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Sample records for showing morphologic transformation

  1. Morphological Transformation from Galaxy Harassment

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, B; Katz, N; Moore, Ben; Lake, George; Katz, Neal

    1997-01-01

    The morphological content of galaxy clusters has undergone a remarkable transition over the past several billion years. Distant clusters at z \\sim 0.4 are filled with small spiral galaxies, many of which are disturbed and show evidence of multiple bursts of star-formation. This population is absent from nearby clusters where spheroidals comprise the faint end of the luminosity function. We present numerical simulations that follow the evolution of disk galaxies in a rich cluster owing to encounters with brighter galaxies and the cluster's tidal field-galaxy harassment. After a bursting transient phase, they undergo a complete morphological transformation from ``disks" to``spheroidals". We examine the remnants and find support for our theory in detailed comparisons of the photometry and kinematics of the spheroidal galaxies in clusters. Our model naturally accounts for the intermediate age stellar population seen in these spheroidals as well as the trend in dwarf to giant ratio with cluster richness. The final...

  2. Enhancement of Images using Morphological Transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Sreedhar, K; 10.5121/ijcsit.2012.4103

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with enhancement of images with poor contrast and detection of background. Proposes a frame work which is used to detect the background in images characterized by poor contrast. Image enhancement has been carried out by the two methods based on the Weber's law notion. The first method employs information from image background analysis by blocks, while the second transformation method utilizes the opening operation, closing operation, which is employed to define the multi-background gray scale images. The complete image processing is done using MATLAB simulation model. Finally, this paper is organized as follows as Morphological transformation and Weber's law. Image background approximation to the background by means of block analysis in conjunction with transformations that enhance images with poor lighting. The multibackground notion is introduced by means of the opening by reconstruction shows a comparison among several techniques to improve contrast in images. Finally, conclusions are pres...

  3. Lattice calculus of the morphological slope transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, H.J.A.M.; Maragos, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the morphological slope transform in the complete lattice framework. It discusses in detail the interrelationships between the slope transform at one hand and the (Young-Fenchel) conjugate and Legendre transform, two well-known concepts from convex analysis, at the oth

  4. Morphology Transformation in Pairs of Galaxies The Local Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Junqueira, S; Infante, L; Junqueira, Selma; Mello, Duilia F. de; Infante, Leopoldo

    1997-01-01

    We present photometric analysis of a local sample of 14 isolated pairs of galaxies. The photometric properties analyzed in the local pairs are: colors, morphology, tidal effects and activity. We verify that close pairs have an excess of early-type galaxies and many elliptical galaxies in this pairs are, in fact, lenticular galaxies. Many late-pairs in our sample show strong tidal damage and blue star formation regions. We conclude that pairs of different morphologies may have passed through different evolution processes which violently transformed their morphology. Pairs with at least one early-type component may be descendents of groups of galaxies. However, late-type pairs are probably long-lived showing clearly signs of interaction. Some of them could be seen as an early stage of mergers. These photometric database will be used for future comparison with more distant pairs in order to study galaxy evolution.

  5. Morphological transformations of silver nanoparticles in seedless photochemical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ya; Zhang, Congyun; Hao, Rui; Zhang, Dongjie; Fu, Yizheng; Moeendarbari, Sina; Pickering, Christopher S.; Hao, Yaowu; Liu, Yaqing

    2016-05-01

    Photochemical synthesis is an easily controlled and reliable method for the fabrication of silver (Ag) nanoparticles with various morphologies. In this work, we have systematically investigated the seedless photochemical synthesis of anisotropic Ag nanoparticles with and without PVP as surface capping agent. The time evolution of anisotropic Ag nanoparticles during the synthesis process are studied using UV–visible spectra, optical images and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the light irradiation precisely controls the start and termination of the reaction, and the presence or absence of PVP greatly affects the morphology evolution of anisotropic Ag nanoparticles. With PVP as the surface capping agent, Ag nanoparticles grow into decahedra or prism by the deposition of Ag atoms on {111} or {110} facets through epitaxial growth. However, a different morphology evolution could happen when Ag nanoparticle is synthesized without PVP as surface capping agent. In this case, Ag nanoparticles can fuse into the decahedrons through an edge-selective particle fusion mechanism, which involves attachment, rotation and realignment of Ag nanoparticles. This process was evidenced with HRTEM images at the different stages of the transformation from Ag colloid to decahedra nanoparticles. Oriented attachment and Ostwald ripening also play important role in the transformation process.

  6. Morphological transformations of Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Group

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    In the Local Group there are three main types of dwarf galaxies: Dwarf Irregulars, Dwarf Spheroidals, and Dwarf Ellipticals. Intermediate/transitional types are present as well. This contribution reviews the idea that the present day variety of dwarf galaxy morphologies in the Local Group might reveal the existence of a transformation chain of events, of which any particular dwarf galaxy represents a manifestation of a particular stage. In other words, all dwarf galaxies that now are part of the Local Group would have formed identically in the early universe, but then evolved differently because of morphological transformations induced by dynamical processes like galaxy harassment, ram pressure stripping, photo-evaporation, and so forth. We start describing the population of dwarf galaxies and their spatial distribution in the LG. Then, we describe those phenomena that can alter the morphology of a dwarf galaxies, essentially by removing, partially or completely, their gas content. Lastly, we discuss morpholo...

  7. Dislocation Model and Morphology Simulation of bcc fcc Martensitic Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    By using molecular dynamics computer simulation at atomic level, the effects of single dislocation and dipole dislocations on nucleation and growth of martensitic transformation have been studied. It was found that only the location of tension or compression stress fields of the dislocations are favorable for martensite nucleation in NiAl alloy and the dislocations can move to accommodate partly the transformation strain during the nucleation and growth of martensite. Combined with the molecular dynamics simulation, a two dimensional simulation for martensite morphology based on a dislocation model bas been performed. Many factors related to martensitic transformation were considered, such as supercooling, interface energy, shear strain, normal strain and hydrostatic pressure. Different morphologies of martensites, similar to lath, lenticular, thin plate, couple-plate and lenticular couple-plate martensites observed in Fe-C and Fe-Ni-C alloys, were obtained.

  8. Electrocardiogram ST-Segment Morphology Delineation Method Using Orthogonal Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Miha; Jager, Franc

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation between ischaemic and non-ischaemic transient ST segment events of long term ambulatory electrocardiograms is a persisting weakness in present ischaemia detection systems. Traditional ST segment level measuring is not a sufficiently precise technique due to the single point of measurement and severe noise which is often present. We developed a robust noise resistant orthogonal-transformation based delineation method, which allows tracing the shape of transient ST segment morphology changes from the entire ST segment in terms of diagnostic and morphologic feature-vector time series, and also allows further analysis. For these purposes, we developed a new Legendre Polynomials based Transformation (LPT) of ST segment. Its basis functions have similar shapes to typical transient changes of ST segment morphology categories during myocardial ischaemia (level, slope and scooping), thus providing direct insight into the types of time domain morphology changes through the LPT feature-vector space. We also generated new Karhunen and Lo ève Transformation (KLT) ST segment basis functions using a robust covariance matrix constructed from the ST segment pattern vectors derived from the Long Term ST Database (LTST DB). As for the delineation of significant transient ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes, we present a study on the representation of transient ST segment morphology categories, and an evaluation study on the classification power of the KLT- and LPT-based feature vectors to classify between ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes of the LTST DB. Classification accuracy using the KLT and LPT feature vectors was 90% and 82%, respectively, when using the k-Nearest Neighbors (k = 3) classifier and 10-fold cross-validation. New sets of feature-vector time series for both transformations were derived for the records of the LTST DB which is freely available on the PhysioNet website and were contributed to the LTST DB. The KLT and LPT

  9. Electrocardiogram ST-Segment Morphology Delineation Method Using Orthogonal Transformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Amon

    Full Text Available Differentiation between ischaemic and non-ischaemic transient ST segment events of long term ambulatory electrocardiograms is a persisting weakness in present ischaemia detection systems. Traditional ST segment level measuring is not a sufficiently precise technique due to the single point of measurement and severe noise which is often present. We developed a robust noise resistant orthogonal-transformation based delineation method, which allows tracing the shape of transient ST segment morphology changes from the entire ST segment in terms of diagnostic and morphologic feature-vector time series, and also allows further analysis. For these purposes, we developed a new Legendre Polynomials based Transformation (LPT of ST segment. Its basis functions have similar shapes to typical transient changes of ST segment morphology categories during myocardial ischaemia (level, slope and scooping, thus providing direct insight into the types of time domain morphology changes through the LPT feature-vector space. We also generated new Karhunen and Lo ève Transformation (KLT ST segment basis functions using a robust covariance matrix constructed from the ST segment pattern vectors derived from the Long Term ST Database (LTST DB. As for the delineation of significant transient ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes, we present a study on the representation of transient ST segment morphology categories, and an evaluation study on the classification power of the KLT- and LPT-based feature vectors to classify between ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes of the LTST DB. Classification accuracy using the KLT and LPT feature vectors was 90% and 82%, respectively, when using the k-Nearest Neighbors (k = 3 classifier and 10-fold cross-validation. New sets of feature-vector time series for both transformations were derived for the records of the LTST DB which is freely available on the PhysioNet website and were contributed to the LTST DB. The

  10. Characteristic wave detection in ECG signal using morphological transform

    OpenAIRE

    Chan Kap; Sun Yan; Krishnan Shankar

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Detection of characteristic waves, such as QRS complex, P wave and T wave, is one of the essential tasks in the cardiovascular arrhythmia recognition from Electrocardiogram (ECG). Methods A multiscale morphological derivative (MMD) transform-based singularity detector, is developed for the detection of fiducial points in ECG signal, where these points are related to the characteristic waves such as the QRS complex, P wave and T wave. The MMD detector is constructed by subs...

  11. Automatic line detection in document images using recursive morphological transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Bin; Chen, Su S.; Haralick, Robert M.; Phillips, Ihsin T.

    1995-03-01

    In this paper, we describe a system that detects lines of various types, e.g., solid lines and dotted lines, on document images. The main techniques are based on the recursive morphological transforms, namely the recursive opening and closing transforms. The advantages of the transforms are that they can perform binary opening and closing with any sized structuring element simultaneously in constant time per pixel, and that they offer a solution to morphological image analysis problems where the sizes of the structuring elements have to be determined after the examination of the image itself. The system is evaluated on about 1,200 totally ground-truthed IRS tax form images of different qualities. The line detection output is compared with a set of hand-drawn groundtruth lines. The statistics like the number and rate of correct detection, miss detection, and false alarm are calculated. The performance of 32 algorithms for solid line detection are compared to find the best one. The optimal algorithm tuning parameter settings could be estimated on the fly using a regression tree.

  12. Enhancement of Mammographic Images using Morphology and Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Kumar.N

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammography is the effective technology for early detection of breast cancer and breast tumour analysis. In mammography, low dose x-ray is used for imaging. Due to the low dose X-ray the images obtained from mammography are poor in contrast and are contaminated by noise. Hence it is difficult for the radiologist to screen the mammograms for any abnormalities like microcalcifications and masses. This ensures the need for image enhancement to aid radiologist for interpretation. This paper introduces a new enhancement method for digital mammographic images based on modified mathematical morphology and biorthogonal wavelet transform. In the proposed method we adopted a level dependent threshold for thresholding the detail coefficients of wavelet transform. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, Contrast Improvement Index (CII and Edge Preservation Index (EPI are used. Experimental results and performance analysis indicate that the proposed method consistently outperforms existing techniques

  13. Characteristic wave detection in ECG signal using morphological transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Kap

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of characteristic waves, such as QRS complex, P wave and T wave, is one of the essential tasks in the cardiovascular arrhythmia recognition from Electrocardiogram (ECG. Methods A multiscale morphological derivative (MMD transform-based singularity detector, is developed for the detection of fiducial points in ECG signal, where these points are related to the characteristic waves such as the QRS complex, P wave and T wave. The MMD detector is constructed by substituting the conventional derivative with a multiscale morphological derivative. Results We demonstrated through experiments that the Q wave, R peak, S wave, the onsets and offsets of the P wave and T wave could be reliably detected in the multiscale space by the MMD detector. Compared with the results obtained via with wavelet transform-based and adaptive thresholding-based techniques, an overall better performance by the MMD method was observed. Conclusion The developed MMD method exhibits good potentials for automated ECG signal analysis and cardiovascular arrhythmia recognition.

  14. Fractal analysis of polyethylene catalysts surface morphologies based on wavelet transform modulus maxima method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Surface morphologies of supported polyethylene (PE) catalysts are investigated by an approach combining fractal with wavelet. The multiscale edge (detail) pictures of catalyst surface are extracted by wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) method. And, the distribution of edge points on the edge image at every scale is studied with fractal and multifractal method. Furthermore, the singularity intensity distribution of edge points in the PE catalyst is analyzed by multifractal spectrum based on WTMM. The results reveal that the fractal dimension values and multifractal spectrums of edge images at small scales have a good relation with the activity and surface morphology of PE catalyst. Meanwhile the catalyst exhibiting the higher activity shows the wider singular strength span of multifractal spectrum based on WTMM, as well as the more edge points with the higher singular intensity. The research on catalyst surface morphology with hybrid fractal and wavelet method exerts the superiorities of wavelet and fractal theories and offers a thought for studying solid surfaces morphologies.

  15. Morphological Multiscale Stationary Wavelet Transform based Texture Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosiganti Joseph Prakash

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation is an important step in several computer vision applications. The segmentation of images into homogeneous and meaningful regions is a fundamental technique for image analysis. Textures occupy a vital role in a wide range of computer vision research fields; from microscopic images to images sent down to earth by satellites, from the analysis of multi-spectral scan images to outdoor scenes, all consist of texture. Although several methods have been proposed, less work has been done in developing suitable techniques for segmentation of texture images. After a careful and in-depth survey on wavelet transforms, the present study found that efficient numerical solutions in the signal processing applications can be found using Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT. SWT is redundant, linear and shift invariant, that’s why it gives a better approximation than the DWT. In this paper a novel texture segmentation method based on “SWT and Textural Properties” is proposed. Multi scale SWT with Textural Properties and morphological treatment is used in the present study to detect fine edges from texture images for a fine segmentation.

  16. An expanded phylogeny of social amoebas (Dictyostelia shows increasing diversity and new morphological patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephenson Steven L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social Amoebae or Dictyostelia are eukaryotic microbes with a unique life cycle consisting of both uni- and multicellular stages. They have long fascinated molecular, developmental and evolutionary biologists, and Dictyostelium discoideum is now one of the most widely studied eukaryotic microbial models. The first molecular phylogeny of Dictyostelia included most of the species known at the time and suggested an extremely deep taxon with a molecular depth roughly equivalent to Metazoa. The group was also shown to consist of four major clades, none of which correspond to traditional genera. Potential morphological justification was identified for three of the four major groups, on the basis of which tentative names were assigned. Results Over the past four years, the Mycetozoan Global Biodiversity Survey has identified many new isolates that appear to be new species of Dictyostelia, along with numerous isolates of previously described species. We have determined 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences for all of these new isolates. Phylogenetic analyses of these data show at least 50 new species, and these arise from throughout the dictyostelid tree breaking up many previously isolated long branches. The resulting tree now shows eight well-supported major groups instead of the original four. The new species also expand the known morphological diversity of the previously established four major groups, violating nearly all previously suggested deep morphological patterns. Conclusions A greatly expanded phylogeny of Dictyostelia now shows even greater morphological plasticity at deep taxonomic levels. In fact, there now seem to be no obvious deep evolutionary trends across the group. However at a finer level, patterns in morphological character evolution are beginning to emerge. These results also suggest that there is a far greater diversity of Dictyostelia yet to be discovered, including novel morphologies.

  17. On-substrate, self-standing Au-nanorod arrays showing morphology controlled properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habouti, S.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Solterbeck, C.-H.;

    2011-01-01

    We use supported alumina templates and electrodeposition to fabricate self-standing Au-nanorods (Au-NR) arrays. Depending on electrolyte and deposition conditions two different NR morphologies with either corrugated or smooth topologies are fabricated. We show that the properties of the NR arrays...... of the NR arrays as substrates for molecular detection using Raman scattering, and Rhodamine 6G (R6G) as model dye, also strongly depends on their morphology. R6G concentrations down to 1 pM are detected on the corrugated arrays yielding an effective enhancement factor (EF) of approximately 1 × 10...

  18. A mycosis fungoides d'emblee showing morphological change in infiltrating lymphoid cells after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 67-year-old woman was treated with electron beam irradiation for Mycosis fungoides d'emblee. Blast-like cells were remarkably increased after irradiation, which replaced mycosis cells. Morphological analysis showed that these cells were similar to those observed in cases of classic mycosis fungoides. Such a noticeable increase of blast-like cells seemed be attributable not only to the aggravation of the underlying disease but also to the involvement of electron beam irradiation. (N.K.)

  19. A mycosis fungoides d'emblee showing morphological change in infiltrating lymphoid cells after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, Hideyuki; Ishikawa, Osamu; Ishikawa, Hidekazu (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-11-01

    A 67-year-old woman was treated with electron beam irradiation for Mycosis fungoides d'emblee. Blast-like cells were remarkably increased after irradiation, which replaced mycosis cells. Morphological analysis showed that these cells were similar to those observed in cases of classic mycosis fungoides. Such a noticeable increase of blast-like cells seemed be attributable not only to the aggravation of the underlying disease but also to the involvement of electron beam irradiation. (N.K.).

  20. Image Enhancement and Background Detection Using Morphological Transformation

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    Nikesh T. Gadare

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with enhancement of images and background detection using Mathematical Morphological [MM] theory on dark images. Due to poor lightening the background of the image is not clear. This image can be enhanced by lightening the back ground with various morphological operations. Basically, Weber’s Law Operator is used to analyze dark images which are carried out by two methods such as Image background detection by block analysis while second operator utilize opening by reconstruction to define multi background notion. Some Morphological operations such as (Erosion, Dilation, Compound operation such as Opening by reconstruction, Erosion-Dilation method and Block Analysis is used to detect the background of images. Analysis of above mention methods illustrated through the processing of images with different dark background images.

