Diamond lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet
Oitmaa, J.
2018-04-01
We investigate ground-state and high-temperature properties of the nearest-neighbour Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the three-dimensional diamond lattice, using series expansion methods. The ground-state energy and magnetization, as well as the magnon spectrum, are calculated and found to be in good agreement with first-order spin-wave theory, with a quantum renormalization factor of about 1.13. High-temperature series are derived for the free energy, and physical and staggered susceptibilities for spin S = 1/2, 1 and 3/2, and analysed to obtain the corresponding Curie and Néel temperatures.
Exact solution of the mixed spin-1/2 and spin-S Ising-Heisenberg diamond chain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Čanová
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The geometric frustration in a class of the mixed spin-1/2 and spin-S Ising-Heisenberg diamond chains is investigated by combining three exact analytical techniques: Kambe projection method, decoration-iteration transformation and transfer-matrix method. The ground state, the magnetization process and the specific heat as a function of the external magnetic field are particularly examined for different strengths of the geometric frustration. It is shown that the increase of the Heisenberg spin value S raises the number of intermediate magnetization plateaux, which emerge in magnetization curves provided that the ground state is highly degenerate on behalf of a sufficiently strong geometric frustration. On the other hand, all intermediate magnetization plateaux merge into a linear magnetization versus magnetic field dependence in the limit of classical Heisenberg spin S → ∞. The enhanced magnetocaloric effect with cooling rate exceeding the one of paramagnetic salts is also detected when the disordered frustrated phase constitutes the ground state and the external magnetic field is small enough.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hovhannisyan, V V; Ananikian, N S; Strečka, J
2016-01-01
The spin-1 Ising–Heisenberg diamond chain with the second-neighbor interaction between nodal spins is rigorously solved using the transfer-matrix method. In particular, exact results for the ground state, magnetization process and specific heat are presented and discussed. It is shown that further-neighbor interaction between nodal spins gives rise to three novel ground states with a translationally broken symmetry, but at the same time, does not increases the total number of intermediate plateaus in a zero-temperature magnetization curve compared with the simplified model without this interaction term. The zero-field specific heat displays interesting thermal dependencies with a single- or double-peak structure. (paper)
Exactly solved mixed spin-(1,1/2) Ising–Heisenberg diamond chain with a single-ion anisotropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lisnyi, Bohdan; Strečka, Jozef
2015-01-01
The mixed spin-(1,1/2) Ising–Heisenberg diamond chain with a single-ion anisotropy is exactly solved through the generalized decoration–iteration transformation and the transfer-matrix method. The decoration–iteration transformation is first used for establishing a rigorous mapping equivalence with the corresponding spin-1 Blume–Emery–Griffiths chain, which is subsequently exactly treated within the transfer-matrix technique. Apart from three classical ground states the model exhibits three striking quantum ground states in which a singlet-dimer state of the interstitial Heisenberg spins is accompanied either with a frustrated state or a polarized state or a non-magnetic state of the nodal Ising spins. It is evidenced that two magnetization plateaus at zero and/or one-half of the saturation magnetization may appear in low-temperature magnetization curves. The specific heat may display remarkable temperature dependences with up to three and four distinct round maxima in a zero and non-zero magnetic field, respectively. - Highlights: • Mixed spin-(1,1/2) Ising–Heisenberg diamond chain is exactly solved. • Quantum ground states with a singlet-dimer state of the Heisenberg spins are found. • Magnetization curve displays intermediate plateaus at zero and half of full magnetization. • Thermal dependences of specific heat may display up to four distinct peaks
Werner Heisenberg; Werner Heisenberg
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schiemann, G.
2008-07-01
This book contains a biography of Heisenberg, a description of the development of quantum mechanics, a consideration of connections of philosophy and physics, and a description of the scientific picture of the world. Finally a list of books written by Heisenberg respectively connected with his work is presented. (HSI)
Torrico, Jordana; Ohanyan, Vadim; Rojas, Onofre
2018-05-01
We consider the diamond chain with S = 1/2 XYZ vertical dimers which interact with the intermediate sites via the interaction of the Ising type. We also suppose all four spins form the diamond-shaped plaquette to have different g-factors. The non-uniform g-factors within the quantum spin dimer as well as the XY-anisotropy of the exchange interaction lead to the non-conserving magnetization for the chain. We analyze the effects of non-conserving magnetization as well as the effects of the appearance of negative g-factors among the spins from the unit cell. A number of unusual frustrated states for ferromagnetic couplings and g-factors with non-uniform signs are found out. These frustrated states generalize the "half-fire-half-ice" state introduced in reference Yin et al. (2015). The corresponding zero-temperature ground state phase diagrams are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Yanchao
2010-01-01
Using the transfer matrix renormalization group (TMRG) method, we study the connection between the first derivative of the thermal average of driving-term Hamiltonian (DTADH) and the trace of quantum critical behaviors at finite temperatures. Connecting with the exact diagonalization method, we give the phase diagrams and analyze the properties of each phase for both the ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic frustrated J 3 anisotropy diamond chain models. The finite-temperature scaling behaviors near the critical regions are also investigated. Further, we show the critical behaviors driven by external magnetic field, analyze the formation of the 1/3 magnetic plateau and the influence of different interactions on those critical points for both the ferrimagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic distorted diamond chains.
Polynomial Heisenberg algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carballo, Juan M; C, David J Fernandez; Negro, Javier; Nieto, Luis M
2004-01-01
Polynomial deformations of the Heisenberg algebra are studied in detail. Some of their natural realizations are given by the higher order susy partners (and not only by those of first order, as is already known) of the harmonic oscillator for even-order polynomials. Here, it is shown that the susy partners of the radial oscillator play a similar role when the order of the polynomial is odd. Moreover, it will be proved that the general systems ruled by such kinds of algebras, in the quadratic and cubic cases, involve Painleve transcendents of types IV and V, respectively
Heisenberg picture and measurement operation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Espagnat, B.
1992-01-01
The idea is discussed according to which, in the Heisenberg picture, differently from the Schroedinger picture, the operators correspond exactly to the dynamic properties and the role of the density matrix is merely to describe our passive knowledge thereof. It is shown that the idea in question cannot be consistently kept as it is, and hints are given as to how it could be refined. (from author). 2 refs
Remark on Heisenberg's principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noguez, G.
1988-01-01
Application of Heisenberg's principle to inertial frame transformations allows a distinction between three commutative groups of reciprocal transformations along one direction: Galilean transformations, dual transformations, and Lorentz transformations. These are three conjugate groups and for a given direction, the related commutators are all proportional to one single conjugation transformation which compensates for uniform and rectilinear motions. The three transformation groups correspond to three complementary ways of measuring space-time as a whole. Heisenberg's Principle then gets another explanation [fr
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
how Heisenberg identified the quantum mechan- ical exchange ... condensed matter physics from the Indian ... electrons per atom and 'm,' is the electronic mass. Dia- magnetism is .... what is the origin of this ordering field Hint = aM, that gives rise to a ... the case with magnetism, where the fundamental Inech- anism for the ...
Synthetic diamond in electrochemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pleskov, Yurii V
1999-01-01
The results of studies on the electrochemistry of diamond carried out during the last decade are reviewed. Methods for the preparation, the crystalline structure and the main electrophysical properties of diamond thin films are considered. Depending on the doping conditions, the diamond behaves as a superwide-gap semiconductor or as a semimetal. It is shown that the 'metal-like' diamond is corrosion-resistant and can be used advantageously as an electrode in the electrosynthesis (in particular, for the electroreduction of compounds that are difficult to reduce) and electroanalysis. Kinetic characteristics of some redox reactions and the impedance parameters for diamond electrodes are presented. The results of comparative studies of the electrodes made of diamond single crystals, polycrystalline diamond and amorphous diamond-like carbon, which reveal the effect of the crystalline structure (e.g., the influence of intercrystallite boundaries) on the electrochemical properties of diamond, are presented. The bibliography includes 99 references.
Heisenberg rise of total cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ezhela, V.V.; Yushchenko, O.P.
1988-01-01
It is shown that on the basis of the original idea of Heisenberg on the quasiclassical picture of extended particle interactions one can construct a satisfactory description of the total cross sections, elastic cross sections, elastic diffractive slopes and mean charged multiplicities in the cm energy range from 5 to 900 GeV, and produce reasonable extrapolations up to several tens of TeV. 14 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs
Diamonds for beam instrumentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Griesmayer, Erich
2013-01-01
Diamond is perhaps the most versatile, efficient and radiation tolerant material available for use in beam detectors with a correspondingly wide range of applications in beam instrumentation. Numerous practical applications have demonstrated and exploited the sensitivity of diamond to charged particles, photons and neutrons. In this paper, a brief description of a generic diamond detector is given and the interaction of the CVD diamond detector material with protons, electrons, photons and neutrons is presented. Latest results of the interaction of sCVD diamond with 14 MeV mono-energetic neutrons are shown.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ynduráin, Francisco J.
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Not available
Los azares de las onomásticas hacen coincidir en este año el centenario del nacimiento de tres de los más grandes físicos del siglo XX. Dos de ellos, Fermi y Heisenberg, dejaron una marca fundamental en la ciencia (ambos, pero sobre todo el segundo y, el primero, también en la tecnología. Lawrence, indudablemente de un nivel inferior al de los otros dos, estuvo sin embargo en el origen de uno de los desarrollos tecnológicos que han sido básicos para la exploración del universo subnuclear en la segunda mitad del siglo que ha terminado hace poco, el de los aceleradores de partículas.
Thermally stable diamond brazing
Radtke, Robert P [Kingwood, TX
2009-02-10
A cutting element and a method for forming a cutting element is described and shown. The cutting element includes a substrate, a TSP diamond layer, a metal interlayer between the substrate and the diamond layer, and a braze joint securing the diamond layer to the substrate. The thickness of the metal interlayer is determined according to a formula. The formula takes into account the thickness and modulus of elasticity of the metal interlayer and the thickness of the TSP diamond. This prevents the use of a too thin or too thick metal interlayer. A metal interlayer that is too thin is not capable of absorbing enough energy to prevent the TSP diamond from fracturing. A metal interlayer that is too thick may allow the TSP diamond to fracture by reason of bending stress. A coating may be provided between the TSP diamond layer and the metal interlayer. This coating serves as a thermal barrier and to control residual thermal stress.
On the fermionic Heisenberg group and its Q-representation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frydryszak, A.
1992-01-01
A nonstandard way of representing the canonical anticommutation relations is presented. It is connected with a generalization of the Heisenberg group to a graded phase space. It is shown how Grassmann harmonic analysis can be performed and what are the Q-representations of such a generalized Heisenberg group. As in the conventional case, the Schroedinger and Bargmann-Fock realizations were shown to exist. Grassmann-Hermite polynomials are obtained via the generalized Bargmann transform and new Grassmann-Laguerre polynomials are introduced. (author). 10 refs
Multi parametric deformed Heisenberg algebras: a route to complexity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Curado, E.M.F.; Rego-Monteiro, M.A.
2000-09-01
We introduce a generalized of the Heisenberg which is written in terms of a functional of one generator of the algebra, f(J 0 ), that can be any analytical function. When f is linear with slope θ, we show that the algebra in this case corresponds to q-oscillators for q 2 = tan θ. The case where f is polynomial of order n in J 0 corresponds to a n-parameter Heisenberg algebra. The representations of the algebra, when f is any analytical function, are shown to be obtained through the study of the stability of the fixed points of f and their composed functions. The case when f is a quadratic polynomial in J 0 , the simplest non-linear scheme which is able to create chaotic behavior, is analyzed in detail and special regions in the parameter space give representations that ca not be continuously deformed to representations of Heisenberg algebra. (author)
Cosmological implications of Heisenberg's principle
Gonzalo, Julio A
2015-01-01
The aim of this book is to analyze the all important implications of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle for a finite universe with very large mass-energy content such as ours. The earlier and main contributors to the formulation of Quantum Mechanics are briefly reviewed regarding the formulation of Heisenberg's Principle. After discussing “indeterminacy” versus ”uncertainty”, the universal constants of physics are reviewed and Planck's units are given. Next, a novel set of units, Heisenberg–Lemaitre units, are defined in terms of the large finite mass of the universe. With the help of Heisenberg's principle, the time evolution of the finite zero-point energy for the universe is investigated quantitatively. Next, taking advantage of the rigorous solutions of Einstein's cosmological equation for a flat, open and mixed universe of finite mass, the most recent and accurate data on the “age” (to) and the expansion rate (Ho) of the universe and their implications are reconsidered.
Berry phase in Heisenberg representation
Andreev, V. A.; Klimov, Andrei B.; Lerner, Peter B.
1994-01-01
We define the Berry phase for the Heisenberg operators. This definition is motivated by the calculation of the phase shifts by different techniques. These techniques are: the solution of the Heisenberg equations of motion, the solution of the Schrodinger equation in coherent-state representation, and the direct computation of the evolution operator. Our definition of the Berry phase in the Heisenberg representation is consistent with the underlying supersymmetry of the model in the following sense. The structural blocks of the Hamiltonians of supersymmetrical quantum mechanics ('superpairs') are connected by transformations which conserve the similarity in structure of the energy levels of superpairs. These transformations include transformation of phase of the creation-annihilation operators, which are generated by adiabatic cyclic evolution of the parameters of the system.
Heisenberg, his wife s account
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heisenberg, E.
1990-01-01
A wife tells about her husband life, Werner Heisenberg, Physics Nobel Price in 1932. After a happy childhood, this brilliant student was Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, Arnold Sommerfeld s student. But at the nazism time, the great physician refused to leave his country, guaranteeing the Hitler regime and taking part in effort of war, that is to say the run to the bomb. The account of Elisabeth Heisenberg, although subjective, allows to understand the scientist s behaviour face terrifying realities of his time. (N.C.)
Influence of magnetic field on swap operation in Heisenberg XXZ model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu Jia [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang Guofeng, E-mail: gf1978zhang@buaa.edu.c [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China); Chen Ziyu [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)
2009-05-01
Swap operation based on a two-qubit Heisenberg XXZ model under a uniform magnetic field in arbitrary direction and magnitude is investigated. It is shown that swap gate can be implemented on some conditions and its feasibility is established.
Influence of magnetic field on swap operation in Heisenberg XXZ model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Jia; Zhang Guofeng; Chen Ziyu
2009-01-01
Swap operation based on a two-qubit Heisenberg XXZ model under a uniform magnetic field in arbitrary direction and magnitude is investigated. It is shown that swap gate can be implemented on some conditions and its feasibility is established.
Topological term of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model in 2+1 dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Ke; Yu Lu; Zhu Chuanjie
1988-05-01
It is shown in this note that the two different ways of introducing the topological term in the discussion of the spin 1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model are identical to each other. (author). 12 refs
Non-Hermitian Heisenberg representation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Znojil, Miloslav
2015-01-01
Roč. 379, č. 36 (2015), s. 2013-2017 ISSN 0375-9601 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum mechanics * Non-Hermitian representation of observables * Generalized Heisenberg equations Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.677, year: 2015
Werner Heisenberg - Life and Work
2002-01-01
Werner Heisenberg (centre) with Wolfgang Pauli and Enrico Fermi, 1927. An exhibition on the life and work of Werner Heisenberg will be on display in the Main Building (Mezzanine) at CERN from 1 - 30 July*. German theoretical physicist Werner Karl Heisenberg (1901 - 1976) was one of the leading scientists of the 20th century. Nobel Prize in Physics in 1932, his most significant contribution was to the development of quantum mechanics. He is best known for his uncertainty principle, which restricts the accuracy with which some properties of atoms and particles can be determined simultaneously. Heisenberg was a keen supporter of CERN, and was as the first chairman of CERN's Scientific Policy Committee in October 1954. A related celebration will take place in the TH Amphitheatre (4/3-006), on Thursday 18 July at 16:00. After an introduction from the Director-General Luciano Maiani, his daughter, Barbara Blum, his last postgraduate, Helmut Rechenberg and Valentin Telegdi will evoke memories of the life and work ...
Werner Heisenberg - Life and Work
2002-01-01
Werner Heisenberg (centre) with Wolfgang Pauli (left) and Enrico Fermi on Lake Como, September 1927. An exhibition on the life and work of Werner Heisenberg will be on display in the Main Building (Mezzanine) at CERN from 1 - 23 July. The exhibition was produced by the University Archive of Leipzig University (Gerald Wiemers) and the Max-Planck-Institut für Physik in Munich (Helmut Rechenberg) to mark the centenary of Heisenberg's birth in 1901. German theoretical physicist Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 - 1 February 1976) was one of the leading scientists of the 20th century. He carried out important work in nuclear and particle physics, but his most significant contribution was to the development of quantum mechanics. He is best known for his uncertainty principle, which restricts the accuracy with which some properties of atoms and particles - such as position and linear momentum - can be determined simultaneously. In 1932 he was awarded the Noble Prize in Physics 'for the creation of q...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1976-01-01
X-ray topography on diamonds allows for unique identification of diamonds. The method described consists of the registration of crystal defects, inclusions etc. of a diamond, resulting in a 'finger print' of the individual jewel which can only be changed by its complete destruction
Deformation quantization of the Heisenberg group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonechi, F.
1994-01-01
After reviewing the way the quantization of Poisson Lie Groups naturally leads to Quantum Groups, the existing quantum version H(1) q of the Heisenberg algebra is used to give an explicit example of this quantization on the Heisenberg group. (author) 6 refs
Werner Karl Heisenberg (1901-1976)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kvasnica, J.
1992-01-01
The life's career of Werner Karl Heisenberg is described with emphasis on his creative development and cooperation with many other prominent physicists in the field of the quantum theory of atoms. In 1925, Heisenberg modified Bohr's quantum rule; in 1927 he formulated the uncertainty principle which puts some restrictions on the simultaneous determination of the position and momentum. In 1928, Heisenberg set up the quantum theory of ferromagnetism, which still underlies all theories of magnetic properties of substances. Soon after Chadwick's discovery of the neutron (1932), Heisenberg introduced the concept of the isospin - he interpreted the proton and the neutron as one particle (nucleon) in two charge states. Heisenberg's professional and pedagogical activities during and after the 2nd world war are also described. (Z.S.). 5 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagpal, A.K.
1978-01-01
Contrary to the prevalent belief, it is shown here that for the spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger field in the presence of a fully quantized interaction, the (anti) commutation relations are compatible with the Heisenberg equations of motion. The latter are indeed the same as the Lagrangian equations of motion. Further, it is shown that the validity of the Heisenberg equations of motion does not depend upon the choice of the canonical variables
Variational principles and Heisenberg matrix mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klein, A.; Li, C.-T.
1979-01-01
If in Heisenberg's equations of motion for a problem in quantum mechanics (or quantum field theory) one studies matrix elements in the energy representation and by use of completeness conditions expresses the equations solely in terms of matrix elements of the canonical variables, and if one does likewise with the associated kinematical constraints (commutation relations), one arrives at a formulation - largely unexplored hitherto - which can be exploited for both practical and theoretical development. In this contribution, the above theme is developed within the framework of one-dimensional problems. It is shown how this formulation, both dynamics and kinematics, can be derived from a new variational principle, indeed from an entire class of such principles. A powerful method of diagonalizing the Hamiltonians by means of computations utilizing these equations is described. The variational method is shown to be particularly useful for the study of the regime of large quantum numbers. The usual WKB approximation is seen to be contained as well as a basis for the study of systematic corrections to it. Further applications in progress are mentioned. (Auth.)
Theory for disordered phase in Heisenberg and non-Heisenberg two-dimensional S=1 ferromagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spirin, D.V.; Fridman, Yu.A.
2003-01-01
We apply a modification of self-consistent spin-wave theory to investigation of two-dimensional S=1 isotropic Heisenberg and non-Heisenberg ferromagnets at nonzero temperatures. We use Hubbard operators method and bosonization technique. We calculated chemical potential and found dependence of correlation length on temperature. Specific heat has Schottky-type peak and decreases at high temperatures. Disordered phase in non-Heisenberg ferromagnet is also studied. The results for such a model differ from those of Heisenberg one
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lang, A.R.
1979-01-01
Methods of producing sets of records of the internal defects of diamonds as a means of identification of the gems by x-ray topography are described. To obtain the records one can either use (a) monochromatic x-radiation reflected at the Bragg angle from crystallographically equivalent planes of the diamond lattice structure, Bragg reflections from each such plane being recorded from a number of directions of view, or (b) white x-radiation incident upon the diamond in directions having a constant angular relationship to each equivalent axis of symmetry of the diamond lattice structure, Bragg reflections being recorded for each direction of the incident x-radiation. By either method an overall point-to-point three dimensional representation of the diamond is produced. (U.K.)
Quantum Heisenberg groups and Sklyanin algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andruskiewitsch, N.; Devoto, J.; Tiraboschi, A.
1993-05-01
We define new quantizations of the Heisenberg group by introducing new quantizations in the universal enveloping algebra of its Lie algebra. Matrix coefficients of the Stone-von Neumann representation are preserved by these new multiplications on the algebra of functions on the Heisenberg group. Some of the new quantizations provide also a new multiplication in the algebra of theta functions; we obtain in this way Sklyanin algebras. (author). 23 refs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katja Beha
2012-12-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate the coupling of single color centers in diamond to plasmonic and dielectric photonic structures to realize novel nanophotonic devices. Nanometer spatial control in the creation of single color centers in diamond is achieved by implantation of nitrogen atoms through high-aspect-ratio channels in a mica mask. Enhanced broadband single-photon emission is demonstrated by coupling nitrogen–vacancy centers to plasmonic resonators, such as metallic nanoantennas. Improved photon-collection efficiency and directed emission is demonstrated by solid immersion lenses and micropillar cavities. Thereafter, the coupling of diamond nanocrystals to the guided modes of micropillar resonators is discussed along with experimental results. Finally, we present a gas-phase-doping approach to incorporate color centers based on nickel and tungsten, in situ into diamond using microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The fabrication of silicon–vacancy centers in nanodiamonds by microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is discussed in addition.
Spin-density functional for exchange anisotropic Heisenberg model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prata, G.N.; Penteado, P.H.; Souza, F.C.; Libero, Valter L.
2009-01-01
Ground-state energies for antiferromagnetic Heisenberg models with exchange anisotropy are estimated by means of a local-spin approximation made in the context of the density functional theory. Correlation energy is obtained using the non-linear spin-wave theory for homogeneous systems from which the spin functional is built. Although applicable to chains of any size, the results are shown for small number of sites, to exhibit finite-size effects and allow comparison with exact-numerical data from direct diagonalization of small chains.
CVD diamond metallization and characterization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fraimovitch, D., E-mail: dimitryf@mail.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Adelberd, A.; Marunko, S. [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Lefeuvre, G. [Micron Semiconductor Ltd. Royal Buildings, Marlborough Road, Lancing Business Park, BN15 8SJ (United Kingdom); Ruzin, A. [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel)
2017-02-11
In this study we compared three diamond substrate grades: polycrystalline, optical grade single crystal, and electronic grade single crystal for detector application. Beside the bulk type, the choice of contact material, pre-treatment, and sputtering process details have shown to alter significantly the diamond detector performance. Characterization of diamond substrate permittivity and losses indicate grade and crystallinity related, characteristic differences for frequencies in 1 kHz–1 MHz range. Substantial grade related variations were also observed in surface electrostatic characterization performed by contact potential difference (CPD) mode of an atomic force microscope. Study of conductivity variations with temperature reveal that bulk trap energy levels are also dependent on the crystal grade.
CVD diamond metallization and characterization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fraimovitch, D.; Adelberd, A.; Marunko, S.; Lefeuvre, G.; Ruzin, A.
2017-01-01
In this study we compared three diamond substrate grades: polycrystalline, optical grade single crystal, and electronic grade single crystal for detector application. Beside the bulk type, the choice of contact material, pre-treatment, and sputtering process details have shown to alter significantly the diamond detector performance. Characterization of diamond substrate permittivity and losses indicate grade and crystallinity related, characteristic differences for frequencies in 1 kHz–1 MHz range. Substantial grade related variations were also observed in surface electrostatic characterization performed by contact potential difference (CPD) mode of an atomic force microscope. Study of conductivity variations with temperature reveal that bulk trap energy levels are also dependent on the crystal grade.
Quantum influence in the criticality of the spin- {1}/{2} anisotropic Heisenberg model
Ricardo de Sousa, J.; Araújo, Ijanílio G.
1999-07-01
We study the spin- {1}/{2} anisotropic Heisenberg antiferromagnetic model using the effective field renormalization group (EFRG) approach. The EFRG method is illustrated by employing approximations in which clusters with one ( N'=1) and two ( N=2) spins are used. The dependence of the critical temperature Tc (ferromagnetic-F case) and TN (antiferromagnetic-AF case) and thermal critical exponent, Yt, are obtained as a function of anisotropy parameter ( Δ) on a simple cubic lattice. We find that, in our results, TN is higher than Tc for the quantum anisotropic Heisenberg limit and TN= Tc for the Ising and quantum XY limits. We have also shown that the thermal critical exponent Yt for the isotropic Heisenberg model shows a small dependence on the type of interaction (F or AF) due to finite size effects.
The Heisenberg picture for single photon states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pienaar, Jacques; Myers, Casey; Ralph, Timothy C.
2011-01-01
In the context of quantum field theory, the Heisenberg picture has a distinct advantage over the Schrodinger picture because the Schrodinger picture requires us to transform the vacuum state itself, which can be intractable in the case of non-inertial reference frames, whereas the Heisenberg picture allows us to keep the same vacuum state and only transform the operators. However, the Heisenberg calculation requires the operators to already be expressed as a function of creation and annihilation operators acting on the original vacuum, whereas calculations in quantum information and quantum computation use operators that act on qubit states, necessarily containing particles. The relationship between the operators acting on these states and the operators acting on the vacuum state has remained elusive. We derive such an expression using an explicit model for single-particle production from the vacuum.
CVD diamond windows for infrared synchrotron applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sussmann, R.S.; Pickles, C.S.J.; Brandon, J.R.; Wort, C.J.H.; Coe, S.E.; Wasenczuk, A.; Dodge, C.N.; Beale, A.C.; Krehan, A.J.; Dore, P.; Nucara, A.; Calvani, P.
1998-01-01
This paper describes the attributes that make diamond a unique material for infrared synchrotron beam experiments. New developments in diamond synthesised by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) promise to extend the range of applications which have been hitherto limited by the availability and cost of large-size single-crystal diamond. Polycrystalline CVD diamond components such as large (100 mm) diameter windows with extremely good transparency over a wide spectral range are now commercially available. Properties of CVD diamond of relevance to optical applications, such as mechanical strength, thermal conductivity and absolute bulk absorption, are discussed. It is shown that although some of the properties of CVD diamond (similar to other polycrystalline industrial ceramics) are affected by the grain structure, currently produced CVD diamond optical components have the quality and performance required for numerous demanding applications
Formation of quadrupolar phase in non-Heisenberg ferromagnets with half-integer spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fridman, Yu.A.; Kosmachev, O.A.; Spirin, D.V.
2005-01-01
Possibility of realization of quadrupolar phase in non-Heisenberg ferromagnet with magnetic ion spin 32 is studied. It is shown that such phase state exists only in ferromagnets with high value of biquadratic exchange when external magnetic field is not applied. Phase diagram of the system is built
I grandi della fisica da Platone a Heisenberg
Von Weizsäcker, Carl Friedrich
2002-01-01
Parmenide ; Platone ; Aristotele ; Copernico, Keplero, Galilei ; Galileo Galilei ; Cartesio ; Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz ; Cartesio, Newton, Leibniz, Kant ; Immanuel Kant ; Johann Wolfgang Goethe ; Robert Meyer ; Albert Einstein ; Niels Bohr ; Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac ; Niels Bohr e Werner Heisenberg, un ricordo del 1932 ; Werner Heisenberg ; Heisenberg, fisico e filosofo ; l'interpretazione filosofica della fisica moderna.
Remarks on Heisenberg-Euler-type electrodynamics
Kruglov, S. I.
2017-05-01
We consider Heisenberg-Euler-type model of nonlinear electrodynamics with two parameters. Heisenberg-Euler electrodynamics is a particular case of this model. Corrections to Coulomb’s law at r →∞ are obtained and energy conditions are studied. The total electrostatic energy of charged particles is finite. The charged black hole solution in the framework of nonlinear electrodynamics is investigated. We find the asymptotic of the metric and mass functions at r →∞. Corrections to the Reissner-Nordström solution are obtained.
Hilbert schemes of points and Heisenberg algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellingsrud, G.; Goettsche, L.
2000-01-01
Let X [n] be the Hilbert scheme of n points on a smooth projective surface X over the complex numbers. In these lectures we describe the action of the Heisenberg algebra on the direct sum of the cohomologies of all the X [n] , which has been constructed by Nakajima. In the second half of the lectures we study the relation of the Heisenberg algebra action and the ring structures of the cohomologies of the X [n] , following recent work of Lehn. In particular we study the Chern and Segre classes of tautological vector bundles on the Hilbert schemes X [n] . (author)
Polarizability tensor and Kramers-Heisenberg induction
Wijers, Christianus M.J.
2004-01-01
A general expression for the semiclassical, nonrelativistic linear polarizability of an arbitrary volume element V has been derived in the long wavelength approximation. The derivation starts from the expectation value of the dipole strength, as in the original Kramers-Heisenberg paper about optical
Uncertainty inequalities for the Heisenberg group
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
where φ is an admissible wavelet and kφ is an appropriate positive constant. For more on the history and the relevance of the uncertainty inequality, we refer the readers to the survey [5], the books [6,8], and the papers [2,10,11]. For the Heisenberg group Hn, Thangavelu [16] proved the following theorem. Theorem 1.1.
Diamond nanowires: fabrication, structure, properties, and applications.
Yu, Yuan; Wu, Liangzhuan; Zhi, Jinfang
2014-12-22
C(sp(3) )C-bonded diamond nanowires are wide band gap semiconductors that exhibit a combination of superior properties such as negative electron affinity, chemical inertness, high Young's modulus, the highest hardness, and room-temperature thermal conductivity. The creation of 1D diamond nanowires with their giant surface-to-volume ratio enhancements makes it possible to control and enhance the fundamental properties of diamond. Although theoretical comparisons with carbon nanotubes have shown that diamond nanowires are energetically and mechanically viable structures, reproducibly synthesizing the crystalline diamond nanowires has remained challenging. We present a comprehensive, up-to-date review of diamond nanowires, including a discussion of their synthesis along with their structures, properties, and applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline diamond films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vyrovets, I.I.; Gritsyna, V.I.; Dudnik, S.F.; Opalev, O.A.; Reshetnyak, O.M.; Strel'nitskij, V.E.
2008-01-01
The brief review of the literature is devoted to synthesis of nanocrystalline diamond films. It is shown that the CVD method is an effective way for deposition of such nanostructures. The basic technological methods that allow limit the size of growing diamond crystallites in the film are studied.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Pathinathan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we define diamond fuzzy number with the help of triangular fuzzy number. We include basic arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction of diamond fuzzy numbers with examples. We define diamond fuzzy matrix with some matrix properties. We have defined Nested diamond fuzzy number and Linked diamond fuzzy number. We have further classified Right Linked Diamond Fuzzy number and Left Linked Diamond Fuzzy number. Finally we have verified the arithmetic operations for the above mentioned types of Diamond Fuzzy Numbers.
Considerations on Bohr's, Heisenberg's and Schroedinger's philosophy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimony, A.
1981-01-01
In denying that the words 'physical reality' are meaningful without reference to an experimental arrangement, Bohr renounces any knowledge of the 'thing-in-itself'. However, the relation of his epistemology to both idealism and positivism remains obscure. Heisenberg departs from Bohr in enunciating a metaphysical implication of quantum mechanics. Heisenberg asserts that there is an intermediate modality -potentiality- between logical possibility and existence. His attempts to explain the transition from potentiality to existence are not convincing. Schroedinger rejects Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics as a positivist exercise and seeks instead a realist interpretation. Nevertheless, the metaphysics of Schroedinger is fundamentally idealistic, maintaining that the material aspect of the world is composed of the same elements as mind, but in a different order [fr
The chirality operators for Heisenberg spin systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Subrahmanyam, V.
1994-01-01
The ground state of closed Heisenberg spin chains with an odd number of sites has a chiral degeneracy, in addition to a two-fold Kramers degeneracy. A non-zero chirality implies that the spins are not coplanar, and is a measure of handedness. The chirality operator, which can be treated as a spin-1/2 operator, is explicitly constructed in terms of the spin operators, and is given as commutator of permutation operators. (author). 3 refs
Controllable entanglement sudden birth of Heisenberg spins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Qiang; Zhi Qijun; Zhang Xiaoping; Ren Zhongzhou
2011-01-01
We investigate the Entanglement Sudden Birth (ESB) of two Heisenberg spins A and B. The third controller, qutrit C is introduced, which only has the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin-orbit interaction with qubit B. We find that the DM interaction is necessary to induce the Entanglement Sudden Birth of the system qubits A and B, and the initial states of the system qubits and the qutrit C are also important to control its Entanglement Sudden Birth. (authors)
Entanglement in a Dimerized Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Chain
Hao, Xiang; Zhu, Shiqun
2008-01-01
The entanglement properties in an antiferromagnetic dimerized Heisenberg spin-1/2 chain are investigated. The entanglement gap, which is the difference between the ground-state energy and the minimal energy that any separable state can attain, is calculated to detect the entanglement. It is found that the entanglement gap can be increased by varying the alternation parameter. Through thermal energy, the witness of the entanglement can determine a characteristic temperature below that an entan...
Heisenberg spin glass experiments and the chiral ordering scenario
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campbell, Ian A.; Petit, Dorothee C.M.C.
2010-01-01
An overview is given of experimental data on Heisenberg spin glass materials so as to make detailed comparisons with numerical results on model Heisenberg spin glasses, with particular reference to the chiral driven ordering transition scenario due to Kawamura and collaborators. On weak anisotropy systems, experiments show critical exponents which are very similar to those estimated numerically for the model Heisenberg chiral ordering transition but which are quite different from those at Ising spin glass transitions. Again on weak anisotropy Heisenberg spin glasses, experimental torque data show well defined in-field transverse ordering transitions up to strong applied fields, in contrast to Ising spin glasses where fields destroy ordering. When samples with stronger anisotropies are studied, critical and in-field behavior tend progressively towards the Ising limit. It can be concluded that the essential physics of laboratory Heisenberg spin glasses mirrors that of model Heisenberg spin glasses, where chiral ordering has been demonstrated numerically. (author)
Criticality of the D=2 anisotropic quantum Heisenberg model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caride, A.O.; Tsallis, C.; Zanette, S.I.
1983-01-01
Within a real space renormalization group framework, the square-lattice spin-1/2 Heisenberg ferromagnet in the presence of an Ising-like anisotropy is discussed. The controversial point on how T sub(c) vanishes in the isotropic Heisenberg limit is analyzed: quite strong evidence is presented favoring a continuous function of anisotropy. The crossover from the isotropic Heisenberg model to the pure Ising one is exhibited. (Author) [pt
Barrier functions for Pucci-Heisenberg operators and applications
Cutri , Alessandra; Tchou , Nicoletta
2007-01-01
International audience; The aim of this article is the explicit construction of some barrier functions ("fundamental solutions") for the Pucci-Heisenberg operators. Using these functions we obtain the continuity property, up to the boundary, for the viscosity solution of fully non-linear Dirichlet problems on the Heisenberg group, if the boundary of the domain satisfies some regularity geometrical assumptions (e.g. an exterior Heisenberg-ball condition at the characteristic points). We point ...
Spin nematic and orthogonal nematic states in S=1 non-Heisenberg magnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fridman, Yu.A.; Kosmachev, O.A.; Klevets, Ph.N.
2013-01-01
Phases of S=1 non-Heisenberg magnet at various relationships between the exchange integrals are studied in the mean-field limit at zero temperature. It is shown that four phases can be realized in the system under consideration: the ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, nematic, and the orthogonal nematic states. The phase diagram is constructed. It is shown that the phase transitions between the ferromagnetic phase and the orthogonal nematic phase and between the antiferromagnetic phase and the orthogonal nematic phase are the degenerated first-order transitions. For the first time the spectra of elementary excitations in all phases are obtained within the mean-field limit. - Highlights: ► We investigated phases of S=1 non-Heisenberg magnet. ► Found four phases: ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, nematic, and orthogonal nematic. ► The phase diagram is determined. ► The spectra of elementary excitations are obtained in all phases for the first time.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fridman, Yu.A.; Klevets, Ph.N.; Kozhemyako, O.V.
2003-01-01
Influence of magnetoelastic (ME) interaction on the phase transitions in two-dimensional non-Heisenberg ferromagnets is investigated. It is shown that if the constant of Heisenberg exchange interaction is large, the ferromagnetic phase is implemented in a system. When the value of biquadratic exchange interaction increases there is a phase transition to the quadrupolar phase characterized by the tensor order parameters. Thus, ME interaction plays an essential role, not only stabilizing the long-range magnetic order in the system, but also determining the order of the phase transition
Heisenberg's heirs exploit loopholes in his law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taubes, G.
1994-01-01
This article describes research into Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle. Loopholes in the principle have led to a series of experiments using sophisticated optical techniques to extract information from a quantum system without disturbing the variable being measured. The experiments are based on a technique called back-action evasion, which exploits the possibility of channeling all the uncertainty generated by measuring one quantum variable (e.g. laser beam intensity) onto a related variable known as the conjugate observable (beam phase). These experiments and others are described
Heisenberg and the German atomic project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hermann, A.
1988-01-01
The discovery of nuclear fusion 50 years ago, man's entry into the new atomic age, occurred in a fateful era, marked by the Munich Agreement shortly before and the outbreak of World War II shortly afterwards. Werner Heisenberg, Germany's Number One Physicist, was, on the one hand, respected as a competent and 'useful' theoretician, but on the other, was reviled as a 'white Jew, the spirit of Einstein's spirit'. He plays a key role in answering the question of whether research at that time could have resulted in a German atomic bomb. (orig.) [de
Heisenberg Model in a Rotating Magnetic Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIN Qiong-Gui
2005-01-01
We study the Heisenberg model under the influence of a rotating magnetic field. By using a time-dependent unitary transformation, the time evolution operator for the Schrodinger equation is obtained, which involves no chronological product. The spin vectors (mean values of the spin operators) are obtained as explicit functions of time in the most general case. A series of cyclic solutions are presented. The nonadiabatic geometric phases of these cyclic solutions are calculated, and are expressed in terms of the solid angle subtended by the closed trace of the total spin vector, as well as in terms of those of the individual spins.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murtazaev, A.K.; Ramazanov, M.K.; Badiev, M.K.
2009-01-01
The critical properties of the 3D frustrated antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on a triangular lattice are investigated by the replica Monte Carlo method. The static magnetic and chiral critical exponents of heat capacity a = 0.05(2), magnetization Β 0.30(1), Β k = 0.52(2), susceptibility Γ = 1.36(2), Γ k = 0.93(3), and correlation radius Ν 0.64(1), Ν k = 0.64(2) are calculated by using the finitesize scaling theory. The critical Fisher exponents η = - 0.06(3), η k = 0.63(4) for this model are estimated for the first time. A new universality class of the critical behavior is shown to be formed by the 3D frustrated Heisenberg model on the triangular lattice. A type of the interlayer exchange interaction is found to influence the universality class of antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the a triangular lattice.
Comments on 'On a proposed new test of Heisenberg's principle'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Home, D.; Sengupta, S.
1981-01-01
A logical fallacy is pointed out in Robinson's analysis (J. Phys. A.; 13:877 (1980)) of a thought experiment purporting to show violation of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The real problem concerning the interpretation of Heisenberg's principle is precisely stated. (author)
Extended Heisenberg principle: Tentative analysis of its applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golbbiewski, A.; Witko, M.
1988-01-01
The paper examines the extension of the Heisenberg principle for a larger number of simultaneously discussed observables. The possibilities of the extended Heisenberg principle are discussed for evaluation of the average value of the square of the selected operator and for evaluation of the standard deviation of the selected operator
Werner Heisenberg, 5 December 1901 - 1 February 1976
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mott, N.; Peierls, R.
1977-01-01
An account is given of the life and work of Werner Heisenberg, with particular reference to his contribution to quantum mechanics and the formulation of the uncertainty principle. The development of atomic energy in Germany during the war is described, and the part played by Heisenberg in German post-war science. (U.K.)
Science 101: What, Exactly, Is the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle?
Robertson, Bill
2016-01-01
Bill Robertson is the author of the NSTA Press book series, "Stop Faking It! Finally Understanding Science So You Can Teach It." In this month's issue, Robertson describes and explains the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle was discussed on "The Big Bang Theory," the lead character in…
Diamond detector technology: status and perspectives
Kagan, Harris; Artuso, M; Bachmair, F; Bäni, L; Bartosik, M; Beacham, J; Beck, H P; Bellini,, V; Belyaev, V; Bentele, B; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bes, A; Brom, J-M; Bruzzi, M; Cerv, M; Chiodini, G; Chren, D; Cindro, V; Claus, G; Collot, J; Cumalat, J; Dabrowski, A; D'Alessandro, R; De Boer, W; Dehning, B; Dorfer, C; Dunser, M; Eremin, V; Eusebi, R; Forcolin, G; Forneris, J; Frais-Kölbl, H; Gan, K K; Gastal, M; Giroletti, C; Goffe, M; Goldstein, J; Golubev, A; Gorišek, A; Grigoriev, E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Grummer, A; Gui, B; Guthoff, M; Haughton, I; Hiti, B; Hits, D; Hoeferkamp, M; Hofmann, T; Hosslet, J; Hostachy, J-Y; Hügging, F; Hutton, C; Jansen, H; Janssen, J; Kanxheri, K; Kasieczka, G; Kass, R; Kassel, F; Kis, M; Kramberger, G; Kuleshov, S; Lacoste, A; Lagomarsino, S; Lo Giudice, A; Lukosi, E; Maazouzi, C; Mandic, I; Mathieu, C; Mcfadden, N; Menichelli, M; Mikuž, M; Morozzi, A; Moss, J; Mountain, R; Murphy, S; Muškinja, M; Oh, A; Oliviero, P; Passeri, D; Pernegger, H; Perrino, R; Picollo, F; Pomorski, M; Potenza, R; Quadt, A; Re, A; Reichmann, M; Riley, G; Roe, S; Sanz, D; Scaringella, M; Schaefer, D; Schmidt, C J; Schnetzer, S; Schreiner, T; Sciortino, S; Scorzoni, A; Seidel, S; Servoli, L; Sopko, B; Sopko, V; Spagnolo, S; Spanier, S; Stenson, K; Stone, R; Sutera, C; Taylor, Aaron; Traeger, M; Tromson, D; Trischuk, W; Tuve, C; Uplegger, L; Velthuis, J; Venturi, N; Vittone, E; Wagner, Stephen; Wallny, R; Wang, J C; Weingarten, J; Weiss, C; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Yamouni, M; Zavrtanik, M
2017-01-01
The status of material development of poly-crystalline chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond is presented. We also present beam test results on the independence of signal size on incident par-ticle rate in charged particle detectors based on un-irradiated and irradiated poly-crystalline CVD diamond over a range of particle fluxes from 2 kHz/cm2 to 10 MHz/cm2. The pulse height of the sensors was measured with readout electronics with a peaking time of 6 ns. In addition the first beam test results from 3D detectors made with poly-crystalline CVD diamond are presented. Finally the first analysis of LHC data from the ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM) which is based on pixelated poly-crystalline CVD diamond sensors bump-bonded to pixel readout elec-tronics is shown.
Diamond Growth in the Subduction Factory
Bureau, H.; Frost, D. J.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Leroy, C.; Estève, I.
2014-12-01
Natural diamonds are fabulous probes of the deep Earth Interior. They are the evidence of the deep storage of volatile elements, carbon at first, but also hydrogen and chlorine trapped as hydrous fluids in inclusions. The study of diamond growth processes in the lithosphere and mantle helps for our understanding of volatile elements cycling between deep reservoirs. We know now that inclusion-bearing diamonds similar to diamonds found in nature (i.e. polycrystalline, fibrous and coated diamonds) can grow in hydrous fluids or melts (Bureau et al., GCA 77, 202-214, 2012). Therefore, we propose that the best environment to promote such diamonds is the subduction factory, where highly hydrous fluids or melts are present. When oceanic plates are subducted in the lithosphere, they carry an oceanic crust soaked with seawater. While the slabs are traveling en route to the mantle, dehydration processes generate saline fluids highly concentrated in NaCl. In the present study we have experimentally shown that diamonds can grow from the saline fluids (up to 30 g/l NaCl in water) generated in subducted slabs. We have performed multi-anvil press experiments at 6-7 GPa and from 1300 to 1400°C during 6:00 hours to 30:00 hours. We observed large areas of new diamond grown in epitaxy on pure diamond seeds in salty hydrous carbonated melts, forming coated gems. The new rims are containing multi-component primary inclusions. Detailed characterizations of the diamonds and their inclusions have been performed and will be presented. These experimental results suggest that multi-component salty fluids of supercritical nature migrate with the slabs, down to the deep mantle. Such fluids may insure the first stage of the deep Earth's volatiles cycling (C, H, halogen elements) en route to the transition zone and the lower mantle. We suggest that the subduction factory may also be a diamond factory.
Unceratainty of Heisenberg in Universe Destruction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sri Jumini
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The Qur'an is a guidence which explaines all about the universe to human being. The discovery of science has been able to explain the truth of the Qur'an scientifically. One of which is the principle of Heisenberg's uncertainty in the event of the universe destruction. The purpose of this research is to know: 1 Science's view of the event of the universe destruction (Big Crunch in Qur’an [Al Infithaar]: 1-3, and How the relation of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principles and the law of thermodynamics II toward the collapse of the universe (Big Crunch based on Scientific views and the Quran. This research is a qualitative research using library research method which analyzes the related books directly or indirectly. The results of the analysis stated that: 1 The concentration of mass, which is big enough, relates to some of the laws of physics, those are: Relativity, Heisenberg's uncertainty principles, and the law of Thermodynamic II; 2 The universe will return at its sole point, i.e; the absence of the universe; 3 The destruction of the universe is the destruction of the order of the universe which then the stars fall scatteredly because of the gravitational force that prevents them disappears, the balance of the universe diminishes, decreases and becomes uncertain, and eventually disappears.
Heisenberg and the framework of science policy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carson, C.
2002-01-01
In the decades after 1945, new structures were created for science policy in the Federal Republic. To the establishment of the postwar framework Heisenberg contributed as much as any other figure. This was true even though, on the whole, he took no great pleasure in the venture, nor was he always particularly adept at it. His conceptions revolved around certain key notions: autonomy and centralization, elite advisory bodies and relationships of trust, modernization and international standards. These show up at many levels of his activity, from the Max Planck Society to national and international advisory committees to the Humboldt Foundation itself. His opinions were shaped by encounters in the Federal Republic, but they also grew out of his experience of the Third Reich. At a moment like the present, when the postwar settlement is under review, it is interesting to reflect on the inherited system: on the extent to which it reflects the situation of the postwar decades and the intuitions of those who, like Heisenberg, created it. (orig.)
Quantum metrology subject to spatially correlated Markovian noise: restoring the Heisenberg limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeske, Jan; Cole, Jared H; Huelga, Susana F
2014-01-01
Environmental noise can hinder the metrological capabilities of entangled states. While the use of entanglement allows for Heisenberg-limited resolution, the largest permitted by quantum mechanics, deviations from strictly unitary dynamics quickly restore the standard scaling dictated by the central limit theorem. Product and maximally entangled states become asymptotically equivalent when the noisy evolution is both local and strictly Markovian. However, temporal correlations in the noise have been shown to lift this equivalence while fully (spatially) correlated noise allows for the identification of decoherence-free subspaces. Here we analyze precision limits in the presence of noise with finite correlation length and show that there exist robust entangled state preparations which display persistent Heisenberg scaling despite the environmental decoherence, even for small correlation length. Our results emphasize the relevance of noise correlations in the study of quantum advantage and could be relevant beyond metrological applications. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alécio, Raphael C.; Lyra, Marcelo L.; Strečka, Jozef
2016-01-01
The ground-state phase diagram, magnetization process and bipartite entanglement of the frustrated spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg and Heisenberg triangular tube (three-leg ladder) are investigated in a non-zero external magnetic field. The exact ground-state phase diagram of the spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg tube with Heisenberg intra-rung and Ising inter-rung couplings consists of six distinct gapped phases, which manifest themselves in a magnetization curve as intermediate plateaus at zero, one-third and two-thirds of the saturation magnetization. Four out of six available ground states exhibit quantum entanglement between two spins from the same triangular unit evidenced by a non-zero concurrence. Density-matrix renormalization group calculations are used in order to construct the ground-state phase diagram of the analogous but purely quantum spin-1/2 Heisenberg tube with Heisenberg intra- and inter-rung couplings, which consists of four gapped and three gapless phases. The Heisenberg tube shows a continuous change of the magnetization instead of a plateau at zero magnetization, while the intermediate one-third and two-thirds plateaus may be present or not in the zero-temperature magnetization curve. - Highlights: • Ground-state properties of Ising-Heisenberg and full Heisenberg spin tubes are studied. • Phases with 1/3 and 2/3 magnetization plateaus are present in both models. • We unveil the region in the parameter space on which inter-rung quantum fluctuations are relevant. • The full Heisenberg tube exhibits quantum bipartite entanglement between intra- as well as inter-rung spins.
Semiquantitative theory for high-field low-temperature properties of a distorted diamond spin chain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Derzhko
2012-12-01
Full Text Available We consider the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on a distorted diamond chain and use the localized-magnon picture adapted to a distorted geometry to discuss some of its high-field low-temperature properties. More specifically, in our study we assume that the partition function for a slightly distorted geometry has the same form as for ideal geometry, though with slightly dispersive one-magnon energies. We also discuss the relevance of such a description to azurite.
Polarized Raman spectroscopy of chemically vapour deposited diamond films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; Weiser, P.S.
1994-01-01
Polarized micro-Raman spectra of chemically vapour deposited diamond films are presented. It is shown that important parameters often extracted from the Raman spectra such as the ratio of the diamond to non-diamond component of the films and the estimation of the level of residual stress depend on the orientation of the diamond crystallites with respect to the polarization of the incident laser beam. The dependence originates from the fact that the Raman scattering from the non-diamond components in the films is almost completely depolarized whilst the scattering from the diamond components is strongly polarized. The results demonstrate the importance of taking polarization into account when attempting to use Raman spectroscopy in even a semi-quantitative fashion for the assessment of the purity, perfection and stress in CVD diamond films. 8 refs., 1 tab. 2 figs
3-D quantum Heisenberg ferromagnet with random anisotropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos, R.M.Z. dos; Santos, Raimundo R. dos; Mariz, A.M.; Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal; Tsallis, C.
