variables, parents who perceived their children's schools as more culturally sensitive were more involved and satisfied with the school, regardless of family type. Perceived cultural sensitivity mattered more for heterosexual adoptive parents' relationships with their teachers than it did for same-sex adoptive parents. Finally, heterosexual adoptive parents who perceived high levels of adoption stigma in their children's schools were less involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma, whereas same-sex adoptive parents who perceived high levels of stigma were more involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma. Our findings have implications for school professionals, such as school psychologists, who work with diverse families. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Predicting Parents’ School Engagement Among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents of Kindergarteners

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2014-01-01

    Little research has explored parental engagement in schools in the context of adoptive parent families or same-sex parent families. The current cross-sectional study explored predictors of parents’ self-reported school involvement, relationships with teachers, and school satisfaction, in a sample of 103 female same-sex, male same-sex, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples (196 parents) of kindergarten-age children. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about positive or neutral topics (e.g., their child’s good grades) reported more involvement and greater satisfaction with schools, regardless of family type. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about negative topics (e.g., their child’s behavior problems) reported better relationships with teachers but lower school satisfaction, regardless of family type. Regarding the broader school context, across all family types, parents who felt more accepted by other parents reported more involvement and better parent–teacher relationships; socializing with other parents was related to greater involvement. Regarding the adoption-specific variables, parents who perceived their children’s schools as more culturally sensitive were more involved and satisfied with the school, regardless of family type. Perceived cultural sensitivity mattered more for heterosexual adoptive parents’ relationships with their teachers than it did for same-sex adoptive parents. Finally, heterosexual adoptive parents who perceived high levels of adoption stigma in their children’s schools were less involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma, whereas same-sex adoptive parents who perceived high levels of stigma were more involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma. Our findings have implications for school professionals, such as school psychologists, who work with diverse families. PMID:25267169

  4. Fecundity of paternal and maternal non-parental female relatives of homosexual and heterosexual men.

    Andrea Camperio Ciani

    Full Text Available A variety of social, developmental, biological and genetic factors influence sexual orientation in males. Thus, several hypotheses have attempted to explain the sustenance of genetic factors that influence male homosexuality, despite decreased fecundity within the homosexuals. Kin selection, the existence of maternal effects and two forms of balancing selection, sexually antagonistic selection and overdominance, have been proposed as compensatory mechanisms for reduced homosexual fecundity. Here, we suggest that the empirical support for kin selection and maternal effects cannot account for the low universal frequency and stability of the distribution of homosexuals. To identify the responsible compensatory mechanism, we analyzed fecundity in 2,100 European female relatives, i.e., aunts and grandmothers, of either homosexual or heterosexual probands who were matched in terms of age, culture and sampling strategy. Female relatives were chosen to avoid the sampling bias of the fraternal birth order effect, which occurs when indirectly sampling mothers though their homosexual sons. We observed that the maternal aunts and grandmothers of homosexual probands were significantly more fecund compared with the maternal aunts and maternal grandmothers of the heterosexual probands. No difference in fecundity was observed in the paternal female lines (grandmothers or aunts from either of the two proband groups. Moreover, due to the selective increase in maternal female fecundity, the total female fecundity was significantly higher in homosexual than heterosexual probands, thus compensating for the reduced fecundity of homosexuals. Altogether, these data support an X-linked multi-locus sexually antagonistic hypothesis rather than an autosomal multi-locus overdominance hypothesis.

  5. Lesbian mothers and their children: a comparison with solo parent heterosexual mothers and their children.

    Green, R; Mandel, J B; Hotvedt, M E; Gray, J; Smith, L

    1986-04-01

    Two types of single-parent households and their effects on children ages 3-11 years were compared. One type comprised 50 homosexual mothers and their 56 children, and the other was a group of 40 heterosexual mothers and their 48 children. There were 30 daughters and 26 sons of homosexual mothers and 28 daughters and 20 sons of heterosexual mothers. The sexual identity and social relationships of the children were assessed in relation to the sexual orientation of the mothers. The samples consisted of families from rural and urban areas in 10 American states. All have lived without adult males (18 years or older) in the household for a minimum of 2 years (average 4). Families with heterosexual mothers were matched to families with homosexual mothers on age and race of mother; length of mother and child separation from father; educational level and income of mother; and number, age, and sex of children. Data are reported from childrens' tests designed to provide information on general intelligence, core-morphologic sexual identity, gender-role preferences, family and peer group relationships, and adjustment to the single-parent family. No significant differences were found between the two types of households for boys and few significant differences for girls. Concerns that being raised by a homosexual mother might produce sexual identity conflict and peer group stigmatization were not supported by the research findings. Data also revealed more similarities than differences in parenting experiences, marital history, and present living situations of the two groups of mothers. The postulated compromised parental fitness of lesbian mothers, commonly asserted in child custody cases, is not supported by these data.

  6. Waiting for the right time: how and why young Thai women manage to avoid heterosexual intercourse.

    Supametaporn, Pinhatai; Stern, Phyllis Noerager; Rodcumdee, Branom; Chaiyawat, Waraporn

    2010-08-01

    Nineteen young Thai women were purposively selected from networks of nongovernmental organizations involving children and youths in Bangkok. Our grounded theory findings indicated that these young women used the basic social process they called "waiting for the right time" in order to maintain heterosexual abstinence. Waiting for the right time involved one overarching condition, honoring parental love, and included three overlapping properties: learning rules, planning life path, and ways of preserving virginity. The findings provide information that may lead to the development of culturally competent interventions for middle-class Thai youths to remain healthy and avoid pregnancy.

  7. Sexuality and HIV/AIDS: an exploration of older heterosexual women's knowledge levels.

    Ross, Pamela; Humble, Áine M; Blum, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    Sexuality research tends to ignore older populations, and little is known about older women's sexual health knowledge. To fill this research gap, 186 Canadian heterosexual women 50 years and older were surveyed about their knowledge regarding sexuality and HIV/AIDS. Respondents had moderate levels of overall knowledge of sexual health and aging, correctly answering, on average, 60% of the 35 questions. They had lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge, correctly answering just over 50% of the 25 questions. Results indicate the need for social awareness and education in this group regarding both general sexual health later in life and HIV/AIDS.

  8. Functional characteristics of HIV-1 subtype C compatible with increased heterosexual transmissibility

    Walter, Brandon L; Armitage, Andrew E; Graham, Stephen C

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the existence of over 50 subtypes and circulating recombinant forms of HIV-1, subtype C dominates the heterosexual pandemic causing approximately 56% of all infections. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether viral genetic factors may contribute to the observed subtype-C predominance. ....... CONCLUSION: As CD4-CCR5-T cells are key targets for genital HIV infection and cervical selection can favor compact V1-V2 loops and 316T, which increase viral infectivity, we propose that these conserved subtype-C motifs may contribute to transmission and spread of this subtype....

  9. A Bit too Skinny for Me: Women's Homosocial Constructions of Heterosexual Desire in Online Dating

    Mortensen, Kristine Køhler

    2018-01-01

    , online dating practices are rich fields for investigating the workings of desire. Based on audiovisual recordings of two Danish female friends engaging in online dating activities, this article demonstrates how participants, through joint stance-taking, co-construct shared desire and adjust individually......-produced desire to create homosocial affiliation. Hence, in this case, heterosexual desire construction is a collaborative undertaking generated through homosocial bonding. The performed desire carries a strong physical focus, partly produced by the participants’ attention to bodily detail and partly through...

  10. Condom Use Negotiation in Heterosexual African-American Adults: Responses to Types of Social Power-Based Strategies

    Otto-Salaj, Laura L.; Reed, Barbara; Brondino, Michael J.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Stevenson, L. Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    Little research has been performed on how people respond to different strategies to negotiate condom use in sexual situations, and whether certain strategies tend to be perceived as more or less effective in condom use negotiation. This study examined gender differences and preferences in the use of and response to six different styles of condom use negotiation with a hypothetical sexual partner of the opposite gender. Participants were 51 heterosexually-active African-American men and women between the ages of 18 and 35, attending an inner-city community center. Study participants completed a semi-structured qualitative interview in which they were presented with six negotiation strategies —coercive, reward, legitimate, expert, referent, and informational--based on Raven’s 1992 Power/Interaction Model of Interpersonal Influence. Results showed that women participants responded best to referent, reward, and legitimate strategies, and worst to informational tactics. Men participants responded best to reward strategies, and worst to coercion to use condoms. Further, responses given by a subset of both women—and, to a greater extent, men--indicated that use of negotiation tactics involving coercion to use condoms may result in negative or angry reactions. Finally, response to strategies may vary with the value of the relationship as viewed by the target of negotiation. Implications for HIV prevention programs and media campaigns are discussed. PMID:18569536

  11. Masturbation and Pornography Use Among Coupled Heterosexual Men With Decreased Sexual Desire: How Many Roles of Masturbation?

    Carvalheira, Ana; Træen, Bente; Stulhofer, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    The relation between masturbation and sexual desire has not been systematically studied. The present study assessed the association between masturbation and pornography use and the predictors and correlates of frequent masturbation (several times a week or more often) among coupled heterosexual men who reported decreased sexual desire. Analyses were carried out on a subset of 596 men with decreased sexual desire (mean age = 40.2 years) who were recruited as part of a large online study on male sexual health in 3 European countries. A majority of the participants (67%) reported masturbating at least once a week. Among men who masturbated frequently, 70% used pornography at least once a week. A multivariate assessment showed that sexual boredom, frequent pornography use, and low relationship intimacy significantly increased the odds of reporting frequent masturbation among coupled men with decreased sexual desire. These findings point to a pattern of pornography-related masturbation that can be dissociated from partnered sexual desire and can fulfill diverse purposes. Clinical implications include the importance of exploring specific patterns of masturbation and pornography use in the evaluation of coupled men with decreased sexual desire.

  12. The pursuit of optimal distinctiveness and consumer preferences.

    He, Lingnan; Cong, Feng; Liu, Yanping; Zhou, Xinyue

    2010-10-01

    This article investigates the effect of optimal distinctiveness on consumer product consumption. The authors argue that consumers acquire and display material possessions to restore their optimal levels of distinctiveness. Results showed that placing consumers in a state of low distinctiveness increased desire to acquire distinctive products, whereas perceptions of high distinctiveness reduced desire to acquire such products. Consumers' desire for distinctiveness-related products held true for various consumer choices, including willingness to pay more for limited-edition products and preference for unpopular gifts. This finding has implications for understanding consumer choice in expressing identity. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  13. Influence of gender role orientation (masculinity versus femininity) on body satisfaction and eating attitudes in homosexuals, heterosexuals and transsexuals.

    Cella, Stefania; Iannaccone, Mara; Cotrufo, Paolo

    2013-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between gender role orientation and eating disorder attitudes and behaviors and body dissatisfaction in a sample of homosexuals, heterosexuals, and transsexuals. We screened 132 homosexuals, 178 heterosexuals (both male and female), and 15 MtF transsexuals by means of an ad hoc socio-demographic schedule; the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 and Symptom Checklist; the Body Uneasiness Test and the Bem Sex Role Inventory. Differences between homosexual, heterosexual, and transsexual participants emerged, but those data seem to be best explained by the constructs of femininity and masculinity than by the biological gender. The empirical evidence of a positive correlation between femininity and eating problems, and the negative correlation between masculinity and eating problems, is full of implications. Eating disorders appear to be diseases of femininity; masculinity seems to be a protective factor, independently by the biological gender.

  14. Non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity in sexual minority and heterosexual young adults.

    Lacefield, Katharine; Negy, Charles

    2012-04-01

    The present study examined 100 lesbian and gay college students and 100 heterosexual students to determine whether group differences exist in frequency of a range of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity. Non-erotic cognitive distraction is a descriptive term for both self-evaluative cognitions related to physical performance and body image concerns, as well as additional cognitive distractions (e.g., contracting an STI or emotional concerns) during sexual activity. Participants were matched on gender (96 males and 104 females), age, and ethnicity, and completed questionnaires assessing frequency of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity, as well as measures of additional variables (trait and body image anxiety, attitudes toward sexual minorities, self-esteem, and religiosity). Results indicated that sexual minorities experienced significantly more cognitive distractions related to body image, physical performance, and STIs during sexual activity than heterosexuals. Regarding gender, men reported more distractions related to STIs than women. Interaction effects were observed between sexual orientation and gender for body image-, disease-, and external/emotional-based distractions. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. The invisibility of heterosexuality in HIV/AIDS prevention for men

    Andréa Fachel Leal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTHeterosexual men have been a forgotten group for HIV/AIDS interventions and research. Our goal was to identify the different elements that interfere in the prevention of HIV/AIDS among heterosexual men, covering both traditional methods of prevention (especially safe sex practices and testing and new strategies for prevention (pre- and post-sexual exposure prophylaxis, prevention treatment, and circumcision in this population. This exploratory article consists of a nonsystematic review of the literature. We discuss the invisibility of heterosexual men in policies, in programs, and in health services. The several interventions analyzed are still poorly monitored and evaluated, so there is a lack of consistent evidence regarding the impact of prevention strategies in this population. Different masculinities, including hegemonic conceptions of masculinity, must be the foundation for interventions targeting men. Men must not be seen merely as a "bridge" in the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, but also as victims of gender patterns that make them vulnerable.

  16. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical correlates of inconsistent condom use in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples.

    Buchacz, K; van der Straten, A; Saul, J; Shiboski, S C; Gomez, C A; Padian, N

    2001-11-01

    We examined sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics associated with inconsistent condom use in a cross-sectional analysis of 145 sexually active HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples who participated in the California Partners Study II. All couples were aware of their HIV-serodiscordant status. Forty-five percent of couples reported having had unprotected vaginal or anal sex in the previous 6 months. In the multivariate couple-level analyses, factors independently associated with inconsistent (i.e., <100%) condom use in the previous 6 months included lower educational level, unemployment, African-American ethnicity, and practice of anal sex by the couple. Injection drug use was associated with inconsistent condom use among couples with younger HIV-infected partners. In addition, couples with HIV-infected partners who had higher CD4 cell counts and couples in which the HIV-infected male partner ever had sex with a man were more likely to use condoms inconsistently. Consistency of condom use did not depend on the gender of the HIV-infected partner or duration of sexual relationship. The findings suggest that many HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples remain at high risk of HIV transmission and may benefit not only from behavioral interventions but also from structural interventions aimed at improving their social and economic conditions.

  17. A gender discrepancy analysis of heterosexual sexual behaviors in two university samples.

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Satinsky, Sonya A

    2013-12-01

    The current study aimed to (1) offer a large-scale enumeration of college students' lifetime sexual behaviors and sexual behaviors at last event, and (2) apply a gender discrepancy lens to college students' sexual behaviors in order to examine potential gender differences in heterosexual college students' experiences. Nine-hundred and seventy college students between the ages of 18 and 27 from two large universities in the United States participated in the current study. Participants filled out a paper-pencil questionnaire during the last 30 min of class. Measures of lifetime sexual behaviors and engagement in behaviors at last sexual event were replicated from the National Survey of Sexual Health Behavior. Most college students engaged in some form of sexual behavior (manual, oral, vaginal-penile, anal). Men more frequently reported engaging in receptive sexual behaviors (e.g., receiving oral sex) where as women were more likely to engage in performative sexual behaviors (e.g., performing oral sex). At most recent sexual event, men were more likely than women to report being the sexual initiator. Findings highlight gender differences in sexual behavior and provide a foundation for social norms interventions. Holistic sexual health promotion for young adults includes acknowledging and discouraging sites of disparity in equity and pleasure. Therefore, college-level sexual health educators should pay attention to the potential pleasure gap between men and women in heterosexual encounters, and to see pleasure as an important part of sexual health that should be included in social norms campaigns.

  18. Barriers and facilitators of HIV prevention with heterosexual Latino couples: beliefs of four stakeholder groups.

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David W; Serrano-García, Irma

    2009-01-01

    Although HIV prevention interventions for women are efficacious, long-term behavior change maintenance within power-imbalanced heterosexual relationships has been difficult. To explore the feasibility, content, and format of an HIV intervention for Latino couples, the authors conducted 13 focus groups with HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers, and heterosexual men and women in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. Reasons that participants thought that men should be involved in prevention efforts included promotion of shared responsibility, creation of a safe environment for open conversation about sex, and increased sexual negotiation skills. Perceived barriers to men's involvement included cultural taboos, sexual conservatism associated with Catholicism and machismo, and power-imbalanced relationships. Participants stressed the need for recruitment of men within naturally occurring settings or by influential community leaders. Participants indicated that couples-level interventions would be successful if they used strong coed facilitators, included both unigender and mixed-gender discussion opportunities, and addressed personally meaningful topics. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Determinants of Behavior Change Intention Among Heterosexual Thai Males Diagnosed with Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    Thato, Ratsiri; Daengsaard, Ekkachai

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to identify factors associated with intention to change sexual practices among heterosexual Thai males diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STI clinic patients (n = 247) reported their sexual behaviors and condom use during the previous 3 months. STI and HIV knowledge, motivation to change sexual practices, and behavioral skills were assessed. Then, self-reported behavior change intention, including consistent condom use, reducing number of sexual partners, not using drugs and alcohol when having sex, and refusal of condomless sex, was examined. Consistent condom use in the past 3 months by Thai males diagnosed with STIs was low across all types of sexual partners (lover 13.8%, casual partner 14.9%, and sex worker 2.5%). Risk reduction self-efficacy (p behavior change intention. Significant predictors of behavior change intention were risk reduction self-efficacy (p behavior change intention variance. Intervention aimed at enhancing motivation and behavioral skills to adopt preventive behaviors should be developed to prevent recurrent STIs, including HIV infection, among heterosexual Thai males diagnosed with STIs.

  20. Theory of planned behavior interventions for reducing heterosexual risk behaviors: A meta-analysis.

    Tyson, Mandy; Covey, Judith; Rosenthal, Harriet E S

    2014-12-01

    The meta-analysis reported here examined interventions informed by the theory of planned behavior (TPB) or theory of reasoned action (TRA) aimed at reducing heterosexual risk behaviors (prevention of STDs and unwanted pregnancy). Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were either randomized control trials or quasi-experimental studies that compared the TPB-based intervention against a control group. Search strategy consisted of articles identified in previous reviews, keyword search through search engines, examination of key journals, and contacting key experts. Forty-seven intervention studies were included in the meta-analysis. Random effects models revealed that pooled effect sizes for TPB-based interventions had small but significant effects on behavior and other secondary outcomes (i.e., knowledge, attitudes, normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, and intentions). Significant heterogeneity found between effect sizes was explored using metaregression. Larger effects were found for interventions that provided opportunities for social comparison. The TPB provides a valuable framework for designing interventions to change heterosexual risk behaviors. However, effect sizes varied quite substantially between studies, and further research is needed to explore the reasons why.

  1. Oxytocin's impact on social face processing is stronger in homosexual than heterosexual men.

    Thienel, Matthias; Heinrichs, Markus; Fischer, Stefan; Ott, Volker; Born, Jan; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin is an evolutionarily highly preserved neuropeptide that contributes to the regulation of social interactions including the processing of facial stimuli. We hypothesized that its improving effect on social approach behavior depends on perceived sexual features and, consequently, on sexual orientation. In 19 homosexual and 18 heterosexual healthy young men, we investigated the acute effect of intranasal oxytocin (24IU) and placebo, respectively, on the processing of social stimuli as assessed by ratings of trustworthiness, attractiveness and approachability for male and female faces. Faces were each presented with a neutral, a happy, and an angry expression, respectively. In heterosexual subjects, the effect of oxytocin administration was restricted to a decrease in ratings of trustworthiness for angry female faces (poxytocin administration robustly increased ratings of attractiveness and approachability for male faces regardless of the facial expression (all p ≤ 0.05), as well as ratings of approachability for happy female faces (poxytocin's enhancing impact on social approach tendencies, suggesting that differences in sexual orientation imply differential oxytocinergic signaling. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Qualitative analysis of an educational intervention with HIV-discordant heterosexual Latino couples.

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Orengo-Aguayo, Rosaura E

    2011-12-01

    This qualitative analysis elucidates the potential elements of the intervention that may be effective in terms of a) increasing knowledge about HIV/ AIDS in the members of this population; b) increasing the use of male condoms and the practice of mutual masturbation; and c) changing opinions toward male condom use and mutual masturbation. Five heterosexual HIV-discordant couples participated in the adapted intervention, which consisted of four three-hour-long sessions. One month after the intervention, we conducted a qualitative semi-structured interview with every participant to evaluate issues related to the process and content of the activities comprising the intervention, the impact of the intervention, logistics, and recruitment and retention as well as to make a more general evaluation. The information was submitted to qualitative content analysis. After the intervention, participants reported having better attitudes regarding safer sex, particularly in terms of condom use. A reason given by the participants to feel more positive toward condom use and mutual masturbation was that these practices could prevent the infection of the HIV-negative partner. This study provides important evidence of an intervention that promises to be efficacious in preventing some high-risk sexual behaviors among Latino HIV-discordant heterosexual couples. The evidence presented seems to suggest that an intervention that includes basic relevant information about HIV/AIDS, that explains the benefits of condom use and other safer sex options, and that provides effective negotiation and communication strategies could significantly reduce HIV transmission among these couples.

  3. Barriers and Facilitators of HIV Prevention With Heterosexual Latino Couples: Beliefs of Four Stakeholder Groups

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David W.; Serrano-García, Irma

    2012-01-01

    Although HIV prevention interventions for women are efficacious, long-term behavior change maintenance within power-imbalanced heterosexual relationships has been difficult. To explore the feasibility, content, and format of an HIV intervention for Latino couples, the authors conducted 13 focus groups with HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers, and heterosexual men and women in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. Reasons that participants thought that men should be involved in prevention efforts included promotion of shared responsibility, creation of a safe environment for open conversation about sex, and increased sexual negotiation skills. Perceived barriers to men’s involvement included cultural taboos, sexual conservatism associated with Catholicism and machismo, and power-imbalanced relationships. Participants stressed the need for recruitment of men within naturally occurring settings or by influential community leaders. Participants indicated that couples-level interventions would be successful if they used strong coed facilitators, included both unigender and mixed-gender discussion opportunities, and addressed personally meaningful topics. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19209976

  4. A HIV-1 heterosexual transmission chain in Guangzhou, China: a molecular epidemiological study.

    Han, Zhigang; Leung, Tommy W C; Zhao, Jinkou; Wang, Ming; Fan, Lirui; Li, Kai; Pang, Xinli; Liang, Zhenbo; Lim, Wilina W L; Xu, Huifang

    2009-09-25

    We conducted molecular analyses to confirm four clustering HIV-1 infections (Patient A, B, C & D) in Guangzhou, China. These cases were identified by epidemiological investigation and suspected to acquire the infection through a common heterosexual transmission chain. Env C2V3V4 region, gag p17/p24 junction and partial pol gene of HIV-1 genome from serum specimens of these infected cases were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nucleotide sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that their viral nucleotide sequences were significantly clustered together (bootstrap value is 99%, 98% and 100% in env, gag and pol tree respectively). Evolutionary distance analysis indicated that their genetic diversities of env, gag and pol genes were significantly lower than non-clustered controls, as measured by unpaired t-test (env gene comparison: p Epidemiological results and molecular analyses consistently illustrated these four cases represented a transmission chain which dispersed in the locality through heterosexual contact involving commercial sex worker.

  5. Perceived norms of premarital heterosexual relationships and sexuality among female college students in Tehran.

    Khalajabadi Farahani, Farideh; Cleland, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes perceptions of the societal acceptability and acceptability among peers of different types of premarital heterosexual relationships in Iran. Sources of variation in subjective norms are assessed. Results derive from a survey conducted in 2005 of a representative sample of 1743 female college students from four multidisciplinary universities in Tehran using two-stage random cluster sampling. An anonymous pilot-tested questionnaire was used. Respondents displayed remarkable heterogeneity and ambiguity concerning the social acceptability of premarital heterosexual friendship, dating and physical contact, but expressed greater certainty about the unacceptability of premarital sex. The majority (77.5%) reported that premarital sex was socially prohibited, while about one third (33.1%) were unsure about the social acceptability of having a boyfriend and dating before marriage. Peer norms were perceived to be more liberal but, nevertheless, very few peers were thought to be in favour of premarital intercourse. Older students, those with educated fathers and those studying in a mixed-sex university perceived norms to be more liberal than their counterparts. Access to satellite television, a major source of exposure to new information and values about sexuality, was a major predictor of liberal peer norms. It appears that a significant proportion of young people in Tehran have broken with tradition with regard to premarital social interaction and romantic friendships, but the majority still conforms to traditional cultural and religious values regarding abstinence before marriage.

  6. A little thing called love: condom use in high-risk primary heterosexual relationships.

    Corbett, A Michelle; Dickson-Gómez, Julia; Hilario, Helena; Weeks, Margaret R

    2009-12-01

    Condoms are less likely to be used in primary relationships than in other relationship types. An understanding of what women and men expect when entering into these relationships, as well as how they make decisions about condom use and other prevention behaviors, is essential to efforts to curb the spread of HIV. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 high-risk heterosexual couples, including HIV-serodiscordant couples, participating in a trial of the female condom in Hartford in 2004-2007. Data were coded and analyzed in an iterative inductive and deductive process. Participants described nonuse of condoms as a strategy to fi nd and maintain a primary relationship, establish trust and increase intimacy. Many had unprotected intercourse while recognizing their risk of HIV and other STDs, placing their love for their partner and other emotional needs over concerns about their health. Several couples reduced their STD risk by practicing negotiated safety (i.e., using condoms until their serostatus had been determined) or similar strategies, including sharing sexual or drug use history, disclosing HIV test results and using condoms until they decided that their relationship would be monogamous. HIV prevention approaches must recognize the importance of love and the needs that primary relationships satisfy if they are to be considered relevant by those at greatest risk. Negotiated safety and similar strategies may be an important risk reduction tool for heterosexuals, particularly those in HIV-affected relationships, but their potential effectiveness may vary.

  7. Racial discrimination and posttraumatic stress symptoms as pathways to sexual HIV risk behaviors among urban Black heterosexual men.

    Bowleg, Lisa; Fitz, Caroline C; Burkholder, Gary J; Massie, Jenne S; Wahome, Rahab; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    In light of evidence that racial discrimination and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are neither rare nor extraordinary for many Black urban men, we examined the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual HIV risk behaviors in a predominantly low-income sample of 526 urban Black heterosexually identified men; 64% of whom were unemployed and 55% of whom reported a history of incarceration. We tested the hypothesis that PTSS would mediate the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk. Participants in the predominantly low-income urban sample ranged in age from 18 to 45 (M = 28.80, SD = 7.57). Three multiple regression models were used to test the study's mediational model. As hypothesized, PTSS mediated the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk behaviors. Most participants (97%) reported experiences with everyday racial discrimination. Results empirically support the notion of racial discrimination-based traumatic stress as a pathway to Black heterosexual men's increased sexual risk behaviors. Results also highlighted key demographic differences with older men reporting fewer PTSS and sexual risk behaviors compared with younger men. Incarceration was related to both PTSS and sexual risk, underscoring the role that incarceration may play in Black heterosexual men's adverse health outcomes. Our study highlights the need for more qualitative and quantitative research to understand the nature of PTSS in Black heterosexual men and mechanisms such as substance use that may link traumatic experiences and sexual risk. Future research could also assess experiences with childhood sexual abuse, violence, and incarceration to gain a more in-depth understanding of the sources of traumatic stress in Black heterosexual men's lives. We advocate for the development of community-based individual and structural-level interventions to help Black heterosexual men in urban areas develop effective strategies to

  8. HIV risk behaviors among African American men in Los Angeles County who self-identify as heterosexual.

    Wohl, Amy Rock; Johnson, Denise F; Lu, Sharon; Jordan, Wilbert; Beall, Gildon; Currier, Judith; Simon, Paul A

    2002-11-01

    There are limited data on high-risk behaviors among heterosexual African American men with HIV infection. Risk behaviors were examined in a case-control study of HIV-infected (n = 90) and uninfected (n = 272) African American men who self-identified as heterosexual. Of men who self-identified as heterosexual, 31% (n = 28) of the infected men and 16% (n = 43) of the uninfected men reported having had anal sex with men. Among the heterosexual men reporting anal sex with men, 100% of the infected and 67% of the uninfected men reported inconsistent condom use during anal sex with men. Few of the infected (12%) and uninfected (2%) men reported oral sex with other men. Of the men who self-identified as heterosexual, 46% of those who were HIV-positive and 37% of those who were HIV-negative reported anal sex with women with infrequent condom use. An increasing risk for HIV was associated with decreasing age at first sexual experience (chi2, 9.3; p = .002). A history of injecting drugs (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 1.8, 5.4) and amphetamine (OR, 4.3; 95% CIs, 1.1, 16.7) and methamphetamine (OR, 2.9; 95% CIs, 1.4, 6.3) use were associated with HIV. Innovative HIV prevention strategies are needed that move beyond the traditional gay versus straight model to effectively access hard-to-reach African American men who self-identify as heterosexual.

  9. Relationship satisfaction in lesbian and heterosexual couples before and after assisted reproduction: a longitudinal follow-up study.

    Borneskog, Catrin; Lampic, Claudia; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Bladh, Marie; Svanberg, Agneta Skoog

    2014-12-12

    More and more lesbian couples are planning parenthood through donor insemination and IVF and the number of planned lesbian families is growing in Sweden and other western countries. Research has shown that lesbian couples report as much overall satisfaction in their relationships as do heterosexual couples. However, although parenthood is highly desired, many parents are unaware of the demands of parenthood and the strain on their relationship that the arrival of the baby might bring. The aim of this study was to compare lesbian and heterosexual couples' perceptions of relationship satisfaction at a three-year follow up after assisted reproduction. The present study is a part of the Swedish study on gamete donation, a prospective longitudinal cohort study. The present study constitutes a three-year follow up assessment of lesbian and heterosexual couples after assisted reproduction. Participants requesting assisted reproduction at all fertility clinics performing gamete donation in Sweden, were recruited consecutively during 2005-2008. A total of 114 lesbian women (57 treated women and 57 partners) and 126 heterosexual women and men (63 women and 63 men) participated. Participants responded to the ENRICH inventory at two time points during 2005-2011; at the commencement of treatment (time point 1) and about three years after treatment termination (time point 3). To evaluate the bivariate relationships between the groups (heterosexual and lesbian) and socio-demographic factors Pearson's Chi- square test was used. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used for testing of normality, Mann-Whitney U- test to examine differences in ENRICH between the groups and paired samples t-test to examine scores over time. Lesbian couples reported higher relationship satisfaction than heterosexual couples, however the heterosexual couples satisfaction with relationship quality was not low. Both lesbian and heterosexual couples would be classified accordingly to ENRICH-typology as vitalized or

  10. Sexually Explicit Media Use by Sexual Identity: A Comparative Analysis of Gay, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Men in the United States.

    Downing, Martin J; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Scheinmann, Roberta; Antebi-Gruszka, Nadav; Hirshfield, Sabina

    2017-08-01

    Advances in production and distribution of sexually explicit media (SEM) online have resulted in widespread use among men. Limited research has compared contexts of use and behaviors viewed in Internet SEM by sexual identity. The current study examined differences in recent SEM use (past 6 months) by sexual identity among an ethnically diverse sample of 821 men who completed an online survey in 2015. Both gay and bisexual men reported significantly more frequent use of Internet SEM compared to heterosexual men. Although most participants reported viewing SEM at home (on a computer, tablet, or smartphone), significantly more gay men reported SEM use at a sex party or commercial sex venue than either heterosexual or bisexual men. Sexual identity predicted viewing of high-risk and protective behaviors in separate logistic regression models. Specifically, compared to heterosexual men, gay and bisexual men had increased odds of viewing condomless anal sex (gay OR 5.20, 95 % CI 3.35-8.09; bisexual OR 3.99, 95 % CI 2.24-7.10) and anal sex with a condom (gay OR 3.93, 95 % CI 2.64-5.83; bisexual OR 4.59, 95 % CI 2.78-7.57). Compared to gay men, heterosexual and bisexual men had increased odds of viewing condomless vaginal sex (heterosexual OR 27.08, 95 % CI 15.25-48.07; bisexual OR 5.59, 95 % CI 3.81-8.21) and vaginal sex with a condom (heterosexual OR 7.90, 95 % CI 5.19-12.03; bisexual OR 4.97, 95 % CI 3.32-7.44). There was also evidence of identity discrepant SEM viewing as 20.7 % of heterosexual-identified men reported viewing male same-sex behavior and 55.0 % of gay-identified men reported viewing heterosexual behavior. Findings suggest the importance of assessing SEM use across media types and contexts and have implications for research to address the potential influence of SEM on sexual behavior (e.g., investigate associations between viewing condomless vaginal sex and engaging in high-risk encounters with female partners).

  11. The Preliminary Findings of a Study Exploring the Perceptions of a Sample of Young Heterosexual Males regarding HIV Prevention Education Programming in Nova Scotia, Canada

    Gahagan, Jacqueline; Rehman, Laurene; Barbour, Laura; McWilliam, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Despite the increasing numbers of young Canadian females becoming infected with HIV through heterosexual transmission with an infected male sexual partner, the majority of current HIV prevention programs and services in Canada continue to ignore the needs of young heterosexual males. This research is derived from 30 in-depth interviews, 9 focus…

  12. Suicidal Ideation and Attempt among Adolescents Reporting "Unsure" Sexual Identity or Heterosexual Identity Plus Same-Sex Attraction or Behavior: Forgotten Groups?

    Zhao, Yue; Montoro, Richard; Igartua, Karine; Thombs, Brett D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare risk of suicide ideation and attempts in adolescents with 1) gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) identity, 2) "unsure" identity, or 3) heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior, to heterosexual identity without same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior. Method: A total of 1,856 students 14 years…

  13. Plasma Concentration of Prolactin, Testosterone Might Be Associated with Brain Response to Visual Erotic Stimuli in Healthy Heterosexual Males

    Seo, Younghee; Kim, Ji-Woong; Choi, Jeewook

    2009-01-01

    Objective Many studies have showed that excess or lack of sexual hormones, such as prolactin and testosterone, induced the sexual dysfunction in humans. Little, however, is known about the role of sexual hormones showing normal range in, especially, the basal state unexposed to any sexual stimulation. We hypothesized sexual hormones in the basal state may affect sexual behavior. Methods We investigated the association of the sexual hormones level in the basal hormonal state before visual sexual stimulation with the sexual response-related brain activity during the stimulation. Twelve heterosexual men were recorded the functional MRI signals of their brain activation elicited by passive viewing erotic (ERO), happy-faced (HA) couple, food and nature pictures. Both plasma prolacitn and testosterone concentrations were measured before functional MR scanning. A voxel wise regression analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of sexual hormones in basal state and brain activity elicited by ERO minus HA, not food minus nature, contrast. Results The plasma concentration of prolactin in basal state showed positive association with the activity of the brain involving cognitive component of sexual behavior including the left middle frontal gyrus, paracingulate/superior frontal/anterior cingulate gyri, bilateral parietal lobule, right angular, bilateral precuneus and right cerebellum. Testosterone in basal state was positively associated with the brain activity of the bilateral supplementary motor area which related with motivational component of sexual behavior. Conclusion Our results suggested sexual hormones in basal state may have their specific target regions or network associated with sexual response. PMID:20046395

  14. Arabidopsis roots and shoots show distinct temporal adaptation patterns toward nitrogen starvation.

    Krapp, Anne; Berthomé, Richard; Orsel, Mathilde; Mercey-Boutet, Stéphanie; Yu, Agnes; Castaings, Loren; Elftieh, Samira; Major, Hilary; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise

    2011-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient for plants. N levels in soil vary widely, and plants have developed strategies to cope with N deficiency. However, the regulation of these adaptive responses and the coordinating signals that underlie them are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize N starvation in adult Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants in a spatiotemporal manner by an integrative, multilevel global approach analyzing growth, metabolites, enzyme activities, and transcript levels. We determined that the remobilization of N and carbon compounds to the growing roots occurred long before the internal N stores became depleted. A global metabolite analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed organ-specific differences in the metabolic adaptation to complete N starvation, for example, for several tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, but also for carbohydrates, secondary products, and phosphate. The activities of central N metabolism enzymes and the capacity for nitrate uptake adapted to N starvation by favoring N remobilization and by increasing the high-affinity nitrate uptake capacity after long-term starvation. Changes in the transcriptome confirmed earlier studies and added a new dimension by revealing specific spatiotemporal patterns and several unknown N starvation-regulated genes, including new predicted small RNA genes. No global correlation between metabolites, enzyme activities, and transcripts was evident. However, this multilevel spatiotemporal global study revealed numerous new patterns of adaptation mechanisms to N starvation. In the context of a sustainable agriculture, this work will give new insight for the production of crops with increased N use efficiency.