  1. Morphological hat-transform scale spaces and their use in texture classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalba, A.C.; Roerdink, J.B.T.M.; Wilkinson, M.H.F.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present a multi-scale morphological method for use in texture classification. A connected operator similar to the morphological hat-transform is defined, and two scale-space representations are built. The most important features are extracted from the scale spaces by unsupervised cl

  2. Preliminary Findings Show Maternal Hypothyroidism May Contribute to Abnormal Cortical Morphology in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta E. Lischinsky

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In rodents, insufficient thyroid hormone (TH gestationally has adverse effects on cerebral cortex development. Comparable studies of humans examining how TH insufficiency affects cortical morphology are limited to children with congenital hypothyroidism or offspring of hypothyroxinemic women; effects on cortex of children born to women with clinically diagnosed hypothyroidism are not known. We studied archived MRI scans from 22 children aged 10 to 12 years born to women treated for preexisting or de novo hypothyroidism within pregnancy (HYPO and 24 similar age and sex controls from euthyroid women. FreeSurfer Image Analysis Suite software was used to measure cortical thickness (CT and a vertex-based approach served to compare HYPO versus control groups and Severe versus Mild HYPO subgroups as well as to perform regression analyses examining effects of trimester-specific maternal TSH on CT. Results showed that relative to controls, HYPO had multiple regions of both cortical thinning and thickening, which differed for left and right hemispheres. In HYPO, thinning was confined to medial and mid-lateral regions of each hemisphere and thickening to superior regions (primarily frontal of the left hemisphere and inferior regions (particularly occipital and temporal of the right. The Severe HYPO subgroup showed more thinning than Mild in frontal and temporal regions and more thickening in bilateral posterior and frontal regions. Maternal TSH values predicted degree of thinning and thickening within multiple brain regions, with the pattern and direction of correlations differing by trimester. Notably, some correlations remained when cases born to women with severe hypothyroidism were removed from the analyses suggesting mild variations of maternal TH may permanently affect offspring cortex. We conclude that maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy has long-lasting manifestations on the cortical morphology of their offspring with specific effects

  3. Electrocardiogram ST-Segment Morphology Delineation Method Using Orthogonal Transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Miha Amon; Franc Jager

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation between ischaemic and non-ischaemic transient ST segment events of long term ambulatory electrocardiograms is a persisting weakness in present ischaemia detection systems. Traditional ST segment level measuring is not a sufficiently precise technique due to the single point of measurement and severe noise which is often present. We developed a robust noise resistant orthogonal-transformation based delineation method, which allows tracing the shape of transient ST segment morph...

  4. Populations of Monarch butterflies with different migratory behaviors show divergence in wing morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altizer, Sonia; Davis, Andrew K

    2010-04-01

    The demands of long-distance flight represent an important evolutionary force operating on the traits of migratory species. Monarchs are widespread butterflies known for their annual migrations in North America. We examined divergence in wing morphology among migratory monarchs from eastern and western N. America, and nonmigratory monarchs in S. Florida, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, and Hawaii. For the three N. American populations, we also examined monarchs reared in four common environment experiments. We used image analysis to measure multiple traits including forewing area and aspect ratio; for laboratory-reared monarchs we also quantified body area and wing loading. Results showed wild monarchs from all nonmigratory populations were smaller than those from migratory populations. Wild and captive-reared eastern monarchs had the largest and most elongated forewings, whereas monarchs from Puerto Rico and Costa Rica had the smallest and roundest forewings. Eastern monarchs also had the largest bodies and high measures of wing loading, whereas western and S. Florida monarchs had less elongated forewings and smaller bodies. Among captive-reared butterflies, family-level effects provided evidence that genetic factors contributed to variation in wing traits. Collectively, these results support evolutionary responses to long-distance flight in monarchs, with implications for the conservation of phenotypically distinct wild populations. PMID:20067519

  5. Theory of morphological transformation of viral capsid shells during maturation process

    CERN Document Server

    Konevtsova, O V; Rochal, S B

    2015-01-01

    In the frame of the Landau-Ginzburg formalism we propose a minimal phenomenological model for a morphological transformation in viral capsid shells. The transformation takes place during virus maturation process which renders virus infectious. The theory is illustrated on the example of the HK97 bacteriophage and viruses with similar morphological changes in the protective protein shell. The transformation is shown to be a structural phase transition driven by two order parameters. The first order parameter describes the isotropic expansion of the protein shell while the second one is responsible for the shape symmetry breaking and the resulting shell faceting. The group theory analysis and the resulting thermodynamic model make it possible to choose the parameter which discriminates between the icosahedral shell faceting often observed in viral capsids and the dodecahedral one observed in viruses of the Parvovirus family. Calculated phase diagram illustrates the discontinuous character of the virus morpholog...

  6. Hevea Leaves Boundary Identification based on Morphological Transformation and Edge Detection Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Tekkesinoglu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to present a concept to identify overlapping rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis-scientific name leaf boundaries. Basically rubber tree leaves show similarity to each other and they may contain similar information such as color, texture or shape of leaves. In fact rubber tree leaves are naturally in class of palmate leaves, it means that numbers of leaves are joining at their base. So it reflects the information of the position of the leaves whether the leaves are overlapped or separated. Therefore, this unique feature could be used to distinguish particular leaves from others clone to identify the type of trees. This study addresses the problem of identifying the overlapped leaves with complex background. The morphological transformation is often applied in order to obtain the foreground object and the background location as well. However, it does not yield satisfactory results in order to get boundaries information. This study, presents on improved approach to identify boundary of rubber tree leaves based on morphological operation and edge detection methods. The outcome of this fused algorithm exhibits promising results for identifying the leaf boundaries of rubber trees.

  7. Cellular responses during morphological transformation in Azospirillum brasilense and Its flcA knockout mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xingsheng; McMillan, Mary; Coumans, Joëlle V F; Poljak, Anne; Raftery, Mark J; Pereg, Lily

    2014-01-01

    FlcA is a response regulator controlling flocculation and the morphological transformation of Azospirillum cells from vegetative to cyst-like forms. To understand the cellular responses of Azospirillum to conditions that cause morphological transformation, proteins differentially expressed under flocculation conditions in A. brasilense Sp7 and its flcA knockout mutant were investigated. Comparison of 2-DE protein profiles of wild-type (Sp7) and a flcA deletion mutant (Sp7-flcAΔ) revealed a total of 33 differentially expressed 2-DE gel spots, with 22 of these spots confidently separated to allow protein identification. Analysis of these spots by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and MASCOT database searching identified 48 proteins (≥10% emPAI in each spot). The functional characteristics of these proteins included carbon metabolism (beta-ketothiolase and citrate synthase), nitrogen metabolism (Glutamine synthetase and nitric oxide synthase), stress tolerance (superoxide dismutase, Alkyl hydroperoxidase and ATP-dependent Clp protease proteolytic subunit) and morphological transformation (transducer coupling protein). The observed differences between Sp7 wild-type and flcA- strains enhance our understanding of the morphological transformation process and help to explain previous phenotypical observations. This work is a step forward in connecting the Azospirillum phenome and genome.

  8. Cellular responses during morphological transformation in Azospirillum brasilense and Its flcA knockout mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingsheng Hou

    Full Text Available FlcA is a response regulator controlling flocculation and the morphological transformation of Azospirillum cells from vegetative to cyst-like forms. To understand the cellular responses of Azospirillum to conditions that cause morphological transformation, proteins differentially expressed under flocculation conditions in A. brasilense Sp7 and its flcA knockout mutant were investigated. Comparison of 2-DE protein profiles of wild-type (Sp7 and a flcA deletion mutant (Sp7-flcAΔ revealed a total of 33 differentially expressed 2-DE gel spots, with 22 of these spots confidently separated to allow protein identification. Analysis of these spots by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and MASCOT database searching identified 48 proteins (≥10% emPAI in each spot. The functional characteristics of these proteins included carbon metabolism (beta-ketothiolase and citrate synthase, nitrogen metabolism (Glutamine synthetase and nitric oxide synthase, stress tolerance (superoxide dismutase, Alkyl hydroperoxidase and ATP-dependent Clp protease proteolytic subunit and morphological transformation (transducer coupling protein. The observed differences between Sp7 wild-type and flcA- strains enhance our understanding of the morphological transformation process and help to explain previous phenotypical observations. This work is a step forward in connecting the Azospirillum phenome and genome.

  9. Major mergers are not significant drivers of star formation or morphological transformation around the epoch of peak cosmic star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Lofthouse, E K; Conselice, C J; Mortlock, A; Hartley, W

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the contribution of major mergers (mass ratios $>1:5$) to stellar mass growth and morphological transformations around the epoch of peak cosmic star formation ($z\\sim2$). We visually classify a complete sample of massive (M $>$ 10$^{10}$M$_{\\odot}$) galaxies at this epoch, drawn from the CANDELS survey, into late-type galaxies, major mergers, spheroids and disturbed spheroids which show morphological disturbances. Given recent simulation work, which indicates that recent ($<$0.3-0.4 Gyr) major-merger remnants exhibit clear tidal features in such images, we use the fraction of disturbed spheroids to probe the role of major mergers in driving morphological transformations. The percentage of blue spheroids (i.e. with ongoing star formation) that show morphological disturbances is only 21 $\\pm$ 4%, indicating that major mergers are not the dominant mechanism for spheroid creation at $z\\sim2$ - other processes, such as minor mergers or cold accretion are likely to be the main drivers of this proc...

  10. Morphology and crystallographic orientation relationship in isothermally transformed Fe–N austenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 225 °C isothermal transformation of a high-nitrogen austenite with Fe–2.71 wt.% N was investigated by means of electron microscopy. It was found that the transformation products were composed of ultrafine α-Fe and γ′-Fe4N plus retained austenite γ, which were in two types of morphologies, namely, (i) with the retained austenite patches dispersed among the (α-Fe + γ′-Fe4N) packets and (ii) with the ultrafine α-Fe and γ/γ′-Fe4N laths interwoven with each other within a single bainitic packet. A cube–cube orientation relationship between the γ (austenite) and γ′-Fe4N, and a near Greninger–Troiano (G–T) one between the γ (austenite) and the bainitic α-ferrite were detected. The morphology, orientation relationship and high hardness (> 1000 HV) of the transformation products indicated that the isothermal transformation of the high nitrogen austenite was analogous to a bainitic one. - Highlights: • Isothermal transformation products consisted of nano-sized α-Fe + γ′ + γ (retained). • The hardness of transformation product exceeded 1000 HV. • The α-Fe and γ/γ′-Fe4N kept a near G-T OR in the grain interior

  11. Morphology and crystallographic orientation relationship in isothermally transformed Fe–N austenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Dongling, E-mail: dljiao@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Luo, Chengping; Liu, Jiangwen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang, Guoqing [Science and Technology on Advanced High Temperature Structural Materials Laboratory, Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2014-02-15

    The 225 °C isothermal transformation of a high-nitrogen austenite with Fe–2.71 wt.% N was investigated by means of electron microscopy. It was found that the transformation products were composed of ultrafine α-Fe and γ′-Fe{sub 4}N plus retained austenite γ, which were in two types of morphologies, namely, (i) with the retained austenite patches dispersed among the (α-Fe + γ′-Fe{sub 4}N) packets and (ii) with the ultrafine α-Fe and γ/γ′-Fe{sub 4}N laths interwoven with each other within a single bainitic packet. A cube–cube orientation relationship between the γ (austenite) and γ′-Fe{sub 4}N, and a near Greninger–Troiano (G–T) one between the γ (austenite) and the bainitic α-ferrite were detected. The morphology, orientation relationship and high hardness (> 1000 HV) of the transformation products indicated that the isothermal transformation of the high nitrogen austenite was analogous to a bainitic one. - Highlights: • Isothermal transformation products consisted of nano-sized α-Fe + γ′ + γ (retained). • The hardness of transformation product exceeded 1000 HV. • The α-Fe and γ/γ′-Fe{sub 4}N kept a near G-T OR in the grain interior.

  12. Shape-shifting corals: Molecular markers show morphology is evolutionarily plastic in Porites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Cynthia L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corals are notoriously difficult to identify at the species-level due to few diagnostic characters and variable skeletal morphology. This 'coral species problem' is an impediment to understanding the evolution and biodiversity of this important and threatened group of organisms. We examined the evolution of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS and mitochondrial markers (COI, putative control region in Porites, one of the most taxonomically challenging and ecologically important genera of reef-building corals. Results Nuclear and mitochondrial markers were congruent, clearly resolving many traditionally recognized species; however, branching and mounding varieties were genetically indistinguishable within at least two clades, and specimens matching the description of 'Porites lutea' sorted into three genetically divergent groups. Corallite-level features were generally concordant with genetic groups, although hyper-variability in one group (Clade I overlapped and obscured several others, and Synarea (previously thought to be a separate subgenus was closely related to congeners despite its unique morphology. Scanning electron microscopy revealed subtle differences between genetic groups that may have been overlooked previously as taxonomic characters. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the coral skeleton can be remarkably evolutionarily plastic, which may explain some taxonomic difficulties, and obscure underlying patterns of endemism and diversity.

  13. Morphological transformation of an established Syrian hamster dermal cell with the anti-tussive agent noscapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, R; Parry, E M; Parry, J M

    1992-05-01

    Following exposure to the alkaloid noscapine hydrochloride over a concentration range of 10-120 micrograms/ml immortal cultures of Syrian hamster dermal fibroblasts were shown to undergo morphological transformation. The resultant transformed foci produced cultures which were anchorage independent as confirmed by soft agar tests. Karyotype analysis of a noscapine transformed colony demonstrated an increase in chromosome number compared to the immortal culture and the non-random duplication of a translocated chromosome 9 previously identified in the immortal culture. These data indicate that noscapine, which has previously been shown to be a spindle inhibitor and inducer of polyploidy in cultured cells, is capable of inducing in vitro cell transformation. Such data indicate a carcinogenic potential for this widely used cough suppressant. PMID:1602976

  14. Does the morphology of the ear of the Chinese bamboo rat (Rhizomys sinensis) show "Subterranean" characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleštilová, Lucie; Hrouzková, Ema; Burda, Hynek; Šumbera, Radim

    2016-05-01

    In spite of the growing interest in rodents with subterranean activity in general and the spalacids (Spalacidae) in particular, little is known about the biology of most members of this clade, such as the Chinese bamboo rat (Rhizomys sinensis). Here, we analyzed the ear morphology of R. sinensis with respect to hearing specialization for subterranean or aboveground modes of communication. It is well-known that ecology and style of life of a particular species can be reflected in morphology of its ear, its hearing and vocalization, so we expect that such information could provide us insight into its style of life and its sensory environment. The ratio between the eardrum and stapedial footplate areas, which influences the efficiency of middle ear sound transmission, suggests low hearing sensitivity, as is typical for subterranean species. The cochlea had 3.25 coils and resembled species with good low frequency hearing typical for subterranean mammals. The length of the basilar membrane was 18.9 ± 0.8 mm and its width slowly increased towards the cochlear apex from 60 to 85 μm. The mean density of outer hair cells was 344 ± 22 and of inner hair cells 114 ± 7.3 per 1 mm length of the organ of Corti, and increased apically. These values (except for relatively low hair cell density) usually characterize ears specialized for low frequency hearing. There was no evidence for an acoustic fovea. Apart of low hair cell density which is common in aboveground animals, this species has also relatively large auricles, suggesting the importance of sound localization during surface activity. The ear of the Chinese bamboo rat thus contains features typical for both aboveground and subterranean mammals and suggests that this spalacid has fossorial habits combined with regular aboveground activity. PMID:26880690

  15. Text Detection in Video Using Haar Wavelet Transformation and Morphological Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh AnnajiKene

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents simple and efficient method for text detection, extraction and localization from video or static images using Haar wavelet and Morphological operator. Haar wavelet transform have its coefficients either 1 or -1 , so that the operation speed of Haar wavelet transformation is fastest among all wavelets. The sub bands contain both text edges and non-text edges however the intensity of text edges is different that of the non-text edges. Instead of using Canny operator we used Sobal operator for edge detection because Sobal operator detect more edges than Canny operator when there is text information. Morphological operators are applied to edit or smoothing out the text region. Then detected text regions are further decomposed into character level. Then using some refinement the final text region are obtained.

  16. Postnatal lung function and morphology in transgenic mice expressing transforming growth factor-alpha.

    OpenAIRE

    Hardie, W. D.; Bruno, M D; Huelsman, K. M.; Iwamoto, H S; Carrigan, P. E.; Leikauf, G D; Whitsett, J A; Korfhagen, T R

    1997-01-01

    Developmental changes in lung morphology and physiology during postnatal alveolarization were assessed in transgenic mice expressing transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) in pulmonary type II cells under control of the surfactant protein C gene promoter. TGF-alpha transcripts were identified in respiratory epithelial cells at 1 day of age to adulthood. Enlargement of alveolar airspaces and fibrosis were detected as early as 1 week of age, and the increased airspace progressed with adva...

  17. Phase Transformations in CuAu: Morphologies and Kinetics from Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Ken; Chakraborty, Bulbul; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    1996-03-01

    The existence of a modulated superlattice at intermediate temperatures in CuAu gives rise to a rich and complex set of phase transformations. For example, quenches from high and low temperatures into the modulated region leads respectively to the nucleation of labyrinth and bullseye patterns. In this alloy even the formation of the ordered superlattice from a disordered phase is dramatically different than that which occurs in standard disorder/order transformations. This transformation is strongly influenced by the presence of small metastable droplets that are the size of the modulated wavelength. A theoretical description(Bulbul Chakraborty, Ken Elder and Nigel Goldenfeld, Physica A, in press (1995)) of these kinetics and morphologies will be presented and compared to experiment. This description is based on a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation that was derived from a quantum mechanical Hamiltonian using the embedded atom method(Bulbul Chakraborty and Zhigang Xi, Phys. Rev. Lett 68), 2039 (1992).