1985-01-01
Critical properties of the 3-D quantum Heisenberg ferromagnet with random anisotropies; that is, the coupling between any pair of nearest-neighbouring spins can be either isotropic (Heisenberg) or anisotropic (Ising-or XY-like) at random are studied. Within a Migdal-Kadanoff approximation the full critical frontier and correlation length critical exponents are obtained. It is found that the isotropic Heisenberg model is unstable (in the context of universality classes) in the presence of a small concentration of couplings with lower symmetry. (Author) [pt
Structure factors for the alternating Heisenberg chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamer, C.J.; Zheng, W.
2004-01-01
Full text: We develop a linked cluster method to calculate the spectral weights of many-particle excitations at zero temperature. The dynamical structure factor, which is measured in neutron scattering experiments, is expressed as a sum of 'exclusive' structure factors, each representing the contribution of a specific excited state. We apply these methods to the alternating Heisenberg chain, where complete wave-vector and frequency dependent spectral weights for one- and two-particle excitations (continuum and bound states) are calculated near the dimerized limit (λ = O). We also examine the variation of the spectral weights as the uniform chain (λ = 1) is approached. In agreement with Schmidt and Uhrig, we find that the spectral weight is dominated by 2-triplet states, even at λ 1, which implies that a description in terms of triplet-pair excitations remains a good quantitative description even for the uniform, undimerized chain
Dynamical properties of dissipative XYZ Heisenberg lattices
Rota, R.; Minganti, F.; Biella, A.; Ciuti, C.
2018-04-01
We study dynamical properties of dissipative XYZ Heisenberg lattices where anisotropic spin-spin coupling competes with local incoherent spin flip processes. In particular, we explore a region of the parameter space where dissipative magnetic phase transitions for the steady state have been recently predicted by mean-field theories and exact numerical methods. We investigate the asymptotic decay rate towards the steady state both in 1D (up to the thermodynamical limit) and in finite-size 2D lattices, showing that critical dynamics does not occur in 1D, but it can emerge in 2D. We also analyze the behavior of individual homodyne quantum trajectories, which reveal the nature of the transition.
Local quantum control of Heisenberg spin chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heule, Rahel; Bruder, C.; Stojanovic, Vladimir M.; Burgarth, Daniel
2010-01-01
Motivated by some recent results of quantum control theory, we discuss the feasibility of local operator control in arrays of interacting qubits modeled as isotropic Heisenberg spin chains. Acting on one of the end spins, we aim at finding piecewise-constant control pulses that lead to optimal fidelities for a chosen set of quantum gates. We analyze the robustness of the obtained results for the gate fidelities to random errors in the control fields, finding that with faster switching between piecewise-constant controls the system is less susceptible to these errors. The observed behavior falls into a generic class of physical phenomena that are related to a competition between resonance- and relaxation-type behavior, exemplified by motional narrowing in NMR experiments. Finally, we discuss how the obtained optimal gate fidelities are altered when the corresponding rapidly varying piecewise-constant control fields are smoothened through spectral filtering.
Quantum stability for the Heisenberg ferromagnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bargheer, Till; Beisert, Niklas; Gromov, Nikolay
2008-01-01
Highly spinning classical strings on RxS 3 are described by the Landau-Lifshitz model or equivalently by the Heisenberg ferromagnet in the thermodynamic limit. The spectrum of this model can be given in terms of spectral curves. However, it is a priori not clear whether any given admissible spectral curve can actually be realized as a solution to the discrete Bethe equations, a property which can be referred to as stability. In order to study the issue of stability, we find and explore the general two-cut solution or elliptic curve. It turns out that the moduli space of this elliptic curve shows a surprisingly rich structure. We present the various cases with illustrations and thus gain some insight into the features of multi-cut solutions. It appears that all admissible spectral curves are indeed stable if the branch cuts are positioned in a suitable, non-trivial fashion.
Linares, Robert; Doering, Patrick; Linares, Bryant
2009-01-01
The use of diamond for advanced applications has been the dream of mankind for centuries. Until recently this dream has been realized only in the use of diamond for gemstones and abrasive applications where tons of diamonds are used on an annual basis. Diamond is the material system of choice for many applications, but its use has historically been limited due to the small size, high cost, and inconsistent (and typically poor) quality of available diamond materials until recently. The recent development of high quality, single crystal diamond crystal growth via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process has allowed physcists and increasingly scientists in the life science area to think beyond these limitations and envision how diamond may be used in advanced applications ranging from quantum computing, to power generation and molecular imaging, and eventually even diamond nano-bots. Because of diamond's unique properties as a bio-compatible material, better understanding of diamond's quantum effects and a convergence of mass production, semiconductor-like fabrication process, diamond now promises a unique and powerful key to the realization of the bio-electronic devices being envisioned for the new era of medical science. The combination of robust in-the-body diamond based sensors, coupled with smart bio-functionalized diamond devices may lead to diamond being the platform of choice for bio-electronics. This generation of diamond based bio-electronic devices would contribute substantially to ushering in a paradigm shift for medical science, leading to vastly improved patient diagnosis, decrease of drug development costs and risks, and improved effectiveness of drug delivery and gene therapy programs through better timed and more customized solutions.
Diamond semiconducting devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polowczyk, M.; Klugmann, E.
1999-01-01
Many efforts to apply the semiconducting diamond for construction of electronic elements: resistors, thermistors, photoresistors, piezoresistors, hallotrons, pn diodes, Schottky diodes, IMPATT diodes, npn transistor, MESFETs and MISFETs are reviewed. Considering the possibilities of acceptor and donor doping, electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of diamond as well as high electric-field breakdown points, that diamond devices could be used at about 30-times higher frequency and more then 8200 times power than silicon devices. Except that, due to high heat resistant of diamond, it is concluded that diamond devices can be used in environment at high temperature, range of 600 o C. (author)
Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds
Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)
2014-01-01
Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.
Heisenberg vortex for light-weight refrigeration of liquid hydrogen
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Only 83 years ago Werner Karl Heisenberg was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics. His work led to the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has,...
Heisenberg's principle of uncertainty and the uncertainty relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Redei, Miklos
1987-01-01
The usual verbal form of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the usual mathematical formulation (the so-called uncertainty theorem) are not equivalent. The meaning of the concept 'uncertainty' is not unambiguous and different interpretations are used in the literature. Recently a renewed interest has appeared to reinterpret and reformulate the precise meaning of Heisenberg's principle and to find adequate mathematical form. The suggested new theorems are surveyed and critically analyzed. (D.Gy.) 20 refs
Impurity modes in the one-dimensional XXZ Heisenberg model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sousa, J.M.; Leite, R.V.; Landim, R.R.; Costa Filho, R.N.
2014-01-01
A Green's function formalism is used to calculate the energy of impurity modes associated with one and/or two magnetic impurities in the one-dimensional Heisenberg XXZ magnetic chain. The system can be tuned from the Heisenberg to the Ising model varying a parameter λ. A numerical study is performed showing two types of localized modes (s and p). The modes depend on λ and the degeneracy of the acoustic modes is broken.
First-Order Polynomial Heisenberg Algebras and Coherent States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castillo-Celeita, M; Fernández C, D J
2016-01-01
The polynomial Heisenberg algebras (PHA) are deformations of the Heisenberg- Weyl algebra characterizing the underlying symmetry of the supersymmetric partners of the Harmonic oscillator. When looking for the simplest system ruled by PHA, however, we end up with the harmonic oscillator. In this paper we are going to realize the first-order PHA through the harmonic oscillator. The associated coherent states will be also constructed, which turn out to be the well known even and odd coherent states. (paper)
Diamond detectors for high energy physics experiments
Bäni, L.; Alexopoulos, A.; Artuso, M.; Bachmair, F.; Bartosik, M.; Beacham, J.; Beck, H.; Bellini, V.; Belyaev, V.; Bentele, B.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bes, A.; Brom, J.-M.; Bruzzi, M.; Cerv, M.; Chiodini, G.; Chren, D.; Cindro, V.; Claus, G.; Collot, J.; Cumalat, J.; Dabrowski, A.; D'Alessandro, R.; Dauvergne, D.; de Boer, W.; Dorfer, C.; Dünser, M.; Eremin, V.; Eusebi, R.; Forcolin, G.; Forneris, J.; Frais-Kölbl, H.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Gallin-Martel, M. L.; Gan, K. K.; Gastal, M.; Giroletti, C.; Goffe, M.; Goldstein, J.; Golubev, A.; Gorišek, A.; Grigoriev, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grummer, A.; Gui, B.; Guthoff, M.; Haughton, I.; Hiti, B.; Hits, D.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Hofmann, T.; Hosslet, J.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hügging, F.; Hutton, C.; Jansen, H.; Janssen, J.; Kagan, H.; Kanxheri, K.; Kasieczka, G.; Kass, R.; Kassel, F.; Kis, M.; Konovalov, V.; Kramberger, G.; Kuleshov, S.; Lacoste, A.; Lagomarsino, S.; Lo Giudice, A.; Lukosi, E.; Maazouzi, C.; Mandic, I.; Mathieu, C.; Menichelli, M.; Mikuž, M.; Morozzi, A.; Moss, J.; Mountain, R.; Murphy, S.; Muškinja, M.; Oh, A.; Oliviero, P.; Passeri, D.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Picollo, F.; Pomorski, M.; Potenza, R.; Quadt, A.; Re, A.; Reichmann, M.; Riley, G.; Roe, S.; Sanz, D.; Scaringella, M.; Schaefer, D.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Scorzoni, A.; Seidel, S.; Servoli, L.; Smith, S.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanier, S.; Stenson, K.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Tannenwald, B.; Taylor, A.; Traeger, M.; Tromson, D.; Trischuk, W.; Tuve, C.; Uplegger, L.; Velthuis, J.; Venturi, N.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, S.; Wallny, R.; Wang, J. C.; Weingarten, J.; Weiss, C.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Yamouni, M.; Zavrtanik, M.
2018-01-01
Beam test results of the radiation tolerance study of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond against different particle species and energies is presented. We also present beam test results on the independence of signal size on incident particle rate in charged particle detectors based on un-irradiated and irradiated poly-crystalline CVD diamond over a range of particle fluxes from 2 kHz/cm2 to 10 MHz/cm2. The pulse height of the sensors was measured with readout electronics with a peaking time of 6 ns. In addition functionality of poly-crystalline CVD diamond 3D devices was demonstrated in beam tests and 3D diamond detectors are shown to be a promising technology for applications in future high luminosity experiments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myrheim, J.
1993-06-01
The thesis deals with the application of different methods to the quantization problem for system of identical particles in one and two dimensions. The standard method is the analytic quantization method due to Schroedinger, which leads to the concept of fractional statistics in one and two dimensions. Two-dimensional particles with fractional statistics are well known by the name of anyons. Two alternative quantization methods are shown by the author, the algebraic method of Heisenberg and the Feynman path integral method. The Feynman method is closely related to the Schroedinger method, whereas the Heisenberg and Schroedinger methods may give different results. The relation between the Heisenberg and Schroedinger methods is discussed. The Heisenberg method is applied to the equations of motion of vortices in superfluid helium, which have the form of Hamiltonian equations for a one-dimensional system. The same method is also discussed more generally for systems of identical particles in one and two dimensions. An application of the Feynman method to the problem of computing the equation of state for a gas of anyons is presented. 104 refs., 4 figs
Sumiya, H.; Hamaki, K.; Harano, K.
2018-05-01
Ultra-hard and high-strength spherical indenters with high precision and sphericity were successfully prepared from nanopolycrystalline diamond (NPD) synthesized by direct conversion sintering from graphite under high pressure and high temperature. It was shown that highly accurate and stable microfracture strength tests can be performed on various super-hard diamond materials by using the NPD spherical indenters. It was also verified that this technique enables quantitative evaluation of the strength characteristics of single crystal diamonds and NPDs which have been quite difficult to evaluate.
Excitation spectrum of Heisenberg spin ladders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, T.; Dagotto, E.; Riera, J.; Swanson, E.S.
1993-01-01
Heisenberg antiferromagnetic spin ''ladders'' (two coupled spin chains) are low-dimensional magnetic systems which for S=1/2 interpolate between half-integer-spin chains, when the chains are decoupled, and effective integer-spin one-dimensional chains in the strong-coupling limit. The spin-1/2 ladder may be realized in nature by vanadyl pyrophosphate, (VO) 2 P 2 O 7 . In this paper we apply strong-coupling perturbation theory, spin-wave theory, Lanczos techniques, and a Monte Carlo method to determine the ground-state energy and the low-lying excitation spectrum of the ladder. We find evidence of a nonzero spin gap for all interchain couplings J perpendicular >0. A band of spin-triplet excitations above the gap is also analyzed. These excitations are unusual for an antiferromagnet, since their long-wavelength dispersion relation behaves as (k-k 0 ) 2 (in the strong-coupling limit J perpendicular much-gt J, where J is the in-chain antiferromagnetic coupling). Their band is folded, with a minimum energy at k 0 =π, and a maximum between k 1 =π/2 (for J perpendicular =0) and 0 (for J perpendicular =∞). We also give numerical results for the dynamical structure factor S(q,ω), which can be determined in neutron scattering experiments. Finally, possible experimental techniques for studying the excitation spectrum are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansen, J.O.; Blondeel, E.J.G.; Taylor, G.T.
1991-01-01
Diamond particles are distinguished from non-diamond, associated particles on the basis of their higher refractive index. The particles are brought to a specific location, typically in a stream of water flowing full in a vertical duct, and a beam of collimated electromagnetic radiation is directed at them. An array of radiation detectors is provided to detect refracted and/or reflected radiation. The array is so configured that the responses of the detectors, considered collectively, will be indicative of the presence of a diamond when a diamond is in fact present. However, when a particle having a substantially lower refractive index is present, the responses of the detectors will not be so indicative. The diamond and non-diamond particles can subsequently be sorted from one another
Motion of a magnetic soliton about a lattice soliton in a Heisenberg chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nayyar, A.H.; Murtaza, G.
1981-08-01
As an example of interaction between two solitons belonging to different species, a semiclassical study of the nonlinear dynamics of a coupled magnon-phonon system in a one-dimensional Heisenberg ferromagnet is made, where both the lattice and the spin systems are taken with their respective nonlinear interactions. The lattice soliton is shown to introduce spatial inhomogeneities into the propagation of the magnetic soliton resulting in (a) the trapping of the magnetic soliton in the harmonic field of the lattice soliton and (b) the amplitude and the width of the magnetic soliton becoming time-dependent. (author)
Monte Carlo study of four-spinon dynamic structure function in antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Si-Lakhal, B.; Abada, A.
2003-11-01
Using Monte Carlo integration methods, we describe the behavior of the exact four-s pinon dynamic structure function S 4 in the antiferromagnetic spin 1/2 Heisenberg quantum spin chain as a function of the neutron energy ω and momentum transfer k. We also determine the fourspinon continuum, the extent of the region in the (k, ω) plane outside which S 4 is identically zero. In each case, the behavior of S 4 is shown to be consistent with the four-spinon continuum and compared to the one of the exact two-spinon dynamic structure function S 2 . Overall shape similarity is noted. (author)
Diamond-cleaning investigations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Derry, T.E.
Four parcels of diamonds which either had or had not been cleaned using the usual techniques, chiefly involving etch in molten potassium nitrate were supplied by De Beers Diamond Research Laboratories. Each parcel contained about 40 stones, amounting to about 10 carats. Half the diamonds in each parcel were cleaned by a standard procedure involving half an hours ultrasonic agitation in a 20% solution of the commercial detergent 'Contrad' which is effectively a surfactant and chelating agent. Visual comparisons by a number of observers who were not told the stones' histories, established that these diamonds generally had a more sparkling appearance after the cleaning procedure had been applied
Optical engineering of diamond
Rabeau, James R
2013-01-01
This is the first comprehensive book on the engineering of diamond optical devices. It will give readers an up-to-date account of the properties of optical quality synthetic diamond (single crystal, nanodiamond and polycrystalline) and reviews the large and growing field of engineering of diamond-based optical devices, with applications in quantum computation, nano-imaging, high performance lasers, and biomedicine. It aims to provide scientists, engineers and physicists with a valuable resource and reference book for the design and performance of diamond-based optical devices.
Rojas, M.; de Souza, S. M.; Rojas, Onofre
2017-02-01
The quantum teleportation plays an important role in quantum information process, in this sense, the quantum entanglement properties involving an infinite chain structure is quite remarkable because real materials could be well represented by an infinite chain. We study the teleportation of an entangled state through a couple of quantum channels, composed by Heisenberg dimers in an infinite Ising-Heisenberg diamond chain, the couple of chains are considered sufficiently far away from each other to be ignored the any interaction between them. To teleporting a couple of qubits through the quantum channel, we need to find the average density operator for Heisenberg spin dimers, which will be used as quantum channels. Assuming the input state as a pure state, we can apply the concept of fidelity as a useful measurement of teleportation performance of a quantum channel. Using the standard teleportation protocol, we have derived an analytical expression for the output concurrence, fidelity, and average fidelity. We study in detail the effects of coupling parameters, external magnetic field and temperature dependence of quantum teleportation. Finally, we explore the relations between entanglement of the quantum channel, the output entanglement and the average fidelity of the system. Through a kind of phase diagram as a function of Ising-Heisenberg diamond chain model parameters, we illustrate where the quantum teleportation will succeed and a region where the quantum teleportation could fail.
Heisenberg lecture: Supersymmetry in the spectra of atomic nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graw, Gerhard
2003-01-01
Talk given at the Symposium: 'Werner Heisenberg und die Wissenschaft, das Denken und die Kunst', Alexander von Humboldt Club, Bucharest, October 16 - 17, 2001, Goethe-Institut, Bucharest, Romania. This Symposium of the Humboldt Club in Bucharest was dedicated to the work of Werner Heisenberg. With the occasion of the hundredth anniversary of his birthday the aim was to recall the impact of Heisenberg's work not only on physics and related fields but also on philosophy and on our present understanding of science. Werner Heisenberg discovered and formulated the laws of quantum physics, the concepts and the tools one uses at present. These discoveries resulted from his ambitious goal to reveal the fundamental laws of physics and to understand these laws within the logical and structural aspects they imply for the understanding of nature and of thinking. In this way he was aware of the potential of this fundamental new approach and applied the concept of quantum phenomena to physics, chemistry, biology, and to logical-philosophical questions. Being invited here as first speaker of this Symposium the author considered as appropriate, first to recall a few dates out of his vita and essentials of his work, and then to address to a timely subject, which is, hopefully, related to the work of Werner Heisenberg. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strečka, Jozef; Alécio, Raphael Cavalcante; Lyra, Marcelo L.; Rojas, Onofre
2016-01-01
The spin-1/2 Ising–Heisenberg three-leg tube composed of the Heisenberg spin triangles mutually coupled through the Ising inter-triangle interaction is exactly solved in a zero magnetic field. By making use of the local conservation for the total spin on each Heisenberg spin triangle the model can be rigorously mapped onto a classical composite spin-chain model, which is subsequently exactly treated through the transfer-matrix method. The ground-state phase diagram, correlation functions, concurrence, Bell function, entropy and specific heat are examined in detail. It is shown that the spin frustration represents an indispensable ground for a thermal entanglement, which is quantified by the quantum concurrence. The specific heat displays diverse temperature dependences, which may include a sharp low-temperature peak mimicking a temperature-driven first-order phase transition. It is convincingly evidenced that this anomalous peak originates from massive thermal excitations from the doubly degenerate ground state towards an excited state with a high macroscopic degeneracy due to chiral degrees of freedom of the Heisenberg spin triangles. - Highlights: • Spin-1/2 Ising–Heisenberg three-leg tube is exactly solved in a zero magnetic field. • Thermal entanglement is only present in a frustrated part of the parameter space. • Spin frustration and thermal entanglement show antagonistic reentrance. • Specific heat may display a sharp narrow peak due to massive thermal excitations.
Momentum conservation decides Heisenberg's interpretation of the uncertainty formulas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angelidis, T.D.
1977-01-01
In the light of Heisenberg's interpretation of the uncertainty formulas, the conditions necessary for the derivation of the quantitative statement or law of momentum conservation are considered. The result of such considerations is a contradiction between the formalism of quantum physics and the asserted consequences of Heisenberg's interpretation. This contradiction decides against Heisenberg's interpretation of the uncertainty formulas on upholding that the formalism of quantum physics is both consistent and complete, at least insofar as the statement of momentum conservation can be proved within this formalism. A few comments are also included on Bohr's complementarity interpretation of the formalism of quantum physics. A suggestion, based on a statistical mode of empirical testing of the uncertainty formulas, does not give rise to any such contradiction
Heisenberg's uncertainty relation: Violation and reformulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ozawa, Masanao
2014-01-01
The uncertainty relation formulated by Heisenberg in 1927 describes a trade-off between the error of a measurement of one observable and the disturbance caused on another complementary observable so that their product should be no less than a limit set by Planck's constant. In 1980, Braginsky, Vorontsov, and Thorne claimed that this relation leads to a sensitivity limit for gravitational wave detectors. However, in 1988 a model of position measurement was constructed that breaks both this limit and Heisenberg's relation. Here, we discuss the problems as to how we reformulate Heisenberg's relation to be universally valid and how we experimentally quantify the error and the disturbance to refute the old relation and to confirm the new relation.
Quantum Fourier transform, Heisenberg groups and quasi-probability distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patra, Manas K; Braunstein, Samuel L
2011-01-01
This paper aims to explore the inherent connection between Heisenberg groups, quantum Fourier transform (QFT) and (quasi-probability) distribution functions. Distribution functions for continuous and finite quantum systems are examined from three perspectives and all of them lead to Weyl-Gabor-Heisenberg groups. The QFT appears as the intertwining operator of two equivalent representations arising out of an automorphism of the group. Distribution functions correspond to certain distinguished sets in the group algebra. The marginal properties of a particular class of distribution functions (Wigner distributions) arise from a class of automorphisms of the group algebra of the Heisenberg group. We then study the reconstruction of the Wigner function from the marginal distributions via inverse Radon transform giving explicit formulae. We consider some applications of our approach to quantum information processing and quantum process tomography.
Heisenberg in the atomic age science and the public sphere
Carson, Cathryn
2010-01-01
The end of the Second World War opened a new era for science in public life. Heisenberg in the Atomic Age explores the transformations of science's public presence in the postwar Federal Republic of Germany. It shows how Heisenberg's philosophical commentaries, circulating in the mass media, secured his role as science's public philosopher, and it reflects on his policy engagements and public political stands, which helped redefine the relationship between science and the state. With deep archival grounding, the book tracks Heisenberg's interactions with intellectuals from Heidegger to Habermas and political leaders from Adenauer to Brandt. It also traces his evolving statements about his wartime research on nuclear fission for the National Socialist regime. Working between the history of science and German history, the book's central theme is the place of scientific rationality in public life - after the atomic bomb, in the wake of the Third Reich.
Diamond Nucleation Using Polyethene
Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Makarov, Vladimir (Inventor); Varshney, Deepak (Inventor); Weiner, Brad (Inventor)
2013-01-01
The invention presents a simple, non-destructive and non-abrasive method of diamond nucleation using polyethene. It particularly describes the nucleation of diamond on an electrically viable substrate surface using polyethene via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique in a gaseous environment.
Diamond films: Historical perspective
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Messier, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)
1993-01-01
This section is a compilation of notes and published international articles about the development of methods of depositing diamond films. Vapor deposition articles are included from American, Russian, and Japanese publications. The international competition to develop new deposition methodologies is stressed. The current status of chemical vapor deposition of diamond is assessed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.
2001-01-01
Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L. E-mail: perera@physics.rutgers.edu; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M
2001-06-01
Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles.
Renneboog, Luc
2015-01-01
This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual nominal USD
Teleportation via thermally entangled states of a two-qubit Heisenberg XXZ chain
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIN Meng; TAO Ying-Juan; TIAN Dong-Ping
2008-01-01
We investigate quantum teleportation as a tool to study the thermally entangled state of a twoqubit Heisenberg XXZ chain.Our work is mainly to investigate the characteristics of a Heisenberg XXZ chain and get some analytical results of the fully entangled fraction.We also consider the entanglement teleportation via a two-qubit Heisenberg XXZ chain.
Integrable higher order deformations of Heisenberg supermagnetic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Jiafeng; Yan Zhaowen; Wang Shikun; Wu Ke; Zhao Weizhong
2009-01-01
The Heisenberg supermagnet model is an integrable supersymmetric system and has a close relationship with the strong electron correlated Hubbard model. In this paper, we investigate the integrable higher order deformations of Heisenberg supermagnet models with two different constraints: (i) S 2 =3S-2I for S is an element of USPL(2/1)/S(U(2)xU(1)) and (ii) S 2 =S for S is an element of USPL(2/1)/S(L(1/1)xU(1)). In terms of the gauge transformation, their corresponding gauge equivalent counterparts are derived.
Quasi-Linear Algebras and Integrability (the Heisenberg Picture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexei Zhedanov
2008-02-01
Full Text Available We study Poisson and operator algebras with the ''quasi-linear property'' from the Heisenberg picture point of view. This means that there exists a set of one-parameter groups yielding an explicit expression of dynamical variables (operators as functions of ''time'' t. We show that many algebras with nonlinear commutation relations such as the Askey-Wilson, q-Dolan-Grady and others satisfy this property. This provides one more (explicit Heisenberg evolution interpretation of the corresponding integrable systems.
The Finite Heisenberg-Weyl Groups in Radar and Communications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Calderbank AR
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the theory of the finite Heisenberg-Weyl group in relation to the development of adaptive radar and to the construction of spreading sequences and error-correcting codes in communications. We contend that this group can form the basis for the representation of the radar environment in terms of operators on the space of waveforms. We also demonstrate, following recent developments in the theory of error-correcting codes, that the finite Heisenberg-Weyl groups provide a unified basis for the construction of useful waveforms/sequences for radar, communications, and the theory of error-correcting codes.
Novel diamond-coated tools for dental drilling applications.
Jackson, M J; Sein, H; Ahmed, W; Woodwards, R
2007-01-01
The application of diamond coatings on cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) tools has been the subject of much attention in recent years in order to improve cutting performance and tool life in orthodontic applications. WC-Co tools containing 6% Co metal and 94% WC substrate with an average grain size of 1 - 3 microm were used in this study. In order to improve the adhesion between diamond and WC substrates it is necessary to etch cobalt from the surface and prepare it for subsequent diamond growth. Alternatively, a titanium nitride (TiN) interlayer can be used prior to diamond deposition. Hot filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) with a modified vertical filament arrangement has been employed for the deposition of diamond films to TiN and etched WC substrates. Diamond film quality and purity has been characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro Raman spectroscopy. The performances of diamond-coated WC-Co tools, uncoated WC-Co tools, and diamond embedded (sintered) tools have been compared by drilling a series of holes into various materials such as human tooth, borosilicate glass, and acrylic tooth materials. Flank wear has been used to assess the wear rates of the tools when machining biomedical materials such as those described above. It is shown that using an interlayer such as TiN prior to diamond deposition provides the best surface preparation for producing dental tools.
Critical behavior of the anisotropic Heisenberg model by effective-field renormalization group
de Sousa, J. Ricardo; Fittipaldi, I. P.
1994-05-01
A real-space effective-field renormalization-group method (ERFG) recently derived for computing critical properties of Ising spins is extended to treat the quantum spin-1/2 anisotropic Heisenberg model. The formalism is based on a generalized but approximate Callen-Suzuki spin relation and utilizes a convenient differential operator expansion technique. The method is illustrated in several lattice structures by employing its simplest approximation version in which clusters with one (N'=1) and two (N=2) spins are used. The results are compared with those obtained from the standard mean-field (MFRG) and Migdal-Kadanoff (MKRG) renormalization-group treatments and it is shown that this technique leads to rather accurate results. It is shown that, in contrast with the MFRG and MKRG predictions, the EFRG, besides correctly distinguishing the geometries of different lattice structures, also provides a vanishing critical temperature for all two-dimensional lattices in the isotropic Heisenberg limit. For the simple cubic lattice, the dependence of the transition temperature Tc with the exchange anisotropy parameter Δ [i.e., Tc(Δ)], and the resulting value for the critical thermal crossover exponent φ [i.e., Tc≂Tc(0)+AΔ1/φ ] are in quite good agreement with results available in the literature in which more sophisticated treatments are used.
On the continuum limit of a classical compressible Heisenberg chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fivez, J.
1982-01-01
The equations of motion are derived for the classical compressible Heisenberg chain in the continuum limit to lowest non-trivial order in the derivatives. It is possible to eliminate the translations from the equation for the spins. The resulting equation does not admit of simple magnetic solitary wave solutions, in contradiction to the results of other authors. (author)
The Bohr-Heisenberg correspondence principle viewed from phase space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahl, Jens Peder
2002-01-01
Phase-space representations play an increasingly important role in several branches of physics. Here, we review the author's studies of the Bohr-Heisenberg correspondence principle within the Weyl-Wigner phase-space representation. The analysis leads to refined correspondence rules that can...
On the Clebsch-Gordan series for some Heisenberg groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raszillier, H.
1984-11-01
We suggest the use of the Stone-von Neumann theorem for a simple insight into the Clebsch-Gordan series of the Heisenberg groups of quantum mechanics, constructed over the abelian groups Rsup(n) and Fsub(p)sup(n). (orig.)
Finite Heisenberg groups and Seiberg dualities in quiver gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burrington, Benjamin A.; Liu, James T.; Mahato, Manavendra; Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A.
2006-01-01
A large class of quiver gauge theories admits the action of finite Heisenberg groups of the form Heis(Z q xZ q ). This Heisenberg group is generated by a manifest Z q shift symmetry acting on the quiver along with a second Z q rephasing (clock) generator acting on the links of the quiver. Under Seiberg duality, however, the action of the shift generator is no longer manifest, as the dualized node has a different structure from before. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that the Z q shift generator acts naturally on the space of all Seiberg dual phases of a given quiver. We then prove that the space of Seiberg dual theories inherits the action of the original finite Heisenberg group, where now the shift generator Z q is a map among fields belonging to different Seiberg phases. As examples, we explicitly consider the action of the Heisenberg group on Seiberg phases for C 3 /Z 3 , Y 4,2 and Y 6,3 quivers
A Poisson type formula for Hardy classes on Heisenberg's group
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lopushansky O.V.
2010-06-01
Full Text Available The Hardy type class of complex functions with infinite many variables defined on the Schrodinger irreducible unitary orbit of reduced Heisenberg group, generated by the Gauss density, is investigated. A Poisson integral type formula for their analytic extensions on an open ball is established. Taylor coefficients for analytic extensions are described by the associatedsymmetric Fock space.
Spin Waves in a Classical Compressible Heisenberg Chain
Fivez, J.; Raedt, H. De
1980-01-01
The effect of the spin—lattice interaction on the spin dynamics of a classical Heisenberg chain is studied by means of a truncated continued fraction. At low temperature, the spin correlation length and the spin wave frequency show the same simple dependence on the coupling.
On the magnetism of Heisenberg double-layer antiferromagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uijen, C.M.J. van.
1980-01-01
The author investigates the sublattice magnetization and the susceptibility of the double-layer Heisenberg antiferromagnet K 3 M 2 F 7 by employing the techniques of elastic and quasi-elastic critical magnetic scattering of neutrons. (G.T.H.)
Generalized Heisenberg algebra and (non linear) pseudo-bosons
Bagarello, F.; Curado, E. M. F.; Gazeau, J. P.
2018-04-01
We propose a deformed version of the generalized Heisenberg algebra by using techniques borrowed from the theory of pseudo-bosons. In particular, this analysis is relevant when non self-adjoint Hamiltonians are needed to describe a given physical system. We also discuss relations with nonlinear pseudo-bosons. Several examples are discussed.
Low temperature spin wave dynamics in classical Heisenberg chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heller, P.; Blume, M.
1977-11-01
A detailed and quantitative study of the low-temperature spin-wave dynamics was made for the classical Heisenberg-coupled chain using computer simulation. Results for the spin-wave damping rates and the renormalization of the spin-wave frequencies are presented and compared with existing predictions
Resolvent kernel for the Kohn Laplacian on Heisenberg groups
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neur Eddine Askour
2002-07-01
Full Text Available We present a formula that relates the Kohn Laplacian on Heisenberg groups and the magnetic Laplacian. Then we obtain the resolvent kernel for the Kohn Laplacian and find its spectral density. We conclude by obtaining the Green kernel for fractional powers of the Kohn Laplacian.
Friction and wear properties of diamonds and diamond coatings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayward, I.P.
1991-01-01
The recent development of chemical vapor deposition techniques for diamond growth enables bearings to be designed which exploit diamond's low friction and extreme resistance to wear. However, currently produced diamond coatings differ from natural diamond surfaces in that they are polycrystalline and faceted, and often contain appreciable amounts of non-diamond material (i.e. graphitic or amorphous carbon). Roughness, in particular, influences the friction and wear properties; rough coatings severely abrade softer materials, and can even wear natural diamond sliders. Nevertheless, the best available coatings exhibit friction coefficients as low as those of natural diamond and are highly resistant to wear. This paper reviews the tribological properties of natural diamond, and compares them with those of chemical vapor deposited diamond coatings. Emphasis is placed on the roles played by roughness and material transfer in controlling frictional behavior. (orig.)
Crystal growth of CVD diamond and some of its peculiarities
Piekarczyk, W
1999-01-01
Experiments demonstrate that CVD diamond can form in gas environments that are carbon undersaturated with respect to diamond. This fact is, among others, the most serious violation of principles of chemical thermodynamics. In this $9 paper it is shown that none of the principles is broken when CVD diamond formation is considered not a physical process consisting in growth of crystals but a chemical process consisting in accretion of macro-molecules of polycyclic $9 saturated hydrocarbons belonging to the family of organic compounds the smallest representatives of which are adamantane, diamantane, triamantane and so forth. Since the polymantane macro-molecules are in every respect identical with $9 diamond single crystals with hydrogen-terminated surfaces, the accretion of polymantane macro- molecules is a process completely equivalent to the growth of diamond crystals. However, the accretion of macro-molecules must be $9 described in a way different from that used to describe the growth of crystals because so...
Tracking with CVD diamond radiation sensors at high luminosity colliders (1999-3.1507)
Schnetzer, S R; Bauer, C; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Da Graca, J; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Jamieson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Plano, R J; Polesello, P; Prawer, S; Pretzl, Klaus P; Procario, M; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Runólfsson, O; Russ, J; Sciortino, S; Somalwar, S V; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Thomson, G B; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M
1999-01-01
Recent progress on developing diamond-based sensors for vertex detection at high luminosity hadron colliders is described. Measurements of the performance of diamond sensors after irradiation to fluences of up to 5*10/sup 15/ hadrons/cm/sup 2/ are shown. These indicate that diamond sensors will operate at distances as close as 5 cm from the interaction point at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for many years at full luminosity without significant degradation in performance. Measurements of the quality of the signals from diamond sensors as well as spatial uniformity are presented. Test beam results on measurements of diamond-based microstrip and pixels devices are described.
Functionalized diamond nanoparticles
Beaujuge, Pierre M.; El Tall, Omar; Raja, Inam U.
2014-01-01
A diamond nanoparticle can be functionalized with a substituted dienophile under ambient conditions, and in the absence of catalysts or additional reagents. The functionalization is thought to proceed through an addition reaction.
Functionalized diamond nanoparticles
Beaujuge, Pierre M.
2014-10-21
A diamond nanoparticle can be functionalized with a substituted dienophile under ambient conditions, and in the absence of catalysts or additional reagents. The functionalization is thought to proceed through an addition reaction.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
1994-10-01
Oct 1, 1994 ... Science, Bangalore, the Diamond Jubilee Annual. Meeting will be held in ... "The fascination of statistics" .... on post Hartree-Fock methods, highly correlated systems ..... Gold Medal of the National Institute of Social. Sciences ...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Prawer, Steven
2007-01-01
The aim of this proposal is to demonstrate the key elements needed to construct a logical qubit in diamond by exploiting the remarkable quantum properties of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) optical centre...
The Design of Control Pulses for Heisenberg Always-On Qubit Models
Magyar, Rudolph
2015-03-01
One model for a universal quantum computer is a spin array with constant nearest neighbor interactions and a controlled unidirectional site-specific magnetic field to generate unitary transformations. This system can be described by a Heisenberg spin Hamiltonian and can be simulated for on the order of 50 spins. It has recently been shown that time-dependent density functional inspired methods may be used to relate various spin models of qubits to ones that may be easier to compute numerically allowing potentially the efficient simulation of greater numbers of spins. One of the challenges of such an agenda is the identification of control pulses that produce desired gate operations (CNOT and single qubit phase gates). We apply control theory to design a universal set of pulses for a Heisenberg always-on model Hamiltonian for a few qubits and compare to known pulses when available. We suggest how this approach may be useful to design control pulses in other realistic designs. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kosmachev, O. A.; Krivtsova, A. V.; Fridman, Yu. A., E-mail: yuriifridman@gmail.com [Vernadskii Crimea Federal University (Russian Federation)
2016-02-15
We study the effect of interionic anisotropy on the phase states of a non-Heisenberg ferromagnet with magnetic ion spin S = 1. It is shown that depending on the relation between the interionic anisotropy constants, uniaxial and angular ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic phases exist in the system. We analyze the dynamic properties of the system in the vicinity of orientational phase transitions, as well as a phase transition in the magnetic moment magnitude. It is shown that orientational phase transitions in ferromagnetic and nematic phases can be first- as well as second-order.
Matsumoto, Ryo; Yamashita, Aichi; Hara, Hiroshi; Irifune, Tetsuo; Adachi, Shintaro; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Yoshihiko
2018-05-01
Diamond anvil cells using boron-doped metallic diamond electrodes covered with undoped diamond insulating layers have been developed for electrical transport measurements under high pressure. These designed diamonds were grown on a bottom diamond anvil via a nanofabrication process combining microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition and electron beam lithography. The resistance measurements of a high-quality FeSe superconducting single crystal under high pressure were successfully demonstrated by just putting the sample and gasket on the bottom diamond anvil directly. The superconducting transition temperature of the FeSe single crystal was increased to up to 43 K by applying uniaxial-like pressure.
Diamond-like carbon coated ultracold neutron guides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heule, S.; Atchison, F.; Daum, M.; Foelske, A.; Henneck, R.; Kasprzak, M.; Kirch, K.; Knecht, A.; Kuzniak, M.; Lippert, T.; Meier, M.; Pichlmaier, A.; Straumann, U.
2007-01-01
It has been shown recently that diamond-like carbon (DLC) with a sp 3 fraction above 60% is a better wall coating material for ultracold neutron applications than beryllium. We report on results of Raman spectroscopic and XPS measurements obtained for diamond-like carbon coated neutron guides produced in a new facility, which is based on pulsed laser deposition at 193 nm. For diamond-like carbon coatings on small stainless steel substrates we find sp 3 fractions in the range from 60 to 70% and showing slightly increasing values with laser pulse energy and pulse repetition rate
Observation of diamond turned OFHC copper using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grigg, D.A.; Russell, P.E.; Dow, T.A.
1988-12-01
Diamond turned OFHC copper samples have been observed within the past few months using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope. Initial results have shown evidence of artifacts which may be used to better understand the diamond turning process. The STM`s high resolution capability and three dimensional data representation allows observation and study of surface features unobtainable with conventional profilometry systems. Also, the STM offers a better quantitative means by which to analyze surface structures than the SEM. This paper discusses findings on several diamond turned OFHC copper samples having different cutting conditions. Each sample has been cross referenced using STM and SEM.
Correlation functions of heisenberg-mattis model in one dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azeeem, W.
1991-01-01
The technique of real-space renormalization to the dynamics of Heisenberg-Mattis model, which represents a random magnetic system with competing ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions has been applied. The renormalization technique, which has been in use for calculating density of states, is extended to calculate dynamical response function from momentum energy dependent Green's functions. Our numerical results on density of states and structure function of one-dimensional Heisenberg-Mattis model come out to be in good agreement with computer simulation results. The numerical scheme worked out in this thesis has the advantage that it can also provide a complete map of momentum and energy dependence of the structure function. (author)
Critical properties of the Kitaev-Heisenberg Model
Sizyuk, Yuriy; Price, Craig; Perkins, Natalia
2013-03-01
Collective behavior of local moments in Mott insulators in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling is one of the most interesting questions in modern condensed matter physics. Here we study the finite temperature properties of the Kitaev-Heisenberg model which describe the interactions between the pseudospin J = 1 / 2 iridium moments on the honeycomb lattice. This model was suggested as a possible model to explain low-energy physics of AIr2O3 compounds. In our study we show that the Kitaev-Heisenberg model may be mapped into the six state clock model with an intermediate power-law phase at finite temperatures. In the framework of the Ginsburg-Landau theory, we provide an analysis of the critical properties of the finite-temperature ordering transitions. NSF grant DMR-1005932
Radiation emission as a virtually exact realization of Heisenbergs microscope
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andersen, K.K., E-mail: kka@phys.au.dk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Brock, S. [Department of Culture and Society, Aarhus University, Jens Chr. Skous Vej 5, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Esberg, J.; Thomsen, H.D.; Uggerhøj, U.I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)
2013-11-15
Through the concept of ‘formation length’, recently observed directly in the radiation emission from ultrarelativistic electrons and an essential component in the interpretation of strong field radiation from electrons penetrating single crystals, we discuss the indeterminacy in the location of radiation emission. The analogy with the indeterminacy in the Heisenberg microscope Gedanken experiment is demonstrated from a number of viewpoints to be almost exact. The positive attitude regarding photon emission as a process that is somehow located in space and time is emphasized. We therefore interpret the measurements of formation lengths in radiation emission as a practically realizable version – using virtual incident photons instead of real – of the Heisenberg microscope Gedanken experiment.
Type-I integrable quantum impurities in the Heisenberg model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doikou, Anastasia, E-mail: adoikou@upatras.gr
2013-12-21
Type-I quantum impurities are investigated in the context of the integrable Heisenberg model. This type of defects is associated to the (q)-harmonic oscillator algebra. The transmission matrices associated to this particular type of defects are computed via the Bethe ansatz methodology for the XXX model, as well as for the critical and non-critical XXZ spin chain. In the attractive regime of the critical XXZ spin chain the transmission amplitudes for the breathers are also identified.
Type-I integrable quantum impurities in the Heisenberg model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doikou, Anastasia
2013-01-01
Type-I quantum impurities are investigated in the context of the integrable Heisenberg model. This type of defects is associated to the (q)-harmonic oscillator algebra. The transmission matrices associated to this particular type of defects are computed via the Bethe ansatz methodology for the XXX model, as well as for the critical and non-critical XXZ spin chain. In the attractive regime of the critical XXZ spin chain the transmission amplitudes for the breathers are also identified
New relativistic generalization of the Heisenberg commutation relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bohm, A.; Loewe, M.; Magnollay, P.; Tarlini, M.; Aldinger, R.R.; Kielanowski, P.
1984-01-01
A relativistic generalization of the Heisenberg commutation relations is suggested which is different from the conventional ones used for the intrinsic coordinates and momenta in the relativistic oscillator model and the relativistic string. This new quantum relativistic oscillator model is determined by the requirement that it gives a unified description of relativistic vibrations and rotations and contracts in the nonrelativistic limit c -1 →0 into the usual nonrelativistic harmonic oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asner, D.; Barbero, M.; Bellini, V.; Belyaev, V.; Brom, J-M.; Bruzzi, M.; Chren, D.; Cindro, V.; Claus, G.; Cristinziani, M.; Costa, S.; D'Alessandro, R.; Boer, W. de; Dobos, D.; Dolenc, I.; Dulinski, W.; Duris, J.; Eremin, V.; Eusebi, R.; Frais-Koelbl, H.
2011-01-01
With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8x10 16 protons/cm 2 illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel modules.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Asner, D. [Carleton University, Ottawa (Canada); Barbero, M. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Bellini, V. [INFN/University of Catania (Italy); Belyaev, V. [MEPHI Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Brom, J-M. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Bruzzi, M. [INFN/University of Florence (Italy); Chren, D. [Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Cindro, V. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Claus, G. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Cristinziani, M. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Costa, S. [INFN/University of Catania (Italy); D' Alessandro, R. [Department of Energetics/INFN Florence (Italy); Boer, W. de [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Dobos, D. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Dolenc, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dulinski, W. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Duris, J. [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Eremin, V. [Ioffe Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Eusebi, R. [FNAL, Batavia (United States); Frais-Koelbl, H. [Fachhochschule fuer Wirtschaft und Technik, Wiener Neustadt (Austria)
2011-04-21
With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8x10{sup 16} protons/cm{sup 2} illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel modules.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, Susumu
1994-01-01
The graphitization and the change to amorphous state of diamond surface layer by ion implantation and its characteristics are reported. In the diamond surface, into which more than 10 16 ions/cm 2 was implanted, the diamond crystals are broken, and the structure changes to other carbon structure such as amorphous state or graphite. Accompanying this change of structure, the electric conductivity of the implanted layer shows two discontinuous values due to high resistance and low resistance. This control of structure can be done by the temperature of the base during the ion implantation into diamond. Also it is referred to that by the base temperature during implantation, the mutual change of the structure between amorphous state and graphite can be controlled. The change of the electric resistance and the optical characteristics by the ion implantation into diamond surface, the structural analysis by Raman spectroscopy, and the control of the structure of the implanted layer by the base temperature during implantation are reported. (K.I.)
Light volatiles in diamond: Physical interpretation and genetic significance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sellschop, J.P.F.; Madiba, C.C.P.; Annegarn, H.J.
1980-01-01
Natural diamond is characterised in terms of features in the infra-red and ultra-violet spectra. Additionally electron spin resonance, X-ray diffraction and topography, cathodoluminescence, mechanical and electrical measurements have been used to give more detail to such specification. It had been concluded that the major impurity in diamond was nitrogen and hence most physical phenomena have been interpreted as a manifestation of the mode(s) of occurence of nitrogen. From neutron activation analysis studies some 58 elements have been identified in diamond, many of course at trace levels. It has been shown that these data reveal a distinctive trace and minor element chemistry for diamond. Recently ion beam analyses have quantified the role of nitrogen in diamond characterisation. Most recently ion beam analysis has revealed that hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen are all major impurities in diamond. Quantitative studies have been made using ( 19 Fe,α), (α,n) and ( 3 He,p) reactions. High temperature annealing in ultra-high vacuum conditions results in a substantial increase in the hydrogen measured as well as in the shape of the depth profile. Hydrogen is released from defect centres and diffuses rapidly through the diamond. Some of these hydrogen atoms are trapped at defect sites which are concentrated near surface as a result of the ion beam bombardement. A lesser response to the annealing treatment is found for oxygen and the smallest change for nitrogen. These ion beam data lend independent support to our earlier interpretation of the neutron activation data that all diamonds contain defects distributed fairly uniformly and consisting of sub-microscopic inclusions, the elemental composition of which suggests that each is a magma droplet from the upper mantle in which the diamond crystallized. The water-richness of the magma is an essential feature of the diamond genesis conditions. (orig.)
Nanocrystalline diamond coatings for machining
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frank, M.; Breidt, D.; Cremer, R. [CemeCon AG, Wuerselen (Germany)
2007-07-01
This history of CVD diamond synthesis goes back to the fifties of the last century. However, the scientific and economical potential was only gradually recognized. In the eighties, intensive worldwide research on CVD diamond synthesis and applications was launched. Industrial products, especially diamond-coated cutting tools, were introduced to the market in the middle of the nineties. This article shows the latest developments in this area, which comprises nanocrystalline diamond coating structures. (orig.)
Applications of the Heisenberg magnetic model in nanoscience
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Labuz, M.; Kuzma, M.; Wal, A.
2003-01-01
The theoretical Heisenberg magnet model and its solution given by Bethe and Hulthen (B.H.) known as Bethe Ansatz (BA) is widely applied in physics (solid state physics, quantum dots, statistical physics, high-temperatures superconductivity, low-dimensional systems, etc.), chemistry (polymers, organic metals and magnets), biology (biological molecular arrays and chains), etc. In most of the applications, the Heisenberg model is applied to infinite chains (asymptotic case), which is a good reality approximation for objects of macroscopic size. In such a case, the solutions of the model are well known. However, for objects of nanoscale size, one has to find solutions of the Heisenberg model of a finite chain consisting of N nodes. For such a chain, the problem of solving of B.H. equations is very complicated (because of the strange nonlinearity of these equations) even for very small objects N N (combinatorial explosion). In such cases, even numerical methods are helpless. In our paper, we propose an approach in which numerical methods could be adapted to such a large numerical problem, as B.H. solutions for objects consisting of N>100, which responds to nanoscale physical or biological objects. This method is based on the 'experimental' observation that B.H. solutions change in a quasi-continuous way with respect to N
Neutron spectrometry by diamond detector for nuclear radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozlov, S.F.; Konorova, E.A.; Barinov, A.L.; Jarkov, V.P.
1975-01-01
Experiments on fast neutron spectrometry using the nuclear radiation diamond detector inside a horizontal channel of a water-cooled and water-moderated reactor are described. It is shown that the diamond detector enables neutron spectra to be measured within the energy range of 0.3 to 10 MeV against reactor gamma-radiation background and has radiation resistance higher than that of conventional semiconductor detectors. (U.S.)
Clinical dosimeter based on diamond detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chervjakov, A.M.; Ljalina, L.I.; Ljutina, G.J.; Khrunov, V.S.; Martynov, S.S.; Popov, S.A.