  15. Two distinct tumor phenotypes isolated from glioblastomas show different MRS characteristics

    Thorsen, F.; Jirák, D.; Wang, J.; Syková, Eva; Bjerkvig, R.; Enger, P.O.; van der Kogel, A.; Hájek, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 8 (2008), s. 830-838 ISSN 0952-3480 Grant - others:EU(NO) LSHC-CT-2004-504743 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Glioblastoma * Proton MRS * Creatine Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.329, year: 2008

  16. Protracted abstinence from distinct drugs of abuse shows regulation of a common gene network.

    Le Merrer, Julie; Befort, Katia; Gardon, Olivier; Filliol, Dominique; Darcq, Emmanuel; Dembele, Doulaye; Becker, Jerome A J; Kieffer, Brigitte L

    2012-01-01

    Addiction is a chronic brain disorder. Prolonged abstinence from drugs of abuse involves dysphoria, high stress responsiveness and craving. The neurobiology of drug abstinence, however, is poorly understood. We previously identified a unique set of hundred mu-opioid receptor-dependent genes in the extended amygdala, a key site for hedonic and stress processing in the brain. Here we examined these candidate genes either immediately after chronic morphine, nicotine, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol or alcohol, or following 4 weeks of abstinence. Regulation patterns strongly differed among chronic groups. In contrast, gene regulations strikingly converged in the abstinent groups and revealed unforeseen common adaptations within a novel huntingtin-centered molecular network previously unreported in addiction research. This study demonstrates that, regardless the drug, a specific set of transcriptional regulations develops in the abstinent brain, which possibly contributes to the negative affect characterizing protracted abstinence. This transcriptional signature may represent a hallmark of drug abstinence and a unitary adaptive molecular mechanism in substance abuse disorders. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Functional groups show distinct differences in nitrogen cycling during early stand development: implications for forest management

    Doug P. Aubrey; David R. Coyle; Mark D. Coleman

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Nutrient acquisition of forest stands is controlled by soil resource availability and belowground production, but tree species are rarely compared in this regard. Here, we examine ecological and management implications of nitrogen (N) dynamics during early forest stand development in productive commercial tree species with narrow (Populus...

  18. 2,4-D and IAA Amino Acid Conjugates Show Distinct Metabolism in Arabidopsis

    Eyer, L.; Vain, T.; Pařízková, Barbora; Oklešťková, Jana; Barbez, E.; Kozubíková, H.; Pospíšil, T.; Wierzbicka, R.; Kleine-Vehn, J.; Fránek, M.; Strnad, Miroslav; Robert, S.; Novák, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 7 (2016), e0159269 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA MŠk LK21306 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : PERFORMANCE LIQUID - CHROMATOGRAPHY * TANDEM MASS-SPECTROMETRY * 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  19. Pannexin-1 channels show distinct morphology and no gap junction characteristics in mammalian cells.

    Beckmann, Anja; Grissmer, Alexander; Krause, Elmar; Tschernig, Thomas; Meier, Carola

    2016-03-01

    Pannexins (Panx) are proteins with a similar membrane topology to connexins, the integral membrane protein of gap junctions. Panx1 channels are generally of major importance in a large number of system and cellular processes and their function has been thoroughly characterized. In contrast, little is known about channel structure and subcellular distribution. We therefore determine the subcellular localization of Panx1 channels in cultured cells and aim at the identification of channel morphology in vitro. Using freeze-fracture replica immunolabeling on EYFP-Panx1-overexpressing HEK 293 cells, large particles were identified in plasma membranes, which were immunogold-labeled using either GFP or Panx1 antibodies. There was no labeling or particles in the nuclear membranes of these cells, pointing to plasma membrane localization of Panx1-EYFP channels. The assembly of particles was irregular, this being in contrast to the regular pattern of gap junctions. The fact that no counterparts were identified on apposing cells, which would have been indicative of intercellular signaling, supported the idea of Panx1 channels within one membrane. Control cells (transfected with EYFP only, non-transfected) were devoid of both particles and immunogold labeling. Altogether, this study provides the first demonstration of Panx1 channel morphology and assembly in intact cells. The identification of Panx1 channels as large particles within the plasma membrane provides the knowledge required to enable recognition of Panx1 channels in tissues in future studies. Thus, these results open up new avenues for the detailed analysis of the subcellular localization of Panx1 and of its nearest neighbors such as purinergic receptors in vivo.

  20. AREVA: Operating performance shows distinct improvement; Results heavily impacted by the cost of remedial measures

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 results illustrate the progress AREVA made in 2015 and open up favorable prospects for 2016 and the following years in view of its fundamentals. The group's competitiveness plan had a very positive impact on its costs and cash, despite the heavy net loss situation which continues and in a market environment that remained difficult in 2015. Half of this loss of 2 billion Euro is due to additional provisions for OL3 and half to provisions for restructuring and impairment related to market conditions. Concerning the group's liquidity, 2016 is funded and the capital increase which will be launched in the coming months will enable AREVA to gradually regain the group's positive profile. A new phase awaits the Group in 2016 with clarity and confidence in the implementation of the restructuring announced in 2015 and in particular the autonomy of AREVA NP and the creation of New AREVA

  1. Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?

    McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.

  2. Awareness of and willingness to use oral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples: a cross-sectional survey in Xinjiang, China.

    Peierdun Mijiti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the awareness of and willingness to use oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP for HIV prevention among HIV-negative partners in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in Xinjiang, China and determine factors that predict willingness to use oral PrEP. METHODS: Between November 2009 and December 2010, a cross-sectional survey was carried out among 351 HIV-negative partners in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples from three cities in Xinjiang, China. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess their awareness of and willingness to use oral PrEP. Additionally, blood samples were collected to test for HIV infection. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of willingness to use oral PrEP. RESULTS: Only 10 participants (2.8% reported having heard of PrEP, and only two reported ever using PrEP. However, 297 (84.6% reported that they were willing to use oral PrEP if it was proven to be both safe and effective. Results of multivariate analysis revealed the following independent predictors of willingness to use oral PrEP: monthly household income (adjusted odds ratio = 2.78, <1000 RMB vs. ≥ 1000 RMB, 95% confidence interval: 1.36-5.69, perceived likelihood of contracting HIV from HIV-positive partner (adjusted odds ratio = 2.63, likely vs. unlikely, 95% confidence interval: 1.12-6.19, and worrying about being discriminated against by others due to oral PrEP use (adjusted odds ratio = 9.43, No vs. Yes, 95% confidence interval: 3.78-23.50. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed HIV-negative partners in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in China had low awareness of oral PrEP but high willingness to use oral PrEP for HIV prevention. Cost of oral PrEP should be taken into consideration in future PrEP prevention strategy. In addition, efforts should be made to reduce stigma attached to oral PrEP use, which may increase its acceptability among

  3. Commitment in Age-Gap Heterosexual Romantic Relationships: A Test of Evolutionary and Socio-Cultural Predictions

    Lehmiller, Justin J.; Agnew, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    Little research has addressed age-gap romantic relationships (romantic involvements characterized by substantial age differences between partners). Drawing on evolutionary and socio-cultural perspectives, the present study examined normative beliefs and commitment processes among heterosexual women involved in age-gap and age-concordant…

  4. How long-distance truck drivers and villagers in rural southeastern Tanzania think about heterosexual anal sex: a qualitative study

    Mtenga, S.; Shamba, D.; Wamoyi, J.; Kakoko, D.; Haafkens, J.; Mongi, A.; Kapiga, S.; Geubbels, E.

    2015-01-01

    To explore ideas of truck drivers and villagers from rural Tanzania about heterosexual anal sex (HAS) and the associated health risks. Qualitative study using 8 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and 2 focus group discussions (FGDs) with truck drivers and 16 IDIs and 4 FGDs with villagers from the Morogoro

  5. How long-distance truck drivers and villagers in rural southeastern Tanzania think about heterosexual anal sex: a qualitative study

    Mtenga, S.; Shamba, D.; Wamoyi, J.; Kakoko, D.; Haafkens, J.; Mongi, A.; Kapiga, S.; Geubbels, E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore ideas of truck drivers and villagers from rural Tanzania about heterosexual anal sex (HAS) and the associated health risks. Methods: Qualitative study using 8 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and 2 focus group discussions (FGDs) with truck drivers and 16 IDIs and 4 FGDs with

  6. The Dark Triad and three types of jealousy : Its’ relations among heterosexuals and homosexuals involved in a romantic relationship

    Barelds, Dick P.H.; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Groothof, Hinke A.K.; Pastoor, Charlotte D.

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the relations between the three Dark Triad (DT) traits and three types of jealousy, among both heterosexual and homosexual men and women involved in a romantic relationship (n = 439). It was hypothesized that the three DT traits would be related positively to those types

  7. Emotional Intimacy Among Coupled Heterosexual and Gay/Bisexual Croatian Men: Assessing the Role of Minority Stress.

    Šević, Sandra; Ivanković, Iva; Štulhofer, Aleksandar

    2016-07-01

    Emotional intimacy cuts across contexts as diverse as sexual motivation and satisfaction, psychological and physical health, and relational well-being. Although the experience of intimacy and its effects on sex life may be gender and sexual orientation-specific, the role of intimacy in personal and sexual relationships has been studied mostly among heterosexual individuals and couples. Using the minority stress framework (Meyer, 2003) to address this gap in knowledge, the present study comparatively explored levels and predictors/correlates of emotional intimacy, and its association with sexual satisfaction among coupled heterosexual and gay/bisexual men sampled online in a predominantly homonegative country (Croatia). Heterosexual participants (n = 860; M age = 36.4, SD = 9.09) were recruited in 2011 and gay/bisexual participants (n = 250; M age = 29.4, SD = 7.13) in 2013. Controlling for age and relationship duration, gay/bisexual men reported higher levels of emotional intimacy than heterosexual men. Suggesting that the role of emotional intimacy in sexual satisfaction is not sexual orientation-specific, the strength of the association between these two constructs was similar in both samples. However, internalized homonegativity, which was negatively associated with emotional intimacy in this study, remains a challenge to creating and maintaining intimacy in male same-sex relationships.

  8. 'The full has never been told': building a theory of sexual health for heterosexual Black men of Caribbean descent.

    Crowell, Candice N; Delgado-Romero, Edward A; Mosley, Della V; Huynh, Sophia

    2016-08-01

    Research on Black sexual health often fails to represent the heterogeneity of Black ethnic groups. For people of Caribbean descent in the USA, ethnicity is a salient cultural factor that influences definitions and experiences of sexual health. Most research on people of Caribbean descent focuses on the relatively high rate of STIs, but sexual health is defined more broadly than STI prevalence. Psychological and emotional indicators and the voice of participants are important to consider when exploring the sexual health of a minority culture. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore how heterosexual Black men of Caribbean descent define and understand sexual health for themselves. Eleven men who self-identified as Black, Caribbean and heterosexual participated in three focus groups and were asked to define sexual health, critique behaviours expertly identified as healthy and address what encourages and discourages sexual health in their lives. Findings point to six dimensions of sexual health for heterosexual Black men of Caribbean descent. These include: heterosexually privileged, protective, contextual, interpersonal, cultural and pleasurable dimensions. There were some notable departures from current expert definitions of sexual health. Recommendations for further theory development are provided.

  9. Comparing sexual-minority and heterosexual young women's friends and parents as sources of support for sexual issues.

    Friedman, Carly K; Morgan, Elizabeth M

    2009-08-01

    The present study provides a comparative analysis of sexual-minority and heterosexual emerging adult women's experiences seeking support for sexual issues from parents and friends. Participants included 229 college women (88 sexual-minority women; 141 heterosexual women), ranging from 18 to 25 years of age, who provided written responses to an inquiry about a time they went to friends and parents for support for a issue related to their sexuality. Responses indicated that the majority of participants had sought support from either a parent or a friend and that mothers and female friends were more likely involved than fathers or male friends, respectively. Sexual issues that participants reported discussing with parents and friends were inductively grouped into five categories: dating and romantic relationships, sexual behavior, sexual health, identity negotiation, and discrimination and violence. Issues that were discussed differed based on sexual orientation identity and the source of support (parent or friend); they did not differ by age. Participants generally perceived parents and friends' responses as helpful, though sexual-minority participants perceived both parents and friends' responses as less helpful than did heterosexual participants. Overall, results suggest both similarities and differences between sexual-minority and heterosexual young women's experiences seeking support for sexual issues from parents and friends.

  10. Ironic Effects of Sexual Minority Group Membership: Are Lesbians Less Susceptible to Invoking Negative Female Stereotypes than Heterosexual Women?

    Niedlich, Claudia; Steffens, Melanie C; Krause, Jacqueline; Settke, Elisabeth; Ebert, Irena D

    2015-07-01

    The traditional stereotype of the typical woman has been described as "nice, but incompetent." However, such general gender stereotypes are applied to individual targets only under certain conditions: They are used to "fill in the blanks" (Heilman, 2012) if little personal information is provided about a target. "Typical lesbians" are regarded to have more typically masculine (agentic) characteristics such as task competence than the typical woman does. We thus hypothesized that if a woman displays behavior coinciding with the stereotype of the typical woman, it is more readily interpreted as stereotypically female if performed by a heterosexual woman than by a lesbian. Participants (N = 296) read a hypothetical job interview in which we manipulated the target's sexual orientation (between subjects). Findings demonstrated that a lesbian was judged as more competent than a heterosexual woman in the presence of behavior that may be interpreted as gender-stereotypical (Experiments 1 and 2). This difference in competence judgments was not found in the absence of gender-stereotypical behavior (Experiment 1). Judging the heterosexual woman as low in masculinity was related to a judgment of lower competence (Experiment 2). Our findings demonstrate that there are conditions under which lesbians, a group often stereotyped negatively, are less susceptible to invoking negative female stereotypes than heterosexual women are.

  11. Fournier’s Gangrene in a Heterosexual Man: A Complication of Neisseria meningitidis Urethritis

    Tariq A. Khemees

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 55-year-old heterosexual male presented to the emergency department with a symptomatology consistent with urethritis and Fournier’s gangrene. Urethral swab and operative tissue cultures were positive for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and an intracellular Gram-negative diplococcus. The latter was initially thought to be Neisseria gonorrhea; however, DNA sequencing technique confirmed it to be Neisseria meningitidis. The patient required three separate surgical debridements to control widespread necrotizing infection. Following documentation of sterile wound healing with appropriate antibiotics, four reconstructive surgeries were necessary to manage the resultant wound defects. To our knowledge, Neisseria meningitidis as a causative organism in Fournier’s gangrene has not been reported in the literature.

  12. Gender inequality dynamics in the prevention of a heterosexual HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Wathuta, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This paper critiques the approach to the elimination of gender inequality as an HIV prevention strategy in the just ended era of the Millennium Development Goals, with the aim of contributing to the formulation of policy guidelines for sub-Saharan Africa in the Sustainable Development Goals. The aim is to underscore the mutual responsibility of women and men in achieving a sustainable HIV response and ending the epidemic. While taking into account the real vulnerability of women, prevention programmes can reflect gender dynamics more accurately so that attention is given to the role of both sexes in propagating - or stemming - a predominantly heterosexual HIV epidemic. More emphasis could be given to the harm caused to both men and women by certain norms related to masculinity and sexuality, and the subsequent need for combined efforts in reducing intimate partner violence and concurrency. The empowerment and engagement of both women and men as agents of change would need to be dealt with more creatively.

  13. Three Co-Existing Sexually Transmitted Diseases in a Heterosexual Male Youth: A Case Report

    Theetat M. Surawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Most sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are asymptomatic, leading to widespread underdiagnoses estimated at 50% or higher. The presence of one STD significantly indicates an individual’s sexual health risk since an STD contributes to the transmission and acquisition of other STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Multiple co-existing STDs, thus, further increase the susceptibility of acquiring and transmitting HIV by twofold or more. Therefore, the comprehensive STD prevention strategies play a major role in reducing the transmission of HIV infection. We report an interesting case of a heterosexual male youth who presented at dermatology clinic with three concurrent sexually transmitted diseases: gonococcal urethritis, genital wart, and late latent syphilis. The case demonstrated significant issues for appropriate approaches and management of multiple co-existing STDs. Also, it reinforced the necessity for STD counselling for the patient, his partners, and family.

  14. Perceived Cross-Orientation Infidelity: Heterosexual Perceptions of Same-Sex Cheating in Exclusive Relationships.

    Compton, Benjamin L; Bowman, Jonathan M

    2017-01-01

    For individuals in exclusive romantic relationships, the dynamics of sexual experimentation are nuanced. Extradyadic behavior outside of a relationship may be perceived as cheating or infidelity, with much of those perceptions driven by the biological sex of the perceiver. This study significantly reframes seminal research on perceptions of cheating with third-party friends by Kruger et al. (2013), to further nuance an evolutionary threat-based model. In doing so, this furthers our understanding of the associated perceptions of individuals in heterosexual relationships when confronted by partners' cheating with their same-sex cross-orientation friends. Results indicate that perceptions of same-sex infidelity vary widely depending on the nature of the behaviors, with decreasing attribution given to sexual and erotic behaviors, close relational behaviors, and casual social interaction behaviors, respectively. Implications are discussed for a variety of sexual communities, as well as the impact of gender and relational status on perceptions of infidelity.

  15. Risk factors for AIDS among Haitians residing in the US: evidence of heterosexual transmission

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    In a study of Haitians in Miami and New York, Creole-speaking interviewers questioned 55 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (45 men and ten women) and 242 control-persons (164 men and 78 women). One male patient was homosexual, and one female patient had received blood within five years. No one admitted to intravenous drug use, hemophilia, or sexual contact with AIDS patients. Male AIDS patients were significantly more likely than control-men to have entered the US after 1977 and to have had gonorrhea, syphilis, and sexual contact with female prostitutes. Female AIDS patients were more likely to have voodoo-priest friends and to have been offered money for sex. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome was probably contracted through sexual contact with infected heterosexuals

  16. Prospects of implicit measures in assessment of defensive function of explicit homophobia in heterosexuals

    Lazarević Ljiljana B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some authors state that one of the functions of explicit homophobia is defensive, and that it has roots in latent attraction towards same sex. Large body of evidence suggests that implicit techniques enable assessment of those cognitions hidden from conscious awareness. Sample of 277 heterosexuals completed several implicit (Implicit Association Test-IAT and Affective Priming-AP and explicit measures of attitude (Test of homophobia and Connotative differential. Multi-group SEM analysis was done to investigate cross-sample stability of the model postulating influence of IAT and AP factors on latent explicit factor. Analyses suggest that both in males and females IAT latent factor predicts negative explicit attitude. Results revealed that explicit homophobia is related to implicit, negative attitude toward homosexuals and not to implicit attraction towards same sex. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018 i br. 179033

  17. Satisfaction with sex life in sexually active heterosexual couples dealing with breast cancer

    Rottmann, Nina; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; dePont Christensen, René

    2017-01-01

    Background: A breast cancer (BC) diagnosis can profoundly affect the sex life of patient and partner within a couple. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether individual and partner sexual functioning, affectionate behavior, emotional closeness and depressive symptoms are associated...... with change over time in satisfaction with sex life of sexually active heterosexual couples dealing with BC and to explore whether the associations differ between patients and partners after adjustment for basic sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidity and BC treatment. Material and methods: Women...... vaginal discomfort and more vaginal lubrication were associated with increases in patients’ satisfaction with sex life. Patients’ and partners’ satisfaction increased with higher ratings of their own orgasm ability and of partners’ timing of ejaculation. Patients’ reports of affectionate behavior were...

  18. Intergroup Leadership Across Distinct Subgroups and Identities.

    Rast, David E; Hogg, Michael A; van Knippenberg, Daan

    2018-03-01

    Resolving intergroup conflict is a significant and often arduous leadership challenge, yet existing theory and research rarely, if ever, discuss or examine this situation. Leaders confront a significant challenge when they provide leadership across deep divisions between distinct subgroups defined by self-contained identities-The challenge is to avoid provoking subgroup identity distinctiveness threat. Drawing on intergroup leadership theory, three studies were conducted to test the core hypothesis that, where identity threat exists, leaders promoting an intergroup relational identity will be better evaluated and are more effective than leaders promoting a collective identity; in the absence of threat, leaders promoting a collective identity will prevail. Studies 1 and 2 ( N = 170; N = 120) supported this general proposition. Study 3 ( N = 136) extended these findings, showing that leaders promoting an intergroup relational identity, but not a collective identity, improved intergroup attitudes when participants experienced an identity distinctiveness threat.

  19. Qualitative Analysis of an Educational Intervention with HIV-Discordant Heterosexual Latino Couples

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Orengo-Aguayo, Rosaura E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This qualitative analysis elucidates the potential elements of the intervention that may be effective in terms of a) increasing knowledge about HIV/AIDS in the members of this population; b) increasing the use of male condoms and the practice of mutual masturbation; and c) changing opinions toward male condom use and mutual masturbation. Methods Five heterosexual HIV-discordant couples participated in the adapted intervention, which consisted of four three-hour-long sessions. One month after the intervention, we conducted a qualitative semi-structured interview with every participant to evaluate issues related to the process and content of the activities comprising the intervention, the impact of the intervention, logistics, and recruitment and retention as well as to make a more general evaluation. The information was submitted to qualitative content analysis. Results After the intervention, participants reported having better attitudes regarding safer sex, particularly in terms of condom use. A reason given by the participants to feel more positive toward condom use and mutual masturbation was that these practices could prevent the infection of the HIV-negative partner. Conclusion This study provides important evidence of an intervention that promises to be efficacious in preventing some high-risk sexual behaviors among Latino HIV-discordant heterosexual couples. The evidence presented seems to suggest that an intervention that includes basic relevant information about HIV/AIDS, that explains the benefits of condom use and other safer sex options, and that provides effective negotiation and communication strategies could significantly reduce HIV transmission among these couples. PMID:22263299

  20. Estimating PMTCT's Impact on Heterosexual HIV Transmission: A Mathematical Modeling Analysis.

    Aditya S Khanna

    Full Text Available Prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT strategies include combined short-course antiretrovirals during pregnancy (Option A, triple-drug antiretroviral treament (ART during pregnancy and breastfeeding (Option B, or lifelong ART (Option B+. The WHO also recommends ART for HIV treatment and prevention of sexual transmission of HIV. The impact of PMTCT strategies on prevention of sexual HIV transmission of HIV is not known. We estimated the population-level impact of PMTCT interventions on heterosexual HIV transmission in southwestern Uganda and KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, two regions with different HIV prevalence and fertility rates.We constructed and validated dynamic, stochastic, network-based HIV transmission models for each region. PMTCT Options A, B, and B+ were simulated over ten years under three scenarios: 1 current ART and PMTCT coverage, 2 current ART and high PMTCT coverage, and 3 high ART and PMTCT coverage. We compared adult HIV incidence after ten years of each intervention to Option A (and current ART at current coverage.At current coverage, Options B and B+ reduced heterosexual HIV incidence by about 5% and 15%, respectively, in both countries. With current ART and high PMTCT coverage, Option B+ reduced HIV incidence by 35% in Uganda and 19% in South Africa, while Option B had smaller, but meaningful, reductions. The greatest reductions in HIV incidence were achieved with high ART and PMTCT coverage. In this scenario, all PMTCT strategies yielded similar results.Implementation of Options B/B+ reduces adult HIV incidence, with greater effect (relative to Option A at current levels in Uganda than South Africa. These results are likely driven by Uganda's higher fertility rates.

  1. Is Pornography Use Associated with Sexual Difficulties and Dysfunctions among Younger Heterosexual Men?

    Landripet, Ivan; Štulhofer, Aleksandar

    2015-05-01

    Recent epidemiological studies reported high prevalence rates of erectile dysfunction (ED) among younger heterosexual men (≤40). It has been suggested that this "epidemic" of ED is related to increased pornography use. However, empirical evidence for such association is currently lacking. This study analyzes associations between pornography use and sexual health disturbances among younger heterosexual men using four large-scale online samples from three European countries. The analyses were carried out using a 2011 cross-sectional online study of Croatian, Norwegian, and Portuguese men (Study 1; N = 2,737) and a 2014 cross-sectional online study of Croatian men (Study 2; N = 1,211). Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were used to explore the associations between pornography use and sexual difficulties. In Study 1, erectile difficulties, inability to reach orgasm, and a lack of sexual desire were measured using the Global Study of Sexual Attitudes and Behavior indicators. In Study 2, ED was measured with the abridged International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5). Delayed ejaculation and a decrease of sexual desire were assessed with one-item indicators. In Study 1, only the relationship between pornography use and ED among Croatian men was statistically significant (χ(2) [2] = 18.76, P pornography, moderate but not high frequency of pornography use increased the odds of reporting ED (adjusted odds ratio = 0.53, P pornography use and male sexual dysfunctions were observed. We found little evidence of the association between pornography use and male sexual health disturbances. Contrary to raising public concerns, pornography does not seem to be a significant risk factor for younger men's desire, erectile, or orgasmic difficulties. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. Cybersex addiction in heterosexual female users of internet pornography can be explained by gratification hypothesis.

    Laier, Christian; Pekal, Jaro; Brand, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    In the context of Internet addiction, cybersex is considered to be an Internet application in which users are at risk for developing addictive usage behavior. Regarding males, experimental research has shown that indicators of sexual arousal and craving in response to Internet pornographic cues are related to severity of cybersex addiction in Internet pornography users (IPU). Since comparable investigations on females do not exist, the aim of this study is to investigate predictors of cybersex addiction in heterosexual women. We examined 51 female IPU and 51 female non-Internet pornography users (NIPU). Using questionnaires, we assessed the severity of cybersex addiction in general, as well as propensity for sexual excitation, general problematic sexual behavior, and severity of psychological symptoms. Additionally, an experimental paradigm, including a subjective arousal rating of 100 pornographic pictures, as well as indicators of craving, was conducted. Results indicated that IPU rated pornographic pictures as more arousing and reported greater craving due to pornographic picture presentation compared with NIPU. Moreover, craving, sexual arousal rating of pictures, sensitivity to sexual excitation, problematic sexual behavior, and severity of psychological symptoms predicted tendencies toward cybersex addiction in IPU. Being in a relationship, number of sexual contacts, satisfaction with sexual contacts, and use of interactive cybersex were not associated with cybersex addiction. These results are in line with those reported for heterosexual males in previous studies. Findings regarding the reinforcing nature of sexual arousal, the mechanisms of learning, and the role of cue reactivity and craving in the development of cybersex addiction in IPU need to be discussed.

  3. HTLV-3 infection and AIDS: risk of spread by heterosexual contact.

    Craske, J

    1986-02-01

    This article reviews current research evidence on the natural history, epidemiology, and clinical features of acquired immunodeficiency disease (AIDS) and presents guidelines for controlling the sexual transmission of human lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) infection. The rapid spread of HTLV-III infection through homosexual communities in the US and Europe and its association with promiscuity initially obscured the fact that heterosexual transmission is also a significant risk factor for infection. Public health workers and epidemiologists are examining which sexual practices are most associated with the transmission of HTLV-III infection. Case-control studies in homosexuals have suggested that promiscuity, passive anal intercourse, and other sexual practices associated with rectal trauma and bleeding correlate with infection. Similar studies involving heterosexuals have not been conducted. However, the following guidelines have been proposed for couples where 1 partner has been found to be positive for HTLV-III antibodies: 1) sexual partners should be confined to established relationships; 2) anal intercourse should be avoided, even if the male uses a condom; 3) no oral contact with semen should occur; 4) if vaginal intercourse is practiced, the use of condom is essential; and 5) the only practices that are free from risk of infection are mutual masturbation and hand caresses. Since a high proportion of children of women with HTLV-III develop severe immunodeficiency, it is undesirable for women who are HTLV-III antibody positive to become pregnant. Furthermore, there is evidence that women who are HTLV-III antibody positive are more likely to develop AIDS if they become pregnant. A reliable method of permanent or reversible contraception is recommended for these women. Finally, men who are antibody positive should not donate sperm to a sperm bank.

  4. Absence of transmission from HIV-infected individuals with HAART to their heterosexual serodiscordant partners.

    Del Romero, Jorge; Río, Isabel; Castilla, Jesús; Baza, Begoña; Paredes, Vanessa; Vera, Mar; Rodríguez, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    Further studies are needed to evaluate the level of effectiveness and durability of HAART to reduce the risk of HIV sexual transmission in serodiscordant couples having unprotected sexual practices. A cross-sectional study was conducted with prospective cohort of heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples where the only risk factor for HIV transmission to the uninfected partner (sexual partner) was the sexual relationship with the infected partner (index case). HIV prevalence in sexual partners at enrolment and seroconversions in follow-up were compared by antiretroviral treatment in the index partner, HIV plasma viral load in index cases and sexual risk exposures in sexual partners. In each visit, an evaluation of the risks for HIV transmission, preventive counselling and screening for genitourinary infections in the sexual partner was performed, as well as the determination of the immunological and virological situation and antiretroviral treatment in the index case. At enrolment no HIV infection was detected in 202 couples where the index case was taking HAART. HIV prevalence in sexual partners was 9.6% in 491 couples where the index case was not taking antiretroviral treatment (p<0.001). During follow-up there was no HIV seroconversion among 199 partners whose index case was taking HAART, accruing 7600 risky sexual exposures and 85 natural pregnancies. Among 359 couples whose index case was not under antiretroviral treatment, over 13,000 risky sexual exposures and 5 HIV seroconversions of sexual partners were recorded. The percentage of seroconversion among couples having risky sexual intercourse was 2.5 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-5.6) when the index case did not undergo antiretroviral treatment and zero (95% CI: 0-3.2) when the index case received HAART. The risk of sexual transmission of HIV from individuals with HAART to their heterosexual partners can become extremely low. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  5. HIV, syphilis and heterosexual bridging among Peruvian men who have sex with men.

    Tabet, Stephen; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier; Goicochea, Pedro; Campos, Pablo; Rouillon, Manuel; Cairo, Jose Luis; Ueda, Lucia; Watts, Douglas; Celum, Connie; Holmes, King K

    2002-06-14

    To determine prevalence of and risk factors associated with HIV and syphilis seropositivity and estimate incidence of HIV infection among Peruvian men who have sex with men (MSM) and characterize behaviors of men who report sex with both men and women ('bridgers'). Cross-sectional study of MSM in Lima, Peru. Four-hundred and fifty-one MSM (of whom 442 responded to the question regarding sexual orientation) recruited through street outreach. Each was interviewed and underwent serologic testing for syphilis and HIV, including the less sensitive enzyme immunoassay test to estimate HIV incidence. Overall, HIV and syphilis prevalence were 18.5% and 16.0%, respectively, with highest prevalence among cross-dressers (33.3% and 51.1%, respectively). The estimated overall HIV seroincidence was 11.2% per year (95% confidence interval, 4.8-23.6). Overall, 47.1% of men reported ever having sex with a woman: 78.6% of men self-identifying as heterosexuals, 85.1% of bisexuals, 35.5% of homosexuals, and 12.5% of cross-dressers. Of these, 26.5% were 'bridgers', of whom 55% reported two or more female partners during the last year. 'Bridgers' were less likely to have always used condoms during the past year for vaginal sex (17%) than for insertive anal sex with men (25.5%). Among MSM in Peru, HIV and syphilis prevalence and HIV incidence were high, especially among cross-dressers. The high prevalence of bisexuality and low rates of consistent condom use, especially with female sexual partners indicates potential HIV transmission into the heterosexual population.

  6. Differences in Orgasm Frequency Among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Men and Women in a U.S. National Sample.

    Frederick, David A; John, H Kate St; Garcia, Justin R; Lloyd, Elisabeth A

    2018-01-01

    There is a notable gap between heterosexual men and women in frequency of orgasm during sex. Little is known, however, about sexual orientation differences in orgasm frequency. We examined how over 30 different traits or behaviors were associated with frequency of orgasm when sexually intimate during the past month. We analyzed a large US sample of adults (N = 52,588) who identified as heterosexual men (n = 26,032), gay men (n = 452), bisexual men (n = 550), lesbian women (n = 340), bisexual women (n = 1112), and heterosexual women (n = 24,102). Heterosexual men were most likely to say they usually-always orgasmed when sexually intimate (95%), followed by gay men (89%), bisexual men (88%), lesbian women (86%), bisexual women (66%), and heterosexual women (65%). Compared to women who orgasmed less frequently, women who orgasmed more frequently were more likely to: receive more oral sex, have longer duration of last sex, be more satisfied with their relationship, ask for what they want in bed, praise their partner for something they did in bed, call/email to tease about doing something sexual, wear sexy lingerie, try new sexual positions, anal stimulation, act out fantasies, incorporate sexy talk, and express love during sex. Women were more likely to orgasm if their last sexual encounter included deep kissing, manual genital stimulation, and/or oral sex in addition to vaginal intercourse. We consider sociocultural and evolutionary explanations for these orgasm gaps. The results suggest a variety of behaviors couples can try to increase orgasm frequency.

  7. Online or off-line victimisation and psychological well-being: a comparison of sexual-minority and heterosexual youth.

    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare sexual-minority and heterosexual youths' exposure to sexual abuse off-line, problematic sexual meetings off-line with person/s met online and online harassment with regard to prevalence, psychological well-being and support seeking. A nationally representative sample of 3,432 Swedish high school seniors completed an anonymous school-based survey about sexuality, health, sexual abuse and online-related sexual victimisation or harassment. Sexual-minority adolescents reported a greater rate of sexual abuse, problematic sexual meetings off-line with person/s met online and online harassment, compared to heterosexual youth. When compared to non-victimised heterosexual adolescents, victimised heterosexual adolescents and non-victimised and victimised sexual-minority adolescents reported more psychiatric symptoms, lower self-esteem and a weaker sense of coherence. Same-sex sexual orientation was related to more psychiatric symptoms, lower self-esteem and a weaker sense of coherence even when controlled for victimisation and gender. Compared to victimised heterosexual adolescents, victimised sexual-minority adolescents were more likely to seek support because of sexual abuse (females) or Internet-related problems (males and females). Results for sexual-minority youth were basically the same whether sexual orientation was assessed as sexual identity or as sexual or emotional attraction. Health care providers are challenged to not only provide the same care to sexual-minority youth who seek counselling or psychiatric treatment for mental health problems or problems related to victimisation that all adolescents should receive but also to find ways to address topics like prevention of sexual abuse and risk-taking behaviour online or off-line.