  18. Transforming growth factor-β2 induces morphological alteration of human corneal endothelial cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; Wang; Ting-Jun; Fan; Xiu-Xia; Yang; Shi-Min; Chang

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the morphological altering effect of transforming growth factor-β2(TGF-β2) on untransfected human corneal endothelial cells(HCECs)in vitro.METHODS:After untransfected HCECs were treated with TGF-β2 at different concentrations, the morphology,cytoskeleton distribution, and type IV collagen expression of the cells were examined with inverted contrast light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy,immunofluorescence or Western Blot.RESULTS:TGF-β2 at the concentration of 3-15 μg/L had obviously alterative effects on HCECs morphology in dose and time-dependent manner, and 9 μg/L was the peak concentration. TGF-β2(9 μg/L) altered HCE cell morphology after treatment for 36 h, increased the mean optical density(P <0.01) and the length of F-actin,reduced the mean optical density(P <0.01) of the collagen type IV in extracellular matrix(ECM) and induced the rearrangement of F-actin, microtubule in cytoplasm and collagen type IV in ECM after treatment for 72 h.·CONCLUTION: TGF-β2 has obviously alterative effect on the morphology of HCECs from polygonal phenotype to enlarged spindle-shaped phenotype, in dose and time-dependence manner by inducing more, elongation and alignment of F-actin, rearrangement of microtubule and larger spread area of collagen type IV.

  19. An Algorithm for Ship Wake Detection from the SAR Images Using the Radon Transform and Morphological Image Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using the Rador transform and morphological image processing, an algorithm for ship's wake detection in the SAR (synthetic aperture radar) image is developed. Being manipulated in the Radon space to invert the gray-level and binary images, the linesr texture of ship wake in oceanic clutter can be well detected. It has been applied to the automatic detection of a moving ship from the SEASAT SAR image. The results show that this algorithm is well robust in a strong noisy background and is not very sensitive to the threshold parameter and the working window size.

  20. Physiological outperformance at the morphologically-transformed edge of the cyanobacteriosponge Terpios hoshinota (Suberitidae: Hadromerida when confronting opponent corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Terng Wang

    Full Text Available Terpios hoshinota, an encrusting cyanosponge, is known as a strong substrate competitor of reef-building corals that kills encountered coral by overgrowth. Terpios outbreaks cause significant declines in living coral cover in Indo-Pacific coral reefs, with the damage usually lasting for decades. Recent studies show that there are morphological transformations at a sponge's growth front when confronting corals. Whether these morphological transformations at coral contacts are involved with physiological outperformance (e.g., higher metabolic activity or nutritional status over other portions of Terpios remains equivocal. In this study, we compared the indicators of photosynthetic capability and nitrogen status of a sponge-cyanobacteria association at proximal, middle, and distal portions of opponent corals. Terpios tissues in contact with corals displayed significant increases in photosynthetic oxygen production (ca. 61%, the δ13C value (ca. 4%, free proteinogenic amino acid content (ca. 85%, and Gln/Glu ratio (ca. 115% compared to middle and distal parts of the sponge. In contrast, the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm, which is the indicator usually used to represent the integrity of photosystem II, of cyanobacteria photosynthesis was low (0.256~0.319 and showed an inverse trend of higher values in the distal portion of the sponge that might be due to high and variable levels of cyanobacterial phycocyanin. The inconsistent results between photosynthetic oxygen production and Fv/Fm values indicated that maximum quantum yields might not be a suitable indicator to represent the photosynthetic function of the Terpios-cyanobacteria association. Our data conclusively suggest that Terpios hoshinota competes with opponent corals not only by the morphological transformation of the sponge-cyanobacteria association but also by physiological outperformance in accumulating resources for the battle.

  1. Atomic force microscopy studies on phase transitions and surface morphology transformation of CMTC crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, X.N.; Xu, D.; Yuan, D.R.; Sun, D.L.; Lu, M.K.; Jiang, M.H. [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan (China)

    2002-11-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to investigate the phase transitions and surface morphology transformation of cadmium mercury thiocyanate (CMTC) crystals, which are highly efficient nonlinear optical (NLO) materials for generating blue-violet light by laser frequency doubling. Amorphous aggregates at the crystalline steps become greatly contracted and much more crystalloid after the crystal was kept for one day. Elimination of dangling bonds, which lower the surface free energy at the crystal surface, and structural adjustment inside the crystal are assumed to cause this phase transition. Surface morphology transformations were also observed in CMTC crystals during and after multiple scanning by AFM tips. We have visualized the continuous translation process from two-dimensional nuclei to trigonal microcrystals with almost equal sizes during multiple scanning. In other cases, however, the surface morphology did not change at all during scanning, but became greatly altered hours after scanning. These experimental results suggest that reconstruction is a characteristic growth phenomenon on CMTC crystal surfaces. Reconstruction probably results from the formation of intervening metastable phases that have the potential to arrive at more stable stages; however, multiple scanning of AFM tips greatly affects this translation process. (orig.)

  2. Recognition Method of Aircraft Axis Direction Based on Morphological Skeleton and Hough Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-bo; ZHUANG Zhi-hong; ZHENG Hua-li; ZHANG Qing-tai; HE Hong-jun

    2008-01-01

    Because of the limit of angle of view(AOV) of IR imaging seeker during the approach of missile and target, the detector can only get the partial image sequence of aircraft nose after "lose point". Recognizing the axis direction on the basis of partial IR image sequence is a key issue of the advanced IR imaging guide air-to-air missile faced. In this paper, a recognition method was proposed based on the morphological skeleton and modified Hough transform, and this method can recognize correctly the axis direction of aircraft nose in different poses during missile-target encounter. Firstly, the morphological skeleton transform was used for the extraction of skeleton features. Secondly, the modified Hough transform was used for the straight-lines detection. Finally, According to the relations between aircraft nose and axis and invariant of nose features in high-speed IR image sequence, the axis direction can be detected and calculated. Experimental results indicate that the method is feasible and effective, and the precision of axis direction recognized can meet the requirement of accurate burst control of GIF fuze.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulations of the morphology transformations in unzipped carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiafang; Zhang, Yingnan; Wang, Tao; Zheng, Xin; Li, Wen; Dong, Zihan; Wang, Wensen

    2016-08-01

    Tuning the assembly of carbon nanomaterials to obtain a kaleidoscope of carbon nanostructures is very important and challenging for the development of nanotechnology. Using molecular dynamics simulations method, we studied the morphology transformations of unzipped CNTs with different unzipping patterns. By modulating the unzipping patterns, the CNTs could self-assemble forming graphene nanoribbons and carbon nanoscrolls. From the energy analyzation, we find that the van der Waals interactions are responsible for the assembly of the unzipped CNTs. This unusual self-assembling method for CNTs could provide clues for further studies on the design of novel nanostructures.

  4. Parametric based morphological transformation for contrast enhancement of color images in poor-lighting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Atluri Srikrishna; M Pompapathi; G Srinivasa Rao

    2015-04-01

    The objective of contrast operators consists in normalizing the gray levels of the input image for the purpose of avoiding abrupt changes in intensity among different regions. In this paper morphological transformations are used to detect the background in color images characterized by poor lighting. The disadvantage of contrast enhancement as studied in previous contrast enhancement algorithms is over illumination. An efficient algorithm is introduced to tackle the problem of over illumination by controlling the intensities at dark and bright regions of an image and preserve the geometry of the object. Finally the performance of the proposed algorithm is illustrated through the processing of gray scale images and color images with different backgrounds.

  5. Mice lacking pituitary tumor transforming gene show elevated exposure of DGalNAc carbohydrate determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsyk A. D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the influence of pituitary tumor transforming gene (pttg-1 knockout on glycome of parenchimal organs by means of lectin histochemistry. Methods. DGalNAc, DGlcNAc, NeuNAc carbohydrate determinants were labelled with soybean agglutinin (SBA and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA, conjugated to peroxidase, with subsequent visualization of the lectin-binding sites with diaminobenzidine. The testes and kidneys of murine strain BL6/C57 with the pttg-1 gene knockout (PTTG-KO were compared to the wild type (PTTG-WT animals, both groups 1 month of age. Results. Knockout of the pttg-1 gene was accompanied by enhanced exposure of the DGalNAc sugar residues within the Golgi complex of secondary spermatocytes, in a brush border of renal tubules and on the lumenal surface of collecting ducts. Conclusions. This study suggests that knockout of the pttg-1 gene may lead to the changes in carbohydrate processing in mammalian organism.

  6. Performance analysis of wavelet transforms and morphological operator-based classification of epilepsy risk levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikumar, Rajaguru; Vijayakumar, Thangavel

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of singular value decomposition (SVD), expectation maximization (EM), and modified expectation maximization (MEM) as the postclassifiers for classifications of the epilepsy risk levels obtained from extracted features through wavelet transforms and morphological filters from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The code converter acts as a level one classifier. The seven features such as energy, variance, positive and negative peaks, spike and sharp waves, events, average duration, and covariance are extracted from EEG signals. Out of which four parameters like positive and negative peaksand spike and sharp waves, events and average duration are extracted using Haar, dB2, dB4, and Sym 8 wavelet transforms with hard and soft thresholding methods. The above said four features are also extracted through morphological filters. Then, the performance of the code converter and classifiers are compared based on the parameters such as performance index (PI) and quality value (QV).The performance index and quality value of code converters are at low value of 33.26% and 12.74, respectively. The highest PI of 98.03% and QV of 23.82 are attained at dB2 wavelet with hard thresholding method for SVD classifier. All the postclassifiers are settled at PI value of more than 90% at QV of 20.

  7. Morphological Transformation of Plant Cells in vitro and Its Effect on Plant Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhigang; ZENG Zhaolin; LIU Ruizhi; DENG Ying

    2005-01-01

    Enhancement of cell growth in suspension cultures is urgently needed in plant cell culture engineering. This study investigates the relationship between morphological transformation and cell growth in callus and suspension cultures of saffron cells belonging to the cell line C96 induced from Crocus sativus L. In the suspension culture, an unbalanced osmotic pressure between the intracell and extracell regions induced a large morphological transformation which affected normal division of the saffron cells. An increase in osmotic pressure caused by the addition of sucrose inhibits the vacuolation and shrinkage of cytoplasm in the cells. As the sucrose concentration increases, the total amount of accumulated biomass also increases. Besides the sucrose concentration, increased ionic strength and inoculation ratio also help restrain to a large extent the vacuolation and shrinkage of the cytoplasm in the suspended cells, which results in increased biomass. The conditions for optimal biomass are: Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium with 40 g/L sucrose and 60% (v/v) inoculation ratio.

  8. Mass assembly and morphological transformations since $z\\sim3$ from CANDELS

    CERN Document Server

    Huertas-Company, M; Pérez-González, P G; Ashby, M L N; Barro, G; Conselice, C; Daddi, E; Dekel, A; Dimauro, P; Faber, S M; Grogin, N A; Kartaltepe, J S; Kocevski, D D; Koekemoer, A M; Koo, D C; Mei, S; Shankar, F

    2016-01-01

    [abridged] We quantify the evolution of the stellar mass functions of star-forming and quiescent galaxies as a function of morphology from $z\\sim 3$ to the present. Our sample consists of ~50,000 galaxies in the CANDELS fields ($\\sim880$ $arcmin^2$), which we divide into four main morphological types, i.e. pure bulge dominated systems, pure spiral disk dominated, intermediate 2-component bulge+disk systems and irregular disturbed galaxies. Our main results are: Star-formation: At $z\\sim 2$, 80\\% of the stellar mass density of star-forming galaxies is in irregular systems. However, by $z\\sim 0.5$, irregular objects only dominate at stellar masses below $10^9M\\odot$. A majority of the star-forming irregulars present at $z\\sim 2$ undergo a gradual transformation from disturbed to normal spiral disk morphologies by $z\\sim 1$ without significant interruption to their star-formation. Rejuvenation after a quenching event does not seem to be common except perhaps for the most massive objects. Quenching: We confirm th...

  9. In vitro comet and micronucleus assays do not predict morphological transforming effects of silica particles in Syrian Hamster Embryo cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darne, Christian; Coulais, Catherine; Terzetti, Francine; Fontana, Caroline; Binet, Stéphane; Gaté, Laurent; Guichard, Yves

    2016-01-15

    Crystalline silica particles and asbestos have both been classified as carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). However, because of the limited data available, amorphous silica was not classifiable. In vitro, the carcinogenic potential of natural crystalline and amorphous silica particles has been revealed by the Syrian Hamster Embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay. On the other hand, the genotoxic potential of those substances has not been investigated in SHE cells. And yet, genotoxicity assays are commonly used for hazard evaluation and they are often used as in vitro assays of reference to predict a possible carcinogenic potential. The main objective of this study was to compare the genotoxic potential and the carcinogenic potential of different crystalline and amorphous silica particles in SHE cells. Three silica samples of different crystallinity were used: natural amorphous silica, partially crystallized silica and quartz silica particles. Their genotoxicity were tested through the in vitro micronucleus assay and the comet assay in SHE, and their carcinogenic potential through the SHE transformation assay. In addition, silica samples were also tested with the same genotoxicity assays in V79 hamster-lung cells, a common in vitro model for particle exposure. Results obtained in the micronucleus and the comet assays show that none of the silica was capable of inducing genotoxic effects in SHE cells and only the amorphous silica induced genotoxic effects in V79 cells. However in the SHE cell transformation assays, the partially crystallized and quartz silica were able to induce morphological cell transformation. Together, these data suggest that, in vitro, the short-term genotoxic assays alone are not sufficient to predict the hazard and the carcinogenic potential of this type of particles; SHE transformation assay appears a more reliable tool for this purpose and should be included in the "in vitro battery assays" for hazard

  10. Morphological transformation and effect on gap junction intercellular communication in Syrian hamster embryo cells as screening tests for carcinogens devoid of mutagenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivedal, E; Mikalsen, S O; Sanner, T

    2000-04-01

    A large fraction of chemicals observed to cause cancer in experimental animals is devoid of mutagenic activity. It is therefore of importance to develop methods that can be used to detect and study environmental carcinogenic agents that do not interact directly with DNA. Previous studies have indicated that induction of in vitro cell transformation and inhibition of gap junction intercellular communication are endpoints that could be useful for the detection of non-genotoxic carcinogens. In the present work, 13 compounds [chlordane, Arochlor 1260, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, 1,1,1-trichloro-2, 2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane, limonene, sodium fluoride, ethionine, o-anisidine, benzoyl peroxide, o-vanadate, phenobarbital, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate and clofibrate] have been tested for their ability to induce morphological transformation and affect intercellular communication in Syrian hamster embryo cells. The substances were selected on the basis of being proven or suspected non-genotoxic carcinogens, and thus difficult to detect in short-term tests. The data show that nine of the 13 compounds induced morphological transformation, and seven of the 13 inhibited intercellular communication in hamster embryo cells. Taken together, 12 of the 13 substances either induced transformation or caused inhibition of communication. The data suggest that the combined use of morphological transformation and gap junction intercellular communication in Syrian hamster embryo cells may be beneficial when screening for non-genotoxic carcinogens. PMID:10793297

  11. Reversible structural transformations in a Co(II)-based 2D dynamic metal-organic framework showing selective solvent uptake

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjog S Nagarkar; Sujit K Ghosh

    2015-04-01

    A Co(II)-based two-dimensional (2D) metal-organic framework (MOF) [Co(pca)(bdc)0.5(H2O)2] (1) {pca = pyrazine carboxylic acid, and bdc = 1,4-benzene dicarboxylic acid} was synthesized solvothermally. The compound loses the coordinated lattice water molecules on heating which is accompanied by solidstate structural transformation to yield dehydrated phase [Co(pca)(bdc)0.5] (1′). The hydrated structure can be regained by exposing 1′ to water vapour (1′′). These reversible solid-state structural transformations are accompanied by a visible colour change in the material. The dehydrated compound also shows highly selective water uptake over other solvents like MeOH, EtOH, THF. This selective water uptake can be ascribed to the high affinity of polar water molecule towards the open metal site created on heating. The present report provides important insights into the reversible structural transformations observed due to variable coordination number of the central metal ion and transformability of the framework. The selective water uptake over alcohols along with visible colour change demonstrates the potential of the present compound in bio-alcohol purification.

  12. Theory of morphological transformation of viral capsid shell during the maturation process in the HK97 bacteriophage and similar viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konevtsova, O. V.; Lorman, V. L.; Rochal, S. B.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the symmetry and physical origin of collective displacement modes playing a crucial role in the morphological transformation during the maturation of the HK97 bacteriophage and similar viruses. It is shown that the experimentally observed hexamer deformation and pentamer twist in the HK97 procapsid correspond to the simplest irreducible shear strain mode of a spherical shell. We also show that the icosahedral faceting of the bacteriophage capsid shell is driven by the simplest irreducible radial displacement field. The shear field has the rotational icosahedral symmetry group I while the radial field has the full icosahedral symmetry Ih. This difference makes their actions independent. The radial field sign discriminates between the icosahedral and the dodecahedral shapes of the faceted capsid shell, thus making the approach relevant not only for the HK97-like viruses but also for the parvovirus family. In the frame of the Landau-Ginzburg formalism we propose a simple phenomenological model valid for the first reversible step of the HK97 maturation process. The calculated phase diagram illustrates the discontinuous character of the virus shape transformation. The characteristics of the virus shell faceting and expansion obtained in the in vitro and in vivo experiments are related to the decrease in the capsid shell thickness and to the increase of the internal capsid pressure.