2002-01-01
Full text: Diamond detectors have found application in the relative dosimetry and their parameters have been described elsewhere. Today, the exclusive producer of the diamond detector is the Institute of Physical and Technical Problems, Russia, and exclusive dealer is the PTW-Freiburg. The main features of the diamond detector are good long time stability, suitable range of the energy dependence for photon and electron beams in clinical use, independence of the measured date from temperature and pressure. The high sensitivity per volume unit of the diamond detector (1500 times higher than ionization chamber) allowed using detectors with very small volume (1-5 mm 3 ) and rather simple electronics for ionization current registration. The new dosimeter consists of the diamond detector itself, 40 m registration cable, pre-amplifier, micro-processor block for data handling and absorbed dose calculation using the calibration factor of diamond detector in terms of absorbed dose to water. Dosimeter has the possibility to work with PC using standard RS-232 interface. The main features of the dosimeter are as follows: the range of dose rate measurements for photon, electron and proton beams is within 0.01-1.0 Gy/s; the energy ranges for photons are 0.08-25 MeV, and 4-25 MeV for electrons, with energy dependence no more than ±2%; the main uncertainty of the dose measurements is within ±2%; the pre-irradiation dose for diamond detector is no more than 10 Gy; the sensitive volume of the used diamond detectors is within 1-5 mm 3 ; the weight of the dosimeter no more than 2 kg. The new dosimeter was evaluated at the Central Research Institute of Roentgenology and Radiology, St. Petersburg, Russia to verify its performance. The dosimeter was used as a reference instrument for dose measurements at Cobalt-60 unit, SL75-5 and SL-20 linear accelerators and the test results have shown that the device have met the specifications. It is planned to produce dosimeter as serial device by
Effect of Nano-Ni Catalyst on the Growth and Characterization of Diamond Films by HFCVD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chien-Chung Teng
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Four different catalysts, nanodiamond seed, nano-Ni, diamond powder, and mixture of nano-Ni/diamond powder, were used to activate Si wafers for diamond film growth by hot-filament CVD (HFCVD. Diamond crystals were shown to grow directly on both large diamond powder and small nanodiamond seed, but a better crystallinity of diamond film was observed on the ultrasonicated nanodiamond seeded Si substrate. On the other hand, nano-Ni nanocatalysts seem to promote the formation of amorphous carbon but suppress transpolyacetylene (t-PA phases at the initial growth of diamond films. The subsequent nucleation and growth of diamond crystals on the amorphous carbon layer leads to generation of the spherical diamond particles and clusters prior to coalescence into continuous diamond films based on the CH3 addition mechanism as characterized by XRD, Raman, ATR/FT-IR, XPS, TEM, SEM, and AFM techniques. Moreover, a 36% reduction in surface roughness of diamond film assisted by nano-Ni catalyst is quite significant.
Scalar potential for the gauged Heisenberg algebra and a non-polynomial antisymmetric tensor theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Auria, R.; Ferrara, S.; Trigiante, M.; Vaula, S.
2005-01-01
We study some issues related to the effective theory of Calabi-Yau compactifications with fluxes in type II theories. At first the scalar potential for a generic electric Abelian gauging of the Heisenberg algebra, underlying all possible gaugings of R-R isometries, is presented and shown to exhibit, in some circumstances, a 'dual' no-scale structure under the interchange of hypermultiplets and vector multiplets. Subsequently a new setting of such theories, when all R-R scalars are dualized into antisymmetric tensors, is discussed. This formulation falls in the class of non-polynomial tensor theories considered long ago by Freedman and Townsend and it may be relevant for the introduction of both electric and magnetic charges
Abhinav, Kumar; Guha, Partha
2018-03-01
Through the Hasimoto map, various dynamical systems can be mapped to different integrodifferential generalizations of Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) family of equations some of which are known to be integrable. Two such continuum limits, corresponding to the inhomogeneous XXX Heisenberg spin chain [J. Phys. C 15, L1305 (1982)] and that of a thin vortex filament moving in a superfluid with drag [Eur. Phys. J. B 86, 275 (2013) 86; Phys. Rev. E 91, 053201 (2015)], are shown to be particular non-holonomic deformations (NHDs) of the standard NLS system involving generalized parameterizations. Crucially, such NHDs of the NLS system are restricted to specific spectral orders that exactly complements NHDs of the original physical systems. The specific non-holonomic constraints associated with these integrodifferential generalizations additionally posses distinct semi-classical signature.
de Sousa, J. Ricardo; de Albuquerque, Douglas F.
1997-02-01
By using two approaches of renormalization group (RG), mean field RG (MFRG) and effective field RG (EFRG), we study the critical properties of the simple cubic lattice classical XY and classical Heisenberg models. The methods are illustrated by employing its simplest approximation version in which small clusters with one ( N‧ = 1) and two ( N = 2) spins are used. The thermal and magnetic critical exponents, Yt and Yh, and the critical parameter Kc are numerically obtained and are compared with more accurate methods (Monte Carlo, series expansion and ε-expansion). The results presented in this work are in excellent agreement with these sophisticated methods. We have also shown that the exponent Yh does not depend on the symmetry n of the Hamiltonian, hence the criteria of universality for this exponent is only a function of the dimension d.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barut, A.O.; Salamin, Y.I.
1989-07-01
We present a simple approach to the relativistic calculation of the rates of spontaneous emission starting from the Heisenberg picture formula for the power radiated by a charged particle undergoing acceleration, and evaluate atomic decay rates using relativistic Dirac-Coulomb wavefunctions. The spin of the electron, embedded in its relativistic wavefunction, is shown to correctly provide the two polarization states of the emitted radiation. We discuss selection rules and calculate the Hydrogen 2 P → 1 S transition rate, among others, to be Γ = (6.2650 ± 0.0007)x10 8 s -1 in good agreement with the full field theory calculation as well as with experiment. (author). 14 refs
Optimal Control for Fast and Robust Generation of Entangled States in Anisotropic Heisenberg Chains
Zhang, Xiong-Peng; Shao, Bin; Zou, Jian
2017-05-01
Motivated by some recent results of the optimal control (OC) theory, we study anisotropic XXZ Heisenberg spin-1/2 chains with control fields acting on a single spin, with the aim of exploring how maximally entangled state can be prepared. To achieve the goal, we use a numerical optimization algorithm (e.g., the Krotov algorithm, which was shown to be capable of reaching the quantum speed limit) to search an optimal set of control parameters, and then obtain OC pulses corresponding to the target fidelity. We find that the minimum time for implementing our target state depending on the anisotropy parameter Δ of the model. Finally, we analyze the robustness of the obtained results for the optimal fidelities and the effectiveness of the Krotov method under some realistic conditions.
Boukahil, A.; Huber, D. L.
1989-09-01
The harmonic magnon modes in a one-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass having nearest-neighbor exchange interactions of fixed magnitude and random sign are investigated. The Lyapounov exponent is calculated for chains of 107-108 spins over the interval 0Stinchcombe and Pimentel using transfer-matrix techniques; at higher frequencies, gaps appear in the spectrum. At low frequencies, the localization length diverges as ω-2/3. A formal connection is established between the spin glass and the one-dimensional discretized Schrödinger equation. By making use of the connection, it is shown that the theory of Derrida and Gardner, which was developed for weak potential disorder, can account quantitatively for the distribution and localization of the low-frequency magnon modes in the spin-glass model.
Magnetization process and low-temperature thermodynamics of a spin-1/2 Heisenberg octahedral chain
Strečka, Jozef; Richter, Johannes; Derzhko, Oleg; Verkholyak, Taras; Karľová, Katarína
2018-05-01
Low-temperature magnetization curves and thermodynamics of a spin-1/2 Heisenberg octahedral chain with the intra-plaquette and monomer-plaquette interactions are examined within a two-component lattice-gas model of hard-core monomers, which takes into account all low-lying energy modes in a highly frustrated parameter space involving the monomer-tetramer, localized many-magnon and fully polarized ground states. It is shown that the developed lattice-gas model satisfactorily describes all pronounced features of the low-temperature magnetization process and the magneto-thermodynamics such as abrupt changes of the isothermal magnetization curves, a double-peak structure of the specific heat or a giant magnetocaloric effect.
Heisenberg (and Schrödinger, and Pauli) on hidden variables
Bacciagaluppi, Guido; Crull, Elise
In this paper, we discuss various aspects of Heisenberg's thought on hidden variables in the period 1927-1935. We also compare Heisenberg's approach to others current at the time, specifically that embodied by von Neumann's impossibility proof, but also views expressed mainly in correspondence by Pauli and by Schrödinger. We shall base ourselves mostly on published and unpublished materials that are known but little-studied, among others Heisenberg's own draft response to the EPR paper. Our aim will be not only to clarify Heisenberg's thought on the hidden-variables question, but in part also to clarify how this question was understood more generally at the time.
P-type diamond stripper foils for tandem ion accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phelps, A.W.; Koba, R.
1989-01-01
The authors are developing a stripper foil composed of a p-type diamond membrane. This diamond stripper foil should have a significantly longer lifetime than any conventional stripper foil material. To be useful for stripper foils, the boron-doped blue diamond films must be thinner than 0.8 μm and pore-free. Two methods are compared for their ability to achieve a high nucleation areal density on a W substrate. Some W substrates were first coated with think layer of boron (≤20 nm) in order to enhance nucleation. Other W substrates were scratched with submicron diamond particles. A schematic diagram of the stripper foil is shown. Stripper foils were created by etching away the central area of W substrates. The diamond membrane was then supported by an annulus of W. Tungsten was selected as a ring-support material because of its high electrical and thermal conductivity, relatively low thermal expansion, and proven suitability as a substrate for diamond CVD. Warping or fracture of the diamond film after substrate etch-back was investigated
Thermoluminescent properties of CVD diamond: applications to ionising radiation dosimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petitfils, A.
2007-09-01
Remarkable properties of synthetic diamond (human soft tissue equivalence, chemical stability, non-toxicity) make this material suitable for medical application as thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). This work highlights the interest of this material as radiotherapy TLD. In the first stage of this work, we looked after thermoluminescent (TL) and dosimetric properties of polycrystalline diamond made by Chemically Vapor Deposited (CVD) synthesis. Dosimetric characteristics are satisfactory as TLD for medical application. Luminescence thermal quenching on diamond has been investigated. This phenomenon leads to a decrease of dosimetric TL peak sensitivity when the heating rate increases. The second part of this work analyses the use of synthetic diamond as TLD in radiotherapy. Dose profiles, depth dose distributions and the cartography of an electron beam obtained with our samples are in very good agreement with results from an ionisation chamber. It is clearly shown that CVD) diamond is of interest to check beams of treatment accelerators. The use of these samples in a control of treatment with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy underlines good response of synthetic diamond in high dose gradient areas. These results indicate that CVD diamond is a promising material for radiotherapy dosimetry. (author)
Yang, Qi; Cao, Yue; Chen, Shiyin; Teng, Yue; Meng, Yanli; Wang, Gangcheng; Sun, Chunfang; Xue, Kang
2018-06-01
In this paper, we construct a new set of orthonormal topological basis states for six qubits with the topological single loop d = 2. By acting on the subspace, we get a new five-dimensional (5 D) reduced matrix. In addition, it is shown that the Heisenberg XXX spin-1/2 chain of six qubits can be constructed from the Temperley-Lieb algebra (TLA) generator, both the energy ground state and the spin singlet states of the system can be described by the set of topological basis states.
Yang, Qi; Cao, Yue; Chen, Shiyin; Teng, Yue; Meng, Yanli; Wang, Gangcheng; Sun, Chunfang; Xue, Kang
2018-03-01
In this paper, we construct a new set of orthonormal topological basis states for six qubits with the topological single loop d = 2. By acting on the subspace, we get a new five-dimensional (5D) reduced matrix. In addition, it is shown that the Heisenberg XXX spin-1/2 chain of six qubits can be constructed from the Temperley-Lieb algebra (TLA) generator, both the energy ground state and the spin singlet states of the system can be described by the set of topological basis states.
Large $N$ critical exponents for the chiral Heisenberg Gross-Neveu universality class
Gracey, J. A.
2018-01-01
We compute the large N critical exponents η, ηϕ and 1/ν in d dimensions in the chiral Heisenberg Gross-Neveu model to several orders in powers of 1/N. For instance, the large N conformal bootstrap method is used to determine η at O(1/N3) while the other exponents are computed to O(1/N2). Estimates of the exponents for a phase transition in graphene are given which are shown to be commensurate with other approaches. In particular the behavior of the exponents in 2
Biofunctionalization of diamond microelectrodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reitinger, Andreas Adam; Lud, Simon Quartus; Stutzmann, Martin; Garrido, Jose Antonio [Walter Schottky Institut, TU Muenchen (Germany); Hutter, Naima Aurelia; Richter, Gerhard; Jordan, Rainer [WACKER-Chair of Macromolecular Chemistry, TU Muenchen (Germany)
2010-07-01
In this work we present two main routes for the biofunctionalization of nanocrystalline diamond films, aiming at the application of diamond microelectrodes as amperometric biosensors. We report on direct covalent grafting of biomolecules on nanocrystalline diamond films via diazonium monophenyls and biphenyls as well as other linker molecules, forming self-assembled monolayers on the diamond surface. Monolayers with different functional head groups have been characterized. Patterning of the available functional groups using electron beam-induced chemical lithography allows the selective preparation of well-localized docking sites for the immobilization of biomolecules. Furthermore, polymer brushes are expected to enable novel paths for designing more advanced biosensing schemes, incorporating multifunctional groups and a higher loading capacity for biomolecules. Here, we focus on the preparation of polymer grafts by self-initiated photografting and photopolymerization. Further chemical modification of the grafted polymer brushes results in the introduction of additional functional molecules, paving the way for the incorporation of more complex molecular structures such as proteins. In a comparative study we investigate the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches.
CVD diamond - fundamental phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yarbrough, W.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)
1993-01-01
This compilation of figures and diagrams addresses the basic physical processes involved in the chemical vapor deposition of diamond. Different methods of deposition are illustrated. For each method, observations are made of the prominent advantages and disadvantages of the technique. Chemical mechanisms of nucleation are introduced.
ULTRAFINE FLUORESCENT DIAMONDS IN NANOTECHNOLOGY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kanyuk M. I.
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to summarize the literature data concerning ultrafine diamonds, namely their industrial production, as well as considerable photostability and biocompatibility that promote their use in modern visualization techniques. It is shown that due to the unique physical properties, they are promising materials for using in nanotechnology in the near future. Possibility of diverse surface modification, small size and large absorption surface are the basis for their use in different approaches for drug and gene delivery into a cell. The changes in the properties of nanodiamond surface modification methods of their creation, stabilization and applications are described. It can be said that fluorescent surface-modified nanodiamonds are a promising target in various research methods that would be widely used for labeling of living cells, as well as in the processes of genes and drugs delivery into a cell.
Low-control and robust quantum refrigerator and applications with electronic spins in diamond
Mohammady, M. Hamed; Choi, Hyeongrak; Trusheim, Matthew E.; Bayat, Abolfazl; Englund, Dirk; Omar, Yasser
2018-04-01
We propose a general protocol for low-control refrigeration and thermometry of thermal qubits, which can be implemented using electronic spins in diamond. The refrigeration is implemented by a probe, consisting of a network of interacting spins. The protocol involves two operations: (i) free evolution of the probe; and (ii) a swap gate between one spin in the probe and the thermal qubit we wish to cool. We show that if the initial state of the probe falls within a suitable range, and the free evolution of the probe is both unital and conserves the excitation in the z direction, then the cooling protocol will always succeed, with an efficiency that depends on the rate of spin dephasing and the swap-gate fidelity. Furthermore, measuring the probe after it has cooled many qubits provides an estimate of their temperature. We provide a specific example where the probe is a Heisenberg spin chain, and suggest a physical implementation using electronic spins in diamond. Here, the probe is constituted of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers, while the thermal qubits are dark spins. By using a novel pulse sequence, a chain of NV centers can be made to evolve according to a Heisenberg Hamiltonian. This proposal allows for a range of applications, such as NV-based nuclear magnetic resonance of photosensitive molecules kept in a dark spot on a sample, and it opens up possibilities for the study of quantum thermodynamics, environment-assisted sensing, and many-body physics.
Simulation of time-dependent Heisenberg models in one dimension
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Volosniev, A. G.; Hammer, H. -W.; Zinner, N. T.
2016-01-01
In this Letter, we provide a theoretical analysis of strongly interacting quantum systems confined by a time-dependent external potential in one spatial dimension. We show that such systems can be used to simulate spin chains described by Heisenberg Hamiltonians in which the exchange coupling...... constants can be manipulated by time-dependent driving of the shape of the external confinement. As illustrative examples, we consider a harmonic trapping potential with a variable frequency and an infinite square well potential with a time-dependent barrier in the middle....
Q-operators for the open Heisenberg spin chain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rouven Frassek
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We construct Q-operators for the open spin-12 XXX Heisenberg spin chain with diagonal boundary matrices. The Q-operators are defined as traces over an infinite-dimensional auxiliary space involving novel types of reflection operators derived from the boundary Yang–Baxter equation. We argue that the Q-operators defined in this way are polynomials in the spectral parameter and show that they commute with transfer matrix. Finally, we prove that the Q-operators satisfy Baxter's TQ-equation and derive the explicit form of their eigenvalues in terms of the Bethe roots.
Quantum spin circulator in Y junctions of Heisenberg chains
Buccheri, Francesco; Egger, Reinhold; Pereira, Rodrigo G.; Ramos, Flávia B.
2018-06-01
We show that a quantum spin circulator, a nonreciprocal device that routes spin currents without any charge transport, can be achieved in Y junctions of identical spin-1 /2 Heisenberg chains coupled by a chiral three-spin interaction. Using bosonization, boundary conformal field theory, and density matrix renormalization group simulations, we find that a chiral fixed point with maximally asymmetric spin conductance arises at a critical point separating a regime of disconnected chains from a spin-only version of the three-channel Kondo effect. We argue that networks of spin-chain Y junctions provide a controllable approach to construct long-sought chiral spin-liquid phases.
From linear optical quantum computing to Heisenberg-limited interferometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Hwang; Kok, Pieter; Williams, Colin P; Dowling, Jonathan P
2004-01-01
The working principles of linear optical quantum computing are based on photodetection, namely, projective measurements. The use of photodetection can provide efficient nonlinear interactions between photons at the single-photon level, which is technically problematic otherwise. We report an application of such a technique to prepare quantum correlations as an important resource for Heisenberg-limited optical interferometry, where the sensitivity of phase measurements can be improved beyond the usual shot-noise limit. Furthermore, using such nonlinearities, optical quantum non-demolition measurements can now be carried out easily at the single-photon level
Collective impurity effects in the Heisenberg triangular antiferromagnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maryasin, V S; Zhitomirsky, M E
2015-01-01
We theoretically investigate the Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a triangular lattice doped with nonmagnetic impurities. Two nontrivial effects resulting from collective impurity behavior are predicted. The first one is related to presence of uncompensated magnetic moments localized near vacancies as revealed by the low-temperature Curie tail in the magnetic susceptibility. These moments exhibit an anomalous growth with the impurity concentration, which we attribute to the clustering mechanism. In an external magnetic field, impurities lead to an even more peculiar phenomenon lifting the classical ground-state degeneracy in favor of the conical state. We analytically demonstrate that vacancies spontaneously generate a positive biquadratic exchange, which is responsible for the above degeneracy lifting
Heisenberg Groups as Platform for the AAG key-exchange protocol
Kahrobaei, Delaram; Lam, Ha T.
2014-01-01
Garber, Kahrobaei, and Lam studied polycyclic groups generated by number field as platform for the AAG key-exchange protocol. In this paper, we discuss the use of a different kind of polycyclic groups, Heisenberg groups, as a platform group for AAG by submitting Heisenberg groups to one of AAG's major attacks, the length-based attack.
Spin-chirality decoupling in Heisenberg spin glasses and related systems
Kawamura, Hikaru
2006-01-01
Recent studies on the spin and the chirality orderings of the three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass and related systems are reviewed with particular emphasis on the possible spin-chirality decoupling phenomena. Chirality scenario of real spin-glass transition and its experimental consequence on the ordering of Heisenberg-like spin glasses are discussed.
Structure and properties of diamond and diamond-like films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clausing, R.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
1993-01-01
This section is broken into four parts: (1) introduction, (2) natural IIa diamond, (3) importance of structure and composition, and (4) control of structure and properties. Conclusions of this discussion are that properties of chemical vapor deposited diamond films can compare favorably with natural diamond, that properties are anisotropic and are a strong function of structure and crystal perfection, that crystal perfection and morphology are functions of growth conditions and can be controlled, and that the manipulation of texture and thereby surface morphology and internal crystal perfection is an important step in optimizing chemically deposited diamond films for applications.
Mechanism of cutting edge chipping and its suppression in diamond turning of copper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimada, Shoichi; Higuchi, Masahiro; Kaneeda, Toshiaki; Higashi, Yasuo; Yokomizo, Seiichi
2005-01-01
This paper investigates the mechanism of cutting edge chipping in diamond turning of copper in terms of the change in Hertzian strength of diamond specimens subjected to thermal histories. The study suggests that the strength of diamond decreases as the result of the propagation of existing surface micro cracks caused by the thermo-chemical erosion of oxygen at the crack tips. The catalytic reaction involving copper is also shown to accelerate the crack propagation. Then, a cutting technique of reduced oxygen atmosphere is proposed to suppress the cutting edge chipping in diamond turning of copper over an extended cutting time. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piekarczyk, W.; Prawer, S.
1992-01-01
Chemically vapour deposited diamond is commonly synthesized from activated hydrogen-rich, carbon/hydrogen gas mixtures under conditions which should, from a thermodynamic equilibrium point of view, favour the production of graphite. Much remains to be understood about why diamond, and not graphite, forms under these conditions. However, it is well known that the presence of atomic hydrogen, is crucial to the success of diamond deposition. As part of an attempt to better understand the deposition process, a thermodynamic analysis of the process was performed on diamond (111) faces in hydrogen rich environments. It is shown that the key role of atomic hydrogen is to inhibit the reconstruction of the (111) face to an sp 2 -bonded structure, which would provide a template for graphite, rather than diamond formation. The model correctly predicts experimentally determined trends in growth rate and diamond film quality as a function of methane concentration in the stating gas mixture. 17 refs., 4 figs
Genetics Home Reference: Diamond-Blackfan anemia
... Home Health Conditions Diamond-Blackfan anemia Diamond-Blackfan anemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a disorder of the bone marrow . The ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.
1988-12-01
A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pochet, T.
1993-01-01
Preliminary results on the response of type Ib and IIa diamond photodetectors to fast laser pulse exposures at 265 and 530 nm are presented. The influence of the applied bias, the laser wavelengths and the light intensity on the detector sensitivity is studied. Also, recent measurements with 1.25 MeV gamma ray pulses are reported. (authors). 13 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab
Realistic Approach of the Relations of Uncertainty of Heisenberg
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul E. Sterian
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Due to the requirements of the principle of causality in the theory of relativity, one cannot make a device for the simultaneous measuring of the canonical conjugate variables in the conjugate Fourier spaces. Instead of admitting that a particle’s position and its conjugate momentum cannot be accurately measured at the same time, we consider the only probabilities which can be determined when working at subatomic level to be valid. On the other hand, based on Schwinger's action principle and using the quadridimensional form of the unitary transformation generator function of the quantum operators in the paper, the general form of the evolution equation for these operators is established. In the nonrelativistic case one obtains the Heisenberg's type evolution equations which can be particularized to derive Heisenberg's uncertainty relations. The analysis of the uncertainty relations as implicit evolution equations allows us to put into evidence the intrinsic nature of the correlation expressed by these equations in straight relations with the measuring process. The independence of the quantisation postulate from the causal evolution postulate of quantum mechanics is also put into discussion.
Heisenberg's war. The secret history of the German bomb
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Powers, T.
1993-01-01
The history of Second World War Germany's 'Uranium Project', which often is referred to as the 'myth of the German atomic bomb', has been attracting the mind's of secret service men, futurologists, historians and journalists since after the end of the war it has become possible to lift the veil of secrecy. Powers book adds another one to the many investigations published since them. His approach to the piece of history starts with Heisenberg's visit to the U.S.A. in summer 1939, describes the plans of the German Heereswaffenamt pursued with the Uranium Project, and their counterpart on the side of the Allied Forces where German scientists, as immigrants in England and in the U.S.A., were doing their best to launch research for the development of an atomic bomb. The end of this 'competition' is marked by the internment of the ten German scientists and bomb specialists in Fall Hall. The leading story of the book centers on the small group of scientists around Heisenberg, who cleverly 'torpedoed' the development of the German atomic bomb in the years from 1939 until 1944. (HP) [de
The Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the square-kagomé lattice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Richter
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss the ground state, the low-lying excitations as well as high-field thermodynamics of the Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the two-dimensional square-kagomé lattice. This magnetic system belongs to the class of highly frustrated spin systems with an infinite non-trivial degeneracy of the classical ground state as it is also known for the Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the kagomé and on the star lattice. The quantum ground state of the spin-half system is a quantum paramagnet with a finite spin gap and with a large number of non-magnetic excitations within this gap. We also discuss the magnetization versus field curve that shows a plateaux as well as a macroscopic magnetization jump to saturation due to independent localized magnon states. These localized states are highly degenerate and lead to interesting features in the low-temperature thermodynamics at high magnetic fields such as an additional low-temperature peak in the specific heat and an enhanced magnetocaloric effect.
Linearized pseudo-Einstein equations on the Heisenberg group
Barletta, Elisabetta; Dragomir, Sorin; Jacobowitz, Howard
2017-02-01
We study the pseudo-Einstein equation R11bar = 0 on the Heisenberg group H1 = C × R. We consider first order perturbations θɛ =θ0 + ɛ θ and linearize the pseudo-Einstein equation about θ0 (the canonical Tanaka-Webster flat contact form on H1 thought of as a strictly pseudoconvex CR manifold). If θ =e2uθ0 the linearized pseudo-Einstein equation is Δb u - 4 | Lu|2 = 0 where Δb is the sublaplacian of (H1 ,θ0) and L bar is the Lewy operator. We solve the linearized pseudo-Einstein equation on a bounded domain Ω ⊂H1 by applying subelliptic theory i.e. existence and regularity results for weak subelliptic harmonic maps. We determine a solution u to the linearized pseudo-Einstein equation, possessing Heisenberg spherical symmetry, and such that u(x) → - ∞ as | x | → + ∞.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Derry, T.E.
1978-06-01
Diamond is one of the most extreme cases from a channelling point of view, having the smallest thermal vibration amplitude and the lowest atomic number of commonly-encountered crystals. These are the two parameters most important for determining channelling behaviour. It is of consiberable interest therefore to see how well the theories explaining and predicting the channeling properties of other substance, succeed with diamond. Natural diamond, although the best available form for these experiments, is rather variable in its physical properties. Part of the project was devoted to considering and solving the problem of obtaining reproducible results representative of the ideal crystal. Channelling studies were performed on several good crystals, using the Rutherford backscattering method. Critical angles for proton channelling were measured for incident energies from 0.6 to 4.5 MeV, in the three most open axes and three most open planes of the diamond structure, and for α-particle channelling at 0.7 and 1.0 MeV (He + ) in the same axes and planes. For 1.0 MeV protons, the crystal temperature was varied from 20 degrees Celsius to 700 degrees Celsius. The results are presented as curves of backscattered yield versus angle in the region of each axis or plane, and summarised in the form of tables and graphs. Generally the critical angles, axial minimum yields, and temperature dependence are well predicted by the accepted theories. The most valuable overall conclusion is that the mean thermal vibration amplitude of the atoms in a crytical determines the critical approach distance to the channel walls at which an ion can remain channelled, even when this distance is much smaller than the Thomas-Fermi screening distance of the atomic potential, as is the case in diamond. A brief study was made of the radiation damage caused by α-particle bombardment, via its effect on the channelling phenomenon. It was possible to hold damage down to negligible levels during the
Morphology modulating the wettability of a diamond film.
Tian, Shibing; Sun, Weijie; Hu, Zhaosheng; Quan, Baogang; Xia, Xiaoxiang; Li, Yunlong; Han, Dong; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi
2014-10-28
Control of the wetting property of diamond surface has been a challenge because of its maximal hardness and good chemical inertness. In this work, the micro/nanoarray structures etched into diamond film surfaces by a maskless plasma method are shown to fix a surface's wettability characteristics, and this means that the change in morphology is able to modulate the wettability of a diamond film from weakly hydrophilic to either superhydrophilic or superhydrophobic. It can be seen that the etched diamond surface with a mushroom-shaped array is superhydrophobic following the Cassie mode, whereas the etched surface with nanocone arrays is superhydrophilic in accordance with the hemiwicking mechnism. In addition, the difference in cone densities of superhydrophilic nanocone surfaces has a significant effect on water spreading, which is mainly derived from different driving forces. This low-cost and convenient means of altering the wetting properties of diamond surfaces can be further applied to underlying wetting phenomena and expand the applications of diamond in various fields.
High speed dry machining of MMCs with diamond tools
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collins, J.L.
2001-01-01
The increasing use of metal matrix composites (MMCs) has raised new issues in their machining. Industrial demands for higher speed and dry machining of MMCs with improved component production to closer tolerances have driven the development of new tool materials. In particular, the wear characteristics of synthetic diamond tooling satisfy many of the requirements imposed in cutting these highly abrasive workpieces. The use of diamond tool materials, such as polycrystalline diamond (PCD), has resulted in tool life improvements which, allied with environmental considerations, show great potential for the development of dry cutting. This paper explores the wear characteristics of PCD, which is highly suited to the dry machining of particulate silicon carbide MMCs. Also, two further diamond tool materials are evaluated - chemical vapor deposition (CVD) thick layer diamond and synthetic single crystal diamond. Their suitability for the efficient machining of high volume fraction MMC materials is shown and their potential impact an the subsequent acceptance and integration of MMCs into engineering components is discussed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoakam, M.C.
1983-01-01
The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the possiblity of simultaneously incorporating both Lorentz invariance and a special gauge invariance among Boson fields satisfying Proca-like commutators and gauge conditions (including Proca, Feynman, Yennie, Landau, and Coester Gauge choices for the commutators) as a stationary condition in both the interaction and Heisenberg pictures for Lagrangian formulations of second-quantized neutral vector-meson theories (which include regularization by the auxillary-field method) before the regularization is removed. This approach, if ultimately successful, will demonstrate the Lorentz invariance and gauge invariance can be included as internal symmetries of a regularized form of quantum electrodynamics. It was demonstrated that, with spinor mass-counterterms but without Boson mass-counterterms, a generalization of the method of Coester and Stueckelberg to reduce the usual forms of the Proca-like field interactions to the simpler Coester interaction is applicable. Therefore, the choice of the interaction operator is more general than its surface appearance would indicate. Under the same restriction, it was shown that a simple generalization of the Fermi operator will provide stationary gauge conditions for the Proca-like Boson operators, but that the requirement of limited-gauge-invariance in both the Heisenberg and interaction pictures removes the ambiguity usually associated with the Fermi operator. In the presence of the Boson mass counterterms, it was shown that the subsidiary conditions are, in general, no longer stationary in the Heisenberg picture
Diamond Pixel Detectors and 3D Diamond Devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Venturi, N.
2016-01-01
Results from detectors of poly-crystalline chemical vapour deposited (pCVD) diamond are presented. These include the first analysis of data of the ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM). The DBM module consists of pCVD diamond sensors instrumented with pixellated FE-I4 front-end electronics. Six diamond telescopes, each with three modules, are placed symmetrically around the ATLAS interaction point. The DBM tracking capabilities allow it to discriminate between particles coming from the interaction point and background particles passing through the ATLAS detector. Also, analysis of test beam data of pCVD DBM modules are presented. A new low threshold tuning algorithm based on noise occupancy was developed which increases the DBM module signal to noise ratio significantly. Finally first results from prototypes of a novel detector using pCVD diamond and resistive electrodes in the bulk, forming a 3D diamond device, are discussed. 3D devices based on pCVD diamond were successfully tested with test beams at CERN. The measured charge is compared to that of a strip detector mounted on the same pCVD diamond showing that the 3D device collects significantly more charge than the planar device.
Ion and electron beam studies and applications of natural and synthetic diamonds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sellschop, J.P.F.; Connell, S.H.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Stemmet, M.C.; Naidoo, S.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Haricharun, H.
1992-01-01
'Nuclear' probes are shown to be powerful diagnostic analytical tools for the interrogation of diamond, whether natural or synthetic. The full sweep of such probes ranges from electrons to heavy ions, and spans energies over the keV to GeV range. Neutrons are singularly appropriate for the bulk trace element analysis of diamond, while charged particle (activation) analysis is appropriate for lighter element determination, and for surface and depth profiling specification. Energetic ions are effectively deployed for the study of the amorpisation and extrusion of diamond, and for ion implantation with the view to the production of devices in diamond. Resonant nuclear reactions are used effectively in establishing the 'macroscopic' distribution of dopants, while the used of pulsed ion beams in time dependent perturbed angular distribution studies gives information on 'microscopic' lattice location of impurities. Ion channeling in diamond sets near-theoretical parameterization of Lindhard channeling theory. Electron and positron channeling is interesting in its own right, and in the former case is shown to give rise to channeling radiation for few-MeV electron energies. At GeV electron energies, channeling is important as a powerful, polarized monochromatic photon source. Muons are an elegant tool in diamond studies, and the formation of muonium permits of (radiation damage-free) hydrogen-equivalent studies. Two relatively unused nuclear techniques, Moessbauer spectroscopy and Positron Annihilation, are shown to give unique information on diamond. Finally the use of diamond as a detector of radiation is indicated. (author)
Surface temperature measurements of diamond
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Masina, BN
2006-07-01
Full Text Available Diamond has the highest thermal conductivity among known materials, and as such finds uses as an industrial tool in areas where dissipation of excess heat is a requirement. In this investigation we set up a laser system to heat a diamond sample...
Electrochemical applications of CVD diamond
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pastor-Moreno, Gustavo
2002-01-01
Diamond technology has claimed an important role in industry since non-expensive methods of synthesis such as chemical vapour deposition allow to elaborate cheap polycrystalline diamond. This fact has increased the interest in the scientific community due to the outstanding properties of diamond. Since Pleskov published in 1987 the first paper in electrochemistry, many researchers around the world have studied different aspects of diamond electrochemistry such as reactivity, electrical structure, etc. As part of this worldwide interest these studies reveal new information about diamond electrodes. These studies report investigation of diamond electrodes characterized using structural techniques like scanning electrode microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. A new electrochemical theory based on surface states is presented that explains the metal and the semiconductor behaviour in terms of the doping level of the diamond electrode. In an effort to characterise the properties of diamond electrodes the band edges for hydrogen and oxygen terminated surface are located in organic solvent, hence avoiding possible interference that are present in aqueous solution. The determination of the band edges is performed by Mott-Schottky studies. These allow the calculation of the flat band potential and therefore the band edges. Additional cyclic voltammetric studies are presented for both types of surface termination. Mott-Schottky data and cyclic voltammograms are compared and explained in terms of the band edge localisation. Non-degenerately p-type semiconductor behaviour is presented for hydrogen terminated boron doped diamond. Graphitic surface states on oxidised surface boron doped diamond are responsible for the electrochemistry of redox couples that posses similar energy. Using the simple redox couple 1,4-benzoquinone effect of surface termination on the chemical behaviour of diamond is presented. Hydrogen sublayers in diamond electrodes seem to play an important role for the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lobashev, A.A.; Mostepanenko, V.M.
1993-01-01
Heisenberg formalism is developed for creation-annihilation operators of quantum fields propagating in nonstationary external fields. Quantum fields with spin 0,1/2, 1 are considered in the presence of such external fields as electromagnetic, scalar and the field of nonstationary dielectric properties of nonlinear medium. Elliptic operator parametrically depending on time is constructed. In Heisenberg representation field variables are decomposed over eigenfunction of this operator. The relation between Heisenberg creation-annihilation operators and the operators obtained in the frame of diagonalization of Hamiltonian with Bogoliubov transformations is set up
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhan, Jaemi; Kwon, Younghun
2007-01-01
Recently Yeo showed that thermal states in Heisenberg XX model with periodic boundary condition could be used for three-party quantum teleportation. However it is hard to implement the periodic boundary condition in spin chain. So instead of imposing the periodic boundary condition, we consider open boundary condition in Heisenberg XX model and investigate the possibility of using thermal states in Heisenberg XX model with open boundary condition. Using this way, we find the best fidelity conditions to three known protocols in three-party quantum teleportation. It turns out that the best fidelity in every protocol would be 23
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of a Heisenberg Vortex Tube
Bunge, Carl; Sitaraman, Hariswaran; Leachman, Jake
2017-11-01
A 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of a Heisenberg Vortex Tube (HVT) is performed to estimate cooling potential with cryogenic hydrogen. The main mechanism driving operation of the vortex tube is the use of fluid power for enthalpy streaming in a highly turbulent swirl in a dual-outlet tube. This enthalpy streaming creates a temperature separation between the outer and inner regions of the flow. Use of a catalyst on the peripheral wall of the centrifuge enables endothermic conversion of para-ortho hydrogen to aid primary cooling. A κ- ɛ turbulence model is used with a cryogenic, non-ideal equation of state, and para-orthohydrogen species evolution. The simulations are validated with experiments and strategies for parametric optimization of this device are presented.
About the unitary discretizations of Heisenberg equations of motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vazquez, L.
1986-01-01
In a recent paper Bender et al. (1985) have used a unitary discretization of Heisenberg equations for a one-dimensional quantum system in order to obtain information about the spectrum of the underlying continuum theory. The method consists in comparing the matrix elements between adjacent Fock states of the operators and at two steps. At the same time a very simple variational approach must be made. The purpose of this paper is to show that with unitary schemes, accurate either to order τ or τ 2 , we obtain the same spectrum results in the framework of the above method. On the other hand the same eigenvalues are obtained with a non-unitary scheme (Section II). In Section III we discuss the construction of the Hamiltonian associated to the unitary discretizations. (orig.)
Anisotropic Heisenberg model for a semi-infinite crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Queiroz, C.A.
1985-11-01
A semi-infinite Heisenberg model with exchange interactions between nearest and next-nearest neighbors in a simple cubic lattice. The free surface from the other layers of magnetic ions, by choosing a single ion uniaxial anisotropy in the surface (Ds) different from the anisotropy in the other layers (D). Using the Green function formalism, the behavior of magnetization as a function of the temperature for each layer, as well as the spectrum localized magnons for several values of ratio Ds/D for surface magnetization. Above this critical ratio, a ferromagnetic surface layer is obtained white the other layers are already in the paramagnetic phase. In this situation the critical temperature of surface becomes larger than the critical temperature of the bulk. (Author) [pt
Quantum Kalman filtering and the Heisenberg limit in atomic magnetometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geremia, J M; Stockton, John K; Doherty, Andrew C; Mabuchi, Hideo [Norman Bridge Laboratory of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, 91125 (United States)
2003-12-19
The shot-noise detection limit in current high-precision magnetometry [I. Kominis, T. Kornack, J. Allred, and M. Romalis, Nature (London) 422, 596 (2003)]10.1038/nature01484 is a manifestation of quantum fluctuations that scale as 1/{radical}(N) in an ensemble of N atoms. Here, we develop a procedure that combines continuous measurement and quantum Kalman filtering [V. Belavkin, Rep. Math. Phys. 43, 405 (1999)] to surpass this conventional limit by exploiting conditional spin squeezing to achieve 1/N field sensitivity. Our analysis demonstrates the importance of optimal estimation for high bandwidth precision magnetometry at the Heisenberg limit and also identifies an approximate estimator based on linear regression.
Variational principles for particles and fields in Heisenberg matrix mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klein, A.; Li, C.T.; Vassanji, M.
1980-01-01
For many years we have advocated a form of quantum mechanics based on the application of sum rule methods (completeness) to the equations of motion and to the commutation relations, i.e., to Heisenberg matrix mechanics. Sporadically we have discussed or alluded to a variational foundation for this method. In this paper we present a series of variational principles applicable to a range of systems from one-dimensional quantum mechanics to quantum fields. The common thread is that the stationary quantity is the trace of the Hamiltonian over Hilbert space (or over a subspace of interest in an approximation) expressed as a functional of matrix elements of the elementary operators of the theory. These parameters are constrained by the kinematical relations of the theory introduced by the method of Lagrange multipliers. For the field theories, variational principles in which matrix elements of the density operators are chosen as fundamental are also developed. A qualitative discussion of applications is presented
Evolution of topological features in finite antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Changfeng
2003-01-01
We examine the behavior of nonlocal topological order in finite antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains using the density matrix renormalization group techniques. We find that chains with even and odd site parity show very different behavior in the topological string order parameter, reflecting interesting interplay of the intrinsic magnetic correlation and the topological term in the chains. Analysis of the calculated string order parameter as a function of the chain length and the topological angle indicates that S=1/2 and S=1 chains show special behavior while all S>1 chains have similar topological structure. This result supports an earlier conjecture on the classification of quantum spin chains based on an analysis of their phase diagrams. Implications of the topological behavior in finite quantum spin chains are discussed
Anti-ferromagnetic Heisenberg model on bilayer honeycomb
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shoja, M.; Shahbazi, F.
2012-01-01
Recent experiment on spin-3/2 bilayer honeycomb lattice antiferromagnet Bi 3 Mn 4 O 12 (NO 3 ) shows a spin liquid behavior down to very low temperatures. This behavior can be ascribed to the frustration effect due to competitions between first and second nearest neighbour's antiferromagnet interaction. Motivated by the experiment, we study J 1 -J 2 Antiferromagnet Heisenberg model, using Mean field Theory. This calculation shows highly degenerate ground state. We also calculate the effect of second nearest neighbor through z direction and show these neighbors also increase frustration in these systems. Because of these degenerate ground state in these systems, spins can't find any ground state to be freeze in low temperatures. This behavior shows a novel spin liquid state down to very low temperatures.
Demonstrating Heisenberg-limited unambiguous phase estimation without adaptive measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Higgins, B L; Wiseman, H M; Pryde, G J; Berry, D W; Bartlett, S D; Mitchell, M W
2009-01-01
We derive, and experimentally demonstrate, an interferometric scheme for unambiguous phase estimation with precision scaling at the Heisenberg limit that does not require adaptive measurements. That is, with no prior knowledge of the phase, we can obtain an estimate of the phase with a standard deviation that is only a small constant factor larger than the minimum physically allowed value. Our scheme resolves the phase ambiguity that exists when multiple passes through a phase shift, or NOON states, are used to obtain improved phase resolution. Like a recently introduced adaptive technique (Higgins et al 2007 Nature 450 393), our experiment uses multiple applications of the phase shift on single photons. By not requiring adaptive measurements, but rather using a predetermined measurement sequence, the present scheme is both conceptually simpler and significantly easier to implement. Additionally, we demonstrate a simplified adaptive scheme that also surpasses the standard quantum limit for single passes.
Optimal matrix product states for the Heisenberg spin chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Latorre, Jose I; Pico, Vicent
2009-01-01
We present some exact results for the optimal matrix product state (MPS) approximation to the ground state of the infinite isotropic Heisenberg spin-1/2 chain. Our approach is based on the systematic use of Schmidt decompositions to reduce the problem of approximating for the ground state of a spin chain to an analytical minimization. This allows one to show that results of standard simulations, e.g. density matrix renormalization group and infinite time evolving block decimation, do correspond to the result obtained by this minimization strategy and, thus, both methods deliver optimal MPS with the same energy but, otherwise, different properties. We also find that translational and rotational symmetries cannot be maintained simultaneously by the MPS ansatz of minimum energy and present explicit constructions for each case. Furthermore, we analyze symmetry restoration and quantify it to uncover new scaling relations. The method we propose can be extended to any translational invariant Hamiltonian
Presolar Diamond in Meteorites
Amari, Sachiko
2009-01-01
Presolar diamond, the carrier of the isotopically anomalous Xe component Xe-HL, was the first mineral type of presolar dust that was isolated from meteorites. The excesses in the light, p-process only isotopes 124Xe and 126Xe, and in the heavy, r-process only isotopes 134Xe and 136Xe relative to the solar ratios indicate that Xe-HL was produced in supernovae: they are the only stellar source where these two processes are believed to take place. Although these processes occur in supernovae, th...
Quantum-Wave Equation and Heisenberg Inequalities of Covariant Quantum Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claudio Cremaschini
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Key aspects of the manifestly-covariant theory of quantum gravity (Cremaschini and Tessarotto 2015–2017 are investigated. These refer, first, to the establishment of the four-scalar, manifestly-covariant evolution quantum wave equation, denoted as covariant quantum gravity (CQG wave equation, which advances the quantum state ψ associated with a prescribed background space-time. In this paper, the CQG-wave equation is proved to follow at once by means of a Hamilton–Jacobi quantization of the classical variational tensor field g ≡ g μ ν and its conjugate momentum, referred to as (canonical g-quantization. The same equation is also shown to be variational and to follow from a synchronous variational principle identified here with the quantum Hamilton variational principle. The corresponding quantum hydrodynamic equations are then obtained upon introducing the Madelung representation for ψ , which provides an equivalent statistical interpretation of the CQG-wave equation. Finally, the quantum state ψ is proven to fulfill generalized Heisenberg inequalities, relating the statistical measurement errors of quantum observables. These are shown to be represented in terms of the standard deviations of the metric tensor g ≡ g μ ν and its quantum conjugate momentum operator.
Field dependent spin transport of anisotropic Heisenberg chain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rezania, H., E-mail: rezania.hamed@gmail.com
2016-04-01
We have addressed the static spin conductivity and spin Drude weight of one-dimensional spin-1/2 anisotropic antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain in the finite magnetic field. We have investigated the behavior of transport properties by means of excitation spectrum in terms of a hard core bosonic representation. The effect of in-plane anisotropy on the spin transport properties has also been studied via the bosonic model by Green's function approach. This anisotropy is considered for exchange constants that couple spin components perpendicular to magnetic field direction. We have found the temperature dependence of the spin conductivity and spin Drude weight in the gapped field induced spin-polarized phase for various magnetic field and anisotropy parameters. Furthermore we have studied the magnetic field dependence of static spin conductivity and Drude weight for various anisotropy parameters. Our results show the regular part of spin conductivity vanishes in isotropic case however Drude weight has a finite non-zero value and the system exhibits ballistic transport properties. We also find the peak in the static spin conductivity factor moves to higher temperature upon increasing the magnetic field at fixed anisotropy. The static spin conductivity is found to be monotonically decreasing with magnetic field due to increase of energy gap in the excitation spectrum. Furthermore we have studied the temperature dependence of spin Drude weight for different magnetic field and various anisotropy parameters. - Highlights: • Theoretical calculation of spin conductivity of spin chain Heisenberg model. • The investigation of the effects of anisotropy and magnetic field on the temperature dependence of spin conductivity. • The study of the effect of temperature on the spin Drude weight.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammed Daoud
2018-04-01
Full Text Available A relation is established in the present paper between Dicke states in a d-dimensional space and vectors in the representation space of a generalized Weyl–Heisenberg algebra of finite dimension d. This provides a natural way to deal with the separable and entangled states of a system of N = d − 1 symmetric qubit states. Using the decomposition property of Dicke states, it is shown that the separable states coincide with the Perelomov coherent states associated with the generalized Weyl–Heisenberg algebra considered in this paper. In the so-called Majorana scheme, the qudit (d-level states are represented by N points on the Bloch sphere; roughly speaking, it can be said that a qudit (in a d-dimensional space is describable by a N-qubit vector (in a N-dimensional space. In such a scheme, the permanent of the matrix describing the overlap between the N qubits makes it possible to measure the entanglement between the N qubits forming the qudit. This is confirmed by a Fubini–Study metric analysis. A new parameter, proportional to the permanent and called perma-concurrence, is introduced for characterizing the entanglement of a symmetric qudit arising from N qubits. For d = 3 ( ⇔ N = 2 , this parameter constitutes an alternative to the concurrence for two qubits. Other examples are given for d = 4 and 5. A connection between Majorana stars and zeros of a Bargmmann function for qudits closes this article.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Jianjun; Liu Yongjun; Tang Fei; Yang Cuihong
2011-01-01
We investigated the properties of the spin-1/2 ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic alternating Heisenberg chain using the spin-wave theory. The spin-wave excitation spectra, the sublattice magnetizations and the local bond energies of the model are calculated to be compared with the corresponding properties of the mixed spin (1, 1/2) chain for a range of α. The results demonstrate that all the properties show similar behaviours in the small α limit, so the properties of the mixed spin (1, 1/2) chain can be described using the spin-1/2 ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic alternating Heisenberg chain. -- Research Highlights: →The spin-wave excitation spectra, the sublattice magnetizations and the local bond energies of the spin-1/2 ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic alternating Heisenberg chain are calculated. →In the small α limit, the properties of the mixed spin (1,1/2) chain can be described using the spin-1/2 ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic alternating Heisenberg chain. →The spin-1/2 ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic alternating Heisenberg chain may be of interest for some real quasi-one-dimensional molecular magnetic materials.
Transmission diamond imaging detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smedley, John, E-mail: smedley@bnl.gov; Pinelli, Don; Gaoweia, Mengjia [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Muller, Erik; Ding, Wenxiang; Zhou, Tianyi [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Bohon, Jen [Case Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)
2016-07-27
Many modern synchrotron techniques are trending toward use of high flux beams and/or beams which require enhanced stability and precise understanding of beam position and intensity from the front end of the beamline all the way to the sample. For high flux beams, major challenges include heat load management in optics (including the vacuum windows) and a mechanism of real-time volumetric measurement of beam properties such as flux, position, and morphology. For beam stability in these environments, feedback from such measurements directly to control systems for optical elements or to sample positioning stages would be invaluable. To address these challenges, we are developing diamond-based instrumented vacuum windows with integrated volumetric x-ray intensity, beam profile and beam-position monitoring capabilities. A 50 µm thick single crystal diamond has been lithographically patterned to produce 60 µm pixels, creating a >1kilopixel free-standing transmission imaging detector. This device, coupled with a custom, FPGA-based readout, has been used to image both white and monochromatic x-ray beams and capture the last x-ray photons at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). This technology will form the basis for the instrumented end-station window of the x-ray footprinting beamline (XFP) at NSLS-II.
Brotherton, M.
2004-12-01
My first science fiction novel, Star Dragon, just recently available in paperback from Tor, features a voyage to the cataclysmic variable star system SS Cygni. My second novel, Spider Star, to appear early in 2006, takes place in and around a dark matter ``planet'' orbiting a neutron star. Both novels are ``hard'' science fiction, relying on accurate physics to inform the tales. It's possible to bring to life abstract concepts like special relativity, and alien environments like accretion disks, by using science fiction. Novels are difficult to use in a science class, but short stories offer intriguing possibilities. I'm planning to edit an anthology of hard science fiction stories that contain accurate science and emphasize fundamental ideas in modern astronomy. The working title is Diamonds in the Sky. The collection will be a mix of original stories and reprints, highlighting challenging concepts covered in a typical introductory astronomy course. Larry Niven's classic story, ``Neutron Star," is an excellent demonstration of extreme tidal forces in an astronomical context. Diamonds in the Sky will include forewards and afterwards to the stories, including discussion questions and mathematical formulas/examples as appropriate. I envision this project will be published electronically or through a print-on-demand publisher, providing long-term availabilty and keeping low cost. I encourage interested parties to suggest previously published stories, or to suggest which topics must be included.