  8. Distinction

    2010-01-01

    Pr Serge Haroche La Médaille d’or 2009 du CNRS est décernée au Pr Serge Haroche, titulaire de la chaire de Physique quantique depuis 2001. Serge Haroche est spécialiste de physique atomique et d’optique quantique. Il est l’un des fondateurs de l’électrodynamique quantique en cavité, domaine qui permet, par des expériences conceptuellement simples, d’éclairer les fondements de la théorie quantique et de réaliser des prototypes de systèmes de traitement quantique de l’information. Serge Haroche...

  9. Sexual function and satisfaction among heterosexual and sexual minority U.S. adults: A cross-sectional survey.

    Kathryn E Flynn

    Full Text Available Despite known health disparities for sexual minorities, few studies have described sexual function by sexual orientation using a robust approach to measurement of sexual function. We compared recent sexual function and satisfaction by sexual orientation among English-speaking US adults.Cross-sectional surveys were administered by KnowledgePanel® (GfK, an online panel that uses address-based probability sampling and is representative of the civilian, noninstitutionalized US population. Data were collected in 2013 from the general population (n = 3314, 35% response rate and in 2014 from self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults (n = 1011, 50% response rate. Sexual function and satisfaction were measured using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® Sexual Function and Satisfaction measure version 2.0 (PROMIS SexFS v2. The PROMIS SexFS v2 is a comprehensive, customizable measurement system with evidence for validity in diverse populations. A score of 50 (SD 10 on each domain corresponds to the average for US adults sexually active in the past 30 days. We adjusted all statistics for the complex sample designs and report differences within each sex where the 95% CIs do not overlap, corresponding to p<0.01. Among US men who reported any sexual activity in the past 30 days, there were no differences in erectile function or orgasm-ability. Compared to heterosexual men, sexual minority men reported higher oral dryness and lower orgasm-pleasure and satisfaction. Compared to heterosexual men, gay men reported lower interest, higher anal discomfort and higher oral discomfort. Among sexually active women, there were no differences in the domains of vulvar discomfort-clitoral, orgasm-pleasure, or satisfaction. Compared to heterosexual women, sexual minority women reported higher oral dryness. Lesbian women reported lower vaginal discomfort than other women; lesbian women reported higher lubrication and orgasm-ability than

  10. Defining poverty as distinctively human

    H.P.P. Lötter

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available While it is relatively easy for most people to identify human beings suffering from poverty, it is rather more difficult to come to a proper understanding of poverty. In this article the author wants to deepen our understanding of poverty by interpreting the conventional definitions of poverty in a new light. The article starts with a defence of a claim that poverty is a concept uniquely applicable to humans. It then present a critical discussion of the distinction between absolute and relative poverty and it is then argued that a revision of this distinction can provide general standards applicable to humans everywhere.

  11. A cross-sectional analysis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant African couples.

    Bochner, Aaron F; Baeten, Jared M; Rustagi, Alison S; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Lingappa, Jairam R; Mugo, Nelly R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Kapiga, Saidi; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Celum, Connie; Barnabas, Ruanne V

    2017-11-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent curable STI worldwide and has been associated with adverse health outcomes and increased HIV-1 transmission risk. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among couples to assess how characteristics of both individuals in sexual partnerships are associated with the prevalence of male and female T. vaginalis infection. African HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples were concurrently tested for trichomoniasis at enrolment into two clinical trials. T. vaginalis testing was by nucleic acid amplification or culture methods. Using Poisson regression with robust standard errors, we identified characteristics associated with trichomoniasis. Among 7531 couples tested for trichomoniasis, 981 (13%) couples contained at least one infected partner. The prevalence was 11% (n=857) among women and 4% (n=319) among men, and most infected individuals did not experience signs or symptoms of T. vaginalis . Exploring concordance of T. vaginalis status within sexual partnerships, we observed that 61% (195/319) of T. vaginalis -positive men and 23% (195/857) of T. vaginalis -positive women had a concurrently infected partner. In multivariable analysis, having a T. vaginalis -positive partner was the strongest predictor of infection for women (relative risk (RR) 4.70, 95% CI 4.10 to 5.38) and men (RR 10.09, 95% CI 7.92 to 12.85). For women, having outside sex partners, gonorrhoea, and intermediate or high Nugent scores for bacterial vaginosis were associated with increased risk of trichomoniasis, whereas age 45 years and above, being married, having children and injectable contraceptive use were associated with reduced trichomoniasis risk. Additionally, women whose male partners were circumcised, had more education or earned income had lower risk of trichomoniasis. We found that within African HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples, the prevalence of trichomoniasis was high among partners of T. vaginalis -infected individuals, suggesting

  12. 'What does it take to be a man? What is a real man?': ideologies of masculinity and HIV sexual risk among Black heterosexual men.

    Bowleg, Lisa; Teti, Michelle; Massie, Jenné S; Patel, Aditi; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2011-05-01

    Research documents the link between traditional ideologies of masculinity and sexual risk among multi-ethnic male adolescents and White male college students, but similar research with Black heterosexual men is scarce. This exploratory study addressed this gap through six focus groups with 41 Black, low- to middle-income heterosexual men aged 19 to 51 years in Philadelphia, PA. Analyses highlighted two explicit ideologies of masculinity: that Black men should have sex with multiple women, often concurrently, and that Black men should not be gay or bisexual. Analyses also identified two implicit masculinity ideologies: the perception that Black heterosexual men cannot decline sex, even risky sex, and that women should be responsible for condom use. The study's implications for HIV prevention with Black heterosexual men are discussed. © 2011 Taylor & Francis

  13. “What Does it Take to be a Man? What is a Real Man?”: Ideologies of masculinity and HIV sexual risk among Black heterosexual men

    Bowleg, Lisa; Teti, Michelle; Massie, Jenné S.; Patel, Aditi; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Research documents the link between traditional ideologies of masculinity and sexual risk among multi-ethnic male adolescents and White male college students, but similar research with Black heterosexual men is scarce. This exploratory study addressed this gap through six focus groups with 41 Black, low to middle income heterosexual men aged 19 to 51 years in Philadelphia, PA. Analyses highlighted two explicit ideologies of masculinity: that Black men should have sex with multiple women, often concurrently; and that Black men should not be gay or bisexual. Analyses also identified two implicit masculinity ideologies: the perception that Black heterosexual men cannot decline sex, even risky sex; and that women are primarily responsible for condom use. The study’s implications for HIV prevention with Black heterosexual men are discussed. PMID:21390949

  14. [Characteristics of non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual transmission of HIV infection in Miao-Dong Autonomous prefecture of Qiandongnan].

    Yu, Q Y; Wang, F L; Xu, P; Wen, H J; Xiong, Y X; Yang, J; Long, Y; He, H J; Shi, J; Lyu, P

    2017-11-06

    Objective: The goal of this research was to understand the demographic distribution and related factors of non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual transmission (non-commercial transmission) for HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Methods: Data related to HIV/AIDS infected by non-marital heterosexual transmission and whose present address was in Qian Dongnan, were collected from Information System on the HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control. Information included demographic characteristics, the members of non-marital sex partners, transmission path, detection source, CD4(+)T lymphocyte level, et al. cases belong to homosexual history, injective drug use or non-classified non-marital heterosexuality transmission were excluded, totally collect HIV/AIDS 919 cases. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyze potential factors associated with non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual transmission. In addition, in March and June 2017, using a convenience sampling, we conducted one-to-one interviews among 10 HIV/AIDS who were infected by non-marital heterosexuality and had non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual experience in Kaili Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The content of the interview included basic information, sexual orientation, the main place of making friends and sexual behavior, attitude to commercial heterosexuality and non-martial and non-commercial heterosexuality and so on. Results: Out of the 919 cases, 645 (70.2%) were male, the proportion of non-commercial transmission was 55.06% (506). The proportion of female HIV/AIDS with non-commercial transmission was 84.7% (232), which was higher than male (42.5%(274)) (χ(2)=138.35, Pcommercial transmission was 61.5% (275), which was higher than other religion (52.2%(412)) (χ(2)=6.32, P= 0.012). The proportion of HIV/AIDS with non-commercial transmission who had 0-5 non-marital sexual partners was 58.8% (498), which was higher than who had>5 non

  15. Rethinking Gender, Heterosexual Men, and Women’s Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: Time to Shift the Paradigm

    Higgins, Jenny A.; Hoffman, Susie; Dworkin, Shari L.

    2010-01-01

    Most HIV prevention literature portrays women as especially “vulnerable” to HIV infection by way of biological susceptibility and men’s sexual power and privilege. Conversely, heterosexual men are perceived as active transmitters of HIV but not active agents in prevention. Although the women’s vulnerability paradigm was a radical revision of earlier views of women in the epidemic, mounting challenges undermine its current usefulness. This paper reviews the etiology and successes of the paradi...

  16. Wellbeing of gay fathers with children born through surrogacy: a comparison with lesbian mother families and heterosexual IVF parent families

    Van Rijn-van Gelderen, L; Bos, HWM; Joregnsen, TD; Ellis-Davies, K; Winstanley, A; Golombok, S; Rubio, B; Gross, M; Vecho, O; Lamb, ME

    2018-01-01

    Study question:\\ud Are there differences in levels of parental wellbeing (parental stress, psychological adjustment, and partner relationship satisfaction) between gay-father families with infants born through surrogacy, lesbian-mother families with infants born through donor insemination, and heterosexual-parent families with infants born through IVF?\\ud \\ud Summary answer:\\ud There were no differences in parental wellbeing.\\ud \\ud What is known already: \\ud The only other study of parental ...

  17. Effect of age-difference between heterosexual partners on risk of cervical cancer and human papillomavirus infection

    Baussano, Iacopo; Diaz, Mireia; Tully, Stephen; Muñoz, Nubia; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F. Xavier; Franceschi, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Age difference (Adiff) within a heterosexual couple may influence a woman's risk of being HPV-positive and developing cervical cancer (CC). Methods: We assessed the relationship between Adiff within the first and current sexual partnership and risk of CC and HPV infection in 1495 cases and 1358 control women from 6 countries included in IARC's multicentric case-control study (median age: 48 years). Results: Large Adiff within the first partnerships was associated with increased CC...

  18. Grandparents’ Stories of Family Life After Donor Conception (Parents of heterosexual couples with children conceived using donor sperm or eggs)

    Burke, Hazel; Nordqvist, Petra; Smart, Carol

    2015-01-01

    This leaflet is written for the parents of heterosexual couples who have, or are planning, children using donor conception. It is based on many hours of research interviews, during which parents and grandparents of donor-conceived children told usabout their experiences of family life after donor conception.This leaflet is one of a series of four, written for parents and grandparents with donor-conceived children. They are based on research from the Relative Strangers project.

  19. Contact Between Birth and Adoptive Families During the First Year Post-Placement: Perspectives of Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Parents

    Farr, Rachel H.; Goldberg, Abbie E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite growing visibility of lesbian- and gay-parent adoption, only one qualitative study has examined birth family contact among adoptive families with lesbian and gay parents (Goldberg, Kinkler, Richardson, & Downing, 2011). We studied adoptive parents’ (34 lesbian, 32 gay, and 37 heterosexual; N = 103 families) perspectives of birth family contact across the first year post-placement. Using questionnaire and interview data, we found few differences in openness dynamics by parental sexual ...

  20. Lessons From the Viagra Study: Methodological Challenges in Recruitment of Older and Minority Heterosexual Men for Research on Sexual Practices and Risk Behaviors

    Jones, Sande Gracia; Patsdaughter, Carol A.; Martinez Cardenas, Vicente Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Although all sexually active persons may be at potential risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), there is a common misperception that older heterosexual adults are not at risk (Smith & Christakis, 2009). HIV is a continuing concern in persons ages 50 and older (Goodroad, 2003; Savasta, 2004). Therefore, research with this population is warranted. However, little literature addresses the recruitment of middle aged and older heterosexual men, particularly minority men, into...

  1. Prevalence and correlates of heterosexual anal and oral sex in adolescents and adults in the United States.

    Leichliter, Jami S; Chandra, Anjani; Liddon, Nicole; Fenton, Kevin A; Aral, Sevgi O

    2007-12-15

    Heterosexual anal and oral sex are related to the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus infection. We examined the correlates of heterosexual anal and oral sex in the general population, using data from the National Survey of Family Growth. The sample included 12,571 men and women aged 15-44 years (79% response rate). One-third of men and women had ever had anal sex, and three-quarters had ever had oral sex. Condom use during last oral or anal sex was relatively uncommon. In separate models for men and women, having ever had anal sex was associated with white race, age of 20-44 years, and having had a non-monogamous sex partner. White race, age of 20-44 years, being married, and having higher numbers of lifetime sex partners were related to having ever given oral sex in men and women. Giving oral sex was associated with having a non-monogamous sex partner in men. Ever receiving oral sex was associated with white race and a non-monogamous sex partner in men and women. It would be beneficial to track the prevalence of heterosexual anal and oral sex and associated condom use on a more frequent basis.

  2. Sexual communication self-efficacy, hegemonic masculine norms and condom use among heterosexual couples in South Africa.

    Leddy, Anna; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Dladla, Sibongile; de Bruyn, Guy; Darbes, Lynae

    2016-01-01

    Hegemonic masculine norms (HMN), which promote sexual risk-taking among males and the subordination of women, are believed to play a key role in the HIV epidemic among heterosexual couples in South Africa (SA). Sexual communication self-efficacy (SCSE) (i.e., a couple's confidence in their ability to communicate about HIV prevention) may be a key leverage point for increasing HIV prevention behaviors among this population. We interviewed 163 sexually active heterosexual couples in Soweto, SA to investigate the association between SCSE, HMN, and consistent condom use. We collected information on demographics, relationship dynamics, and sexual activity. We utilized the SCSE scale to measure couples' SCSE, and a subscale of the Gender Equitable Men scale to measure HMN among males. We performed bivariate and multivariable analyses to determine the association of consistent condom use with couples' SCSE as well as the male partner's endorsement of HMN. We found that couples with higher SCSE have greater odds of consistent condom use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.15-1.47). Furthermore, male endorsement of HMN was found to be negatively associated with consistent condom use among couples (AOR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.24-0.89). Joint HIV serostatus was not significantly associated with the outcome. Future interventions that equip heterosexual couples with sexual communication skills, while simultaneously promoting more gender equitable norms, may increase consistent condom use and thereby reduce the transmission of HIV among this at-risk population.

  3. HIV and Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Risk Behaviors Among Heterosexual, Bisexual, and Lesbian Women Who Inject Drugs in Australia.

    Iversen, Jenny; Dolan, Kate; Ezard, Nadine; Maher, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    Women who inject drugs (WWID) are vulnerable to a range of harms, including exposure to sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections, abusive relationships, physical and sexual violence and mental health issues. Lesbians and bisexual women are at greater risk than heterosexual women for substance use disorders. This study aimed to compare a large sample of heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian WWID and to identify correlates of sexual orientation. The Australian Needle and Syringe Program (NSP) Survey is an annual cross-sectional survey. People who inject drugs (PWID) who attend NSP services are invited to complete a brief self-administered questionnaire and provide a capillary dried blood spot. Of 22,791 survey respondents between 2004-2013, one third were women (n=7,604). Analyses were restricted to the first participation record for each respondent. Of the 5,378 individual women, 4,073 (76%) identified as heterosexual, 1,007 (19%) identified as bisexual, and 298 (6%) identified as lesbian. HIV prevalence was low (sexual orientation and risk behavior identified bisexual orientation as independently associated with increased risk. Services that target PWID need to recognise and address a broad range of sexual identities and behaviors. Future research should explore reasons for increased risk in sexual minority women.

  4. From awareness to action: Examining predictors of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) activism for heterosexual people.

    Jones, K Nicole; Brewster, Melanie E

    2017-01-01

    In recent history, heterosexual allies have played an integral role in promoting change for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations in the United States; however, questions have been raised as to what drives heterosexual allies to promote change via activism. To delineate factors important in engagement in activism, 207 self-identified heterosexual allies completed an online survey measuring components associated with LGBT activism using Bandura's (1986) model of triadic reciprocal determinism: personal factors (ally identity, social justice self-efficacy and outcome expectations, empathetic perspective taking, and gender) and environmental factors (social justice related supports and barriers, positive marginality, and education level) to predict behaviors (LGBT activism). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed a model accounting for 62% of the variance in LGBT activism, with dimensions of ally identification, social justice self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and education level emerging as significant predictors of engagement in activism behaviors. Empathetic perspective taking and social justice related barriers predicted lack of engagement in LGBT activism, however. Supporting the notion that personal and environmental factors simultaneously impact engagement in LGBT activism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Planning for Future Care and the End of Life: A Qualitative Analysis of Gay, Lesbian, and Heterosexual Couples.

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Donnelly, Rachel; Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra

    2017-12-01

    Two key components of end-of-life planning are (1) informal discussions about future care and other end-of-life preferences and (2) formal planning via living wills and other legal documents. We leverage previous work on the institutional aspects of marriage and on sexual-minority discrimination to theorize why and how heterosexual, gay, and lesbian married couples engage in informal and formal end-of-life planning. We analyze qualitative dyadic in-depth interviews with 45 midlife gay, lesbian, and heterosexual married couples ( N = 90 spouses). Findings suggest that same-sex spouses devote considerable attention to informal planning conversations and formal end-of-life plans, while heterosexual spouses report minimal formal or informal planning. The primary reasons same-sex spouses give for making end-of-life preparations are related to the absence of legal protections and concerns about discrimination from families. These findings raise questions about future end-of-life planning for same- and different-sex couples given a rapidly shifting legal and social landscape.

  6. Positive and Negative Affect During Sexual Activity: Differences Between Homosexual and Heterosexual Men and Women, With and Without Sexual Problems.

    Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2016-01-02

    Empirical research suggests that emotional response during sexual activity discriminates between sexually functional and dysfunctional heterosexual men and women, with clinics presenting lower positive and higher negative affect. However, there is no evidence about the role of emotions in gay men and lesbian women with sexual problems. The present study analyzed affective states during sexual activity in homosexual and heterosexual men and women, with and without sexual problems. Participants in this study were 156 men and 168 women. A 2 (group) × 2 (sexual orientation) multivariate analysis of variance was performed. Participants completed a web-survey assessing sexual functioning and the Positive Affect-Negative Affect Scale. Findings indicated a main effect of group, with groups with sexual problems reporting significantly more negative and lower positive affect compared with men and women without sexual problems, regardless of sexual orientation. However, findings have also shown an interaction effect in the male sample with gay men, contrary to heterosexual men, reporting similar affective responses regardless of having a sexual dysfunction or not. Overall, findings emphasize the role of affective responses during sexual activity in men and women with sexual problems, suggesting the importance of addressing emotional responses in assessment and treatment of sexual problems in individuals with different sexual orientations.

  7. "I kiss them because I love them": the emergence of heterosexual men kissing in British institutes of education.

    Anderson, Eric; Adams, Adi; Rivers, Ian

    2012-04-01

    In this article, we combined data from 145 interviews and three ethnographic investigations of heterosexual male students in the U.K. from multiple educational settings. Our results indicate that 89% have, at some point, kissed another male on the lips which they reported as being non-sexual: a means of expressing platonic affection among heterosexual friends. Moreover, 37% also reported engaging in sustained same-sex kissing, something they construed as non-sexual and non-homosexual. Although the students in our study understood that this type of kissing remains somewhat culturally symbolized as a taboo sexual behavior, they nonetheless reconstructed it, making it compatible with heteromasculinity by recoding it as homosocial. We hypothesize that both these types of kissing behaviors are increasingly permissible due to rapidly decreasing levels of cultural homophobia. Furthermore, we argue that there has been a loosening of the restricted physical and emotional boundaries of traditional heteromasculinity in these educational settings, something which may also gradually assist in the erosion of prevailing heterosexual hegemony.

  8. Ureaplasma urealyticum is significantly associated with non-gonococcal urethritis in heterosexual Sydney men.

    Couldwell, D L; Gidding, H F; Freedman, E V; McKechnie, M L; Biggs, K; Sintchenko, V; Gilbert, G L

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the prevalence of various genital organisms in 268 men with (cases) and 237 men without (controls) urethral symptoms/signs (urethral discharge, dysuria and/or urethral irritation) from two sexual health clinics in Sydney between April 2006 and November 2007. The presence of urethral symptoms/signs was defined as non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) for this study. Specific aims were to investigate the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum in NGU and the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in our population. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based reverse line blot (mPCR/RLB) assay was performed to detect 14 recognized or putative genital pathogens, including Chlamydia trachomatis, M. genitalium, U. urealyticum and U. parvum. U. urealyticum was associated with NGU in men without another urethral pathogen (odds ratio [OR] 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.8; P = 0.04); this association remained after controlling for potential confounding by age and history of unprotected vaginal sex in the last four weeks (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.9; P = 0.03). C. trachomatis (OR 7.5, P urethral pathogens. Further research should investigate the role of U. urealyticum subtypes among heterosexual men with NGU.

  9. Expressions of commitment and independence: Exploring men’s emotional responsibility in heterosexual couple relationships

    Tove Thagaard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines men’s contributions to the division of emotional labour in heterosexual couple relationships by exploring the dimensions of commitment and independence, and how couples deal with challenges. The study is based on individual interviews with each of the partners in ten urban middle-class couples in Norway. The results indicate diversity in middle-class men’s approaches to emotional responsibility, which is expressed through three models. The model of shared responsibility implies that the man’s contributions in the relationship represent expressions of responsive commitment. The man finds a balance between giving priority to his personal interests and considering shared interests; a pattern we refer to as collaborative independence, and he shares the responsibility for coping with challenges with his partner. The model of gendered responsibility implies that the man’s contributions in the relationship are characterized by non-responsive commitment. The man gives priority to his personal interests in a way we refer to as conflicting independence, and refrains from sharing the responsibility for coping with challenges with his partner. Finally, a third model, termed partial responsibility, is also evident in the data. This model is a combination of collaborative independence and non-responsive commitment, and may represent a phase of transition towards collaboration on an equal basis. A discussion of interpretations of the diversity in men’s approaches to commitment and independence concludes the paper.

  10. Masculinity and HIV disclosure among heterosexual South African men: implications for HIV/AIDS intervention.

    Dageid, Wenche; Govender, Kaymarlin; Gordon, Sarah F

    2012-01-01

    Relationships and constructions of masculinity are central to understanding the process of male HIV disclosure, which is an important step towards accessing HIV-related services. Data from in-depth interviews and focus-group discussions with 23 HIV-positive, self-identified heterosexual, Black South African men were used to explore the disclosure process and how this process was negotiated in the context of constructions of masculinity. Of these men, 20 had disclosed to one or more persons, with partners and siblings being the preferred confidants. Disclosure was dependent on the acceptance of HIV status, perceived support and healthy relationships with others, HIV counselling and participation in educational and training activities. Non-disclosure was explained as a result of stigma, fear of rejection, discrimination, a lack of healthy relationships with others and lack of access to suitable disclosure strategies. Negative perceptions of HIV and hegemonic conceptions of masculinity hindered men from disclosing and seeking health services. Many men, however, managed to renegotiate their masculine identities to become responsible, knowledgeable HIV-positive individuals, protecting their families and becoming community educators. Findings suggest the need to consider gendered, contextual, skills-building/income-generating and guided interventions to promote male HIV disclosure and service uptake.

  11. Correlates of trading sex for methamphetamine in a sample of HIV-negative heterosexual methamphetamine users.

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zians, Jim; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-01-01

    While many studies have examined correlates of trading sex for money, few have examined factors associated with exclusive trading of sex for drugs. We identified sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychological correlates of trading sex for methamphetamine in a sample of HIV-negative heterosexual men and women who were enrolled in a sexual risk reduction intervention in San Diego, California. Of 342 participants, 26% overall (21% of males and 31% of females) reported trading sex for methamphetamine in the past two months. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that recently trading sex for methamphetamine was independently associated with being female, homeless, binging on methamphetamine, sexual victimization in the past two months, engaging in anal sex 24 or more times in the past two months, and higher sexual compulsivity scores. Effective interventions for this high-risk population should consider gender-focused counseling for sexual abuse, motivational enhancement therapy, social-cognitive skills training, as well as enhanced access and utilization of social services, including drug treatment.

  12. Sexual communication among young adult heterosexual Latinos: a qualitative descriptive study.

    Alvarez, Carmen Paula; Villarruel, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Sexual communication between sexual partners is an important component in prevention efforts against unintended consequences of sex. The purpose of this study was to describe sexual communication among young adult Latinos. Four semistructured, sex-segregated focus groups were used for this study. Participants (N = 20) were 18-30 years old self-identified Latinos who were in heterosexual and sexually active relationships (more than 3 months). Participants revealed that initial sexual communication with their partners was avoided related to a lack of interest in a partner's sexual history, feeling embarrassed about the topic, or concern for offending one's partner or partner's family. As a result of these beliefs and attitudes, initial sexual communication was nonverbal and focused on sexual pleasure. After the initiation of sexual activity, verbal sexual communication expanded to include sexual history. These findings highlight the importance of attitudes and subjective norms toward verbal sexual communication. Attitudes and subjective norms toward sexual communication in the context of a romantic relationship and how it may impact sexual behavior in the relationship should be further explored.

  13. A Common-Fate Analysis of Pornography Acceptance, Use, and Sexual Satisfaction Among Heterosexual Married Couples.

    Brown, Cameron C; Carroll, Jason S; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Busby, Dean M; Willoughby, Brian J; Larson, Jeffry H

    2017-02-01

    Using matched, heterosexual couple data from the Relationship Evaluation Questionnaire (RELATE; n = 326 couples), an adapted common-fate approach was used to examine both common and unique attributes of husbands' and wives' acceptance of pornography and sexual satisfaction as well as husbands' and wives' pornography use. It was expected that spouses' unique as well as shared variance of pornography acceptance would be significantly associated with husbands' and wives' levels of personal pornography use and that these use patterns would be significantly associated with husbands' and wives' unique as well as shared variance of sexual satisfaction. It was also expected that pornography use would significantly mediate the relationship between pornography acceptance and sexual satisfaction. Results indicated that the shared variance of pornography acceptance was positively associated with both spouses' pornography use and that spouses' pornography use was negatively associated with their own sexual satisfaction. Wives' pornography use was found to be positively associated with the couple's shared variance of sexual satisfaction, but pornography use did not significantly mediate the relationship between pornography acceptance and sexual satisfaction. These findings emphasize the complexity of pornography use in couple relationships and the importance of studying pornography acceptance and use as a coupling dynamic within marriages rather than just an individual behavior.

  14. Heterosexual Men's Ratings of Sexual Attractiveness of Adolescent Girls: A Cross-Cultural Analysis.

    Bennett, Paul; Lowe, Rob; Petrova, Hristina

    2015-11-01

    Following an identical procedure to the one we previously reported (O'Donnell, Lowe, Brotherton, & Bennett, 2014), we examined ratings of sexual attraction to photographs of (the same) adolescent girls (Tanner stages 3-4) labelled as either 14-15 years or 16-17 years old, women, and men. Ratings were made by Bulgarian heterosexual men by pressing buttons on a response box which recorded the ratings made and the time in milliseconds taken to respond. Despite the age of sexual consent in Bulgaria being 14 years, the pattern of findings did not differ from those found in the UK, where the age of consent is 16 years. That is, mean ratings of the sexual attractiveness of the girls labelled as younger were lower than those of the (same) girls labelled as older, and those of the women. In addition, correlations revealed significantly longer responding times when younger girls (and men) were rated as more highly sexually attractive. These associations were reversed in response to the photographs of women. We take these findings to indicate an inhibitory effect arising from generalized sexual norms relating to the inappropriateness of sexual attraction to young girls; the greater the attraction, the higher the inhibition. This second replication of our initial findings suggests a robust effect that may be of benefit in exploration of pedophile or sex offender groups.

  15. Family conflict and depression in HIV-negative heterosexuals: the role of methamphetamine use.

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zians, Jim; Patterson, Thomas L

    2009-06-01

    Previous research has reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms among methamphetamine users, but little attention has been paid to possible links between family environment and psychological distress. This study examined relationships between family conflict, substance use, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 104 heterosexual methamphetamine users in San Diego, California. Eighty-nine percent of the sample reported conflict with a family member in the past year. Conflict was reported most often with parents and siblings. Sources of conflict included drug use, lifestyle issues, interpersonal and communication issues, and concern for other family members. In regression analyses, being female, being a polydrug user, and facing social and legal stressors were associated with higher levels of family conflict. Multiple regression analyses also revealed a positive association between family conflict and depressive symptoms. Contrary to expectation, methamphetamine dose did not moderate the relationship between family conflict and depressive symptoms. Reducing family conflict may be an important first step toward ameliorating depressive symptoms and creating more supportive environments for methamphetamine users who are in urgent need of effective interventions. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Use of the male condom by heterosexual adolescents and young people: literature review.

    East, Leah; Jackson, Debra; O'Brien, Louise; Peters, Kathleen

    2007-07-01

    This paper is a report of a literature review to explore issues influencing condom use in heterosexual adolescents and young people. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major international health issue and adolescents and young people are particularly vulnerable. Efforts to address the rapid spread of STIs have largely focused on promoting the use of condoms as a protective 'safer sex' measure. However, use of the male condom is still inconsistent and the incidence of STIs continues to increase. A search of the literature using EBSCO Host databases was undertaken in 2006, with a focus on women, young people, condoms and STIs. Papers published in English from 1992 to 2006 were sought. Only research papers are included in this review. Factors impeding decisions to use protection by young people include lack of knowledge about prevalence of STIs, ambiguity around contraception and safer sex practices, and the difficulty faced by young women in particular in negotiating safer sex. The notion of romantic love confounds the assessment of risk and can render young people, particularly young women, ineffective in negotiating safer sex practices. Adolescents and young adults are particularly vulnerable in relation to STIs. There is a need to ensure that accurate messages are delivered about safer sex and contraception to this very vulnerable group. Furthermore, it is important to recognize that romantic love comprises strong emotions that have a role in decision-making and options for reducing personal-health risk during sexual activity.

  17. Predictors of Parenting Stress in Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents During Early Parenthood

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2014-01-01

    Little work has examined parenting stress in adoptive parents, particularly lesbian and gay adoptive parents. The current longitudinal study examined parent-reported child characteristics (measured post-placement) and parent and family characteristics (measured pre-placement) as predictors of post-placement parenting stress and change in parenting stress across three time points during the first 2 years of adoptive parenthood, among 148 couples (50 lesbian, 40 gay, and 58 heterosexual) who were first-time parents. Children in the sample were, on average, 5.61 months (SD = 10.26) when placed, and 2.49 years (SD = .85) at the 2 year post-placement follow-up. Findings revealed that parents who had been placed with older children, and parents who perceived severe emotional/behavioral problems in their children, reported more post-placement stress. In addition, parents who reported fewer depressive symptoms, more love for their partners, and more family and friend support during the pre-placement period, had less post-placement stress. Parenting stress decreased for parents who perceived severe emotional/behavioral problems in their children, while it increased somewhat for those who reported developmental problems in their children. Findings highlight vulnerabilities and resources that may shape adoptive parents’ experiences of stress in early parenthood, and have implications for both researchers and professionals who wish to support adoptive family adjustment. PMID:24611690

  18. Genotype-Specific Concordance of Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection Within Heterosexual Partnerships.

    Schillinger, Julia A; Katz, Barry P; Markowitz, Lauri E; Braslins, Phillip G; Shrier, Lydia A; Madico, Guillermo; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Orr, Donald P; Rice, Peter A; Batteiger, Byron E

    2016-12-01

    Sexual transmission rates of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) cannot be measured directly; however, the study of concordance of Ct infection in sexual partnerships (dyads) can help to illuminate factors influencing Ct transmission. Heterosexual men and women with Ct infection and their sex partners were enrolled and partner-specific coital and behavioral data collected for the prior 30 days. Microbiological data included Ct culture, and nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), quantitative Ct polymerase chain reaction, and ompA genotyping. We measured Ct concordance in dyads and factors (correlates) associated with concordance. One hundred twenty-one women and 125 men formed 128 dyads. Overall, 72.9% of male partners of NAAT-positive women and 68.6% of female partners of NAAT-positive men were Ct-infected. Concordance was more common in dyads with culture-positive members (78.6% of male partners, 77% of female partners). Partners of women and men who were NAAT-positive only had lower concordance (33.3%, 46.4%, respectively). Women in concordant dyads had significantly higher median endocervical quantitative Ct polymerase chain reaction values (3,032) compared with CT-infected women in discordant dyads (1013 inclusion forming units DNA equivalents per mL; P model coitus-specific transmission probabilities.

  19. The Feasibility of Interventions to Reduce HIV Risk and Drug Use among Heterosexual Methamphetamine Users.

    Corsi, Karen F; Lehman, Wayne E; Min, Sung-Joon; Lance, Shannon P; Speer, Nicole; Booth, Robert E; Shoptaw, Steve

    2012-06-04

    This paper reports on a feasibility study that examined contingency management among out-of-treatment, heterosexual methamphetamine users and the reduction of drug use and HIV risk. Fifty-eight meth users were recruited through street outreach in Denver from November 2006 through March 2007. The low sample size reflects that this was a pilot study to see if CM is feasible in an out-of-treatment, street-recruited population of meth users. Secondary aims were to examine if reductions and drug use and risk behavior could be found. Subjects were randomly assigned to contingency management (CM) or CM plus strengths-based case management (CM/SBCM), with follow-up at 4 and 8 months. Participants were primarily White (90%), 52% male and averaged 38 years old. Eighty-three percent attended at least one CM session, with 29% attending at least fifteen. All participants reduced meth use significantly at follow-up. Those who attended more sessions submitted more stimulant-free urines than those who attended fewer sessions. Participants assigned to CM/SBCM attended more sessions and earned more vouchers than clients in CM. Similarly, participants reported reduced needle-sharing and sex risk. Findings demonstrate that CM and SBCM may help meth users reduce drug use and HIV risk.

  20. Sexual scripts among young heterosexually active men and women: continuity and change.

    Masters, N Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M

    2013-01-01

    Whereas gendered sexual scripts are hegemonic at the cultural level, research suggests they may be less so at dyadic and individual levels. Understanding "disjunctures" between sexual scripts at different levels holds promise for illuminating mechanisms through which sexual scripts can change. Through interviews with 44 heterosexually active men and women aged 18 to 25, the ways young people grappled with culture-level scripts for sexuality and relationships were delineated. Findings suggest that, although most participants' culture-level gender scripts for behavior in sexual relationships were congruent with descriptions of traditional masculine and feminine sexuality, there was heterogeneity in how or whether these scripts were incorporated into individual relationships. Specifically, three styles of working with sexual scripts were found: conforming, in which personal gender scripts for sexual behavior overlapped with traditional scripts; exception-finding, in which interviewees accepted culture-level gender scripts as a reality, but created exceptions to gender rules for themselves; and transforming, in which participants either attempted to remake culture-level gender scripts or interpreted their own nontraditional styles as equally normative. Changing sexual scripts can potentially contribute to decreased gender inequity in the sexual realm and to increased opportunities for sexual satisfaction, safety, and well-being, particularly for women, but for men as well.