  13. Theory of morphological transformation of viral capsid shell during the maturation process in the HK97 bacteriophage and similar viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konevtsova, O V; Lorman, V L; Rochal, S B

    2016-05-01

    We consider the symmetry and physical origin of collective displacement modes playing a crucial role in the morphological transformation during the maturation of the HK97 bacteriophage and similar viruses. It is shown that the experimentally observed hexamer deformation and pentamer twist in the HK97 procapsid correspond to the simplest irreducible shear strain mode of a spherical shell. We also show that the icosahedral faceting of the bacteriophage capsid shell is driven by the simplest irreducible radial displacement field. The shear field has the rotational icosahedral symmetry group I while the radial field has the full icosahedral symmetry I_{h}. This difference makes their actions independent. The radial field sign discriminates between the icosahedral and the dodecahedral shapes of the faceted capsid shell, thus making the approach relevant not only for the HK97-like viruses but also for the parvovirus family. In the frame of the Landau-Ginzburg formalism we propose a simple phenomenological model valid for the first reversible step of the HK97 maturation process. The calculated phase diagram illustrates the discontinuous character of the virus shape transformation. The characteristics of the virus shell faceting and expansion obtained in the in vitro and in vivo experiments are related to the decrease in the capsid shell thickness and to the increase of the internal capsid pressure.

  14. Hearts of dystonia musculorum mice display normal morphological and histological features but show signs of cardiac stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin G Boyer

    Full Text Available Dystonin is a giant cytoskeletal protein belonging to the plakin protein family and is believed to crosslink the major filament systems in contractile cells. Previous work has demonstrated skeletal muscle defects in dystonin-deficient dystonia musculorum (dt mice. In this study, we show that the dystonin muscle isoform is localized at the Z-disc, the H zone, the sarcolemma and intercalated discs in cardiac tissue. Based on this localization pattern, we tested whether dystonin-deficiency leads to structural defects in cardiac muscle. Desmin intermediate filament, microfilament, and microtubule subcellular organization appeared normal in dt hearts. Nevertheless, increased transcript levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF, 66% beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC, 95% and decreased levels of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump isoform 2A (SERCA2a, 26%, all signs of cardiac muscle stress, were noted in dt hearts. Hearts from two-week old dt mice were assessed for the presence of morphological and histological alterations. Heart to body weight ratios as well as left ventricular wall thickness and left chamber volume measurements were similar between dt and wild-type control mice. Hearts from dt mice also displayed no signs of fibrosis or calcification. Taken together, our data provide new insights into the intricate structure of the sarcomere by situating dystonin in cardiac muscle fibers and suggest that dystonin does not significantly influence the structural organization of cardiac muscle fibers during early postnatal development.

  15. Modeling the atomic-scale structure, stability, and morphological transformations in the tetragonal phase of LaVO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Amanda F.; Ferrer, Mateus M.; Sambrano, Júlio R.; Andrés, Juan; Longo, Elson

    2016-09-01

    In this communication, a systematic study of the surface structure, including energy management during morphological transformations of tetragonal phase of LaVO4, has been carried out. For this study, we combined experimental findings and first-principles calculations to develop a Wulff construction model. Our findings can help further understand the synthetic control of crystal shape via tuning of surface chemistry.

  16. Ultrastructural study shows morphologic features of apoptosis and para-apoptosis in megakaryocytes from patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwerzijl, EJ; Blom, NR; van der Want, JJL; Esselink, MT; Koornstra, JJ; Smit, JW; Louwes, H; Vellenga, E; de Wolf, JTM

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether altered megakaryocyte morphology contributes to reduced platelet production in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), ultrastructural analysis of megakaryocytes was performed in 11 ITP patients. Ultrastructural abnormalities compatible with (para-)apoptosis were present in

  17. Morphology of phase transformations on thermomagnetic treatment of iron-chromium-cobalt alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculation techniques for magnetocrystalline, magnetostatic, elastic and interphase energies are shown along with their influence on structure, morphology of iron-chromium-cobalt (26-28 % Cr; 15-20 % Co) alloys treated for a high coercivity state. Formulas for specific surface energy determining are presented. This energy is revealed to increase from 0 to 1.5x10-3 J/m2 during supersaturated solid solution precipitation. The calculation shows that magnetic field should be applied immediately before thermomagnetic treatment. A nomogram is given to determine limiting values of a l/d ratio characterizing the anisotropy of α-phase precipitations

  18. In planta Transformed Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. Plants, Overexpressing the SbNHX1 Gene Showed Enhanced Salt Endurance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonika Pandey

    Full Text Available Cumin is an annual, herbaceous, medicinal, aromatic, spice glycophyte that contains diverse applications as a food and flavoring additive, and therapeutic agents. An efficient, less time consuming, Agrobacterium-mediated, a tissue culture-independent in planta genetic transformation method was established for the first time using cumin seeds. The SbNHX1 gene, cloned from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata was transformed in cumin using optimized in planta transformation method. The SbNHX1 gene encodes a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter and is involved in the compartmentalization of excess Na+ ions into the vacuole and maintenance of ion homeostasis Transgenic cumin plants were confirmed by PCR using gene (SbNHX1, uidA and hptII specific primers. The single gene integration event and overexpression of the gene were confirmed by Southern hybridization and competitive RT-PCR, respectively. Transgenic lines L3 and L13 showed high expression of the SbNHX1 gene compared to L6 whereas moderate expression was detected in L5 and L10 transgenic lines. Transgenic lines (L3, L5, L10 and L13, overexpressing the SbNHX1 gene, showed higher photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid, and lower electrolytic leakage, lipid peroxidation (MDA content and proline content as compared to wild type plants under salinity stress. Though transgenic lines were also affected by salinity stress but performed better compared to WT plants. The ectopic expression of the SbNHX1 gene confirmed enhanced salinity stress tolerance in cumin as compared to wild type plants under stress condition. The present study is the first report of engineering salt tolerance in cumin, so far and the plant may be utilized for the cultivation in saline areas.

  19. Aorta of young and middle-aged heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia patients shows no functional or morphological impairment assessed by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Soljanlahti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Sami Soljanlahti1, Taina Autti1, Alpo F Vuorio2, Pekka Keto1, Hannu Turtola3, Kirsi Lauerma11Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 2Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; 3Department of Internal Medicine, North Karelia Central Hospital, Joensuu, FinlandAbstract: In familial hypercholesterolemia (FH the level of LDL cholesterol is 2–3 times that of the normal population and leads to accelerated atherosclerosis. Improved care for risk factors has decreased cardiovascular mortality of these patients. We studied subclinical atherosclerotic changes with morphologic and functional aortic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in FH patients under the age of 50. 39 DNA test-verified heterozygous FH-North Karelia patients, aged 6–48, 28 of them treated with statins, and 25 healthy controls, aged 12 to 50, underwent aortic MRI, carotid ultrasound (US, and risk-factor assessment. No differences in any of the morphologic or functional aortic parameters appeared between patients and controls. Age and gender were independent predictors of the majority of the morphologic and functional measures. Carotid intima-media thickness assessed by US was greater in patients (0.57 mm ± 0.13 vs 0.48 ± 0.13 mm, p = 0.005 as was cholesterol-years score (243 ± 122 vs 137 ± 74, p < 0.001. Patients had thicker intima-media of the common carotid artery and higher cholesterol burden as indicated by their cholesterol-years score. Despite this, no differences existed in morphologic or functional aortic parameters assessed with MRI. The improved care of cardiovascular risk factors, especially statin treatment, may protect the aorta of FH patients. However, larger confirmatory studies are needed.Keywords: MRI, ultrasound, atherosclerosis, aorta, familial hypercholesterolemia

  20. NIH 3T3 cells malignantly transformed by mot—2 show inactivation and cytoplasmic sequestration of the p53 protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WADHWA; SYUICHITAKANO; 等

    1999-01-01

    In previous studies we have reported that a high level of expression of mot-2 protein results in malignant transformation of NIH 3T3 cells as analyzed by anchorage independent growth and nude mice assays [Kaul et al.,Oncogene,17,907-11,1998].Mot-2 was found to interact with tumor suppressor protein p53.The transient overexpression of mot-2 was inhibitory to transcriptional activation function of p53 [Wadhwa et al.,J.Biol.Chem.,273,2958691,1998].We demonstrate here that mot-2 transfected stable clone of NIH 3T3 that showed malignant properties indeed show inactivation of p53 function as assayed by exogenous p53 dependent reporter.The expression level of p53 in response to UV-irradiation was lower in NIH 3T3/mot-2 as compared to NIH 3T3 cells and also exhibited delay in reachingpeak.Furthermore,upon serum starvation p53 was seen to translocate to the nucleus in NIH 3T3,but not in its mot-3 derivative.The data suggests that mot-2 mediated cytoplasmic sequestration and inactivation of p53 may operate,at least in part,for malignant phenotype of NIH 3T3/mot-2 cells.

  1. H-ras-transformed NRK-52E renal epithelial cells have altered growth, morphology, and cytoskeletal structure that correlates with renal cell carcinoma in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, C J; Tanzer, L R; Phelps, P C; Merriman, R L; Boder, G G; Trump, B F; Elliget, K A

    1999-04-01

    We studied the effect of the ras oncogene on the growth kinetics, morphology, cytoskeletal structure, and tumorigenicity of the widely used NRK-52E rat kidney epithelial cell line and two H-ras oncogene-transformed cell lines, H/1.2-NRK-52E (H/1.2) and H/6.1-NRK-52E (H/6.1). Population doubling times of NRK-52E, H/1.2, and H/6.1 cells were 28, 26, and 24 h, respectively, with the transformed cells reaching higher saturation densities than the parent cells. NRK-52E cells had typical epithelial morphology with growth in colonies. H/1.2 and H/6.1 cell colonies were more closely packed, highly condensed, and had increased plasma membrane ruffling compared to parent cell colonies. NRK-52E cells showed microfilament, microtubule, and intermediate filament networks typical of epithelial cells, while H/1.2 and H/6.1 cells showed altered cytoskeleton architecture, with decreased stress fibers and increased microtubule and intermediate filament staining at the microtubule organizing center. H/1.2 and H/6.1 cells proliferated in an in vitro soft agar transformation assay, indicating anchorage-independence, and rapidly formed tumors in vivo with characteristics of renal cell carcinoma, including mixed populations of sarcomatoid, granular, and clear cells. H/6.1 cells consistently showed more extensive alterations of growth kinetics, morphology, and cytoskeleton than H/1.2 cells, and formed tumors of a more aggressive phenotype. These data suggest that analysis of renal cell characteristics in vitro may have potential in predicting tumor behavior in vivo, and significantly contribute to the utility of these cell lines as in vitro models for examining renal epithelial cell biology and the role of the ras proto-oncogene in signal transduction involving the cytoskeleton.

  2. Genetic analysis shows that morphology alone cannot distinguish asian carp eggs from those of other cyprinid species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; McCalla, Sunnie; Chapman, Duane C.; Rees, Christopher B.; Knights, Brent C.; Vallazza, Jon; George, Amy E.; Richardson, William B.; Amberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Fish eggs and embryos (hereafter collectively referred to as “eggs”) were collected in the upper Mississippi River main stem (~300 km upstream of previously reported spawning by invasive Asian carp) during summer 2013. Based on previously published morphological characteristics, the eggs were identified as belonging to Asian carp. A subsample of the eggs was subsequently analyzed by using molecular methods to determine species identity. Genetic identification using the cytochrome-c oxidase 1 gene was attempted for a total of 41 eggs. Due to the preservation technique used (formalin) and the resulting DNA degradation, sequences were recovered from only 17 individual eggs. In all 17 cases, cyprinids other than Asian carp (usually Notropis sp.) were identified as the most likely species. In previously published reports, a key characteristic that distinguished Asian carp eggs from those of other cyprinids was size: Asian carp eggs exhibited diameters ranging from 4.0 to 6.0 mm and were thought to be much larger than the otherwise similar eggs of native species. Eggs from endemic cyprinids were believed to rarely reach 3.0 mm and had not been observed to exceed 3.3 mm. However, many of the eggs that were genetically identified as originating from native cyprinids were as large as 4.0 mm in diameter (at early developmental stages) and were therefore large enough to over- lap with the lower end of the size range observed for Asian carp eggs. Researchers studying the egg stages of Asian carp and other cyprinids should plan on preserving subsets of eggs for genetic analysis to confirm morphological identifications.

  3. Effects of surface stability on the morphological transformation of metals and metal oxides as investigated by first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Juan; Gracia, Lourdes; Fernandes Gouveia, Amanda; Meneghetti Ferrer, Mateus; Longo, Elson

    2015-10-01

    Morphology is a key property of materials. Owing to their precise structure and morphology, crystals and nanocrystals provide excellent model systems for joint experimental and theoretical investigations into surface-related properties. Faceted polyhedral crystals and nanocrystals expose well-defined crystallographic planes depending on the synthesis method, which allow for thoughtful investigations into structure-reactivity relationships under practical conditions. This feature article introduces recent work, based on the combined use of experimental findings and first-principles calculations, to provide deeper knowledge of the electronic, structural, and energetic properties controlling the morphology and the transformation mechanisms of different metals and metal oxides: Ag, anatase TiO2, BaZrO3, and α-Ag2WO4. According to the Wulff theorem, the equilibrium shapes of these systems are obtained from the values of their respective surface energies. These investigations are useful to gain further understanding of how to achieve morphological control of complex three-dimensional crystals by tuning the ratio of the surface energy values of the different facets. This strategy allows the prediction of possible morphologies for a crystal and/or nanocrystal by controlling the relative values of surface energies.

  4. Evidence for Morphology and Luminosity Transformation of Galaxies at High Redshifts

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Ho Seong; Park, Changbom

    2009-01-01

    We study the galaxy morphology-luminosity-environmental relation and its redshift evolution using a spectroscopic sample of galaxies in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS). In the redshift range of $0.4\\leq z\\leq1.0$ we detect conformity in morphology between neighboring galaxies. The realm of conformity is confined within the virialized region associated with each galaxy plus dark matter halo system. When a galaxy is located within the virial radius of its nearest neighbor ga...

  5. Hydrothermal transformation of titanate nanotubes into single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials with controlled phase composition and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials were synthesized by hydrothermally treating suspensions of H-titanate nanotubes and characterized by XRD, TEM, and HRTEM. The effects of the pH values of the suspensions and the hydrothermal temperatures on the phase composition and morphology of the obtained TiO2 nanomaterials were systematically investigated. The H-titanate nanotubes were predominately transformed into anatase nanoparticle with rhombic shape when the pH value was greater than or equal to 1.0, whereas primarily turned into rutile nanorod with two pyramidal ends at the pH value less than or equal to 0.5. We propose a possible mechanism for hydrothermal transformation of H-titanate nanotubes into single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials. While the H-titanate nanotubes transform into tiny anatase nanocrystallites of ca. 3 nm in size, the formed nanocrystallites as an intermediate grow into the TiO2 nanomaterials with controlled phase composition and morphology. This growth process involves the steps of protonation, oriented attachment, and Ostwald ripening.

  6. Efficient 2-D Grayscale Morphological Transformations With Arbitrary Flat Structuring Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbach, Erik R.; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    2008-01-01

    An efficient algorithm is presented for the computation of grayscale morphological operations with arbitrary 2-D flat structuring elements (S.E.). The required computing time is independent of the image content and of the number of gray levels used. It always outperforms the only existing comparable

  7. Sunlight induced unique morphological transformation in graphene based nanohybrids: appearance of a new tetra-nanohybrid and tuning of functional property of these nanohybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Banerjee, Arindam

    2015-06-01

    In this study, sunlight was used for in situ preparation of gel-based various nanohybrid systems. A naturally occurring amino acid, l-phenylalanine derivative formed a hydrogel with graphene oxide (GO)/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) at physiological pH. This hydrogel was then used in the presence of silver ions and diffuse sunlight to form initially a tri-nanohybrid system consisting of six atom silver nanoclusters, nanosheets, and nanofibers. Interestingly, a time-dependent morphological transformation occurs in this nanohybrid system to form one tri-nanohybrid to another tri-nanohybrid with the appearance of a novel, nanoscopic intermediate tetra-nanohybrid system consisting of four distinctly different nanomaterials (nanofibers, nanosheets, nanospheres, and nanoparticles). UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic analyses, transmission electron microscopic, X-ray photo electron spectroscopic and MALDI-TOF mass spectral analyses with time were applied to characterise these morphological transformations in gel based nanohybrids. Time-dependent X-ray photo electron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis was used to uncover the mechanism for the transformation of silver nanoclusters to silver nanoparticles in the hydrogel matrix. Sunlight was used to trigger time-dependent structural transformation in the nanohybrid systems. Interestingly, one of these tri-nanohybrid systems (silver nanoparticles containing rGO based hydrogel) shows a catalytic property of reducing nitroarenes to aminoarenes and the catalytic efficiency can be modulated by changing the size of the silver nanoparticles with time in diffuse sunlight. The mechanism for different catalytic activities for different hybrids with varying size of silver nanoparticles has also been deciphered. PMID:25892272

  8. Morphological Transformations of Galaxies in the A901/02 Supercluster from STAGES

    CERN Document Server

    Heiderman, A L; Bacon, D J; Balogh, M L; Barden, M; Barazza, F D; Bell, E F; Böhm, A; Caldwell, J A R; Gray, M E; ler, B Häu\\ss; Heymans, C; Jahnke, K; Van Kampen, E; Koposov, S; Lane, K; McIntosh, D H; Meisenheimer, K; Peng, C Y; Rix, H -W; Sánchez, S F; Somerville, R; Taylor, A N; Wisotzki, L; Wolf, C; Zheng, X

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of galaxies in the Abell 901/902 Supercluster at z~0.165, based on HST ACS F606W, COMBO-17, Spitzer 24um, XMM-Newton X-ray, and gravitational lensing maps, as part of the STAGES survey. We characterize galaxies with strong externally-triggered morphological distortions and normal relatively undisturbed galaxies, using visual classification and quantitative CAS parameters. We compare normal and distorted galaxies in terms of their frequency, distribution within the cluster, star formation properties, and relationship to dark matter (DM) or surface mass density, and intra-cluster medium (ICM) density. We revisit the morphology density relation, which postulates a higher fraction of early type galaxies in dense environments, by considering separately galaxies with a low bulge-to-disk (B/D) ratio and a low gas content as these two parameters may not be correlated in clusters. We report here on our preliminary analysis.