Thermal applications of low-pressure diamond
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haubner, R.; Lux, B.
1997-01-01
During the last decade several applications of low-pressure diamond were developed. Main products are diamond heat-spreaders using its high thermal conductivity, diamond windows with their high transparency over a wide range of wavelengths and wear resistant tool coatings because of diamonds superhardness. A short description of the most efficient diamond deposition methods (microwave, DC-glow discharge, plasma-jet and arc discharge) is given. The production and applications of diamond layers with high thermal conductivity will be described. Problems of reproducibility of diamond deposition, the influence of impurities, the heat conductivity in electronic packages, reliability and economical mass production will be discussed. (author)
Investigation of the physics of diamond MEMS : diamond allotrope lithography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zalizniak, I.; Olivero, P.; Jamieson, D.N.; Prawer, S.; Reichart, P.; Rubanov, S.; Petriconi, S.
2005-01-01
We propose a novel lithography process in which ion induced phase transfomations of diamond form sacrificial layers allowing the fabrication of small structures including micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). We have applied this novel lithography to the fabrication of diamond microcavities, cantilevers and optical waveguides. In this paper we present preliminary experiments directed at the fabrication of suspended diamond disks that have the potential for operation as optical resonators. Such structures would be very durable and resistant to chemical attack with potential applications as novel sensors for extreme environments or high temperature radiation detectors. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs
Uncertainty Einstein, Heisenberg, Bohr, and the struggle for the soul of science
Lindley, David
2007-01-01
The uncertainty in this delightful book refers to Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, an idea first postulated in 1927 by physicist Werner Heisenberg in his attempt to make sense out of the developing field of quantum mechanics. As Lindley so well explains it, the concept of uncertainty shook the philosophical underpinnings of science. It was Heisenberg's work that, to a great extent, kept Einstein from accepting quantum mechanics as a full explanation for physical reality. Similarly, it was the Uncertainty Principle that demonstrated the limits of scientific investigation: if Heisenberg is correct there are some aspects of the physical universe that are to remain beyond the reach of scientists. As he has done expertly in books like Boltzmann's Atom, Lindley brings to life a critical period in the history of science, explaining complex issues to the general reader, presenting the major players in an engaging fashion, delving into the process of scientific discovery and discussing the interaction between scien...
You err, Einstein.. Newton, Einstein, Heisenberg, and Feynman discuss quantum physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fritzsch, Harald
2008-01-01
Harald Fritzsch and his star physicists Einstein, Heisenberg, and Feynman explain the central concept of nowadays physics, quantum mechanics, without it nothing goes in modern world. And the great Isaac newton puts the questions, which all would put
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hunt, D.C.
1999-01-01
irradiation at 100K), in conjunction with previous measurements, shows that it arises from the neutral -split self-interstitial. This is the first observation of a self-interstitial in type IV material. This shows the self-interstitial is not mobile in type IIa diamond under normal conditions (i.e. without the irradiation) until the annealing temperature of 700K. A new EPR defect, created during electron irradiation at 100K, has been investigated and labelled O3. It has a triplet ground state, S=1, and C 2 symmetry - with a rotation axis. Analysis of the 13 C hyperfine couplings by a simple molecular orbital calculation shows that 76% of the unpaired electronic wavefunction is localized in two non-bonding 2p orbitals, on different carbon atoms separated by ∼3.2(5)A. An EPR investigation of defects in a suite of nitrogen-doped CVD diamond films has shown that single substitutional donor nitrogen and the H1 defect, increase linearly with the nitrogen gas content in the feed stock for atomic nitrogen to carbon ratios (N:C) up to 0.4; the region where the growth rate is also increasing. For higher nitrogen:carbon (N:C) ratios the growth rate falls, and the quality of the films deteriorates substantially as the amount of non-diamond carbon in the film increases. (author)
The broad utility of Trizac diamond tile
Gagliardi, John I.; Romero, Vincent D.; Sventek, Bruce; Zu, Lijun
2017-10-01
Sample finishing data from a broad range of materials — glasses, sapphire, silicon carbide, silicon, zirconium oxide, lithium tantalate, and flooring materials — are shown effectively processed with Trizact™ Diamond Tile (TDT). This data should provide the reader with an understanding of what to expect when using TDT on hard to grind or brittle materials. Keys to maintaining effective TDT pad wear rates, and therefore cost effect and stable processes, are described as managing 1) the proper lubricant flow rate for glasses and silicon-type materials and 2) the conditioning particle concentration for harder-to-grind materials
Diamond: a material for acoustic devices
MORTET, Vincent; WILLIAMS, Oliver; HAENEN, Ken
2008-01-01
Diamond has been foreseen to replace silicon for high power, high frequency electronic applications or for devices that operates in harsh environments. However, diamond electronic devices are still in the laboratory stage due to the lack of large substrates and the complexity of diamond doping. On another hand, surface acoustic wave filters based on diamond are commercially available. Diamond is especially suited for acoustic applications because of its exceptional mechanical properties. The ...
Adiabatic demagnetization of the antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Heisenberg hexagonal cluster
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deb, Moumita; Ghosh, Asim Kumar
2016-01-01
Exact analytic expressions of eigenvalues of the antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Heisenberg hexagon in the presence of uniform magnetic field have been obtained. Magnetization process, nature of isentrops and properties of magneto caloric effect in terms of adiabatic demagnetization have been investigated. Theoretical results have been used to study the magneto caloric effect of the spin-1/2 Heisenberg hexagonal compound Cu_3WO_6.
Critical properties of the D=3 bond-mixed quantum Heisenberg ferromagnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsallis, C.; Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro); Stinchcombe, R.B.; Buck, B.
1983-01-01
Within a Migdal-Kadanoff-like real-space renormalisation group procedure critical properties of the quenched bond-mixed spin 1/2 Heisenberg ferromagnet in simple cubic lattice are treated. It is verified that it is possible, within a very simple framework, to obtain quite reliable results for the critical temperatures. In addition to that, a general method for renormalising arbitrary clusters of Heisenberg-coupled spins 1/2 is outlined. (Author) [pt
At the Limits of Criticality-Based Quantum Metrology: Apparent Super-Heisenberg Scaling Revisited
Rams, Marek M.; Sierant, Piotr; Dutta, Omyoti; Horodecki, Paweł; Zakrzewski, Jakub
2018-04-01
We address the question of whether the super-Heisenberg scaling for quantum estimation is indeed realizable. We unify the results of two approaches. In the first one, the original system is compared with its copy rotated by the parameter-dependent dynamics. If the parameter is coupled to the one-body part of the Hamiltonian, the precision of its estimation is known to scale at most as N-1 (Heisenberg scaling) in terms of the number of elementary subsystems used N . The second approach compares the overlap between the ground states of the parameter-dependent Hamiltonian in critical systems, often leading to an apparent super-Heisenberg scaling. However, we point out that if one takes into account the scaling of time needed to perform the necessary operations, i.e., ensuring adiabaticity of the evolution, the Heisenberg limit given by the rotation scenario is recovered. We illustrate the general theory on a ferromagnetic Heisenberg spin chain example and show that it exhibits such super-Heisenberg scaling of ground-state fidelity around the critical value of the parameter (magnetic field) governing the one-body part of the Hamiltonian. Even an elementary estimator represented by a single-site magnetization already outperforms the Heisenberg behavior providing the N-1.5 scaling. In this case, Fisher information sets the ultimate scaling as N-1.75, which can be saturated by measuring magnetization on all sites simultaneously. We discuss universal scaling predictions of the estimation precision offered by such observables, both at zero and finite temperatures, and support them with numerical simulations in the model. We provide an experimental proposal of realization of the considered model via mapping the system to ultracold bosons in a periodically shaken optical lattice. We explicitly derive that the Heisenberg limit is recovered when the time needed for preparation of quantum states involved is taken into account.
Criticality of the D=2 quantum Heisenberg ferromagnet with quenched random anisotropic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mariz, A.M.; Tsallis, C.
1985-01-01
The square-lattice spin 1/2 anisotropic Heisenberg ferromagnet is considered, with interactions whose symmetry can independently (quenched model) and randomly be of two competing types, namely the isotropic Heisenberg type and the Ising one. Within a real space renormalization group framework, a quite precise numerical calculation of the critical frontier is performed, and its main asymptotic behaviour are established. The relevant universality classes are also characterized, through the analysis of the correlation length critical exponent. (Author) [pt
Growth, characterization, and device development in monocrystalline diamond films
Davis, Robert F.
1991-12-01
The nucleation of diamond grains on an unscratched silicon wafer is enhanced by four order of magnitude relative to scratched substrates by using negative bias enhanced microwave plasma CVD in a 2 percent methane/hydrogen plasma for an initial period. In vacuo surface analysis has revealed that the actual nucleation occurs on the amorphous C coating present on the thin SiC layer which forms as the product of the initial reaction with the Si surface. It is believed that the C forms critical clusters which are favorable for diamond nucleation. Similar enhancement was observed together with the occurrence of textured diamond films in the use of bias pretreatment of cubic Beta SiC substrates. Approximately 50 percent of the initial diamond nuclei were aligned with the SiC substrate. In contrast, the use of the biasing pretreatment for one hour on polycrystalline substrates resulted in only about 7 percent coverage with diamond particles. Numerous techniques have been used to analyze the nucleation and growth phenomena, especially micro Raman and scanning tunneling microscopy. The latter technique has shown that the morphology of doped and undoped diamond nuclei are similar, as well as the fact that significant concentrations of vacancy related defects are present. In device related-studies, UV-photoemission studies have shown that TiC occurs at the Ti-diamond (100) interface after a 400 C anneal. The Schottky barrier height from this metal on p-type diamond was determined to be 1.0 eV. Indications of negative electron affinity (NEA) was observed and attributed to emission of electrons that are quasi-thermalized to the bottom of the conduction band. A disordered surface removes the NEA. The microwave performance of p-type (beta-doped) diamond MESFET's at 10 GHz has been further investigated. Elevated temperatures may be necessary to obtain sufficient free charge densities in the conducting channel but this will result in degraded device performance. Each of these
Indigenous development of diamond detectors for monitoring neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Arvind; Amit Kumar; Topkar, Anita; Pithawa, C.K.
2013-01-01
High purity synthetic chemically vapor deposited (CVD) diamond has several outstanding characteristics that make it as an important material for detector applications specifically for extreme environmental conditions like high temperature, high radiation, and highly corrosive environments. Diamond detectors are especially considered promising for monitoring fast neutrons produced by the D-T nuclear fusion reactions in next generation fusion facilities such as ITER. When fast neutrons interact with carbon, elastic, inelastic and (n,α) type reactions can occur. These reactions can be employed for the detection of fast neutrons using diamond. We have initiated the development of diamond detectors based on synthetic CVD substrates. In this paper, the first test of a polycrystalline CVD diamond detector with fast neutrons is reported. The test results demonstrate that this detector can be used for monitoring fast neutrons. The diamond detectors have been fabricated using 5 mm x 5 mm, 300 μm polycrystalline diamond substrates. Aluminum metallization has been used on both sides of the detector to provide electrical contacts. The performance of fabricated detectors was first evaluated using current and capacitance measurements. The leakage current was observed to be stable and about a few pAs for voltages up to 300V. The capacitance-voltage characteristics showed a constant capacitance which is as expected. To confirm the response of the detector to charged particles, the pulse height spectrum (PHS) was obtained using 238 Pu- 239 Pu dual α- source. The PHS showed a continuum without any peak due to polycrystalline nature of diamond film. The response of the detector to fast neutrons has been studied using the fast neutron facility at NXF, BARC. The PHS obtained for a neutron yield of 4 x 10 8 n/s is shown. The average counts per second (cps) measured for diamond detector for different neutron yields is shown. The plot shows linearity with coefficient of determination R
Diamond and Diamond-Like Materials as Hydrogen Isotope Barriers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foreman, L.R.; Barbero, R.S.; Carroll, D.W.; Archuleta, T.; Baker, J.; Devlin, D.; Duke, J.; Loemier, D.; Trukla, M.
1999-01-01
This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project was to develop diamond and diamond-like thin-films as hydrogen isotope permeation barriers. Hydrogen embrittlement limits the life of boost systems which otherwise might be increased to 25 years with a successful non-reactive barrier. Applications in tritium processing such as bottle filling processes, tritium recovery processes, and target filling processes could benefit from an effective barrier. Diamond-like films used for low permeability shells for ICF and HEDP targets were also investigated. Unacceptable high permeabilities for hydrogen were obtained for plasma-CVD diamond-like-carbon films
Pleskov, Yu V; Krotova, M D; Elkin, V V; Varnin, V P; Teremetskaya, I G; Saveliev, A V; Ralchenko, V G
2012-08-27
A comparative study of benzene oxidation at boron-doped diamond (BDD) and nitrogenated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) anodes in 0.5 M K(2)SO(4) aqueous solution is conducted by using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is shown by measurements of differential capacitance and anodic current that during the benzene oxidation at the BDD electrode, adsorption of a reaction intermediate occurs, which partially blocks the electrode surface and lowers the anodic current. At the NCD electrode, benzene is oxidized concurrently with oxygen evolution, a (quinoid) intermediate being adsorbed at the electrode. The adsorption and the electrode surface blocking are reflected in the impedance-frequency and impedance-potential complex-plane plots. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Nuclear spin relaxation in a spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain at high fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyo, S.K.
1981-01-01
The proton spin relaxation rate is calculated in the one-dimensional spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet α-bis (N-methylsalicylaldiminato)-copper (II), α-CuNSal by using a fermion representation for magnons above the critical field where the magnon spectrum develops a gap. The one-magnon process which is dominant below the critical field is shown to be absent in the presence of a gap in contrast to a previous theory. Instead, we find that the three-magnon rate is large enough to explain the data at low fields. The two-magnon off-resonance damping which enters the expression for the three-magnon rate is calculated by solving the two-magnon scattering exactly, leading to a much smaller value of the rate than that predicted by the Born approximation. Also, in an unsuccessful attempt to resolve the discrepancy between the recently calculated two-magnon rate (dominant at high fields) and the data of α-CuNSal reported by Azevedo et al., we carry out the vertex correction for the spin-density correlation function by summing the RPA series as well as the exchange ladders for the polarization part. We find that, although the exchange enhancement is significantly large, it is nearly canceled out by the RPA correction, and the net effect of the vertex correction is small. This result agrees with the recent data of the similar spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain system CuSO 4 x5H 2 O reported by Groen et al. On the other hand, it disagrees with a recent calculation of the two-magnon rate based on a boson representation of spins. To resolve this discrepancy we examine the effect of the boson self-energy correction on the two-magnon rate. The boson spectral shift is found to be quite large in the region where the cited two-boson rate deviates from the two-fermion rate. As a result the two-boson rate is significantly reduced, leading to reasonable agreement with the two-fermion rate
Diamond detector time resolution for large angle tracks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiodini, G., E-mail: chiodini@le.infn.it [INFN - Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Fiore, G.; Perrino, R. [INFN - Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Pinto, C.; Spagnolo, S. [INFN - Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Dip. di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Uni. del Salento (Italy)
2015-10-01
The applications which have stimulated greater interest in diamond sensors are related to detectors close to particle beams, therefore in an environment with high radiation level (beam monitor, luminosity measurement, detection of primary and secondary-interaction vertices). Our aims is to extend the studies performed so far by developing the technical advances needed to prove the competitiveness of this technology in terms of time resolution, with respect to more usual ones, which does not guarantee the required tolerance to a high level of radiation doses. In virtue of these goals, measurements of diamond detector time resolution with tracks incident at different angles are discussed. In particular, preliminary testbeam results obtained with 5 GeV electrons and polycrystalline diamond strip detectors are shown.
Photoluminescence and optical transmission of diamond and its imitators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipatov, E.I.; Avdeev, S.M.; Tarasenko, V.F.
2010-01-01
Photoluminescence and optical transmission spectra of several samples of natural and synthetic diamond and its imitators - fianite and corundum - are investigated. The band-A of luminescence at 440 nm, the vibronic N3 system of luminescence and absorption at 415.2 nm, the fundamental absorption edge at 225 nm, and the secondary absorption below 308 nm are the main identifying markers of natural diamonds. For synthetic diamonds, however, such identifying markers are the free-exciton luminescence at 235 nm, the band-A, and the fundamental absorption edge. Fianites can be identified by the structureless wideband at 500 nm and the wide transmission band in the entire visible range. Colored corundum samples with chrome impurities emit the narrow line at 693 nm and show the absorption band in the 500-600 nm spectral range. A new method for diamond express identification is developed on the basis of measurement of photoluminescence and optical transmission spectra of the samples. It is shown that a diamond tester can be designed combining a spectrometer and a KrCl-excilamp radiating at 222 nm.
Review of the development of diamond radiation sensors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J. E-mail: josel.hrubec@cern.ch; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M
1999-09-11
Diamond radiation sensors produced by chemical vapour deposition are studied for the application as tracking detectors in high luminosity experiments. Sensors with a charge collection distance up to 250 {mu}m have been manufactured. Their radiation hardness has been studied with pions, proton and neutrons up to fluences of 1.9x10{sup 15} {pi} cm{sup -2}, 5x10{sup 15} p cm{sup -2} and 1.35x10{sup 15} n cm{sup -2}, respectively. Diamond micro-strip detectors with 50 {mu}m pitch have been exposed in a high-energy test beam in order to investigate their charge collection properties. The measured spatial resolution using a centre-of-gravity position finding algorithm corresponds to the digital resolution for this strip pitch. First results from a strip tracker with a 2x4 cm{sup 2} surface area are reported as well as the performance of a diamond tracker read out by radiation-hard electronics with 25 ns shaping time. Diamond pixel sensors have been prepared to match the geometries of the recently available read-out chip prototypes for ATLAS and CMS. Beam test results are shown from a diamond detector bump-bonded to an ATLAS prototype read-out. They demonstrate a 98% bump-bonding efficiency and a digital resolution in both dimensions. (author)
Review of the development of diamond radiation sensors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.
1999-01-01
Diamond radiation sensors produced by chemical vapour deposition are studied for the application as tracking detectors in high luminosity experiments. Sensors with a charge collection distance up to 250 μm have been manufactured. Their radiation hardness has been studied with pions, proton and neutrons up to fluences of 1.9x10 15 π cm -2 , 5x10 15 p cm -2 and 1.35x10 15 n cm -2 , respectively. Diamond micro-strip detectors with 50 μm pitch have been exposed in a high-energy test beam in order to investigate their charge collection properties. The measured spatial resolution using a centre-of-gravity position finding algorithm corresponds to the digital resolution for this strip pitch. First results from a strip tracker with a 2x4 cm 2 surface area are reported as well as the performance of a diamond tracker read out by radiation-hard electronics with 25 ns shaping time. Diamond pixel sensors have been prepared to match the geometries of the recently available read-out chip prototypes for ATLAS and CMS. Beam test results are shown from a diamond detector bump-bonded to an ATLAS prototype read-out. They demonstrate a 98% bump-bonding efficiency and a digital resolution in both dimensions. (author)
Review of the development of diamond radiation sensors
Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P. F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R. D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L. S.; Palmieri, V. G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; RD42 Collaboration
1999-09-01
Diamond radiation sensors produced by chemical vapour deposition are studied for the application as tracking detectors in high luminosity experiments. Sensors with a charge collection distance up to 250 μm have been manufactured. Their radiation hardness has been studied with pions, proton and neutrons up to fluences of 1.9×10 15 π cm -2, 5×10 15 p cm -2 and 1.35×10 15 n cm -2, respectively. Diamond micro-strip detectors with 50 μm pitch have been exposed in a high-energy test beam in order to investigate their charge collection properties. The measured spatial resolution using a centre-of-gravity position finding algorithm corresponds to the digital resolution for this strip pitch. First results from a strip tracker with a 2×4 cm 2 surface area are reported as well as the performance of a diamond tracker read out by radiation-hard electronics with 25 ns shaping time. Diamond pixel sensors have been prepared to match the geometries of the recently available read-out chip prototypes for ATLAS and CMS. Beam test results are shown from a diamond detector bump-bonded to an ATLAS prototype read-out. They demonstrate a 98% bump-bonding efficiency and a digital resolution in both dimensions.
Comparison of Finite Element Modeling and Experimental Pressure Distribution in a Diamond Anvil Cell
Kondrat'yev, Andreiy I.; Murphy, Michael J.; Weir, Samuel T.; Vohra, Yogesh K.
2002-10-01
Ultra high pressures can be obtained in a Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) device by optimizing the geometrical shape of diamond anvil and by use of high strength gasket materials. Radial pressure distribution in a diamond-coated rhenium gasket was measured by the micro-collimated X-ray diffraction techniques at NSLS, Brookhaven National Laboratory up to peak pressure of 220 GPa. The process of DAC compression was described by finite element analysis using NIKE-2D software. The mechanical properties of the diamond-coated gasket material were modeled and radial pressure distribution obtained was in good agreement with the experimental data. The calculated shear stress in diamond in the axial direction was shown to depend strongly on the yield strength of the gasket material and may limit the ultimate pressure that can be obtained with the use of high strength gasket materials. Supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant No. DMR-0203779.
The q-deformed SU(2) Heisenberg model in 3-dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Zhongyi; Yan Hong.
1991-07-01
A q-deformed SU(2) Heisenberg (3-dimensional) spin model is set up, and the q-deformed spin-wave solution is obtained through the q-analogous Holstein-Primakoff transformation. The result is given for small γ = ln q, which is the quantity characterizing the nonlinearity of the Hamiltonian. A mean-field treatment is arranged to preserved (at least some of) the nonlinearity, and the ordinary ferromagnet ground state is shown as the exact ground state of the new system. Interesting results are obtained for this nonlinear model: (i) There is an energy gap between the ground state and the first excited one, thus the ground state is stable under small perturbation of the background; (ii) the specific heat per volume is modified by a small term proportional to the 1/2-th power of temperature and the square of γ, which is qualitatively different from the conventional model, and (iii) the magnetization M(T) is modified by a factor that depends on γ. (author). 16 refs
Persistence of the gapless spin liquid in the breathing kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet
Iqbal, Yasir; Poilblanc, Didier; Thomale, Ronny; Becca, Federico
2018-03-01
The nature of the ground state of the spin S =1 /2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the kagome lattice with breathing anisotropy (i.e., with different superexchange couplings J▵ and J▿ within elementary up- and down-pointing triangles) is investigated within the framework of Gutzwiller projected fermionic wave functions and Monte Carlo methods. We analyze the stability of the U(1 ) Dirac spin liquid with respect to the presence of fermionic pairing that leads to a gapped Z2 spin liquid. For several values of the ratio J▿/J▵ , the size scaling of the energy gain due to the pairing fields and the variational parameters are reported. Our results show that the energy gain of the gapped spin liquid with respect to the gapless state either vanishes for large enough system size or scales to zero in the thermodynamic limit. Similarly, the optimized pairing amplitudes (responsible for opening the spin gap) are shown to vanish in the thermodynamic limit. Our outcome is corroborated by the application of one and two Lanczos steps to the gapless and gapped wave functions, for which no energy gain of the gapped state is detected when improving the quality of the variational states. Finally, we discuss the competition with the "simplex" Z2 resonating-valence-bond spin liquid, valence-bond crystal, and nematic states in the strongly anisotropic regime, i.e., J▿≪J▵ .
Method of dehalogenation using diamonds
Farcasiu, Malvina; Kaufman, Phillip B.; Ladner, Edward P.; Anderson, Richard R.
2000-01-01
A method for preparing olefins and halogenated olefins is provided comprising contacting halogenated compounds with diamonds for a sufficient time and at a sufficient temperature to convert the halogenated compounds to olefins and halogenated olefins via elimination reactions.
Quantum photonic networks in diamond
Lončar, Marko; Faraon, Andrei
2013-01-01
Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the opportunity to fabricate nanoscale optical devices and chip-scale systems in diamond that can generate, manipulate, and store optical signals at the single-photon level. In particular, nanophotonics has
CVD diamond detectors and dosimeters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manfredotti, C.; Fizzotti, F.; LoGiudice, A.; Paolini, C.; Oliviero, P.; Vittone, E.; Torino Univ., Torino
2002-01-01
Natural diamond, because of its well-known properties of tissue-equivalence, has recorded a wide spreading use in radiotherapy planning with electron linear accelerators. Artificial diamond dosimeters, as obtained by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) could be capable to offer the same performances and they can be prepared in different volumes and shapes. The dosimeter sensitivity per unit volume may be easily proved to be better than standard ionization microchamber. We have prepared in our laboratory CVD diamond microchamber (diamond tips) in emispherical shape with an external diameter of 200 μm, which can be used both as X-ray beam profilometers and as microdosimeters for small field applications like stereotaxy and also for in vivo applications. These dosimeters, which are obtained on a wire substrate that could be either metallic or SiC or even graphite, display good performances also as ion or synchrotron X-rays detectors
DIAMONDS: Engineering Distributed Object Systems
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Cheng, Evan
1997-01-01
This report describes DIAMONDS, a research project at Syracuse University, that is dedicated to producing both a methodology and corresponding tools to assist in the development of heterogeneous distributed software...
Chemical Vapor-Deposited (CVD) Diamond Films for Electronic Applications
1995-01-01
Diamond films have a variety of useful applications as electron emitters in devices such as magnetrons, electron multipliers, displays, and sensors. Secondary electron emission is the effect in which electrons are emitted from the near surface of a material because of energetic incident electrons. The total secondary yield coefficient, which is the ratio of the number of secondary electrons to the number of incident electrons, generally ranges from 2 to 4 for most materials used in such applications. It was discovered recently at the NASA Lewis Research Center that chemical vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond films have very high secondary electron yields, particularly when they are coated with thin layers of CsI. For CsI-coated diamond films, the total secondary yield coefficient can exceed 60. In addition, diamond films exhibit field emission at fields orders of magnitude lower than for existing state-of-the-art emitters. Present state-of-the-art microfabricated field emitters generally require applied fields above 5x10^7 V/cm. Research on field emission from CVD diamond and high-pressure, high-temperature diamond has shown that field emission can be obtained at fields as low as 2x10^4 V/cm. It has also been shown that thin layers of metals, such as gold, and of alkali halides, such as CsI, can significantly increase field emission and stability. Emitters with nanometer-scale lithography will be able to obtain high-current densities with voltages on the order of only 10 to 15 V.
Modeling of diamond radiation detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milazzo, L.; Mainwood, A.
2004-01-01
We have built up a computer simulation of the detection mechanism in the diamond radiation detectors. The diamond detectors can be fabricated from a chemical vapour deposition polycrystalline diamond film. In this case, the trapping-detrapping and recombination at the defects inside the grains and at the grain boundaries degrade the transport properties of the material and the charge induction processes. These effects may strongly influence the device's response. Previous simulations of this kind of phenomena in the diamond detectors have generally been restricted to the simple detector geometries and homogeneous distribution of the defects. In our model, the diamond film (diamond detector) is simulated by a grid. We apply a spatial and time discretization, regulated by the grid resolution, to the equations describing the charge transport and, by using the Shockley-Ramo theorem, we calculate the signal induced on the electrodes. In this way, we can simulate the effects of the nonhomogeneous distributions of the trapping, recombination, or scattering centers and can investigate the differences observed when different particles, energies, and electrode configurations are used. The simulation shows that the efficiency of the detector increases linearly with the average grain size, that the charge collection distance is small compared to the dimensions of a single grain, and that for small grains, the trapping at the intragrain defects is insignificant compared to the effect of the grain boundaries
Quantum photonic networks in diamond
Lončar, Marko
2013-02-01
Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the opportunity to fabricate nanoscale optical devices and chip-scale systems in diamond that can generate, manipulate, and store optical signals at the single-photon level. In particular, nanophotonics has emerged as a powerful interface between optical elements such as optical fibers and lenses, and solid-state quantum objects such as luminescent color centers in diamond that can be used effectively to manipulate quantum information. While quantum science and technology has been the main driving force behind recent interest in diamond nanophotonics, such a platform would have many applications that go well beyond the quantum realm. For example, diamond\\'s transparency over a wide wavelength range, large third-order nonlinearity, and excellent thermal properties are of great interest for the implementation of frequency combs and integrated Raman lasers. Diamond is also an inert material that makes it well suited for biological applications and for devices that must operate in harsh environments. Copyright © Materials Research Society 2013.
A multilayer innovative solution to improve the adhesion of nanocrystalline diamond coatings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poulon-Quintin, A., E-mail: poulon@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr [CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Univ. Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Faure, C.; Teulé-Gay, L.; Manaud, J.P. [CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Univ. Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France)
2015-03-15
Highlights: • Improvement of the NCD adhesion on WC-12%Co substrates for tooling applications using a multi-interlayer additional system. • Reduction of the graphite layer thickness and continuity at the interface with the diamond. • Transmission electron microscopy study for a better understanding of the diffusion phenomena occurring at the interfaces. - Abstract: Nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) films grown under negative biased substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are widely used as surface overlay coating onto cermet WC-Co cutting tools to get better performances. To improve the diamond adhesion to the cermet substrate, suitable multi-layer systems have been added. They are composed of a cobalt diffusion barrier close to the substrate (single and sequenced nitrides layers) coated with a nucleation extra layer to improve the nucleus density of diamond during CVD processing. For all systems, before and after diamond deposition, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been performed for a better understanding of the diffusion phenomena occurring at the interfaces and to evaluate the presence of graphitic species at the interface with the diamond. Innovative multilayer system dedicated to the regulation of cobalt diffusion coated with a bilayer system optimized for the carbon diffusion control, is shown as an efficient solution to significantly reduce the graphite layer formation at the interface with the diamond down to 10 nm thick and to increase the adhesion of NCD diamond layer as scratch-tests confirm.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campos, Raonei Alves; Contin, Andre; Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir J.; Corat, Evaldo Jose; Barquete, Danilo Maciel
2010-01-01
CVD Diamond coating of WC-TiC-Co cutting tools has been an alternative to increase tool lifetime. Experiments have shown that residual stresses produced during films growth on WC-TiC-Co substrates significantly increases with increasing film thickness up to 20 μm and usually leads to film delamination. In this work alternated micro- and nanocrystalline CVD diamond films have been used to relax interface stresses and to increase diamond coatings performance. WC-TiC-Co substrates have been submitted to a boronizing thermal diffusion treatment prior to CVD diamond films growth. After reactive heat treatment samples were submitted to chemical etching in acid and alkaline solution. The diamond films deposition was performed using HFCVD reactor with different gas concentrations for microcrystalline (MCD) and nano-crystalline (NCD) films growth. As a result, we present the improvement of diamond films adherence on WC-TiC-Co, evaluated by indentation and machining tests. Samples were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) for qualitative analysis of diamond films. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) was used for phases identification after boronizing process. Diamond film compressive residual stresses were analyzed by Raman Scattering Spectroscopy (RSS). (author)
Stapp's quantum dualism: The James/Heisenberg model of consciousness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noyes, H.P.
1994-01-01
Henry Stapp attempts to resolve the Cartesian dilemma by introducing what the author would characterize as an ontological dualism between mind and matter. His model for mind comes from William James' description of conscious events and for matter from Werner Heisenberg's ontological model for quantum events (wave function collapse). His demonstration of the isomorphism between the two types of events is successful, but in the author's opinion fails to establish a monistic, scientific theory. The author traces Stapp's failure to his adamant rejection of arbitrariness, or 'randomness'. This makes it impossible for him (or for Bohr and Pauli before him) to understand the power of Darwin's explanation of biology, let along the triumphs of modern 'neo-Darwinism'. The author notes that the point at issue is a modern version of the unresolved opposition between Leucippus and Democritus on one side and Epicurus on the other. Stapp's views are contrasted with recent discussions of consciousness by two eminent biologists: Crick and Edelman. They locate the problem firmly in the context of natural selection on the surface of the earth. Their approaches provide a sound basis for further scientific work. The author briefly examines the connection between this scientific (rather than ontological) framework and the new fundamental theory based on bit-strings and the combinatorial hierarchy
Effects of surface exchange anisotropy in Heisenberg ferromagnetic insulators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Selzer, S.; Majlis, N.
1982-03-01
We consider an fcc semi-infinite ferromagnetic insulator displaying an anisotropic exchange interaction between spins on the (111) surface plane of the form Jsub(parallel)[Ssub(i)sup(x)Ssub(j)sup(x)+Ssub(i)sup(y)Ssub(j)sup(y )+etaSsub(i)sup(z)Ssub(j)sup(z)], assuming all other interactions isotropic. A self-consistent RPA calculation is performed, with a Green function method valid for any spin S, up to the bulk transition temperature Tsub(c)sup(b), by imposing that the magnetization of the third layer equals the bulk value. For eta sufficiently large, the surface magnetization is non-zero for T>Tsub(c)sup(b), up to a transition temperature Tsub(c)sup(s)(eta) whenever eta>=etasub(c)>1, where Tsub(c)sup(s)(etasub(c))=Tsub(c)sup(b). For T>Tsub(c)sup(b) the system is equivalent to a film of three layers, where the magnetization of the third one is identically zero as a boundary condition. A discontinuity of the derivative in the curve of the magnetization of the first two layers vs. temperature is found at Tsub(c)sup(b). The results show clearly a cross-over from Heisenberg to Ising behaviour at the surface. (author)
Deformed Heisenberg algebra, fractional spin fields, and supersymmetry without fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plyushchay, M.S.
1996-01-01
Within a group-theoretical approach to the description of (2+1)-dimensional anyons, the minimal covariant set of linear differential equations is constructed for the fractional spin fields with the help of the deformed Heisenberg algebra (DHA), [a - ,a + ]=1+νK, involving the Klein operator K, {K,a ± }=0, K 2 =1. The connection of the minimal set of equations with the earlier proposed open-quote open-quote universal close-quote close-quote vector set of anyon equations is established. On the basis of this algebra, a bosonization of supersymmetric quantum mechanics is carried out. The construction comprises the cases of exact and spontaneously broken N=2 supersymmetry allowing us to realize a Bose endash Fermi transformation and spin-1/2 representation of SU(2) group in terms of one bosonic oscillator. The construction admits an extension to the case of OSp(2 parallel 2) supersymmetry, and, as a consequence, both applications of the DHA turn out to be related. The possibility of open-quote open-quote superimposing close-quote close-quote the two applications of the DHA for constructing a supersymmetric (2+1)-dimensional anyon system is discussed. As a consequential result we point out that the osp(2 parallel 2) superalgebra is realizable as an operator algebra for a quantum mechanical 2-body (nonsupersymmetric) Calogero model. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc
Phase transition in Ising, XY and Heisenberg magnetic films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masrour, R., E-mail: rachidmasrour@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Materials, Processes, Environment and Quality, Cady Ayyed University, National School of Applied Sciences, Route Sidi Bouzid - BP 63 46000 Safi (Morocco); LMPHE, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mohamed V, Rabat (Morocco); Hamedoun, M. [Institute for Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, Rabat (Morocco); Academie Hassan II des Sciences et Techniques, Rabat (Morocco); Benyoussef, A. [LMPHE, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mohamed V, Rabat (Morocco); Institute for Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, Rabat (Morocco); Academie Hassan II des Sciences et Techniques, Rabat (Morocco)
2012-01-01
The phase transition and magnetic properties of a ferromagnet spin-S, a disordered diluted thin and semi-infinite film with a face-centered cubic lattice are investigated using the high-temperature series expansions technique extrapolated with Pade approximants method for Heisenberg, XY and Ising models. The reduced critical temperature of the system {tau}{sub c} is studied as function of the thickness of the thin film and the exchange interactions in the bulk, and within the surfaces J{sub b}, J{sub s} and J{sub Up-Tack }, respectively. It is found that {tau}{sub c} increases with the exchange interactions of surface. The magnetic phase diagrams ({tau}{sub c} versus the dilution x) and the percolation threshold are obtained. The shifts of the critical temperatures T{sub c}(l) from the bulk value (T{sub c}({infinity})/T{sub c}(l) - 1) can be described by a power law l{sup -{lambda}}, where {lambda} = 1/{upsilon} is the inverse of the correlation length exponent.
Topological superconductivity in the extended Kitaev-Heisenberg model
Schmidt, Johann; Scherer, Daniel D.; Black-Schaffer, Annica M.
2018-01-01
We study superconducting pairing in the doped Kitaev-Heisenberg model by taking into account the recently proposed symmetric off-diagonal exchange Γ . By performing a mean-field analysis, we classify all possible superconducting phases in terms of symmetry, explicitly taking into account effects of spin-orbit coupling. Solving the resulting gap equations self-consistently, we map out a phase diagram that involves several topologically nontrivial states. For Γ breaking chiral phase with Chern number ±1 and a time-reversal symmetric nematic phase that breaks the rotational symmetry of the lattice. On the other hand, for Γ ≥0 we find a time-reversal symmetric phase that preserves all the lattice symmetries, thus yielding clearly distinguishable experimental signatures for all superconducting phases. Both of the time-reversal symmetric phases display a transition to a Z2 nontrivial phase at high doping levels. Finally, we also include a symmetry-allowed spin-orbit coupling kinetic energy and show that it destroys a tentative symmetry-protected topological order at lower doping levels. However, it can be used to tune the time-reversal symmetric phases into a Z2 nontrivial phase even at lower doping.
Reducing Uncertainty: Implementation of Heisenberg Principle to Measure Company Performance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Svirina
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of uncertainty reduction in estimation of future company performance, which is a result of wide range of enterprise's intangible assets probable efficiency. To reduce this problem, the paper suggests to use quantum economy principles, i.e. implementation of Heisenberg principle to measure efficiency and potential of intangible assets of the company. It is proposed that for intangibles it is not possible to estimate both potential and efficiency at a certain time point. To provide a proof for these thesis, the data on resources potential and efficiency from mid-Russian companies was evaluated within deterministic approach, which did not allow to evaluate probability of achieving certain resource efficiency, and quantum approach, which allowed to estimate the central point around which the probable efficiency of resources in concentrated. Visualization of these approaches was performed by means of LabView software. It was proven that for tangible assets performance estimation a deterministic approach should be used; while for intangible assets the quantum approach allows better quality of future performance prediction. On the basis of these findings we proposed the holistic approach towards estimation of company resource efficiency in order to reduce uncertainty in modeling company performance.
Novel phase of carbon, ferromagnetism, and conversion into diamond
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narayan, Jagdish; Bhaumik, Anagh
2015-01-01
We report the discovery of a new phase of carbon (referred to as Q-carbon) and address fundamental issues related to direct conversion of carbon into diamond at ambient temperatures and pressures in air without any need for catalyst and presence of hydrogen. The Q-carbon is formed as result of quenching from super undercooled state by using high-power nanosecond laser pulses. We discuss the equilibrium phase diagram (P vs. T) of carbon and show that by rapid quenching kinetics can shift thermodynamic graphite/diamond/liquid carbon triple point from 5000 K/12 GPa to super undercooled carbon at atmospheric pressure in air. It is shown that nanosecond laser heating of diamond-like amorphous carbon on sapphire, glass, and polymer substrates can be confined to melt carbon in a super undercooled state. By quenching the carbon from the super undercooled state, we have created a new state of carbon (Q-carbon) from which nanodiamond, microdiamond, microneedles, and single-crystal thin films are formed depending upon the nucleation and growth times allowed for diamond formation. The Q-carbon quenched from liquid is a new state of solid carbon with a higher mass density than amorphous carbon and a mixture of mostly fourfold sp 3 (75%–85%) with the rest being threefold sp 2 bonded carbon (with distinct entropy). It is expected to have new and improved mechanical hardness, electrical conductivity, chemical, and physical properties, including room-temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) and enhanced field emission. Here we present interesting results on RTFM, enhanced electrical conductivity and surface potential of Q-carbon to emphasize its unique properties. The Q-carbon exhibits robust bulk ferromagnetism with estimated Curie temperature of about 500 K and saturation magnetization value of 20 emu g −1 . From the Q-carbon, diamond phase is nucleated and a variety of micro- and nanostructures and large-area single-crystal diamond sheets are grown by allowing growth times
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.M. Kuzei
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Using the methods of electronic scanning microstructure and X-ray analysis, the influence of the structure of diamond-containing composite materials on the cutting ability of the tool for circular grinding of diamond single crystals has been studied. It is shown that the use of an oxide-hydroxide glass with a spreading temperature of 570–590 K as a precursor of the binder leads to the formation of melt films on the surface of silicon carbide and diamond particles at 600–630 K and the glass content in the batch is 10 vol. %. The conversion of oxidehydroxide glass films to oxide films proceeds at 700–775 K during the sintering of the composite material. Depending on the volume content of the glass in the charge, the porosity of the compact, three types of structure of composite materials are distinguished: a volumetric skeleton of glass-clad diamond particles and silicon carbide with pores at the sites of multiple compounds; a frame made of glass-clad diamond particles and silicon carbide with glass pores in places of multiple connections; a matrix of glass and the particles of diamond, silicon carbide and pores located in it. The maximum cutting ability of the tool for circular grinding of diamond is provided by a composite material with a structure of the first type.
Diamonds: Exploration, mines and marketing
Read, George H.; Janse, A. J. A. (Bram)
2009-11-01
The beauty, value and mystique of exceptional quality diamonds such as the 603 carat Lesotho Promise, recovered from the Letseng Mine in 2006, help to drive a multi-billion dollar diamond exploration, mining and marketing industry that operates in some 45 countries across the globe. Five countries, Botswana, Russia, Canada, South Africa and Angola account for 83% by value and 65% by weight of annual diamond production, which is mainly produced by four major companies, De Beers, Alrosa, Rio Tinto and BHP Billiton (BHPB), which together account for 78% by value and 72% by weight of annual diamond production for 2007. During the last twelve years 16 new diamond mines commenced production and 4 re-opened. In addition, 11 projects are in advanced evaluation and may begin operations within the next five years. Exploration for diamondiferous kimberlites was still energetic up to the last quarter of 2008 with most work carried out in Canada, Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Botswana. Many kimberlites were discovered but no new economic deposits were outlined as a result of this work, except for the discovery and possible development of the Bunder project by Rio Tinto in India. Exploration methods have benefitted greatly from improved techniques of high resolution geophysical aerial surveying, new research into the geochemistry of indicator minerals and further insights into the formation of diamonds and the relation to tectonic/structural events in the crust and mantle. Recent trends in diamond marketing indicate that prices for rough diamonds and polished goods were still rising up to the last quarter of 2008 and subsequently abruptly sank in line with the worldwide financial crisis. Most analysts predict that prices will rise again in the long term as the gap between supply and demand will widen because no new economic diamond discoveries have been made recently. The disparity between high rough and polished prices and low share prices of publicly
Are diamond nanoparticles cytotoxic?
Schrand, Amanda M; Huang, Houjin; Carlson, Cataleya; Schlager, John J; Omacr Sawa, Eiji; Hussain, Saber M; Dai, Liming
2007-01-11
Finely divided carbon particles, including charcoal, lampblack, and diamond particles, have been used for ornamental and official tattoos since ancient times. With the recent development in nanoscience and nanotechnology, carbon-based nanomaterials (e.g., fullerenes, nanotubes, nanodiamonds) attract a great deal of interest. Owing to their low chemical reactivity and unique physical properties, nanodiamonds could be useful in a variety of biological applications such as carriers for drugs, genes, or proteins; novel imaging techniques; coatings for implantable materials; and biosensors and biomedical nanorobots. Therefore, it is essential to ascertain the possible hazards of nanodiamonds to humans and other biological systems. We have, for the first time, assessed the cytotoxicity of nanodiamonds ranging in size from 2 to 10 nm. Assays of cell viability such as mitochondrial function (MTT) and luminescent ATP production showed that nanodiamonds were not toxic to a variety of cell types. Furthermore, nanodiamonds did not produce significant reactive oxygen species. Cells can grow on nanodiamond-coated substrates without morphological changes compared to controls. These results suggest that nanodiamonds could be ideal for many biological applications in a diverse range of cell types.
A new route to process diamond wires
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcello Filgueira
2003-06-01
Full Text Available We propose an original route to process diamond wires, denominated In Situ Technology, whose fabrication involves mechanical conformation processes, such as rotary forging, copper tubes restacking, and thermal treatments, such as sintering and recrystallisation of a bronze 4 wt.% diamond composite. Tensile tests were performed, reaching an ultimate tensile strength (UTS of 230 MPa for the diameter of Æ = 1.84 mm. Scanning electron microscopy showed the diamond crystals distribution along the composite rope during its manufacture, as well as the diamond adhesion to the bronze matrix. Cutting tests were carried out with the processed wire, showing a probable performance 4 times higher than the diamond sawing discs, however its probable performance was about 5 to 8 times less than the conventional diamond wires (pearl system due to the low abrasion resistance of the bronze matrix, and low adhesion between the pair bronze-diamond due to the use of not metallised diamond single crystals.
High vacuum tribology of polycrystalline diamond coatings
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Polycrystalline diamond coatings; hot filament CVD; high vacuum tribology. 1. Introduction .... is a characteristic of graphite. We mark the (diamond ... coefficient of friction due to changes in substrate temperature. The average coefficient of.
Diamond-based materials for biomedical applications
Narayan, Roger
2013-01-01
Carbon is light-weight, strong, conductive and able to mimic natural materials within the body, making it ideal for many uses within biomedicine. Consequently a great deal of research and funding is being put into this interesting material with a view to increasing the variety of medical applications for which it is suitable. Diamond-based materials for biomedical applications presents readers with the fundamental principles and novel applications of this versatile material. Part one provides a clear introduction to diamond based materials for medical applications. Functionalization of diamond particles and surfaces is discussed, followed by biotribology and biological behaviour of nanocrystalline diamond coatings, and blood compatibility of diamond-like carbon coatings. Part two then goes on to review biomedical applications of diamond based materials, beginning with nanostructured diamond coatings for orthopaedic applications. Topics explored include ultrananocrystalline diamond for neural and ophthalmologi...
Ohmic contacts to semiconducting diamond
Zeidler, James R.; Taylor, M. J.; Zeisse, Carl R.; Hewett, C. A.; Delahoussaye, Paul R.
1990-10-01
Work was carried out to improve the electron beam evaporation system in order to achieve better deposited films. The basic system is an ion pumped vacuum chamber, with a three-hearth, single-gun e-beam evaporator. Four improvements were made to the system. The system was thoroughly cleaned and new ion pump elements, an e-gun beam adjust unit, and a more accurate crystal monitor were installed. The system now has a base pressure of 3 X 10(exp -9) Torr, and can easily deposit high-melting-temperature metals such as Ta with an accurately controlled thickness. Improved shadow masks were also fabricated for better alignment and control of corner contacts for electrical transport measurements. Appendices include: A Thermally Activated Solid State Reaction Process for Fabricating Ohmic Contacts to Semiconducting Diamond; Tantalum Ohmic Contacts to Diamond by a Solid State Reaction Process; Metallization of Semiconducting Diamond: Mo, Mo/Au, and Mo/Ni/Au; Specific Contact Resistance Measurements of Ohmic Contracts to Diamond; and Electrical Activation of Boron Implanted into Diamond.
Organophosphonate biofunctionalization of diamond electrodes.
Caterino, R; Csiki, R; Wiesinger, M; Sachsenhauser, M; Stutzmann, M; Garrido, J A; Cattani-Scholz, A; Speranza, Giorgio; Janssens, S D; Haenen, K
2014-08-27
The modification of the diamond surface with organic molecules is a crucial aspect to be considered for any bioapplication of this material. There is great interest in broadening the range of linker molecules that can be covalently bound to the diamond surface. In the case of protein immobilization, the hydropathicity of the surface has a major influence on the protein conformation and, thus, on the functionality of proteins immobilized at surfaces. For electrochemical applications, particular attention has to be devoted to avoid that the charge transfer between the electrode and the redox center embedded in the protein is hindered by a thick insulating linker layer. This paper reports on the grafting of 6-phosphonohexanoic acid on OH-terminated diamond surfaces, serving as linkers to tether electroactive proteins onto diamond surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the formation of a stable layer on the surface. The charge transfer between electroactive molecules and the substrate is studied by electrochemical characterization of the redox activity of aminomethylferrocene and cytochrome c covalently bound to the substrate through this linker. Our work demonstrates that OH-terminated diamond functionalized with 6-phosphonohexanoic acid is a suitable platform to interface redox-proteins, which are fundamental building blocks for many bioelectronics applications.
Method for solving quantum field theory in the Heisenberg picture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakanishi, Noboru
2004-01-01
This paper is a review of the method for solving quantum field theory in the Heisenberg picture, developed by Abe and Nakanishi since 1991. Starting from field equations and canonical (anti) commutation relations, one sets up a (q-number) Cauchy problem for the totality of d-dimensional (anti) commutators between the fundamental fields, where d is the number of spacetime dimensions. Solving this Cauchy problem, one obtains the operator solution of the theory. Then one calculates all multiple commutators. A representation of the operator solution is obtained by constructing the set of all Wightman functions for the fundamental fields; the truncated Wightman functions are constructed so as to be consistent with all vacuum expectation values of the multiple commutators mentioned above and with the energy-positivity condition. By applying the method described above, exact solutions to various 2-dimensional gauge-theory and quantum-gravity models are found explicitly. The validity of these solutions is confirmed by comparing them with the conventional perturbation-theoretical results. However, a new anomalous feature, called the ''field-equation anomaly'', is often found to appear, and its perturbation-theoretical counterpart, unnoticed previously, is discussed. The conventional notion of an anomaly with respect to symmetry is reconsidered on the basis of the field-equation anomaly, and the derivation of the critical dimension in the BRS-formulated bosonic string theory is criticized. The method outlined above is applied to more realistic theories by expanding everything in powers of the relevant parameter, but this expansion is not equivalent to the conventional perturbative expansion. The new expansion is BRS-invariant at each order, in contrast to that in the conventional perturbation theory. Higher-order calculations are generally extremely laborious to perform explicitly. (author)
The infinite range Heisenberg model and high temperature superconductivity
Tahir-Kheli, Jamil
1992-01-01
The thesis deals with the theory of high temperature superconductivity from the standpoint of three-band Hubbard models.Chapter 1 of the thesis proposes a strongly coupled variational wavefunction that has the three-spin system of an oxygen hole and its two neighboring copper spins in a doublet and the background Cu spins in an eigenstate of the infinite range antiferromagnet. This wavefunction is expected to be a good "zeroth order" wavefunction in the superconducting regime of dopings. The three-spin polaron is stabilized by the hopping terms rather than the copper-oxygen antiferromagnetic coupling Jpd. Considering the effect of the copper-copper antiferromagnetic coupling Jdd, we show that the three-spin polaron cannot be pure Emery (Dg), but must have a non-negligible amount of doublet-u (Du) character for hopping stabilization. Finally, an estimate is made for the magnitude of the attractive coupling of oxygen holes.Chapter 2 presents an exact solution to a strongly coupled Hamiltonian for the motion of oxygen holes in a 1-D Cu-O lattice. The Hamiltonian separates into two pieces: one for the spin degrees of freedom of the copper and oxygen holes, and the other for the charge degrees of freedom of the oxygen holes. The spinon part becomes the Heisenberg antiferromagnet in 1-D that is soluble by the Bethe Ansatz. The holon piece is also soluble by a Bethe Ansatz with simple algebraic relations for the phase shifts.Finally, we show that the nearest neighbor Cu-Cu spin correlation increases linearly with doping and becomes positive at x [...] 0.70.