  1. Factors Associated with Recent HIV Testing among Heterosexuals at High-Risk for HIV Infection in New York City

    Marya eGwadz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The CDC recommends persons at high-risk for HIV infection in the United States receive annual HIV testing to foster early HIV diagnosis and timely linkage to health care. Heterosexuals make up a significant proportion of incident HIV infections (>25%, but test for HIV less frequently than those in other risk categories. Yet factors that promote or impede annual HIV testing among heterosexuals are poorly understood. The present study examines individual/attitudinal-, social-, and structural-level factors associated with past-year HIV testing among heterosexuals at high-risk for HIV. Methods. Participants were African American/Black and Hispanic heterosexual adults (N=2307 residing in an urban area with both high poverty and HIV prevalence rates. Participants were recruited by respondent-driven sampling (RDS in 2012-2015 and completed a computerized structured assessment battery covering background factors, multi-level putative facilitators of HIV testing, and HIV testing history. Separate logistic regression analysis for males and females identified factors associated with past-year HIV testing.Results. Participants were mostly male (58%, African American/Black (75%, and 39 years old on average (SD = 12.06 years. Lifetime homelessness (54% and incarceration (62% were common. Half reported past-year HIV testing (50% and 37% engaged in regular, annual HIV testing. Facilitators of HIV testing common to both genders included sexually transmitted infection (STI testing or STI diagnosis, peer norms supporting HIV testing, and HIV testing access. Among women, access to general medical care and extreme poverty further predicted HIV testing, while recent drug use reduced the odds of past-year HIV testing. Among men, past-year HIV testing was also associated with lifetime incarceration and substance use treatment.Conclusions. The present study identified gaps in rates of HIV testing among heterosexuals at high-risk for HIV, and both common and

  2. Reasons for not Using Condoms among Heterosexual Men in Belgrade, Serbia.

    Bjekić, Milan; Sipetić-Grujičić, Sandra; Vlajinac, Hristina; Nikolić, Aleksandra

    2018-04-01

    Dear Editor, Proper and consistent use of male condoms can be a highly effective method of preventing the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV (1), but this method relies on men's willingness and ability to use condoms. In the United States of America, about 20% overall and less than 50% of adults with multiple partners used a condom at last intercourse (2). In Serbia in 2013 (3), 50.0% of women and 62.5% of men aged 15-49 who had more than one partner in the past year used a condom during their last intercourse. Heterosexual men often use condoms to prevent pregnancy rather than the transmission of venereal diseases (4). For better public promotion of condom use, it is necessary to know the reasons for its inconsistent or incorrect use. With this in mind, we asked 200 consecutive chlamydia-positive heterosexual men admitted to the City Institute for Skin and Venereal Diseases in Belgrade to complete an anonymous questionnaire, taken from a Danish study (5), about their attitudes to/or experience with condoms. Patients were divided into two groups; Group I consisted of 109 (54.5%) men who reported that they had never or sometimes used condoms during intercourse and Group II consisted of 91 (45.5%) men who had used a condom often or always. The majority of participants (68.5%) were ≤30 years old, while the rest were older. The analysis of differences between these two groups was performed using a chi-square test. Attitudes concerning use of condoms are presented in Table 1. The majority of our participants (43.5%) did not use a condom because they had sexual intercourse with regular partners. This may be explained by trust and misperception of risk of contracting STIs during sex with a regular partner or lack of discussion with the partner about condom use. The results of another study about condom use with a steady partner (6) have shown that 31% of participants reported using condoms consistently with steady partners. The second most

  3. Incidence, clearance, and disease progression of genital human papillomavirus infection in heterosexual men.

    Moreira, Edson Duarte; Giuliano, Anna R; Palefsky, Joel; Flores, Carlos Aranda; Goldstone, Stephen; Ferris, Daron; Hillman, Richard J; Moi, Harald; Stoler, Mark H; Marshall, Brooke; Vuocolo, Scott; Guris, Dalya; Haupt, Richard M

    2014-07-15

    In this analysis, we examine the incidence and clearance of external genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among heterosexual males aged 16-24 years. A total of 1732 males aged 16-24 years old in the placebo arm of a quadrivalent HPV vaccine trial were included in this analysis. Participants were enrolled from 18 countries in Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Europe, Latin America, and North America. Subjects underwent anogenital examinations and sampling of the penis, scrotum, and perineal/perianal regions. The incidence rate of any HPV DNA genotype 6, 11, 16, and/or 18 detection was 9.0 cases per 100 person-years. Rates of HPV DNA detection were highest in men from Africa. Median time to clearance of HPV genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18 DNA was 6.1, 6.1, 7.7, and 6.2 months, respectively. Median time to clearance of persistently detected HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 DNA was 6.7, 3.2, 9.2, and 4.7 months, respectively. The study results suggest that the acquisition of HPV 6, 11, 16, and/or 18 in males is common and that many of these so-called infections are subsequently cleared, similar to findings for women. Nevertheless, given the high rate of HPV detection among young men, HPV vaccination of males may reduce infection in men and reduce the overall burden of HPV-associated disease in the community. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Associations Between Sex Education and Contraceptive Use Among Heterosexually Active, Adolescent Males in the United States.

    Jaramillo, Nicole; Buhi, Eric R; Elder, John P; Corliss, Heather L

    2017-05-01

    This study examined associations between reports of receiving education on topics commonly included in sex education (e.g., abstinence only, comprehensive) prior to age 18 years and contraceptive use at the last sex among heterosexually active, 15- to 20-year-old males in the United States. Cross-sectional data from 539 males participating in the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth were analyzed. Bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusting for confounding estimated associations between receipt of seven sex education topics (e.g., information on HIV/AIDS, how to say no to sex) and contraceptive use at the last sex (i.e., dual barrier and female-controlled effective methods, female-controlled effective method only, barrier method only, and no method). Nearly, all participants (99%) reported receiving sex education on at least one topic. Education on sexually transmitted diseases (94.7%) and HIV/AIDS (92.0%) were the most commonly reported topics received; education on where to get birth control was the least common (41.6%). Instruction about birth control methods (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32-6.87) and how to say no to sex (AOR = 3.39; CI = 1.33-8.64) were positively associated with dual contraception compared to no use. For each additional sex education topic respondents were exposed to, their odds of using dual methods compared to no method was 47% greater (AOR = 1.47; CI = 1.16-1.86). Exposure to a larger number of sex education topics is associated with young men's report of dual contraception use at the last sex. Comprehensive sex education, focusing on a range of topics, may be most effective at promoting safer sex among adolescent males. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Perceived consequences of casual online sexual activities on heterosexual relationships: a u.s. Online survey.

    Grov, Christian; Gillespie, Brian Joseph; Royce, Tracy; Lever, Janet

    2011-04-01

    Some researchers have illustrated how the Internet can provide users with an ideal atmosphere to explore sexuality; however, most have stressed the Internet's negative impact on intimate relationships. Notably, much of this research has focused on the small minority of men who compulsively engage in online sexual activities (OSA), overlooking the majority of men and women who use OSA recreationally (either individually or with a partner). Addressing these limitations, data on heterosexual adults in committed relationships were taken from the 2004 "ELLE/msnbc.com Cyber-sex and Romance Survey" (n = 8,376). In quantitative analyses, men were less likely than women to express concerns and more likely to hold favorable attitudes about their partner's OSA. With regard to the impact of OSA on intimate relationships, men and women did not differ in becoming "more open to new things," and finding it easier "to talk about what [they] want sexually." Negative impacts were also identified, with women more likely to indicate they had less sex as a result of a partner's OSA, and men more likely to indicate they were less aroused by real sex as a result of their own OSA. Generally, qualitative results mirrored quantitative ones. Additionally, qualitative data suggested that moderate or light amounts of OSA yield relationship benefits for both female and male users, including increases in the quality and frequency of sex, and increased intimacy with real partners. In addition, men who used the Internet moderately, and men and women who reported being light users, stated that engaging in tandem OSA fostered better sexual communication with partners. Findings underscore the need to explore further the impact that online sexual activities can have on real-life committed relationships.

  6. The role of conditioning on heterosexual and homosexual partner preferences in rats.

    Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2012-01-01

    Partner preferences are expressed by many social species, including humans. They are commonly observed as selective contacts with an individual, more time spent together, and directed courtship behavior that leads to selective copulation. This review discusses the effect of conditioning on the development of heterosexual and homosexual partner preferences in rodents. Learned preferences may develop when a conditioned stimulus (CS) is associated in contingency with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) that functions as a reinforcer. Consequently, an individual may display preference for a partner that bears a CS. Some UCS may be more or less reinforcing, depending on when they are experienced, and may be different for males and females. For example, it could be that, only during periods of early development, that stimuli associated with nurture and juvenile play become conditioned. In adulthood, other stimuli such as sexual reward, cohabitation, mild stress, or even pharmacological manipulations may function as reinforcers to condition partner preferences. Evolutionary biologists and psychologists must take into consideration the idea that an individual's experience with reward (i.e. sexual and pharmacological) can override presumably 'innate' mate choices (e.g. assortativeness and orientation) or mate strategies (e.g. monogamy or polygamy) by means of Pavlovian and operant contingencies. In fact, it is likely as innate to learn about the environment in ways that maximize reward and minimize aversive outcomes, making so-called 'proximate' causes (e.g. pleasure) ultimately more powerful predictors of social behavior and choice than so-called 'ultimate' causes (e.g. genetic or reproductive fitness).

  7. Symptoms of non-gonococcal urethritis in heterosexual men: a case control study.

    Iser, P; Read, Tr H; Tabrizi, S; Bradshaw, C; Lee, D; Horvarth, L; Garland, S; Denham, I; Fairley, C K

    2005-04-01

    To determine microbial and behavioural factors contributing to non-gonococcal urethral symptoms in men. Case-control study of heterosexual men with non-gonococcal urethral symptoms (cases) and without urethral symptoms (controls) attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia. Sexual behaviour and condom use were measured by questionnaire. First stream urine was tested for potential pathogens: Chlamydia trachomatis (ligase chain reaction), Mycoplasma genitalium (polymerase chain reaction, PCR), Ureaplasma urealyticum (culture and PCR), and Streptococcus spp, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Haemophilus species (culture). Urethral smears from cases were examined for polymorphonuclear leucocytes. 80 cases and 79 controls were recruited over 4 months in 2002-3. 49 cases (61%) had urethritis by microscopic criteria, 17 (21%) had Chlamydia trachomatis (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 27 (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.4 to 222)), five (6%) had Mycoplasma genitalium (OR 6.1 (95% CI: 0.6 to 61)), and 11 (14%) had Gardnerella vaginalis (OR 9.0 (95% CI: 1.6 to 52)). Other organisms were not significantly associated with urethral symptoms. The presence of urethritis on urethral smear did not predict the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis (OR 1.7 (95% CI: 0.5 to 5.4)). Urethral symptoms were significantly associated with unprotected vaginal sex with more than one casual partner (OR 9.3 (95% CI: 1.3 to 65)) and unprotected anal sex with a regular partner in the past month (OR 3.5 (95% CI: 1.0 to 13)). Gardnerella vaginalis and unprotected anal sex may cause symptoms of non-gonococcal urethritis. Microscopy of the urethral smear to diagnose urethritis in this population does not help to identify which men with urethral symptoms require treatment for chlamydia.

  8. Racial differences in sexual prejudice and its correlates among heterosexual men.

    Daboin, Irene; Peterson, John L; Parrott, Dominic J

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has consistently found sexual prejudice to be a predictor of antigay aggression and has also revealed specific correlates and antecedents of sexual prejudice. However, extant literature reveals mixed findings about potential racial group differences in sexual prejudice, and few studies have examined racial differences in the correlates of sexual prejudice. The aims of this descriptive study were to determine whether there are (a) racial group differences in reports of sexual prejudice and (b) racial group differences in previously identified correlates of sexual prejudice. Participants were 195 heterosexual males, ages 18 to 30 (98 Blacks and 97 Whites), recruited from a large metropolitan city in the southeastern United States. Based on cultural differences in the influence of religion and in attitudes about male sexuality, it was hypothesized that Black participants would report higher sexual prejudice than White participants. Additionally, based on cultural differences in racial views on masculinity and in sociocultural experiences of male gender roles, it was hypothesized that Blacks would report greater endorsement of religious fundamentalism and the traditional male role norm of status than Whites. Results confirmed all of the hypothesized racial differences and revealed additional differences, including a differential effect of the traditional male role norm of status on sexual prejudice, which explains, at least in part, the racial differences found in sexual prejudice. These findings may reflect underlying cultural differences between Black and White males and may aid in the development of future efforts to reduce sexual prejudice and consequently antigay aggression toward sexual minorities. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Condom-associated erection problems: behavioural responses and attributions in young, heterosexual men.

    Hill, Brandon J; Sanders, Stephanie A; Crosby, Richard A; Ingelhart, Kara N; Janssen, Erick

    2015-10-01

    Background Previous studies have associated men who experience condom-associated erection problems (CAEP) with incomplete condom use and/or foregoing using condoms altogether. However, how men respond to CAEP and what they attribute CAEP to, remains unclear. Understanding young men's CAEP responses and attributions could help improve sexually transmissible infections (STI)/HIV prevention programs and interventions. Behavioural responses to, and attributions for, CAEP during application (CAEP-Application) and/or during penile-vaginal intercourse (CAEP-PVI) were reported using an online questionnaire by 295 young, heterosexual men (aged 18-24 years) who were recruited via social media websites and university Listservs across major cities in the Midwestern USA. Behavioural responses to CAEP-Application included receiving oral or manual stimulation, stimulating a partner, self-stimulation, foregoing condom use and applying the condom after starting intercourse. Attributions for CAEP-Application included: distraction, fit and feel problems, application taking too long and having consumed too much alcohol. Behavioural responses to CAEP-PVI included increasing the intensity of intercourse, removing the condom to receive oral or manual stimulation and removing condom and continuing intercourse. Attributions for CAEP-PVI included: lack of sensation, taking too long to orgasm, not being 'turned on' enough, fit and feel problems and partner-related factors. Men who report CAEP respond with both STI/HIV risk-reducing and potentially risk-increasing behaviours (e.g. forgoing condom use). Men attribute their experiences to a wide range of individual- and partner-level factors. Addressing men's CAEP behavioural responses and attributions may increase the efficacious value of condom programs and STI/HIV prevention interventions - particularly among men who experience CAEP.

  10. Perceived Consequences of Casual Online Sexual Activities on Heterosexual Relationships: A U.S. Online Survey

    Gillespie, Brian Joseph; Royce, Tracy; Lever, Janet

    2018-01-01

    Some researchers have illustrated how the Internet can provide users with an ideal atmosphere to explore sexuality; however, most have stressed the Internet’s negative impact on intimate relationships. Notably, much of this research has focused on the small minority of men who compulsively engage in online sexual activities (OSA), overlooking the majority of men and women who use OSA recreationally (either individually or with a partner). Addressing these limitations, data on heterosexual adults in committed relationships were taken from the 2004 “ELLE/msnbc.com Cyber-sex and Romance Survey” (n = 8,376). In quantitative analyses, men were less likely than women to express concerns and more likely to hold favorable attitudes about their partner’s OSA. With regard to the impact of OSA on intimate relationships, men and women did not differ in becoming “more open to new things,” and finding it easier “to talk about what [they] want sexually.” Negative impacts were also identified, with women more likely to indicate they had less sex as a result of a partner’s OSA, and men more likely to indicate they were less aroused by real sex as a result of their own OSA. Generally, qualitative results mirrored quantitative ones. Additionally, qualitative data suggested that moderate or light amounts of OSA yield relationship benefits for both female and male users, including increases in the quality and frequency of sex, and increased intimacy with real partners. In addition, men who used the Internet moderately, and men and women who reported being light users, stated that engaging in tandem OSA fostered better sexual communication with partners. Findings underscore the need to explore further the impact that online sexual activities can have on real-life committed relationships. PMID:20174862

  11. Presidential address: distinction or extinction.

    Pressman, Barry D

    2008-10-01

    Despite its continuing scientific successes in imaging, radiology as a specialty is faced with a very difficult and competitive environment. Nonradiologists are more and more interested in vertically integrating imaging into their practices, while teleradiology and picture archiving and communication systems are resulting in the greater isolation of radiologists. Commoditization is a realistic and devastating threat to the survival and professionalism of the specialty. To remain viable as a specialty, radiologists must elevate their practice by subspecializing, becoming more involved with clinical care, and actively interacting with patients and referring clinicians. Distinction will prevent extinction.

  12. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  13. Measuring performance at trade shows

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  14. Anal high-risk human papillomavirus infection and high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia detected in women and heterosexual men infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    Gandra S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sumanth Gandra, Aline Azar, Mireya WessolosskyDivision of Infectious Disease and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USABackground: Although anal high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV infection and anal cytological abnormalities are highly prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM, there are insufficient data on these abnormalities among HIV-infected heterosexual men (HSM and women. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of anal HR-HPV, cytological abnormalities, and performance of these screening tests in detecting high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN2+ among our cohort of HIV-infected MSM and non-MSM (HSM and women.Methods: A single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted with HIV-infected individuals who underwent anal cancer screening with anal cytology and HR-HPV testing from January 2011 to January 31, 2013.Results: Screening of 221 HIV-infected individuals for both HR-HPV and anal cytology showed the presence of HR-HPV in 54% (abnormal anal cytology 48% of MSM, 28% (abnormal anal cytology 28% of HSM, and 27% (abnormal anal cytology 34% of women. Among 117 (53% individuals with abnormal results (HR-HPV-positive and/or cytology was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or above, 67 underwent high resolution anoscopy. Of these 67 individuals, 22 individuals had AIN2+ (17 MSM, four women, and one HSM. HR-HPV correlated better with AIN2+ than with anal cytology on biopsy in both MSM (r=0.29 versus r=0.10; P=0.05 versus P=0.49 and non-MSM (r=0.36 versus r=-0.34; P=0.08 versus P=0.09.Conclusion: Given the presence of AIN2+ in screened HIV-infected HSM and women, routine anal cancer screening in all HIV-infected individuals should be considered. HR-HPV merits further evaluation for anal cancer screening among non-MSM.Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, anal human papillomavirus, heterosexual men, women, anal cancer

  15. Comparing perceived effectiveness of FDA-proposed cigarette packaging graphic health warnings between sexual and gender minorities and heterosexual adults.

    Tan, Andy S L; Bigman, Cabral A; Nagler, Rebekah H; Minsky, Sara; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2017-10-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration proposed nine graphic health warnings (GHWs) on cigarette packaging that were rated equally effective across racial/ethnic, education, or income groups of adult smokers. However, data on GHW effectiveness among sexual and gender minority (SGM) adults, who have higher smoking prevalence, are currently lacking. This study analyzed whether perceived effectiveness of GHWs differed by gender and sexual orientation. Data came from a randomized experiment among 1,200 adults with an oversample from low socioeconomic status groups, conducted between 2013 and 2014 in three Massachusetts communities. Participants viewed and rated the effectiveness of nine GHWs. Mixed effects regression models predicted perceived effectiveness with gender and sexual orientation, adjusting for repeated measurements, GHWs viewed, age, race, ethnicity, smoking status, and health status. Female heterosexuals rated GHWs as more effective than male heterosexual, lesbian, and transgender and other gender respondents. There was no significant difference between female and male heterosexuals versus gay, male bisexual, or female bisexual respondents. Differences by gender and sexual orientation were consistent across all nine GHWs. Significant correlates of higher perceived effectiveness included certain GHWs, older age, being African-American (vs white), being Hispanic (vs non-Hispanic), having less than high school education (vs associate degree or higher), and being current smokers (vs non-smokers). Perceived effectiveness of GHWs was lower in certain SGM groups. We recommend further studies to understand the underlying mechanisms for these findings and investments in research and policy to communicate anti-smoking messages more effectively to SGM populations.

  16. "He's more typically female because he's not afraid to cry": connecting heterosexual gender relations and men's depression.

    Oliffe, John L; Kelly, Mary T; Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L; Wong, Sabrina T

    2011-09-01

    Depression, a disorder often thought of as a women's health issue, is underreported in men, and little is known about how heterosexual couples respond when the male partner is depressed. Within the context of men's depression, couples may be challenged to make life adjustments that impact their gender relations. The findings detailed in this article are drawn from an innovative qualitative study of 26 Canadian heterosexual couples (26 men and their 26 women partners) in which the man had a formal diagnosis and/or self-identified as depressed. Participants completed individual, semi structured interviews that focused on exploring how masculinities and femininities intersect to forge particular heterosexual gender relations in the context of men's depression. A social constructionist gender analysis revealed three couple patterns: trading places, business as usual, and edgy tensions. Trading places refers to couples who embodied some atypical masculine and feminine roles to compensate for the men's depression-induced losses (e.g., men as homemakers and women as breadwinners). Women partners in these dyads broke with feminine ideals in how they provided partner support by employing tough love strategies for self-protection and a means of prompting the men's self-management of their depression. Couples involved in business as usual co-constructed men's alignment with masculine workman ideals and women's support of their partner to counter and conceal men's depression induced-deficits. Also described were edgy tensions, where a mismatch of gender expectations fueled resentment and dysfunction that threatened the viability of some relationships. Overall, the limits of women's resilience and care-giving were evident, yet the findings also reveal how men's management of their depression was directly influenced by their partner. Opportunities for couples to assess their relationship dynamics within a broad range of gender relations might support couples' connectedness and

  17. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  18. Hypermasculinity, intimate partner violence, sexual aggression, social support, and child maltreatment risk in urban, heterosexual fathers taking parenting classes.

    Vasquez Guerrero, Desi Alonzo

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between hypermasculinity, sexual aggression, intimate partner violence, social support, and child maltreatment risk among heterosexual fathers completing parenting classes. Hypermasculinity scores were found to be significant predictors of study participants' reported verbal, physical, and sexual aggression toward their intimate partners. Only lack of social support, operationalized as the reported frequency of participants' conversations with friends, relatives, or neighbors about their problems, was found to be a significant predictor of child maltreatment risk. Alcohol frequency, education, and monthly income were not found to be unique, significant predictors of any dependent variables. Implications for clinical practice and research as well as limitations to the current study are discussed.

  19. The central masturbation fantasy in heterosexual males across the life cycle: masturbation fantasies across the normality-pathology spectrum.

    Colarusso, Calvin A

    2012-10-01

    Moses Laufer described the central masturbation fantasy as an essentially adolescent phenomenon that leads to the final sexual organization. In this paper the central masturbation fantasy, formulated during the preoedipal and oedipal years, consolidated in adolescence, and in a process of continuous evolution across the life cycle, is considered an essential concept for understanding sexuality in heterosexual males. Sex and aggression, as posited in Freud's dual theory of the drives, are core components of all masturbation fantasies, across the diagnostic spectrum, from the most normal/neurotic to the most criminally bizarre. Clinical examples illustrate both points. The tendency among clinicians, particularly clinical associates, to avoid analyzing all aspects of masturbation is discussed.

  20. Preferences for Home-Based HIV Testing Among Heterosexuals at Increased Risk for HIV/AIDS: New Orleans, Louisiana, 2013.

    Robinson, William T; Zarwell, Meagan; Gruber, DeAnn

    2017-07-01

    Participants in the New Orleans arm of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance of Heterosexuals at Increased Risk for HIV were asked about potential utilization of self-administered home-based tests for HIV. The majority (86%) would use a free home-based test if provided by mail and 99% would seek treatment based on a positive result. In addition, more than half of respondents would return test results in some format to the test provider, whereas most of the remaining participants preferred to discuss results only with their doctor. These findings point toward a potential method for advancing the National HIV/AIDS Strategy.

  1. A bit too skinny for me: women’s homosocial constructions of heterosexual desire in online dating

    Mortensen, Kristine Køhler

    2015-01-01

    relations. Thus, online dating practices are rich fields for investigating the workings of desire. Based on audiovisual recordings of two Danish female friends engaging in online dating activities, this article demonstrates how participants, through joint stance-taking, co-construct shared desire and adjust...... individually-produced desire to create homosocial affiliation. Hence, in this case,heterosexual desire construction is a collaborative undertaking generated through homosocial bonding. The performed desire carries a strong physical focus, partly produced by the participants' attention to bodily detail...

  2. Contact Between Birth and Adoptive Families During the First Year Post-Placement: Perspectives of Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Parents.

    Farr, Rachel H; Goldberg, Abbie E

    Despite growing visibility of lesbian- and gay-parent adoption, only one qualitative study has examined birth family contact among adoptive families with lesbian and gay parents (Goldberg, Kinkler, Richardson, & Downing, 2011). We studied adoptive parents' (34 lesbian, 32 gay, and 37 heterosexual; N = 103 families) perspectives of birth family contact across the first year post-placement. Using questionnaire and interview data, we found few differences in openness dynamics by parental sexual orientation. Most reported some birth mother contact, most had legally finalized their adoption, and few described plans to withhold information from children. We discuss implications for clinical practice, policy, and research.

  3. ‘In love, she remains whole’: Heterosexual Love in Contemporary Arab American Poetry Written by Women

    Marta Bosch Vilarrubias

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of Arab American feminism in the 1990s, Arab American women writers have become prominent figures in the field of Arab American literature. At the same time, the victimization of Arab women and the stereotyping of Arab men have grown in the West. Given this mainstream perception of Arabs, this article aims at exploring the positioning of Arab American women towards Arab men, taking into account the feminist fight against sexism and racism. Analyzing the articulations of heterosexual love made by Arab American women in their poetry (including Mohja Kahf, Suheir Hammad and Pauline Kaldas, this article will examine the potential political use of poetry.

  4. Effects of Traditional Gender Role Norms and Religious Fundamentalism on Self-Identified Heterosexual Men's Attitudes, Anger, and Aggression Toward Gay Men and Lesbians

    Vincent, Wilson; Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexual men recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Additionally, participants completed a structured interview designed to assess anger in response to a vignette depicting a male-male intimate relationship (i.e., partners saying “I love you,” holding hands, kissing). Results showed that sexual prejudice and antigay anger partially mediated the effect of antifemininity on aggression and fully mediated the effect of religious fundamentalism on aggression. Sexual prejudice alone fully mediated the effect of status on aggression and neither sexual prejudice nor antigay anger mediated the effect of toughness on aggression. Further, results suggested that religious fundamentalism is a multifaceted construct of which some aspects increase risk for aggression toward gay men and lesbians, whereas other aspects decrease this risk. These data provide multivariate evidence from a nonprobability, community-based sample that extreme internalization of dominant cultural values can set the stage for violence toward marginalized groups. Implications for intervention programming and future research are reviewed. PMID:22081759

  5. Effects of Victimization and Violence on Suicidal Ideation and Behaviors Among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adolescents.

    Bouris, Alida; Everett, Bethany G; Heath, Ryan D; Elsaesser, Caitlin E; Neilands, Torsten B

    2016-04-01

    Sexual minority youth (SMY) are at higher risk for victimization and suicide than are heterosexual youth (HY). Relatively little research has examined which types of victimization are most closely linked to suicide, which is necessary to develop targeted prevention interventions. The present study was conducted to address this deficit. The data come from the 2011 Chicago Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 1,907). Structural equation modeling (SEM) in Mplus evaluated the direct, indirect, and total effects of sexual orientation on a latent indicator of suicidal ideation and behaviors via seven types of victimization. Four indicators of victimization were school-specific (e.g., harassment due to sexual orientation or gender identity (SO/GID), bullying, threatened or injured with a weapon, and skipping school due to safety concerns), and three indicators assessed other types of victimization (e.g., electronic bullying, intimate partner violence, and sexual abuse). Thirteen percent of youth were classified as SMY. Significantly more SMY than HY reported suicidal ideation (27.95% vs. 13.64%), a suicide plan (22.78% vs. 12.36%), and at least one suicide attempt (29.92% vs. 12.43%) in the past year (all P harassment, skipping school, electronic bullying, and sexual abuse. Sexual orientation was not directly related to suicidal ideation and behaviors in SEM. Rather, SMY's elevated risk of suicidality functioned indirectly through two forms of school-based victimization: being threatened or injured with a weapon (B = .19, SE = .09, P ≤ .05) and experiencing SO/GID-specific harassment (B = .40, SE = .15, P ≤ .01). There also was a trend for SMY to skip school as a strategy to reduce suicide risk. Although SMY experience higher rates of victimization than do HY, school-based victimization that involves weapons or is due to one's SO/GID appear to be the most deleterious. That SMY may skip school to reduce their risk of suicidal ideation and

  6. Effects of Victimization and Violence on Suicidal Ideation and Behaviors Among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adolescents

    Everett, Bethany G.; Heath, Ryan D.; Elsaesser, Caitlin E.; Neilands, Torsten B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Sexual minority youth (SMY) are at higher risk for victimization and suicide than are heterosexual youth (HY). Relatively little research has examined which types of victimization are most closely linked to suicide, which is necessary to develop targeted prevention interventions. The present study was conducted to address this deficit. Methods: The data come from the 2011 Chicago Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 1,907). Structural equation modeling (SEM) in Mplus evaluated the direct, indirect, and total effects of sexual orientation on a latent indicator of suicidal ideation and behaviors via seven types of victimization. Four indicators of victimization were school-specific (e.g., harassment due to sexual orientation or gender identity (SO/GID), bullying, threatened or injured with a weapon, and skipping school due to safety concerns), and three indicators assessed other types of victimization (e.g., electronic bullying, intimate partner violence, and sexual abuse). Results: Thirteen percent of youth were classified as SMY. Significantly more SMY than HY reported suicidal ideation (27.95% vs. 13.64%), a suicide plan (22.78% vs. 12.36%), and at least one suicide attempt (29.92% vs. 12.43%) in the past year (all P harassment, skipping school, electronic bullying, and sexual abuse. Sexual orientation was not directly related to suicidal ideation and behaviors in SEM. Rather, SMY's elevated risk of suicidality functioned indirectly through two forms of school-based victimization: being threatened or injured with a weapon (B = .19, SE = .09, P ≤ .05) and experiencing SO/GID-specific harassment (B = .40, SE = .15, P ≤ .01). There also was a trend for SMY to skip school as a strategy to reduce suicide risk. Conclusion: Although SMY experience higher rates of victimization than do HY, school-based victimization that involves weapons or is due to one's SO/GID appear to be the most deleterious. That SMY may skip school to

  7. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  8. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sociodemographic Factors Prospectively Associated with Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration Among South African Heterosexual Men.

    Teitelman, Anne M; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Jemmott, John B; Icard, Larry; O'Leary, Ann; Ali, Samira; Ngwane, Zolani; Makiwane, Monde

    2017-04-01

    Intimate partner violence directed at women by men continues to be a global concern. However, little is known about the factors associated with perpetrating intimate partner violence among heterosexual men. History of childhood sexual abuse and other sociodemographic variables were examined as potential factors associated with severe intimate partner violence perpetration toward women in a sample of heterosexual men in South Africa. Longitudinal logistic generalized estimating equations examined associations of childhood sexual abuse and sociodemographic variables at baseline with intimate partner violence perpetration at subsequent time points. Among participants with a steady female partner, 21.81 % (190/ 871) reported perpetrating intimate partner violence in the past year at baseline. Having a history of childhood sexual abuse (p sexual impulses in order to use a condom (p = .006) at baseline were associated with self-reported intimate partner violence perpetration in the past year at subsequent time points. With high levels of recent severe physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence perpetration in South Africa, comprehensive interventions are urgently needed. To more fully address gender-based violence, it is important to address associated factors, including exposure to childhood sexual abuse that could impact behavior later in life and that have long-lasting and deleterious effects on men and their female partners.

  9. Turn it off! the effects of exposure to male-male erotic imagery on heterosexuals' attitudes toward gay men.

    Golom, Frank D; Mohr, Jonathan J

    2011-01-01

    Despite the recent proliferation of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) thematic content in U.S. media, there have been relatively few empirical investigations examining its impact on heterosexuals' attitudes toward LGB individuals. This study examined the effect of one type of content, male-male homoerotic imagery, on male and female heterosexuals' attitudes toward, stereotypes about, and affective reactions to gay men. One hundred ninety-eight undergraduate students were assigned to either a male-male or male-female erotica condition, and their corresponding attitudes toward gay men were assessed. Results revealed that the effect of erotic imagery (male-male vs. male-female) on participants' stereotype and affect scores differed for men and women at varying levels of sexual anxiety. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of the literature on exposure to erotic imagery and attitudes toward gay men. In particular, the study highlights the need for additional research that acknowledges within-gender heterogeneity with respect to antigay attitude valence, extremity, and function.

  10. HIV prevention and transmission myths among heterosexually active adults in low-income areas of South Florida.

    Beck, Dano W; Lalota, Marlene; Metsch, Lisa R; Cardenas, Gabriel A; Forrest, David W; Lieb, Spencer; Liberti, Thomas M

    2012-04-01

    Misconceptions about HIV transmission and prevention may inhibit individuals' accurate assessment of their level of risk. We used venue-based sampling to conduct a cross-sectional study of heterosexually active adults (N = 1,221) within areas exhibiting high poverty and HIV/AIDS rates in Miami-Dade and Broward counties in 2007. Two logistic regression analyses identified correlates of holding inaccurate beliefs about HIV transmission and prevention. Belief in incorrect HIV prevention methods (27.2%) and modes of transmission (38.5%) was common. Having at least one incorrect prevention belief was associated with being Hispanic compared to white (non-Hispanic), being depressed, and not knowing one's HIV status. Having at least one incorrect transmission belief was associated with being younger, heavy alcohol use, being depressed, not having seen a physician in the past 12 months, and not knowing one's HIV status. Among low-income heterosexuals, HIV prevention and transmission myths are widespread. Debunking them could have HIV prevention value.

  11. Individual and couple-level risk factors for hepatitis C infection among heterosexual drug users: a multilevel dyadic analysis.

    McMahon, James M; Pouget, Enrique R; Tortu, Stephanie

    2007-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common bloodborne pathogen in the United States and is a leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Although it is known that HCV is most commonly transmitted among injection drug users, the role of sexual transmission in the spread of HCV remains controversial because of inconsistent findings across studies involving heterosexual couples. A novel multilevel modeling technique designed to overcome the limitations of previous research was performed to assess multiple risk factors for HCV while partitioning the source of risk at the individual and couple level. The analysis was performed on risk exposure and HCV screening data obtained from 265 drug-using couples in East Harlem, New York City. In multivariable analysis, significant individual risk factors for HCV included a history of injection drug use, tattooing, and older age. At the couple level, HCV infection tended to cluster within couples, and this interdependence was accounted for by couples' drug-injection behavior. Individual and couple-level sexual behavior was not associated with HCV infection. Our results are consistent with prior research indicating that sexual contact plays little role in HCV transmission. Rather, couples' injection behavior appears to account for the clustering of HCV within heterosexual dyads.