  9. Myelofibrotic transformations of polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia are morphologically, biologically, and prognostically indistinguishable from primary myelofibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangle, Nikhil; Cook, Josh; Perkins, Sherrie; Teman, Carolin J; Bahler, David; Hickman, Kimberly; Wilson, Andrew; Prchal, Josef; Salama, Mohamed E

    2014-10-01

    A fraction of polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) cases will, in time, undergo myelofibrotic transformation. In such cases, fibrosis may mask the diagnostic histologic features of the original underlying myeloproliferative neoplasm. Thus, confidently differentiating postfibrotic PV/ET from primary myelofibrosis (PMF) histologically may not be possible. It is controversial whether post-PV/ET myelofibrosis (MF) differs clinicopathologically from PMF, or whether these entities are biologically, clinically, and prognostically indistinguishable. To answer this question, we compared multiple candidate biological, morphologic, and prognostic parameters between 19 postfibrotic ET/PV individuals and 18 PMF individuals. The postfibrotic ET/PV and PMF cases did not differ with regard to clinical outcome, cytogenetic abnormalities, serum lactate dehydrogenase level, peripheral blast count, bone marrow morphology, or grade of reticulin fibrosis. Only JAK2 allele burden, which was higher in the postfibrotic PV/ET population (P=0.011), differed between the 2 groups. Cardinal morphologic features of PMF (ie, marrow cellularity, intrasinusoidal hematopoiesis, osteosclerosis, etc.) were commonly observed in post-PV/ET MF marrow biopsies, and only a minority of post-PV/ET MF marrow biopsies the retained diagnostic features of the primary myeloproliferative neoplasm (panmyelosis in PV and megakaryocytic hyperplasia in ET). Our study indicates that PMF and post-PV/ET MF are clinically and biologically indistinguishable.

  10. Morphological transformations in rat thymus under influence of multiplegravitational overloads and after pharmaceutical correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moroz G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using light and transmission electron microscopy techniques morphological features of mature male Wistar rats, which were exposed to hypergravity (9 g, 10 minutes, daily, 45times, were investigated. It was revealed, that reaction of thymus on multiple hypergravity resulted in haemodynamic changes and involution of lymphoid tissue according to the adaptive and compensatory reaction of the organ under repeated stress action. Administration of glutargin as an adaptogen under systematic hypergravity overloads provides certain corrective effect. Hypergravity-induced involution changes neither progress, nor totally arrest.

  11. Shap e-controlled Synthesis of Porous SnO2 Nanostructures via Morphologically Conserved Transformation from SnC2O4 Precursor Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qihua Wang; Dewei Wang; Tingmei Wang

    2011-01-01

    Porous SnO2 nanostructures with controlled shapes were synthesized by a facile morphologi-cally conserved transformation from SnC2O4 precursor approach. Well-defined SnC2O4 nanostructures can be obtained through a solution-based precipitation process at ambient conditions without any surfactant. The formation mechanism of such microstructures was tentatively proposed on the basis of intrinsic crystal struc-ture and the reaction conditions. We found that the morphologies of precursor were well maintained while numerous pores were formed during the annealing process. The combined techniques of X-ray diffraction, ni-trogen absorption–desorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and (high-resolution) transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the as-prepared SnO2 products. Moreover, cyclic voltammetry (CV) study shows that the shape of CV presents a current response like roughly rectangular mirror images with respect to the zero-current line without obvious redox peaks, which indicating an ideal capacitive behavior of the SnO2 electrodes. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum study suggests that the as-obtained porous SnO2 nanostructures might have a large number of defects, vacancies of oxygen, and local lattice disorder at the interface, interior and exterior surfaces.

  12. Surface Morphology Transformation Under High-Temperature Annealing of Ge Layers Deposited on Si(100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shklyaev, A A; Latyshev, A V

    2016-12-01

    We study the surface morphology and chemical composition of SiGe layers after their formation under high-temperature annealing at 800-1100 °C of 30-150 nm Ge layers deposited on Si(100) at 400-500 °C. It is found that the annealing leads to the appearance of the SiGe layers of two types, i.e., porous and continuous. The continuous layers have a smoothened surface morphology and a high concentration of threading dislocations. The porous and continuous layers can coexist. Their formation conditions and the ratio between their areas on the surface depend on the thickness of deposited Ge layers, as well as on the temperature and the annealing time. The data obtained suggest that the porous SiGe layers are formed due to melting of the strained Ge layers and their solidification in the conditions of SiGe dewetting on Si. The porous and dislocation-rich SiGe layers may have properties interesting for applications. PMID:27541814

  13. TRANSFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  14. Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi.......Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi....

  15. Deformable registration for image-guided spine surgery: preserving rigid body vertebral morphology in free-form transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaungamornrat, S.; Wang, A. S.; Uneri, A.; Otake, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Deformable registration of preoperative and intraoperative images facilitates accurate localization of target and critical anatomy in image-guided spine surgery. However, conventional deformable registration fails to preserve the morphology of rigid bone anatomy and can impart distortions that confound high-precision intervention. We propose a constrained registration method that preserves rigid morphology while allowing deformation of surrounding soft tissues. Method: The registration method aligns preoperative 3D CT to intraoperative cone-beam CT (CBCT) using free-form deformation (FFD) with penalties on rigid body motion imposed according to a simple intensity threshold. The penalties enforced 3 properties of a rigid transformation - namely, constraints on affinity (AC), orthogonality (OC), and properness (PC). The method also incorporated an injectivity constraint (IC) to preserve topology. Physical experiments (involving phantoms, an ovine spine, and a human cadaver) as well as digital simulations were performed to evaluate the sensitivity to registration parameters, preservation of rigid body morphology, and overall registration accuracy of constrained FFD in comparison to conventional unconstrained FFD (denoted uFFD) and Demons registration. Result: FFD with orthogonality and injectivity constraints (denoted FFD+OC+IC) demonstrated improved performance compared to uFFD and Demons. Affinity and properness constraints offered little or no additional improvement. The FFD+OC+IC method preserved rigid body morphology at near-ideal values of zero dilatation (D = 0.05, compared to 0.39 and 0.56 for uFFD and Demons, respectively) and shear (S = 0.08, compared to 0.36 and 0.44 for uFFD and Demons, respectively). Target registration error (TRE) was similarly improved for FFD+OC+IC (0.7 mm), compared to 1.4 and 1.8 mm for uFFD and Demons. Results were validated in human cadaver studies using CT and CBCT images, with FFD+OC+IC providing excellent preservation

  16. Electron irradiation induced buckling, morphological transformation, and inverse Ostwald ripening in nanorod filled inside carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anshika; Kumari, Reetu; Kumar, Vinay; Krishnia, Lucky; Naqvi, Zainab; Panwar, Amrish K.; Bhatta, Umananda M.; Ghosh, Arnab; Satyam, P. V.; Tyagi, Pawan K.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to deduce the in-situ response of iron carbide (Fe3C) nanorod filled inside carbon nanotube (CNT) under electron irradiation. Electron irradiation on Fe3C filled-CNT at both high and room temperature (RT) has been performed inside transmission electron microscope. At high temperature (HT), it has been found that γ-Fe atoms in lattice of Fe3C nanorod accumulate first and then form the cluster. These clusters follow the inverse Ostwald ripening whereas if e-irradiation is performed at RT then only the morphological changes in both carbon nanotube as well as nanorod are observed. Compression generated either by electron beam heating or by shrinkage of CNT walls is observed to be a decisive factor.

  17. TRANSFORMER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  18. Quenching and Morphological Transformation in Semi-Analytic Models and CANDELS

    CERN Document Server

    Brennan, Ryan; Somerville, Rachel S; Barro, Guillermo; Taylor, Edward N; Wuyts, Stijn; Bell, Eric F; Dekel, Avishai; Ferguson, Henry C; McIntosh, Daniel H; Papovich, Casey; Primack, Joel

    2015-01-01

    We examine the spheroid growth and star formation quenching experienced by galaxies from z~3 to the present by studying the evolution with redshift of the quiescent and spheroid-dominated fractions of galaxies from the CANDELS and GAMA surveys. We compare the observed fractions with predictions from a semi-analytic model which includes prescriptions for bulge growth and AGN feedback due to mergers and disk instabilities. We facilitate direct morphological comparison by converting our model bulge-to-total stellar mass ratios to Sersic indices. We then subdivide our population into the four quadrants of the sSFR-Sersic index plane and study the buildup of each of these subpopulations. We find that the fraction of star forming disks declines steadily, while the fraction of quiescent spheroids builds up over cosmic time. The fractions of star forming spheroids and quiescent disks are both non-negligible, and stay nearly constant over the period we have studied, at about 10% and 15-20% respectively. Our model is q...

  19. Morphology transformation of Cu{sub 2}O sub-microstructures by Sn doping for enhanced photocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xiaolong, E-mail: sps_dengxl@ujn.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China); Zhang, Qiang, E-mail: wsqrq@126.com [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China); Zhou, E., E-mail: 1297524677@qq.com [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China); Ji, Changjian, E-mail: 171600621@qq.com [Qilu Normal University, Jinan, 250200, Shandong Province (China); Huang, Jinzhao, E-mail: ss_huangjinzhao@ujn.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China); Shao, Minghui, E-mail: ss_shaomh@ujn.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China); Ding, Meng, E-mail: sps_dingm@ujn.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China); Xu, Xijin, E-mail: sps_xuxj@ujn.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China)

    2015-11-15

    Sn-doped Cu{sub 2}O sub-microstructures have been successfully synthesized through a facile one-pot solvothermal method by copper (II) nitrate trihydrate (Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·3H{sub 2}O) and ethylene glycol (EG) combining with different Sn ion sources as initial reagents. Their surfaces and size distributions of Cu{sub 2}O sub-microstructures were significantly affected by Sn doping. The photocatalytic properties of as-synthesized Cu{sub 2}O samples were evaluated by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation with or without the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The results illustrated that Sn doping strongly enhanced the photocatalytic abilities of as-obtained Sn-doped Cu{sub 2}O samples and the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} also had an important impact on the photocatalytic degradation process. - Graphical abstract: The morphology transformation of Cu{sub 2}O was observed by Sn doping via a facile one-pot solvothermal method. The photocatalytic activity was strongly enhanced by Sn doping and the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Sn-doped Cu{sub 2}O sub-microstructures were successfully fabricated by a facile one-pot solvothermal method. • The morphology was changed from hierarchically cubic to spherical sub-microstructure by Sn doping. • The photocatalytic activity was strongly enhanced by Sn doping and the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • The photodegradation rate of SC-1 (Sn{sup 2+} doping) is faster than SC-2 (Sn{sup 4+} doping) and SC-0 (undoped Cu{sub 2}O)

  20. Inactivated E. coli transformed with plasmids that produce dsRNA against infectious salmon anemia virus hemagglutinin show antiviral activity when added to infected ASK cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eGarcía

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV has caused great losses to the Chilean salmon industry, and the success of prevention and treatment strategies is uncertain. The use of RNA interference (RNAi is a promising approach because during the replication cycle, the ISAV genome must be transcribed to mRNA in the cytoplasm. We explored the capacity of E. coli transformed with plasmids that produce double-stranded RNA (dsRNA to induce antiviral activity when added to infected ASK cells. We transformed the non-pathogenic Escherichia coli HT115 (DE3 with plasmids that expressed highly conserved regions of the ISAV genes encoding the nucleoprotein (NP, fusion (F, hemagglutinin (HE and matrix (M proteins as dsRNA, which is the precursor of the RNAi mechanism. The inactivated transformed bacteria carrying dsRNA were tested for their capacity to silence the target ISAV genes, and the dsRNA that were able to inhibit gene expression were subsequently tested for their ability to attenuate the cytopathic effect (CPE and reduce the viral load. Of the four target genes tested, inactivated E. coli transformed with plasmids producing dsRNA targeting HE showed antiviral activity when added to infected ASK cells.

  1. Chia Seed Shows Good Protein Quality, Hypoglycemic Effect and Improves the Lipid Profile and Liver and Intestinal Morphology of Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Bárbara Pereira; Dias, Desirrê Morais; de Castro Moreira, Maria Eliza; Toledo, Renata Celi Lopes; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto; Lucia, Ceres Mattos Della; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2016-09-01

    Chia has been consumed by the world population due to its high fiber, lipids and proteins content. The objective was to evaluate the protein quality of chia untreated (seed and flour) and heat treated (90 °C/20 min), their influence on glucose and lipid homeostasis and integrity of liver and intestinal morphology of Wistar rats. 36 male rats, weanling, divided into six groups which received control diet (casein), free protein diet (aproteic) and four diet tests (chia seed; chia seed with heat treatment; chia flour and chia flour with heat treatment) for 14 days were used. The protein efficiency ratio (PER), net protein ratio (NPR) and true digestibility (TD) were evaluated. The biochemical variables and liver and intestinal morphologies of animals were determined. The values of PER, NPR and TD did not differ among the animals that were fed with chia and were lower than the control group. The animals that were fed with chia showed lower concentrations of glucose; triacylglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than the control group. The liver weight of animals that were fed with chia was lower than the control group. Crypt depth and thickness of intestinal muscle layers were higher in groups that were fed with chia. The consumption of chia has shown good digestibility, hypoglycemic effect, improved lipid and glycemic profiles and reduced fat deposition in liver of animals, and also promoted changes in intestinal tissue that enhanced its functionality. PMID:27193017

  2. Transformed yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) overexpressing rice Tau class glutathione S-transferase (OsGSTU30 and OsGSTU41) shows enhanced resistance to hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ankita; Indoliya, Yuvraj; Tiwari, Madhu; Tiwari, Poonam; Srivastava, Dipali; Verma, Pankaj kumar; Verma, Shikha; Gautam, Neelam; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2014-08-01

    Extensive use of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in leather tanning, stainless-steel production, wood preservatives and electroplating industries has resulted in widespread environmental pollution and poses a serious threat to human health. A plant's response to Cr(VI) stress results in growth inhibition and toxicity leading to changes in components of antioxidant systems. In a previous study, we observed that a large number of glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes were up-regulated under Cr(VI) stress in rice. In this study, two rice root-specific Tau class GST genes (OsGSTU30 and OsGSTU41) were introduced into yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe). Transformed yeast cells overexpressing OsGSTU30 and OsGSTU41 had normal growth, but had much higher levels of GST activities and showed enhanced resistance to Cr(VI) as compared to control cells (transformed with empty vector). Also, a higher accumulation of chromium was found in the transformed yeast cells as compared to the control cells. Manipulation of glutathione biosynthesis by exogenous application of buthionine sulfoximine abolishes the protective effect of OsGSTs against Cr(VI) stress. These results suggest that Tau class OsGSTs play a significant role in detoxification of Cr(VI), probably by chelating and sequestrating glutathione-Cr(VI) complexes into vacuoles. PMID:24968244

  3. Quantifying melanin distribution using pump-probe microscopy and a 2D morphological autocorrelation transformation for melanoma diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Francisco E.; Wilson, Jesse W.; Warren, Warren S.

    2014-03-01

    Pump-probe microscopy is a quantitative molecular imaging technique that yields diagnostically relevant information from endogenous pigments, like melanin, by probing their ultrafast photodynamic properties. Previously, the method was applied to image thin, pigmented, cutaneous samples at different stages of melanoma, and results have shown a correlation between melanin photodynamic behavior and malignancy. Here, we add to the diagnostic power of the method by applying principles of mathematical morphology to parameterize melanins' image structure. Along with bulk melanin chemical information, results show that this method can differentiate invasive melanomas from non-invasive and benign lesions with high sensitivity and specificity (92.3% and 97.5%, respectively, with N = 53). The mathematical method and the statistical analysis are described in detail and results from cutaneous and ocular conjuctival melanocytic lesions are presented.

  4. Brassica napus L. cultivars show a broad variability in their morphology, physiology and metabolite levels in response to sulfur limitations and to pathogen attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annekathrin eWeese

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Under adequate sulfur supply, plants accumulate sulfate in the vacuoles and use sulfur-containing metabolites as storage compounds. Under sulfur-limiting conditions, these pools of stored sulfur-compounds are depleted in order to balance the nitrogen to sulfur ratio for protein synthesis. Stress conditions like sulfur limitation and/or pathogen attack induce changes in the sulfate pool and the levels of sulfur-containing metabolites, which often depend on the ecotypes or cultivars. We are interested in investigating the influence of the genetic background of canola (Brassica napus cultivars in sulfur-limiting conditions on the resistance against Verticillium longisporum. Therefore, four commercially available B. napus cultivars were analyzed. These high-performing cultivars differ in some characteristics described in their cultivar pass, such as several agronomic traits, differences in the size of the root system, and resistance to certain pathogens, such as Phoma and Verticillium. The objectives of the study were to examine and explore the patterns of morphological, physiological and metabolic diversity in these B. napus cultivars at different sulfur concentrations and in the context of plant defense. Results indicate that the root systems are influenced differently by sulfur deficiency in the cultivars. Total root dry mass and length of root hairs differ not only among the cultivars but also vary in their reaction to sulfur limitation and pathogen attack. As a sensitive indicator of stress, several parameters of photosynthetic activity determined by PAM imaging showed a broad variability among the treatments. These results were supported by thermographic analysis. Levels of sulfur-containing metabolites also showed large variations. The data were interrelated to predict the specific behavior during sulfur limitation and/or pathogen attack. Advice for farming are discussed.