Infinite-range Heisenberg model and high-temperature superconductivity
Tahir-Kheli, Jamil; Goddard, William A., III
1993-11-01
A strongly coupled variational wave function, the doublet spin-projected Néel state (DSPN), is proposed for oxygen holes in three-band models of high-temperature superconductors. This wave function has the three-spin system of the oxygen hole plus the two neighboring copper atoms coupled in a spin-1/2 doublet. The copper spins in the neighborhood of a hole are in an eigenstate of the infinite-range Heisenberg antiferromagnet (SPN state). The doublet three-spin magnetic polaron or hopping polaron (HP) is stabilized by the hopping terms tσ and tτ, rather than by the copper-oxygen antiferromagnetic coupling Jpd. Although, the HP has a large projection onto the Emery (Dg) polaron, a non-negligible amount of doublet-u (Du) character is required for optimal hopping stabilization. This is due to Jdd, the copper-copper antiferromagnetic coupling. For the copper spins near an oxygen hole, the copper-copper antiferromagnetic coupling can be considered to be almost infinite ranged, since the copper-spin-correlation length in the superconducting phase (0.06-0.25 holes per in-plane copper) is approximately equal to the mean separation of the holes (between 2 and 4 lattice spacings). The general DSPN wave function is constructed for the motion of a single quasiparticle in an antiferromagnetic background. The SPN state allows simple calculations of various couplings of the oxygen hole with the copper spins. The energy minimum is found at symmetry (π/2,π/2) and the bandwidth scales with Jdd. These results are in agreement with exact computations on a lattice. The coupling of the quasiparticles leads to an attraction of holes and its magnitude is estimated.
Nanocrystalline diamond films for biomedical applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Alcaide, Maria
2014-01-01
Nanocrystalline diamond films, which comprise the so called nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) and ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD), represent a class of biomaterials possessing outstanding mechanical, tribological, and electrical properties, which include high surface smoothness, high corrosion...... performance of nanocrystalline diamond films is reviewed from an application-specific perspective, covering topics such as enhancement of cellular adhesion, anti-fouling coatings, non-thrombogenic surfaces, micropatterning of cells and proteins, and immobilization of biomolecules for bioassays. In order...
Medical applications of diamond particles & surfaces
Roger J Narayan; Ryan D. Boehm; Anirudha V. Sumant
2011-01-01
Diamond has been considered for use in several medical applications due to its unique mechanical, chemical, optical, and biological properties. In this paper, methods for preparing synthetic diamond surfaces and particles are described. In addition, recent developments involving the use of diamond in prostheses, sensing, imaging, and drug delivery applications are reviewed. These developments suggest that diamond-containing structures will provide significant improvements in the diagnosis and...
Ultimate Atomic Bling: Nanotechnology of Diamonds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dahl, Jeremy
2010-01-01
Diamonds exist in all sizes, from the Hope Diamond to minuscule crystals only a few atoms across. The smallest of these diamonds are created naturally by the same processes that make petroleum. Recently, researchers discovered that these 'diamondoids' are formed in many different structural shapes, and that these shapes can be used like LEGO blocks for nanotechnology. This talk will discuss the discovery of these nano-size diamonds and highlight current SLAC/Stanford research into their applications in electronics and medicine.
Diamond and diamond-like films for transportation applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perez, J.M.
1993-01-01
This section is a compilation of transparency templates which describe the goals of the Office of Transportation Materials (OTM) Tribology Program. The positions of personnel on the OTM are listed. The role and mission of the OTM is reviewed. The purpose of the Tribology Program is stated to be `to obtain industry input on program(s) in tribology/advanced lubricants areas of interest`. The objective addressed here is to identify opportunities for cost effective application of diamond and diamond-like carbon in transportation systems.
Studies of internal stress in diamond films prepared by DC plasma chemical vapour deposition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Wanlu; Gao Jinying; Liao Kejun; Liu Anmin
1992-01-01
The internal stress in diamond thin films deposited by DC plasma CVD was studied as a function of methane concentration and deposited temperature. Experimental results have shown that total stress in diamond thin films is sensitive to the deposition conditions. The results also indicate that the compressive stress can be explained in terms of amorphous state carbon and hydrogen, and tensile stress is ascribed to the grain boundary relaxation model due to high internal surface area and microstructure with voids
The evaluation of service delivery in the fast growing black diamond market / R. Venter
Venter, Raymano
2010-01-01
The black middle–class market segment also known as the black diamond market segment has shown immense growth in SA. It currently consists of approximately 3 million black middle–class South Africans with a buying power of approximately R200 billion. Despite the immense size and spending power of black diamonds, combined with its rapid growth over the past 15 years and expected future growth, little research has been conducted on this market segment. The rapid market growth ...
Ab initio theory of the N2V defect in diamond for quantum memory implementation
Udvarhelyi, Péter; Thiering, Gergő; Londero, Elisa; Gali, Adam
2017-10-01
The N2V defect in diamond is characterized by means of ab initio methods relying on density functional theory calculated parameters of a Hubbard model Hamiltonian. It is shown that this approach appropriately describes the energy levels of correlated excited states induced by this defect. By determining its critical magneto-optical parameters, we propose to realize a long-living quantum memory by N2V defect, i.e., H 3 color center in diamond.
Simulation of a perfect CVD diamond Schottky diode steep forward current–voltage characteristic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kukushkin, V.A., E-mail: vakuk@appl.sci-nnov.ru [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Science, 46 Ulyanov St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State University named after N.I. Lobachevsky, 23 Gagarin pr., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)
2016-10-01
The kinetic equation approach to the simulation of the perfect CVD diamond Schottky diode current–voltage characteristic is considered. In result it is shown that the latter has a significantly steeper forward branch than that of perfect devices of such a type on usual semiconductors. It means that CVD diamond-based Schottky diodes have an important potential advantage over analogous devices on conventional materials.
Katarina Anthony
2015-01-01
Alongside the CMS Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) – installed last month (see here) – lie diamond detectors. No ordinary gems, these lab-grown diamonds will be playing a vital role in Run 2: differentiating signals from collision products with those from the beam background. The BCM detector's green "c-shaped" printed circuit board is mounted on the PLT/BCM carbon-fibre carriage ready for installation. Earlier this year, the CMS BRIL project installed beam condition monitors (BCM) at the heart of the CMS detector. Designed to measure the online luminosity and beam background as close as possible to the LHC beam pipe, the BCMs use radiation-hard diamonds to differentiate between background and collision signals. The BCM also protects the CMS silicon trackers from damaging beam losses, by aborting the beam if the signal currents measured are above an acceptable threshold. These new BCMs are designed with Run 2 bunches in mind. &ldq...
Status of diamond particle detectors
Krammer, M.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fish, D.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Manfredi, P. F.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; LeNormand, F.; Pan, L. S.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Re, V.; Riester, G. L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.
1998-11-01
To continue the exciting research in the field of particle physics new accelerators and experiments are under construction. In some of these experiments, e.g. ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN or HERA-B at DESY, the detectors have to withstand an extreme environment. The detectors must be radiation hard, provide a very fast signal, and be as thin as possible. The properties of CVD diamond allow to fulfill these requirements and make it an ideal material for the detectors close to the interaction region of these experiments, i.e. the vertex detectors or the inner trackers. The RD42 collaboration is developing diamond detectors for these applications. The program of RD42 includes the improvement of the charge collection properties of CVD diamond, the study of the radiation hardness and the development of low-noise radiation hard readout electronics. An overview of the progress achieved during the last years will be given.
Pulsed laser deposition of metallic films on the surface of diamond particles for diamond saw blades
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Chao; Luo Fei; Long Hua; Hu Shaoliu; Li Bo; Wang Youqing
2005-01-01
Ti or Ni films have been deposited on the diamond particle surfaces by pulsed laser deposition. Compressive resistance of the uncoated and coated diamond particles was measured, respectively, in the experiments. The compressive resistance of the Ti-coated diamonds particles was found much higher than that of the uncoated ones. It increased by 39%. The surface morphology is observed by the metallography microscope. The surface of the uncoated diamonds particles had many hollows and flaws, while the surface of Ni-coated diamond particles was flat and smooth, and the surface of Ti-coated diamond particles had some metal masses that stood out of the surface of the Ti-coated film. The components of the metallic films of diamond particles were examined by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). TiC was found formed on the Ti-coated diamond surface, which resulted in increased surface bonding strength between the diamond particles and the Ti films. Meanwhile, TiC also favored improving the bonding strength between the coated diamond particles and the binding materials. Moreover, the bending resistance of the diamond saw blade made of Ti-coated diamond was drastically higher than that of other diamond saw blades, which also played an important role in improving the blade's cutting ability and lifetime. Therefore, it was most appropriate that the diamond saw blade was made of Ti-coated diamond particles rather than other materials
Diamonds on Diamond: structural studies at extreme conditions on the Diamond Light Source.
McMahon, M I
2015-03-06
Extreme conditions (EC) research investigates how the structures and physical and chemical properties of materials change when subjected to extremes of pressure and temperature. Pressures in excess of one million times atmospheric pressure can be achieved using a diamond anvil cell, and, in combination with high-energy, micro-focused radiation from a third-generation synchrotron such as Diamond, detailed structural information can be obtained using either powder or single-crystal diffraction techniques. Here, I summarize some of the research drivers behind international EC research, and then briefly describe the techniques by which high-quality diffraction data are obtained. I then highlight the breadth of EC research possible on Diamond by summarizing four examples from work conducted on the I15 and I19 beamlines, including a study which resulted in the first research paper from Diamond. Finally, I look to the future, and speculate as to the type of EC research might be conducted at Diamond over the next 10 years. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Atomic composition of WC/ and Zr/O-terminated diamond Schottky interfaces close to ideality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Piñero, J.C., E-mail: josecarlos.pinero@uca.es [Dpto. Ciencias de los Materiales, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real, Cádiz,11510 (Spain); Araújo, D. [Dpto. Ciencias de los Materiales, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real, Cádiz,11510 (Spain); Fiori, A. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Traoré, A. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF, av. des Martyrs, Grenoble,38042 France (France); Villar, M.P. [Dpto. Ciencias de los Materiales, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real, Cádiz,11510 (Spain); Eon, D.; Muret, P.; Pernot, J. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF, av. des Martyrs, Grenoble,38042 France (France); Teraji, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)
2017-02-15
Highlights: • Metal/O-terminated diamond interfaces are analyzed by a variety of TEM techniques. • Thermal treatment is shown to modify structural and chemical interface properties. • Electrical behavior vs annealing is shown to be related with interface modification. • Interfaces are characterized with atomic resolution to probe inhomogeneities. • Oxide formation and modification is demonstrated in both Schottky diodes. - Abstract: Electrical and nano-structural properties of Zr and WC-based Schottky power diodes are compared and used for investigating oxide-related effects at the diamond/metal interface. Differences in Schottky barrier heights and ideality factors of both structures are shown to be related with the modification of the oxygen-terminated diamond/metal interface configuration. Oxide formation, oxide thickness variations and interfacial oxygen redistribution, associated with thermal treatment are demonstrated. Ideality factors close to ideality (n{sub WC} = 1.02 and n{sub Zr} = 1.16) are obtained after thermal treatment and are shown to be related with the relative oxygen content at the surface (OCR{sub WC} = 3.03 and OCR{sub Zr} = 1.5). Indeed, thermal treatment at higher temperatures is shown to promote an escape of oxygen for the case of the WC diode, while it generates a sharper accumulation of oxygen at the metal/diamond interface for the case of Zr diode. Therefore, the metal-oxygen affinity is shown to be a key parameter to improve diamond-based Schottky diodes.
Gu, Changzhi; Li, Wuxia; Xu, Jing; Xu, Shicong; Lu, Chao; Xu, Lifang; Li, Junjie; Zhang, Shengbai
2016-10-01
Most applications of graphene need a suitable support substrate to present its excellent properties. But transferring graphene onto insulators or growing graphene on foreign substrates could cause properties diminishing. This paper reports the graphene growth directly out of diamond (111) by B doping, guided by first-principles calculations. The spontaneous graphene formation occurred due to the reconstruction of the diamond surface when the B doping density and profile are adequate. The resulting materials are defect free with high phase purity/carrier mobility, controllable layer number, and good uniformity, which can be potentially used directly for device fabrication, e.g., high-performance devices requiring good thermal conductivity.
Diamond radiation detectors II. CVD diamond development for radiation detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kania, D.R.
1997-01-01
Interest in radiation detectors has supplied some of the impetus for improving the electronic properties of CVD diamond. In the present discussion, we will restrict our attention to polycrystalhne CVD material. We will focus on the evolution of these materials over the past decade and the correlation of detector performance with other properties of the material
Spinon confinement in a quasi-one-dimensional XXZ Heisenberg antiferromagnet
Lake, Bella; Bera, Anup K.; Essler, Fabian H. L.; Vanderstraeten, Laurens; Hubig, Claudius; Schollwock, Ulrich; Islam, A. T. M. Nazmul; Schneidewind, Astrid; Quintero-Castro, Diana L.
Half-integer spin Heisenberg chains constitute a key paradigm for quantum number fractionalization: flipping a spin creates a minimum of two elementary spinon excitations. These have been observed in numerous experiments. We report on inelastic neutron scattering experiments on the quasi-one-dimensional anisotropic spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet SrCo2V2O8. These reveal a mechanism for temperature-induced spinon confinement, manifesting itself in the formation of sequences of spinon bound states. A theoretical description of this effect is achieved by a combination of analytical and numerical methods.
Emergent Power-Law Phase in the 2D Heisenberg Windmill Antiferromagnet: A Computational Experiment
Jeevanesan, Bhilahari; Chandra, Premala; Coleman, Piers; Orth, Peter P.
2015-10-01
In an extensive computational experiment, we test Polyakov's conjecture that under certain circumstances an isotropic Heisenberg model can develop algebraic spin correlations. We demonstrate the emergence of a multispin U(1) order parameter in a Heisenberg antiferromagnet on interpenetrating honeycomb and triangular lattices. The correlations of this relative phase angle are observed to decay algebraically at intermediate temperatures in an extended critical phase. Using finite-size scaling we show that both phase transitions are of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless type, and at lower temperatures we find long-range Z6 order.
Chiral-glass transition in a diluted dipolar-interaction Heisenberg system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Kaicheng; Liu Guibin; Zhu Yan
2011-01-01
Recently, numerical simulations reveal that a spin-glass transition can occur in the three-dimensional diluted dipolar system. By defining the chirality of triple spins in a diluted dipolar Heisenberg spin glass, we study the chiral ordering in the system using parallel tempering algorithm and heat bath method. The finite-size scaling analysis reveals that the system undergoes a chiral-glass transition at finite temperature. - Highlights: → We define the chirality in a diluted dipolar Heisenberg system. → The system undergoes a chiral-glass transition at finite temperature. → We extract the critical exponents of the chiral-glass transition.
New Topological Configurations in the Continuous Heisenberg Spin Chain: Lower Bound for the Energy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rossen Dandoloff
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In order to study the spin configurations of the classical one-dimensional Heisenberg model, we map the normalized unit vector, representing the spin, on a space curve. We show that the total chirality of the configuration is a conserved quantity. If, for example, one end of the space curve is rotated by an angle of 2π relative to the other, the Frenet frame traces out a noncontractible loop in SO(3 and this defines a new class of topological spin configurations for the Heisenberg model.
Spinon decay in the spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain with weak next nearest neighbour exchange
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Groha, Stefan; Essler, Fabian H L
2017-01-01
Integrable models support elementary excitations with infinite lifetimes. In the spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain these are known as spinons. We consider the stability of spinons when a weak integrability breaking perturbation is added to the Heisenberg chain in a magnetic field. We focus on the case where the perturbation is a next nearest neighbour exchange interaction. We calculate the spinon decay rate in leading order in perturbation theory using methods of integrability and identify the dominant decay channels. The decay rate is found to be small, which indicates that spinons remain well-defined excitations even though integrability is broken. (paper)
Heisenberg-limited interferometry with pair coherent states and parity measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerry, Christopher C.; Mimih, Jihane
2010-01-01
After reviewing parity-measurement-based interferometry with twin Fock states, which allows for supersensitivity (Heisenberg limited) and super-resolution, we consider interferometry with two different superpositions of twin Fock states, namely, two-mode squeezed vacuum states and pair coherent states. This study is motivated by the experimental challenge of producing twin Fock states on opposite sides of a beam splitter. We find that input two-mode squeezed states, while allowing for Heisenberg-limited sensitivity, do not yield super-resolutions, whereas both are possible with input pair coherent states.
Critical behavior of the quantum spin- {1}/{2} anisotropic Heisenberg model
Sousa, J. Ricardo de
A two-step renormalization group approach - a decimation followed by an effective field renormalization group (EFRG) - is proposed in this work to study the critical behavior of the quantum spin- {1}/{2} anisotropic Heisenberg model. The new method is illustrated by employing approximations in which clusters with one, two and three spins are used. The values of the critical parameter and critical exponent, in two- and three-dimensional lattices, for the Ising and isotropic Heisenberg limits are calculated and compared with other renormalization group approaches and exact (or series) results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ding Qing
2007-01-01
We prove that the integrable-nonintegrable discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation (AL-DNLS) introduced by Cai, Bishop and Gronbech-Jensen (Phys. Rev. Lett. 72 591(1994)) is the discrete gauge equivalent to an integrable-nonintegrable discrete Heisenberg model from the geometric point of view. Then we study whether the transmission and bifurcation properties of the AL-DNLS equation are preserved under the action of discrete gauge transformations. Our results reveal that the transmission property of the AL-DNLS equation is completely preserved and the bifurcation property is conditionally preserved to those of the integrable-nonintegrable discrete Heisenberg model
Partition functions of classical Heisenberg spin chains with arbitrary and different exchange
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cregg, P J; GarcIa-Palacios, J L; Svedlindh, P
2008-01-01
The classical Heisenberg model has been effective in modelling exchange interactions in molecular magnets. In this model, the partition function is important as it allows the calculation of the magnetization and susceptibility. For an ensemble of N-spin sites, this typically involves integrals in 2N dimensions. Here, for two-, three- and four-spin nearest neighbour open linear Heisenberg chains these integrals are reduced to sums of known functions, using a result due to Gegenbauer. For the case of the three- and four-spin chains, the sums are equivalent in form to the results of Joyce. The general result for an N-spin chain is also obtained
Criticality of the D=2 bond-dilute anisotropic Heisenberg ferromagnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mariz, A.M.; Tsallis, C.; Caride, A.O.
1984-01-01
The critical frontier and critical exponents associated with the quenched bond-dilute quantum anisotropic spin 1/2 Heisenberg ferromagnet in square lattice are described. To perform the calculations, an approximate real-space renormalization-group framework recently developed by some of us for the pure model (and analysed with some detail) is extended. Whenever comparison with available exact results is possible, the agreement is either perfect or quite satisfactory. Some effort has been dedicated to extract the main asymptotic behaviours of the critical frontier. Also several interesting quantum effects appearing in the composition laws of (Heisenberg) bond arrays are exhibited. (Author) [pt
Transparent nanocrystalline diamond coatings and devices
Sumant, Anirudha V.; Khan, Adam
2017-08-22
A method for coating a substrate comprises producing a plasma ball using a microwave plasma source in the presence of a mixture of gases. The plasma ball has a diameter. The plasma ball is disposed at a first distance from the substrate and the substrate is maintained at a first temperature. The plasma ball is maintained at the first distance from the substrate, and a diamond coating is deposited on the substrate. The diamond coating has a thickness. Furthermore, the diamond coating has an optical transparency of greater than about 80%. The diamond coating can include nanocrystalline diamond. The microwave plasma source can have a frequency of about 915 MHz.
Recent results on CVD diamond radiation sensors
Weilhammer, P.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; v. d. Eijk, R.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fish, D.; Fried, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knopfle, K. T.; Krammer, M.; Manfredi, P. F.; Meier, D.; LeNormand; Pan, L. S.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Plano, R.; Re, V.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Roff; Rudge, A.; Schieber, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; RD 42 Collaboration
1998-02-01
CVD diamond radiation sensors are being developed for possible use in trackers in the LHC experiments. The diamond promises to be radiation hard well beyond particle fluences that can be tolerated by Si sensors. Recent results from the RD 42 collaboration on charge collection distance and on radiation hardness of CVD diamond samples will be reported. Measurements with diamond tracking devices, both strip detectors and pixel detectors, will be discussed. Results from beam tests using a diamond strip detector which was read out with fast, 25 ns shaping time, radiation-hard pipeline electronics will be presented.
Diamond Sensors for Energy Frontier Experiments
Schnetzer, Steve
2014-01-01
We discuss the use of diamond sensors in high-energy, high-i ntensity collider experiments. Re- sults from diamond sensor based beam conditions monitors in the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are presented and pla ns for diamond based luminosity monitors for the upcoming LHC run are described. We describe recent measurements on single crystal diamond sensors that indicate a polarization effec t that causes a reduction of charge col- lection efficiency as a function of particle flux. We conclude by describing new developments on the promising technology of 3D diamond sensors.
Lateral overgrowth of diamond film on stripes patterned Ir/HPHT-diamond substrate
Wang, Yan-Feng; Chang, Xiaohui; Liu, Zhangcheng; Liu, Zongchen; Fu, Jiao; Zhao, Dan; Shao, Guoqing; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Shaopeng; Liang, Yan; Zhu, Tianfei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Hong-Xing
2018-05-01
Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) of diamond films on patterned Ir/(0 0 1)HPHT-diamond substrates have been carried out by microwave plasma CVD system. Ir/(0 0 1)HPHT-diamond substrates are fabricated by photolithographic and magnetron sputtering technique. The morphology of the as grown ELO diamond film is characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy. The quality and stress of the ELO diamond film are investigated by surface etching pit density and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Two ultraviolet photodetectors are fabricated on ELO diamond area and non-ELO diamond area prepared on same substrate, and that one on ELO diamond area indicates better photoelectric properties. All results indicate quality of ELO diamond film is improved.
The Many Facets of Diamond Crystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuri N. Palyanov
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This special issue is intended to serve as a multidisciplinary forum covering broad aspects of the science, technology, and application of synthetic and natural diamonds. This special issue contains 12 papers, which highlight recent investigations and developments in diamond research related to the diverse problems of natural diamond genesis, diamond synthesis and growth using CVD and HPHT techniques, and the use of diamond in both traditional applications, such as mechanical machining of materials, and the new recently emerged areas, such as quantum technologies. The results presented in the contributions collected in this special issue clearly demonstrate that diamond occupies a very special place in modern science and technology. After decades of research, this structurally very simple material still poses many intriguing scientific questions and technological challenges. It seems undoubted that diamond will remain the center of attraction for many researchers for many years to come.
Recent Advances in Diamond Detectors
Trischuk, W.
2008-01-01
With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2009, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2012, ATLAS and CMS are planning for detector upgrades for their innermost layers requiring radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is now planned for all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as an alternate sensor for use very close to the interaction region of the super LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences available. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8 x 10^16 protons/cm^2 showing that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve allowing one t...
Dislocation dipole annihilation in diamond and silicon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rabier, J; Pizzagalli, L, E-mail: jacques.rabier@univ-poitiers.fr [Institut PPRIMME, Departement de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux - UPR 3346 CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA - SP2MI, BP 30179, F-86962 Chasseneuil Futuroscope Cedex (France)
2011-02-01
The mechanism of dislocation dipole annihilation has been investigated in C and Si using atomistic calculations with the aim of studying their annihilation by-products. It is shown, in C as well as in Si, that dipole annihilation yields debris that can be depicted as a cluster of vacancies, or alternately by two internal free surfaces. These defects have no strain field and can hardly be seen using usual TEM techniques. This suggests that the brown colouration of diamond could be due to microstructures resulting from deformation mechanisms associated with dipole formation and their annihilation rather than to a climb mechanism and vacancy aggregation. In silicon where a number of dipoles have been evidenced by TEM when dislocation trails are found, such debris could be the missing link responsible for the observation of strong chemical reactivity and electrical activity in the wake of moving dislocations.
On the Quantum Inverse problem for the continuous Heisenberg spin chain with axial anisotropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy Chowdhury, A.; Chanda, P.K.
1986-06-01
We have considered the Quantum Inverse problem for the continuous form of Heisenberg spin chain with anisotropy. The form of quantum R-matrix, the commutation rules for the scattering data, and the explicit structure of the excitation spectrum are obtained. (author)
Deformed Heisenberg algebra and fractional spin field in 2+1 dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plyushchay, M.S.
1993-09-01
With the help of the deformed Heisenberg algebra involving the Klein operator, we construct the minimal set of linear differential equations for the (2+1)-dimensional relativistic field with arbitrary fractional spin, whose value is defined by the deformation parameters. (author). 23 refs
A thermodynamic approximation of the groundstate of antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin-1/2 lattices
Tielen, G.I.; Iske, P.L.; Caspers, W.J.; Caspers, W.J.
1991-01-01
The exact ground state of finite Heisenberg spin−1/2 lattices isstudied. The coefficients of the so-called Ising configurations contributing to the ground state are approximated by Boltzmann-like expressions. These expressions contain a parameter that may be related to an inverse temperature.
Higher-spin cluster algorithms: the Heisenberg spin and U(1) quantum link models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chudnovsky, V
2000-03-01
I discuss here how the highly-efficient spin-1/2 cluster algorithm for the Heisenberg antiferromagnet may be extended to higher-dimensional representations; some numerical results are provided. The same extensions can be used for the U(1) flux cluster algorithm, but have not yielded signals of the desired Coulomb phase of the system.
Higher-spin cluster algorithms: the Heisenberg spin and U(1) quantum link models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chudnovsky, V.
2000-01-01
I discuss here how the highly-efficient spin-1/2 cluster algorithm for the Heisenberg antiferromagnet may be extended to higher-dimensional representations; some numerical results are provided. The same extensions can be used for the U(1) flux cluster algorithm, but have not yielded signals of the desired Coulomb phase of the system
Odd number of coupled antiferromagnetic anisotropic Heisenberg chains: Spin wave theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benyoussef, A.
1996-10-01
The effect of the chain and perpendicular anisotropies on the energy gap for odd number of coupled quantum spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic anisotropic Heisenberg chains is investigated using a spin wave theory. The energy gap opens above a critical anisotropic value. The known results of the isotropic case have been obtained. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs
Chaotic dynamics of Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain with bilinear and biquadratic interactions
Blessy, B. S. Gnana; Latha, M. M.
2017-10-01
We investigate the chaotic dynamics of one dimensional Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain by constructing the Hamiltonian equations of motion. We present the trajectory and phase plots of the system with bilinear and also biquadratic interactions. The stability of the system is analysed in both cases by constructing the Jacobian matrix and by measuring the Lyapunov exponents. The results are illustrated graphically.
The 2-dimensional O(4) symmetric Heisenberg ferromagnet in terms of rotation invariant variables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holtkamp, A.
1981-09-01
After introduction of rotation invariant auxiliary variables, the integration over all rotation variant variables (spins) in the 0(4) symmetric two-dimensional Heisenberg ferromagnet can be performed. The resulting new Hamiltonian involves a sum over closed loops. It is complex and invariant under U(1) gauge transformations. Ruehl's boson representation is used to derive the result. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng Xinhua; Du Jiangfeng; Suter, D.
2005-01-01
Full text: Quantum information processing requires the effective measurement of quantum states. An important method, called quantum state tomography, needs measuring a complete set of observables on the measured system to determine its unknown quantum state ρ. The measurement involves certain noncommuting observables as a result of Bohr's complementarity. Very recently, Allahverdyan et al. proposed a new method in which the unknown quantum state r is determined by measuring a set of commuting observables in the price of a controlled interaction with an auxiliary system. If both systems S and A are spins, their z components (σ z ) can be chosen to measure after some specific Heisenberg exchange interaction. We study in detail a general Heisenberg XYZ model for a two-qubit system and present two classes of special Heisenberg interactions which can serve as the controlled interaction in Allahverdyan's scheme when the state of the auxiliary system A is initially completely disordered. Using the nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, the measurement scheme in a single apparatus has been experimentally demonstrated by designing the quantum circuit to simulate the Heisenberg exchange interaction. (author)
The existence of a stable noncollinear phase in a Heisenberg model with complex structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shopova, Diana V.; Boyadjiev, Todor L
2003-05-19
We have analyzed the properties of a noncollinear magnetic phase obtained in the mean-field analysis of the model of two coupled Heisenberg subsystems. The domain of its existence and stability is narrow and depends on the ratio between the averaged over nearest neighbours microscopic exchange parameters.
Criticality of the anisotropic quantum Heisenberg model on a simple cubic lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mariz, A.M.; Santos, R.M.Z. dos; Tsallis, C.; Santos, R.R. dos.
1984-01-01
Within a Real Space Renormalization group framework, the criticality (phase diagram, and critical thermal and crossover exponents) of the spin 1/2 - anisotropic quantum Heisenberg ferromagnet on a simple cubic lattice is studied. The results obtained are in satisfactory agreement with known results whenever available. (Author) [pt
Criticality of the anisotropic quantum Heisenberg model on a simple cubic lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mariz, A.M.; Tsallis, C.; Santos, R.M.Z. dos; Santos, Raimundo R. dos.
1984-11-01
Within a Real Space Renormalization Group Framework, the criticality (phase diagram, and critical thermal and crossover exponents) of the spin 1/2 - anisotropic quantum Heisenberg ferromagnet on a simple cubic lattice is studied. The results obtained are in antisfactory agreement with known results whenever available. (Author) [pt
Spin structure factors of Heisenberg spin chain in the presence of anisotropy and magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rezania, H.
2017-01-01
We have theoretically studied the spin structure factors of spin chain in the presence of longitudinal field and transverse anisotropy. The possible effects of easy axis magnetization are investigated in terms of anisotropy in the Heisenberg interactions. This anisotropy is considered for exchange coupling constants perpendicular to magnetic field direction. The original spin model hamiltonian is mapped to a bosonic model via a hard core bosonic transformation where an infinite hard core repulsion is imposed to constrain one boson occupation per site. Using Green's function approach, the energy spectrum of quasiparticle excitation has been obtained. The spectrum of the bosonic gas has been implemented in order to obtain two particle propagator which corresponds to spin structure factor of original Heisenberg chain model Hamiltonian. The results show the position of peak in the longitudinal structure factor at fixed value for anisotropy moves to higher frequency with magnetic field. Also the intensity of dynamical structure factor decreases with magnetic field. A small dependence of longitudinal dynamical spin structure factor on the anisotropy is observed for fixed value of magnetic field. Our results show longitudinal static structure factor is found to be monotonically increasing with magnetic field due to increase of spins aligning along magnetic field. Furthermore the dispersion behaviors of static longitudinal and transverse structure factors for different magnetic fields and anisotropy parameters are addressed. - Highlights: • Theoretical calculation of spin structure factors of Heisenberg chain. • The investigation of the effect of anisotropy spin structure factors of Heisenberg chain. • The investigation of the effect of magnetic field on spin structure factors of Heisenberg chain.
Spin structure factors of Heisenberg spin chain in the presence of anisotropy and magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rezania, H., E-mail: rezania.hamed@gmail.com
2017-02-01
We have theoretically studied the spin structure factors of spin chain in the presence of longitudinal field and transverse anisotropy. The possible effects of easy axis magnetization are investigated in terms of anisotropy in the Heisenberg interactions. This anisotropy is considered for exchange coupling constants perpendicular to magnetic field direction. The original spin model hamiltonian is mapped to a bosonic model via a hard core bosonic transformation where an infinite hard core repulsion is imposed to constrain one boson occupation per site. Using Green's function approach, the energy spectrum of quasiparticle excitation has been obtained. The spectrum of the bosonic gas has been implemented in order to obtain two particle propagator which corresponds to spin structure factor of original Heisenberg chain model Hamiltonian. The results show the position of peak in the longitudinal structure factor at fixed value for anisotropy moves to higher frequency with magnetic field. Also the intensity of dynamical structure factor decreases with magnetic field. A small dependence of longitudinal dynamical spin structure factor on the anisotropy is observed for fixed value of magnetic field. Our results show longitudinal static structure factor is found to be monotonically increasing with magnetic field due to increase of spins aligning along magnetic field. Furthermore the dispersion behaviors of static longitudinal and transverse structure factors for different magnetic fields and anisotropy parameters are addressed. - Highlights: • Theoretical calculation of spin structure factors of Heisenberg chain. • The investigation of the effect of anisotropy spin structure factors of Heisenberg chain. • The investigation of the effect of magnetic field on spin structure factors of Heisenberg chain.
Copper-micrometer-sized diamond nanostructured composites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nunes, D; Livramento, V; Fernandes, H; Silva, C; Carvalho, P A; Shohoji, N; Correia, J B
2011-01-01
Reinforcement of a copper matrix with diamond enables tailoring the properties demanded for thermal management applications at high temperature, such as the ones required for heat sink materials in low activated nuclear fusion reactors. For an optimum compromise between thermal conductivity and mechanical properties, a novel approach based on multiscale diamond dispersions is proposed: a Cu-nanodiamond composite produced by milling is used as a nanostructured matrix for further dispersion of micrometer-sized diamond (μDiamond). A series of Cu-nanodiamond mixtures have been milled to establish a suitable nanodiamond fraction. A refined matrix with homogeneously dispersed nanoparticles was obtained with 4 at.% μDiamond for posterior mixture with microdiamond and subsequent consolidation. Preliminary consolidation by hot extrusion of a mixture of pure copper and μDiamond has been carried out to define optimal processing parameters. The materials produced were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and microhardness measurements.
2006-06-01
The Southern constellation Tucana (the Toucan) is probably best known as the home of the Small Magellanic Cloud, one of the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way. But Tucana also hosts another famous object that shines thousands of lights, like a magnificent, oversized diamond in the sky: the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. More popularly known as 47 Tuc, it is surpassed in size and brightness by only one other globular cluster, Omega Centauri. Globular clusters are gigantic families of stars, comprising several tens of thousands of stars, all thought to be born at the same time from the same cloud of gas [1]. As such, they constitute unique laboratories for the study of how stars evolve and interact. This is even more so because they are located at the same distance, so the brightness of different types of stars, at different stages in their evolution can be directly compared. The stars in globular clusters are held together by their mutual gravity which gives them their spherical shape, hence their name. Globular clusters are thought to be among the oldest objects in our Milky Way galaxy, and contain therefore mostly old, low-mass stars. ESO PR Photo 20/06 ESO PR Photo 20/06 Globular Cluster 47 Tuc 47 Tucanae is an impressive globular cluster that is visible with the unaided eye from the southern hemisphere. It was discovered in 1751 by the French astronomer Nicholas Louis de Lacaille who cataloged it in his list of southern nebulous objects. Located about 16 000 light years away, it has a total mass of about 1 million times the mass of the Sun and is 120 light years across, making it appear on the sky as big as the full moon. The colour image of 47 Tucanae presented here was taken with FORS1 on ESO's Very Large Telescope in 2001. The image covers only the densest, very central part of the cluster. The globular cluster extends in reality four times further away! As can be seen however, the density of stars rapidly drops off when moving away from the centre. The red
Diamond turning machine controller implementation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garrard, K.P.; Taylor, L.W.; Knight, B.F.; Fornaro, R.J.
1988-12-01
The standard controller for a Pnuemo ASG 2500 Diamond Turning Machine, an Allen Bradley 8200, has been replaced with a custom high-performance design. This controller consists of four major components. Axis position feedback information is provided by a Zygo Axiom 2/20 laser interferometer with 0.1 micro-inch resolution. Hardware interface logic couples the computers digital and analog I/O channels to the diamond turning machine`s analog motor controllers, the laser interferometer, and other machine status and control information. It also provides front panel switches for operator override of the computer controller and implement the emergency stop sequence. The remaining two components, the control computer hardware and software, are discussed in detail below.
Conductive diamond electrodes for water purification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Alberto Martínez-Huitle
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, synthetic diamond has been studied for its application in wastewater treatment, electroanalysis, organic synthesis and sensor areas; however, its use in the water disinfection/purification is its most relevant application. The new electrochemistry applications of diamond electrodes open new perspectives for an easy, effective, and chemical free water treatment. This article highlights and summarizes the results of a selection of papers dealing with electrochemical disinfection using synthetic diamond films.
Characterization of diamond amorphized by ion implantation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, W.R.; Lee, E.H.
1992-01-01
Single crystal diamond has been implanted at 1 MeV with 2 x 10 20 Ar/m 2 . Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in a channeled geometry revealed a broad amorphized region underlying a thin, partially crystalline layer. Raman spectroscopy disclosed modifications in the bonding characteristic of the appearance of non-diamond carbon. The complementary nature of the two analysis techniques is demonstrated. The Knoop hardness of the implanted diamond was reduced by implantation
Modifying thin film diamond for electronic applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baral, B.
1999-01-01
The unique combination of properties that diamond possesses are being exploited in both electronic and mechanical applications. An important step forward in the field has been the ability to grow thin film diamond by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) methods and to control parameters such as crystal orientation, dopant level and surface roughness. An extensive understanding of the surface of any potential electronic material is vital to fully comprehend its behaviour within device structures. The surface itself ultimately controls key aspects of device performance when interfaced with other materials. This study has provided insight into important chemical reactions on polycrystalline CVD diamond surfaces, addressing how certain surface modifications will ultimately affect the properties of the material. A review of the structure, bonding, properties and potential of diamond along with an account of the current state of diamond technology and CVD diamond growth is provided. The experimental chapter reviews bulk material and surface analytical techniques employed in this work and is followed by an investigation of cleaning treatments for polycrystalline CVD diamond aimed at removing non-diamond carbon from the surface. Selective acid etch treatments are compared and contrasted for efficacy with excimer laser irradiation and hydrogen plasma etching. The adsorption/desorption kinetics of potential dopant-containing precursors on polycrystalline CVD diamond surfaces have been investigated to compare their effectiveness at introducing dopants into the diamond during the growth stage. Both boron and sulphur-containing precursor compounds have been investigated. Treating polycrystalline CVD diamond in various atmospheres / combination of atmospheres has been performed to enhance electron field emission from the films. Films which do not emit electrons under low field conditions can be modified such that they emit at fields as low as 10 V/μm. The origin of this enhancement
Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals
2014-10-27
Diamond. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2000, 84, 5160−5163. (31) Ownby, P. D.; Yang, X.; Liu, J. Calculated X-Ray-Diffraction Data for Diamond Polytypes. J. Am. Ceram...Surfaces from Ab-Initio Calculations . Phys. Rev. B 1995, 51, 14669−14685. (39) Ferrari, A. C.; Robertson, J. Raman Spectroscopy of Amorphous, Nanostructured...Y.; Takami, S.; Kubo , M.; Belosludov, R. V.; Miyamoto, A.; Imamura, A.; Gamo, M. N.; Ando, T. First-Principle Study on Reactions of Diamond (100
Entanglement, holography and causal diamonds
de Boer, Jan; Haehl, Felix M.; Heller, Michal P.; Myers, Robert C.
2016-08-01
We argue that the degrees of freedom in a d-dimensional CFT can be reorganized in an insightful way by studying observables on the moduli space of causal diamonds (or equivalently, the space of pairs of timelike separated points). This 2 d-dimensional space naturally captures some of the fundamental nonlocality and causal structure inherent in the entanglement of CFT states. For any primary CFT operator, we construct an observable on this space, which is defined by smearing the associated one-point function over causal diamonds. Known examples of such quantities are the entanglement entropy of vacuum excitations and its higher spin generalizations. We show that in holographic CFTs, these observables are given by suitably defined integrals of dual bulk fields over the corresponding Ryu-Takayanagi minimal surfaces. Furthermore, we explain connections to the operator product expansion and the first law of entanglemententropy from this unifying point of view. We demonstrate that for small perturbations of the vacuum, our observables obey linear two-derivative equations of motion on the space of causal diamonds. In two dimensions, the latter is given by a product of two copies of a two-dimensional de Sitter space. For a class of universal states, we show that the entanglement entropy and its spin-three generalization obey nonlinear equations of motion with local interactions on this moduli space, which can be identified with Liouville and Toda equations, respectively. This suggests the possibility of extending the definition of our new observables beyond the linear level more generally and in such a way that they give rise to new dynamically interacting theories on the moduli space of causal diamonds. Various challenges one has to face in order to implement this idea are discussed.
Entanglement, holography and causal diamonds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boer, Jan de [Institute of Physics, Universiteit van Amsterdam,Science Park 904, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Haehl, Felix M. [Centre for Particle Theory & Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Heller, Michal P.; Myers, Robert C. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)
2016-08-29
We argue that the degrees of freedom in a d-dimensional CFT can be re-organized in an insightful way by studying observables on the moduli space of causal diamonds (or equivalently, the space of pairs of timelike separated points). This 2d-dimensional space naturally captures some of the fundamental nonlocality and causal structure inherent in the entanglement of CFT states. For any primary CFT operator, we construct an observable on this space, which is defined by smearing the associated one-point function over causal diamonds. Known examples of such quantities are the entanglement entropy of vacuum excitations and its higher spin generalizations. We show that in holographic CFTs, these observables are given by suitably defined integrals of dual bulk fields over the corresponding Ryu-Takayanagi minimal surfaces. Furthermore, we explain connections to the operator product expansion and the first law of entanglement entropy from this unifying point of view. We demonstrate that for small perturbations of the vacuum, our observables obey linear two-derivative equations of motion on the space of causal diamonds. In two dimensions, the latter is given by a product of two copies of a two-dimensional de Sitter space. For a class of universal states, we show that the entanglement entropy and its spin-three generalization obey nonlinear equations of motion with local interactions on this moduli space, which can be identified with Liouville and Toda equations, respectively. This suggests the possibility of extending the definition of our new observables beyond the linear level more generally and in such a way that they give rise to new dynamically interacting theories on the moduli space of causal diamonds. Various challenges one has to face in order to implement this idea are discussed.
Thermal Conductivity of Diamond Composites
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fedor M. Shakhov
2009-12-01
Full Text Available A major problem challenging specialists in present-day materials sciences is the development of compact, cheap to fabricate heat sinks for electronic devices, primarily for computer processors, semiconductor lasers, high-power microchips, and electronics components. The materials currently used for heat sinks of such devices are aluminum and copper, with thermal conductivities of about 250 W/(m·K and 400 W/(m·K, respectively. Significantly, the thermal expansion coefficient of metals differs markedly from those of the materials employed in semiconductor electronics (mostly silicon; one should add here the low electrical resistivity metals possess. By contrast, natural single-crystal diamond is known to feature the highest thermal conductivity of all the bulk materials studied thus far, as high as 2,200 W/(m·K. Needless to say, it cannot be applied in heat removal technology because of high cost. Recently, SiC- and AlN-based ceramics have started enjoying wide use as heat sink materials; the thermal conductivity of such composites, however, is inferior to that of metals by nearly a factor two. This prompts a challenging scientific problem to develop diamond-based composites with thermal characteristics superior to those of aluminum and copper, adjustable thermal expansion coefficient, low electrical conductivity and a moderate cost, below that of the natural single-crystal diamond. The present review addresses this problem and appraises the results reached by now in studying the possibility of developing composites in diamond-containing systems with a view of obtaining materials with a high thermal conductivity.
Diamond turning of thermoplastic polymers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, E.; Scattergood, R.O.
1988-12-01
Single point diamond turning studies were made using a series of thermoplastic polymers with different glass transition temperatures. Variations in surface morphology and surface roughness were observed as a function of cutting speed. Lower glass transition temperatures facilitate smoother surface cuts and better surface finish. This can be attributed to the frictional heating that occurs during machining. Because of the very low glass transition temperatures in polymeric compared to inorganic glasses, the precision machining response can be very speed sensitive.
Diamond coating in accelerator structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, X.E.
1998-08-01
The future accelerators with 1 GeV/m gradient will give rise to hundreds of degrees instantaneous temperature rise on the copper surface. Due to its extraordinary thermal and electric properties, diamond coating on the surface is suggested to remedy this problem. Multi-layer structure, with the promise of even more temperature reduction, is also discussed, and a proof of principle experiment is being carried out
Thin film diamond microstructure applications
Roppel, T.; Ellis, C.; Ramesham, R.; Jaworske, D.; Baginski, M. E.; Lee, S. Y.
1991-01-01
Selective deposition and abrasion, as well as etching in atomic oxygen or reduced-pressure air, have been used to prepare patterned polycrystalline diamond films which, on further processing by anisotropic Si etching, yield the microstructures of such devices as flow sensors and accelerometers. Both types of sensor have been experimentally tested in the respective functions of hot-wire anemometer and both single- and double-hinged accelerometer.
Nagai, Masatsugu; Nakanishi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Hiraku; Kato, Hiromitsu; Makino, Toshiharu; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Tsubasa; Inokuma, Takao; Tokuda, Norio
2018-04-27
Diamond possesses excellent physical and electronic properties, and thus various applications that use diamond are under development. Additionally, the control of diamond geometry by etching technique is essential for such applications. However, conventional wet processes used for etching other materials are ineffective for diamond. Moreover, plasma processes currently employed for diamond etching are not selective, and plasma-induced damage to diamond deteriorates the device-performances. Here, we report a non-plasma etching process for single crystal diamond using thermochemical reaction between Ni and diamond in high-temperature water vapour. Diamond under Ni films was selectively etched, with no etching at other locations. A diamond-etching rate of approximately 8.7 μm/min (1000 °C) was successfully achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this rate is considerably greater than those reported so far for other diamond-etching processes, including plasma processes. The anisotropy observed for this diamond etching was considerably similar to that observed for Si etching using KOH.
2011-06-28
... Industries GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 Airplanes Equipped With Certain Cabin Air Conditioning Systems AGENCY... inspections of the Diamond Model DA 40 airplanes equipped with a VCS installed per Premier Aircraft Service... GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 Airplanes Equipped With Certain Cabin Air Conditioning Systems: Docket No...
Comparison between beryllium and diamond-backing plates in diamond-anvil cells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Periotto, Benedetta; Nestola, Fabrizio; Balic Zunic, Tonci
2011-01-01
A direct comparison between two complete intensity datasets, collected on the same sample loaded in two identical diamond-anvil pressure cells equipped, respectively, with beryllium and diamond backing plates was performed. The results clearly demonstrate that the use of diamond-backing plates...
Radiation hardness of diamond and silicon sensors compared
de Boer, Wim; Furgeri, Alexander; Mueller, Steffen; Sander, Christian; Berdermann, Eleni; Pomorski, Michal; Huhtinen, Mika
2007-01-01
The radiation hardness of silicon charged particle sensors is compared with single crystal and polycrystalline diamond sensors, both experimentally and theoretically. It is shown that for Si- and C-sensors, the NIEL hypothesis, which states that the signal loss is proportional to the Non-Ionizing Energy Loss, is a good approximation to the present data. At incident proton and neutron energies well above 0.1 GeV the radiation damage is dominated by the inelastic cross section, while at non-relativistic energies the elastic cross section prevails. The smaller inelastic nucleon-Carbon cross section and the light nuclear fragments imply that at high energies diamond is an order of magnitude more radiation hard than silicon, while at energies below 0.1 GeV the difference becomes significantly smaller.
Plasmon excitations in small diamond spheres by fast penetrating electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fehlhaber, R.P.; Bursill, L.A.
1998-01-01
The hydrodynamic model is used to calculate the excitation probability due to the surface and the volume plasmon of small diamond spheres. The theoretical approach incorporates an impact parameter p 0 and includes all multipole modes; it was first derived by Tran Thoai and Zeitler (1988, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 107, 791) who applied it to investigate small aluminium spheres. The aim of the present work is to analyze the multipole modes in detail since certain aspects are screened out due to the large damping factor of a wide band gap material like diamond. Various patterns will be revealed, thus simplifying computational attempts and enhancing the predictability of experimental results. It will finally be shown that using this model, it is possible to determine the grain size to an accuracy of about 1 Angstrom. (authors)
Wetting of the diamond surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansen, J.O.
1987-01-01
The surface conditions which lead to a wide variation in the wettability of diamond surfaces have been investigated using macroscopic surfaces to allow for the crystal anisotropy. A wetting balance method of calculating adhesion tension and hence contact angle has been used for diamonds having major faces near the [111] and [110] lattice planes. Three classes of behaviour have been identified. Surface analyses by Rutherford Backscattering of helium ions, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) have been used to define the role of the oxygen coverage of the surface in the transition I → O → H. Ferric ion has a hydrophilizing effect on the diamond surface, thought to be the consequence of attachment to the hydroxyl groups at the surface by a ligand mechanism. Other transition metal ions did not show this effect. The phenomenon of hydration of the surface, i.e. progressively more hydrophilic behaviour on prolonged exposure to liquid water, has been quantified. Imbibition or water penetration at microcracks are thought unlikely, and a water cluster build-up at hydrophilic sites is thought to be the best explanation. Dynamic studies indicate little dependence of the advancing contact angle on velocity for velocities up to 10 -4 m/s, and slight dependence of the receding contact angle. Hence advancing angles by this technique are similar to equilibrated contact angles found by optical techniques, but the receding angles are lower than found by other non-dynamic measurements
ATLAS diamond Beam Condition Monitor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gorisek, A. [CERN (Switzerland)]. E-mail: andrej.gorisek@cern.ch; Cindro, V. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Dolenc, I. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Frais-Koelbl, H. [Fotec (Austria); Griesmayer, E. [Fotec (Austria); Kagan, H. [Ohio State University, OH (United States); Korpar, S. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Kramberger, G. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Mandic, I. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Meyer, M. [CERN (Switzerland); Mikuz, M. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Pernegger, H. [CERN (Switzerland); Smith, S. [Ohio State University, OH (United States); Trischuk, W. [University of Toronto (Canada); Weilhammer, P. [CERN (Switzerland); Zavrtanik, M. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia)
2007-03-01
The ATLAS experiment has chosen to use diamond for its Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) given its radiation hardness, low capacitance and short charge collection time. In addition, due to low leakage current diamonds do not require cooling. The ATLAS Beam Condition Monitoring system is based on single beam bunch crossing measurements rather than integrating the accumulated particle flux. Its fast electronics will allow separation of LHC collisions from background events such as beam gas interactions or beam accidents. There will be two stations placed symmetrically about the interaction point along the beam axis at z=+/-183.8cm. Timing of signals from the two stations will provide almost ideal separation of beam-beam interactions and background events. The ATLAS BCM module consists of diamond pad detectors of 1cm{sup 2} area and 500{mu}m thickness coupled to a two-stage RF current amplifier. The production of the final detector modules is almost done. A S/N ratio of 10:1 has been achieved with minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) in the test beam setup at KEK. Results from the test beams and bench measurements are presented.