  12. Factors associated with nonuse of condoms in heterosexual men and women attending an HIV testing clinic in Israel.

    Soskolne, V; Maayan, S

    1998-01-01

    To examine gender differences in HIV-related knowledge, perceived vulnerability, beliefs in self-control, type of sexual partnership, and their associations with nonuse of condoms. Heterosexual men and women who voluntarily attended an HIV testing clinic in Israel were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire. Scales of HIV knowledge and control and a single item for vulnerability were used. Type of sexual relationship (monogamous vs. nonmonogramous) and condom use in vaginal sex (never vs. ever) referred to the previous 6 months. Response rate was 84%; 154 men and 109 women participated. Beliefs in self-control did not form a reliable scale and single items were used. No statistically significant gender differences were found in knowledge, vulnerability, or beliefs in self-control. Levels of correct HIV-related knowledge were high, but so were some misconceptions. The vast majority (87%) perceived themselves as vulnerable to HIV infection. The beliefs in self-control were moderate in some items, and low in others. In logistic regression models, different factors were significantly associated with nonuse of condoms in the two genders: the belief that their lifestyle protected them against HIV infection (OR = 2.72, CI = 1.06-7.03) among men, and being monogamous (OR = 3.72, CI = 1.28-10.8) among women. Heterosexual men and women attending an HIV testing clinic need counseling to further lower misconceptions about HIV transmission and additional gender-specific counseling to address HIV-related beliefs.

  13. A comparison of heterosexual and LGBTQ cancer survivors' outlooks on relationships, family building, possible infertility, and patient-doctor fertility risk communication.

    M Russell, Andrea; Galvin, Kathleen M; Harper, Maya M; Clayman, Marla L

    2016-10-01

    Little research about cancer-related infertility has examined the experiences and needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) cancer survivors. This research seeks to understand how LGBTQ survivors are similar to or different from heterosexual survivors with respect to cancer treatments' effects on relationships, plans for parenthood, and fertility preservation decision making. Semi-structured telephone interviews conducted with adolescent or young adult (AYA) cancer survivors (n = 56) were coded for themes. Interviews consisted of questions about pre- and post-diagnosis thoughts about relationships, parenthood, possible infertility, and how information about fertility risks was received. While LGBTQ (n = 22) and heterosexual (n = 34) survivors reported similar challenges when dating post-diagnosis, heterosexual survivors were more likely to report fertility concerns as affecting romantic relationships (p LGBTQ survivors seemed more open to raising non-biological children or not becoming a parent than heterosexual survivors. LGBTQ survivors generally reported being satisfied with or indifferent to the information that they were given regarding fertility loss, despite reporting receiving similar amounts of information as compared to heterosexual patients (p LGBTQ patients' views on relationships, parenthood, and family building seemed to result in less distress when faced with infertility. However, interventions facilitating information exchange about dating, fertility risks, and family building options may be valuable to LGBTQ and heterosexual cancer survivors. LGBTQ cancer survivors may display more adaptive coping with respect to relationships and fertility loss. Oncology professionals may want to proactively introduce positive coping strategies to reduce distress among AYA cancer survivors at risk for infertility.

  14. Differential Associations of Communication and Love in Heterosexual, Lesbian, and Bisexual Women's Perceptions and Experiences of Chronic Vulvar and Pelvic Pain.

    Blair, Karen L; Pukall, Caroline F; Smith, Kelly B; Cappell, Jaclyn

    2015-01-01

    The literature on genital and pelvic pain has largely focused on heterosexual women. An online study examined characteristics of vulvar pain in 839 lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual women 18-45 years of age and investigated associations between relationship qualities such as love and communication with participants' perceptions of pain's influence on relationships. Characteristics of vulvar pain were similar across groups. Groups differed in how they perceived pain to impact their relationships, such that better communication for same-sex couples and more love for mixed-sex couples was associated with the perception of their pain as having less of an effect on their relationship functioning.

  15. Distinct types of eigenvector localization in networks

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Castellano, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The spectral properties of the adjacency matrix provide a trove of information about the structure and function of complex networks. In particular, the largest eigenvalue and its associated principal eigenvector are crucial in the understanding of nodes’ centrality and the unfolding of dynamical processes. Here we show that two distinct types of localization of the principal eigenvector may occur in heterogeneous networks. For synthetic networks with degree distribution P(q) ~ q-γ, localization occurs on the largest hub if γ > 5/2 for γ < 5/2 a new type of localization arises on a mesoscopic subgraph associated with the shell with the largest index in the K-core decomposition. Similar evidence for the existence of distinct localization modes is found in the analysis of real-world networks. Our results open a new perspective on dynamical processes on networks and on a recently proposed alternative measure of node centrality based on the non-backtracking matrix.

  16. It’s a Process: Reactions to HIV Diagnosis and Engagement in HIV Care among High-Risk Heterosexuals

    Alexandra H. Kutnick

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available After HIV diagnosis, heterosexuals in high-poverty urban areas evidence delays in linkage to care and antiretroviral therapy initiation compared to other groups. Yet barriers to/facilitators of HIV care among these high-risk heterosexuals are understudied. Under the theory of triadic influence, putative barriers to HIV care engagement include individual/attitudinal-level (e.g., fear, medical distrust, social-level (e.g., stigma, and structural-level influences (e.g., poor access. Participants were African-American/Black and Hispanic adults found newly diagnosed with HIV (N = 25 as part of a community-based HIV testing study with heterosexuals in a high-poverty, high-HIV-incidence urban area. A sequential explanatory mixed-methods design was used. We described linkage to HIV care and clinical outcomes [CD4 counts, viral load (VL levels] over 1 year, and then addressed qualitative research questions about the experience of receiving a new HIV diagnosis, its effects on timely engagement in HIV care, and other barriers and facilitators. Participants were assessed five times, receiving a structured interview battery, laboratory tests, data extraction from the medical record, a post-test counseling session, and in-person/phone contacts to foster linkage to care. Participants were randomly selected for qualitative interviews (N = 15/25 that were recorded and transcribed, then analyzed using systematic content analysis. Participants were 50 years old, on average (SD = 7.2 years, mostly male (80%, primarily African-American/Black (88%, and low socioeconomic status. At the first follow-up, rates of engagement in care were high (78%, but viral suppression was modest (39%. Rates improved by the final follow-up (96% engaged, 62% virally suppressed. Two-thirds (69% were adequately retained in care over 1 year. Qualitative results revealed multi-faceted responses to receiving an HIV diagnosis. Problems accepting and internalizing one

  17. “It’s an Uphill Battle Everyday”: Intersectionality, Low-Income Black Heterosexual Men, and Implications for HIV Prevention Research and Interventions

    Bowleg, Lisa; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This interview study, the initial qualitative phase of a larger mixed methods HIV prevention study focused on Black heterosexual men, used intersectionality as a theoretical framework to explore: (1) How a sample of Black heterosexual men describe and experience the multiple intersections of race, gender, and SES; and (2) How these descriptions reflected interlocking systems of social inequality for Black men at the social-structural level. Participants were 30 predominantly low-income self-identified Black heterosexual men between the ages of 18 and 44. Analyses highlighted four themes that demonstrate how participants’ individual-level experiences as Black men reflect macro social-structural inequality: (1) racial discrimination and microaggressions; (2) unemployment; (3) incarceration; and (4) police surveillance and harassment. We discuss the study’s findings within the context of social-structural factors that disproportionately and adversely impact Black men. We also highlight the implications of the intersectionality perspective for HIV prevention research and interventions for Black heterosexual men. PMID:23482810

  18. The people living with HIV stigma survey UK 2015: HIV-related sexual rejection and other experiences of stigma and discrimination among gay and heterosexual men.

    Hibbert, M; Crenna-Jennings, W; Kirwan, P; Benton, L; Lut, I; Okala, S; Asboe, D; Jeffries, J; Kunda, C; Mbewe, R; Morris, S; Morton, J; Nelson, M; Thorley, L; Paterson, H; Ross, M; Reeves, I; Sharp, L; Sseruma, W; Valiotis, G; Wolton, A; Jamal, Z; Hudson, A; Delpech, V

    2018-05-27

    We aim to understand the difference in stigma and discrimination, in particular sexual rejection, experienced between gay and heterosexual men living with HIV in the UK. The People Living with HIV StigmaSurvey UK 2015 recruited a convenience sample of persons with HIV through over 120 cross sector community organisations and 46 HIV clinics to complete an online survey. 1162 men completed the survey, 969 (83%) gay men and 193 (17%) heterosexual men, 92% were on antiretroviral therapy. Compared to heterosexual men, gay men were significantly more likely to report worrying about workplace treatment in relation to their HIV (21% vs. 11%), worrying about HIV-related sexual rejection (42% vs 21%), avoiding sex because of their HIV status (37% vs. 23%), and experiencing HIV-related sexual rejection (27% vs. 9%) in the past 12 months. In a multivariate logistic regression controlling for other sociodemographic factors, being gay was a predictor of reporting HIV-related sexual rejection in the past 12 months (aOR 2.17, CI 1.16, 4.02). Both gay and heterosexual men living with HIV experienced stigma and discrimination in the past 12 months, and this was higher for gay men in terms of HIV-related sexual rejection. Due to the high proportion of men reporting sexual rejection, greater awareness and education of the low risk of transmission of HIV among people on effective treatment is needed to reduce stigma and sexual prejudice towards people living with HIV.

  19. Dysfunctional sexual beliefs: a comparative study of heterosexual men and women, gay men, and lesbian women with and without sexual problems.

    Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2014-11-01

    Conservative and dysfunctional sexual beliefs are commonly associated with sexual problems among heterosexual men and women. However, little is known about the role of sexual beliefs in sexual problems in gay men and lesbians. The present study aimed at analyzing the role of sexual beliefs in sexual dysfunction in a sample of heterosexual and homosexual men and women. Participants answered questions about self-perceived sexual problems and completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire. Two hundred twelve men (106 gay) and 192 women (96 lesbian) completed a Web survey. Findings indicated that men with sexual dysfunction (regardless of sexual orientation) reported significantly more conservative beliefs and more erroneous beliefs related to partner's sexual satisfaction compared with sexually healthy men. Also, gay men with sexual dysfunction (but not heterosexual men) scored higher on belief in sex as an abuse of men's power compared with healthy controls. In addition, heterosexual men scored higher on "macho" beliefs, beliefs regarding partner's sexual satisfaction, and partner's power, compared with gay men. For women, a main effect was found for sexual orientation, with lesbian women scoring higher on sexual desire as a sin, age-related beliefs, and affection primacy and lower on beliefs related to motherhood primacy. Overall, findings suggest that dysfunctional sexual beliefs may play a role as vulnerability factors for sexual dysfunction regardless of sexual orientation, particularly in men. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. Predictors of AIDS-preventive behavioral intentions among adult heterosexuals at risk for HIV-infection : Extending current models and measures

    Buunk, BP; Bakker, AB; Siero, FW; van den Eijnden, RJJM; Yzer, MC

    This study examined the predictors of the intention to use condoms with new sexual partners. A sample of heterosexual adult females and males (n = 711) was recruited through various channels. A substantial part of the sample had engaged in risky sexual behavior. Predictors were based on various

  1. "Your Vagina Is Not Supposed to Be This Scary Monster": Young Heterosexual Women's Recommendations for Improving Sexual Satisfaction and Implications for Sexuality Education

    Blunt-Vinti, Heather D.; Stokowski, Sarah E.; Bouza, Brooke M.

    2018-01-01

    Sexual satisfaction is an important component of sexuality, yet rarely discussed in sexuality education. In an effort to better understand young adult women's experiences and thoughts about sexual pleasure and satisfaction, we conducted interviews with heterosexual young women (N = 30, ages 18-25) attending college, asking their recommendations on…

  2. The impact of immigration on env HIV-1 subtype distribution among heterosexuals in the Netherlands: influx of subtype B and non-B strains

    Op de Coul, E. L.; Coutinho, R. A.; van der Schoot, A.; van Doornum, G. J.; Lukashov, V. V.; Goudsmit, J.; Cornelissen, M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the epidemiological factors influencing the distribution and spread of HIV-1 subtypes among heterosexuals in the Netherlands. METHOD: A nationwide serosurveillance in 21 HIV/AIDS centres from 1997 to 1999 involved 200 individuals for whom the mode of HIV transmission was

  3. The Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide: Suicidal Ideation and Behaviors of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual College Students and Their Heterosexual Peers

    Ploskonka, Rachel Ann

    2017-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students are among the most vulnerable to suicidal ideation and behaviors when compared to both heterosexual college students and other, generally older, members of the LGB community (Oswalt & Wyatt, 2011). Joiner's (2005) interpersonal psychological theory of suicide seems to be a possible framework…

  4. Relational Intimacy and Sexual Frequency: A Correlation or a Cause? A Clinical Study of Heterosexual Married Women.

    Witherow, Marta Parkanyi; Chandraiah, Shambhavi; Seals, Samantha R; Bugan, Antal

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners have noted the importance of using clinical samples in sex therapy research. This study investigated the relationship between perceived levels of marital intimacy, sexual frequency, and sexual functioning among heterosexual married women. A clinical sample of 67 women completed the Couples Satisfaction Index (CSI), the Miller Social Intimacy Test (MSI), the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women (SSS-W), the Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale (IOS), and the Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI-6). Data analyses revealed that marital intimacy acted as a predictor in univariate relationships on sexual frequency and sexual functioning but did not act as a mediator on sexual frequency and sexual functioning. Overall, these findings may further the discussion in the treatment of relational intimacy, sexual desire discrepancy, and female sexual dysfunction.

  5. Neurophysiological Distinction between Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder

    Mathalon, Daniel H.; Hoffman, Ralph E.; Watson, Todd D.; Miller, Ryan M.; Roach, Brian J.; Ford, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Schizoaffective disorder (SA) is distinguished from schizophrenia (SZ) based on the presence of prominent mood symptoms over the illness course. Despite this clinical distinction, SA and SZ patients are often combined in research studies, in part because data supporting a distinct pathophysiological boundary between the disorders are lacking. Indeed, few studies have addressed whether neurobiological abnormalities associated with SZ, such as the widely replicated reduction and delay of the P300 event-related potential (ERP), are also present in SA. Scalp EEG was acquired from patients with DSM-IV SA (n = 15) or SZ (n = 22), as well as healthy controls (HC; n = 22) to assess the P300 elicited by infrequent target (15%) and task-irrelevant distractor (15%) stimuli in separate auditory and visual ”oddball” tasks. P300 amplitude was reduced and delayed in SZ, relative to HC, consistent with prior studies. These SZ abnormalities did not interact with stimulus type (target vs. task-irrelevant distractor) or modality (auditory vs. visual). Across sensory modality and stimulus type, SA patients exhibited normal P300 amplitudes (significantly larger than SZ patients and indistinguishable from HC). However, P300 latency and reaction time were both equivalently delayed in SZ and SA patients, relative to HC. P300 differences between SA and SZ patients could not be accounted for by variation in symptom severity, socio-economic status, education, or illness duration. Although both groups show similar deficits in processing speed, SA patients do not exhibit the P300 amplitude deficits evident in SZ, consistent with an underlying pathophysiological boundary between these disorders. PMID:20140266

  6. Using Intervention Mapping to develop a programme to prevent sexually transmittable infections, including HIV, among heterosexual migrant men

    Wolfers, Mireille EG; van den Hoek, Caty; Brug, Johannes; de Zwart, Onno

    2007-01-01

    Background There is little experience with carefully developed interventions in the HIV/STI prevention field aimed at adult heterosexual target groups in the Netherlands. The ability to apply intervention development protocols, like Intervention Mapping, in daily practice outside of academia, is a matter of concern. An urgent need also exists for interventions aimed at the prevention of STI in migrant populations in the Netherlands. This article describes the theory and evidence based development of HIV/STI prevention interventions by the Municipal Public Health Service Rotterdam Area (MPHS), the Netherlands, for heterosexual migrant men with Surinamese, Dutch-Caribbean, Cape Verdean, Turkish and Moroccan backgrounds. Methods First a needs assessment was carried out. Then, a literature review was done, key figures were interviewed and seven group discussions were held. Subsequently, the results were translated into specific objectives ("change objectives") and used in intervention development for two subgroups: men with an Afro-Caribbean background and unmarried men with a Turkish and Moroccan background. A matrix of change objectives was made for each subgroup and suitable theoretical methods and practical strategies were selected. Culturally-tailored interventions were designed and were pre-tested among the target groups. Results This development process resulted in two interventions for specific subgroups that were appreciated by both the target groups and the migrant prevention workers. The project took place in collaboration with a university center, which provided an opportunity to get expert advice at every step of the Intervention Mapping process. At relevant points of the development process, migrant health educators and target group members provided advice and feedback on the draft intervention materials. Conclusion This intervention development project indicates that careful well-informed intervention development using Intervention Mapping is feasible in

  7. The politics of heterosexuality--a missing discourse in cancer nursing literature on sexuality: a discussion paper.

    Hyde, Abbey

    2007-02-01

    In this article, a critique of cancer nursing literature on the issue of sexuality is presented, with particular reference to literature on cancers common to women. The paper begins with an account of two competing perspectives on sexuality. The first is a version of sexuality rooted in sexology, underpinned by biomedical science that makes a claim to having identified 'normal' sexuality. The second is a version of sexuality developed within feminist scholarship that tends to reject biological determinism as a basis for understanding sexuality, instead favouring constructionist perspectives, with the socio-political context of sexual relations problematised. The focus of the article then shifts to cancer nursing literature on sexuality that deals primarily with cancers common to women, to appraise the extent to which either of the above perspectives on sexuality is invoked. Within this body of nursing knowledge, I argue that there has largely been an uncritical endorsement of biomedical constructions of sexuality, rooted in orthodox sexology, with a dominant focus on sexual functioning and on sexual rehabilitation for women with cancer. Moreover, in this knowledge base, phallocentric heterosexuality over and above other forms of sexual expression is privileged, and the socio-political context of unequal gender power relations is largely excluded. References to the social sphere as a dimension of nursing care are focused almost exclusively on maintaining normality, and reflect the emphasis on functional restoration. The largely individualistic, uncritical and biocentric emphasis in this literature may serve inadvertently to reinforce and maintain existing gender inequalities in heterosexual relationships. Finally, I consider the difficulties for oncology nurses in dealing with contradictory truth claims or conventional wisdoms about sexuality from the disparate disciplines of which holism is comprised.

  8. Gender difference in the characteristics of and high-risk behaviours among non-injecting heterosexual methamphetamine users in Qingdao, Shandong Province, China

    Liu Dianchang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing risk of HIV infections, few studies concerning the characteristics of non-injecting heterosexual methamphetamine (MA users and related risk behaviours have been conducted in China. Methods Gender differences in socio-demographic characteristics, perception of MA and STD/HIV, MA use practices, and sexual behaviours related to MA use were examined among 398 non-injecting heterosexual MA users (288 males, 110 females. Results Male MA users were more likely to be married, local, and self-employed; female MA users were more likely to be young, single, engaged in commercial service or unemployed. Female MA users usually start MA use at an earlier age than males (24.3 vs. 31.3 years old, with shorter abuse durations (2.6 vs. 2.9 years, higher frequency of MA use (3.6 vs. 2.4 times per week, and higher likelihood of using MA with heterosexual partners (100% vs. 78.1%. More male MA users have had multiple sex partners (96.9% vs. 77.3% and sex exchanges (72.9% vs. 46.4%. Among 277 males who had had sex with commercial sex workers (CSW, 69.4% never used condoms, and among 77 males who had had sex with multiple partners who are commercial sex workers and always or usually used condoms, 87.0% never changed condoms when changing partners. Conclusion There may be gender difference in the characteristics of high-risk behaviours among non-injecting heterosexual MA users. The findings suggest the integration of specific risk reduction strategies into intervention programs for non-injecting heterosexual MA user populations may significantly improve program goals.

  9. Social context surrounding HIV diagnosis and construction of masculinity: a qualitative study of stigma experiences of heterosexual HIV positive men in southwest Nigeria.

    Okoror, Titilayo Ainegbesua; Falade, Catherine Olufunke; Walker, Ebunlomo Mary; Olorunlana, Adetayo; Anaele, Agaptus

    2016-06-13

    Though research has documented experiences of stigma and its effects on the lives of women living with HIV/AIDS, there is limited research on heterosexual positive HIV men experience of stigma in Nigeria. This study explored how social context surrounding HIV diagnosis impacts stigma experiences of heterosexual HIV positive men and their construction of masculinity in southwest Nigeria. Using purposive sampling, 17 heterosexual HIV positive men were recruited through community based organization to participate in two hours focus group discussions or 45 min in-depth interviews that were audio-recorded. Without using the word stigma, discussions and interviews were guided by four questions that explored participants' experiences of living with HIV/AIDS. Interviews and discussions were conducted in three languages: English, Yoruba and Pidgin English. Thematic data analysis approach was in coding transcribed data, while social constructivist thinking guided data analysis. Participants ranged in age from 30 to 57 years old, and all were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Findings indicated that participants' experiences of stigma might be moderated by the social context surrounding their HIV diagnosis, and whether they have met the socio-cultural construction of masculinity. Participants whose diagnosis were preceded by immediate family members' diagnosis were less likely to report experiencing HIV stigma and more likely to report "not feeling less than a man" and educating others about HIV/AIDS. Contrarily, participants whose diagnosis was preceded by their own sickness were more likely to report isolation, sigma and feeling of being less than a man. All participants reported limiting their sexual intimacy, and those with children reported adjusting how they performed their role as fathers. Social context surrounding HIV diagnosis impact how heterosexual HIV positive men experience HIV related stigma and how they perceive themselves as men, which may influence their

  10. Subjects with hip osteoarthritis show distinctive patterns of trunk movements during gait-a body-fixed-sensor based analysis

    Reininga, Inge H. F.; Stevens, Martin; Wagenmakers, Robert; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2012-01-01

    Background: Compensatory trunk movements during gait, such as a Duchenne limp, are observed frequently in subjects with osteoarthritis of the hip, yet angular trunk movements are seldom included in clinical gait assessments. Hence, the objective of this study was to quantify compensatory trunk

  11. Non-native western tubenose gobies Proterorhinus semilunaris show distinct site, sex and age-related differences in diet

    Všetičková, Lucie; Janáč, Michal; Vašek, Mojmír; Roche, Kevin Francis; Jurajda, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 414, č. 10 (2014), s. 1-19 ISSN 1961-9502 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1768 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : invasive species * Gobiidae * Proterorhinus semilunaris * diet * site-effect * sex-differences Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.928, year: 2014

  12. Why Do Different Drought Indices Show Distinct Future Drought Risk Outcomes in the U.S. Great Plains?

    Feng, S.; Trnka, Miroslav; Hayes, M.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2017), s. 265-278 ISSN 0894-8755 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-16549S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : North America * Drought * Soil moisture * Climate models * Climate variability Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 4.161, year: 2016

  13. Geoscience is Important? Show Me Why

    Boland, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    "The public" is not homogenous and no single message or form of messaging will connect the entire public with the geosciences. One approach to promoting trust in, and engagement with, the geosciences is to identify specific sectors of the public and then develop interactions and communication products that are immediately relevant to that sector's interests. If the content and delivery are appropriate, this approach empowers people to connect with the geosciences on their own terms and to understand the relevance of the geosciences to their own situation. Federal policy makers are a distinct and influential subgroup of the general public. In preparation for the 2016 presidential election, the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) in collaboration with its 51 member societies prepared Geoscience for America's Critical Needs: Invitation to a National Dialogue, a document that identified major geoscience policy issues that should be addressed in a national policy platform. Following the election, AGI worked with eight other geoscience societies to develop Geoscience Policy Recommendations for the New Administration and the 115th Congress, which outlines specific policy actions to address national issues. State and local decision makers are another important subgroup of the public. AGI has developed online content, factsheets, and case studies with different levels of technical complexity so people can explore societally-relevant geoscience topics at their level of technical proficiency. A related webinar series is attracting a growing worldwide audience from many employment sectors. Partnering with government agencies and other scientific and professional societies has increased the visibility and credibility of these information products with our target audience. Surveys and other feedback show that these products are raising awareness of the geosciences and helping to build reciprocal relationships between geoscientists and decision makers. The core message of all

  14. Social conformity despite individual preferences for distinctiveness.

    Smaldino, Paul E; Epstein, Joshua M

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate that individual behaviours directed at the attainment of distinctiveness can in fact produce complete social conformity. We thus offer an unexpected generative mechanism for this central social phenomenon. Specifically, we establish that agents who have fixed needs to be distinct and adapt their positions to achieve distinctiveness goals, can nevertheless self-organize to a limiting state of absolute conformity. This seemingly paradoxical result is deduced formally from a small number of natural assumptions and is then explored at length computationally. Interesting departures from this conformity equilibrium are also possible, including divergence in positions. The effect of extremist minorities on these dynamics is discussed. A simple extension is then introduced, which allows the model to generate and maintain social diversity, including multimodal distinctiveness distributions. The paper contributes formal definitions, analytical deductions and counterintuitive findings to the literature on individual distinctiveness and social conformity.

  15. "Macho" Beliefs Moderate the Association Between Negative Sexual Episodes and Activation of Incompetence Schemas in Sexual Context, in Gay and Heterosexual Men.

    Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2017-04-01

    Despite the existence of conceptual models of sexual dysfunction based on cognitive theory, few studies have tested the role of vulnerability factors such as sexual beliefs as moderators of the activation of cognitive schemas in response to negative sexual events. To test the moderator role of dysfunctional sexual beliefs in the association between the frequency of negative sexual episodes and the activation of incompetence schemas in gay and heterosexual men. Five-hundred seventy-five men (287 gay, 288 heterosexual) who completed an online survey on cognitive-affective dimensions and sexual functioning were selected from a larger database. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to test the hypothesis that dysfunctional sexual beliefs moderate the association between the frequency of unsuccessful sexual episodes and the activation of incompetence schemas. Participants completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire and the Questionnaire of Cognitive Schemas Activated in Sexual Context. Findings indicated that men's ability for always being ready for sex, to satisfy the partner, and to maintain an erection until ending sexual activity constitute "macho" beliefs that moderate the activation of incompetence schemas when unsuccessful sexual events occur in gay and heterosexual men. In addition, activation of incompetence schemas in response to negative sexual events in gay men was moderated by the endorsement of conservative attitudes toward moderate sexuality. The main findings suggested that psychological interventions targeting dysfunctional sexual beliefs could help de-catastrophize the consequences of negative sexual events and facilitate sexual functioning. Despite being a web-based study, it represents the first attempt to test the moderator role of dysfunctional sexual beliefs in the association between the frequency of unsuccessful sexual episodes and the activation of incompetence schemas in gay and heterosexual men. Overall, findings

  16. Endpoint distinctiveness facilitates analogical mapping in pigeons.

    Hagmann, Carl Erick; Cook, Robert G

    2015-03-01

    Analogical thinking necessitates mapping shared relations across two separate domains. We investigated whether pigeons could learn faster with ordinal mapping of relations across two physical dimensions (circle size & choice spatial position) relative to random mapping of these relations. Pigeons were trained to relate six circular samples of different sizes to horizontally positioned choice locations in a six alternative matching-to-sample task. Three pigeons were trained in a mapped condition in which circle size mapped directly onto choice spatial position. Three other pigeons were trained in a random condition in which the relations between size and choice position were arbitrarily assigned. The mapped group showed an advantage over the random group in acquiring this task. In a subsequent second phase, relations between the dimensions were ordinally reversed for the mapped group and re-randomized for the random group. There was no difference in how quickly matching accuracy re-emerged in the two groups, although the mapped group eventually performed more accurately. Analyses suggested this mapped advantage was likely due to endpoint distinctiveness and the benefits of proximity errors during choice responding rather than a conceptual or relational advantage attributable to the common or ordinal mapping of the two dimensions. This potential difficulty in mapping relations across dimensions may limit the pigeons' capacity for more advanced types of analogical reasoning. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tribute to Tom Zentall. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Endpoint Distinctiveness Facilitates Analogical Mapping in Pigeons

    Hagmann, Carl Erick; Cook, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Analogical thinking necessitates mapping shared relations across two separate domains. We investigated whether pigeons could learn faster with ordinal mapping of relations across two physical dimensions (circle size & choice spatial position) relative to random mapping of these relations. Pigeons were trained to relate six circular samples of different sizes to horizontally positioned choice locations in a six alternative matching-to-sample task. Three pigeons were trained in a mapped condition in which circle size mapped directly onto choice spatial position. Three other pigeons were trained in a random condition in which the relations between size and choice position were arbitrarily assigned. The mapped group showed an advantage over the random group in acquiring this task. In a subsequent second phase, reassignment, relations between the dimensions were ordinally reversed for the mapped group and re-randomized for the random group. There was no difference in how quickly matching accuracy re-emerged in the two groups, although the mapped group eventually performed more accurately. Analyses suggested this mapped advantage was likely due endpoint distinctiveness and the benefits of proximity errors during choice responding rather than a conceptual or relational advantage attributable to the common or ordinal map of the two dimensions. This potential difficulty in mapping relations across dimensions may limit the pigeons’ capacity for more advanced types of analogical reasoning. PMID:25447511

  18. Are empathy and concern psychologically distinct?

    Jordan, Matthew R; Amir, Dorsa; Bloom, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Researchers have long been interested in the relationship between feeling what you believe others feel-often described as empathy-and caring about the welfare of others-often described as compassion or concern. Many propose that empathy is a prerequisite for concern and is therefore the ultimate motivator of prosocial actions. To assess this hypothesis, the authors developed the Empathy Index, which consists of 2 novel scales, and explored their relationship to a measure of concern as well as to measures of cooperative and altruistic behavior. A series of factor analyses reveal that empathy and concern consistently load on different factors. Furthermore, they show that empathy and concern motivate different behaviors: concern for others is a uniquely positive predictor of prosocial action whereas empathy is either not predictive or negatively predictive of prosocial actions. Together these studies suggest that empathy and concern are psychologically distinct and empathy plays a more limited role in our moral lives than many believe. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. A description of heterosexual couples' sexual adjustment to androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Walker, Lauren M; Robinson, John W

    2011-08-01

    It is estimated that 600,000 men are currently living in North America with castrate levels of testosterone as a result of androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. The goal of this study was to explore how patients and their partners adjust to changes associated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Eighteen couples were interviewed regarding their adjustment to ADT side effects. Three distinct patterns of adjustment were observed. One group of couples had assumed sex to be impossible after commencing ADT, and quickly accepted the loss of sex in exchange for a life extending treatment (four couples). Another group was found to be struggling to either maintain satisfying sex or adapt to the loss of their sexual relationship (five couples). The third group had struggled, but found that they were satisfied with their sexual outcome (nine couples). A subset of these couples successfully adjusted to changes in the man's sexual function and found satisfying ways to be sexually active (five couples). The finding that some couples are able to enjoy satisfying sex, despite castrate levels of testosterone, raised questions about how patients are prepared to undergo ADT and how they are managed. It is possible that both the couples who gave up on sex because they believed that satisfying sex was impossible, and the couples who continued to struggle to adjust, may have faired better if they had known how other couples are able to maintain satisfying sex while the man is androgen-deprived. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Distinct genetic alterations in colorectal cancer.

    Hassan Ashktorab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colon cancer (CRC development often includes chromosomal instability (CIN leading to amplifications and deletions of large DNA segments. Epidemiological, clinical, and cytogenetic studies showed that there are considerable differences between CRC tumors from African Americans (AAs and Caucasian patients. In this study, we determined genomic copy number aberrations in sporadic CRC tumors from AAs, in order to investigate possible explanations for the observed disparities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied genome-wide array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH using a 105k chip to identify copy number aberrations in samples from 15 AAs. In addition, we did a population comparative analysis with aCGH data in Caucasians as well as with a widely publicized list of colon cancer genes (CAN genes. There was an average of 20 aberrations per patient with more amplifications than deletions. Analysis of DNA copy number of frequently altered chromosomes revealed that deletions occurred primarily in chromosomes 4, 8 and 18. Chromosomal duplications occurred in more than 50% of cases on chromosomes 7, 8, 13, 20 and X. The CIN profile showed some differences when compared to Caucasian alterations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Chromosome X amplification in male patients and chromosomes 4, 8 and 18 deletions were prominent aberrations in AAs. Some CAN genes were altered at high frequencies in AAs with EXOC4, EPHB6, GNAS, MLL3 and TBX22 as the most frequently deleted genes and HAPLN1, ADAM29, SMAD2 and SMAD4 as the most frequently amplified genes. The observed CIN may play a distinctive role in CRC in AAs.

  1. Distinction between epigenic and hypogenic maze caves

    Palmer, Arthur N.

    2011-11-01

    Certain caves formed by dissolution of bedrock have maze patterns composed of closed loops in which many intersecting fractures or pores have enlarged simultaneously. Their origin can be epigenic (by shallow circulation of meteoric groundwater) or hypogenic (by rising groundwater or production of deep-seated solutional aggressiveness). Epigenic mazes form by diffuse infiltration through a permeable insoluble caprock or by floodwater supplied by sinking streams. Most hypogenic caves involve deep sources of aggressiveness. Transverse hypogenic cave origin is a recently proposed concept in which groundwater of mainly meteoric origin rises across strata in the distal portions of large flow systems, to form mazes in soluble rock sandwiched between permeable but insoluble strata. The distinction between maze types is debated and is usually based on examination of diagnostic cave features and relation of caves to their regional setting. In this paper, the principles of mass transfer are applied to clarify the limits of each model, to show how cave origin is related to groundwater discharge, dissolution rate, and time. The results show that diffuse infiltration and floodwater can each form maze caves at geologically feasible rates (typically within 500 ka). Transverse hypogenic mazes in limestone, to enlarge significantly within 1 Ma, require an unusually high permeability of the non-carbonate beds (generally ≥ 10-4 cm/s), large discharge, and calcite saturation no greater than 90%, which is rare in deep diffuse flow in sedimentary rocks. Deep sources of aggressiveness are usually required. The origin of caves by transverse hypogenic flow is much more favorable in evaporite rocks than in carbonate rocks.

  2. Who has sex with whom? Characteristics of heterosexual partnerships reported in a national probability survey and implications for STI risk.

    Mercer, Catherine H; Copas, Andrew J; Sonnenberg, Pam; Johnson, Anne M; McManus, Sally; Erens, Bob; Cassell, Jackie A

    2009-02-01

    Sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk is determined both by partner numbers and partnership characteristics. Studies describing only recent partnership(s) overestimate long-term partnerships and underestimate the contribution of casual partnerships to STI transmission in populations. We describe all heterosexual partnerships in the past year in terms of partnership type, age and geographical mixing and how these characteristics relate to condom use. Probability sample survey of 11 161 men and women aged 16-44 resident in Britain, 1999-2001. Computer-assisted self-interviews asked respondents about partner numbers and detailed questions about their three most recent partnerships. We weight these data to represent partnerships for which detailed questions were not asked to present estimates for the population of partnerships. Of 15 488 heterosexuals partnerships, 39.1% (95% CI 36.6-41.7%) of men's partnerships were 'not (yet) regular' vs 20.0% (95% CI 18.2-21.9%) of women's partnerships. While condoms were used at last sex in 37.1% (95% CI 35.0-39.3%) of men's and 28.8% (95% CI 27.1-30.6%) of women's partnerships, and for 55.3% (95% CI 52.6-58.0%) of first sex with new partners, these proportions declined with age. When partnerships involved an age difference of 5+ years [26.2% (95% CI 23.0-29.6%) of men's and 36.5% (95% CI 33.0-40.1%) of women's partnerships], condoms were less commonly used at first sex than when partners were closer in age [44.1% (95% CI 39.1-48.4%) vs 60.8% (95% CI 57.3-64.2%)]. Sex occurred within 24 h in 23.4% (95% CI 19.7-27.5%) of men's and 10.7% (95% CI 8.3-13.6%) of women's partnerships. A substantial minority of partnerships in the population is casual. The proportion of partnerships not protected by condoms is high, especially for partnerships involving larger age differences and people in their 30s and 40s. Condom use with new partners needs to be promoted among all age-groups.