  5. Cladodes, leaf-like organs in Asparagus, show the significance of co-option of pre-existing genetic regulatory circuit for morphological diversity of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hokuto; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2012-08-01

    Plants in the genus Asparagus have determinate leaf-like organs called cladodes in the position of leaf axils. Because of their leaf-like morphology, axillary position, and morphological variation, it has been unclear how this unusual organ has evolved and diversified. In the previous study, we have shown that cladodes in the genus Asparagus are modified axillary shoots and proposed a model that cladodes have arisen by co-option and deployment of genetic regulatory circuit (GRC) involved in leaf development. Moreover, we proposed that the alteration of the expression pattern of genes involved in establishment of adaxial/abaxial polarity has led to the morphological diversification from leaf-like to rod-like form of cladodes in the genus. Thus, these results indicated that the co-option and alteration of pre-existing GRC play an important role in acquisition and subsequent morphological diversification. Here, we present data of further expression analysis of A. asparagoides. The results suggested that only a part of the GRC involved in leaf development appears to have been co-opted into cladode development. Based on our study and several examples of the morphological diversification, we briefly discuss the importance of co-option of pre-existing GRC and its genetic modularity in the morphological diversity of plants during evolution.

  6. Assessing vulnerability in stream channel evolution in relation with morphological transformations and hydrodynamic behavior. Case Study: the Subcarpathian Prahova Valley, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaci-Costache, G.; Armas, I.; Gogoase Nistoran, D.; Gheorghe, D.

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study is to analyze the relationship between morphological transformations observed during the last 200 years along a 20 km reach of Prahova river, and hydrodynamic behavior during high intensity flood periods, in the context of erosion-control works and environmental changes. Along this sub-Carpathian reach, Prahova is a typical mountain river, partially regulated, flowing under fluvial and torrential regime and having a mean thalweg slope of about 1%. Riverbed material consists in cobbles and boulders. Its valley has gradually been cut; therefore four terraces may clearly be identified in the subbasin areas of Breaza and Câmpina. The Holocene floodplain is asymmetrical, and during the last decades an incision of about 3-4 m has clearly been observed in the main channel. This also led to an evolution from an anabranching river aspect to a meandering one along the studied reach. Reasons to explain these changes are a positive neotectonic background coupled with an increased anthropic component (granular material extraction, channel regulation for construction purposes of roads, bridges, railways, layout of gas and oil pipelines, vegetation cutoff etc.). The data obtained from 1900-1980 topographical maps and 1997-2002 satellite images and orthophotos were coupled with topo-bathymetric surveys carried out in 57 cross-sections, in order to obtain the DTM of the studied area. These cross-sections were used to build up the geometry of a 1D hydraulic model by using the HEC-RAS software (USACE, version 3.1.3). Simulations were obtained under steady flow conditions for 1% and 2% return periods (360-400 mc/s and 450-500 mc/s). Calibration of Manning roughness factors was performed on stages measured at the two upstream and downstream gauging stations. High values of computed shear stresses and velocities show areas of potential erosion leading to morphological changes, bank collapsing and incision observed during the last decades and predicted for the

  7. In(OH){sub 3} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorice and microflowers: morphology transformation and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren Weian; Liu Ying; Mei Zongwei; Wen Xiaogang, E-mail: wenxg2001@163.com [Sichuan University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Wang Suhua [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Intelligent Machines (China)

    2013-02-15

    In this work, In(OH){sub 3} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures with controllable complex morphologies were successfully synthesized through a simple hydrothermal process followed by annealing. The In(OH){sub 3} nanostructures were synthesized using urea as the alkaline source at a relatively low temperature without any templates or surfactants. The morphology transformation of In(OH){sub 3} from nanorice to microflowers was observed. The In(OH){sub 3} nanorice are 180 nm in diameter and 550 nm in length, the microflowers are about 3 {mu}m in diameter and composed of thin nanoflakes with 4-nm thickness. In{sub 2}O{sub 3} with similar morphology was formed by annealing In(OH){sub 3} precursors. The nanostructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Our results suggest that a new nucleation-growth-etching-regrowth mechanism can explain the morphology transformation from nanorice to flower-like frameworks. Raman spectrum and photoluminescence (PL) properties of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} were also measured, and a 3-nm blue-shift of PL spectrum was observed due to the thinness of the nanostructures.

  8. Group morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2000-01-01

    In its original form, mathematical morphology is a theory of binary image transformations which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This paper surveys and extends constructions of morphological operators which are invariant under a more general group TT, such as the motion group

  9. E6D25E, HPV16 Asian variant shows specific proteomic pattern correlating in cells transformation and suppressive innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopjitt, Peechanika; Pientong, Chamsai; Sunthamala, Nuchsupha; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Haonon, Ornuma; Boonmars, Thidarut; Kikawa, Satomi; Nakahara, Tomomi; Kiyono, Tohru; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya

    2016-09-01

    HPV16 Asian variant (HPV16As) containing E6D25E oncogene, is commonly associated with cervical cancers of Asian populations. To explore a mechanism of E6D25E oncoprotein in carcinogenesis, we compared protein profiles in human keratinocytes expressing E6D25E with E6 of HPV16 prototype (E6Pro). A human cervical keratinocyte cell line, HCK1T, was transduced with retroviruses containing E6D25E or E6Pro genes. Biological properties of E6D25E or E6Pro transduced HCK1T cells were characterized. Protein profiles of the transduced HCK1T cells were analyzed using 2D-PAGE and characterized by mass spectrometry and western blotting. Reactomes of modulated proteins were analyzed by using the Reactome Knowledgebase. The E6D25E and E6Pro oncoproteins were comparable for their abilities to degrade p53 and suppress the induction of p21, and induce cell proliferation. Interestingly, the protein profiles of the HCK1T cells transduced with E6D25E showed specific proteomic patterns different from those with E6Pro. Among altered proteins, more than 1.5-fold up- or down- regulation was observed in E6D25E-expressing cells for gp96 and keratin7 which involved in activation of TLR signaling and transformation of squamocolumnar junction cells, respectively. This report describes new cellular proteins specifically targeted by E6D25E oncoprotein that may contribute to impair immune response against viral infection and cell transformation associated with oncogenic property of HPV16As variant. PMID:27392712

  10. Membrane Morphology Is Actively Transformed by Covalent Binding of the Protein Atg8 to PE-Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Roland L.; Nakatogawa, Hitoshi; Ohsumi, Yoshinori; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Baumgart, Tobias; Dimova, Rumiana

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular degradation pathway involving the shape transformation of lipid bilayers. During the onset of autophagy, the water-soluble protein Atg8 binds covalently to phosphatdylethanolamines (PEs) in the membrane in an ubiquitin-like reaction coupled to ATP hydrolysis. We reconstituted the Atg8 conjugation system in giant and nm-sized vesicles with a minimal set of enzymes and observed that formation of Atg8-PE on giant vesicles can cause substantial tubulation of membranes even in the absence of Atg12-Atg5-Atg16. Our findings show that ubiquitin-like processes can actively change properties of lipid membranes and that membrane crowding by proteins can be dynamically regulated in cells. Furthermore we provide evidence for curvature sorting of Atg8-PE. Curvature generation and sorting are directly linked to organelle shapes and, thus, to biological function. Our results suggest that a positive feedback exists between the ubiquitin-like reaction and the membrane curvature, which is important for dynamic shape changes of cell membranes, such as those involved in the formation of autophagosomes. PMID:25522362

  11. Chemical morphology of Areca nut characterized directly by Fourier transform near-infrared and mid-infrared microspectroscopic imaging in reflection modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Bo; Sun, Su-Qin; Zhou, Qun

    2016-12-01

    Fourier transform near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) imaging techniques are essential tools to characterize the chemical morphology of plant. The transmission imaging mode is mostly used to obtain easy-to-interpret spectra with high signal-to-noise ratio. However, the native chemical compositions and physical structures of plant samples may be altered when they are microtomed for the transmission tests. For the direct characterization of thick plant samples, the combination of the reflection NIR imaging and the attenuated total reflection (ATR) MIR imaging is proposed in this research. First, the reflection NIR imaging method can explore the whole sample quickly to find out typical regions in small sizes. Next, each small typical region can be measured by the ATR-MIR imaging method to reveal the molecular structures and spatial distributions of compounds of interest. As an example, the chemical morphology of Areca nut section is characterized directly by the above approach. PMID:27374557

  12. Metal Ions Mediated Morphology and Phase Transformation of Chalcogenide Semiconductor: From CuClSe2 Microribbon to CuSe Nanosheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Wu, Hao-Di; Zhao, Yu; Pan, Ge-Bo

    2015-05-01

    Foreign ions are of significant importance in controlling and modulating the morphology of semiconductor nanocrystals during the colloidal synthesis process. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of foreign metal ions to simultaneously control the morphology and crystal phase of chalcogenide semiconductors. The results indicate that the introduction of Al(3+) ions can induce the structural transformation from monoclinic CuClSe2 microribbons (MRs) to klockmannite CuSe nanosheets (NSs) and the growth of large-sized CuSe NSs. The as-prepared micrometer-sized CuSe NSs exhibit a high-conducting behavior, long-term durability, and environment stability. The novel properties enable CuSe NSs to open up a bright prospect for printable electrical interconnects and flexible electronic devices.

  13. A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazder, Azdiar A; Al-Harbi, Fayez; Spanke, Hendrik Th; Mitchell, David R G; Pereloma, Elena V

    2014-12-01

    Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth.

  14. A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazder, Azdiar A; Al-Harbi, Fayez; Spanke, Hendrik Th; Mitchell, David R G; Pereloma, Elena V

    2014-12-01

    Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth. PMID:25126753

  15. Myelofibrotic transformations of polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia are morphologically, biologically and prognostically indistinguishable from primary myelofibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sangle, Nikhil; Cook, Josh; Perkins, Sherrie; Teman, Carolyn J; Bahler, David; Hickman, Kimberly; Wilson, Andrew; Prchal, Josef; Salama, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    A fraction of polycythemia vera (PV) & essential thrombocythemia (ET) cases will, in time, undergo myelofibrotic transformation. In such cases, fibrosis may mask the diagnostic histological features of the original underlying myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). Thus confidently differentiating postfibrotic PV/ET from primary myelofibrosis (PMF) histologically may not be possible.

  16. Study on morphological transformation of the arsenic migration process in tungsten mine tailings%钨矿尾矿砂中砷迁移过程中的形态转化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永红; 曹鑫康; 周丹; 张静

    2013-01-01

    In order to master the arsenic contamination status and migration or transformation rules in the mining areas, experiments including the total quantity analysis and morphological analysis for arsenic in tailings and surrounding soil were carried out for tungsten mining area in Gannan District. Research shows that the content of arsenic in tailings and surrounding soil are significantly higher than that in the background soil. In tailings, the arsenic mainly exists in formation of organic compound and the residual; however, it mainly exists as the compound linked to oxides of Fe-Mn in the soil. The morphology of the arsenic is transformable in the migration process.%  对赣南某钨矿区堆积的尾砂以及其周围土壤中的As进行了全量和形态分析,以期掌握矿区砷污染现状及其迁移转化规律。研究表明,尾矿砂和土壤中的As明显高于当地的土壤背景值;尾矿砂中As主要以有机结合态和残渣态的形式存在,土壤中As主要以铁-锰氧化物结合态的形式存在;As在迁移过程中各形态间可能发生转化。

  17. Urban morphology, urban transformations and conservation in Maputo, Mozambique. Lessons learnt and transfer of knowledge to other regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    was developed in order to record the spaces within which the majority of African urban residents dwell - dwelling being both a material place, an identity, an investment and a process. The unit of analysis was the land, the plot on which people reside regardless whether being planned or unplanned, formal......, assistance from the state and/or the private sector. Understanding Home Space making is hence key to understanding how Sub-Saharan African cities continuously expand and transform themselves....

  18. Direct observation of bulk and surface chemical morphologies of Ginkgo biloba leaves by Fourier transform mid- and near-infrared microspectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbo; Sun, Suqin; Zhou, Qun

    2013-11-01

    Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy is a powerful tool to obtain knowledge about the spatial and/or temporal distributions of the chemical compositions of plants for better understanding of their biological properties. However, the chemical morphologies of plant leaves in the plane of the blade are barely studied, because sections in this plane for mid-infrared transmission measurements are difficult to obtain. Besides, native compositions may be changed by chemical reagents used when plant samples are microtomed. To improve methods for direct infrared microspectroscopic imaging of plant leaves in the plane of the blade, the bulk and surface chemical morphologies of nonmicrotomed Ginkgo biloba leaves were characterized by near-infrared transmission and mid-infrared attenuated total reflection microspectroscopic imaging. A new self-modeling curve resolution procedure was proposed to extract the spectral and concentration information of pure compounds. Primary and secondary metabolites of secretory cavities, veins, and mesophylls of Ginkgo biloba leaf blades were analyzed, and the distributions of cuticle, protein, calcium oxalate, cellulose, and ginkgolic acids on the adaxial surface were determined. By the integration of multiple infrared microspectroscopic imaging and chemometrics methods, it is possible to analyze nonmicrotomed leaves and other plant samples directly to understand their native chemical morphologies in detail.

  19. Phase transformation and morphology of the intermetallic compounds formed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface in aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hon, M.-H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chang, T.-C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Electronic and Optoelectronics Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Bldg. 11, 195, Sec. 4, Chung-Hsing Road, Chutung, Hsinchu, 310, Taiwan (China); Wang, M.-C. [Faculty of Fragrance and Cosmetics, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shi-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw

    2008-06-30

    The morphology and phase transformation of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface in a solid-state reaction have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The monoclinic {eta}'-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} transforms to the hexagonal {eta}-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and the orthorhombic Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} transforms to the body-centered cubic (bcc) {gamma}-Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} as aged at 180 deg. C. The scallop-shaped Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} layer is retained after aging at 180 deg. C for 1000 h. In the solid-state reaction, Ag is repelled from {eta}'-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and reacts with Sn to form Ag{sub 3}Sn, and the Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} layer decomposes. Kirkendall voids are not observed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface even after aging at 180 deg. C for 1000 h.

  20. Phase transformation and morphology of the intermetallic compounds formed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface in aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morphology and phase transformation of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface in a solid-state reaction have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The monoclinic η'-Cu6Sn5 transforms to the hexagonal η-Cu6Sn5 and the orthorhombic Cu5Zn8 transforms to the body-centered cubic (bcc) γ-Cu5Zn8 as aged at 180 deg. C. The scallop-shaped Cu6Sn5 layer is retained after aging at 180 deg. C for 1000 h. In the solid-state reaction, Ag is repelled from η'-Cu6Sn5 and reacts with Sn to form Ag3Sn, and the Cu5Zn8 layer decomposes. Kirkendall voids are not observed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface even after aging at 180 deg. C for 1000 h

  1. 结合形态学的Hough变换虹膜定位改进算法%Improved algorithm of iris localization based on Hough transform and mathematical morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田絮资; 张园; 黄力宇

    2012-01-01

    虹膜定位是在虹膜图像中确定虹膜的内外边界,是虹膜识别过程的首要环节.Hough变换是虹膜定位的经典算法,但对原始图像质量要求高,算法运算时间长.依据人眼图像的灰度特性,结合形态学处理提出一种改进的Hough变换定位新算法.对图像进行灰度二值化运算后进行形态学处理分离出瞳孔,结合Sobel算子边缘检测出瞳孔边界点,通过最小二乘法拟合定位出虹膜内边界;在先验知识和形态学处理的基础上对图像进行Hough变换,定位出虹膜的外边界.实验表明所提出的算法性能比传统Hough变换有较大提高,可用于实际虹膜识别的预处理过程中.%Iris location, an important preprocessing procedure in iris recognition, is to detect inner and outer boundaries of iris in an iris image. The traditional iris location algorithm is based on simple Hough transform, but this method owns time consuming operation and low location accuracy. According to the grayscale features of eye images, a novel iris location algorithm, which combines mathematical morphology with Hough transform, is presented. The eye image is preprocessed by using morphological filter. The binary image is extracted and processed by morphology for pupil separation. By means of Sobel operator and least square method, the inner-boundary-points of iris are determined and the inner boundary is fitted. The outer boundary is also determined by Hough transform with morphology and the apriori knowledge about iris image. The test results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance in location accuracy and operation speed, and can be suitably used as practical preprocessing algorithm in iris recognition.

  2. Synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared and Raman microspectroscopy study showing an increased frequency of creatine inclusions in the rat hippocampal formation following pilocarpine-induced seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Dulinska, J.; Setkowicz, Z.; Janeczko, K.; C. SANDT; Dumas, P.; Uram, L.; Gzielo-Jurek, K.; Chwiej, J.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared (SRFTIR) and Raman microspectroscopies were used to evaluate a possible role of creatine in the pathogenesis and progress of pilocarpine-evoked seizures and seizure-induced neurodegenerative changes in the rat hippocampal tissue. The main goal of this study was to identify creatine deposits within the examined brain area, to analyze their frequency in epileptic animals and naive controls and to examine correlations between ...

  3. Morphological transformation of the silicon(112) surface through metal adsorption. Faceting vs. stabilization; Morphologische Transformation der Silizium(112) Oberflaeche durch Metalladsorption. Facettierung vs. Stabilisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiethoff, Christian

    2010-06-21

    Semiconductor nanowires lately attracted immense attention in worldwide research. Lots of possible applications were discussed and partially realized. Gold is the most commonly used metal in catalyzed nanowire growth, but exhibits poor electronic properties for building integrated circuits. Recently, aluminium was achieved to work as a catalyst and the nanowires grown this way showed extremely smooth surfaces. This is in contrast to surfaces grown with other metals. In this work the modification of the silicon (112) surface by metal adsorption is studied. Since nanowires with [111] growth direction have [112]-like sidewalls, this way a virtually endless nanowire surface is used to study the interaction of gold, silver and aluminium with the silicon surface. Spot Profile Analysis Low Energy Electron Diffraction (SPA-LEED) is used to analyze the surfaces. This high resolution diffraction method allows for detailed characterization of the surface structures and facets. Gold adsorption leads to eight different surface phases, the most stable one exhibits 111- and 113-facets and is shown to occur on nanowire surfaces if they were grown with gold as a catalyst. Silver adsorption pushes the surface to form 111- and 115-facets. The facet size distribution is quite narrow, so the finite size effect creates intensity minima in the vicinity of the bragg points in diffraction patterns. Aluminium adsorption finally leads to a stabilization of the silicon (112) surface, no facets are formed. This atomic flat surface was seen on nanowire sidewalls, grown with aluminium as catalyst. (orig.)