ATLAS diamond Beam Condition Monitor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorisek, A.; Cindro, V.; Dolenc, I.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Griesmayer, E.; Kagan, H.; Korpar, S.; Kramberger, G.; Mandic, I.; Meyer, M.; Mikuz, M.; Pernegger, H.; Smith, S.; Trischuk, W.; Weilhammer, P.; Zavrtanik, M.
2007-01-01
The ATLAS experiment has chosen to use diamond for its Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) given its radiation hardness, low capacitance and short charge collection time. In addition, due to low leakage current diamonds do not require cooling. The ATLAS Beam Condition Monitoring system is based on single beam bunch crossing measurements rather than integrating the accumulated particle flux. Its fast electronics will allow separation of LHC collisions from background events such as beam gas interactions or beam accidents. There will be two stations placed symmetrically about the interaction point along the beam axis at z=+/-183.8cm. Timing of signals from the two stations will provide almost ideal separation of beam-beam interactions and background events. The ATLAS BCM module consists of diamond pad detectors of 1cm 2 area and 500μm thickness coupled to a two-stage RF current amplifier. The production of the final detector modules is almost done. A S/N ratio of 10:1 has been achieved with minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) in the test beam setup at KEK. Results from the test beams and bench measurements are presented
Status of diamond particle detectors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krammer, M.; Adam, W.; Friedl, M.; Hrubec, J.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik der Oesterr. Akademie d. Wissenschaften, Nikolsdorferg. 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); Bauer, C. [MPI fuer Kernphysik, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Berdermann, E.; Stelzer, H. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Bogani, F. [LENS, Florence (Italy); Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Sciortino, S. [University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; LeNormand, F.; Riester, G.L.; Turchetta, R. [LEPSI, CRN Strasbourg (France); Conway, J.; Fish, D.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Walsh, A.M. [Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Dabrowski, W.; Kaplon, J.; Meier, D.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Delpierre, P.; Hallewell, G. [CPPM, Marseille (France); Deneuville, A.; Cheeraert, E. [LEPES, Grenoble (France); Eijk, B.V.; Hartjes, F. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fallou, A. [CPPM, Marseille (France); Foulon, F. [Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Trawick, M.; Zoeller, M. [The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Grigoriev, E.; Knoepfle, K.T. [MPI fuer Kernphysik, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Hall-Wilton, R. [Bristol University, Bristol (United Kingdom); Han, S.; Ziock, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Research Division, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kania, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Manfredi, P.F.; Re, V.; Speziali, V. [Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Elettronica, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Mishina, M. [FNAL, Batavia, IL (United States); Pan, L.S. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roff, D.; Tapper, R.J. [Bristol University, Bristol (United Kingdom); Trischuk, W. [University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)
1998-11-21
To continue the exciting research in the field of particle physics new accelerators and experiments are under construction. In some of these experiments, e.g. ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN or HERA-B at DESY, the detectors have to withstand an extreme environment. The detectors must be radiation hard, provide a very fast signal, and be as thin as possible. The properties of CVD diamond allow to fulfill these requirements and make it an ideal material for the detectors close to the interaction region of these experiments, i.e. the vertex detectors or the inner trackers. The RD42 collaboration is developing diamond detectors for these applications. The program of RD42 includes the improvement of the charge collection properties of CVD diamond, the study of the radiation hardness and the development of low-noise radiation hard readout electronics. An overview of the progress achieved during the last years will be given. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)
Status of diamond particle detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krammer, M.; Adam, W.; Friedl, M.; Hrubec, J.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Stelzer, H.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Sciortino, S.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; LeNormand, F.; Riester, G.L.; Turchetta, R.; Conway, J.; Fish, D.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Walsh, A.M.; Dabrowski, W.; Kaplon, J.; Meier, D.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Delpierre, P.; Hallewell, G.; Deneuville, A.; Cheeraert, E.; Eijk, B.V.; Hartjes, F.; Fallou, A.; Foulon, F.; Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Trawick, M.; Zoeller, M.; Grigoriev, E.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Ziock, H.; Kania, D.; Manfredi, P.F.; Re, V.; Speziali, V.; Mishina, M.; Pan, L.S.; Roff, D.; Tapper, R.J.; Trischuk, W.
1998-01-01
To continue the exciting research in the field of particle physics new accelerators and experiments are under construction. In some of these experiments, e.g. ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN or HERA-B at DESY, the detectors have to withstand an extreme environment. The detectors must be radiation hard, provide a very fast signal, and be as thin as possible. The properties of CVD diamond allow to fulfill these requirements and make it an ideal material for the detectors close to the interaction region of these experiments, i.e. the vertex detectors or the inner trackers. The RD42 collaboration is developing diamond detectors for these applications. The program of RD42 includes the improvement of the charge collection properties of CVD diamond, the study of the radiation hardness and the development of low-noise radiation hard readout electronics. An overview of the progress achieved during the last years will be given. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)
ATLAS diamond Beam Condition Monitor
Gorišek, A; Dolenc, I; Frais-Kölbl, H; Griesmayer, E; Kagan, H; Korpar, S; Kramberger, G; Mandic, I; Meyer, M; Mikuz, M; Pernegger, H; Smith, S; Trischuk, W; Weilhammer, P; Zavrtanik, M
2007-01-01
The ATLAS experiment has chosen to use diamond for its Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) given its radiation hardness, low capacitance and short charge collection time. In addition, due to low leakage current diamonds do not require cooling. The ATLAS Beam Condition Monitoring system is based on single beam bunch crossing measurements rather than integrating the accumulated particle flux. Its fast electronics will allow separation of LHC collisions from background events such as beam gas interactions or beam accidents. There will be two stations placed symmetrically about the interaction point along the beam axis at . Timing of signals from the two stations will provide almost ideal separation of beam–beam interactions and background events. The ATLAS BCM module consists of diamond pad detectors of area and thickness coupled to a two-stage RF current amplifier. The production of the final detector modules is almost done. A S/N ratio of 10:1 has been achieved with minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) in the test bea...
Direct Coating of Nanocrystalline Diamond on Steel
Tsugawa, Kazuo; Kawaki, Shyunsuke; Ishihara, Masatou; Hasegawa, Masataka
2012-09-01
Nanocrystalline diamond films have been successfully deposited on stainless steel substrates without any substrate pretreatments to promote diamond nucleation, including the formation of interlayers. A low-temperature growth technique, 400 °C or lower, in microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition using a surface-wave plasma has cleared up problems in diamond growth on ferrous materials, such as the surface graphitization, long incubation time, substrate softening, and poor adhesion. The deposited nanocrystalline diamond films on stainless steel exhibit good adhesion and tribological properties, such as a high wear resistance, a low friction coefficient, and a low aggression strength, at room temperature in air without lubrication.
Ultimate Atomic Bling: Nanotechnology of Diamonds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dahl, Jeremy
2010-05-25
Diamonds exist in all sizes, from the Hope Diamond to minuscule crystals only a few atoms across. The smallest of these diamonds are created naturally by the same processes that make petroleum. Recently, researchers discovered that these 'diamondoids' are formed in many different structural shapes, and that these shapes can be used like LEGO blocks for nanotechnology. This talk will discuss the discovery of these nano-size diamonds and highlight current SLAC/Stanford research into their applications in electronics and medicine.
Undoped CVD diamond films for electrochemical applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mosinska, Lidia; Fabisiak, Kazimierz; Paprocki, Kazimierz; Kowalska, Magdalena; Popielarski, Pawel; Szybowicz, Miroslaw
2013-01-01
By using different deposition conditions, the CVD diamond films with different qualities and orientation were grown by the hot-filament CVD technique. The object of this article is to summarize and discuss relation between structural, physical and electrochemical properties of different diamond electrodes. The physical properties of the Hot Filament CVD microcrystalline diamond films are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. In presented studies two different electrodes were used of the diamond grain sizes around 200 nm and 10 μm, as it was estimated from SEM picture. The diamond layers quality was checked on basis of FWHM (Full width at Half Maximum) of 1332 cm −1 diamond Raman peak. The ratio of sp 3 /sp 2 carbon bonds was determined by 1550 cm −1 G band and 1350 cm −1 D band in the Raman spectrum. The electrochemical properties were analyzed using (CV) cyclic voltammetry measurements in aqueous solutions. The sensitivity of undoped diamond electrodes depends strongly on diamond film quality and concentration of amorphous carbon phase in the diamond layer
CVD diamond substrates for electronic devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holzer, H.
1996-03-01
In this study the applicability of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond as a material for heat spreaders was investigated. Economical evaluations on the production of heat spreaders were also performed. For the diamond synthesis the hot-filament and microwave method were used respectively. The deposition parameters were varied in a way that free standing diamond layers with a thickness of 80 to 750 microns and different qualities were obtained. The influence of the deposition parameters on the relevant film properties was investigated and discussed. With both the hot-filament and microwave method it was possible to deposit diamond layers having a thermal conductivity exceeding 1200 W/mK and therefore to reach the quality level for commercial uses. The electrical resistivity was greater than 10 12 Ωcm. The investigation of the optical properties was done by Raman-, IR- and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. Because of future applications of diamond-aluminium nitride composites as highly efficient heat spreaders diamond deposition an AIN was investigated. An improved substrate pretreatment prior to diamond deposition showed promising results for better performance of such composite heat spreaders. Both free standing layers and diamond-AIN composites could be cut by a CO2 Laser in Order to get an exact size geometry. A reduction of the diamond surface roughness was achieved by etching with manganese powder or cerium. (author)
Plasmon-Organic Fiber Interactions in Diamond-Like Carbon Coated Nanostructured Gold Films
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cielecki, Pawel Piotr; Sobolewska, Elżbieta Karolina; Kostiučenko, Oksana
2017-01-01
Gold is the most commonly used plasmonic material, however soft and prone to mechanical deformations. It has been shown that the durability of gold plasmonic substrates can be improved by applying a protective diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. In this work, we investigate the influence of such p......Gold is the most commonly used plasmonic material, however soft and prone to mechanical deformations. It has been shown that the durability of gold plasmonic substrates can be improved by applying a protective diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. In this work, we investigate the influence...
Fabrication and characterization of an all-diamond tubular flow microelectrode for electroanalysis.
Hutton, Laura A; Vidotti, Marcio; Iacobini, James G; Kelly, Chris; Newton, Mark E; Unwin, Patrick R; Macpherson, Julie V
2011-07-15
The development of the first all-diamond hydrodynamic flow device for electroanalytical applications is described. Here alternate layers of intrinsic (insulating), conducting (heavily boron doped), and intrinsic polycrystalline diamond are grown to create a sandwich structure. By laser cutting a hole through the material, it is possible to produce a tubular flow ring electrode of a characteristic length defined by the thickness of the conducting layer (for these studies ∼90 μm). The inside of the tube can be polished to 17 ± 10 nm surface roughness using a diamond impregnanted wire resulting in a coplanar, smooth, all-diamond surface. The steady-state limiting current versus volume flow rate characteristics for the one electron oxidation of FcTMA(+) are in agreement with those expected for laminar flow in a tubular electrode geometry. For dopamine detection, it is shown that the combination of the reduced fouling properties of boron doped diamond, coupled with the flow geometry design where the products of electrolysis are washed away downstream of the electrode, completely eradicates fouling during electrolysis. This paves the way for incorporation of this flow design into online electroanalytical detection systems. Finally, the all diamond tubular flow electrode system described here provides a platform for future developments including the development of ultrathin ring electrodes, multiple apertures for increased current response, and multiple, individually addressable ring electrodes incorporated into the same flow tube.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schirach, Richard von
2014-07-01
Finally the German atomic physicists around Heisenberg, von Weizsaecker, and Hahn worked on their ''uranium machine'' in a Swabian beer-cellar - and took themselves for the world elite of nuclear research. In imprisonment they heared from the dropping of the Hiroshima bomb - a shock. Richard von Schirach shows the hindered ''fathers of the German atomic bomb'' in close-up, their eagerness, their hybris, their true importance, and their attempts to give after the war a new interpretation of their own role. A book, which raises in the sense of Duerrenmatt the question for the responsibility of science.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibort, A; Man'ko, V I; Marmo, G; Simoni, A; Ventriglia, F
2009-01-01
A natural extension of the Wigner function to the space of irreducible unitary representations of the Weyl-Heisenberg group is discussed. The action of the automorphisms group of the Weyl-Heisenberg group onto Wigner functions and their generalizations and onto symplectic tomograms is elucidated. Some examples of physical systems are considered to illustrate some aspects of the characterization of the Wigner functions as solutions of differential equations
Quantum teleportation via a two-qubit Heisenberg XY chain-effects of anisotropy and magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yeo Ye [Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WB (United Kingdom); Liu Tongqi [Department of Engineering, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB3 1PZ (United Kingdom); Lu Yuen [Computer Laboratory, William Gates Building, 15 J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FD (United Kingdom); Yang Qizhong [Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)
2005-04-08
In this paper we study the influence of anisotropy on the usefulness of the entanglement in a two-qubit Heisenberg XY chain at thermal equilibrium in the presence of an external magnetic field, as a resource for quantum teleportation via the standard teleportation protocol. We show that the nonzero thermal entanglement produced by adjusting the external magnetic field beyond some critical strength is a useful resource. We also consider entanglement teleportation via two two-qubit Heisenberg XY chains.
Quantum teleportation via a two-qubit Heisenberg XY chain-effects of anisotropy and magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeo Ye; Liu Tongqi; Lu Yuen; Yang Qizhong
2005-01-01
In this paper we study the influence of anisotropy on the usefulness of the entanglement in a two-qubit Heisenberg XY chain at thermal equilibrium in the presence of an external magnetic field, as a resource for quantum teleportation via the standard teleportation protocol. We show that the nonzero thermal entanglement produced by adjusting the external magnetic field beyond some critical strength is a useful resource. We also consider entanglement teleportation via two two-qubit Heisenberg XY chains
SU-E-T-485: Investigation of a Synthetic Diamond Detector for Tomotherapy Dosimetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Knill, C; Nalichowski, A; Halford, R [Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Zakjevskii, V; Zhuang, L [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Snyder, M; Burmeister, J [Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States)
2014-06-01
more closely resembled film measurements, compared with the A1Sl chamber. Furthermore, the microDiamond was shown to have low angular dependence and both detectors were able to accurately measure the highdose points in TG-119 H and N and prostate plans. Our institution has research grants with PTW.
Diamond film growth with modification properties of adhesion between substrate and diamond film
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Setasuwon P.
2004-03-01
Full Text Available Diamond film growth was studied using chemical vapor deposition (CVD. A special equipment was build in-house, employing a welding torch, and substrate holder with a water-cooling system. Acetylene and oxygen were used as combustion gases and the substrate was tungsten carbide cobalt. It was found that surface treatments, such as diamond powder scratching or acid etching, increase the adhesion and prevent the film peel-off. Diamond powder scratching and combined diamond powder scratching with acid etching gave the similar diamond film structure with small grain and slightly rough surface. The diamond film obtained with both treatments has high adhesion and can withstand internal stress better than ones obtained by untreated surface or acid etching alone. It was also found that higher substrate temperature produced smoother surface and more uniform diamond grain.
Un'estrema solitudine la vita e l'opera di Werner Heisenberg
Cassidy, David C
1996-01-01
Il genio di Werner Heisenberg attraversa l'orizzonte della fisica del nostro secolo come una meteora. Testimoniano della fecondità e dell'originalità del suo pensiero non solo il Nobel che gli fu assegnato a soli 32 anni, ma soprattutto i decisivi impulsi da lui dati alla fisica quantistica, alla teoria delle particelle elementari, alla teoria del nucleo. Si deve a Heisenberg quel "principio di indeterminazione" che ha rivoluzionato non solo il corso della fisica ma il modo di concepire la posizione dell'uomo nell'universo. L'interesse del libro, però, vuole andare oltre la fisica, giacché il curriculum del "ragazzo di campagna dei biondi capelli" rispecchia in forma emblematica l'ambiguo rapporto della scienza col potere.
Heisenberg 1901-1976 : le témoignage de sa femme
Heisenberg, Elisabeth
1990-01-01
Une femme raconte la vie de son mari, Werner Heisenberg, Prix Nobel de Physique 1932. Après une enfance heureuse, ce brillant étudiant fut l'élève d'Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, Arnold Sommerfeld. Mais à l'époque de la montée du nazisme, le grand physicien refusa de quitter son pays, cautionnant ainsi le régime d'Hitler et participant à "l'effort de guerre", c'est-à-dire à la course à la bombe. Le témoignage d'Elisabeth Heisenberg bien que naturellement subjectif, permet de saisir les ressorts psychologiques du comportement d'un savant face aux terrifiantes réalités de son époque.
Un-equivalency theorem between deformed and undeformed Heisenberg-Weyl's algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Jianzu
2006-01-01
Two fundamental issues about the relation between the deformed Heisenberg-Weyl algebra in noncommutative space and the undeformed one in commutative space are elucidated. First the un-equivalency theorem between two algebras is proved: the deformed algebra related to the undeformed one by a non-orthogonal similarity transformation is explored; furthermore, non-existence of a unitary similarity transformation which transforms the deformed algebra to the undeformed one is demonstrated. Secondly the uniqueness of realizing the deformed phase space variables via the undeformed ones is elucidated: both the deformed Heisenberg-Weyl algebra and the deformed bosonic algebra should be maintained under a linear transformation between two sets of phase space variables which fixes that such a linear transformation is unique. Elucidation of this un-equivalency theorem has basic meaning both in theory and experiment
Achieving the Heisenberg limit in quantum metrology using quantum error correction.
Zhou, Sisi; Zhang, Mengzhen; Preskill, John; Jiang, Liang
2018-01-08
Quantum metrology has many important applications in science and technology, ranging from frequency spectroscopy to gravitational wave detection. Quantum mechanics imposes a fundamental limit on measurement precision, called the Heisenberg limit, which can be achieved for noiseless quantum systems, but is not achievable in general for systems subject to noise. Here we study how measurement precision can be enhanced through quantum error correction, a general method for protecting a quantum system from the damaging effects of noise. We find a necessary and sufficient condition for achieving the Heisenberg limit using quantum probes subject to Markovian noise, assuming that noiseless ancilla systems are available, and that fast, accurate quantum processing can be performed. When the sufficient condition is satisfied, a quantum error-correcting code can be constructed that suppresses the noise without obscuring the signal; the optimal code, achieving the best possible precision, can be found by solving a semidefinite program.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masood, Syed [Department of Physics, International Islamic University, H-10 Sector, Islamabad (Pakistan); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@gmail.com [Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia – Okanagan, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4 (Canada); Zaz, Zaid [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Kashmir, 190006 (India); Ali, Ahmed Farag [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha, 13518 (Egypt); Raza, Jamil [Department of Physics, International Islamic University, H-10 Sector, Islamabad (Pakistan); Shah, Mushtaq B. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Srinagar, Kashmir, 190006 (India)
2016-12-10
In this paper, we will propose the most general form of the deformation of Heisenberg algebra motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle. This deformation of the Heisenberg algebra will deform all quantum mechanical systems. The form of the generalized uncertainty principle used to motivate these results will be motivated by the space fractional quantum mechanics, and non-locality in quantum mechanical systems. We also analyse a specific limit of this generalized deformation for one dimensional system, and in that limit, a nonlocal deformation of the momentum operator generates a local deformation of all one dimensional quantum mechanical systems. We analyse the low energy effects of this deformation on a harmonic oscillator, Landau levels, Lamb shift, and potential barrier. We also demonstrate that this deformation leads to a discretization of space.
Excitation of bond-alternating spin-1/2 Heisenberg chains by tunnelling electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gauyacq, J-P; Lorente, N
2014-01-01
Inelastic electron tunneling spectra (IETS) are evaluated for spin-1/2 Heisenberg chains showing different phases of their spin ordering. The spin ordering is controlled by the value of the two different Heisenberg couplings on the two sides of each of the chain's atoms (bond-alternating chains). The perfect anti-ferromagnetic phase, i.e. a unique exchange coupling, marks a topological quantum phase transition (TQPT) of the bond-alternating chain. Our calculations show that the TQPT is recognizable in the excited states of the chain and hence that IETS is in principle capable of discriminating the phases. We show that perfectly symmetric chains, such as closed rings mimicking infinite chains, yield the same spectra on both sides of the TQPT and IETS cannot reveal the nature of the spin phase. However, for finite size open chains, both sides of the TQPT are associated with different IETS spectra, especially on the edge atoms, thus outlining the transition. (paper)
The spin-s quantum Heisenberg ferromagnetic models in the physical magnon theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, B.-G.; Pu, F.-C.
2001-01-01
The spin-s quantum Heisenberg ferromagnetic model is investigated in the physical magnon theory. The effect of the extra unphysical magnon states on every site is completely removed in the magnon Hamiltonian and during approximation procedure so that the condition †n i a n i >=0(n≥2s+1) is rigorously satisfied. The physical multi-magnon occupancy †n i a n i >(1≤n≤2s) is proportional to T 3n/2 at low temperature and is equivalent to 1/(2s+1) at the Curie temperature. The magnetization not only unified but also well-behaved from zero temperature to Curie temperature is obtained in the framework of the magnon theory for the spin-s quantum Heisenberg ferromagnetic model. The ill-behaved magnetizations at high temperature in earlier magnon theories are completely corrected. The relation of magnon (spin wave) theory with spin-operator decoupling theory is clearly understood
Three types magnetic moment distribution of nonlinear excitations in a Heisenberg helimagnet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qi, Jian-Wen [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Theoretical Physics Frontiers, Xi' an 710069 (China); Li, Zai-Dong [Department of Applied Physics, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China); Yang, Zhan-Ying, E-mail: zyyang@nwu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Theoretical Physics Frontiers, Xi' an 710069 (China); Yang, Wen-Li [Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Theoretical Physics Frontiers, Xi' an 710069 (China); Institute of Modern Physics, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China)
2017-06-15
Highlights: • Three different types of soliton excitations under the spin-wave background are demonstrated in spin chain system. • The magnetic moment distributions corresponding to these solitons are characterized in detail. • The formation mechanisms of those excitations are explained by the magnon density distribution. - Abstract: We study the nonlinear spin dynamics of an anisotropic Heisenberg helimagnet in a fourth-order integrable nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We demonstrate that there are three types of nonlinear spin excitations on a spin-wave background in the Heisenberg helimagnet, notably including anti-dark soliton, W-shaped soliton, and multi-peak soliton. The magnetic moment distribution that corresponds to each of these are characterized in detail. Additionally, the formation mechanism is clarified by the magnon density distribution.
An addendum to the Heisenberg-Euler effective action beyond one loop
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gies, Holger; Karbstein, Felix [Helmholtz-Institut Jena,Fröbelstieg 3, 07743 Jena (Germany); Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Abbe Center of Photonics,Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany)
2017-03-21
We study the effective interactions of external electromagnetic fields induced by fluctuations of virtual particles in the vacuum of quantum electrodynamics. Our main focus is on these interactions at two-loop order. We discuss in detail the emergence of the renowned Heisenberg-Euler effective action from the underlying microscopic theory of quantum electrodynamics, emphasizing its distinction from a standard one-particle irreducible effective action. In our explicit calculations we limit ourselves to constant and slowly varying external fields, allowing us to adopt a locally constant field approximation. One of our main findings is that at two-loop order there is a finite one-particle reducible contribution to the Heisenberg-Euler effective action in constant fields, which was previously assumed to vanish. In addition to their conceptual significance, our results are relevant for high-precision probes of quantum vacuum nonlinearity in strong electromagnetic fields.
Optical probe of Heisenberg-Kitaev magnetism in α -RuCl3
Sandilands, Luke J.; Sohn, C. H.; Park, H. J.; Kim, So Yeun; Kim, K. W.; Sears, Jennifer A.; Kim, Young-June; Noh, Tae Won
2016-11-01
We report a temperature-dependent optical spectroscopic study of the Heisenberg-Kitaev magnet α -RuCl3 . Our measurements reveal anomalies in the optical response near the magnetic ordering temperature. At higher temperatures, we observe a redistribution of spectral weight over a broad energy range that is associated with nearest-neighbor spin-spin correlations. This finding is consistent with highly frustrated magnetic interactions and in agreement with theoretical expectations for this class of material. The optical data also reveal significant electron-hole interaction effects, including a bound excitonic state. These results demonstrate a clear coupling between charge and spin degrees of freedom and provide insight into the properties of thermally disordered Heisenberg-Kitaev magnets.
Lorentz-force equations as Heisenberg equations for a quantum system in the euclidean space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez D, R.
2007-01-01
In an earlier work, the dynamic equations for a relativistic charged particle under the action of electromagnetic fields were formulated by R. Yamaleev in terms of external, as well as internal momenta. Evolution equations for external momenta, the Lorentz-force equations, were derived from the evolution equations for internal momenta. The mapping between the observables of external and internal momenta are related by Viete formulae for a quadratic polynomial, the characteristic polynomial of the relativistic dynamics. In this paper we show that the system of dynamic equations, can be cast into the Heisenberg scheme for a four-dimensional quantum system. Within this scheme the equations in terms of internal momenta play the role of evolution equations for a state vector, whereas the external momenta obey the Heisenberg equation for an operator evolution. The solutions of the Lorentz-force equation for the motion inside constant electromagnetic fields are presented via pentagonometric functions. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masood, Syed; Faizal, Mir; Zaz, Zaid; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Raza, Jamil; Shah, Mushtaq B.
2016-01-01
In this paper, we will propose the most general form of the deformation of Heisenberg algebra motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle. This deformation of the Heisenberg algebra will deform all quantum mechanical systems. The form of the generalized uncertainty principle used to motivate these results will be motivated by the space fractional quantum mechanics, and non-locality in quantum mechanical systems. We also analyse a specific limit of this generalized deformation for one dimensional system, and in that limit, a nonlocal deformation of the momentum operator generates a local deformation of all one dimensional quantum mechanical systems. We analyse the low energy effects of this deformation on a harmonic oscillator, Landau levels, Lamb shift, and potential barrier. We also demonstrate that this deformation leads to a discretization of space.
Robust diamond meshes with unique wettability properties.
Yang, Yizhou; Li, Hongdong; Cheng, Shaoheng; Zou, Guangtian; Wang, Chuanxi; Lin, Quan
2014-03-18
Robust diamond meshes with excellent superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties have been fabricated. Superhydrophobicity is observed for water with varying pH from 1 to 14 with good recyclability. Reversible superhydrophobicity and hydrophilicity can be easily controlled. The diamond meshes show highly efficient water-oil separation and water pH droplet transference.
Conflict diamonds — unfinished business | IDRC - International ...
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
2011-07-22
Jul 22, 2011 ... ... diamonds reached this year will not be effective if it is not monitored, and if the countries ... What we do know is that 75 percent of the world's gem diamonds are mined in ... It makes the Kimberley accord weaker than any other international ... a British NGO, have been nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize.
CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments
Wedenig, R; Bauer, C; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Procario, M; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Runólfsson, O; Russ, J; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Wagner, A; Walsh, A M; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Zeuner, W; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M
1999-01-01
This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described. (9 refs).
CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J.C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N
1999-08-01
This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described.
CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J.C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N.
1999-01-01
This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described
The Returns on Investment Grade Diamonds
Renneboog, L.D.R.
2013-01-01
Abstract: This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual
Bending diamonds by femtosecond laser ablation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Balling, Peter; Esberg, Jakob; Kirsebom, Kim
2009-01-01
We present a new method based on femtosecond laser ablation for the fabrication of statically bent diamond crystals. Using this method, curvature radii of 1 m can easily be achieved, and the curvature obtained is very uniform. Since diamond is extremely tolerant to high radiation doses, partly due...
Nuclear spin-magnon relaxation in two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wal, A.J. van der.
1979-01-01
Experiments are discussed of the dependence on temperature and magnetic field of the longitudinal relaxation time of single crystals of antiferromagnetically ordered insulators, i.e. in the temperature range below the Neel temperature and in fields up to the spin-flop transition. The experiments are done on 19 F nuclei in the Heisenberg antiferromagnets K 2 MnF 4 and K 2 NiF 4 , the magnetic structure of which is two-dimensional quadratic. (C.F.)
Chiral-glass transition and replica symmetry breaking of a three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass
Hukushima, K.; Kawamura, H.
2000-01-01
Extensive equilibrium Monte Carlo simulations are performed for a three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass with the nearest-neighbor Gaussian coupling to investigate its spin-glass and chiral-glass orderings. The occurrence of a finite-temperature chiral-glass transition without the conventional spin-glass order is established. Critical exponents characterizing the transition are different from those of the standard Ising spin glass. The calculated overlap distribution suggests the appearance ...
Renormalization group treatment for spin waves in the randomly disordered Heisenberg chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaves, C.M.; Koiller, B.
1983-03-01
Local densities of states in the randomly disordered binary quantum Heisenberg chain using a generalization of a recently developed approach based on renormalization group ideas are calculated. It envolves decimating alternate apins along the chain in such a way as to obtain recursion relations to describe the renormalized set of Green's function equations of motion. The densities of states are richly structured, indicating that the method takes into account compositional fluctuations of arbitrary range. (Author) [pt
Extended Weyl-Heisenberg algebra and Rubakov-Spiridonov superalgebra: Anyonic realizations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daoud, M.; Douari, J.
2001-09-01
We give the realizations of the extended Weyl-Heisenberg (WH) algebra and the Rubakov-Spiridonov (RS) superalgebra in terms of anyons, characterized by the statistical parameter ν is an element of [0,1], on two-dimensional lattice. The construction uses anyons defined from usual fermionic oscillators (Lerda-Sciuto construction). The anyonic realization of the superalgebra sl(1/1) is also presented. (author)
Critical behavior in a random field classical Heisenberg model for amorphous systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albuquerque, Douglas F. de; Alves, Sandro Roberto L.; Arruda, Alberto S. de
2005-01-01
By using the differential operator technique and the effective field theory scheme, the critical behavior of amorphous classical Heisenberg ferromagnet of spin-1/2 in a random field is studied. The phase diagram in the T-H and T-α planes on a simple cubic lattice for a cluster with two spins is obtained. Tricritical points, reentrant phenomena and influence of the random field and amorphization on the transition temperature are discussed
Susceptibility and specific heat of the Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the Kagome lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernhard, B.H.; Canals, B.; Lacroix, C.
2001-01-01
The dynamic susceptibility of the S=((1)/(2)) Heisenberg antiferromagnet is calculated on the Kagome lattice by means of a Green's function decoupling scheme. The spin-spin correlation functions decrease exponentially with distance. The specific heat exhibits a single-peak structure with a T 2 dependence at low temperature and the correct high-temperature behaviour. The calculated total change in entropy indicates a ground-state entropy of 0.46 ln 2
Ignatenko, A. N.; Irkhin, V. Yu.
2016-01-01
We have studied the Heisenberg antiferromagnets characterized by the magnetic structures with the periods being two times larger than the lattice period. We have considered all the types of the Bravais lattices (simple cubic, bcc and fcc) and divided all these antiferromagnets into 7 classes i.e. 3 plus 4 classes denoted with symbols A and B correspondingly. The order parameter characterizing the degeneracies of the magnetic structures is an ordinary Neel vector for A classes and so-called 4-...
Ground state representation of the infinite one-dimensional Heisenberg ferromagnet. Pt. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babbitt, D.; Thomas, L.
1977-01-01
In its ground state representation, the infinite, spin 1/2 Heisenberg chain provides a model for spin wave scattering, which entails many features of the quantum mechanical N-body problem. Here, we give a complete eigenfunction expansion for the Hamiltonian of the chain in this representation, for all numbers of spin waves. Our results resolve the questions of completeness and orthogonality of the eigenfunctions given by Bethe for finite chains, in the infinite volume limit. (orig.) [de
Influence of Non-Uniform Magnetic Field on Quantum Teleportation in Heisenberg XY Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHAO Bin; YANG Tie-jian; ZHAO Yue-hong; ZOU Jian
2007-01-01
By considering the intrinsic decoherence, the validity of quantum teleportation of a two-qubit 1D Heisenberg XY chain in a non-uniform external magnetic field is studied. The fidelity as the measurement of a possible quantum teleportation is calculated and the effects of the non-uniform magnetic field and the intrinsic decoherence are discussed. It is found that anti-parallel magnetic field is more favorable for teleportation and the fidelity is suppressed by the intrinsic decoherence.
Phase transition induced for external field in tree-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg antiferromagnet
Neto, Minos A.; Viana, J. Roberto; Salmon, Octavio D. R.; Filho, E. Bublitz; de Sousa, J. Ricardo
2017-01-01
In this paper, we report mean-field and effective-field renormalization group calculations on the isotropic Heisenberg antiferromagnetic model under a longitudinal magnetic field. As is already known, these methods, denoted by MFRG and EFRG, are based on the comparison of two clusters of different sizes, each of them trying to mimic certain Bravais lattice. Our attention has been on the obtantion of the critical frontier in the plane of temperature versus magnetic field, for the simple cubic ...
Zakeri, Khalil
2017-01-11
This Topical Review presents an overview of the recent experimental results on the quantitative determination of the magnetic exchange parameters in ultrathin magnetic films and multilayers grown on different substrates. The experimental approaches for probing both the symmetric Heisenberg and the antisymmetric Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya exchange interaction in ultrathin magnetic films and at interfaces are discussed in detail. It is explained how the experimental spectrum of magnetic excitations can be used to quantify the strength of these interactions.
The indeterminability of the world. Heisenberg and the struggle about the soul of the world
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindley, D.
2008-01-01
With his detection of the so-called uncertainty or undeterminacy relation the young physicist Werner Heisenberg upsetted 1972 over centuries valid physical certainties. The American physicist and journalist David Lindley depicts in his fascinating story the birth and development of one of the most important knowledges of history of sciences, which faned a vehement controversy under the greatests minds of his time and changed deeply our view of the world
Large-n limit of the Heisenberg model: The decorated lattice and the disordered chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khoruzhenko, B.A.; Pastur, L.A.; Shcherbina, M.V.
1989-01-01
The critical temperature of the generalized spherical model (large-component limit of the classical Heisenberg model) on a cubic lattice, whose every bond is decorated by L spins, is found. When L → ∞, the asymptotics of the temperature is T c ∼ aL -1 . The reduction of the number of spherical constraints for the model is found to be fairly large. The free energy of the one-dimensional generalized spherical model with random nearest neighbor interaction is calculated
Analytical results for entanglement in the five-qubit anisotropic Heisenberg model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Xiaoguang
2004-01-01
We solve the eigenvalue problem of the five-qubit anisotropic Heisenberg model, without use of Bethe's ansatz, and give analytical results for entanglement and mixedness of two nearest-neighbor qubits. The entanglement takes its maximum at Δ=1 (Δ>1) for the case of zero (finite) temperature with Δ being the anisotropic parameter. In contrast, the mixedness takes its minimum at Δ=1 (Δ>1) for the case of zero (finite) temperature
Zad, Hamid Arian; Movahhedian, Hossein
2016-08-01
Heat capacity of a mixed-three-spin (1/2,1,1/2) antiferromagnetic XXX Heisenberg chain is precisely investigated by use of the partition function of the system for which, spins (1,1/2) have coupling constant J1 and spins (1/2,1/2) have coupling constant J2. We verify tripartite entanglement for the model by means of the convex roof extended negativity (CREN) and concurrence as functions of temperature T, homogeneous magnetic field B and the coupling constants J1 and J2. As shown in our previous work, [H. A. Zad, Chin. Phys. B 25 (2016) 030303.] the temperature, the magnetic field and the coupling constants dependences of the heat capacity for such spin system have different behaviors for the entangled and separable states, hence, we did some useful comparisons between this quantity and negativities of its organized bipartite (sub)systems at entangled and separable states. Here, we compare the heat capacity of the mixed-three-spin (1/2,1,1/2) system with the CREN and the tripartite concurrence (as measures of the tripartite entanglement) at low temperature. Ground state phase transitions, and also, transition from ground state to some excited states are explained in detail for this system at zero temperature. Finally, we investigate the heat capacity behavior around those critical points in which these quantum phase transitions occur.
Diamond sensors for future high energy experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bachmair, Felix, E-mail: bachmair@phys.ethz.ch
2016-09-21
With the planned upgrade of the LHC to High-Luminosity-LHC [1], the general purpose experiments ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with more radiation tolerant technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition CVD diamond is one such technology. CVD diamond sensors are an established technology as beam condition monitors in the highest radiation areas of all LHC experiments. The RD42-collaboration at CERN is leading the effort to use CVD diamond as a material for tracking detectors operating in extreme radiation environments. An overview of the latest developments from RD42 is presented including the present status of diamond sensor production, a study of pulse height dependencies on incident particle flux and the development of 3D diamond sensors.
Diamond electrophoretic microchips-Joule heating effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karczemska, Anna T.; Witkowski, Dariusz; Ralchenko, Victor; Bolshakov, Andrey; Sovyk, Dmitry; Lysko, Jan M.; Fijalkowski, Mateusz; Bodzenta, Jerzy; Hassard, John
2011-01-01
Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) has become a mature separation technique in the recent years. In the presented research, a polycrystalline diamond electrophoretic microchip was manufactured with a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) method. A replica technique (mould method) was used to manufacture microstructures in diamond. A numerical analysis with CoventorWare TM was used to compare thermal properties during chip electrophoresis of diamond and glass microchips of the same geometries. Temperature distributions in microchips were demonstrated. Thermal, electrical, optical, chemical and mechanical parameters of the polycrystalline diamond layers are advantageous over traditionally used materials for microfluidic devices. Especially, a very high thermal conductivity coefficient gives a possibility of very efficient dissipation of Joule heat from the diamond electrophoretic microchip. This enables manufacturing of a new generation of microdevices.
Engineering NV centres in Synthetic Diamond
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matthew Markham
2014-01-01
The quantum properties of the nitrogen vacancy (NV) centre in diamond has prompted rapid growth in diamond research. This initial growth was driven by the fact the NV centre provides an 'easy' to manipulate quantum system along with opening up the possibility of a new material to deliver a solid state quantum computer. The NV defect is now moving from a quantum curiosity to a commercial development platform for a range of application such as as gyroscopes, timing and magnetometry as well as the more traditional quantum technologies such as quantum encryption and quantum simulation. These technologies are pushing the development needs of the material, and the processing of that material. The paper will describes the advances in CVD diamond synthesis with special attention to getting NV defects close to the surface of the diamond and how to process the material for diamond quantum optical applications. (author)
Nanostructured Diamond Device for Biomedical Applications.
Fijalkowski, M; Karczemska, A; Lysko, J M; Zybala, R; KozaneckI, M; Filipczak, P; Ralchenko, V; Walock, M; Stanishevsky, A; Mitura, S
2015-02-01
Diamond is increasingly used in biomedical applications because of its unique properties such as the highest thermal conductivity, good optical properties, high electrical breakdown voltage as well as excellent biocompatibility and chemical resistance. Diamond has also been introduced as an excellent substrate to make the functional microchip structures for electrophoresis, which is the most popular separation technique for the determination of analytes. In this investigation, a diamond electrophoretic chip was manufactured by a replica method using a silicon mold. A polycrystalline 300 micron-thick diamond layer was grown by the microwave plasma-assisted CVD (MPCVD) technique onto a patterned silicon substrate followed by the removal of the substrate. The geometry of microstructure, chemical composition, thermal and optical properties of the resulting free-standing diamond electrophoretic microchip structure were examined by CLSM, SFE, UV-Vis, Raman, XRD and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and by a modified laser flash method for thermal property measurements.
Diamond electrophoretic microchips-Joule heating effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karczemska, Anna T., E-mail: anna.karczemska@p.lodz.pl [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Turbomachinery, 219/223 Wolczanska str., Lodz (Poland); Witkowski, Dariusz [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Turbomachinery, 219/223 Wolczanska str., Lodz (Poland); Ralchenko, Victor, E-mail: ralchenko@nsc.gpi.ru [General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science, 38 Vavilov str., Moscow (Russian Federation); Bolshakov, Andrey; Sovyk, Dmitry [General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science, 38 Vavilov str., Moscow (Russian Federation); Lysko, Jan M., E-mail: jmlysko@ite.waw.pl [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Fijalkowski, Mateusz, E-mail: petr.louda@vslib.cz [Technical University of Liberec, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (Czech Republic); Bodzenta, Jerzy, E-mail: jerzy.bodzenta@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Physics, 2 Krzywoustego str., 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Hassard, John, E-mail: j.hassard@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)
2011-03-15
Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) has become a mature separation technique in the recent years. In the presented research, a polycrystalline diamond electrophoretic microchip was manufactured with a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) method. A replica technique (mould method) was used to manufacture microstructures in diamond. A numerical analysis with CoventorWare{sup TM} was used to compare thermal properties during chip electrophoresis of diamond and glass microchips of the same geometries. Temperature distributions in microchips were demonstrated. Thermal, electrical, optical, chemical and mechanical parameters of the polycrystalline diamond layers are advantageous over traditionally used materials for microfluidic devices. Especially, a very high thermal conductivity coefficient gives a possibility of very efficient dissipation of Joule heat from the diamond electrophoretic microchip. This enables manufacturing of a new generation of microdevices.
Shock compression of diamond crystal
Kondo, Ken-ichi; Ahrens, Thomas J.
1983-01-01
Two shock wave experiments employing inclined mirrors have been carried out to determine the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL), final shock state at 191 and 217 GPa, and the post-shock state of diamond crystal, which is shock-compressed along the intermediate direction between the and crystallographic axes. The HEL wave has a velocity of 19.9 ± 0.3 mm/µsec and an amplitude of 63 ± 28 GPa. An alternate interpretation of the inclined wedge mirror streak record suggests a ramp precursor wave and th...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levashov, E.A.; Akulinin, P.V.; Sorokin, M.N.; Sviridova, T.A.; Khosomi, S.; Okh'yanagi, M.; Koizumi, S.
2004-01-01
For the first time a study is made into specific features of phase- and structure formation in diamond-bearing functionally gradient materials (FGM) with a ceramic binder on the basis of titanium diboride and nitride TiB 2 -TiN as well as titanium silicide and nitride Ti 5 Si 3 -TiN. For a titanium diboride and nitride base binder the maximum residual strength of diamond grains is 24 N for a specimen with 12.5 vol. % of diamond and 29 N for a specimen with 25 vol. % of diamond in a charge layer when an initial strength of diamond grains is equal to 37 N. For a titanium silicide and nitride base binder the residual strength of diamond in synthesized products is 32.5 and 28.7 N for specimens with 12.5 and 25 vol. % of diamond respectively, the initial strength of diamond grains being the same. A positive effect is shown for a 5% additive of titanium hydride in a charge diamond-bearing layer on the preservation of diamond in a tita nium diboride and nitride binder. Optimal conditions are determined to provide the possibility of obtaining high-quality products with a high degree of preservation and strength of diamond grains [ru
Toroidal plasma enhanced CVD of diamond films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zvanya, John; Cullen, Christopher; Morris, Thomas; Krchnavek, Robert R.; Holber, William; Basnett, Andrew; Basnett, Robert; Hettinger, Jeffrey
2014-01-01
An inductively coupled toroidal plasma source is used as an alternative to microwave plasmas for chemical vapor deposition of diamond films. The source, operating at a frequency of 400 kHz, synthesizes diamond films from a mixture of argon, methane, and hydrogen. The toroidal design has been adapted to create a highly efficient environment for diamond film deposition: high gas temperature and a short distance from the sample to the plasma core. Using a toroidal plasma geometry operating in the medium frequency band allows for efficient (≈90%) coupling of AC line power to the plasma and a scalable path to high-power and large-area operation. In test runs, the source generates a high flux of atomic hydrogen over a large area, which is favorable for diamond film growth. Using a deposition temperature of 900–1050 °C and a source to sample distance of 0.1–2.0 cm, diamond films are deposited onto silicon substrates. The results showed that the deposition rate of the diamond films could be controlled using the sample temperature and source to sample spacing. The results also show the films exhibit good-quality polycrystalline diamond as verified by Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction results show that the samples exhibit diamond (111) and diamond (022) crystallites. The Raman results show that the sp 3 peak has a narrow spectral width (FWHM 12 ± 0.5 cm −1 ) and that negligible amounts of the sp 2 band are present, indicating good-quality diamond films
Cold cathodes on ultra-dispersed diamond base
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alimova, A.N.; Zhirnov, V.V.; Chubun, N.N.; Belobrov, P.I.
1998-01-01
Prospects of application of nano diamond powders for fabrication of cold cathodes are discussed.Cold cathodes based on silicon pointed structures with nano diamond coatings were prepared.The deposition technique of diamond coating was dielectrophoresis from suspension of nano diamond powder in organic liquids.The cathodes were tested in sealed prototypes of vacuum electronic devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, G.T.; Sullivan, I.A.; Newey, A.W.E.
2006-01-01
Electrochemical oxidation using boron-doped diamond electrodes is being investigated as a treatment process for radioactively contaminated oily wastes. Previously, it was shown that electrodes coated with a thin film of diamond were able to oxidise a cutting oil but not a mineral oil. These tests were inconclusive, because the electrodes lost their diamond coating during operation. Accordingly, an electrode prepared from a 'solid' wafer of boron-doped diamond is being investigated to determine whether it will oxidise mineral oils. The electrode has been tested with sucrose, a cutting oil and an emulsified mineral oil. Before and after each test, the state of the electrode was assessed by cyclic voltammetry with the ferro/ferricyanide redox couple. Analysis of the cyclic voltammogram suggested that material accumulated on the surface of the electrode during the tests. The magnitude of the effect was in the order: - emulsified mineral oil > cutting oil > sucrose. Despite this, the results indicated that the electrode was capable of oxidising the emulsified mineral oil. Confirmatory tests were undertaken in the presence of alkali to trap the carbon dioxide, but they had to be abandoned when the adhesive holding the diamond in the electrode was attacked by the alkali. Etching of the diamond wafer was also observed at the end of the tests. Surface corrosion is now regarded as an intrinsic part of the electrochemical oxidation on diamond, and it is expected that the rate of attack will determine the service life of the electrodes. (authors)
Gamma-radiation effect on diamond and steel during their irradiation in WWER type reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikolaenko, V.A.; Karpukhin, V.I.; Amaev, A.D.; Vikhrov, V.I.; Korolev, Yu.N.; Krasikov, E.A.
1996-01-01
A study is made into the influence of reactor gamma radiation on expansion of crystal lattice in diamond. The data obtained are compared to those on radiation embrittlement of reactor vessel steels. The necessity of taking into consideration gamma radiation effects on WWER reactor vessel radiation resistance during long-term operation is shown [ru
The Geopolitical Setting of Conflict Diamonds.
Haggerty, S. E.
2002-05-01
September 11, 2001 will live in infamy. Ideological differences have also led to senseless atrocities in Angola, Congo Republic, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. Hundreds of thousands have died, scores mutilated, and millions displaced. These have gone virtually unnoticed for decades. Unnoticed that is until it became evident that these barbaric acts were fueled by the sale or bartering of diamonds for arms, or by more ingenious ways that are less traceable. There is no end in sight. Industry has long recognized that about 20% of diamonds reaching the open market are smuggled from operating mines, and more recently that an additional 4% originates from conflict diamond sources. Diamond identification by laser inscription, ion implantation, or certification protocols are subject to fraudulent tampering. And these applied methods are thwarted if cutting and polishing centers are infiltrated, or if terrorist facilities are independently established. Mark ups are substantial (40-60%) from raw material to finished product. Tracking the paths of rough stones from mines to faceted gems is impractical because some 30-50 million cts of top quality material, or about 100 million stones, would require branding each year. Moreover, the long standing tradition of site-holdings and the bourse system of mixing or matching diamonds, inadvertently ensures regional anonymity. Conflict diamonds are mined in primary kimberlites and from widely dispersed alluvial fields in tropical jungle. Landscapes, eroded by 1-5 vertical km over 100 Ma, have transformed low grade primary deposits into unconsolidated sedimentary bonanzas. The current value of stones retrieved, by motivated diggers and skillful jiggers, in rebel held territories, is impossible to determine, but in 1993 amounted to tens of millions USD. Diamonds over 100 cts continue to surface at premier prices. Borders are porous, diamonds flow easily, and armed networks are permeable and mobile. Diamonds form at great depths (over 200 km
STRUCTURING OF DIAMOND FILMS USING MICROSPHERE LITHOGRAPHY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mária Domonkos
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In this study, the structuring of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond thin ﬁlms is demonstrated. The structuring of the diamond ﬁlms is performed using the technique of microsphere lithography followed by reactive ion etching. Specifically, this paper presents a four-step fabrication process: diamond deposition (microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition, mask preparation (by the standard Langmuir-Blodgett method, mask modification and diamond etching. A self-assembled monolayer of monodisperse polystyrene (PS microspheres with close-packed ordering is used as the primary template. Then the PS microspheres and the diamond films are processed in capacitively coupled radiofrequency plasma using different plasma chemistries. This fabrication method illustrates the preparation of large arrays of periodic and homogeneous hillock-like structures. The surface morphology of processed diamond films is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope. The potential applications of such diamond structures in various fields of nanotechnology are also briefly discussed.
Thin diamond films for tribological applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, M.S.; Meilunas, R.; Ong, T.P.; Chang, R.P.H.