  3. Heterosexual transmission of HIV in the Dominican Republic: gendered indicators are associated with disparities in condom use.

    Jimenez, Michelle M; Andrade, Flavia C D; Raffaelli, Marcela; Iwelunmor, Juliet

    2015-11-23

    Gendered dynamics in heterosexual relationships compromise women's self-efficacy and increase their vulnerability to acquiring HIV. This study examines the impact of socioeconomic determinants, media exposure, and sexual expectations on sexual behaviors of men and women in the Dominican Republic (DR). We analyzed cross-sectional data from 51,018 adults in the Dominican Republic age 15 to 45 years collected by the Demographics and Health Survey (DHS) in 2007. Measures included demographic and socioeconomic indicators, social exposures, sexual expectations and sexual behaviors. Logistic regression models explored gender differences in condom use. Study findings indicated that women were less likely to use a condom at last intercourse than men (odds ratio [OR] = 0.29; 95 % CI = 0.27, 0.31). Among men, secondary (OR = 1.43; 95 % CI = 1.16, 1.76) and higher education (OR = 1.58; 95 % CI = 1.25, 2.00), being in the richest quintile (OR = 1.25; 95 % CI = 1.07, 1.47), and living in a female-headed household (OR = 1.13; 95 % CI 1.03, 1.23) increased the likelihood of condom use. Compared to never married men, currently and formerly married men were less likely to use condoms (OR = 0.03; 95 % CI = 0.03, 0.04 and OR = 0.67; 95 % CI = 0.60, 0.75, respectively). The odds of condom use increased for young women 15-19 years old in comparison with women age 30-34 years, but decreased as they grew older. For women, being in the richer quintile (OR = 1.28; 95 % CI = 1.06, 1.54), living in a female-headed household (OR = 1.26; 1.12, 1.41), and having good access to media (OR = 1.24; 95 % CI = 1.12, 1.42) increased the likelihood of condom use. Being currently married or formerly married and living in rural areas decreased such likelihood among women. Study findings provide evidence that, in the DHS, socioeconomic and cultural differences between men and women affects condom use. Efforts to reduce HIV transmission

  4. Sexual behaviour of heterosexual men and women receiving antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention: a longitudinal analysis.

    Mugwanya, Kenneth K; Donnell, Deborah; Celum, Connie; Thomas, Katherine K; Ndase, Patrick; Mugo, Nelly; Katabira, Elly; Ngure, Kenneth; Baeten, Jared M

    2013-12-01

    Scarce data are available to assess sexual behaviour of individuals using antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention. Increased sexual risk taking by individuals using effective HIV prevention strategies, like pre-exposure prophylaxis, could offset the benefits of HIV prevention. We studied whether the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis in HIV-uninfected men and women in HIV-serodiscordant couples was associated with increased sexual risk behaviour. We undertook a longitudinal analysis of data from the Partners PrEP Study, a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis among HIV-uninfected partners of heterosexual HIV-serodiscordant couples (n=3163, ≥18 years of age). Efficacy for HIV prevention was publicly reported in July 2011, and participants continued monthly follow-up thereafter. We used regression analyses to compare the frequency of sex-unprotected by a condom-during the 12 months after compared with the 12 months before July 2011, to assess whether knowledge of pre-exposure prophylaxis efficacy for HIV prevention caused increased sexual risk behaviour. We analysed 56 132 person-months from 3024 HIV-uninfected individuals (64% male). The average frequency of unprotected sex with the HIV-infected study partner was 59 per 100 person-months before unmasking versus 53 after unmasking; we recorded no immediate change (p=0·66) or change over time (p=0·25) after July, 2011. We identified a significant increase in unprotected sex with outside partners after July, 2011, but the effect was small (average of 6·8 unprotected sex acts per year vs 6·2 acts in a predicted counterfactual scenario had patients remained masked, p=0·04). Compared with before July, 2011, we noted no significant increase in incident sexually transmitted infections or pregnancy after July, 2011. Pre-exposure prophylaxis, provided as part of a comprehensive prevention package, might not result in substantial changes in risk

  5. Validity of Sensory Systems as Distinct Constructs

    Su, Chia-Ting; Parham, L. Diane

    2014-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis testing whether sensory questionnaire items represented distinct sensory system constructs found, using data from two age groups, that such constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data.

  6. Visual distinctiveness can enhance recency effects.

    Bornstein, B H; Neely, C B; LeCompte, D C

    1995-05-01

    Experimental efforts to meliorate the modality effect have included attempts to make the visual stimulus more distinctive. McDowd and Madigan (1991) failed to find an enhanced recency effect in serial recall when the last item was made more distinct in terms of its color. In an attempt to extend this finding, three experiments were conducted in which visual distinctiveness was manipulated in a different manner, by combining the dimensions of physical size and coloration (i.e., whether the stimuli were solid or outlined in relief). Contrary to previous findings, recency was enhanced when the size and coloration of the last item differed from the other items in the list, regardless of whether the "distinctive" item was larger or smaller than the remaining items. The findings are considered in light of other research that has failed to obtain a similar enhanced recency effect, and their implications for current theories of the modality effect are discussed.

  7. Heterosexual men's anger in response to male homosexuality: effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy and sexual prejudice.

    Hudepohl, Adam D; Parrott, Dominic J; Zeichner, Amos

    2010-01-01

    The present study compared effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy on the experience of anger in heterosexual men. Data came from three independent laboratory studies designed to elicit anger in response to erotic or non-erotic depictions of male-male and male-female intimacy. All participants completed a measure of sexual prejudice and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic or non-erotic video. Among high-prejudiced men, viewing erotic and non-erotic intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. In contrast, among low-prejudiced men, viewing erotic, but not non-erotic, intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. Implications for understanding heterosexual men's anger, and aggression, toward gay men were discussed.

  8. Gay Men and Lesbian Women Who Become Parents in the Context of a Former Heterosexual Relationship: An Explorative Study in Italy.

    Giunti, Daniel; Fioravanti, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    In Italy, homosexual people are not allowed to perform donor insemination/surrogacy or adoption, thus they become parents mainly in the context of previous heterosexual relationships. The current study examines the experiences of 34 gay fathers and 32 lesbian mothers with children from a heterosexual relationship. Data on homosexuality awareness, reasons for marriage and parenthood, and the coming-out process to children were collected. Most participants reported not being aware of their homosexuality when they married and became parents. The most common reasons for marriage were "love" and "social expectancy," whereas parenthood was motivated mainly by the "desire for children and family." Most participants came out to at least one child and reported a positive reaction. The most cited benefit of coming out was "openness/not hiding anymore." The results suggest that the lives of gay and lesbian parents are shaped by their sexual minority status as well as by societal heterosexism.

  9. Heterosexual Men's Anger in Response to Male Homosexuality: Effects of Erotic and Non-Erotic Depictions of Male-Male Intimacy and Sexual Prejudice

    Hudepohl, Adam D.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Zeichner, Amos

    2010-01-01

    The present study compared effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy on the experience of anger in heterosexual men. Data came from three independent laboratory studies designed to elicit anger in response to erotic or non-erotic depictions of male-male and male-female intimacy. All participants completed a measure of sexual prejudice and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic or non-erotic video. Among high-prejudiced men, viewing erotic and non-erotic intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. In contrast, among low-prejudiced men, viewing erotic, but not non-erotic, intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. Implications for understanding heterosexual men's anger, and aggression, toward gay men were discussed. PMID:20818528

  10. It's Not Me, It's You: Perceptions of Partner Body Image Preferences Associated With Eating Disorder Symptoms in Gay and Heterosexual Men.

    Fussner, Lauren M; Smith, April R

    2015-01-01

    This study explored perceptions of partner body image preferences and symptoms of disordered eating in gay and heterosexual men. Participants were male college students (n = 201; M age = 20.46), and over one third identified as gay. We compared discrepancies between participants' current and ideal body type and participants' current body type and the body type they believed they should have to attract a dating partner. For gay men, the discrepancy between their current body and the body they believed they should have to attract a dating partner was significantly greater than the discrepancy between their current and ideal body types. In gay and heterosexual men, the discrepancy between current body and the body they believed they should have to attract a dating partner predicted eating, shape, and weight concern. Results suggest that perceptions of partner body image preferences may contribute to eating disorder pathology in men.

  11. Hombres Sanos: exposure and response to a social marketing HIV prevention campaign targeting heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women.

    Martínez-Donate, Ana P; Zellner, Jennifer A; Fernández-Cerdeño, Araceli; Sañudo, Fernando; Hovell, Melbourne F; Sipan, Carol L; Engelberg, Moshe; Ji, Ming

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the reach and impact of a social marketing intervention to reduce HIV risk among heterosexually identified (HI) Latino men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). Repeated cross-sectional intercept surveys were conducted in selected community venues during and after the campaign with 1,137 HI Latino men. Of them, 6% were classified as HI Latino MSMW. On average, 85.9% of the heterosexual respondents and 86.8% of the HI MSMW subsample reported exposure to the campaign. Responses to the campaign included having made an appointment for a male health exam that included HIV testing and using condoms. Campaign exposure was significantly associated with HIV testing behavior and intentions and with knowledge of where to get tested. The campaign reached its underserved target audience and stimulated preventive behaviors. Social marketing represents a promising approach for HIV prevention among HI Latinos, in general, and HI Latino MSMW, in particular.

  12. Cerebral activation associated with sexual arousal in response to a pornographic clip: A 15O-H2O PET study in heterosexual men.

    Bocher, M; Chisin, R; Parag, Y; Freedman, N; Meir Weil, Y; Lester, H; Mishani, E; Bonne, O

    2001-07-01

    This study attempted to use PET and 15O-H2O to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during sexual arousal evoked in 10 young heterosexual males while they watched a pornographic video clip, featuring heterosexual intercourse. This condition was compared with other mental setups evoked by noisy, nature, and talkshow audiovisual clips. Immediately after each clip, the participants answered three questions pertaining to what extent they thought about sex, felt aroused, and sensed an erection. They scored their answers using a 1 to 10 scale. SPM was used for data analysis. Sexual arousal was mainly associated with activation of bilateral, predominantly right, inferoposterior extrastriate cortices, of the right inferolateral prefrontal cortex and of the midbrain. The significance of those findings is discussed in the light of current theories concerning selective attention, "mind reading" and mirroring, reinforcement of pleasurable stimuli, and penile erection.

  13. Higher rates of triple-class virological failure in perinatally HIV-infected teenagers compared with heterosexually infected young adults in Europe

    Judd, A; Lodwick, R; Noguera-Julian, A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the time to, and risk factors for, triple-class virological failure (TCVF) across age groups for children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection and older adolescents and adults with heterosexually acquired HIV infection. METHODS...... compared with participants with heterosexually acquired HIV infection overall [17 (interquartile range (IQR) 4-111) vs. 8 (IQR 2-38) weeks, respectively], and highest in perinatally infected participants aged 10-14 years [49 (IQR 9-267) weeks]. The cumulative proportion with TCVF 5 years after starting ART......: We analysed individual patient data from cohorts in the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE). A total of 5972 participants starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) from 1998, aged

  14. Vliv dominance na partnerskou spokojenost dlouhodobých homosexuálních a heterosexuálních párů

    Breslerová, Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies propose two theories explaining the particular mechanisms of mate choice. Theory of homogamy suggests that individuals prefer partners with personality traits similar to their own. In contrast, theory of complementarity states that people choose mates with opposite personality traits. The main aims of this study were i) to test homogamy and complementarity of dominance in long-term heterosexual and homosexual male couples and ii) to examine whether this similarity predicts high...

  15. Sexuality, gendered identities and exclusion: the deployment of proper (hetero)sexuality within an HIV-prevention text from South Africa.

    Gacoin, Andrée

    2010-05-01

    HIV prevention discourses concern lives, the protection of bodily rights and people's active involvement in the policies and programmes that affect them. HIV prevention discourses also create lives, relying upon the deployment of normative sexual identities at the same time as they invite complex and fluid youth identities to embody the norms of prevention. This paper examines a particular HIV prevention text that is available to teachers in the Western Cape province of South Africa to support the implementation of the national Life Orientation programme. Rather than considering this text as a neutral 'scaffold' upon which teachers and students add cultural meanings, it is important to interrogate the ways in which texts rely upon and reiterate particular discursive constructions of the youth sexual subject. This paper argues that the text deploys a particular discursive framework in order to construct a 'normal' (and hetero) sexuality that validates, rather than questions, social constructions of masculine privilege within heterosexuality. This is achieved through the deployment of a scientific expertise of sexuality; the mobilisation of a valued hetero/homosexual binary to create a 'safe' heterosexuality; the normalisation of bourgeois sexuality through the ideology of marriage; and the naturalisation of heterosexual masculine and feminine identities.

  16. The role of the illusion in the construction of erotic desire: narratives from heterosexual men who have occasional sex with transgender women.

    Reback, Cathy J; Kaplan, Rachel L; Bettcher, Talia M; Larkins, Sherry

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about men's sexual desire for and erotic attraction to male-to-female transgender women. To better understand how erotic desire is constructed, this study examined the narratives of a sample of heterosexual men who had had an occasional sexual encounter with a transgender woman. Open-ended qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 heterosexual men who reported at least one sexual encounter with a transgender woman in the previous 12 months. Using principles of Grounded Theory, three themes emerged: (1) the erotic desire that transpired from a transgender woman's construction of her femininity, (2) the sexual act that dictated the specific navigation of a transgender woman's penis and (3) the sexual dissonance that resulted from being a heterosexually identified man having sex with a partner who had a penis. These themes reflected how the participants defined and negotiated their sexual encounters, both psychologically through their understanding of sex with a transgender woman with a penis, and physically through the navigation of specific sex acts. The role of the 'illusion' was central to the meaning and construction of erotic desire. These narratives provided another framework for continuing discourse on the complexity of erotic desire.

  17. A systematic review of behavioral interventions to prevent HIV infection and transmission among heterosexual, adult men in low-and middle-income countries.

    Townsend, Loraine; Mathews, Catherine; Zembe, Yanga

    2013-02-01

    Prevention of new HIV infections needs to move to the forefront in the fight against HIV and AIDS. In the current economic crisis, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) should invest limited resources to amass reliable evidence-based information about behavioral prevention efforts, and on behaviors that are driving the epidemic among people who are engaging in those behaviors. This paper aims to provide a systematic review and synthesis of behavioral interventions among a group of people in high HIV-burden countries: heterosexual men in LMICs. The review includes articles published between January 2001 and May 2010 that evaluated behavioral prevention interventions among heterosexual males aged 18+ years in LMICs. The studies were evaluated using the quality assessment tool for quantitative studies developed by the Effective Public Health Practice Project. The review identified 19 articles that met the review's inclusion criteria. Most studies were conducted in South Africa (n=6); two each in Uganda and Thailand; and one in each of Angola, Brazil, Bulgaria, India, Nigeria, the Philippines, Russia, Ukraine and Zimbabwe. Eight of 19 interventions increased condom use among their respective populations. Those interventions that sought to reduce the number of sexual partners had little effect, and those that addressed alcohol consumption and intimate partner violence had mixed effects. There was no evidence for any specific format of intervention that impacted best on any of the targeted risk behaviors. The paucity of evaluated interventions for heterosexual men in LMICs suggests that adult men in these countries remain underrepresented in HIV prevention efforts.

  18. Disparities in adverse childhood experiences among sexual minority and heterosexual adults: results from a multi-state probability-based sample.

    Judith P Andersen

    Full Text Available Adverse childhood experiences (e.g., physical, sexual and emotional abuse, neglect, exposure to domestic violence, parental discord, familial mental illness, incarceration and substance abuse constitute a major public health problem in the United States. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE scale is a standardized measure that captures multiple developmental risk factors beyond sexual, physical and emotional abuse. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority individuals may experience disproportionately higher prevalence of adverse childhood experiences.To examine, using the ACE scale, prevalence of childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and childhood household dysfunction among sexual minority and heterosexual adults.Analyses were conducted using a probability-based sample of data pooled from three U.S. states' Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS surveys (Maine, Washington, Wisconsin that administered the ACE scale and collected information on sexual identity (n = 22,071.Compared with heterosexual respondents, gay/lesbian and bisexual individuals experienced increased odds of six of eight and seven of eight adverse childhood experiences, respectively. Sexual minority persons had higher rates of adverse childhood experiences (IRR = 1.66 gay/lesbian; 1.58 bisexual compared to their heterosexual peers.Sexual minority individuals have increased exposure to multiple developmental risk factors beyond physical, sexual and emotional abuse. We recommend the use of the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale in future research examining health disparities among this minority population.

  19. Recalled sex-typed behavior in childhood and sports' preferences in adulthood of heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual men from Brazil, Turkey, and Thailand.

    Cardoso, Fernando Luiz

    2009-10-01

    This research used interview and questionnaire data from homosexual (n = 177), bisexual (n = 157), and heterosexual (n = 544) men between 20 and 30 years of age among lower class men and university students in three countries: Brazil, Thailand, and Turkey. The main goal of the study was to examine the recalled childhood sex-typed behavior and adult sports preferences that distinguish homosexuals from bisexuals and heterosexuals. In all three cultures and both social groups, homosexual men were almost always more likely as children to have wanted to be a girl, to cross-dress, to play with girls, to do girls' tasks, and to practice fewer sports. They were also less likely to bully others or to engage in physical fights. As children, homosexual men were more likely to prefer swimming and playing volleyball rather than soccer and, as adults, they preferred watching gymnastics and swimming over soccer. The bisexuals scored intermediate mostly in "desire to be a girl" and "cross-dressing," although they were much closer to the heterosexuals. These results, coupled with previous cross-cultural research, suggest that cross-gender behavior in childhood may characterize most male homosexuals regardless of their cultural milieu.

  20. Momentary Desire for Sexual Intercourse and Momentary Emotional Intimacy Associated With Perceived Relationship Quality and Physical Intimacy in Heterosexual Emerging Adult Couples.

    Shrier, Lydia A; Blood, Emily A

    2015-11-25

    Sexual desire and emotional intimacy are central to relationships, yet little is known about how these feelings vary within and between partners or relate to dyad functioning. We explored magnitude and stability of momentary sexual desire and emotional intimacy in relation to quality and functioning of heterosexual relationships. After reporting perceived relationship quality and physical intimacy enjoyment, members of 18 emerging adult heterosexual couples reported momentary partner-specific sexual desire and emotional intimacy several times a day for two weeks (2,224 reports). Mean and mean squared successive difference (MSSD) characterized magnitude and stability, respectively, of the momentary states. Regression models of relationship outcomes examined influence of the male versus female partner having greater or more stable desire and intimacy. Sexual desire and emotional intimacy magnitude and stability were associated with relationship quality and physical intimacy enjoyment differently for men versus women. Gender-specific differences between partners also predicted relationship outcomes. Men particularly perceived higher relationship quality and enjoyed physical intimacy more when they had higher and more stable sexual desire and their female partners had more stable emotional intimacy. Partner differences in momentary sexual desire and emotional intimacy may contribute to understanding quality and functioning of heterosexual relationships.

  1. Sexual repertoires of heterosexuals: implications for HIV/sexually transmitted disease risk and prevention. The ACSF Group, Analyse des Comportements Sexuels en France.

    Messiah, A; Blin, P; Fiche, V

    1995-12-01

    To provide a quantitative and population-based analysis of sexual repertoires among heterosexuals. The French National Survey of Sexual Behaviour (ACSF), conducted between September 1991 and February 1992 on a representative sample of the population aged 18-69 years. Sexual practices of the last heterosexual encounter were investigated among 4261 individuals; we measured the combinations of different practices and their correlations with age, and calculated frequencies for the main repertoires and their correlations with the interpartner relationship. Vaginal penetration and caressing were almost systematic, self-masturbation and anal penetration were rare, while mutual masturbation and orogenital practices had intermediate levels of occurrence. Examination of the correlations revealed (1) a very high correlation between practices which are reciprocal or symmetrical, (2) a strong association between genito-manual and genito-oral practices, (3) an association between anal penetration and fellatio, and (4) no clear correlation between any set of practices and vaginal sex or condom use. A small number of repertoires accounted for the vast majority of encounters. Younger people tended to have a more diversified repertoire. Repertoire types and diversity were strongly correlated to the pattern of interpartner relationship, independently of age. Reciprocity seems a standard feature of the heterosexual repertoire. The absence of a negative correlation between vaginal or anal penetration and other practices argues against promotion of the latter as substitute for the former. By contrast, the independence between condom use and any specific repertoire argues for its promotion as a universal means of protection.

  2. Partner-specific sexual practices among heterosexual men and women with multiple partners: results from the French national survey, ACSF. Analyse des Comportements Sexuel en France.

    Messiah, A; Pelletier, A

    1996-06-01

    Heterosexual men and women with several partners are at risk of acquiring and transmitting sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. Risk depends on parameters such as the sexual practices themselves which may vary according to the type of partner (regular vs. casual). It is therefore important to describe the sexual practices and identify the correlations between the type of partner and these practices among heterosexuals with multiple partners. A subsample of all subjects having had at least two sexual partners during the previous year (n = 1644) was obtained from the ACSF survey (n = 20,055), the French national telephone survey on sexual behavior conducted between September 1991 and February 1992. Questions concerned in particular sexual practices of the last encounter as well as type of partner. Petting and vaginal penetration were almost systematic, mutual manual stimulation and orogenital sex were common, while self-masturbation and anal sex were infrequent. On average, a condom was seldom used. However, it was used more often when the partner was occasional. Nonpenetrative and oral practices were also more frequent with occasional partners. Women tended to report lower frequencies of practices and of condom use than men. A subset of heterosexuals with multiple partners engaged in safe sex. Practices tend to be partner-specific, with safer sex practices more likely to occur with occasional partners, although the magnitude of the difference is moderate.

  3. The association between negative attitudes toward aging and mental health among middle-aged and older gay and heterosexual men in Israel.

    Shenkman, Geva; Ifrah, Kfir; Shmotkin, Dov

    2018-04-01

    The association between negative attitudes toward aging and mental health (indicated by depressive symptoms, neuroticism, and happiness) was explored among Israeli middle-aged and older gay and heterosexual men. In a community-dwelling sample, 152 middle-aged and older gay men and 120 middle-aged and older heterosexual men at the age range of 50-87 (M = 59.3, SD = 7.5) completed measures of negative attitudes toward aging, depressive symptoms, neuroticism, and happiness. After controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, the association between negative attitudes toward aging and mental health was moderated by sexual orientation, demonstrating that negative attitudes toward aging were more strongly associated with adverse mental health concomitants among middle-aged and older gay men compared to middle-aged and older heterosexual men. The findings suggest vulnerability of middle-aged and older gay men to risks of aging, as their mental health is markedly linked with their negative attitudes toward aging. This vulnerability should be addressed by clinicians and counselors who work with middle-aged and older gay men.

  4. Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for Prevention of HIV in Serodiscordant Heterosexual Couples in the United States: Opportunities and Challenges

    Myers, Julie E.; Kurth, Ann E.; Cohen, Stephanie E.; Mannheimer, Sharon B.; Simmons, Janie; Pouget, Enrique R.; Trabold, Nicole; Haberer, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising new biomedical prevention approach in which HIV-negative individuals are provided with daily oral antiretroviral medication for the primary prevention of HIV-1. Several clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy of oral PrEP for HIV prevention among groups at high risk for HIV, with adherence closely associated with level of risk reduction. In the United States (US), three groups have been prioritized for initial implementation of PrEP—injection drug users, men who have sex with men at substantial risk for HIV, and HIV-negative partners within serodiscordant heterosexual couples. Numerous demonstration projects involving PrEP implementation among MSM are underway, but relatively little research has been devoted to study PrEP implementation in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in the US. Such couples face a unique set of challenges to PrEP implementation at the individual, couple, and provider level with regard to PrEP uptake and maintenance, adherence, safety and toxicity, clinical monitoring, and sexual risk behavior. Oral PrEP also provides new opportunities for serodiscordant couples and healthcare providers for primary prevention and reproductive health. This article provides a review of the critical issues, challenges, and opportunities involved in the implementation of oral PrEP among HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in the US. PMID:25045996

  5. The Strategies of Heterosexuals from Large Metropolitan Areas for Assessing the Risks of Exposure to HIV or Other Sexually Transmitted Infections from Partners Met Online.

    Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Maria; Onaga, Marie; Verni, Rachel; Gunn, Hamish

    2017-04-01

    Heterosexuals' use of the Internet for meeting romantic or sexual partners is rapidly increasing, raising concerns about the Internet's potential to facilitate encounters that place individuals at risk for acquiring HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). For example, online sharing of personal information and self-revelations can foster virtual intimacy, promoting a false sense of familiarity that might accelerate progression to unprotected sex. Therefore, it is critical to understand how those who meet sexual partners online attempt to assess the possible risk of acquiring HIV or STIs posed by having unprotected sex with a new partner and decide whether to use a condom. To investigate this issue, in-depth interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of heterosexual male and female participants from large metropolitan cities who had had unprotected vaginal or anal sex with at least two partners met online in the past 3 months. With few exceptions, participants relied on faulty strategies and heuristics to estimate these risks; yet, most engaged in unprotected sex at their first meeting or very soon afterward. While some seemed to try to make a genuine effort to arrive at a reliable assessment of the HIV risk posed, most appeared to be looking for a way to justify their desire and intention to have unprotected sex. The findings suggest the need for more HIV and sexual health education targeted at heterosexuals, especially for those who go online to meet partners.

  6. Sexual Violence Victimization History and Sexual Risk Indicators in a Community-Based Urban Cohort of “Mostly Heterosexual” and Heterosexual Young Women

    Austin, S. Bryn; Roberts, Andrea L.; Corliss, Heather L.; Molnar, Beth E.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to examine sexual violence victimization in childhood and sexual risk indicators in young adulthood in a primarily Latina and Black cohort of “mostly heterosexual” and heterosexual women in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Methods. In 2000, a comprehensive survey that assessed sexual orientation, sexual risk indicators, and sexual abuse victimization was completed by 391 young women (aged 18 to 24 years) who had participated in PHDCN. We used multivariable regression methods to examine sexual orientation group differences in sexual risk indicators and to assess whether childhood sexual abuse may mediate relationships. Results. Compared with self-reported heterosexual women, self-reported “mostly heterosexual” women were more likely to report having been the victim of childhood sexual abuse, to have had a sexually transmitted infection, to report an earlier age of first sexual intercourse, and to have had more sexual partners. Childhood sexual abuse did not mediate relationships between sexual orientation and sexual risk indicators. Conclusions. Our findings add to the evidence that “mostly heterosexual” women experience greater health risk than do heterosexual women. In addition, “mostly heterosexual” women are at high risk for having experienced childhood sexual abuse. PMID:17901440

  7. The impact of load shedding on gender relations in heterosexual households in Mkoba north, Gweru, Zimbabwe: Implications for sustainable development

    Manuku Mukoni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the impact of load shedding on gender relations in heterosexual households. 20 couples were selected through judgmental sampling that was followed by network referencing; bringing the sample to 40 participants. Study was descriptive in nature. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data. Study reveals that load shedding have ripple effects in the social fabric of sustainable development through its impacts on gender relations. Load shedding is proving to be reproducing and maintaining gender relations of inequality, thus holding back sustainable development. Women are deprived control of areas that traditional belongs to them like the decision and control of energy use in the household giving men more power over women. Load shedding is increasing men’s time in the public sphere while women are tied more to the private sphere. For sustainable development to be achieved, household relationships should uphold the principles of sustainable development and gender equality is one of them. Empowerment of women and men in household energy uses will aid in opening up their ‘functioning space’. An understanding and appreciation of gender equality in the household will help men and women to be influential in the larger society leading to sustainable development.

  8. Conflict Resolution Styles as Mediators of Female Child Sexual Abuse Experience and Heterosexual Couple Relationship Satisfaction and Stability in Adulthood.

    Knapp, Ashlee E; Knapp, Darin J; Brown, Cameron C; Larson, Jeffry H

    2017-01-01

    Trauma from female incestuous child sexual abuse may result in negative psychological consequences affecting adult relationships. This study explored relational consequences of incestuous child sexual abuse, focusing on conflict resolution styles, relationship satisfaction, and relationship stability. Using the RELATionship Evaluation dataset, 457 heterosexual couples in which female partners experienced incestuous child sexual abuse were compared to a group of 1,827 couples with no sexual abuse history. Analyses tested differences in the frequencies of reported conflict resolution styles for incestuous child sexual abuse and non-incestuous child sexual abuse groups, the mediating effects of conflict resolution styles on the relationship between incestuous child sexual abuse, and self- and partner-reported relationship satisfaction and stability. Significant differences in the reports of types of conflict resolution styles were found for incestuous child sexual abuse versus non-incestuous child sexual abuse groups. Incestuous child sexual abuse and conflict resolution styles were negatively related to relationship satisfaction and stability and there was a significant indirect effect between female incestuous child sexual abuse, female volatility, and relationship instability. Clinical applications for couple relationships are discussed.

  9. Graded Structure in Sexual Definitions: Categorizations of Having "Had Sex" and Virginity Loss Among Homosexual and Heterosexual Men and Women.

    Horowitz, Ava D; Bedford, Edward

    2017-08-01

    Definitions of sexual behavior display a robust hierarchy of agreement regarding whether or not acts should be classed as, for example, sex or virginity loss. The current research offers a theoretical explanation for this hierarchy, proposing that sexual definitions display graded categorical structure, arising from goodness of membership judgments. Moderation of this graded structure is also predicted, with the focus here on how sexual orientation identity affects sexual definitions. A total of 300 18- to 30-year-old participants completed an online survey, rating 18 behaviors for how far each constitutes having "had sex" and virginity loss. Participants fell into one of four groups: heterosexual male or female, gay male or lesbian. The predicted ratings hierarchy emerged, in which bidirectional genital acts were rated significantly higher than unidirectional or nonpenetrative contact, which was in turn rated significantly higher than acts involving no genital contact. Moderation of graded structure was also in line with predictions. Compared to the other groups, the lesbian group significantly upgraded ratings of genital contact that was either unidirectional or nonpenetrative. There was also evidence of upgrading by the gay male sample of anal intercourse ratings. These effects are theorized to reflect group-level variation in experience, contextual perspective, and identity-management. The implications of the findings in relation to previous research are discussed. It is suggested that a graded structure approach can greatly benefit future research into sexual definitions, by permitting variable definitions to be predicted and explained, rather than merely identified.

  10. The Effects of Sex and Gender-Role Characteristics on Facets of Sociosexuality in Heterosexual Young Adults.

    Rammsayer, Thomas H; Borter, Natalie; Troche, Stefan J

    2017-02-01

    The present study was designed to systematically investigate the functional relationships among biological sex; masculine and feminine gender-role characteristics; and sociosexual behavior, attitude toward, and desire for uncommitted casual sex as three facets of sociosexual orientation. For this purpose, facets of sociosexuality were assessed by the Revised Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI-R) and masculine and feminine gender-role characteristics were assessed by a revised German version of the Bem Sex-Role Inventory in 499 male and 958 female heterosexual young adults. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed differential mediating effects of masculine and feminine gender-role characteristics on the relationship between biological sex and the three facets of sociosexual orientation. Sociosexual behavior was shown to be primarily controlled by an individual's level of masculine gender-role characteristics irrespective of biological sex. Sociosexual desire was identified as being a sole function of biological sex with no indication for any effect of masculine or feminine gender-role characteristics, while sociosexual attitude was influenced by biological sex as well as by masculine and feminine gender-role characteristics to about the same extent.

  11. Consequences of restricted STI testing for young heterosexuals in the Netherlands on test costs and QALY losses.

    Suijkerbuijk, Anita W M; Over, Eelco A B; van Aar, Fleur; Götz, Hannelore M; van Benthem, Birgit H B; Lugnér, Anna K

    2018-02-01

    Due to rising costs caused by increasing demand for sexually transmitted infection (STI) care, the Dutch government changed the funding of STI clinics. In 2015, a more restrictive testing policy was introduced with syphilis and HIV tests only on indication for younger, heterosexual clients. We evaluated intended savings and missed syphilis and/or HIV infections and explored efficiency of possible test policies. Using surveillance data from 2011 to 2013 with extensive testing for all, we estimated effects of restrictive testing on test costs, number of infections missed, costs per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) lost, and calculated the net monetary benefit from a government perspective. The 2015 policy led to estimated savings of €1.1 million, while missing approximately three HIV infections and seven syphilis infections annually. Savings were €435,000/QALY lost. If testing second-generation immigrants for syphilis and HIV, savings rose to €525,000/QALY lost. Offering an HIV test when diagnosed with chlamydia or gonorrhoea savings were €568,000/QALY lost. In a sensitivity analysis, the willingness-to-pay threshold had the highest impact on results. The 2015 testing policy resulted in a modest decline of detected HIV and syphilis infections, generating substantial savings. Syphilis and HIV tests for both first- and second-generation immigrants and an HIV test in case of positive chlamydia or gonorrhoea diagnosis could reduce missed infections in a cost-effective way. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sexually transmitted infections among heterosexual male clients of female sex workers in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Megan M McLaughlin

    Full Text Available Female sex workers have been the target of numerous sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention strategies in China, but their male clients have attracted considerably less public health attention and resources. We sought to systematically assess the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia among heterosexual male clients of female sex workers in China.Original research manuscripts were identified by searching Chinese and English language databases, and 37 studies analyzing 26,552 male clients were included in the review. Client STI prevalence across studies was heterogeneous. Pooled prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals were 0.68% (0.36-1.28% for HIV, 2.91% (2.17-3.89% for syphilis, 2.16% (1.46-3.17% for gonorrhea, and 8.01% (4.94-12.72% for chlamydia.The pooled prevalence estimates of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia among clients in this review exceed the prevalences previously reported among population-representative samples and low-risk groups in China. However, heterogeneity across studies and sampling limitations prevent definitive conclusions about how the prevalence of STIs in this population compares to the general population. These findings suggest a need for greater attention to clients' sexual risk and disease prevalence in China's STI research agenda in order to inform effective prevention policies.

  13. The influence of attraction to partner on heterosexual women's sexual and relationship satisfaction in long-term relationships.