  4. The Morphological Transformation of Red-Sequence Galaxies in the Distant Cluster XMMU J1229+0151

    CERN Document Server

    Cerulo, P; Lidman, C; Delaye, L; Demarco, R; Huertas-Company, M; Mei, S; Sanchez-Janssen, R

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a detailed analysis of galaxy properties along the red sequence in XMMU J1229+0151, an X-ray selected cluster at $z=0.98$ drawn from the HAWK-I Cluster Survey (HCS). Taking advantage of the broad photometric coverage and the availability of 77 spectra in the cluster field, we fit synthetic spectral energy distributions, and estimate stellar masses and photometric redshifts, which we use to determine the cluster membership. We investigate morphological and structural properties of red sequence galaxies and find that elliptical galaxies populate the bright end, while S0 galaxies represent the predominant population at intermediate luminosities, with their fraction decreasing at fainter magnitudes. A comparison with the low-redshift sample of the WINGS cluster survey reveals that at $z\\sim1$ the bright end of the red sequence of XMMU J1229+0151 is richer in S0 galaxies. The faint end of the red sequence in XMMUJ1229+0151 appears rich in disc-dominated galaxies, which are rarer in the lo...

  5. Crystallography and morphology of antiphase boundary-like structure induced by martensitic transformation in Ti–Pd–Fe alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, M., E-mail: matsuda@alpha.msre.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Nishimura, S.; Tsurekawa, S.; Takashima, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Mitsuhara, M.; Nishida, M. [Department of Engineering Sciences for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • The APB-like structure are observed in both 9R and B19 martensite of Ti–Pd–Fe alloy. • Atomic displacement on APB-like structure reflects the microdomain by pre-martensite. • The density of APB-like contrasts are affected by Fe content in Ti–Pd–Fe alloy. - Abstract: The antiphase boundary (APB)-like structure of both 9R and B19 martensites in the Ti–Pd–Fe alloy was investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy. Some APB-like structures with curved and wide contrasts along the (0 0 1){sub 9R} basal plane are observed in 9R martensitic plates. The atomic displacement on the APB-like structure reflects the atomic movement stemming from the microdomains formed as a pre-martensitic transformation. The displacement vector of the APB-like structure in the B19 martensite can be expressed as R = 〈1/3 0 −1/2〉{sub B19}. The density of APB-like contrasts increases by the substitution of Fe for Pd in Ti–Pd–Fe alloy.

  6. Comparison of the effectiveness of different radiations for the induction of reproductive death, chromosome aberrations, morphological transformations and specific mutations in cultured mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiations can induce a variety of changes in cultured mammalian cells, many of which are initiated by damage to the chromosomes. If the primary mechanisms of damage at the molecular level are similar, it can be expected that dose-effect relationships for the different cellular responses should exhibit common characteristics. A comparison of dose-effect relationships has been made for published data on several types of cells treated with radiations of different Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and assessed with respect to two or more endpoints. Various types of cells have different sensitivities to low LET as well as to high LET radiation and cellular effects are induced at different frequencies per unit dose. Cell reproductive death and chromosome aberrations can presumably be induced as a result of damage in any one of the chromosomes. Chromosome breaks leading to deletions may occur at many sites. The probability of breaks may not be uniform along chromosomes, but this is difficult to establish. Cell transformation is more frequently (30 to 1000 times) induced by ionizing radiations than specific gene mutations and it may therefore be inferred that many, if not all, chromosomes contain one or more sites with genes which, if damaged, deleted or transposed to another site, may cause morphological malignant transformation. (Auth./C.F.)

  7. The human TPR protein TTC4 is a putative Hsp90 co-chaperone which interacts with CDC6 and shows alterations in transformed cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Crevel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human TTC4 protein is a TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat motif-containing protein. The gene was originally identified as being localized in a genomic region linked to breast cancer and subsequent studies on melanoma cell lines revealed point mutations in the TTC4 protein that may be associated with the progression of malignant melanoma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Here we show that TTC4 is a nucleoplasmic protein which interacts with HSP90 and HSP70, and also with the replication protein CDC6. It has significant structural and functional similarities with a previously characterised Drosophila protein Dpit47. We show that TTC4 protein levels are raised in malignant melanoma cell lines compared to melanocytes. We also see increased TTC4 expression in a variety of tumour lines derived from other tissues. In addition we show that TTC4 proteins bearing some of the mutations previously identified from patient samples lose their interaction with the CDC6 protein. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on these results and our previous work with the Drosophila Dpit47 protein we suggest that TTC4 is an HSP90 co-chaperone protein which forms a link between HSP90 chaperone activity and DNA replication. We further suggest that the loss of the interaction with CDC6 or with additional client proteins could provide one route through which TTC4 could influence malignant development of cells.

  8. A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazder, Azdiar A., E-mail: azdiar@uow.edu.au [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Al-Harbi, Fayez; Spanke, Hendrik Th. [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Mitchell, David R.G. [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Pereloma, Elena V. [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth. - Highlights: • Multi-condition segmentation of austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite and ferrite in bainite. • Ferrites in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite segmented by variation in relative carbon counts. • Carbon partitioning during growth explains variation in carbon content of ferrites in bainites. • Developed EBSD image processing tools can be applied to the microstructures of a variety of alloys. • EBSD-based segmentation procedure verified by correlative TEM results.

  9. A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth. - Highlights: • Multi-condition segmentation of austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite and ferrite in bainite. • Ferrites in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite segmented by variation in relative carbon counts. • Carbon partitioning during growth explains variation in carbon content of ferrites in bainites. • Developed EBSD image processing tools can be applied to the microstructures of a variety of alloys. • EBSD-based segmentation procedure verified by correlative TEM results

  10. The power of Nb-substituted TiO2 in Li-ion batteries: Morphology transformation induced by high concentration substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Lan, Chun-Kai; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the power potential of Li-ion batteries using a hydrothermal process to synthesize nanoscale Nb-TiO2 with high surface area. By substituting Nb into anatase TiO2, the rate capability of Li-ion batteries is improved with the formation of nanoplate Nb-TiO2 containing (001) facets and NbOx species. In addition, the high solubility of Nb promotes the transformation of TiO2 from hollow-like to plate-like morphology, accelerating the Li-ion surface transportation over a large contact area. With respect to rate capability, Nb-TiO2 displays a high capacity of 220 mAh g-1 at 0.5C and retains 127 mAh g-1 at 10C. Additionally, the cyclability test exhibits less degradation after 10,000 cycles. In order to investigate the mechanisms of capability improvement, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) are applied to measure the Li-ion diffusivity and surface charge-transfer resistance. The results demonstrate that both Li-ion diffusivity and surface charge-transfer ability are enhanced, leading to pseudocapacitance. Thus, it can be concluded that nanoplate Nb-TiO2 exhibits superior rate capability by the improvement of pseudocapacitance. This study derives a novel process to synthesize nanoplate TiO2 and should provide a potential approach for industrial fabrication of high power Li-ion batteries.

  11. New Image Fusion Algorithm Based on Combination of Wavelet Transformation and Morphology%小波变换和形态学相结合的图像融合新算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗婷; 杨卫英; 丁友东

    2013-01-01

    针对边缘模糊导致图像融合质量下降,结合小波变换方法和数学形态学方法各自的优势,提出了一种将小波变换和数学形态学理论相结合的图像融合算法.针对高频系数融合,选用绝对值取大法,并适当地增强边缘;针对低频系数融合,对低频子图像运用形态学方法获得边缘灰度图像,若边缘灰度图像中该点像素值在153~255之间,标记该点为边缘点,选用区域空间频率取大法融合边缘点处对应的低频系数;若该点像素值在O~152之间,标记该点为非边缘点,选用平均法融合非边缘点处对应的低频系数.实验结果证明,该算法的融合质量得到了进一步改善和提升.%According to guzzy leads to image fusion quality decline, combining respective advantages of wavelet transformation method and mathematical morphology method, an image fusion algorithm based on combination of wavelet transformation and mathematical morphology theory is proposed. Maximal absolute value method is adopted for the fusion of high-frequency coefficients and edges are enhanced properly. For low-frequency sub-images, mathematical morphology method is used to get edge gray images. If the pixel value of points from edge gray images ranges between 153 and 255, the points are called as the edge points and the maximal region spatial frequency method is adopted for the fusion of low-frequency coefficients in the edge point positions. If the pixel value of points from edge gray images ranges between 0 and 152, the points are called as the non-edge points and the average method is adopted for the fusion of low-frequency coefficients in the non-edge point positions. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm improves image fusion quality further.

  12. Show Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Story: Show Time!The whole class presents the story"Under the Sea".Everyone is so excited and happy.Both Leo and Kathy show their parentsthe characters of the play."Who’s he?"asks Kathy’s mom."He’s the prince."Kathy replies."Who’s she?"asks Leo’s dad."She’s the queen."Leo replieswith a smile.

  13. Snobbish Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The State Administration of Radio,Film and Television (SARFT),China's media watchdog,issued a new set of mles on June 9 that strictly regulate TV match-making shows,which have been sweeping the country's primetime programming. "Improper social and love values such as money worship should not be presented in these shows.Humiliation,verbal attacks and sex-implied vulgar content are not allowed" the new roles said.

  14. Mathematical morphology for shape description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, M.

    2002-03-01

    We first examine the measurements one can perform on the space of compact and convex sets. A famous theorem, due to Hadwiger (1957), shows that any measurement with nice properties, namely additivity, is a linear combination of Minkowski functionals. Then, some useful formulae, linking measurements in different dimensions of space are derived.In the second step, we make use of the morphological operations transforming sets into sets. These sets are then measured using the previous measurements. The most famous attempt yields the concept of granulomerties and their extensions.In the last part, we examine a way to build morphological random sets which are compatible with morphological operators like erosions or openings and apply it to the most famous example in morphology, the Boolean model, describing objects located at random.

  15. Effect of lattice defects and temperature transition rates on the deuteride (hydride) particle morphology and phase transformation thermal hysteresis in niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements have been performed to investigate deuteride particle morphology and the phase transformation temperature hysteresis in low-concentration Nb-D alloys. Deformation either by cold rolling and or by previous deuteride cycling induced a coarse deuteride particle distribution. This observation is attributed to a more heterogeneous precipitation process facilitated by the dislocation defects and/or dislocation substructure. Deuteride precipitation in the deformed samples was observed immediately upon crossing the incoherent solvus during temperature reduction, again consistent with dislocation-aided nucleation. Deuteride dissolution was observed at the very onset of heating for the cold-rolled material, an observation unique among the samples characterized here. This is attributed to the availability of elastic accommodation energy for deuteride particles embedded in the severely work-hardened host matrix. In other words, the elastic energy assists dissolution, consistent with a theoretical model developed by Puls (1984 Acta Metall. 32 1259-69). The effect of temperature reduction transition rates was also investigated. Rapid, direct cooling (at 2-3 K min-1) resulted in a much finer deuteride particle distribution - a factor of 200 increase in the particle number density and a factor of ten reduction in characteristic particle size compared to well annealed single crystal Nb. The thermal hysteresis was also affected by the temperature transition rates, with a significant reduction of the hysteresis for the slowest cooling rates. This implies that at least part of the recorded hysteresis in the well annealed material is dependent on the temperature transition rate. (author)

  16. EROBATIC SHOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Visitors look at plane models of the Commercial Aircraft Corp. of China, developer of the count,s first homegrown large passenger jet C919, during the Singapore Airshow on February 16. The biennial event is the largest airshow in Asia and one of the most important aviation and defense shows worldwide. A number of Chinese companies took part in the event during which Okay Airways, the first privately owned aidine in China, signed a deal to acquire 12 Boeing 737 jets.

  17. Mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic analysis with Sanger and next-generation sequencing shows that, in Área de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, the skipper butterfly named Urbanus belli (family Hesperiidae) comprises three morphologically cryptic species

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Claudia; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie; Burns, John M.; Gibson, Joel F; Shokralla, Shadi; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Background Skipper butterflies (Hesperiidae) are a relatively well-studied family of Lepidoptera. However, a combination of DNA barcodes, morphology, and natural history data has revealed several cryptic species complexes within them. Here, we investigate three DNA barcode lineages of what has been identified as Urbanus belli (Hesperiidae, Eudaminae) in Área de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica. Results Although no morphological traits appear to distinguish among the thre...

  18. Differential morphology and image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragos, P

    1996-01-01

    Image processing via mathematical morphology has traditionally used geometry to intuitively understand morphological signal operators and set or lattice algebra to analyze them in the space domain. We provide a unified view and analytic tools for morphological image processing that is based on ideas from differential calculus and dynamical systems. This includes ideas on using partial differential or difference equations (PDEs) to model distance propagation or nonlinear multiscale processes in images. We briefly review some nonlinear difference equations that implement discrete distance transforms and relate them to numerical solutions of the eikonal equation of optics. We also review some nonlinear PDEs that model the evolution of multiscale morphological operators and use morphological derivatives. Among the new ideas presented, we develop some general 2-D max/min-sum difference equations that model the space dynamics of 2-D morphological systems (including the distance computations) and some nonlinear signal transforms, called slope transforms, that can analyze these systems in a transform domain in ways conceptually similar to the application of Fourier transforms to linear systems. Thus, distance transforms are shown to be bandpass slope filters. We view the analysis of the multiscale morphological PDEs and of the eikonal PDE solved via weighted distance transforms as a unified area in nonlinear image processing, which we call differential morphology, and briefly discuss its potential applications to image processing and computer vision.

  19. Morphology and kinetics of polymorphic transformations in K{sub 0.965}Rb{sub 0.035}NO{sub 3} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasirov, V. I.; Bairamov, R. B., E-mail: bayramov.razim@mail.ru; Nasirov, E. V. [Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

    2015-12-15

    Polymorphic transformations in K{sub 0.965}Rb{sub 0.035}NO{sub 3} single crystals have been investigated by optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The equilibrium temperature between modifications II and III of the crystal studied is determined to be T = 452 ± 0.5 K. It is found that polymorphic transformations are of the single crystal ↔ single crystal type and occur with the formation and growth of nuclei of new crystals in matrix ones at II ↔ III transformations. An empirical dependence of the growth rate of modification III on temperature is established in the form ϑ = ϑ = (–0.478ΔT + 0.712ΔT{sup 2}–0.00041ΔT{sup 3}) × 10{sup –2} cm/s (ΔT = T{sub tr}–T{sub 0}, where T{sub tr} is the transformation temperature and T{sub 0} is the equilibrium temperature)

  20. An ECG Denoising Algorithm Based on Morphology and Wavelet Transform%基于形态学和小波变换的心电信号去噪算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚; 唐明浩; 程晖; 戈曼

    2012-01-01

    In processing the ECG signal denoised by baseline drift, frequency interference and EMG interference, the wavelet transform had been widely used. Since the algorithm had some shorting in dealing with ECG signal, it proposed a mixed algorithm consisting of ECG wavelet threshold and morphology. This kind of algorithm got rid of baseline drift by nonlinear morphology, then the ECG signal containing high-frequency interference would be processed by wavelet threshold transform, in the end, it got the ECG signal with little noise. The MIT/BIH arrhythmia database was used to prove the algorithm, and the three main noises were removed effectively, the effect of the algorithm was good, and it lays the foundation of recognizing the ECG signal subsequently.%在处理心电信号采集过程中混入的基线漂移、工频干扰及肌电干扰等噪声的过程中,小波变换取得了广泛的应用.针对小波算法的缺陷及不足,提出了一种基于数学形态学和小波阈值的混合算法.该算法利用非线性形态学滤波器滤除基线漂移,将获得的含高频噪声心电信号通过小波阈值算法进行处理,最后获得无噪声的ECG(心电)信号.采用MIT/BIH Arrhythmia Database中的数据对算法进行了验证,实现了三种主要干扰的滤除,本算法效果良好,为后续特征点的识别奠定了基础.

  1. The Transformations of Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Francis Y.

    2000-01-01

    Harris's original idea of transformations has been changed several times in Chomsky's work. This article explicates these transformations, arguing that though their motivations are highly understandable, these transformations are not necessary for understanding the workings of natural languages. (Author/VWL)

  2. Affine transformations capture beak shape variation in Darwin's Finches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Michael; Campas, Otger; Mallarino, Riccardo; Abzhanov, Arhat

    2009-11-01

    Evolution by natural selection has resulted in extraordinary morphological complexity of living organisms, whose description has thus far defied any precise mathematical characterization linked to the underlying developmental genetics. Here we demonstrate that the morphological diversity of the beaks of Darwin's finches, the classical example of adaptive morphological radiation, is quantitatively accounted for through the mathematical group of affine transformations. Specifically, we show that all beak shapes of Ground Finches (genus Geospiza) are related by scaling transformations (a subgroup of the affine group), and the same scheme occurs for all the beak shapes of Tree and Warbler finches. This analysis shows that the beak shapes within each of these groups differ only by their scales, such as length and depth, each of which is knownto be under genetic control.The complete morphological variability within the beaks of Darwin's finches can be explained by extending the scaling transformations to the entire affine group, by including shear transformations. Altogether our results suggest that the mathematical theory of groups can help decode morphological variability, and points to a potentially hierarchical structure of morphological diversity and the underlying developmental processes.