1989-01-01
Diamond films have been deposited on Si, Mo and many other substrates by microwave and radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Although the adhesion between the diamond film and most of the metal substrates is poor due to residual thermal stress from the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients, the authors have developed processes to promote the growth of uniform and continuous diamond films with enhanced adhesion to metal substrates for tribological applications. The tribological properties of these films are measured using a ring-on-block tribotester. The coefficients of friction of diamond films sliding against a 52100 steel ring under the same experimental conditions are found to be significantly different depending on the morphology, grain size and roughness of the diamond films. However, under all cases tested, it is found that for uniform and continuous diamond films with small grain size of 1-3 micrometers, the coefficient of friction of the diamond film sliding against a steel ring under lubrication of a jet of mineral oil is about 0.04
CVD diamond for nuclear detection applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergonzo, P.; Brambilla, A.; Tromson, D.; Mer, C.; Guizard, B.; Marshall, R.D.; Foulon, F.
2002-01-01
Chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond is a remarkable material for the fabrication of radiation detectors. In fact, there exist several applications where other standard semiconductor detectors do not fulfil the specific requirements imposed by corrosive, hot and/or high radiation dose environments. The improvement of the electronic properties of CVD diamond has been under intensive investigations and led to the development of a few applications that are addressing specific industrial needs. Here, we report on CVD diamond-based detector developments and we describe how this material, even though of a polycrystalline nature, is readily of great interest for applications in the nuclear industry as well as for physics experiments. Improvements in the material synthesis as well as on device fabrication especially concern the synthesis of films that do not exhibit space charge build up effects which are often encountered in CVD diamond materials and that are highly detrimental for detection devices. On a pre-industrial basis, CVD diamond detectors have been fabricated for nuclear industry applications in hostile environments. Such devices can operate in harsh environments and overcome limitations encountered with the standard semiconductor materials. Of these, this paper presents devices for the monitoring of the alpha activity in corrosive nuclear waste solutions, such as those encountered in nuclear fuel assembly reprocessing facilities, as well as diamond-based thermal neutron detectors exhibiting a high neutron to gamma selectivity. All these demonstrate the effectiveness of a demanding industrial need that relies on the remarkable resilience of CVD diamond
Phosphorylated nano-diamond/ Polyimide Nanocomposites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beyler-Çiǧil, Asli; Çakmakçi, Emrah; Kahraman, Memet Vezir
2014-01-01
In this study, a novel route to synthesize polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nanodiamond films with improved thermal and mechanical properties was developed. Surface phosphorylation of nano-diamond was performed in dichloromethane. Phosphorylation dramatically enhanced the thermal stability of nano-diamond. Poly(amic acid) (PAA), which is the precursor of PI, was successfully synthesized with 3,3',4,4'-Benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and 4,4'-oxydianiline (4,4'-ODA) in the solution of N,N- dimethylformamide (DMF). Pure BTDA-ODA polyimide films and phosphorylated nanodiamond containing BTDA-ODA PI films were prepared. The PAA displayed good compatibility with phosphorylated nano-diamond. The morphology of the polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical structure of polyimide and polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond was characterized by FTIR. SEM and FTIR results showed that the phosphorylated nano-diamond was successfully prepared. Thermal properties of the polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nanodiamond was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA results showed that the thermal stability of (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond film was increased
Microstructure and mechanical properties of diamond films on titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy
Catledge, Shane Aaron
The primary focus of this dissertation is the investigation of the processing-structure-property relationships of diamond films deposited on Ti-6Al-4V alloy by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD). By depositing a well-adhered protective layer of diamond on an alloy component, its hardness, wear-resistance, performance, and overall lifetime could be significantly increased. However, due to the large thermal expansion mismatch between the diamond film and metal (and the corresponding residual stress induced in the film), film adhesion is typically unsatisfactory and often results in immediate delamination after processing. Therefore, it is a major goal of this research to improve adhesion of the diamond film to the alloy substrate. Through the use of innovative processing techniques involving MPCVD deposition conditions and methane (CH4), nitrogen (N2), and hydrogen (H2) chemistry, we have achieved diamond films which consistently adhere to the alloy substrate. In addition, we have discovered that, with the appropriate choice of deposition conditions, the film structure can be tailored to range from highly crystalline, well-faceted diamond to nanocrystalline diamond with extremely low surface roughness (as low as 27 nm). The relationship between processing and structure was studied using in-situ optical emission spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, surface profilometry, glancing-angle x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. We observe that when nitrogen is added to the H2/CH4 feedgas mixture, a carbon-nitrogen (CN) emission band arises and its relative abundance to the carbon dimer (C2) gas species is shown to have a pronounced influence on the diamond film structure. By appropriate choice of deposition chemistry and conditions, we can tailor the diamond film structure and its corresponding properties. The mechanical properties of interest in this thesis are those relating to the integrity of the film/substrate interface, as well as the
Transfection and imaging of diamond nanocrystals as scattering optical labels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, Bradley R.; Niebert, Marcus; Plakhotnik, Taras; Zvyagin, Andrei V.
2007-01-01
We report on the first demonstration of nanodiamond (ND) as a scattering optical label in a biological environment. NDs were efficiently transfected into cells using cationic liposomes, and imaged using differential interference and Hoffman modulation 'space' contrast microscopy techniques. We have shown that 55 nm NDs are biologically inert and produce a bright signal compared to the cell background. ND as a scattering label presents the possibility for extended biological imaging with relatively little thermal or biochemical perturbations due to the optical transparency and biologically inert nature of diamond
Enhancement of electron flux by means of diamond membrane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavrilov, S.A.; Il'ichev, Eh.A.; Poltoratskij, Eh.A.; Rychkov, G.S.; Dzbanovskij, N.N.; Minakov, P.V.; Suetin, N.V.
2004-01-01
One investigates into secondary electron emission (SEE) from diamond films made in the form of 2.5-5 μm thickness membranes. SEE is investigated under two modes: the reflection and the streaming ones. SEE coefficient is evaluated on the basis of analysis of behavior of 0.1-30 keV energy electrons in solid material. It is shown that in case of reflection the SEE coefficient may be over 100 at energies equal to 3 keV, while in case of streaming it does not exceed 5 even at 30 keV energy values [ru
Gruen, Dieter M [Downers Grove, IL
2009-08-11
One provides nanocrystalline diamond material that comprises a plurality of substantially ordered diamond crystallites that are sized no larger than about 10 nanometers. One then disposes a non-diamond component within the nanocrystalline diamond material. By one approach this non-diamond component comprises an electrical conductor that is formed at the grain boundaries that separate the diamond crystallites from one another. The resultant nanowire is then able to exhibit a desired increase with respect to its ability to conduct electricity while also preserving the thermal conductivity behavior of the nanocrystalline diamond material.
Diamond-Based Supercapacitors: Realization and Properties.
Gao, Fang; Nebel, Christoph E
2016-10-26
In this Spotlight on Applications, we describe our recent progress on the fabrication of surface-enlarged boron-doped polycrystalline diamond electrodes, and evaluate their performance in supercapacitor applications. We begin with a discussion of the fabrication methods of porous diamond materials. The diamond surface enlargement starts with a top-down plasma etching method. Although the extra surface area provided by surface roughening or nanostructuring provides good outcome for sensing applications, a capacitance value <1 mF cm -2 or a surface-enlargement factor <100 fail to meet the requirement of a practical supercapacitor. Driven by the need for large surface areas, we recently focused on the tempated-growth method. We worked on both supported and free-standing porous diamond materials to enhance the areal capacitance to the "mF cm -2 " range. With our newly developed free-standing diamond paper, areal capacitance can be multiplied by stacking multilayers of the electrode material. Finally, considering the fact that there is no real diamond-based supercapacitor device up to now, we fabricated the first prototype pouch-cell device based on the free-standing diamond paper to evaluate its performance. The results reveal that the diamond paper is suitable for operation in high potential windows (up to 2.5 V) in aqueous electrolyte with a capacitance of 0.688 mF cm -2 per layer of paper (or 0.645 F g -1 ). Impedance spectroscopy revealed that the operation frequency of the device exceeds 30 Hz. Because of the large potential window and the ability to work at high frequency, the specific power of the device reached 1 × 10 5 W kg -1 . In the end, we made estimations on the future target performance of diamond supercapacitors based on the existing information.
Graphene diamond-like carbon films heterostructure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Fang; Afandi, Abdulkareem; Jackman, Richard B.
2015-01-01
A limitation to the potential use of graphene as an electronic material is the lack of control over the 2D materials properties once it is deposited on a supporting substrate. Here, the use of Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) interlayers between the substrate and the graphene is shown to offer the prospect of overcoming this problem. The DLC films used here, more properly known as a-C:H with ∼25% hydrogen content, have been terminated with N or F moieties prior to graphene deposition. It is found that nitrogen terminations lead to an optical band gap shrinkage in the DLC, whilst fluorine groups reduce the DLC's surface energy. CVD monolayer graphene subsequently transferred to DLC, N terminated DLC, and F terminated DLC has then been studied with AFM, Raman and XPS analysis, and correlated with Hall effect measurements that give an insight into the heterostructures electrical properties. The results show that different terminations strongly affect the electronic properties of the graphene heterostructures. G-F-DLC samples were p-type and displayed considerably higher mobility than the other heterostructures, whilst G-N-DLC samples supported higher carrier densities, being almost metallic in character. Since it would be possible to locally pattern the distribution of these differing surface terminations, this work offers the prospect for 2D lateral control of the electronic properties of graphene layers for device applications
Characterization of the diamond detector for commissioning the Eclipse Planning System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavan, Guilherme A.; Cardoso, Domingos de O.; Fontes, Gladson S.; Instituto Militar de Engenharia
2017-01-01
Diamond detectors are an option in the commissioning of linear accelerators, especially in small field measurements due to characteristics such as: small sensitive volume (0.004mm 3 ) and low energy dependence, desirable attributes for PDP measurements, output factors and profiles. The purpose of this study was to characterize PTW microDiamond 60019 diamond detector in relation to linearity, dependencies: energy, directional and with dose rate; Besides comparing measurements of PDP, output factors and profiles with some ionization and diode chambers. We also analyzed two models of the Eclipse planning system, performed with data from the commissioning of a TrueBeam accelerator obtained with the CC13 camera and with the diamond. Linearity deviations less than 0.5% were obtained in the range of 50cGy to 20Gy for energies of 6,10 and 15MV. Variations smaller than 0.5% for energy dependence and dose rate and angular dependence less than 0.5% in the axial and polar directions were observed. In the small-field output factors the diamond presented higher relative readings to the chambers: CC13, PintPoint3D and CC01 and similar to the diode. In the PDP it showed superiority in the definition of the buildup and surface regions. In the small field profiles it was shown a better definition of the penumbra in relation to the ionization chambers and in relation to the diode was equivalent, being superior in the tail region of large fields. In both models of Eclipse there were no significant differences for 1%3mm gamma analysis for PDP and profiles, although the diamond presented smaller mean gamma errors. The Collimator Backscatter Factors (CBSF) analysis for the two sets of measures showed differences mainly for small fields. The results of this study indicate that the diamond detector is one of the most versatile on the market in different commissioning situations, especially for small field measurements. (author)
Diamond deposition on siliconized stainless steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez, F.; Reinoso, M.; Huck, H.; Rosenbusch, M.
2010-01-01
Silicon diffusion layers in AISI 304 and AISI 316 type stainless steels were investigated as an alternative to surface barrier coatings for diamond film growth. Uniform 2 μm thick silicon rich interlayers were obtained by coating the surface of the steels with silicon and performing diffusion treatments at 800 deg. C. Adherent diamond films with low sp 2 carbon content were deposited on the diffused silicon layers by a modified hot filament assisted chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method. Characterization of as-siliconized layers and diamond coatings was performed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy.
Physics and applications of CVD diamond
Koizumi, Satoshi; Nesladek, Milos
2008-01-01
Here, leading scientists report on why and how diamond can be optimized for applications in bioelectronic and electronics. They cover such topics as growth techniques, new and conventional doping mechanisms, superconductivity in diamond, and excitonic properties, while application aspects include quantum electronics at room temperature, biosensors as well as diamond nanocantilevers and SAWs.Written in a review style to make the topic accessible for a wider community of scientists working in interdisciplinary fields with backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering, this is e
Residual radioactivity of treated green diamonds.
Cassette, Philippe; Notari, Franck; Lépy, Marie-Christine; Caplan, Candice; Pierre, Sylvie; Hainschwang, Thomas; Fritsch, Emmanuel
2017-08-01
Treated green diamonds can show residual radioactivity, generally due to immersion in radium salts. We report various activity measurements on two radioactive diamonds. The activity was characterized by alpha and gamma ray spectrometry, and the radon emanation was measured by alpha counting of a frozen source. Even when no residual radium contamination can be identified, measurable alpha and high-energy beta emissions could be detected. The potential health impact of radioactive diamonds and their status with regard to the regulatory policy for radioactive products are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Amorphous Diamond MEMS and Sensors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
SULLIVAN, JOHN P.; FRIEDMANN, THOMAS A.; ASHBY, CAROL I.; DE BOER, MAARTEN P.; SCHUBERT, W. KENT; SHUL, RANDY J.; HOHLFELDER, ROBERT J.; LAVAN, D.A.
2002-06-01
This report describes a new microsystems technology for the creation of microsensors and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) using stress-free amorphous diamond (aD) films. Stress-free aD is a new material that has mechanical properties close to that of crystalline diamond, and the material is particularly promising for the development of high sensitivity microsensors and rugged and reliable MEMS. Some of the unique properties of aD include the ability to easily tailor film stress from compressive to slightly tensile, hardness and stiffness 80-90% that of crystalline diamond, very high wear resistance, a hydrophobic surface, extreme chemical inertness, chemical compatibility with silicon, controllable electrical conductivity from insulating to conducting, and biocompatibility. A variety of MEMS structures were fabricated from this material and evaluated. These structures included electrostatically-actuated comb drives, micro-tensile test structures, singly- and doubly-clamped beams, and friction and wear test structures. It was found that surface micromachined MEMS could be fabricated in this material easily and that the hydrophobic surface of the film enabled the release of structures without the need for special drying procedures or the use of applied hydrophobic coatings. Measurements using these structures revealed that aD has a Young's modulus of {approx}650 GPa, a tensile fracture strength of 8 GPa, and a fracture toughness of 8 MPa{center_dot}m {sup 1/2}. These results suggest that this material may be suitable in applications where stiction or wear is an issue. Flexural plate wave (FPW) microsensors were also fabricated from aD. These devices use membranes of aD as thin as {approx}100 nm. The performance of the aD FPW sensors was evaluated for the detection of volatile organic compounds using ethyl cellulose as the sensor coating. For comparable membrane thicknesses, the aD sensors showed better performance than silicon nitride based sensors. Greater
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rylov, G.M.; Yefimova, E.S.; Sobolev, N.V.; Kulipanov, G.N.; Kondratyev, V.I.; Tolochko, B.P.; Sharafutdinov, M.R.
2001-01-01
The 'Laue-SR' method has been realised for fast gathering experimental data in the study of imperfect natural and synthesised diamonds which are hard to investigate with the conventional X-ray methods. Time to obtain a diffraction pattern with the use of the polychromatic SR is shorter by several orders; the resolution of the image of substructure defects of a crystal lattice (as compared to the conventional Laue method) is improved by an order and does not vanish even at large disorientation or other non-coherent disturbances of the crystal lattice. The 'Laue-SR' method is especially appropriate for the study of intact, sufficiently large diamond crystals (up to 5 mm), since the diamond has a small coefficient of the X-ray absorption and is practically transparent in the operational range of the SR waves, λ=0.5-1.5 A. This method was shown to be applied successfully for an accelerated study of a large bulk of imperfect natural diamond crystals without any preliminary preparation and without their destruction, which enlarges the information output in the study and, besides that, increases significantly the efficiency of the work. X-ray 'Laue-SR' topograms of imperfect diamonds with different types of distortions of the crystal lattice by natural processes during the formation of the diamonds and by epigenetic impacts are shown
Interferometric evaluation of diamond-turned mirrors for CO2 laser fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munroe, J.L.
1979-01-01
It is shown that single-point diamond-turned optics exhibit different characteristics than conventionally manufactured optics and the type of information required by the machinist is quite different than the information that would be required by an optician. It was also seen, with Antares being a good example, that single-point diamond turning allows the manufacture of geometries and scales that might be unthinkable if conventional manufacturing were to be used. As single-point diamond turning continues to improve in quality, machined optics will find application at shorter and shorter wavelengths. A whole new formalism to describe manufacturing errors in terms meaningful to the machinist will have to be developed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ileana González-González
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Sequential electrodeposition of Pt and Ru on boron-doped diamond (BDD films, in 0.5 M H2SO4 by cyclic voltammetry, has been prepared. The potential cycling, in the aqueous solutions of the respective metals, was between 0.00 and 1.00 V versus Ag/AgCl. The catalyst composites, Pt and PtRu, deposited on BDD film substrates, were tested for methanol oxidation. The modified diamond surfaces were also characterized by scanning electron microscopy-X-ray fluorescence-energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy. The scanning Auger electron spectroscopy mapping showed the ruthenium signal only in areas where platinum was electrodeposited. Ruthenium does not deposit on the oxidized diamond surface of the boron-doped diamond. Particles with 5–10% of ruthenium with respect to platinum exhibited better performance for methanol oxidation in terms of methanol oxidation peak current and chronoamperometric current stability. The electrogenerated •OH radicals on BDD may interact with Pt surface, participating in the methanol oxidation as shown in oxidation current and the shift in the peak position. The conductive diamond surface is a good candidate as the support for the platinum electrocatalyst, because it ensures catalytic activity, which compares with the used carbon, and higher stability under severe anodic and cathodic conditions.
Microcrystalline diamond cylindrical resonators with quality-factor up to 0.5 million
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saito, Daisuke; Yang, Chen; Lin, Liwei [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Heidari, Amir [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Najar, Hadi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Horsley, David A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)
2016-02-01
We demonstrate high quality-factor 1.5 mm diameter batch-fabricated microcrystalline diamond cylindrical resonators (CR) with quality-factors limited by thermoelastic damping (TED) and surface loss. Resonators were fabricated 2.6 and 5.3 μm thick in-situ boron-doped microcrystalline diamond films deposited using hot filament chemical vapor deposition. The quality-factor (Q) of as-fabricated CR's was found to increase with the resonator diameter and diamond thickness. Annealing the CRs at 700 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere led to a three-fold increase in Q, a result we attribute to thinning of the diamond layer via reaction with residual O{sub 2} in the annealing furnace. Post-anneal Q exceeding 0.5 million (528 000) was measured at the 19 kHz elliptical wineglass modes, producing a ring-down time of 8.9 s. A model for Q versus diamond thickness and resonance frequency is developed including the effects of TED and surface loss. Measured quality factors are shown to agree with the predictions of this model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kononenko, T V; Zavedeev, E V [Natural Science Center, A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2016-03-31
We report a theoretical and experimental study of the energy profile deformation along the laser beam axis during the fabrication of graphite microstructures inside a diamond crystal. The numerical simulation shows that the use of a focusing lens with a numerical aperture NA < 0.1 at a focusing depth of up to 2 mm makes it possible to avoid a noticeable change in the energy profile of the beam due to the spherical aberration that occurs in the case of refraction of the focused laser beam at the air – diamond interface. The calculation results are confirmed by experimental data on the distribution of the laser intensity along the beam axis in front of its focal plane, derived from observations of graphitisation wave propagation in diamond. The effect of radiation self-focusing on laser-induced graphitisation of diamond is analysed. It is shown that if the wavefront distortion due to self-focusing can be neglected at a minimum pulse energy required for the optical breakdown of diamond, then an increase in the beam distortion with increasing pulse energy has no effect on the graphitisation process. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)
Astronomers debate diamonds in space
1999-04-01
This is not the first time the intriguing carbonaceous compound has been detected in space. A peculiar elite of twelve stars are known to produce it. The star now added by ISO to this elite is one of the best representatives of this exclusive family, since it emits a very strong signal of the compound. Additionally ISO found a second new member of the group with weaker emission, and also observed with a spectral resolution never achieved before other already known stars in this class. Astronomers think these ISO results will help solve the mystery of the true nature of the compound. Their publication by two different groups, from Spain and Canada, has triggered a debate on the topic, both in astronomy institutes and in chemistry laboratories. At present, mixed teams of astrophysicists and chemists are investigating in the lab compounds whose chemical signature or "fingerprint" matches that detected by ISO. Neither diamonds nor fullerenes have ever been detected in space, but their presence has been predicted. Tiny diamonds of pre-solar origin --older than the Solar System-- have been found in meteorites, which supports the as yet unconfirmed theory of their presence in interstellar space. The fullerene molecule, made of 60 carbon atoms linked to form a sphere (hence the name "buckyball"), has also been extensively searched for in space but never found. If the carbonaceous compound detected by ISO is a fullerene or a diamond, there will be new data on the production of these industrially interesting materials. Fullerenes are being investigated as "capsules" to deliver new pharmaceuticals to the body. Diamonds are commonly used in the electronics industry and for the development of new materials; if they are formed in the dust surrounding some stars, at relatively low temperatures and conditions of low pressure, companies could learn more about the ideal physical conditions to produce them. A textbook case The latest star in which the compound has been found is
Ultra-fast calculations using diamond
Van Dijk, T.
2011-01-01
TU Delft researchers have managed to use a piece of diamond to hold four quantum bits that can be spun, flipped and entangled with each other. This is an important step towards a working quantum computer
Short-range order in irradiated diamonds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agafonov, S.S.; Glazkov, V.P.; Nikolaenko, V.A.; Somenkov, V.A.
2005-01-01
Structural changes in irradiated diamond with a change in its density were studied. Natural diamond powders with average particle size from 14-20 μm to 0.5 mm, irradiated in beryllium block of the MR reactor up to a fluence of 1.51 x 10 21 were used as samples. Using the neutron-diffraction method, it has been established that, when density in irradiated diamonds varies, a transition from a diamond-like amorphous structure to a graphite-like structure occurs. The transition occurs at a density ρ ∼ 2.7-2.9 g/cm 3 and is accompanied by a sharp change in resistivity [ru
Single-Crystal Diamond Nanobeam Waveguide Optomechanics
Khanaliloo, Behzad; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Hryciw, Aaron C.; Lake, David P.; Kaviani, Hamidreza; Barclay, Paul E.
2015-10-01
Single-crystal diamond optomechanical devices have the potential to enable fundamental studies and technologies coupling mechanical vibrations to both light and electronic quantum systems. Here, we demonstrate a single-crystal diamond optomechanical system and show that it allows excitation of diamond mechanical resonances into self-oscillations with amplitude >200 nm . The resulting internal stress field is predicted to allow driving of electron spin transitions of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers. The mechanical resonances have a quality factor >7 ×105 and can be tuned via nonlinear frequency renormalization, while the optomechanical interface has a 150 nm bandwidth and 9.5 fm /√{Hz } sensitivity. In combination, these features make this system a promising platform for interfacing light, nanomechanics, and electron spins.
Single-Crystal Diamond Nanobeam Waveguide Optomechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Behzad Khanaliloo
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Single-crystal diamond optomechanical devices have the potential to enable fundamental studies and technologies coupling mechanical vibrations to both light and electronic quantum systems. Here, we demonstrate a single-crystal diamond optomechanical system and show that it allows excitation of diamond mechanical resonances into self-oscillations with amplitude >200 nm. The resulting internal stress field is predicted to allow driving of electron spin transitions of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers. The mechanical resonances have a quality factor >7×10^{5} and can be tuned via nonlinear frequency renormalization, while the optomechanical interface has a 150 nm bandwidth and 9.5 fm/sqrt[Hz] sensitivity. In combination, these features make this system a promising platform for interfacing light, nanomechanics, and electron spins.
CVD diamond for nuclear detection applications
Bergonzo, P; Tromson, D; Mer, C; Guizard, B; Marshall, R D; Foulon, F
2002-01-01
Chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond is a remarkable material for the fabrication of radiation detectors. In fact, there exist several applications where other standard semiconductor detectors do not fulfil the specific requirements imposed by corrosive, hot and/or high radiation dose environments. The improvement of the electronic properties of CVD diamond has been under intensive investigations and led to the development of a few applications that are addressing specific industrial needs. Here, we report on CVD diamond-based detector developments and we describe how this material, even though of a polycrystalline nature, is readily of great interest for applications in the nuclear industry as well as for physics experiments. Improvements in the material synthesis as well as on device fabrication especially concern the synthesis of films that do not exhibit space charge build up effects which are often encountered in CVD diamond materials and that are highly detrimental for detection devices. On a pre-i...
Diamond Detector Technology: Status and Perspectives
Reichmann, M; Artuso, M; Bachmair, F; Bäni, L; Bartosik, M; Beacham, J; Beck, H; Bellini, V; Belyaev, V; Bentele, B; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bes, A; Brom, J-M; Bruzzi, M; Cerv, M; Chiodini, G; Chren, D; Cindro, V; Claus, G; Collot, J; Cumalat, J; Dabrowski, A; D'Alessandro, R; Dauvergne, D; de Boer, W; Dorfer, C; Dünser, M; Eremin, V; Eusebi, R; Forcolin, G; Forneris, J; Frais-Kölbl, H; Gallin-Martel, L; Gallin-Martel, M L; Gan, K K; Gastal, M; Giroletti, C; Goffe, M; Goldstein, J; Golubev, A; Gorišek, A; Grigoriev, E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Grummer, A; Gui, B; Guthoff, M; Haughton, I; Hiti, B; Hits, D; Hoeferkamp, M; Hofmann, T; Hosslet, J; Hostachy, J-Y; Hügging, F; Hutton, C; Jansen, H; Janssen, J; Kagan, H; Kanxheri, K; Kasieczka, G; Kass, R; Kassel, F; Kis, M; Konovalov, V; Kramberger, G; Kuleshov, S; Lacoste, A; Lagomarsino, S; Lo Giudice, A; Lukosi, E; Maazouzi, C; Mandic, I; Mathieu, C; Menichelli, M; Mikuž, M; Morozzi, A; Moss, J; Mountain, R; Murphy, S; Muškinja, M; Oh, A; Oliviero, P; Passeri, D; Pernegger, H; Perrino, R; Picollo, F; Pomorski, M; Potenza, R; Quadt, A; Re, A; Riley, G; Roe, S; Sanz-Becerra, D A; Scaringella, M; Schaefer, D; Schmidt, C J; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Scorzoni, A; Seidel, S; Servoli, L; Smith, S; Sopko, B; Sopko, V; Spagnolo, S; Spanier, S; Stenson, K; Stone, R; Sutera, C; Tannenwald, B; Taylor, A; Traeger, M; Tromson, D; Trischuk, W; Tuve, C; Uplegger, L; Velthuis, J; Venturi, N; Vittone, E; Wagner, S; Wallny, R; Wang, J C; Weingarten, J; Weiss, C; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Yamouni, M; Zavrtanik, M
2018-01-01
The planned upgrade of the LHC to the High-Luminosity-LHC will push the luminosity limits above the original design values. Since the current detectors will not be able to cope with this environment ATLAS and CMS are doing research to find more radiation tolerant technologies for their innermost tracking layers. Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) diamond is an excellent candidate for this purpose. Detectors out of this material are already established in the highest irradiation regimes for the beam condition monitors at LHC. The RD42 collaboration is leading an effort to use CVD diamonds also as sensor material for the future tracking detectors. The signal behaviour of highly irradiated diamonds is presented as well as the recent study of the signal dependence on incident particle flux. There is also a recent development towards 3D detectors and especially 3D detectors with a pixel readout based on diamond sensors.
Modified diamond dies for laser applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McWilliams, R.A.
1978-06-21
A modified wire drawing die for spatial filtering techniques is described. It was designed for use in high power laser systems. The diamond aperture is capable of enduring high intensity laser frequency without damaging the laser beam profile. The diamond is mounted at the beam focus in a vacuum of 1 x 10/sup -5/ Torr. The vacuum prevents plasma forming at the diamond aperture, thus enabling the beam to pass through without damaging the holder or aperture. The spatial filters are fitted with a manipulator that has three electronic stepping motors, can position the aperture in three orthogonal directions, and is capable of 3.2 ..mu..m resolution. Shiva laser system is using 105 diamond apertures for shaping the High Energy Laser Beam.
The DIAMOND Model of Peace Support Operations
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Bailey, Peter
2005-01-01
DIAMOND (Diplomatic And Military Operations in a Non-warfighting Domain) is a high-level stochastic simulation developed at Dstl as a key centerpiece within the Peace Support Operations (PSO) 'modelling jigsaw...
Nearly Deconfined Spinon Excitations in the Square-Lattice Spin-1/2 Heisenberg Antiferromagnet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hui Shao
2017-12-01
Full Text Available We study the spin-excitation spectrum (dynamic structure factor of the spin-1/2 square-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet and an extended model (the J-Q model including four-spin interactions Q in addition to the Heisenberg exchange J. Using an improved method for stochastic analytic continuation of imaginary-time correlation functions computed with quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we can treat the sharp (δ-function contribution to the structure factor expected from spin-wave (magnon excitations, in addition to resolving a continuum above the magnon energy. Spectra for the Heisenberg model are in excellent agreement with recent neutron-scattering experiments on Cu(DCOO_{2}·4D_{2}O, where a broad spectral-weight continuum at wave vector q=(π,0 was interpreted as deconfined spinons, i.e., fractional excitations carrying half of the spin of a magnon. Our results at (π,0 show a similar reduction of the magnon weight and a large continuum, while the continuum is much smaller at q=(π/2,π/2 (as also seen experimentally. We further investigate the reasons for the small magnon weight at (π,0 and the nature of the corresponding excitation by studying the evolution of the spectral functions in the J-Q model. Upon turning on the Q interaction, we observe a rapid reduction of the magnon weight to zero, well before the system undergoes a deconfined quantum phase transition into a nonmagnetic spontaneously dimerized state. Based on these results, we reinterpret the picture of deconfined spinons at (π,0 in the experiments as nearly deconfined spinons—a precursor to deconfined quantum criticality. To further elucidate the picture of a fragile (π,0-magnon pole in the Heisenberg model and its depletion in the J-Q model, we introduce an effective model of the excitations in which a magnon can split into two spinons that do not separate but fluctuate in and out of the magnon space (in analogy to the resonance between a photon and a particle-hole pair in
Dosimetry in radiotherapy with natural diamond detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Angelis, C.; Onori, S.; Pacilio, M.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Raffaele, L.; Bucciolini, M.; Mazzocchi, S.
2002-01-01
There is wide interest in the use of diamond detectors for dosimetry in radiotherapy mainly because of the small dimensions, radiation hardness, nearly tissue equivalence of sensitive material and capability to deliver the dosimetric response 'on line'. In order to assess the dosimetric properties of PTW Riga diamond detectors type 60003, experiments were performed in conventional (high energy photon and electron) therapy beams as well as in proton therapy beams. The main detector features investigated were reproducibility of response, dose-signal relationship, temperature dependence, dose-rate dependence, energy dependence and angular dependence. High energy photons (6-25 MV) and electrons (6-22 MeV), available at the Radiotherapy Department of the Florence University, were used for investigating the general properties. Two different PTW diamond detectors of the same type were used to evidence inter-sample differences. The beam quality dependence of the detector response is probably the most critical point and this statement is of particular relevance for proton dosimetry since the proton LET changes with depth in the medium. Mainly because of the little information available on detector sensitivity variations with beam energy, the use of diamonds for clinical proton dosimetry is not widespread. In two recent papers a sensitivity dependence on proton energy of a natural PTW diamond detector has been reported. Due to the necessity to characterise each diamond detector individually the PTW Riga natural diamond detector in operation at the LNS-INFN, Catania, Italy was tested with the local proton beam line. This experiment is of main concern because this proton beam, produced by a superconducting cyclotron and used for ocular melanoma treatment, is available only since 2001 (CATANA beam). The first patient has been treated in February 2002. Proton irradiations were performed with non modulated and modulated 62 MeV beams. Attention was focused on diamond sensitivity
Polycrystalline Diamond Schottky Diodes and Their Applications.
Zhao, Ganming
In this work, four-hot-filament CVD techniques for in situ boron doped diamond synthesis on silicon substrates were extensively studied. A novel tungsten filament shape and arrangement used to obtain large-area, uniform, boron doped polycrystalline diamond thin films. Both the experimental results and radiative heat transfer analysis showed that this technique improved the uniformity of the substrate temperature. XRD, Raman and SEM studies indicate that large area, uniform, high quality polycrystalline diamond films were obtained. Schottky diodes were fabricated by either sputter deposition of silver or thermal evaporation of aluminum or gold, on boron doped diamond thin films. High forward current density and a high forward-to-reverse current ratio were exhibited by silver on diamond Schottky diodes. Schottky barrier heights and the majority carrier concentrations of both aluminum and gold contacted diodes were determined from the C-V measurements. Furthermore, a novel theoretical C-V-f analysis of deep level boron doped diamond Schottky diodes was performed. The analytical results agree well with the experimental results. Compressive stress was found to have a large effect on the forward biased I-V characteristics of the diamond Schottky diodes, whereas the effect on the reverse biased characteristics was relatively small. The stress effect on the forward biased diamond Schottky diode was attributed to piezojunction and piezoresistance effects. The measured force sensitivity of the diode was as high as 0.75 V/N at 1 mA forward bias. This result shows that CVD diamond device has potential for mechanical transducer applications. The quantitative photoresponse characteristics of the diodes were studied in the spectral range of 300 -1050 nm. Semi-transparent gold contacts were used for better photoresponse. Quantum efficiency as high as 50% was obtained at 500 nm, when a reverse bias of over 1 volt was applied. The Schottky barrier heights between either gold or
Growth and optical spectroscopy of synthetic diamonds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mudryj, A.V.; Larionova, T.P.; Shakin, I.A.; Gysakov, G.A.; Dubrov, G.A.; Tikhonov, V.V.
2003-01-01
It is studied the growth and optical properties of synthetic diamonds, which may be used for detection of ionizing radiation, optical windows, heat removal, ultraviolet and thermo sensors, optoelectronic devices. Optical properties of diamonds (grown in different technological conditions) were studied in temperature range 78 - 300 K by means of measuring transmission in spectral band 0.2 - 25 μm, photoluminescence and registration of luminescence excitation spectra in spectral band 0.2 - 2 μm
Long-term data storage in diamond
Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.
2016-01-01
The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV?) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV? optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multic...
Diamond nanostructured devices for chemical sensing applications
Ahmad, R. K.
2011-01-01
Research in the area of CVD single crystal diamond plates of which only recently has been made commercially available saw significant advancements during the last decade. In parallel to that, detonation nanodiamond (DND) particles also now widely made accessible for requisition are provoking a lot of scientific investigations. The remarkable properties of diamond including its extreme hardness, low coefficient of friction, chemical inertness, biocompatibility, high thermal c...
Diamond carbon sources: a comparison of carbon isotope models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirkley, M.B.; Otter, M.L.; Gurney, J.J.; Hill, S.J.
1990-01-01
The carbon isotope compositions of approximately 500 inclusion-bearing diamonds have been determined in the past decade. 98 percent of these diamonds readily fall into two broad categories on the basis of their inclusion mineralogies and compositions. These categories are peridotitic diamonds and eclogitic diamonds. Most peridotitic diamonds have δ 13 C values between -10 and -1 permil, whereas eclogitic diamonds have δ 13 C values between -28 and +2 permil. Peridotitic diamonds may represent primordial carbon, however, it is proposed that initially inhomogeneous δ 13 C values were subsequently homogenized, e.g. during melting and convection that is postulated to have occurred during the first billion years of the earth's existence. If this is the case, then the wider range of δ 13 C values exhibited by eclogitic diamonds requires a different explanation. Both the fractionation model and the subduction model can account for the range of observed δ 13 C values in eclogitic diamonds. 16 refs., 2 figs
Graphitization of diamond with a metallic coating on ferritic matrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cabral, Stenio Cavalier; Oliveira, Hellen Cristine Prata de; Filgueira, Marcello
2010-01-01
Iron is a strong catalyst of graphitization of diamonds. This graphitization occurs mainly during the processing of composites - conventional sintering or hot pressing, and during cutting operations. Aiming to avoid or minimize this deleterious effect, there is increasing use of diamond coated with metallic materials in the production of diamond tools processed via powder metallurgy. This work studies the influence of Fe on diamond graphitization diamond-coated Ti after mixing of Fe-diamonds, hot pressing parameters were performed with 3 minutes/35MPa/900 deg C - this is the condition of pressing hot used in industry for production of diamond tools. Microstructural features were observed by SEM, diffusion of Fe in diamond was studied by EDS. Graphitization was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that Fe not activate graphitization on the diamond under the conditions of hot pressing. (author)
Ming, Fei; Wang, Dong; Shi, Wei-Nan; Huang, Ai-Jun; Sun, Wen-Yang; Ye, Liu
2018-04-01
The uncertainty principle is recognized as an elementary ingredient of quantum theory and sets up a significant bound to predict outcome of measurement for a couple of incompatible observables. In this work, we develop dynamical features of quantum memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relations (QMA-EUR) in a two-qubit Heisenberg XXZ spin chain with an inhomogeneous magnetic field. We specifically derive the dynamical evolutions of the entropic uncertainty with respect to the measurement in the Heisenberg XXZ model when spin A is initially correlated with quantum memory B. It has been found that the larger coupling strength J of the ferromagnetism ( J 0 ) chains can effectively degrade the measuring uncertainty. Besides, it turns out that the higher temperature can induce the inflation of the uncertainty because the thermal entanglement becomes relatively weak in this scenario, and there exists a distinct dynamical behavior of the uncertainty when an inhomogeneous magnetic field emerges. With the growing magnetic field | B | , the variation of the entropic uncertainty will be non-monotonic. Meanwhile, we compare several different optimized bounds existing with the initial bound proposed by Berta et al. and consequently conclude Adabi et al.'s result is optimal. Moreover, we also investigate the mixedness of the system of interest, dramatically associated with the uncertainty. Remarkably, we put forward a possible physical interpretation to explain the evolutionary phenomenon of the uncertainty. Finally, we take advantage of a local filtering operation to steer the magnitude of the uncertainty. Therefore, our explorations may shed light on the entropic uncertainty under the Heisenberg XXZ model and hence be of importance to quantum precision measurement over solid state-based quantum information processing.
Detection and analysis of diamond fingerprinting feature and its application
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li Xin; Huang Guoliang; Li Qiang; Chen Shengyi, E-mail: tshgl@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, the School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)
2011-01-01
Before becoming a jewelry diamonds need to be carved artistically with some special geometric features as the structure of the polyhedron. There are subtle differences in the structure of this polyhedron in each diamond. With the spatial frequency spectrum analysis of diamond surface structure, we can obtain the diamond fingerprint information which represents the 'Diamond ID' and has good specificity. Based on the optical Fourier Transform spatial spectrum analysis, the fingerprinting identification of surface structure of diamond in spatial frequency domain was studied in this paper. We constructed both the completely coherent diamond fingerprinting detection system illuminated by laser and the partially coherent diamond fingerprinting detection system illuminated by led, and analyzed the effect of the coherence of light source to the diamond fingerprinting feature. We studied rotation invariance and translation invariance of the diamond fingerprinting and verified the feasibility of real-time and accurate identification of diamond fingerprint. With the profit of this work, we can provide customs, jewelers and consumers with a real-time and reliable diamonds identification instrument, which will curb diamond smuggling, theft and other crimes, and ensure the healthy development of the diamond industry.
Diamond growth in oxygen-acetylene flame
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haga, Mario S.; Nagai, Y. Ernesto; Suzuki, Carlos K.
1995-01-01
What was supposed to be a laboratory curiosity in the 80's, in recent years the low pressure process for the production of man-made diamond turned out to be a major target for research and development of many high-tech companies. The main reason for such an interest stems on the possibility of coating many materials with a diamond film possessing the same amazing properties of the bulk natural diamond. Polycrystalline diamond film has been deposited on Mo substrate by using oxygen-acetylene flame of a welding torch. The substrate temperature has been held constant about 700 d eg C by means of a water cooled mount designed properly. Precision flowmeters have been used to control the flow ratio oxygen/acetylene, a key parameter for the success in diamond growth. Diamond has been detected by X-ray diffraction, a fast foolproof technique for crystal identification. Another method of analysis often used in Raman spectroscopy, which is able to exhibit amorphous structure besides crystalline phase. (author)
CVD diamond deposition onto dental burs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, N.; Sein, H.
2001-01-01
A hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system has been modified to enable non-planar substrates, such as metallic wires and dental burs, to be uniformly coated with thin polycrystalline diamond films. Initially, diamond deposition was carried out on titanium and tantalum wires in order to test and optimize the system. High growth rates of the order of approx. 8 /hr were obtained when depositing diamond on titanium wires using the vertical filament arrangement. However, lower growth rates of the order of 4-5meu m/hr were obtained with diamond deposition on tantalum wires. To extend the work towards a practical biomedical application tungsten carbide dental burs were coated with diamond films. The as-grown films were found to be polycrystalline and uniform over the cutting tip. Finally, the costs relating to diamond CVD onto dental burs have been presented in this paper. The costs relating to coating different number of burs at a time and the effect of film thickness on costs have been included in this investigation. (author)
Development of CVD diamond radiation detectors
Adam, W; Berdermann, E; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fisch, D; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E A; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Manfredi, P F; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Le Normand, F; Pan, L S; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Pirollo, S; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Thomson, G B; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Turchetta, R; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Ziock, H J; Zoeller, M M
1998-01-01
Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionizing radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow a diamond detector to be used in high ra diation, high temperature and in aggressive chemical media. We have constructed charged particle detectors using high quality CVD diamond. Characterization of the diamond samples and various detect ors are presented in terms of collection distance, $d=\\mu E \\tau$, the average distance electron-hole pairs move apart under the influence of an electric field, where $\\mu$ is the sum of carrier mo bilities, $E$ is the applied electric field, and $\\tau$ is the mobility weighted carrier lifetime. Over the last two years the collection distance increased from $\\sim$ 75 $\\mu$m to over 200 $\\mu$ m. With this high quality CVD diamond a series of micro-strip and pixel particle detectors have been constructed. These devices were tested to determine their position resolution and signal to n oise performance. Diamond detectors w...
Critical behaviour of magnetic thin film with Heisenberg spin-S model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masrour, R.; Hamedoun, M.; Bouslykhane, K.; Hourmatallah, A.; Benzakour, N.; Benyoussef, A.
2009-01-01
The magnetic properties of a ferromagnetic thin film of face centered cubic (FCC) lattice with Heisenberg spin-S are examined using the high-temperature series expansions technique extrapolated with Pade approximations method. The critical reduced temperature of the system τ c is studied as function of thickness of the film and the exchange interactions in the bulk, and within the surfaces J b , J s and J perpendicular respectively. A critical value of surface exchange interaction above which surface magnetism appears is obtained. The dependence of the reduced critical temperature on the film thickness L has been investigated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belgiorno, Francesco [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Matematica, Milano (Italy); INdAM-GNFM, Milano (Italy); Cacciatori, Sergio L. [Universita dell' Insubria, Department of Science and High Technology, Como (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Dalla Piazza, Francesco [Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Matematica, Roma (Italy); Doronzo, Michele [Universita dell' Insubria, Department of Science and High Technology, Como (Italy)
2016-06-15
We investigate the quantisation in the Heisenberg representation of a model which represents a simplification of the Hopfield model for dielectric media, where the electromagnetic field is replaced by a scalar field φ and the role of the polarisation field is played by a further scalar field ψ. The model, which is quadratic in the fields, is still characterised by a non-trivial physical content, as the physical particles correspond to the polaritons of the standard Hopfield model of condensed matter physics. Causality is also taken into account and a discussion of the standard interaction representation is also considered. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Curado, E.M.F.; Hassouni, Y.; Rego-Monteiro, M.A.; Rodrigues, Ligia M.C.S.
2008-01-01
We discuss the role of generalized Heisenberg algebras (GHA) in obtaining an algebraic method to describe physical systems. The method consists in finding the GHA associated to a physical system and the relations between its generators and the physical observables. We choose as an example the infinite square-well potential for which we discuss the representations of the corresponding GHA. We suggest a way of constructing a physical realization of the generators of some GHA and apply it to the square-well potential. An expression for the position operator x in terms of the generators of the algebra is given and we compute its matrix elements
A TBA approach to thermal transport in the XXZ Heisenberg model
Zotos, X.
2017-10-01
We show that the thermal Drude weight and magnetothermal coefficient of the 1D easy-plane Heisenberg model can be evaluated by an extension of the Bethe ansatz thermodynamics formulation by Takahashi and Suzuki (1972 Prog. Theor. Phys. 48 2187). They have earlier been obtained by the quantum transfer matrix method (Klümper 1999 Z. Phys. B 91 507). Furthermore, this approach can be applied to the study of the far-out of equilibrium energy current generated at the interface between two semi-infinite chains held at different temperatures.
Cruz, C.
The characterization of quantum information quantifiers has attracted a considerable attention of the scientific community, since they are a useful tool to verify the presence of quantum correlations in a quantum system. In this context, in the present work we show a theoretical study of some quantifiers, such as entanglement witness, entanglement of formation, Bell’s inequality violation and geometric quantum discord as a function of the diffractive properties of neutron scattering. We provide one path toward identifying the presence of quantum correlations and quantum nonlocality in a molecular magnet as a Heisenberg spin-1/2 dimer, by diffractive properties typically obtained via neutron scattering experiments.
Heisenberg XXX Model with General Boundaries: Eigenvectors from Algebraic Bethe Ansatz
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samuel Belliard
2013-11-01
Full Text Available We propose a generalization of the algebraic Bethe ansatz to obtain the eigenvectors of the Heisenberg spin chain with general boundaries associated to the eigenvalues and the Bethe equations found recently by Cao et al. The ansatz takes the usual form of a product of operators acting on a particular vector except that the number of operators is equal to the length of the chain. We prove this result for the chains with small length. We obtain also an off-shell equation (i.e. satisfied without the Bethe equations formally similar to the ones obtained in the periodic case or with diagonal boundaries.
A quaternionic map for the steady states of the Heisenberg spin-chain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mehta, Mitaxi P., E-mail: mitaxi.mehta@ahduni.edu.in [IICT, Ahmedabad University, Opp. IIM, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad (India); Dutta, Souvik; Tiwari, Shubhanshu [BITS-Pilani, K.K. Birla Goa campus, Goa (India)
2014-01-17
We show that the steady states of the classical Heisenberg XXX spin-chain in an external magnetic field can be found by iterations of a quaternionic map. A restricted model, e.g., the xy spin-chain is known to have spatially chaotic steady states and the phase space occupied by these chaotic states is known to go through discrete changes as the field strength is varied. The same phenomenon is studied for the xxx spin-chain. It is seen that in this model the phase space volume varies smoothly with the external field.
A quaternionic map for the steady states of the Heisenberg spin-chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehta, Mitaxi P.; Dutta, Souvik; Tiwari, Shubhanshu
2014-01-01
We show that the steady states of the classical Heisenberg XXX spin-chain in an external magnetic field can be found by iterations of a quaternionic map. A restricted model, e.g., the xy spin-chain is known to have spatially chaotic steady states and the phase space occupied by these chaotic states is known to go through discrete changes as the field strength is varied. The same phenomenon is studied for the xxx spin-chain. It is seen that in this model the phase space volume varies smoothly with the external field.
De La Rosa Gomez, Alejandro; MacKay, Niall; Regelskis, Vidas
2017-04-01
We present a general method of folding an integrable spin chain, defined on a line, to obtain an integrable open spin chain, defined on a half-line. We illustrate our method through two fundamental models with sl2 Lie algebra symmetry: the Heisenberg XXX and the Inozemtsev hyperbolic spin chains. We obtain new long-range boundary Hamiltonians and demonstrate that they exhibit Yangian symmetries, thus ensuring integrability of the models we obtain. The method presented provides a ;bottom-up; approach for constructing integrable boundaries and can be applied to any spin chain model.
On the completeness of the set of Bethe-Hulthen solutions of the linear Heisenberg system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caspers, W J; Labuz, M; Wal, A
2006-01-01
In this work we formulate the standard form of the solutions of the Heisenberg chain with periodic boundary conditions and show that these solutions can be transformed into the well-known Bethe-Hulthen solutions. The standard form is found by solving the secular problem, separated according to the irreducible representations of the translation group. The relevant parameters exp(ik j ) of the Bethe-Hulthen solutions are found from a set of linear equations with coefficients derived from the standard solutions. This correspondence between standard and Bethe-Hulthen solutions realizes the completeness of the Bethe-Hulthen method
Cálculo de la concurrencia para el modelo de Heisenberg
Castellanos,R; Franco,R; Silva-Valencia,J
2010-01-01
La concurrencia es una cantidad que nos permite medir el grado de entreveramiento que presenta un sistema cuántico y se puede calcular a partir de la matriz densidad reducida. En este artículo mostramos explicitamente como calcular la concurrencia para una cadena finita de espines s =1/2 descrita por el modelo de Heisenberg anistrópico. Nosotros mostramos que para cadenas finitas la concurrencia tiene un máximo en el punto crítico Δ = 1, la cual es una de las principales características ...
Quantum Monte Carlo simulation for S=1 Heisenberg model with uniaxial anisotropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsukamoto, Mitsuaki; Batista, Cristian; Kawashima, Naoki
2007-01-01
We perform quantum Monte Carlo simulations for S=1 Heisenberg model with an uniaxial anisotropy. The system exhibits a phase transition as we vary the anisotropy and a long range order appears at a finite temperature when the exchange interaction J is comparable to the uniaxial anisotropy D. We investigate quantum critical phenomena of this model and obtain the line of the phase transition which approaches a power-law with logarithmic corrections at low temperature. We derive the form of logarithmic corrections analytically and compare it to our simulation results
The night of the physicists. Heisenberg, Hahn, Weizsaecker, and the German bomb
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schirach, Richard von
2014-01-01
Finally the German atomic physicists around Heisenberg, von Weizsaecker, and Hahn worked on their ''uranium machine'' in a Swabian beer-cellar - and took themselves for the world elite of nuclear research. In imprisonment they heared from the dropping of the Hiroshima bomb - a shock. Richard von Schirach shows the hindered ''fathers of the German atomic bomb'' in close-up, their eagerness, their hybris, their true importance, and their attempts to give after the war a new interpretation of their own role. A book, which raises in the sense of Duerrenmatt the question for the responsibility of science.