    Mark, Kristen P; Herbenick, Debby

    2014-04-01

    Previous research has consistently found that attraction is important in the formation of relationships though research on attraction in long-term relationships is less well understood. This article examined the predictive value of self-reported attraction to partner and change in attraction to partner on sexual and relationship satisfaction in 176 women in committed heterosexual relationships using online survey methodology. Participants' age ranged from 21 to 56 (M = 34.5) years and their relationship length ranged from 5 to 35 (M = 11.75) years. Hierarchical multiple regression results indicated that change in attraction to partner was the most salient predictor of sexual satisfaction, with current attraction to partner also related to women's sexual satisfaction, accounting for 20 % of the variance. Current attraction to partner was the only significant predictor of women's relationship satisfaction, accounting for 22 % of the variance. Additionally, attraction variables accounted for variance above and beyond the impact of relationship and sexual satisfaction. These findings suggest that self-reported attraction to partner is an important contributor to women's satisfaction outcomes in long-term relationships. Further studies in the area of attraction to partner that include couple dynamics and longitudinal data are encouraged and implications for therapists, clinicians, and educators are discussed.

  14. Reflections on the Swiss Consensus Statement in the context of qualitative interviews with heterosexuals living with HIV.

    Persson, A

    2010-12-01

    In 2008, the Swiss Federal AIDS Commission released a statement concluding that people with HIV who are on treatment and have an undetectable viral load are non-infectious and can safely practice unprotected sex with their HIV-negative partner under certain conditions. Contradicting over 25 years of HIV prevention messages, the so called Swiss Consensus Statement sparked a polarised international debate. One key concern is that the Statement will be misinterpreted to imply that everybody on treatment can have unprotected sex. Therefore, critics warn against any departure from the emphasis on condoms as the most effective prevention method. Given this concern, it is useful to reflect on what relevance the Swiss Statement may have for those concerned. This paper draws on qualitative interviews with HIV-positive heterosexuals and HIV-negative partners in Australia. Conducted both before and after the release of the Statement, these interviews revealed that sexual decision-making was not based solely on calculations of risk, but shaped by complex emotions and relationship priorities. The interviews also revealed that participants were sceptical towards the Statement's prevention message. These findings call into question the central concerns that drive this debate.

  15. Gender differences in heterosexual college students' conceptualizations and indicators of sexual consent: implications for contemporary sexual assault prevention education.

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Peterson, Zoë D; Sanders, Stephanie A; Dennis, Barbara; Reece, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Because sexual assault is often defined in terms of nonconsent, many prevention efforts focus on promoting the clear communication of consent as a mechanism to reduce assault. Yet little research has specifically examined how sexual consent is being conceptualized by heterosexual college students. In this study, 185 Midwestern U.S. college students provided responses to open-ended questions addressing how they define, communicate, and interpret sexual consent and nonconsent. The study aimed to assess how college students define and communicate consent, with particular attention to gender differences in consent. Results indicated no gender differences in defining consent. However, there were significant differences in how men and women indicated their own consent and nonconsent, with women reporting more verbal strategies than men and men reporting more nonverbal strategies than women, and in how they interpreted their partner's consent and nonconsent, with men relying more on nonverbal indicators of consent than women. Such gender differences may help to explain some misunderstandings or misinterpretations of consent or agreement to engage in sexual activity, which could partially contribute to the occurrence of acquaintance rape; thus, a better understanding of consent has important implications for developing sexual assault prevention initiatives.

  16. The dynamics of HIV transmission in out of school young heterosexual men in South Africa: a systematic scoping review protocol.

    Ntombela, Nonzwakazi; Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani P; Mtshali, Andile; Voce, Anna; Kharsany, Ayesha B M

    2017-01-17

    In South Africa, gender inequality dominated by males and heterosexual HIV epidemic are associated with high HIV infection. Underlying epidemiological and social determinants driving HIV acquisition and transmission are critical to understand the extent and complexity of sexual networks as primary mechanisms through which HIV is likely to spread. The aim of the study is to provide an overview of empiric evidence that links the complex interaction of risk of HIV infection in men. We will conduct a systematic scoping review to identify, describe, and map literature on the dynamics of HIV infection in men, and we will determine the quality of the studies reporting on the dynamics of HIV infections in men. Primary research articles, published in peer-reviewed journals, review articles, and gray literature that address the research question, will be included. We will search PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, EBSCOhost, Google Scholar, World Health Organization library, and UNAIDS database. Reference lists and existing networks such as government organizations and conferences will also be included to source relevant literature. Two independent reviewers will extract data in parallel from all relevant search engines, using specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. A thematic content analysis will be used to present the narrative account of the reviews, using NVivo version 10. We anticipate finding relevant literature on the dynamics of HIV transmission in South African men. Once summarized, data will be useful to guide future research. PROSPERO CRD42016039489.

  17. HIV/STI Prevention Among Heterosexually Active Black Adolescents With Mental Illnesses: Focus Group Findings for Intervention Development.

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Wingood, Gina; Reason, Janaiya; Mack, Niya

    Heterosexually active Black adolescents with mental illnesses are at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. However, few HIV/STI prevention interventions exist for this demographic. We held seven focus groups (N = 33) to elucidate social, cultural, and psychological factors that influence HIV/STI risk-related sexual behaviors in this understudied population. Seven themes emerged: (a) Blackness and media portrayals, (b) Blackness as a source of cultural resilience and pride, (c) psychosocial determinants of condom use, (d) consequences of engaging in sexual activity, (e) attitudes and beliefs toward sexual behaviors, (f) benefits of sexual activity, and (g) coping mechanisms. Participants also supported the feasibility of and interest in HIV/STI prevention programs integrated with mental health treatment. Transportation, potential breaches of confidentiality, and time were noted barriers to participation. Psychoeducational, skills-based programs are needed to address the sequelae of mental illnesses as they relate to the sexual decision-making process in adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dispositional sexual motives as the mirror of values in heterosexual interpersonal relations

    Igor A. Fourmanov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Values of sexual relations repeatedly changed throughout various culturalhistorical periods. As a result of acquiring values and norms of sexual culture many actual requirements of the personthat were significant at certainontogenetic and sociogeneticstages couldget deprived of the relevance at further stages. As the sociocultural sexual development progresses the subsequent new values, highly significant for the given person are can be shaped. The system of values finds the reflexion in hierarchy and defines dynamics of sexual motives at different stages of the course of life. Objective. The objective is to define hierarchy, sexual and age distinctions in dispositional sexual motives in early adulthood. Design. The paper regards the issue of interrelation between sexual motivation and features of gender interpersonal relations. The sexual motivation was considered as interest in a general class of related incentives, all of which provide the same basic type of satisfaction associated with sexual expression. Eight specific types of incentives intrinsic to sexual expression that motivate sexual behaviourare studied: (1 feeling valued by the partner, (2 reinforcing partners value, (3 obtaining relief from stress or negative psychological states, (4 providing care and custody through sexual interaction to improve a partner’s psychological condition, (5 enhancing feelings of personal power, (6 feeling partner’s power, (7 feeling pleasure, and (8 productive fertility. Conclusion. Disregarding gender and age,the leading position in the hierarchy of sexual disposition motives is occupied by the motives of reinforcing partner’s value, pleasure and care, and subordination position, i.e. motives of comfort, personal value, power and submission. Females in comparison with males differ by higher intensity of submissionmotives and the partner’s significance, while males manifest more force of motive of production fertility. Within the

  19. Two distinct origins for Archean greenstone belts

    Smithies, R. Hugh; Ivanic, Tim J.; Lowrey, Jack R.; Morris, Paul A.; Barnes, Stephen J.; Wyche, Stephen; Lu, Yong-Jun

    2018-04-01

    Applying the Th/Yb-Nb/Yb plot of Pearce (2008) to the well-studied Archean greenstone sequences of Western Australia shows that individual volcanic sequences evolved through one of two distinct processes reflecting different modes of crust-mantle interaction. In the Yilgarn Craton, the volcanic stratigraphy of the 2.99-2.71 Ga Youanmi Terrane mainly evolved through processes leading to Th/Yb-Nb/Yb trends with a narrow range of Th/Nb ('constant-Th/Nb' greenstones). In contrast, the 2.71-2.66 Ga volcanic stratigraphy of the Eastern Goldfields Superterrane evolved through processes leading to Th/Yb-Nb/Yb trends showing a continuous range in Th/Nb ('variable-Th/Nb' greenstones). Greenstone sequences of the Pilbara Craton show a similar evolution, with constant-Th/Nb greenstone evolution between 3.13 and 2.95 Ga and variable-Th/Nb greenstone evolution between 3.49 and 3.23 Ga and between 2.77 and 2.68 Ga. The variable-Th/Nb trends dominate greenstone sequences in Australia and worldwide, and are temporally associated with peaks in granite magmatism, which promoted crustal preservation. The increasing Th/Nb in basalts correlates with decreasing εNd, reflecting variable amounts of crustal assimilation during emplacement of mantle-derived magmas. These greenstones are typically accompanied in the early stages by komatiite, and can probably be linked to mantle plume activity. Thus, regions such as the Eastern Goldfields Superterrane simply developed as plume-related rifts over existing granite-greenstone crust - in this case the Youanmi Terrane. Their Th/Nb trends are difficult to reconcile with modern-style subduction processes. The constant-Th/Nb trends may reflect derivation from a mantle source already with a high and constant Th/Nb ratio. This, and a lithological association including boninite-like lavas, basalts, and calc-alkaline andesites, all within a narrow Th/Nb range, resembles compositions typical of modern-style subduction settings. These greenstones are very

  20. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Manssour Habbash

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs (Preparatory Year Programs in Saudi Arabia. This study examines the distinctiveness with regard to the learning attitudes of Saudi students that are often cultivated by the culture and academic environment in their homeland. Employing an emic approach for collecting the required data an analysis was carried out in light of the other studies on ‘education’ in Saudi Arabia that have particular reference to the factors that can positively influence student motivation, student success and the academic environment. The findings were used in constructing the rationale behind such distinctiveness. Assuming that the outcome of the discussion on the findings of this exploration can be helpful for teachers in adapting their teaching methodology and improving their teacher efficacy in dealing with students both from the kingdom and in the kingdom, some recommendations are made. Keywords: China Distinctiveness, Saudi Arabian University context, Expatriate teachers’ perspective, Distinctiveness Theory

  1. Tackling femininity: The heterosexual paradigm and women's soccer in South Africa

    Engh, Mari Haugaa

    2011-01-01

    the effects of heteronormative discourses in the lives of women footballers in South Africa, through drawing on interviews with a wide range of women footballers. The paper shows how heteronormative discourses nurture homophobic attitudes that serve to regulate the appearances and performances of South...

  2. Social context surrounding HIV diagnosis and construction of masculinity: a qualitative study of stigma experiences of heterosexual HIV positive men in southwest Nigeria

    Titilayo Ainegbesua Okoror

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though research has documented experiences of stigma and its effects on the lives of women living with HIV/AIDS, there is limited research on heterosexual positive HIV men experience of stigma in Nigeria. This study explored how social context surrounding HIV diagnosis impacts stigma experiences of heterosexual HIV positive men and their construction of masculinity in southwest Nigeria. Methods Using purposive sampling, 17 heterosexual HIV positive men were recruited through community based organization to participate in two hours focus group discussions or 45 min in-depth interviews that were audio-recorded. Without using the word stigma, discussions and interviews were guided by four questions that explored participants’ experiences of living with HIV/AIDS. Interviews and discussions were conducted in three languages: English, Yoruba and Pidgin English. Thematic data analysis approach was in coding transcribed data, while social constructivist thinking guided data analysis. Results Participants ranged in age from 30 to 57 years old, and all were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Findings indicated that participants’ experiences of stigma might be moderated by the social context surrounding their HIV diagnosis, and whether they have met the socio-cultural construction of masculinity. Participants whose diagnosis were preceded by immediate family members’ diagnosis were less likely to report experiencing HIV stigma and more likely to report “not feeling less than a man” and educating others about HIV/AIDS. Contrarily, participants whose diagnosis was preceded by their own sickness were more likely to report isolation, sigma and feeling of being less than a man. All participants reported limiting their sexual intimacy, and those with children reported adjusting how they performed their role as fathers. Conclusions Social context surrounding HIV diagnosis impact how heterosexual HIV positive men experience HIV

  3. On Hobbes’s distinction of accidents

    Lupoli Agostino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An interpolation introduced by K. Schuhmann in his critical edition of "De corpore" (chap. VI, § 13 diametrically overturns the meaning of Hobbes’s doctrine of distinction of accidents in comparison with all previous editions. The article focuses on the complexity of this crucial juncture in "De corpore" argument on which depends the interpretation of Hobbes’s whole conception of science. It discusses the reasons pro and contra Schuhmann’s interpolation and concludes against it, because it is not compatible with the rationale underlying the complex architecture of "De corpore", which involves a symmetry between the ‘logical’ distinction of accidents and the ‘metaphysical’ distinction of phantasms.

  4. What makes health promotion research distinct?

    Woodall, James; Warwick-Booth, Louise; South, Jane; Cross, Ruth

    2018-02-01

    There have been concerns about the decline of health promotion as a practice and discipline and, alongside this, calls for a clearer articulation of health promotion research and what, if anything, makes it distinct. This discussion paper, based on a review of the literature, the authors' own experiences in the field, and a workshop delivered by two of the authors at the 8th Nordic Health Promotion Conference, seeks to state the reasons why health promotion research is distinctive. While by no means exhaustive, the paper suggests four distinctive features. The paper hopes to be a catalyst to enable health promotion researchers to be explicit in their practice and to begin the process of developing an agreed set of research principles.

  5. Distinctive Dynamic Capabilities for New Business Creation

    Rosenø, Axel; Enkel, Ellen; Mezger, Florian

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation in established companies. We argue that these are very different from those for managing incremental innovation within a company's core business. We also propose that such capabilities are needed in both slow...... and fast-paced industries, and that similarities exist across industries. Hence, the study contributes to dynamic capabilities literature by: 1) identifying the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation; 2) shifting focus away from dynamic capabilities in environments characterised by high...... clock-speed and uncertainty towards considering dynamic capabilities for the purpose of developing new businesses, which also implies a high degree of uncertainty. Based on interviews with 33 companies, we identify distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation, find that dynamic...

  6. Distinctiveness of Initial Preform Properties in Renovation

    V. M. Yaroslavtsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologies of renovation form a special group of resource-and energy saving technological processes as they are, by definition, already aimed either at increasing resource of the objects satisfying needs of the society life support and practical activities in different spheres, or at extension of their life cycle including a reuse of material from which they are made. Renovation is used where there is a material object, which does not meet requirements of standard or technical documentation.A characteristic feature of the renovation technologies is lack of procedure for a choice of the preform as in all cases an initial preform is the renovation object itself. Thus each object, acting as an initial preform, has the exclusively individual properties, including technological ones.Distinctiveness of renovation object properties is correlated, first of all, with the personified conditions of formation and (or change of condition of their properties in time at all stages of life cycle (production – transportation – warehousing – operation starting with a preform material when manufacturing under all types of loadings (technological and operational. As a result each object forms its "history" of loading and damages and, therefore, its information base which has to consider the phenomenon of “heredity of life cycle”. The term "heredity of life cycle" characterizes information support of object at any moment under review, including both information of technological inheritance, and data of operational heredity.As a result at every moment of time we have a product with a set of new, uncertain properties caused by the phenomena of heredity of life cycle. These properties are individual for each object to be renovated, which changed its status for the status of initial preform for different types of renovation technologies. This is one of the most important distinctions of renovation technology from the technology used to manufacture a new

  7. Fermionic bound states in distinct kinklike backgrounds

    Bazeia, D. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Mohammadi, A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 10071, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    This work deals with fermions in the background of distinct localized structures in the two-dimensional spacetime. Although the structures have a similar topological character, which is responsible for the appearance of fractionally charged excitations, we want to investigate how the geometric deformations that appear in the localized structures contribute to the change in the physical properties of the fermionic bound states. We investigate the two-kink and compact kinklike backgrounds, and we consider two distinct boson-fermion interactions, one motivated by supersymmetry and the other described by the standard Yukawa coupling. (orig.)

  8. Common and distinct components in data fusion

    Smilde, Age Klaas; Mage, Ingrid; Næs, Tormod

    2016-01-01

    and understanding their relative merits. This paper provides a unifying framework for this subfield of data fusion by using rigorous arguments from linear algebra. The most frequently used methods for distinguishing common and distinct components are explained in this framework and some practical examples are given...

  9. Knowledge Affords Distinctive Processing in Memory

    Hunt, R. Reed; Rawson, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of knowledge on memory generally is processing. However, both conceptual and empirical reasons exist to suspect that the organizational account is incomplete. Recently a revised version of that account has been proposed under the rubric of distinctiveness theory (Rawson & Van Overschelde, 2008). The goal of the experiments reported…

  10. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Habbash, Manssour; Idapalapati, Srinivasa Rao

    2016-01-01

    In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs…

  11. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium and other sexually transmitted infections causing urethritis among high-risk heterosexual male patients in Estonia.

    Tjagur, Stanislav; Mändar, Reet; Punab, Margus

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI, including Mycoplasma genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis) among high-risk heterosexual male patients and to clarify their potency to cause complaints and inflammation. The study group included 825 men (18.0-49.5 y) consulting andrologist at Tartu University Hospital (Estonia) due to subjectively perceived risk of STI. Patients completed STI risk behaviour questionnaire. First voided urine was analysed for white blood cells and STIs. In total 193 (23.4%) patients were positive for one or multiple STI. The prevalence of C. trachomatis, M. genitalium, N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis and combined STI was 14.3%, 4.4%, 2.7%, 0.7% and 1.3%, respectively. N. gonorrhoeae had the highest potency to generate inflammatory reaction in first voided urine (100%) followed by C. trachomatis (72.0%), M. genitalium (63.9%) and T. vaginalis (33.3%). N. gonorrhoeae and T. vaginalis caused the highest mean number of complaints while half of T. vaginalis cases and nearly fifth of M. genitalium and C. trachomatis cases were asymptomatic. C. trachomatis has the highest prevalence among Estonian high-risk men but M. genitalium holds an important second place. Prevalence of combined STIs is low. N. gonorrhoeae has the highest potency to generate urethral inflammation followed by C. trachomatis and M. genitalium. The highest number of complaints is also associated with N. gonorrhoeae while half of T. vaginalis cases and nearly a fifth of M. genitalium and C. trachomatis cases are asymptomatic.

  12. Mental health and lifestyle correlates of sexual problems and sexual satisfaction in heterosexual Hong Kong Chinese population.

    Lau, Joseph T F; Kim, Jean H; Tsui, Hi Yi

    2005-12-01

    To examine the lifestyle, mental health, and stress-related factors associated with various types of sexual problems among sexually active, heterosexual Hong Kong residents aged 18 to 59 years. An anonymous, cross-sectional, random telephone survey was conducted using a special, validated, computerized telephone interview method. A total of 1281 men and 2130 women completed the interview (response rate 50.6%). Sexual problems were determined according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (of Mental Disorders) IV definitions. Among the men, multivariate analyses indicated that older age, poor spousal relationship, less exercise, high level of family stress, high level of financial-related stress, and past year substance use were significantly associated with sexual problems (odds ratio [OR] 1.41 to 3.83). Among the women, being married or cohabiting with a partner was positively associated with lubrication problems, lack of orgasm, lack of pleasure, lack of interest (OR 1.43 to 1.73) and negatively associated with pain during intercourse (OR 0.66) and anxiety (OR 0.62). A high level of financial stress and neuroses diagnoses were also associated with various female sexual problems (OR 1.40 to 2.66). Sexual satisfaction was associated with being married/cohabitating (OR 1.94) and negatively associated with a poor spousal relationship, low level of exercise, and a high level of work-related stress among men (OR 0.37 to 0.71). Among women, a poor spousal relationship and high levels of family stress and financial stress were associated with not being satisfied sexually (OR 0.24 to 0.71). Mental health, stress-related factors, and lifestyle factors contribute to sexual problems among Hong Kong Chinese adults. The factors differed between the two sexes.

  13. Sexual well-being: a comparison of U.S. black and white women in heterosexual relationships.

    Bancroft, John; Long, J Scott; McCabe, Janice

    2011-08-01

    In the United States, considerable attention has been directed to sexual behaviors of black and white adolescents, particularly age at first sexual experience and the prevalence of teenage pregnancies. More limited attention has been paid to comparing established sexual relationships in these two racial groups. In this study, we used a national probability sample to compare black (n = 251) and white (n = 544) American women, aged 20-65 years, who were in an established heterosexual relationship of at least 6 months duration. We focused on two aspects of their sexual well-being; how a woman evaluated (1) her sexual relationship and (2) her own sexuality. A range of possible determinants of sexual well-being, including demographic factors, physical and mental health, and aspects of the women's recent sexual experiences, were also assessed using Telephone-Audio-Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing (T-ACASI). We found no significant difference between black and white women in their evaluation of their sexual relationships nor in the independent variables that were correlated with this evaluation. Black women, however, evaluated their own sexuality more positively than white women. In examining the correlates of this evaluation, a woman's rating of her own sexual attractiveness proved to be the strongest predictor, with black women rating themselves significantly more sexually attractive than did the white women. Overall, these findings were consistent with previous findings that, compared to white women, black women in the United States have higher self-esteem and tend towards more independence and individualism.

  14. Satisfaction with sex life in sexually active heterosexual couples dealing with breast cancer: a nationwide longitudinal study.

    Rottmann, Nina; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; dePont Christensen, René; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Frisch, Morten; Nicolaisen, Anne; Kroman, Niels; Flyger, Henrik; Johansen, Christoffer

    2017-02-01

    A breast cancer (BC) diagnosis can profoundly affect the sex life of patient and partner within a couple. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether individual and partner sexual functioning, affectionate behavior, emotional closeness and depressive symptoms are associated with change over time in satisfaction with sex life of sexually active heterosexual couples dealing with BC and to explore whether the associations differ between patients and partners after adjustment for basic sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidity and BC treatment. Women with BC and their male partners participated in a longitudinal study (Time 1, ≤4 months after surgery; Time 2, 5 months later). Participants completed items from the PROMIS ® Sexual Function and Satisfaction measure (version 1.0), two items measuring affectionate behavior, a single item measuring emotional closeness and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. Registers provided sociodemographic and medical information. Multilevel models were used, which take the interdependency of couples' scores into account. A total of 287 sexually active couples were included in the analyses. Less vaginal discomfort and more vaginal lubrication were associated with increases in patients' satisfaction with sex life. Patients' and partners' satisfaction increased with higher ratings of their own orgasm ability and of partners' timing of ejaculation. Patients' reports of affectionate behavior were positively associated with their partners' satisfaction, and vice versa for partners. Patients' satisfaction increased the more emotional closeness their partner experienced. Partners' depressive symptoms were negatively associated with their satisfaction. Sociodemographic factors and BC treatment were not significantly associated with change in satisfaction. Satisfaction with sex life in sexually active couples dealing with BC needs to be seen as a couple issue. Health professionals should take the partner into

  15. Effect of age-difference between heterosexual partners on risk of cervical cancer and human papillomavirus infection

    Iacopo Baussano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age difference (Adiff within a heterosexual couple may influence a woman's risk of being HPV-positive and developing cervical cancer (CC. Methods: We assessed the relationship between Adiff within the first and current sexual partnership and risk of CC and HPV infection in 1495 cases and 1358 control women from 6 countries included in IARC's multicentric case-control study (median age: 48 years. Results: Large Adiff within the first partnerships was associated with increased CC risk (OR≥3 vs. ≤2 years=1.49, CI: 1.26–1.75; this association disappeared after correction for age at first sexual intercourse (OR=1.03, 0.86–1.24. The relationship between Adiff within the current partnership and HPV-positivity was opposite (OR≥3 vs. ≤2 years=0.59, 0.41–0.86 and not affected by adjustment for sexual confounding. The influences of Adiff on CC risk and HPV-positivity were consistent across age groups and countries. Conclusion: The association between CC risk and large Adiff in the first sexual partnership is mostly explained by young age at first intercourse. Conversely, the negative association between Adiff in current partnership and HPV-positivity is probably related to decreased infectiousness of the male partner with age. The study of Adiff in sexual partnerships helps elucidate HPV circulation in different populations. Keywords: Sexual behavior, Age-difference, Assortative mixing, Human papillomavirus (HPV, Cervical cancer

  16. Motives and Concerns Associated with Geosocial Networking App Usage: An Exploratory Study Among Heterosexual College Students in the United States.

    Griffin, Meredith; Canevello, Amy; McAnulty, Richard D

    2018-04-01

    Geosocial network application (GSNA) use is common among young adults. However, there is little empirical research into patterns of use, motives, and potential concerns among app users. A total of 409 heterosexual students from a public university in the southeast United States participated in an online survey. Sample composition was primarily Caucasian and in their first 2 years of college. Average age was 19.7 years. Results revealed that 39 percent of participants had used a GSN app, and 60 percent of these were regular users. Tinder was the most popular GSNA. Top reasons for app use were for fun (31 percent) and to meet people (11 percent). Very few users reported using them for casual sex encounters (4 percent), although many users (72 percent of men and 22 percent of women) were open to meeting a sexual partner with a GSNA. Regular users were less likely to be in dating relationships. In-person meetings of matches were relatively infrequent among app users. Those who did meet matches were very likely to vet them online in advance, and women were more likely to do so than men. App users rated them as relatively unsafe, women in particular. Top concerns included safety (44 percent), others misrepresenting their identities (35 percent), and privacy (18 percent). Overall, regular app users perceived their use as normative among peers, but they did not view the apps as particularly useful for meeting matches. Although there are few surveys of GSNA use among emerging adults in the United States, some limitations are noted, along with suggestions for future research.

  17. Experiences Using Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for Safer Conception Among HIV Serodiscordant Heterosexual Couples in the United States.

    Bazzi, Angela R; Leech, Ashley A; Biancarelli, Dea L; Sullivan, Meg; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn

    2017-08-01

    Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising HIV prevention strategy for HIV serodiscordant couples (HIV-infected male, uninfected female) seeking safer conception. However, most research on PrEP for safer conception has focused on couples in sub-Saharan Africa; little is known about the perspectives or experiences of heterosexual couples in the United States. We conducted qualitative interviews with six couples (six women and five of their male partners) receiving PrEP for conception services at an urban safety net hospital in the US Northeast. In-depth interview guides explored couple relationships and contextual factors and attitudes, perceptions, and decision-making processes surrounding PrEP for safer conception. Thematic analyses focused on identifying the following emergent themes. We found that couple relationships were situated within broader social and cultural contexts of immigration, family, and community that shaped their experiences with HIV and serodiscordant relationship status. Despite strong partner support within relationships, HIV stigma and disapproval of serodiscordant relationships contributed to couples' feelings of social isolation and subsequent aspirations to have "normal" families. By enabling "natural" conception through condomless sex, PrEP for safer conception provided a sense of enhanced relationship intimacy. Couples called for increasing public awareness of PrEP through positive messaging as a way to combat HIV stigma. Findings suggest that relationship dynamics and broader social contexts appear to shape HIV serodiscordant couples' fertility desires and motivations to use PrEP. However, increased public awareness of PrEP for safer conception may be needed to combat HIV stigma at the community level.

  18. Condom use by Dutch men with commercial heterosexual contacts: determinants and considerations.

    de Graaf, R; van Zessen, G; Vanwesenbeeck, I; Straver, C J; Visser, J H

    1997-10-01

    We report responses from 559 clients of female prostitutes, with a view to determining to what extent previously identified factors play a part in condom use. To increase the response rate to advertisements in daily and weekly newspapers, interviews were held by phone. This procedure had the advantage of ensuring the anonymity many clients demanded. Of those clients having vaginal or anal contact (91%), 14% had not always used condoms in the previous year. Compared with consistent condom users, these men were less highly educated, had twice as many commercial contacts, and had more contacts with "steady" prostitutes. They were either more emotionally motivated to visit prostitutes than were consistent condom users or exhibited a stronger need for sexual variation. They showed a more compulsive attitude toward visiting prostitutes, had a more negative attitude toward prostitution in general, evaluated condoms more negatively, had a higher personal efficacy to achieve unsafe contacts, and had a higher general risk assessment, commensurate with their behavior. Men with only safe contacts had either an intrinsic or an extrinsic motivation for condom use. Among extrinsically motivated men, their behavior change was more recent and had not yet taken root: They still envisioned unsafe commercial sex to be possible in the future. Education aimed at the small group of men practicing unsafe contacts will not easily and directly lead to behavior change. But these educational activities may support prostitutes to persist in (consistent) condom use, regardless of clients' pressure to do otherwise.

  19. When the woman gets violent: the construction of domestic abuse experience from heterosexual men's perspective.

    Entilli, Lorenza; Cipolletta, Sabrina

    2017-08-01

    To promote a critical approach on the conceptualisation of domestic violence by investigating the experience of abuse on the part of men who are victims of domestic violence by their female partners. Media attention and prevention programmes relating to domestic violence have mainly focused on women as the victims and men as the perpetrators. The underlying idea is that violence is predominantly physical and a prerogative of men. This conceptualisation of violence reduces the opportunities for the consideration of different modalities of abuse. Discourse analysis within a qualitative approach. Semistructured interviews with 20 Italian men who claimed to have been abused by their female partners were conducted via Skype and analysed with the software atlas.ti. The grounded theory methodology was used to avoid imposing external points of view. Personal data were collected; in particular, their occupational level was compared to their partners' to assess the social power within the couple. Because of their strong endorsement of social and cultural values, participants showed a protective attitude towards their partners and imputed their violent acts to fragility or an external condition. Emotional distress emerged due to the isolation and subsequent inability to seek help. Although the physical violence reported is severe, the psychological violence was indicated as more damaging. Gaining an understanding of how men experience domestic abuse offers an opportunity to provide better prevention and intervention for them and other family members at risk of abuse. The study identifies gaps in service provision generated by a lack of information or perceived prejudice towards abused men. The role of the nurse in supporting male victims is discussed, and future applications for treatments and prevention plans are proposed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Adaptation of flower and fruit colours to multiple, distinct mutualists.

    Renoult, Julien P; Valido, Alfredo; Jordano, Pedro; Schaefer, H Martin

    2014-01-01

    Communication in plant-animal mutualisms frequently involves multiple perceivers. A fundamental uncertainty is whether and how species adapt to communicate with groups of mutualists having distinct sensory abilities. We quantified the colour conspicuousness of flowers and fruits originating from one European and two South American plant communities, using visual models of pollinators (bee and fly) and seed dispersers (bird, primate and marten). We show that flowers are more conspicuous than fruits to pollinators, and the reverse to seed dispersers. In addition, flowers are more conspicuous to pollinators than to seed dispersers and the reverse for fruits. Thus, despite marked differences in the visual systems of mutualists, flower and fruit colours have evolved to attract multiple, distinct mutualists but not unintended perceivers. We show that this adaptation is facilitated by a limited correlation between flower and fruit colours, and by the fact that colour signals as coded at the photoreceptor level are more similar within than between functional groups (pollinators and seed dispersers). Overall, these results provide the first quantitative demonstration that flower and fruit colours are adaptations allowing plants to communicate simultaneously with distinct groups of mutualists. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Morphological distinctiveness of Javan Tupaia hypochrysa (Scandentia, Tupaiidae)

    Sargis, Eric J.; Woodman, Neal; Morningstar, Natalie C.; Reese, Aspen T.; Olson, Link E.

    2013-01-01

    The common treeshrew, Tupaia glis, represents a species complex with a complicated taxonomic history. It is distributed mostly south of the Isthmus of Kra on the Malay Peninsula and surrounding islands. In our recent revision of a portion of this species complex, we did not fully assess the population from Java (T. “glis” hypochrysa) because of our limited sample. Herein, we revisit this taxon using multivariate analyses in comparisons with T. glis, T. chrysogaster of the Mentawai Islands, and T. ferruginea from Sumatra. Analyses of both the manus and skull of Javan T. “glis” hypochrysa show it to be most similar to T. chrysogaster and distinct from both T. glis and T. ferruginea. Yet, the Javan population and T. chrysogaster have different mammae counts, supporting recognition of T. hypochrysa as a distinct species. The change in taxonomic status of T. hypochrysa has conservation implications for both T. glis and this Javan endemic.

  2. Neonatal lethal dwarfism with distinct skeletal malformations - a separate entity?

    Rosendahl, K.; Maurseth, K.; Olsen, Oe.E. [Dept. of Paediatric Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Halvorsen, O.J. [Dept. of Pathology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Gjelland, K. [Dept. of Gynaecology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Engebretsen, L. [Dept. of Genetics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway)

    2001-09-01

    We describe a case of neonatal lethal dwarfism characterised by short trunk, short, stick-like tubular bones, deficient ossification of the axial skeleton and broad, sclerotic horizontal ribs. Two similar cases have previously been reported as examples of the Neu-Laxova syndrome. However, the radiological findings of the Neu-Laxova syndrome, as reported in 16 out of 40 documented cases, show a heterogeneous pattern of minor features, which differ distinctively from those found in the previous two cases and by us. A literature research did not reveal similar cases, and we therefore suggest that our case, together with the two previous cases, may represent a new distinctive form of neonatal lethal dwarfism. (orig.)

  3. Neonatal lethal dwarfism with distinct skeletal malformations - a separate entity?

    Rosendahl, K.; Maurseth, K.; Olsen, Oe.E.; Halvorsen, O.J.; Gjelland, K.; Engebretsen, L.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a case of neonatal lethal dwarfism characterised by short trunk, short, stick-like tubular bones, deficient ossification of the axial skeleton and broad, sclerotic horizontal ribs. Two similar cases have previously been reported as examples of the Neu-Laxova syndrome. However, the radiological findings of the Neu-Laxova syndrome, as reported in 16 out of 40 documented cases, show a heterogeneous pattern of minor features, which differ distinctively from those found in the previous two cases and by us. A literature research did not reveal similar cases, and we therefore suggest that our case, together with the two previous cases, may represent a new distinctive form of neonatal lethal dwarfism. (orig.)

  4. A distinct bacterial dysbiosis associated skin inflammation in ovine footrot

    Maboni, Grazieli; Blanchard, Adam; Frosth, Sara; Stewart, Ceri; Emes, Richard; Tötemeyer, Sabine

    2017-03-01

    Ovine footrot is a highly prevalent bacterial disease caused by Dichelobacter nodosus and characterised by the separation of the hoof horn from the underlying skin. The role of innate immune molecules and other bacterial communities in the development of footrot lesions remains unclear. This study shows a significant association between the high expression of IL1β and high D. nodosus load in footrot samples. Investigation of the microbial population identified distinct bacterial populations in the different disease stages and also depending on the level of inflammation. Treponema (34%), Mycoplasma (29%) and Porphyromonas (15%) were the most abundant genera associated with high levels of inflammation in footrot. In contrast, Acinetobacter (25%), Corynebacteria (17%) and Flavobacterium (17%) were the most abundant genera associated with high levels of inflammation in healthy feet. This demonstrates for the first time there is a distinct microbial community associated with footrot and high cytokine expression.

  5. Two distinct forms of functional lateralization in the human brain

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Jo, Hang Joon; Wallace, Gregory L.; Saad, Ziad S.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The hemispheric lateralization of certain faculties in the human brain has long been held to be beneficial for functioning. However, quantitative relationships between the degree of lateralization in particular brain regions and the level of functioning have yet to be established. Here we demonstrate that two distinct forms of functional lateralization are present in the left vs. the right cerebral hemisphere, with the left hemisphere showing a preference to interact more exclusively with itself, particularly for cortical regions involved in language and fine motor coordination. In contrast, right-hemisphere cortical regions involved in visuospatial and attentional processing interact in a more integrative fashion with both hemispheres. The degree of lateralization present in these distinct systems selectively predicted behavioral measures of verbal and visuospatial ability, providing direct evidence that lateralization is associated with enhanced cognitive ability. PMID:23959883

  6. Embarrassment: its distinct form and appeasement functions.

    Keltner, D; Buswell, B N

    1997-11-01

    The authors address 2 questions about embarrassment. First, Is embarrassment a distinct emotion? The evidence indicates that the antecedents, experience, and display of embarrassment, and to a limited extent its autonomic physiology, are distinct from shame, guilt, and amusement and share the dynamic, temporal characteristics of emotion. Second, What are the theoretical accounts of embarrassment? Three accounts focus on the causes of embarrassment, positioning that it follows the loss of self-esteem, concern for others' evaluations, or absence of scripts to guide interactions. A fourth account focuses on the effects of the remedial actions of embarrassment, which correct preceding transgressions. A fifth account focuses on the functional parallels between embarrassment and nonhuman appeasement. The discussion focuses on unanswered questions about embarrassment.

  7. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women, heterosexual men and MSM visiting HIV counselling institutions in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany - should Chlamydia testing be scaled up?

    Anne Lallemand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients asking for a free anonymous HIV test may have contracted other sexually transmitted infections (STIs such as Chlamydia trachomatis, yet Chlamydia prevalence in that population is unknown. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with Chlamydia infection in patients seeking HIV testing at local public health authorities (LPHA in order to evaluate whether Chlamydia testing should be routinely offered to them. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among patients (≥18 years attending 18 LPHA in North Rhine-Westphalia from November 2012 to September 2013. LPHA collected information on participants’ socio-demographic characteristics, sexual and HIV testing behaviours, previous STI history and clinical symptoms. Self-collected vaginal swabs and urine (men were analysed by Transcription-Mediated Amplification. We assessed overall and age-stratified Chlamydia prevalence and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI. Using univariate and multivariable binomial regression, we estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR to identify factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Results The study population comprised 1144 (40.5 % women, 1134 (40.1 % heterosexual men and 549 (19.4 % men who have sex with men (MSM; median age was 30 years. Chlamydia prevalence was 5.3 % (95 % CI: 4.1–6.8 % among women, 3.2 % (95 % CI: 2.2–4.4 in heterosexual men and 3.5 % (95 % CI: 2.1–5.4 in MSM. Prevalence was highest among 18–24 year-old women (9 %; 95 % CI: 5.8–13 and heterosexual men (5.7 %; 95 % CI: 3.0–9.8 %, respectively. Among MSM, the prevalence was highest among 30–39 year-olds (4.4 %; 95 % CI: 1.9–8.5 %. Among those who tested positive, 76.7 % of women, 75.0 % of heterosexual men and 84.2 % of MSM were asymptomatic. Among women, factors associated with Chlamydia infection were young age (18–24 years versus ≥ 40 years, aPR: 3.0, 95 % CI: 1.2–7.8, having had more than 2

  8. Distinctive skeletal dysplasia in Cockayne syndrome

    Silengo, M.C.; Franceschini, P.; Bianco, R.; Biagioli, M.; Pastorin, L.; Vista, N.; Baldassar, A.; Benso, L.

    1986-01-01

    Cockayne syndrom is a well-known autosomal recessive form of dwarfism with senile-like appearance. Skeletal changes such as flattening of vertebral bodies, ivory epiphyses and thickening of cranial vault, have been observed in some patients with this condition. We describe here a 5.5-year-old girl with the typical clinical signs of Cockayne syndrome and a distinctive form of bone dysplasia with major involvment of the spine. (orig.)

  9. Distinctive skeletal dysplasia in Cockayne syndrome

    Silengo, M.C.; Franceschini, P.; Bianco, R.; Biagioli, M.; Pastorin, L.; Vista, N.; Baldassar, A.; Benso, L.

    1986-03-01

    Cockayne syndrome is a well-known autosomal recessive form of dwarfism with senile-like appearance. Skeletal changes such as flattening of vertebral bodies, ivory epiphyses and thickening of cranial vault, have been observed in some patients with this condition. We describe here a 5.5-year-old girl with the typical clinical signs of Cockayne syndrome and a distinctive form of bone dysplasia with major involvement of the spine.

  10. Army nurses in wartime: distinction and pride.

    Higgins, L P

    1996-08-01

    Nurses have served with distinction in wartime since Florence Nightingale went to the Crimea. Women often accompanied their husbands to battle during the Revolutionary and Civil Wars, caring for the sick and wounded. Although not officially given officer status until 1920, Army nurses served in the Spanish-American War and World War I. As officers, thousands of nurses served in subsequent wars, distinguishing themselves by their heroism, devotion to duty, and sheer tenacity of spirit.

  11. Polypharmacy, Infectious Diseases, Sexual Behavior, and Psychophysical Health Among Anabolic Steroid-Using Homosexual and Heterosexual Gym Patrons in San Francisco's Castro District.

    Ip, Eric J; Yadao, Michael A; Shah, Bijal M; Doroudgar, Shadi; Perry, Paul J; Tenerowicz, Michael J; Newsom, Lindsay; Mann, Amber A; Mkrtchyan, Hermine; Pope, Harrison G

    2017-06-07

    Limited studies based in England and Australia reported misuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) among homosexual men to enhance body image. Anecdotally, AAS are also being misused by homosexual men in the United States. Since many AAS and certain performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) are administered via injection, this poses a potential vector for the spread of infectious disease in an already at-risk population. This study compared and contrasted homosexual and heterosexual male gym clients regarding use of AAS and PEDs, use of alcohol and illicit drugs, seroprevalence of infectious disease, engagement in risky injection practices and sexual behaviors, and presence of psychiatric conditions. Recruitment and data collection occurred outside four exercise gyms in the San Francisco Castro District area between October 25, 2014 and March 10, 2015. Two hundred and twenty homosexual men and 73 heterosexual men completed the 114-item cross-sectional survey. Ten percent of homosexual men reported lifetime AAS use. Homosexual men had almost four times more sexual partners and were over 14 times more likely to knowingly have unprotected intercourse with a known HIV positive person than heterosexual men. In addition, a quarter of homosexual men who injected drugs admitted to sharing used syringes or needles with another person. Conclusions/Importance: The current study is the first to confirm AAS use among homosexual men in the United States. Homosexual men partook in high-risk sexual behaviors and injection practices which may place them at greater risks for contracting and spreading HIV and other infectious diseases.

  12. A Comparison of the Mental Health and Well-Being of Sexual Minority and Heterosexual First-Year Medical Students: A Report From the Medical Student CHANGE Study.

    Przedworski, Julia M; Dovidio, John F; Hardeman, Rachel R; Phelan, Sean M; Burke, Sara E; Ruben, Mollie A; Perry, Sylvia P; Burgess, Diana J; Nelson, David B; Yeazel, Mark W; Knudsen, John M; van Ryn, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    Research is lacking on psychological distress and disorder among sexual minority medical students (students who identify as nonheterosexual). If left unaddressed, distress may result in academic and professional difficulties and undermine workforce diversity goals. The authors compared depression, anxiety, and self-rated health among sexual minority and heterosexual medical students. This study included 4,673 first-year students who self-reported sexual orientation in the fall 2010 baseline survey of the Medical Student Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation Study, a national longitudinal cohort study. The authors used items from published scales to measure depression, anxiety, self-rated health, and social stressors. They conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses to estimate the association between sexual identity and depression, anxiety, and self-rated health. Of 4,673 students, 232 (5.0%) identified as a sexual minority. Compared with heterosexual students, after adjusting for relevant covariates, sexual minority students had greater risk of depressive symptoms (adjusted relative risk [ARR] = 1.59 [95% confidence interval, 1.24-2.04]), anxiety symptoms (ARR = 1.64 [1.08-2.49]), and low self-rated health (ARR = 1.77 [1.15-2.60]). Sexual minority students were more likely to report social stressors, including harassment (22.7% versus 12.7%, P sexual identity and mental and self-reported health measures. First-year sexual minority students experience significantly greater risk of depression, anxiety, and low self-rated health than heterosexual students. Targeted interventions are needed to improve mental health and well-being.

  13. Higher rates of triple-class virological failure in perinatally HIV-infected teenagers compared with heterosexually infected young adults in Europe.

    Judd, A; Lodwick, R; Noguera-Julian, A; Gibb, D M; Butler, K; Costagliola, D; Sabin, C; van Sighem, A; Ledergerber, B; Torti, C; Mocroft, A; Podzamczer, D; Dorrucci, M; De Wit, S; Obel, N; Dabis, F; Cozzi-Lepri, A; García, F; Brockmeyer, N H; Warszawski, J; Gonzalez-Tome, M I; Mussini, C; Touloumi, G; Zangerle, R; Ghosn, J; Castagna, A; Fätkenheuer, G; Stephan, C; Meyer, L; Campbell, M A; Chene, G; Phillips, A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the time to, and risk factors for, triple-class virological failure (TCVF) across age groups for children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection and older adolescents and adults with heterosexually acquired HIV infection. We analysed individual patient data from cohorts in the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE). A total of 5972 participants starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) from 1998, aged 500 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL despite ≥ 4 months of use. TCVF was defined as cumulative failure of two NRTIs, an NNRTI and a bPI. The median number of weeks between diagnosis and the start of ART was higher in participants with perinatal HIV infection compared with participants with heterosexually acquired HIV infection overall [17 (interquartile range (IQR) 4-111) vs. 8 (IQR 2-38) weeks, respectively], and highest in perinatally infected participants aged 10-14 years [49 (IQR 9-267) weeks]. The cumulative proportion with TCVF 5 years after starting ART was 9.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.0-12.3%] in participants with perinatally acquired infection and 4.7% (95% CI 3.9-5.5%) in participants with heterosexually acquired infection, and highest in perinatally infected participants aged 10-14 years when starting ART (27.7%; 95% CI 13.2-42.1%). Across all participants, significant predictors of TCVF were those with perinatal HIV aged 10-14 years, African origin, pre-ART AIDS, NNRTI-based initial regimens, higher pre-ART viral load and lower pre-ART CD4. The results suggest a beneficial effect of starting ART before adolescence, and starting young people on boosted PIs, to maximize treatment response during this transitional stage of development. © 2016 The Authors. HIV Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British HIV Association.

  14. Do Safer Sex Self-Efficacy, Attitudes toward Condoms, and HIV Transmission Risk Beliefs Differ among Men who have Sex with Men, Heterosexual Men, and Women Living with HIV?

    Widman, Laura; Golin, Carol E.; Grodensky, Catherine A.; Suchindran, Chirayath

    2013-01-01

    To understand sexual decision-making processes among people living with HIV, we compared safer sex self-efficacy, condom attitudes, sexual beliefs, and rates of unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse with at-risk partners (UAVI-AR) in the past 3 months among 476 people living with HIV: 185 men who have sex with men (MSM), 130 heterosexual men, and 161 heterosexual women. Participants were enrolled in SafeTalk, a randomized, controlled trial of a safer sex intervention. We found 15% of MSM, 9% of heterosexual men, and 12% of heterosexual women engaged in UAVI-AR. Groups did not differ in self-efficacy or sexual attitudes/beliefs. However, the associations between these variables and UAVI-AR varied within groups: greater self-efficacy predicted less UAVI-AR for MSM and women, whereas more positive condom attitudes – but not self-efficacy – predicted less UAVI-AR for heterosexual men. These results suggest HIV prevention programs should tailor materials to different subgroups. PMID:22252475

  15. Heterosexual Men's Anger in Response to Male Homosexuality: Effects of Erotic and Non-Erotic Depictions of Male-Male Intimacy and Sexual Prejudice

    Hudepohl, Adam D.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Zeichner, Amos

    2010-01-01

    The present study compared effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy on the experience of anger in heterosexual men. Data came from three independent laboratory studies designed to elicit anger in response to erotic or non-erotic depictions of male-male and male-female intimacy. All participants completed a measure of sexual prejudice and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic or non-erotic video. Among high-prejudiced men, viewing erotic and non-erotic...

  16. The decision-making process for breast reconstruction after cancer surgery: Representations of heterosexual couples in long-standing relationships.

    Fasse, Léonor; Flahault, Cécile; Vioulac, Christel; Lamore, Kristopher; Van Wersch, Anna; Quintard, Bruno; Untas, Aurélie

    2017-05-01

    the decision-making process for BR, especially the potential involvement of the partner, are not very well understood. What does this study add? Provides a qualitative insight on the specific nature of heterosexual couples' representations regarding the decision-making process for breast reconstruction after cancer. Reveals that the decision-making process is often reported as an interrelated experience by the couples and as a dyadic stressor. Underlines the consultative function of partners with women engaged in breast reconstruction. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Sexual behaviors and partner-specific correlates of heterosexual anal intercourse among truck drivers and their wives in South India.

    Bhatnagar, Tarun; Sakthivel Saravanamurthy, P; Detels, Roger

    2015-02-01

    It is important to know about patterns of sexual behaviors among married couples in order to develop effective HIV prevention strategies for them. Herein we describe the sexual behaviors, estimate prevalence of anal intercourse (AI) among truck drivers ("truckers") and their wives, and determine partner-specific demographic and behavioral correlates of AI. We carried out a cluster-sampled cross-sectional survey among 18-49 year-old wives and their trucker husbands in a south Indian district. Data were collected by same-gender research team members with color-coded computer-assisted interviews. We used random intercept logistic regression to identify the independent correlates of AI. Thirteen percent of 475 wives and 467 truckers reported ever having AI with their spouse. Of those who responded, 55 % of 40 wives and 47 % of 36 truckers never used condoms during AI. Of those who responded, 22 of 32 wives and 24 of 32 husbands felt that condoms were unnecessary during AI. Reporting ever having AI was associated with younger age and higher education of both husband and wife. AI reported by wives was associated with having sexual partner(s) other than husband (adjusted OR 8.8 [95 % CI 3.2-24.0]), correctly answering all HIV knowledge items (adjusted OR 4.9 [95 % CI 1.9-12.5]), husband's sexual debut occurring before marriage (adjusted OR 1.9 [95 % CI 1.0-3.5]), and husband's high HIV risk perception (adjusted OR 2.5 [95 % CI 1.2-5.4]). AI reported by truckers was associated with having sex with a male or transgender (adjusted OR 4.0 [95 % CI 1.2-13.3]). Reported prevalence of AI was high considering that in India anal sex is non-normative, heavily stigmatized and, criminal. Indian heterosexual mobile populations need to be informed about the greater risk of HIV infection consequent to unprotected AI.

  18. Directed networks' different link formation mechanisms causing degree distribution distinction

    Behfar, Stefan Kambiz; Turkina, Ekaterina; Cohendet, Patrick; Burger-Helmchen, Thierry

    2016-11-01

    Within undirected networks, scientists have shown much interest in presenting power-law features. For instance, Barabási and Albert (1999) claimed that a common property of many large networks is that vertex connectivity follows scale-free power-law distribution, and in another study Barabási et al. (2002) showed power law evolution in the social network of scientific collaboration. At the same time, Jiang et al. (2011) discussed deviation from power-law distribution; others indicated that size effect (Bagrow et al., 2008), information filtering mechanism (Mossa et al., 2002), and birth and death process (Shi et al., 2005) could account for this deviation. Within directed networks, many authors have considered that outlinks follow a similar mechanism of creation as inlinks' (Faloutsos et al., 1999; Krapivsky et al., 2001; Tanimoto, 2009) with link creation rate being the linear function of node degree, resulting in a power-law shape for both indegree and outdegree distribution. Some other authors have made an assumption that directed networks, such as scientific collaboration or citation, behave as undirected, resulting in a power-law degree distribution accordingly (Barabási et al., 2002). At the same time, we claim (1) Outlinks feature different degree distributions than inlinks; where different link formation mechanisms cause the distribution distinctions, (2) in/outdegree distribution distinction holds for different levels of system decomposition; therefore this distribution distinction is a property of directed networks. First, we emphasize in/outlink formation mechanisms as causal factors for distinction between indegree and outdegree distributions (where this distinction has already been noticed in Barker et al. (2010) and Baxter et al. (2006)) within a sample network of OSS projects as well as Java software corpus as a network. Second, we analyze whether this distribution distinction holds for different levels of system decomposition: open

  19. Processing vertical size disparities in distinct depth planes.

    Duke, Philip A; Howard, Ian P

    2012-08-17

    A textured surface appears slanted about a vertical axis when the image in one eye is horizontally enlarged relative to the image in the other eye. The surface appears slanted in the opposite direction when the same image is vertically enlarged. Two superimposed textured surfaces with different horizontal size disparities appear as two surfaces that differ in slant. Superimposed textured surfaces with equal and opposite vertical size disparities appear as a single frontal surface. The vertical disparities are averaged. We investigated whether vertical size disparities are averaged across two superimposed textured surfaces in different depth planes or whether they induce distinct slants in the two depth planes. In Experiment 1, two superimposed textured surfaces with different vertical size disparities were presented in two depth planes defined by horizontal disparity. The surfaces induced distinct slants when the horizontal disparity was more than ±5 arcmin. Thus, vertical size disparities are not averaged over surfaces with different horizontal disparities. In Experiment 2 we confirmed that vertical size disparities are processed in surfaces away from the horopter, so the results of Experiment 1 cannot be explained by the processing of vertical size disparities in a fixated surface only. Together, these results show that vertical size disparities are processed separately in distinct depth planes. The results also suggest that vertical size disparities are not used to register slant globally by their effect on the registration of binocular direction of gaze.

  20. Distinctive research patterns on public sector performance measurement of public administration and accounting disciplines

    van Helden, G. Jan; Johnsen, Age; Vakkuri, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    This article explores distinctive research patterns of public administration and accounting disciplines concerning public sector performance measurement (PSPM). Our review shows that accounting researchers from Europe investigate reasons for limited PM use and factors explaining a rational or

  1. A distinction of two discourses concerning wellbeing

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    2017-01-01

    and behavioral mental health interventions, while the latter defines wellbeing in positive terms with a focus on wellbeing as the result of learning and with pedagogical interventions that only indirectly can support the individual’s learning activity. The former sees wellbeing as the result of a “wellbeing cure......The article concerns the current discourses concerning well-being with the point that it is important to make a distinction between a healthcare oriented discourse and a learning oriented discourse. The former defines wellbeing in negative terms and looks at causally oriented aspects of wellbeing......”, while the latter sees wellbeing as the result of wellbeing learning processes....

  2. Approaching the Distinction between Intuition and Insight.

    Zhang, Zhonglu; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Intuition and insight share similar cognitive and neural basis. Though, there are still some essential differences between the two. Here in this short review, we discriminated between intuition, and insight in two aspects. First, intuition, and insight are toward different aspects of information processing. Whereas intuition involves judgment about "yes or no," insight is related to "what" is the solution. Second, tacit knowledge play different roles in between intuition and insight. On the one hand, tacit knowledge is conducive to intuitive judgment. On the other hand, tacit knowledge may first impede but later facilitate insight occurrence. Furthermore, we share theoretical, and methodological views on how to access the distinction between intuition and insight.

  3. Time dependent patient no-show predictive modelling development.

    Huang, Yu-Li; Hanauer, David A

    2016-05-09

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop evident-based predictive no-show models considering patients' each past appointment status, a time-dependent component, as an independent predictor to improve predictability. Design/methodology/approach - A ten-year retrospective data set was extracted from a pediatric clinic. It consisted of 7,291 distinct patients who had at least two visits along with their appointment characteristics, patient demographics, and insurance information. Logistic regression was adopted to develop no-show models using two-thirds of the data for training and the remaining data for validation. The no-show threshold was then determined based on minimizing the misclassification of show/no-show assignments. There were a total of 26 predictive model developed based on the number of available past appointments. Simulation was employed to test the effective of each model on costs of patient wait time, physician idle time, and overtime. Findings - The results demonstrated the misclassification rate and the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic gradually improved as more appointment history was included until around the 20th predictive model. The overbooking method with no-show predictive models suggested incorporating up to the 16th model and outperformed other overbooking methods by as much as 9.4 per cent in the cost per patient while allowing two additional patients in a clinic day. Research limitations/implications - The challenge now is to actually implement the no-show predictive model systematically to further demonstrate its robustness and simplicity in various scheduling systems. Originality/value - This paper provides examples of how to build the no-show predictive models with time-dependent components to improve the overbooking policy. Accurately identifying scheduled patients' show/no-show status allows clinics to proactively schedule patients to reduce the negative impact of patient no-shows.

  4. Physical activity disparities in heterosexual and sexual minority youth ages 12-22 years old: roles of childhood gender nonconformity and athletic self-esteem.

    Calzo, Jerel P; Roberts, Andrea L; Corliss, Heather L; Blood, Emily A; Kroshus, Emily; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-02-01

    Physical activity is an important health determinant. Little is known about sexual orientation differences in physical activity and their psychosocial determinants. The aim of this study is to examine adolescent and young adult hours/week of moderate/vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and team sports participation by sexual orientation and investigate contributions of gender nonconformity and low athletic self-esteem to possible sexual orientation differences. Analysis of data from 5,272 males and 7,507 females from 1999 to 2005 waves of the US Growing Up Today Study (ages 12-22 years). Sexual minorities (i.e., lesbian, gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) reported 1.21-2.62 h/week less MVPA (p gender heterosexuals. Gender nonconformity and athletic self-esteem accounted for 46-100 % of sexual orientation MVPA differences. Physical activity contexts should be modified to welcome sexual minority males and females. Targeting intolerance of gender nonconformity and fostering athletic self-esteem may mitigate sexual orientation MVPA disparities.

  5. Physical Activity Disparities in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Youth Ages 12-22 Years Old: Roles of Childhood Gender Nonconformity and Athletic Self-Esteem

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Roberts, Andrea L.; Corliss, Heather L.; Blood, Emily A.; Kroshus, Emily; Austin, S. Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity is an important health determinant. Little is known about sexual orientation differences in physical activity and their psychosocial determinants. Purpose To examine adolescent and young adult hours/week of moderate/vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and team sports participation by sexual orientation and investigate contributions of gender nonconformity and low athletic self-esteem to possible sexual orientation differences. Methods Analysis of data from 5,272 males and 7,507 females from 1999-2005 waves of the US Growing Up Today Study (ages 12-22 years). Results Sexual minorities (i.e., lesbian, gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) reported 1.21-2.62 hours/week less MVPA (p'sgender heterosexuals. Gender nonconformity and athletic self-esteem accounted for 46%-100% of sexual orientation MVPA differences. Conclusions Physical activity contexts should be modified to welcome sexual minority males and females. Targeting intolerance of gender nonconformity and fostering athletic self-esteem may mitigate sexual orientation MVPA disparities. PMID:24347406

  6. Distinctive Design A Practical Guide to a Useful, Beautiful Web

    Dawson, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Learn to produce a web site that stands out from the crowd One of the web designer's greatest challenges is to create a site distinctive enough to get noticed among the millions of sites already on the web. This book examines the bond between code, content and visuals to guide you through the factors that increase your design's visibility, usability and beauty. Using this practical advice, even web designers who lack strong artistic skills can develop super sites that strengthen the message and stand out from the crowd.Most books focus primarily on graphic design principles; this one shows you

  7. Distinct termination morphologies for vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests

    Vinten, P; Marshall, P; Lefebvre, J; Finnie, P

    2010-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests, including single-walled nanotubes, are imaged optically as they grow in situ from cobalt/alumina catalyst using water-assisted acetylene chemical vapor deposition. Three distinct termination morphologies are identified and investigated optically and via scanning electron microscopy. Quantitative growth dynamics are extracted and show gradual deceleration and sudden termination of growth. The termination morphology is discussed in terms of the balance of forces within the forest. We speculate that sudden termination is a collective effect arising from an imbalance in these forces.

  8. Responses of an isolation system with distinct multiple frequencies

    Wu, Ting-shu; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Base isolation systems are generally designed with a single natural frequency. A major concern for these isolation systems is that, if the dominant frequency of a future earthquake is equal or close to the system's natural frequency, the ground motion will be greatly amplified because of resonance,and the superstructure would suffer severe damages. This paper present an isolation system designed with two distinct frequencies. Its responses to different ground motions, including a harmonic motion, show that no excessive amplification will occur. Adoption of this isolation system would greatly enhance the safety of an isolated superstructure against future strong earthquakes. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Seismic isolation systems designed with distinct multiple frequencies

    Wu, Ting-shu; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Two systems for seismic base isolation are presented. The main feature of these system is that, instead of only one isolation frequency as in conventional isolation systems, they are designed to have two distinct isolation frequencies. When the responses during an earthquake exceed the design value(s), the system will automatically and passively shift to the secondly isolation frequency. Responses of these two systems to different ground motions including a harmonic motion with frequency same as the primary isolation frequency, show that no excessive amplification will occur. Adoption of these new systems certainly will greatly enhance the safety and reliability of an isolated superstructure against future strong earthquakes. 3 refs

  10. The neural signatures of distinct psychopathic traits.

    Carré, Justin M; Hyde, Luke W; Neumann, Craig S; Viding, Essi; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that psychopathy may be associated with dysfunction in the neural circuitry supporting both threat- and reward-related processes. However, these studies have involved small samples and often focused on extreme groups. Thus, it is unclear to what extent current findings may generalize to psychopathic traits in the general population. Furthermore, no studies have systematically and simultaneously assessed associations between distinct psychopathy facets and both threat- and reward-related brain function in the same sample of participants. Here, we examined the relationship between threat-related amygdala reactivity and reward-related ventral striatum (VS) reactivity and variation in four facets of self-reported psychopathy in a sample of 200 young adults. Path models indicated that amygdala reactivity to fearful facial expressions is negatively associated with the interpersonal facet of psychopathy, whereas amygdala reactivity to angry facial expressions is positively associated with the lifestyle facet. Furthermore, these models revealed that differential VS reactivity to positive versus negative feedback is negatively associated with the lifestyle facet. There was suggestive evidence for gender-specific patterns of association between brain function and psychopathy facets. Our findings are the first to document differential associations between both threat- and reward-related neural processes and distinct facets of psychopathy and thus provide a more comprehensive picture of the pattern of neural vulnerabilities that may predispose to maladaptive outcomes associated with psychopathy.

  11. The Distinction Between Curative and Assistive Technology.

    Stramondo, Joseph A

    2018-05-01

    Disability activists have sometimes claimed their disability has actually increased their well-being. Some even say they would reject a cure to keep these gains. Yet, these same activists often simultaneously propose improvements to the quality and accessibility of assistive technology. However, for any argument favoring assistive over curative technology (or vice versa) to work, there must be a coherent distinction between the two. This line is already vague and will become even less clear with the emergence of novel technologies. This paper asks and tries to answer the question: what is it about the paradigmatic examples of curative and assistive technologies that make them paradigmatic and how can these defining features help us clarify the hard cases? This analysis will begin with an argument that, while the common views of this distinction adequately explain the paradigmatic cases, they fail to accurately pick out the relevant features of those technologies that make them paradigmatic and to provide adequate guidance for parsing the hard cases. Instead, it will be claimed that these categories of curative or assistive technologies are defined by the role the technologies play in establishing a person's relational narrative identity as a member of one of two social groups: disabled people or non-disabled people.

  12. Corticosteroid receptors adopt distinct cyclical transcriptional signatures.

    Le Billan, Florian; Amazit, Larbi; Bleakley, Kevin; Xue, Qiong-Yao; Pussard, Eric; Lhadj, Christophe; Kolkhof, Peter; Viengchareun, Say; Fagart, Jérôme; Lombès, Marc

    2018-05-07

    Mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) are two closely related hormone-activated transcription factors that regulate major pathophysiologic functions. High homology between these receptors accounts for the crossbinding of their corresponding ligands, MR being activated by both aldosterone and cortisol and GR essentially activated by cortisol. Their coexpression and ability to bind similar DNA motifs highlight the need to investigate their respective contributions to overall corticosteroid signaling. Here, we decipher the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that underlie selective effects of MRs and GRs on shared genomic targets in a human renal cellular model. Kinetic, serial, and sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation approaches were performed on the period circadian protein 1 ( PER1) target gene, providing evidence that both receptors dynamically and cyclically interact at the same target promoter in a specific and distinct transcriptional signature. During this process, both receptors regulate PER1 gene by binding as homo- or heterodimers to the same promoter region. Our results suggest a novel level of MR-GR target gene regulation, which should be considered for a better and integrated understanding of corticosteroid-related pathophysiology.-Le Billan, F., Amazit, L., Bleakley, K., Xue, Q.-Y., Pussard, E., Lhadj, C., Kolkhof, P., Viengchareun, S., Fagart, J., Lombès, M. Corticosteroid receptors adopt distinct cyclical transcriptional signatures.

  13. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  14. Rhinovirus infection induces distinct transcriptome profiles in polarized human macrophages.

    Rajput, Charu; Walsh, Megan P; Eder, Breanna N; Metitiri, Ediri E; Popova, Antonia P; Hershenson, Marc B

    2018-05-01

    Infections with rhinovirus (RV) cause asthma exacerbations. Recent studies suggest that macrophages play a role in asthmatic airway inflammation and the innate immune response to RV infection. Macrophages exhibit phenotypes based on surface markers and gene expression. We hypothesized that macrophage polarization state alters gene expression in response to RV infection. Cells were derived from human peripheral blood derived monocytes. M1 and M2 polarization was carried out by using IFN-γ and IL-4, respectively, and RNA was extracted for Affymetrix Human Gene ST2.1 exon arrays. Selected genes were validated by quantitative (q)PCR. Treatment of nonactivated (M0) macrophages with IFN-γ and IL-4 induced the expression of 252 and 153 distinct genes, respectively, including previously-identified M1 and M2 markers. RV infection of M0 macrophages induced upregulation of 232 genes; pathway analysis showed significant overrepresentation of genes involved in IFN-α/β signaling and cytokine signaling in the immune system. RV infection induced differential expression of 195 distinct genes in M1-like macrophages but only seven distinct genes in M2-like-polarized cells. In a secondary analysis, comparison between M0-, RV-infected, and M1-like-polarized, RV-infected macrophages revealed differential expression of 227 genes including those associated with asthma and its exacerbation. qPCR demonstrated increased expression of CCL8, CXCL10, TNFSF10, TNFSF18, IL6, NOD2, and GSDMD and reduced expression of VNN1, AGO1, and AGO2. Together, these data show that, in contrast to M2-like-polarized macrophages, gene expression of M1-like macrophages is highly regulated by RV.

  15. Entrepreneurship research in Spain: developments and distinctiveness.

    Sánchez, José C; Gutiérrez, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a review of research on entrepreneurship in Spain, paying particular attention to its beginnings, nature and main focus of interest. We have developed a database based on the review of 471 works produced between 1977 and 2009, including articles published in national and international journals and dissertations (read in Spain) that allowed us to extract the following results. There is a preference for qualitative methods, conceptual contributions and the entrepreneurial process as the privileged research theme. There is also a strong focus of interest on micro and small enterprises. These characteristics of Spanish research in areas of entrepreneurship can make a distinctive contribution to international research. However, the dissemination of knowledge and inadequate strategies for international publication limit the diffusion of Spanish research in entrepreneurship. Lastly, we discuss the implications for future research.

  16. 10 distinct stellar populations in omega Centauri.

    Bellini, Andrea; Anderson, Jay; Bedin, Luigi R.; Cool, Adrienne; King, Ivan R.; van der marel, roeland p.

    2015-08-01

    We are constructing the most comprehensive catalog of photometry and proper motions ever assembled for a globular cluster. The core of omega Centauri has been imaged over 600 times through WFC3’s UVIS and IR channels for the purposes of detector calibration. There exist ~30 exposures each for 26 filters, stretching uniformly from F225W in the UV to F160W in the infrared. Furthermore, the 12-year baseline between this data and a 2002 ACS survey will more than triple both the accuracy and the number of well-measured stars compared to previous studies.This totally unprecedented complete spectral coverage for over 400,000 stars, from the red-giant branch down to the white dwarfs, provides the best chance yet to understand the multiple-population phenomenon in any globular cluster. A preliminary analysis of the color-magnitude diagrams in different bands already allows us to identify 10 distinct sequences.

  17. Anticancer properties of distinct antimalarial drug classes.

    Rob Hooft van Huijsduijnen

    Full Text Available We have tested five distinct classes of established and experimental antimalarial drugs for their anticancer potential, using a panel of 91 human cancer lines. Three classes of drugs: artemisinins, synthetic peroxides and DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors effected potent inhibition of proliferation with IC50s in the nM- low µM range, whereas a DHODH (dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and a putative kinase inhibitor displayed no activity. Furthermore, significant synergies were identified with erlotinib, imatinib, cisplatin, dasatinib and vincristine. Cluster analysis of the antimalarials based on their differential inhibition of the various cancer lines clearly segregated the synthetic peroxides OZ277 and OZ439 from the artemisinin cluster that included artesunate, dihydroartemisinin and artemisone, and from the DHFR inhibitors pyrimethamine and P218 (a parasite DHFR inhibitor, emphasizing their shared mode of action. In order to further understand the basis of the selectivity of these compounds against different cancers, microarray-based gene expression data for 85 of the used cell lines were generated. For each compound, distinct sets of genes were identified whose expression significantly correlated with compound sensitivity. Several of the antimalarials tested in this study have well-established and excellent safety profiles with a plasma exposure, when conservatively used in malaria, that is well above the IC50s that we identified in this study. Given their unique mode of action and potential for unique synergies with established anticancer drugs, our results provide a strong basis to further explore the potential application of these compounds in cancer in pre-clinical or and clinical settings.

  18. Anticancer Properties of Distinct Antimalarial Drug Classes

    Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Rob; Guy, R. Kiplin; Chibale, Kelly; Haynes, Richard K.; Peitz, Ingmar; Kelter, Gerhard; Phillips, Margaret A.; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L.; Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Wells, Timothy N. C.

    2013-01-01

    We have tested five distinct classes of established and experimental antimalarial drugs for their anticancer potential, using a panel of 91 human cancer lines. Three classes of drugs: artemisinins, synthetic peroxides and DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase) inhibitors effected potent inhibition of proliferation with IC50s in the nM- low µM range, whereas a DHODH (dihydroorotate dehydrogenase) and a putative kinase inhibitor displayed no activity. Furthermore, significant synergies were identified with erlotinib, imatinib, cisplatin, dasatinib and vincristine. Cluster analysis of the antimalarials based on their differential inhibition of the various cancer lines clearly segregated the synthetic peroxides OZ277 and OZ439 from the artemisinin cluster that included artesunate, dihydroartemisinin and artemisone, and from the DHFR inhibitors pyrimethamine and P218 (a parasite DHFR inhibitor), emphasizing their shared mode of action. In order to further understand the basis of the selectivity of these compounds against different cancers, microarray-based gene expression data for 85 of the used cell lines were generated. For each compound, distinct sets of genes were identified whose expression significantly correlated with compound sensitivity. Several of the antimalarials tested in this study have well-established and excellent safety profiles with a plasma exposure, when conservatively used in malaria, that is well above the IC50s that we identified in this study. Given their unique mode of action and potential for unique synergies with established anticancer drugs, our results provide a strong basis to further explore the potential application of these compounds in cancer in pre-clinical or and clinical settings. PMID:24391728

  19. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with

  20. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...