Large field-induced gap of Kitaev-Heisenberg paramagnons in $\\alpha$-RuCl$_{3}$
Hentrich, Richard; Wolter, Anja U. B.; Zotos, Xenophon; Brenig, Wolfram; Nowak, Domenic; Isaeva, Anna; Doert, Thomas; Banerjee, Arnab; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Mandrus, David G.; Nagler, Stephen E.; Sears, Jennifer; Kim, Young-June; Büchner, Bernd; Hess, Christian
2017-01-01
The honeycomb Kitaev-Heisenberg model is a source of a quantum spin liquid with Majorana fermions and gauge flux excitations as fractional quasiparticles. In the quest of finding a pertinent material, $\\alpha$-RuCl$_{3}$ recently emerged as a prime candidate. Here we unveil highly unusual low-temperature heat conductivity $\\kappa$ of $\\alpha$-RuCl$_{3}$: beyond a magnetic field of $B_c\\approx$ 7.5 T, $\\kappa$ increases by about one order of magnitude, resulting in a large magnetic field depen...
A mean field study of the quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnetic anisotropic Heisenberg model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benyoussef, A.
1996-10-01
The effect of the chain and the dimer anisotropies on the ground state energy and the energy gap of the spin-1/2 quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model is investigated using a mean field theory. The dependence of the magnetization and the effective hopping parameters on the anisotropy α xy (=J xy perpendicular /J xy parallel ) are presented for several values of the chain anisotropy. However, such a system exhibits a transition from antiferromagnetic ordered to disordered phases for arbitrary chain anisotropy and dimer anisotropy. (author). 22 refs, 11 figs
Event-chain algorithm for the Heisenberg model: Evidence for z≃1 dynamic scaling.
Nishikawa, Yoshihiko; Michel, Manon; Krauth, Werner; Hukushima, Koji
2015-12-01
We apply the event-chain Monte Carlo algorithm to the three-dimensional ferromagnetic Heisenberg model. The algorithm is rejection-free and also realizes an irreversible Markov chain that satisfies global balance. The autocorrelation functions of the magnetic susceptibility and the energy indicate a dynamical critical exponent z≈1 at the critical temperature, while that of the magnetization does not measure the performance of the algorithm. We show that the event-chain Monte Carlo algorithm substantially reduces the dynamical critical exponent from the conventional value of z≃2.
Quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chains with exchange and single-ion anisotropies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peters, D; Selke, W; McCulloch, I P
2010-01-01
Using density matrix renormalization group calculations, ground state properties of the spin-1 Heisenberg chain with exchange and quadratic single-ion anisotropies in an external field are studied, for special choices of the two kinds of anisotropies. In particular, the phase diagram includes antiferromagnetic, spin-liquid (or spin-flop), IS2, and supersolid (or biconical) phases. Especially, new features of the spin-liquid and supersolid phases are discussed. Properties of the quantum chains are compared to those of corresponding classical spin chains.
The low-temperature phase of the Heisenberg antiferromagnet in a fermionic representation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azakov, S.; Dilaver, M.; Oztas, A.M.
1999-09-01
Thermal properties of the ordered phase of the spin 1/2 isotropic Heisenberg Antiferromagnet on a d-dimensional hypercubical lattice are studied within the fermionic representation when the constraint of a single occupancy condition is taken into account by the method suggested by Popov and Fedotov. Using a saddle point approximation in the path integral approach we discuss not only the leading order but also the fluctuations around the saddle point at one-loop level. The influence of taking into account the single occupancy condition is discussed at all steps. (author)
Entanglement dynamics of a Heisenberg chain with Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qiang, Zheng; Xiao-Ping, Zhang; Zhong-Zhou, Ren; Qi-Jun, Zhi
2009-01-01
This paper investigates the entanglement dynamics of the system, composed of two qubits A and B with Heisenberg XX spin interactation. There is a third controller qubit C, which only has Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya (DM) spin-orbit interaction with the qubit B. It is found that depending on the initial state of the controller qubit C and DM interaction, the entanglement of the system displays amplification and sudden birth effects. These effects indicate that one can control the entanglement of the system, which may be helpful for quantum information processing. (general)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhan-Hai, Dong
2009-01-01
In order to look for the 120° order phase of triangular lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet with long range couplings, the Hamiltonian is diagonalized with the Bogoliubov transformation within linear spin-wave approximation. It is found that when the long range spin couplings are taken into account, the transformation is valid only for certain regions in the spin coupling parameter space. These regions just correspond to the 120° (or Néel) ordered phase, which is very different from square lattice in terms of shape, size and topological property
Quantum correlations and limit cycles in the driven-dissipative Heisenberg lattice
Owen, E. T.; Jin, J.; Rossini, D.; Fazio, R.; Hartmann, M. J.
2018-04-01
Driven-dissipative quantum many-body systems have attracted increasing interest in recent years as they lead to novel classes of quantum many-body phenomena. In particular, mean-field calculations predict limit cycle phases, slow oscillations instead of stationary states, in the long-time limit for a number of driven-dissipative quantum many-body systems. Using a cluster mean-field and a self-consistent Mori projector approach, we explore the persistence of such limit cycles as short range quantum correlations are taken into account in a driven-dissipative Heisenberg model.
Large-N behaviour of string solutions in the Heisenberg model
Fujita, T; Takahashi, H
2003-01-01
We investigate the large-N behaviour of the complex solutions for the two-magnon system in the S = 1/2 Heisenberg XXZ model. The Bethe ansatz equations are numerically solved for the string solutions with a new iteration method. Clear evidence of the violation of the string configurations is found at N = 22, 62, 121, 200, 299, 417, but the broken states are still Bethe states. The number of Bethe states is consistent with the exact diagonalization, except for one singular state.
The relation between mass-gap amplitudes and critical exponents in the Heisenberg model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alcaraz, F.C.; Felicio, J.R.D. de
1985-01-01
A recent result concerning the universality of the ratio of mass-gap amplitudes using the well known 1-D Heisenberg model which is the quantum version of the two-dimensional eight-vertex model is discussed. The believed extended scaling relation (x sub(p) = x sub(is an element of)/4) relating the polarization and energy anomalous dimensions is confirmed. The exponent, α, ν, γ sub(m) and γ sub(p) is also obtained by usual phenomenological renormalization group methods. (Author) [pt
Critical behavior of the three-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet RbMnF_{3}
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Coldea, R.; Cowley, R.A.; Perring, T.G.
1998-01-01
component evolves below T-N into the longitudinal susceptibility identified in an earlier polarized neutron experiment. The intensity and energy width of the longitudinal scattering decrease on cooling below T-N. Down to the lowest temperatures where the longitudinal susceptibility could be measured......The magnetic critical scattering of the near-ideal three-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet (AF) RbMnF3 has been remeasured using neutron scattering. The critical dynamics has been studied in detail in the temperature range 0.77T(N)
Boron doped diamond electrode for the wastewater treatment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quiroz Alfaro, Marco Antonio; Ferro, Sergio; Martinez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto; Vong, Yunny Meas
2006-01-01
Electrochemical studies of diamond were started more than fifteen years ago with the first paper on diamond electrochemistry published by Pleskov. After that, work started in Japan, United States of America, France, Switzerland and other countries. Over the last few years, the number of publications has increased considerably. Diamond films have been the subject of applications and fundamental research in electrochemistry, opening up a new branch known as the electrochemistry of diamond electrodes. Here, we first present a brief history and the process of diamond film synthesis. The principal objective of this work is to summarize the most important results in the electrochemical oxidation using diamond electrodes. (author)
Optimizing biosensing properties on undecylenic Acid-functionalized diamond.
Zhong, Yu Lin; Chong, Kwok Feng; May, Paul W; Chen, Zhi-Kuan; Loh, Kian Ping
2007-05-08
The optimization of biosensing efficiency on a diamond platform depends on the successful coupling of biomolecules on the surface, and also on effective signal transduction in the biorecognition events. In terms of biofunctionalization of diamond surfaces, surface electrochemical studies of diamond modified with undecylenic acid (UA), with and without headgroup protection, were performed. The direct photochemical coupling method employing UA was found to impart a higher density of carboxylic acid groups on the diamond surface compared to that using trifluoroethyl undecenoate (TFEU) as the protecting group during the coupling process. Non-faradic impedimetric DNA sensing revealed that lightly doped diamond gives better signal transduction sensitivity compared to highly doped diamond.
Boron doped diamond electrode for the wastewater treatment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alfaro Marco Antonio Quiroz
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Electrochemical studies of diamond were started more than fifteen years ago with the first paper on diamond electrochemistry published by Pleskov. After that, work started in Japan, United States of America, France, Switzerland and other countries. Over the last few years, the number of publications has increased considerably. Diamond films have been the subject of applications and fundamental research in electrochemistry, opening up a new branch known as the electrochemistry of diamond electrodes. Here, we first present a brief history and the process of diamond film synthesis. The principal objective of this work is to summarize the most important results in the electrochemical oxidation using diamond electrodes.
Recognition of diamond grains on surface of fine diamond grinding wheel
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fengwei HUO; Zhuji JIN; Renke KANG; Dongming GUO; Chun YANG
2008-01-01
The accurate evaluation of grinding wheel sur-face topography, which is necessary for the investigation of the grinding principle, optimism, modeling, and simu-lation of a grinding process, significantly depends on the accurate recognition of abrasive grains from the measured wheel surface. A detailed analysis of the grain size distri-bution characteristics and grain profile wavelength of the fine diamond grinding wheel used for ultra-precision grinding is presented. The requirements of the spatial sampling interval and sampling area for instruments to measure the surface topography of a diamond grinding wheel are discussed. To recognize diamond grains, digital filtering is used to eliminate the high frequency disturb-ance from the measured 3D digital surface of the grinding wheel, the geometric features of diamond grains are then extracted from the filtered 3D digital surface, and a method based on the grain profile frequency characteris-tics, diamond grain curvature, and distance between two adjacent diamond grains is proposed. A 3D surface pro-filer based on scanning white light interferometry is used to measure the 3D surface topography of a #3000 mesh resin bonded diamond grinding wheel, and the diamond grains are then recognized from the 3D digital surface. The experimental result shows that the proposed method is reasonable and effective.
Toward deep blue nano hope diamonds: heavily boron-doped diamond nanoparticles.
Heyer, Steffen; Janssen, Wiebke; Turner, Stuart; Lu, Ying-Gang; Yeap, Weng Siang; Verbeeck, Jo; Haenen, Ken; Krueger, Anke
2014-06-24
The production of boron-doped diamond nanoparticles enables the application of this material for a broad range of fields, such as electrochemistry, thermal management, and fundamental superconductivity research. Here we present the production of highly boron-doped diamond nanoparticles using boron-doped CVD diamond films as a starting material. In a multistep milling process followed by purification and surface oxidation we obtained diamond nanoparticles of 10-60 nm with a boron content of approximately 2.3 × 10(21) cm(-3). Aberration-corrected HRTEM reveals the presence of defects within individual diamond grains, as well as a very thin nondiamond carbon layer at the particle surface. The boron K-edge electron energy-loss near-edge fine structure demonstrates that the B atoms are tetrahedrally embedded into the diamond lattice. The boron-doped diamond nanoparticles have been used to nucleate growth of a boron-doped diamond film by CVD that does not contain an insulating seeding layer.
Status and applications of diamond and diamond-like materials: An emerging technology
1990-01-01
Recent discoveries that make possible the growth of crystalline diamond by chemical vapor deposition offer the potential for a wide variety of new applications. This report takes a broad look at the state of the technology following from these discoveries in relation to other allied materials, such as high-pressure diamond and cubic boron nitride. Most of the potential defense, space, and commercial applications are related to diamond's hardness, but some utilize other aspects such as optical or electronic properties. The growth processes are reviewed, and techniques for characterizing the resulting materials' properties are discussed. Crystalline diamond is emphasized, but other diamond-like materials (silicon carbide, amorphous carbon containing hydrogen) are also examined. Scientific, technical, and economic problem areas that could impede the rapid exploitation of these materials are identified. Recommendations are presented covering broad areas of research and development.
Diamond growth on an array of seeds: The revolution of diamond production
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sung, James C. [KINIK Company, 64, Chung-San Rd., Ying-Kuo, Taipei Hsien 239, Taiwan (China) and National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China) and National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: sung@kinik.com.tw; Sung, Michael [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Sung, Emily [Johnson and Johnson, Freemont, CA (United States)
2006-03-01
The consumption of saw diamond grits is a measure of a nation's constructional activities. The per capita consumption for the world is about 0.7 carats in 2004, and in China, about 3 carats. The manufacture of large saw diamond grits requires stringent control of pressure and temperature that only a few companies can master. However, with the implementation of a novel diamond seeding technology, large saw diamond grits of extreme quality can be mass produced. With this breakthrough, the prices of saw grit will plummet in the near future that should benefit the constructional industry worldwide. Moreover, electronic or thermal grade of large diamond crystals may be produced for applications in semiconductor, electronic or optical industry.
Diamond growth on an array of seeds: The revolution of diamond production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sung, James C.; Sung, Michael; Sung, Emily
2006-01-01
The consumption of saw diamond grits is a measure of a nation's constructional activities. The per capita consumption for the world is about 0.7 carats in 2004, and in China, about 3 carats. The manufacture of large saw diamond grits requires stringent control of pressure and temperature that only a few companies can master. However, with the implementation of a novel diamond seeding technology, large saw diamond grits of extreme quality can be mass produced. With this breakthrough, the prices of saw grit will plummet in the near future that should benefit the constructional industry worldwide. Moreover, electronic or thermal grade of large diamond crystals may be produced for applications in semiconductor, electronic or optical industry
Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings
Holcombe, Cressie E.; Seals, Roland D.; Price, R. Eugene
1997-01-01
A method and composition for the deposition of a thick layer (10) of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition (12) including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate (20). The softened or molten composition (18) crystallizes on the substrate (20) to form a thick deposition layer (10) comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition (12) includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent (14) and may include at least one secondary constituent (16). Preferably, the secondary constituents (16) are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) powder and mixtures thereof.
Cleaving the Halqeh-ye-nur diamonds: a dynamic fracture analysis.
Atkinson, Colin; Martineau, Philip M; Khan, Rizwan U A; Field, John E; Fisher, David; Davies, Nick M; Samartseva, Julia V; Putterman, Seth J; Hird, Jonathan R
2015-03-28
The degree of surface roughness and clarity with which a surface in a brittle material can be formed via fracture is known to be related to the speed of the propagating crack. Cracks traversing a brittle material at low speed produce very smooth surfaces, while those propagating faster create less reflective and rough surfaces (Buehler MJ, Gao H. 2006 Nature 439, 307-310 (doi:10.1038/nature04408)). The elastic wave speeds (c(l)≈18 000 m s(-1), c(s)≈11 750 m s(-1)) in diamond are fast (Willmott GR, Field JE. 2006 Phil. Mag. 86, 4305-4318 (doi:10.1080/14786430500482336)) and present a particular problem in creating smooth surfaces during the cleaving of diamond-a routine operation in the fashioning of diamonds for gemstone purposes--as the waves are reflected from the boundaries of the material and can add a tensile component to the propagating crack tip causing the well-known cleavage steps observed on diamond surfaces (Field JE. 1971 Contemp. Phys. 12, 1-31 (doi:10.1080/00107517108205103); Field JE. 1979 Properties of diamond, 1st edn, Academic Press; Wilks EM. 1958 Phil. Mag. 3, 1074-1080 (doi:10.1080/14786435808237036)). Here we report an analysis of two diamonds, having large dimensions and high aspect ratio, which from a gemological analysis are shown to have been cleaved from the same 200 carat specimen. A methodology for their manufacture is calculated by an analysis of a model problem. This takes into account the effect of multiple reflections from the sample boundaries. It is suggested that the lapidary had an intuitive guide to how to apply the cleavage force in order to control the crack speed. In particular, it is shown that it is likely that this technique caused the fracture to propagate at a lower speed. The sacrifice of a large diamond with the intention of creating thin plates, rather than a faceted gemstone, demonstrates how symbolism and beliefs associated with gemstones have changed over the centuries (Harlow GE. 1998 The nature
Neutron-scattering cross section of the S=1/2 Heisenberg triangular antiferromagnet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lefmann, K.; Hedegård, P.
1994-01-01
In this paper we use a Schwinger-boson mean-field approach to calculate the neutron-scattering cross section from the S = 1/2 antiferromagnet with nearest-neighbor isotropic Heisenberg interaction on a two-dimensional triangular lattice. We investigate two solutions for T = 0: (i) a state with lo...... no elastic, but a set of broader dispersive spin excitations around kappa almost-equal-to (1/2, 0) and around kappa almost-equal-to (1/3, 1/3) for omega/E(g) = 2.5-4. It should thus be possible to distinguish these two states in a neutron-scattering experiment.......In this paper we use a Schwinger-boson mean-field approach to calculate the neutron-scattering cross section from the S = 1/2 antiferromagnet with nearest-neighbor isotropic Heisenberg interaction on a two-dimensional triangular lattice. We investigate two solutions for T = 0: (i) a state with long......-range order resembling the Neel state and (ii) a resonating valence bond or ''spin liquid'' state with an energy gap, E(g) almost-equal-to 0.17J, for the elementary excitations (spinons). For solution (ii) the neutron cross section shows Bragg rods at kappa = K = (1/3, 1/3), whereas solution (ii) shows...
Iridates and RuCl3 - from Heisenberg antiferromagnets to potential Kitaev spin-liquids
van den Brink, Jeroen
The observed richness of topological states on the single-electron level prompts the question what kind of topological phases can develop in more strongly correlated, many-body electron systems. Correlation effects, in particular intra- and inter-orbital electron-electron interactions, are very substantial in 3 d transition-metal compounds such as the copper oxides, but the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is weak. In 5 d transition-metal compounds such as iridates, the interesting situation arises that the SOC and Coulomb interactions meet on the same energy scale. The electronic structure of iridates thus depends on a strong competition between the electronic hopping amplitudes, local energy-level splittings, electron-electron interaction strengths, and the SOC of the Ir 5d electrons. The interplay of these ingredients offers the potential to stabilise relatively well-understood states such as a 2D Heisenberg-like antiferromagnet in Sr2IrO4, but in principle also far more exotic ones, such a topological Kitaev quantum spin liquid, in (hyper)honeycomb iridates. I will discuss the microscopic electronic structures of these iridates, their proximity to idealized Heisenberg and Kitaev models and our contributions to establishing the physical factors that appear to have preempted the realization of quantum spin liquid phases so far and include a discussion on the 4d transition metal chloride RuCl3. Supported by SFB 1143 of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.
Stapp`s quantum dualism: The James/Heisenberg model of consciousness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noyes, H.P.
1994-02-18
Henry Stapp attempts to resolve the Cartesian dilemma by introducing what the author would characterize as an ontological dualism between mind and matter. His model for mind comes from William James` description of conscious events and for matter from Werner Heisenberg`s ontological model for quantum events (wave function collapse). His demonstration of the isomorphism between the two types of events is successful, but in the author`s opinion fails to establish a monistic, scientific theory. The author traces Stapp`s failure to his adamant rejection of arbitrariness, or `randomness`. This makes it impossible for him (or for Bohr and Pauli before him) to understand the power of Darwin`s explanation of biology, let along the triumphs of modern `neo-Darwinism`. The author notes that the point at issue is a modern version of the unresolved opposition between Leucippus and Democritus on one side and Epicurus on the other. Stapp`s views are contrasted with recent discussions of consciousness by two eminent biologists: Crick and Edelman. They locate the problem firmly in the context of natural selection on the surface of the earth. Their approaches provide a sound basis for further scientific work. The author briefly examines the connection between this scientific (rather than ontological) framework and the new fundamental theory based on bit-strings and the combinatorial hierarchy.
Study of interacting fields in a canonical formalism in Heisenberg picture of quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
RANAIVOSON, R.T.R.
2011-01-01
In this work, we have made a study on the canonical formalism of the quantum field theory. Our contribution has been the development of a study using the Heisenberg picture. We showed that this approach may be useful for the description of quantum dynamics of interacting fields in bounded states. Our approach is to start from the lagrangian density of a classical theory from which one deduce the classical evolution equations of the fields via Euler-Lagrange equation for fields and establish the expression of conserved quantities characterizing the dynamics using the Noether theorem. Passing to the canonical quantization, fields and quantities characterizing the dynamics become quantum operators and evolution equations become operatorial evolution equations in Heisenberg picture. Expressions of quantum observable are also deduced from the expressions of classical conserved quantities. After, we showed that using the properties of fields operators and quantum states vectors, one can deduce from the operatorial evolution equations, the evolution equations for the wave functions of fermions and the evolution equations of expectation values of boson fields. For the illustration, various studies were conducted: the case of electrodynamics, the case of a general gauge theory and the case of the Standard Model. [fr
Search for the Heisenberg spin glass on rewired square lattices with antiferromagnetic interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Surungan, Tasrief, E-mail: tasrief@unhas.ac.id; Bansawang, B.J.; Tahir, Dahlang [Department of Physics, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi 90245 (Indonesia)
2016-03-11
Spin glass (SG) is a typical magnetic system with frozen random spin orientation at low temperatures. The system exhibits rich physical properties, such as infinite number of ground states, memory effect, and aging phenomena. There are two main ingredients considered to be pivotal for the existence of SG behavior, namely, frustration and randomness. For the canonical SG system, frustration is led by the presence of competing interaction between ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AF) couplings. Previously, Bartolozzi et al. [Phys. Rev. B73, 224419 (2006)], reported the SG properties of the AF Ising spins on scale free network (SFN). It is a new type of SG, different from the canonical one which requires the presence of both FM and AF couplings. In this new system, frustration is purely caused by the topological factor and its randomness is related to the irregular connectvity. Recently, Surungan et. al. [Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 640, 012001 (2015)] reported SG bahavior of AF Heisenberg model on SFN. We further investigate this type of system by studying an AF Heisenberg model on rewired square lattices. We used Replica Exchange algorithm of Monte Carlo Method and calculated the SG order parameter to search for the existence of SG phase.
Fischer, Andreas
2016-11-01
Optical flow velocity measurements are important for understanding the complex behavior of flows. Although a huge variety of methods exist, they are either based on a Doppler or a time-of-flight measurement principle. Doppler velocimetry evaluates the velocity-dependent frequency shift of light scattered at a moving particle, whereas time-of-flight velocimetry evaluates the traveled distance of a scattering particle per time interval. Regarding the aim of achieving a minimal measurement uncertainty, it is unclear if one principle allows to achieve lower uncertainties or if both principles can achieve equal uncertainties. For this reason, the natural, fundamental uncertainty limit according to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is derived for Doppler and time-of-flight measurement principles, respectively. The obtained limits of the velocity uncertainty are qualitatively identical showing, e.g., a direct proportionality for the absolute value of the velocity to the power of 32 and an indirect proportionality to the square root of the scattered light power. Hence, both measurement principles have identical potentials regarding the fundamental uncertainty limit due to the quantum mechanical behavior of photons. This fundamental limit can be attained (at least asymptotically) in reality either with Doppler or time-of-flight methods, because the respective Cramér-Rao bounds for dominating photon shot noise, which is modeled as white Poissonian noise, are identical with the conclusions from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.
Spin glass behavior of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on scale free network
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Surungan, Tasrief; Zen, Freddy P; Williams, Anthony G
2015-01-01
Randomness and frustration are considered to be the key ingredients for the existence of spin glass (SG) phase. In a canonical system, these ingredients are realized by the random mixture of ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AF) couplings. The study by Bartolozzi et al. [Phys. Rev. B73, 224419 (2006)] who observed the presence of SG phase on the AF Ising model on scale free network (SFN) is stimulating. It is a new type of SG system where randomness and frustration are not caused by the presence of FM and AF couplings. To further elaborate this type of system, here we study Heisenberg model on AF SFN and search for the SG phase. The canonical SG Heisenberg model is not observed in d-dimensional regular lattices for (d ≤ 3). We can make an analogy for the connectivity density (m) of SFN with the dimensionality of the regular lattice. It should be plausible to find the critical value of m for the existence of SG behaviour, analogous to the lower critical dimension (d l ) for the canonical SG systems. Here we study system with m = 2, 3, 4 and 5. We used Replica Exchange algorithm of Monte Carlo Method and calculated the SG order parameter. We observed SG phase for each value of m and estimated its corersponding critical temperature. (paper)
RVB signatures in the spin dynamics of the square-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet
Ghioldi, E. A.; Gonzalez, M. G.; Manuel, L. O.; Trumper, A. E.
2016-03-01
We investigate the spin dynamics of the square-lattice spin-\\frac{1}{2} Heisenberg antiferromagnet by means of an improved mean-field Schwinger boson calculation. By identifying both, the long-range Néel and the RVB-like components of the ground state, we propose an educated guess for the mean-field magnetic excitation consisting on a linear combination of local and bond spin flips to compute the dynamical structure factor. Our main result is that when this magnetic excitation is optimized in such a way that the corresponding sum rule is fulfilled, we recover the low- and high-energy spectral weight features of the experimental spectrum. In particular, the anomalous spectral weight depletion at (π,0) found in recent inelastic neutron scattering experiments can be attributed to the interference of the triplet bond excitations of the RVB component of the ground state. We conclude that the Schwinger boson theory seems to be a good candidate to adequately interpret the dynamic properties of the square-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paulinelli, H G; De Souza, S M; Rojas, Onofre
2013-01-01
In this paper we explore the entanglement in an orthogonal dimer-plaquette Ising–Heisenberg chain, assembled between plaquette edges, also known as orthogonal dimer plaquettes. The quantum entanglement properties involving an infinite chain structure are quite important, not only because the mathematical calculation is cumbersome but also because real materials are well represented by infinite chains. Using the local gauge symmetry of this model, we are able to map onto a simple spin-1 like Ising and spin-1/2 Heisenberg dimer model with single effective ion anisotropy. Thereafter this model can be solved using the decoration transformation and transfer matrix approach. First, we discuss the phase diagram at zero temperature of this model, where we find five ground states, one ferromagnetic, one antiferromagnetic, one triplet–triplet disordered and one triplet–singlet disordered phase, beside a dimer ferromagnetic–antiferromagnetic phase. In addition, we discuss the thermodynamic properties such as entropy, where we display the residual entropy. Furthermore, using the nearest site correlation function it is possible also to analyze the pairwise thermal entanglement for both orthogonal dimers. Additionally, we discuss the threshold temperature of the entangled region as a function of Hamiltonian parameters. We find a quite interesting thin reentrance threshold temperature for one of the dimers, and we also discuss the differences and similarities for both dimers. (paper)
Ground state properties of a spin chain within Heisenberg model with a single lacking spin site
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mebrouki, M.
2011-01-01
The ground state and first excited state energies of an antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain with and without a single lacking spin site are computed using exact diagonalization method, within the Heisenberg model. In order to keep both parts of a spin chain with a lacking site connected, next nearest neighbors interactions are then introduced. Also, the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) method is used, to investigate ground state energies of large system sizes; which permits us to inquire about the effect of large system sizes on energies. Other quantum quantities such as fidelity and correlation functions are also studied and compared in both cases. - Research highlights: → In this paper we compute ground state and first excited state energies of a spin chain with and without a lacking spin site. The next nearest neighbors are introduced with the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin-half. → Exact diagonalization is used for small systems, where DMRG method is used to compute energies for large systems. Other quantities like quantum fidelity and correlation are also computed. → Results are presented in figures with comments. → E 0 /N is computed in a function of N for several values of J 2 and for both systems. First excited energies are also investigated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Jun; Wei Guozhu; Du An
2005-01-01
The compensation and critical behaviors of a mixed spin-2 and spin-12 Heisenberg ferrimagnetic system on a square lattice are investigated theoretically by the two-time Green's function technique, which takes into account the quantum nature of Heisenberg spins. The model can be relevant for understanding the magnetic behavior of the new class of organometallic ferromagnetic materials that exhibit spontaneous magnetic properties at room temperature. We carry out the calculation of the sublattice magnetizations and the spin-wave spectra of the ground state. In particular, we have studied the effects of the nearest, next-nearest-neighbor interactions, the crystal field and the external magnetic field on the compensation temperature and the critical temperature. When only the nearest-neighbor interactions and the crystal field are included, no compensation temperature exists; when the next-nearest-neighbor interaction between spin-12 is taken into account and exceeds a minimum value, a compensation point appears and it is basically unchanged for other parameters in Hamiltonian fixed. The next-nearest-neighbor interactions between spin-2 and the external magnetic field have the effects of changing the compensation temperature and there is a narrow range of parameters of the Hamiltonian for which the model has the compensation temperatures and compensation temperature exists only for a small value of them
Search for the Heisenberg spin glass on rewired square lattices with antiferromagnetic interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Surungan, Tasrief; Bansawang, B.J.; Tahir, Dahlang
2016-01-01
Spin glass (SG) is a typical magnetic system with frozen random spin orientation at low temperatures. The system exhibits rich physical properties, such as infinite number of ground states, memory effect, and aging phenomena. There are two main ingredients considered to be pivotal for the existence of SG behavior, namely, frustration and randomness. For the canonical SG system, frustration is led by the presence of competing interaction between ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AF) couplings. Previously, Bartolozzi et al. [Phys. Rev. B73, 224419 (2006)], reported the SG properties of the AF Ising spins on scale free network (SFN). It is a new type of SG, different from the canonical one which requires the presence of both FM and AF couplings. In this new system, frustration is purely caused by the topological factor and its randomness is related to the irregular connectvity. Recently, Surungan et. al. [Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 640, 012001 (2015)] reported SG bahavior of AF Heisenberg model on SFN. We further investigate this type of system by studying an AF Heisenberg model on rewired square lattices. We used Replica Exchange algorithm of Monte Carlo Method and calculated the SG order parameter to search for the existence of SG phase.
Search for the Heisenberg spin glass on rewired cubic lattices with antiferromagnetic interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Surungan, Tasrief
2016-01-01
Spin glass (SG) is a typical magnetic system which is mainly characterized by a frozen random spin orientation at low temperatures. Frustration and randomness are considered to be the key ingredients for the existence of SGs. Previously, Bartolozzi et al . [Phys. Rev. B73, 224419 (2006)] found that the antiferromagnetic (AF) Ising spins on scale free network (SFN) exhibited SG behavior. This is purely AF system, a new type of SG different from the canonical one which requires the presence of both FM and AF couplings. In this new system, frustration is purely due to a topological factor and its randomness is brought by irregular connectivity. Recently, it was reported that the AF Heisenberg model on SFN exhibited SG behavior [Surungan et al ., JPCS, 640, 012005 (2015)/doi:10.1088/1742-6596/640/1/012005]. In order to accommodate the notion of spatial dimension, we further investigated this type of system by studying an AF Heisenberg model on rewired cubic lattices, constructed by adding one extra bond randomly connecting each spin to one of its next-nearest neighbors. We used Replica Exchange algorithm of Monte Carlo Method and calculated the SG order parameter to search for the existence of SG phase. (paper)
Characterization of Phase Transition in Heisenberg Fluids from Density Functional Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Liangsheng; Li Li; Chen Xiaosong
2009-01-01
The phase transition of Heisenberg fluid has been investigated with the density functional theory in mean-field approximation (MF). The matrix of the second derivatives of the grand canonical potential Ω with respect to the particle density fluctuations and the magnetization fluctuations has been investigated and diagonalized. The smallest eigenvalue being 0 signalizes the phase instability and the related eigenvector characterizes this phase transition. We find a Curie line where the order parameter is pure magnetization and a spinodal where the order parameter is a mixture of particle density and magnetization. Along the spinodal, the character of phase instability changes continuously from predominant condensation to predominant ferromagnetic phase transition with the decrease of total density. The spinodal meets the Curie line at the critical endpoint with the reduced density ρ* = ρσ 3 = 0.224 and the reduced temperature T* = kT/ element of = 1.87 (σ is the diameter of Heisenberg hard sphere and element of is the coupling constant).
Optical studies of high quality synthetic diamond
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharp, S.J.
1999-01-01
This thesis is concerned with the study of fundamental and defect induced optical properties of synthetic diamond grown using high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) synthesis or chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The primary technique used for investigation is cathodoluminescence (including imaging and decay-time measurements) in addition to other forms of optical spectroscopy. This thesis is timely in that the crystallinity and purity of synthetic diamond has increased ten fold over the last few years. The diamond exciton emission, which is easily quenched by the presence of defects, is studied in high quality samples in detail. In addition the ability now exists to engineer the isotopic content of synthetic diamond to a high degree of accuracy. The experimental chapters are divided as follows: Chapter 2: High resolution, low temperature spectra reveal a splitting of the free-exciton phonon recombination emission peaks and the bound-exciton zero phonon line. Included are measurements of the variation in intensity and decay-time as a function of temperature. Chapter 3: The shift in energy of the phonon-assisted free-exciton phonon replicas with isotopic content has been measured. The shift is in agreement with the results of interatomic force model for phonon scattering due to isotope disorder. Chapter 4: A study of the shift in energy with isotopic content of the diamond of the GR1 band due to the neutral vacancy has allowed a verification of the theoretical predictions due to the Jahn Teller effect. Chapter 5: The spatial distribution of the free-exciton luminescence is studied in HPHT synthetic and CVD diamond. A variation in intensity with distance from the surface is interpreted as a significant non-radiative loss of excitons to the surface. Chapter 6: The decay-times of all known self-interstitial related centres have been measured in order to calculate the concentration of these centres present in electron irradiated diamond. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Feodor NOVIKOV
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The work is devoted to the theoretical analysis of the mechanics of the diamond grinding process, taking into account the wear of the wheel grains for scientifically based choice of optimal processing conditions. A multiplicative probabilistic approach to the generalization of the cutting profile of a diamond grinding wheel in its consideration in a state of some steady wear during processing is considered. This is achieved by working the wheel in a mode of properly established self-sharpening or with the use of effective dressing methods. In this case, the linear wear of individual grains of diamond abrasive located on the working surface of the grinding wheel and opened to mechanical contact with the material being processed is assumed to proportionally to the depth of the introduction of grain into it. The analytical dependence of the maximum thickness of the cut is presented, and the relationship between the maximum grain wear and the accepted universal relative characteristic of the steady wear with the operational parameters of the tool and the grinding mode is shown. The obtained results can be used in the development of analytical models of processing productivity and microgeometric engineering of the treated surface, new approaches to increasing the efficiency of diamond grinding. The research is based on modern technical possibilities of controlling the state of the cutting relief of diamond-abrasive tools, especially in electro-physical-mechanical grinding technologies, for example, using the diamond-spark method developed at the Kharkov Polytechnic Institute.
Transmission x-ray microscopy at Diamond-Manchester I13 Imaging Branchline
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vila-Comamala, Joan, E-mail: joan.vila.comamala@gmail.com; Wagner, Ulrich; Bodey, Andrew J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Miryam; Rau, Christoph [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Bosgra, Jeroen; David, Christian [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 PSI-Villigen (Switzerland); Eastwood, David S. [Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility, School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK and Research Complex at Harwell, Harwell Campus, Didcot OX11 0FA (United Kingdom)
2016-01-28
Full-field Transmission X-ray Microscopy (TXM) has been shown to be a powerful method for obtaining quantitative internal structural and chemical information from materials at the nanoscale. The installation of a Full-field TXM station will extend the current microtomographic capabilities of the Diamond-Manchester I13 Imaging Branchline at Diamond Light Source (UK) into the sub-100 nm spatial resolution range using photon energies from 8 to 14 keV. The dedicated Full-field TXM station will be built in-house with contributions of Diamond Light Source support divisions and via collaboration with the X-ray Optics Group of Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland) which will develop state-of-the-art diffractive X-ray optical elements. Preliminary results of the I13 Full-field TXM station are shown. The Full-field TXM will become an important Diamond Light Source direct imaging asset for material science, energy science and biology at the nanoscale.
Transmission x-ray microscopy at Diamond-Manchester I13 Imaging Branchline
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vila-Comamala, Joan; Wagner, Ulrich; Bodey, Andrew J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Miryam; Rau, Christoph; Bosgra, Jeroen; David, Christian; Eastwood, David S.
2016-01-01
Full-field Transmission X-ray Microscopy (TXM) has been shown to be a powerful method for obtaining quantitative internal structural and chemical information from materials at the nanoscale. The installation of a Full-field TXM station will extend the current microtomographic capabilities of the Diamond-Manchester I13 Imaging Branchline at Diamond Light Source (UK) into the sub-100 nm spatial resolution range using photon energies from 8 to 14 keV. The dedicated Full-field TXM station will be built in-house with contributions of Diamond Light Source support divisions and via collaboration with the X-ray Optics Group of Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland) which will develop state-of-the-art diffractive X-ray optical elements. Preliminary results of the I13 Full-field TXM station are shown. The Full-field TXM will become an important Diamond Light Source direct imaging asset for material science, energy science and biology at the nanoscale
Transmission x-ray microscopy at Diamond-Manchester I13 Imaging Branchline
Vila-Comamala, Joan; Bosgra, Jeroen; Eastwood, David S.; Wagner, Ulrich; Bodey, Andrew J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Miryam; David, Christian; Rau, Christoph
2016-01-01
Full-field Transmission X-ray Microscopy (TXM) has been shown to be a powerful method for obtaining quantitative internal structural and chemical information from materials at the nanoscale. The installation of a Full-field TXM station will extend the current microtomographic capabilities of the Diamond-Manchester I13 Imaging Branchline at Diamond Light Source (UK) into the sub-100 nm spatial resolution range using photon energies from 8 to 14 keV. The dedicated Full-field TXM station will be built in-house with contributions of Diamond Light Source support divisions and via collaboration with the X-ray Optics Group of Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland) which will develop state-of-the-art diffractive X-ray optical elements. Preliminary results of the I13 Full-field TXM station are shown. The Full-field TXM will become an important Diamond Light Source direct imaging asset for material science, energy science and biology at the nanoscale.
Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond microelectrode arrays monitor cardiac action potentials.
Maybeck, Vanessa; Edgington, Robert; Bongrain, Alexandre; Welch, Joseph O; Scorsone, Emanuel; Bergonzo, Philippe; Jackman, Richard B; Offenhäusser, Andreas
2014-02-01
The expansion of diamond-based electronics in the area of biological interfacing has not been as thoroughly explored as applications in electrochemical sensing. However, the biocompatibility of diamond, large safe electrochemical window, stability, and tunable electronic properties provide opportunities to develop new devices for interfacing with electrogenic cells. Here, the fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) with boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BNCD) electrodes and their interfacing with cardiomyocyte-like HL-1 cells to detect cardiac action potentials are presented. A nonreductive means of structuring doped and undoped diamond on the same substrate is shown. The resulting BNCD electrodes show high stability under mechanical stress generated by the cells. It is shown that by fabricating the entire surface of the MEA with NCD, in patterns of conductive doped, and isolating undoped regions, signal detection may be improved up to four-fold over BNCD electrodes passivated with traditional isolators. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
The Diamond machine protection system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heron, M.T.; Lay, S.; Chernousko, Y.; Hamadyk, P.; Rotolo, N.
2012-01-01
The Diamond Light Source Machine Protection System (MPS) manages the hazards from high power photon beams and other hazards to ensure equipment protection on the booster synchrotron and storage ring. The system has a shutdown requirement, on a beam mis-steer of under 1 msec and has to manage in excess of a thousand interlocks. This is realised using a combination of bespoke hardware and programmable logic controllers. The MPS monitors a large number of interlock signals from diagnostics instrumentation, vacuum instrumentation, photon front ends and plant monitoring subsystems. Based on logic it can then remove the source of the energy to ensure protection of equipment. Depending on requirements, interlocks are managed on a Local or a Global basis. The Global system is structured as two layers, and supports fast- and slow-response-time interlock requirements. A Global MPS module takes the interlock permits for a given interlock circuit from each of the cells of the accelerator, and, subject to all interlocks being good, produces a permit to operate the source of energy: the RF amplifier for vessel protection and the PSU for magnet protection. The Local MPS module takes fast Interlock inputs from one cell of the Storage Ring or one quadrant of the Booster. Fast interlocks are those that must drop the beam in under 400 μsec (the maximum speed of the interlock) in the event of failure. EPIC provides the user interface to the MPS system
Kankan diamonds (Guinea) III: δ13C and nitrogen characteristics of deep diamonds
Stachel, T.; Harris, J. W.; Aulbach, S.; Deines, P.
Diamonds from the Kankan area in Guinea formed over a large depth profile beginning within the cratonic mantle lithosphere and extending through the asthenosphere and transition zone into the lower mantle. The carbon isotopic composition, the concentration of nitrogen impurities and the nitrogen aggregation level of diamonds representing this entire depth range have been determined. Peridotitic and eclogitic diamonds of lithospheric origin from Kankan have carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C: peridotitic -5.4 to -2.2‰ eclogitic -19.7 to -0.7‰) and nitrogen characteristics (N: peridotitic 17-648 atomic ppm; eclogitic 0-1,313 atomic ppm; aggregation from IaA to IaB) which are generally typical for diamonds of these two suites worldwide. Geothermobarometry of peridotitic and eclogitic inclusion parageneses (worldwide sources) indicates that both suites formed under very similar conditions within the cratonic lithosphere, which is not consistent with a derivation of diamonds with light carbon isotopic composition from subducted organic matter within subducting oceanic slabs. Diamonds containing majorite garnet inclusions fall to the isotopically heavy side (δ13C: -3.1‰ to +0.9‰) of the worldwide diamond population. Nitrogen contents are low (0-126 atomic ppm) and one of the two nitrogen-bearing diamonds shows such a low level of nitrogen aggregation (30% B-centre) that it cannot have been exposed to ambient temperatures of the transition zone (>=1,400 °C) for more than 0.2 Ma. This suggests rapid upward transport and formation of some Kankan diamonds pene-contemporaneous to Cretaceous kimberlite activity. Similar to these diamonds from the asthenosphere and the transition zone, lower mantle diamonds show a small shift towards isotopic heavy compositions (-6.6 to -0.5‰, mode at -3.5‰). As already observed for other mines, the nitrogen contents of lower mantle diamonds were below detection (using FTIRS). The mutual shift of sublithospheric diamonds towards
Towards UV imaging sensors based on single-crystal diamond chips for spectroscopic applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Sio, A. [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, University of Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, 50125 Florence (Italy)], E-mail: desio@arcetri.astro.it; Bocci, A. [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, University of Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, 50125 Florence (Italy); Bruno, P.; Di Benedetto, R.; Greco, V.; Gullotta, G. [INAF-Astrophysical Observatory of Catania (Italy); Marinelli, M. [INFN-Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Roma ' Tor Vergata' (Italy); Pace, E. [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, University of Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, 50125 Florence (Italy); Rubulotta, D.; Scuderi, S. [INAF-Astrophysical Observatory of Catania (Italy); Verona-Rinati, G. [INFN-Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Roma ' Tor Vergata' (Italy)
2007-12-11
The recent improvements achieved in the Homoepitaxial Chemical Vapour Deposition technique have led to the production of high-quality detector-grade single-crystal diamonds. Diamond-based detectors have shown excellent performances in UV and X-ray detection, paving the way for applications of diamond technology to the fields of space astronomy and high-energy photon detection in harsh environments or against strong visible light emission. These applications are possible due to diamond's unique properties such as its chemical inertness and visible blindness, respectively. Actually, the development of linear array detectors represents the main issue for a full exploitation of diamond detectors. Linear arrays are a first step to study bi-dimensional sensors. Such devices allow one to face the problems related to pixel miniaturisation and of signal read-out from many channels. Immediate applications would be in spectroscopy, where such arrays are preferred. This paper reports on the development of imaging detectors made by our groups, starting from the material growth and characterisation, through the design, fabrication and packaging of 2xn pixel arrays, to their electro-optical characterisation in terms of UV sensitivity, uniformity of the response and to the development of an electronic circuit suitable to read-out very low photocurrent signals. The detector and its electronic read-out were then tested using a 2x5 pixel array based on a single-crystal diamond. The results will be discussed in the framework of the development of an imager device for X-UV astronomy applications in space missions.
Patterned hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces of ultra-smooth nanocrystalline diamond layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mertens, M., E-mail: michael.mertens@uni-ulm.de [Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Ulm University, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Mohr, M.; Brühne, K.; Fecht, H.J. [Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Ulm University, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Łojkowski, M.; Święszkowski, W. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Łojkowski, W. [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)
2016-12-30
Highlights: • Hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties on fluorine-, hydrogen- and oxygen- terminated ultra-nanocrystalline diamond films. • Micropatterned - multi-terminated layers with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic areas on one sample. • Visualization of multi-terminated surfaces by e.g. SEM and LFM. • Roughness and friction investigations on different terminated surfaces. • Smooth and biocompatible surfaces with same roughness regardless of hydrophobicity for microbiological investigations. - Abstract: In this work, we show that ultra nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) surfaces have been modified to add them hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties. The nanocrystalline diamond films were deposited using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique. This allows growing diamond on different substrates which can be even 3D or structured. Silicon and, for optical applications, transparent quartz glass are the preferred substrates for UNCD layers growth. Fluorine termination leads to strong hydrophobic properties as indicated by a high contact angle for water of more than 100°. Hydrogen termination shows lesser hydrophobic behavior. Hydrophilic characteristics has been realised with oxygen termination. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements confirm the oxygen and fluorine- termination on the nanocrystalline diamond surface. Further, by micropatterning using photolithography, multi-terminated layers have been created with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic areas. In addition, we have shown that retermination is achieved, and the properties of the surface have been changed from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and vice versa. Micro- roughness and stress in the grown film influences slightly the wetting angle as well. The opportunity to realize local differences in hydrophobicity on nanocrystalline diamond layers, in any size or geometry, offers interesting applications for example in
Critical components for diamond-based quantum coherent devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greentree, Andrew D; Olivero, Paolo; Draganski, Martin; Trajkov, Elizabeth; Rabeau, James R; Reichart, Patrick; Gibson, Brant C; Rubanov, Sergey; Huntington, Shane T; Jamieson, David N; Prawer, Steven
2006-01-01
The necessary elements for practical devices exploiting quantum coherence in diamond materials are summarized, and progress towards their realization documented. A brief review of future prospects for diamond-based devices is also provided
Prospects for the synthesis of large single-crystal diamonds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khmelnitskiy, R A
2015-01-01
The unique properties of diamond have stimulated the study of and search for its applications in many fields, including optics, optoelectronics, electronics, biology, and electrochemistry. Whereas chemical vapor deposition allows the growth of polycrystalline diamond plates more than 200 mm in diameter, most current diamond application technologies require large-size (25 mm and more) single-crystal diamond substrates or films suitable for the photolithography process. This is quite a challenge, because the largest diamond crystals currently available are 10 mm or less in size. This review examines three promising approaches to fabricating large-size diamond single crystals: growing large-size single crystals, the deposition of heteroepitaxial diamond films on single-crystal substrates, and the preparation of composite diamond substrates. (reviews of topical problems)
Architecting boron nanostructure on the diamond particle surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bai, H.; Dai, D.; Yu, J.H.; Nishimura, K.; Sasaoka, S.; Jiang, N.
2014-01-01
The present study provides an efficient approach for nano-functionalization of diamond powders. Boron nanostructure can be grown on diamond particle entire surface by a simple heat-treatment process. After treatment, various boron nanoforms were grown on the diamond particle surface at different processing temperature. High-density boron nanowires (BNWs) grow on the diamond particle entire surface at 1333 K, while nanopillars cover diamond powders when the heat treatment process is performed at 1393 K. The influence of the pretreatment temperature on the microstructure and thermal conductivity of Cu/diamond composites were investigated. Cu/diamond composites with high thermal conductivity of 670 W (m K) −1 was obtained, which was achieved by the formation of large number of nanowires and nanopillars on the diamond particle surface.
Development of diamond coated tool and its performance in ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India ... chemical inertness of diamond coating towards the work material, did not show any .... CVD diamond coated carbide tools, Ph D Thesis, Indian.
Comparative evaluation of CVD diamond technologies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anthony, T.R. [General Electric Corporate Research & Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)
1993-01-01
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of diamonds occurs from hydrogen-hydrocarbon gas mixtures in the presence of atomic hydrogen at subatmospheric pressures. Most CVD methods are based on different means of generating and transporting atomic hydrogen in a particular system. Evaluation of these different techniques involves their capital costs, material costs, energy costs, labor costs and the type and quality of diamond that they produce. Currently, there is no universal agreement on which is the best technique and technique selection has been largely driven by the professional background of the user as well as the particular application of interest. This article discusses the criteria for evaluating a process for low-pressure deposition of diamond. Next, a brief history of low-pressure diamond synthesis is reviewed. Several specific processes are addressed, including the hot filament process, hot filament electron-assisted chemical vapor deposition, and plasma generation of atomic hydrogen by glow discharge, microwave discharge, low pressure radio frequency discharge, high pressure DC discharge, high pressure microwave discharge jets, high pressure RF discharge, and high and low pressure flames. Other types of diamond deposition methods are also evaluated. 101 refs., 15 figs.
The Mysteries of Diamonds: Bizarre History, Amazing Properties, Unique Applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kagan, Harris
2008-01-01
Diamonds have been a prized material throughout history. They are scarce and beautiful, wars have been fought over them, and they remain today a symbol of wealth and power. Diamonds also have exceptional physical properties which can lead to unique applications in science. There are now techniques to artificially synthesize diamonds of extraordinarily high quality. In this talk, Professor Kagan will discuss the history of diamonds, their bizarre properties, and their manufacture and use for 21st century science.
Encapsulation of electroless copper patterns into diamond films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pimenov, S.M.; Shafeev, G.A.; Lavrischev, S.V. [General Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others
1995-12-31
The results are reported on encapsulating copper lines into diamond films grown by a DC plasma CVD. The process includes the steps of (i) laser activation of diamond for electroless metal plating, (ii) electroless copper deposition selectively onto the activated surface regions, and (iii) diamond regrowth on the Cu-patterned diamond films. The composition and electrical properties of the encapsulated copper lines were examined, revealing high purity and low electrical resistivity of the encapsulated electroless copper.
Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana
Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.
2010-01-01
In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and
The Mysteries of Diamonds: Bizarre History, Amazing Properties, Unique Applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kagan, Harris (Ohio State University)
2008-06-24
Diamonds have been a prized material throughout history. They are scarce and beautiful, wars have been fought over them, and they remain today a symbol of wealth and power. Diamonds also have exceptional physical properties which can lead to unique applications in science. There are now techniques to artificially synthesize diamonds of extraordinarily high quality. In this talk, Professor Kagan will discuss the history of diamonds, their bizarre properties, and their manufacture and use for 21st century science.