  3. Three-dimensional Morphological Analysis for Geological Bodies and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Zou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To address the spatial Morphological analysis of complex geological bodies in stereoscopic quantitative prediction of concealed ore bodies, a three-dimensional morphological analysis method for geological bodies based on 3-dimensional raster model under visualization environment was put forward by combining mathematical morphology with Euclidean distance transform theory. Firstly, the 3-dimensional visualization models for geological bodies were constructed on the basis of the 3-dimensional geological modeling (3DGM technology; Secondly, the algorithm for extracting the surface shape trend of geological body with the 3-dimensional raster model was proposed by using mathematical morphology filtering. By the combination of morphological filtering, global set operation and three-dimensional Euclidean distance transform, the models for the quantitative analysis and hierarchical extraction of the shape undulance were established. Lastly, as a case study, the three-dimensional morphological analysis method was applied in analyzing quantitatively the Xinwuli magmatic body in Fenghuangshan ore field in Tongling, Anhui Province. By means of the calculation model of Euclidean distance field, the quantitative extraction of the shape trend and shape undulance as well as the angle between geological interface and trend surface, as the quantitative indexes of geological ore-controlling factors, were achieved after building the 3D raster models of the magmatic body. The results show that the morphological analysis method is feasible to calculate various morphological parameters of complex geological bodies and extract quantitative indexes of geological ore-controlling factors successfully for stereoscopic quantitative predication of concealed ore bodies.

  4. Model Transformations? Transformation Models!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bézivin, J.; Büttner, F.; Gogolla, M.; Jouault, F.; Kurtev, I.; Lindow, A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of the current work on model transformations seems essentially operational and executable in nature. Executable descriptions are necessary from the point of view of implementation. But from a conceptual point of view, transformations can also be viewed as descriptive models by stating only the

  5. Transformer Protection Using the Wavelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZGÖNENEL, Okan; ÖNBİLGİN, Güven; KOCAMAN, Çağrı

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for power transformer protection algorithm. Power system signals such as current and voltage have traditionally been analysed by the Fast Fourier Transform. This paper aims to prove that the Wavelet Transform is a reliable and computationally efficient tool for distinguishing between the inrush currents and fault currents. The simulated results presented clearly show that the proposed technique for power transformer protection facilitates the a...

  6. Neoplastic transformation of immortalized human epidermal keratinocytes by ionizing radiation.

    OpenAIRE

    Thraves, P; Salehi, Z; Dritschilo, A; Rhim, J S

    1990-01-01

    Efforts to investigate the progression of events that cause human cells to become neoplastic in response to ionizing radiation have been aided by the development of tissue culture systems of epithelial cells. In the present study, nontumorigenic human epidermal keratinocytes immortalized by adenovirus type 12 and simian virus 40 have been transformed by exposure to x-ray irradiation. Such transformants showed morphological alterations, formed colonies in soft agar, and induced carcinomas when...

  7. Characterization of the procera tomato mutant shows novel functions of the SlDELLA protein in the control of flower morphology, cell division and expansion, and the auxin-signaling pathway during fruit-set and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Esther; Ruiz-Rivero, Omar; Peres, Lazaro Eustaquio Pereira; Atares, Alejandro; Garcia-Martinez, Jose Luis

    2012-11-01

    procera (pro) is a tall tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant carrying a point mutation in the GRAS region of the gene encoding SlDELLA, a repressor in the gibberellin (GA) signaling pathway. Consistent with the SlDELLA loss of function, pro plants display a GA-constitutive response phenotype, mimicking wild-type plants treated with GA₃. The ovaries from both nonemasculated and emasculated pro flowers had very strong parthenocarpic capacity, associated with enhanced growth of preanthesis ovaries due to more and larger cells. pro parthenocarpy is facultative because seeded fruits were obtained by manual pollination. Most pro pistils had exserted stigmas, thus preventing self-pollination, similar to wild-type pistils treated with GA₃ or auxins. However, Style2.1, a gene responsible for long styles in noncultivated tomato, may not control the enhanced style elongation of pro pistils, because its expression was not higher in pro styles and did not increase upon GA₃ application. Interestingly, a high percentage of pro flowers had meristic alterations, with one additional petal, sepal, stamen, and carpel at each of the four whorls, respectively, thus unveiling a role of SlDELLA in flower organ development. Microarray analysis showed significant changes in the transcriptome of preanthesis pro ovaries compared with the wild type, indicating that the molecular mechanism underlying the parthenocarpic capacity of pro is complex and that it is mainly associated with changes in the expression of genes involved in GA and auxin pathways. Interestingly, it was found that GA activity modulates the expression of cell division and expansion genes and an auxin signaling gene (tomato AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR7) during fruit-set. PMID:22942390

  8. Creating "Spriritual Epic" of all the People --Morphological Analysis on Touching China Show%全民打造的“精神史诗”——《感动中国》节目形态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶

    2012-01-01

    作为年播节目,《感动中国》以其独特的节目形态和内容被盛赞为“中国的一部年度精神史诗”。节目注重稀缺差异性定位,以人格力量吸引观众,以“反分众化”扩大观念群,以庄重大气展现其审美品格。在自我表达中,运用颁奖典礼现场中短片、颁奖词、人物采访的有机结合以及现场之外与其它媒体和受众的联合互动进一步扩展了宣传效果。通过定量、定性分析综合使用的方法分析典型报道中“平民英雄”的崛起,探究《感动中国》新生而又蓬勃的原因,以期对国内其他电视节目的运作有些许借鉴作用。%As year broadcast programs, Moving China with its unique form and content of the programs is praised as "China' s annual spirit epic". Programs focus on scarce difference position, attract the audience by the force of personality, with "hack focus" expand concept group, show its aesthetic quality in a solemn atmosphere. In self expression, use the short film in the award ceremony, presentation words, combination of interview as well as off-site joint interaction with the media and other audiences to further extend the propaganda effect. Through integrated quantitative and qualitative analysis, using the method, "civilian heroes" rising in typical reports, the causes of China' s new and vibrant is explored, to help to have some reference for other domestic and foreign television operation.

  9. Neoplastic transformation of chimpanzee cells induced by adenovirus type 12--simian virus 40 hybrid virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Rhim, J S; Trimmer, R; Arnstein, P; Huebner, R J

    1981-01-01

    The adenovirus 12--simian virus 40 hybrid virus produced neoplastic transformation of chimpanzee skin fibroblasts in vitro. The transformed fibroblasts showed morphological alteration and became permanent lines. The transformed cells contained both adenovirus 12 and simian virus 40 large tumor antigens and were virus producers. However at passage 9, one line (WES) was found to be a nonproducer, producing neither infectious virus nor virus-specific antigen detectable by the complement fixation...

  10. Mathematical morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Najman, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical Morphology allows for the analysis and processing of geometrical structures using techniques based on the fields of set theory, lattice theory, topology, and random functions. It is the basis of morphological image processing, and finds applications in fields including digital image processing (DSP), as well as areas for graphs, surface meshes, solids, and other spatial structures. This book presents an up-to-date treatment of mathematical morphology, based on the three pillars that made it an important field of theoretical work and practical application: a solid theoretical foun

  11. Acoustic emission and shape memory effect in the martensitic transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekala, S; Ananthakrishna, G

    2003-04-01

    Acoustic emission signals are known to exhibit a high degree of reproducibility in time and show correlations with the growth and shrinkage of martensite domains when athermal martensites are subjected to repeated thermal cycling in a restricted temperature range. We show that a recently introduced two dimensional model for the martensitic transformation mimics these features. We also show that these features are related to the shape memory effect where near full reversal of morphological features are seen under these thermal cycling conditions.

  12. Evolutionary morphology of the rabbit skull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherratt, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The skull of leporids (rabbits and hares) is highly transformed, typified by pronounced arching of the dorsal skull and ventral flexion of the facial region (i.e., facial tilt). Previous studies show that locomotor behavior influences aspects of cranial shape in leporids, and here we use an extensive 3D geometric morphometrics dataset to further explore what influences leporid cranial diversity. Facial tilt angle, a trait that strongly correlates with locomotor mode, significantly predicts the cranial shape variation captured by the primary axis of cranial shape space, and describes a small proportion (13.2%) of overall cranial shape variation in the clade. However, locomotor mode does not correlate with overall cranial shape variation in the clade, because there are two district morphologies of generalist species, and saltators and cursorial species have similar morphologies. Cranial shape changes due to phyletic size change (evolutionary allometry) also describes a small proportion (12.5%) of cranial shape variation in the clade, but this is largely driven by the smallest living leporid, the pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). By integrating phylogenetic history with our geometric morphometric data, we show that the leporid cranium exhibits weak phylogenetic signal and substantial homoplasy. Though these results make it difficult to reconstruct what the ‘ancestral’ leporid skull looked like, the fossil records suggest that dorsal arching and facial tilt could have occurred before the origin of the crown group. Lastly, our study highlights the diversity of cranial variation in crown leporids, and highlights a need for additional phylogenetic work that includes stem (fossil) leporids and includes morphological data that captures the transformed morphology of rabbits and hares.

  13. Genetic transformation of Bacopa monnieri by wild type strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes stimulates production of bacopa saponins in transformed calli and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sukanya; Garai, Saraswati; Jha, Sumita

    2011-05-01

    We have developed an efficient transformation system for Bacopa monnieri, an important Indian medicinal plant, using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains LBA 9402 and A4. Transformed roots induced by strain LBA 9402 spontaneously dedifferentiated to callus while excised roots induced by strain A4 spontaneously showed induction of shoot buds within 10 days. PCR and RT-PCR analysis revealed the presence and expression of the rolAB and rolC genes at the transcription level in pRi A4 transformed cultures indicating that the TL-DNA was integrated retained and expressed in the A4-Ri transformed shoots. Transformed calli showed the presence of rolAB or rol A, TR and ags genes. Transformed plants showed morphological features typically seen in transgenic plants produced by A. rhizogenes. Growth and biomass accumulation was significantly higher in the transformed shoots (twofold) and roots (fourfold) than in the non-transformed (WT) plants. In pRi A4-transformed plants, the content of bacopasaponin D, bacopasaponin F, bacopaside II and bacopaside V was enhanced significantly as compared to WT plants of similar age while bacoside A3 and bacopasaponin C content was comparable with that of WT plants. Significant increase in content of five bacopa saponins could be detected in pRi 9402-transformed callus cultures. There is an overall stimulatory effect on accumulation of bacopa saponins in transformed plants and cells of B. monnieri establishing the role of endogenous elicitation by Ri T-DNA of A. rhizogenes.

  14. Computer Vision and Mathematical Morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, J.B.T.M.; Kropratsch, W.; Klette, R.; Albrecht, R.

    1996-01-01

    Mathematical morphology is a theory of set mappings, modeling binary image transformations, which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This framework turns out to be too restricted for many applications, in particular for computer vision where group theoretical considerations suc

  15. From Complex Fractional Fourier Transform to Complex Fractional Radon Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANHong-Yi; JIANGNian-Quan

    2004-01-01

    We show that for n-dimensional complex fractional Fourier transform the corresponding complex fractional Radon transform can also be derived, however, it is different from the direct product of two n-dimensional real fractional Radon transforms. The complex fractional Radon transform of two-mode Wigner operator is calculated.

  16. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  17. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    is not preformed, but formed through the process of transformation; this means that the purpose of transformation is not the styling of charts with pictograms but rather creating a meaningful message. The contribution of this paper is an elaborated understanding of the process of transformation and a demonstration...

  18. Learning transformed product distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Daskalakis, Constantinos; Diakonikolas, Ilias; Servedio, Rocco A.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of learning an unknown product distribution $X$ over $\\{0,1\\}^n$ using samples $f(X)$ where $f$ is a \\emph{known} transformation function. Each choice of a transformation function $f$ specifies a learning problem in this framework. Information-theoretic arguments show that for every transformation function $f$ the corresponding learning problem can be solved to accuracy $\\eps$, using $\\tilde{O}(n/\\eps^2)$ examples, by a generic algorithm whose running time may be expon...

  19. Algorithm to Generate Kekre's Wavelet Transform from Kekre's Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. H. B. Kekre; ARCHANA ATHAWALE,; DIPALI SADAVARTI

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel Kekre’s Wavelet (KW) transform which is generated from Kekre’s transform. Kekre’s Wavelet transform can be used for various applications in image processing. Steganography using Kekre’s Wavelet transform is implemented to show one of its applications in this area. The full cover image is transformed usingKekre’s Wavelet transform. Transformed image is then divided into 16 equal non-overlapping blocks. Energy of each block is computed. The system embeds secret data ...

  20. A Holographic Road Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  1. Morphology Dependent Photocatalytic Activity of α-MoO3 Nanostructures Towards Mutagenic Acridine Orange Dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The morphological evolutions of orthorhombic molybdenum oxide nanostructures with high crystalline nature have been successfully synthesized by combining low-temperature sol-gel and annealing processes. Strong influence of gelation temperature is a factor facilitated to control the material morphology. Morphological transformations like nanospheres, nanoplatelets, mixtures of hexagonal platelets, and one-dimensional nanobars were obtained. The possible morphological formation mechanism has been proposed as a self-assemble process of nucleation and a mechanism for particle growth by Ostwald ripening. The as-prepared nanostructures were recognized as photocatalysts for the degradation of Acridine Orange under Ultra Violet light. The obtained mixed morphology (hexagonal nanoplatelets and nanobars) showed a high photocatalytic property to degrade mutagenic Acridine Orange dye. Moreover, they could be easily recycled without changing the photocatalytic activity due to their 1-Dimensional and 2-Dimensional nanostructure property. PMID:26369043

  2. Needlelike morphology of aspartame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, H.M.; Eerd, A.R.T. van; Meekes, H.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The needlelike morphology of aspartame form II-A is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Growth simulations for all F faces show merely three faces with a nucleation barrier for growth: two side faces and one top face. Calculations of the energies involved in the growth for a few representat

  3. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    made from digital scans of the original dias slides located in the collection of the Museum of Contemporary Art in Roskilde. In front of the audience entering the space and placed on it’s own stand, is an original 60s style telephone with turning dial. Action begins when the audience lift the phone and......The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...... dial a number. Any number will make the Dias change. All numbers are also assigned to specific sound documents: clips form rare interviews and the complete sound-re-enactment of the Show-Bix piece ‘Omringning’ (‘Surrounding’) in five channels (a quintophonie). This was originally produced in...

  4. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  5. A Visionary Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Seduction. Distinction. Relax. Pulsation. These are the "style universes" on display at Première Vision, heralded as "The World’s Premiere Fabric Show." Started more than 35 years ago by 15 French weavers, Première Vision has expanded beyond its

  6. Violence and TV Shows

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Şinasi

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to discuss theories on theviolent effects of TV shows on viewers, especiallyon children. Therefore, this study includes a briefdiscussion of definitions of violence, discussionof violence theories, main results of researcheson televised violence, measuring TV violence,perception of televised violence, individualdifferences and reactions to TV violence,aggressiveness and preferences for TV violence.

  7. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

  8. Algorithm to Generate Kekre's Wavelet Transform from Kekre's Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. H. B. KEKRE

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel Kekre’s Wavelet (KW transform which is generated from Kekre’s transform. Kekre’s Wavelet transform can be used for various applications in image processing. Steganography using Kekre’s Wavelet transform is implemented to show one of its applications in this area. The full cover image is transformed usingKekre’s Wavelet transform. Transformed image is then divided into 16 equal non-overlapping blocks. Energy of each block is computed. The system embeds secret data into lower energy blocks of the transformed image. From the experiments and the obtained results the proposed system achieves hiding capacity of 56.25% of the cover image size with 100% retrieval of secret data. The quality of stego image of the proposed system is very close to original one so that the difference is imperceptible to human eye. Moreover the results of Haar ransform, Modified Haar transform and Kekre’s Wavelet transform are compared. It is shown that performance of Kekre’s Wavelet transformis approachable to Haar transform. Since it is possible to generate Kekre’ Wavelet transform matrix of any size, the cover image size need not to be integer power of 2 as in case of Haar transform. Since Kekre’s Wavelet transform is a novel unexplored transform, even if an observer suspects that some covert communication is taking place, it is not possible to extract the secret information because attacker would not know the transform.

  9. Shanghai Shows Its Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The city known as China’s economic powerhouse showed a more caring face as host of the Special Olympic Games Between October 2 and 11,the Special Olympics Summer Games were hosted in Shanghai,the first time the 40-year-old athletic com- petition for people with intellectual disabilities came to a developing country. This Special Olympics was also larger than all previous games in temps of the number of athletes.

  10. Hadamard Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Agaian, Sos; Egiazarian, Karen; Astola, Jaakko

    2011-01-01

    The Hadamard matrix and Hadamard transform are fundamental problem-solving tools in a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines and technologies, such as communication systems, signal and image processing (signal representation, coding, filtering, recognition, and watermarking), digital logic (Boolean function analysis and synthesis), and fault-tolerant system design. Hadamard Transforms intends to bring together different topics concerning current developments in Hadamard matrices, transforms, and their applications. Each chapter begins with the basics of the theory, progresses to more advanced

  11. Show and Tell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    /DK), Pernille With Madsen, Emil Alenius, Andrés Galeano (E/DE), Kasper Vang & Mads Forsby, Nanna Lysholt Hansen og Molly & Me (Molly Haslund & Catherine Hoffmann (UK)) Kurateret af Judith Schwarzbart og Sanne Krogh Groth Produceret af studerende ved Performance-design Programmet var støttet af Statens Kunstråd...... og studienævnet på Performance-design. Show & Tell - Performance program: kl. 16.30-19 Adresse: Kunsthal Charlottenborg, Nyhavn 2, 1051 København K...

  12. Obesity in show dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2013-10-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. PMID:22882163

  13. Not a "reality" show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  14. Not a "reality" show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  15. Film morphology and photophysics of polyfluorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadby, A. J.; Lane, P. A.; Mellor, H.; Martin, S. J.; Grell, M.; Giebeler, C.; Bradley, D. D. C.; Wohlgenannt, M.; An, C.; Vardeny, Z. V.

    2000-12-01

    We have studied the interplay between photophysics and film morphology of poly(9,9-dioctyl)fluorene (PFO) using a variety of optical probes. Upon slowly warming a spin-cast PFO film from 80 to 300 K, a fraction of the sample is transformed into a different solid phase, the β phase. Absorption and electroabsorption measurements show that the β phase has more extended conjugation than the glassy phase. As a consequence, excited states of the β phase are redshifted and have higher polarizability. The photoinduced absorption spectrum of a glassy PFO film is dominated by triplet excitons, whereas both polarons and triplet excitons are seen in a sample containing a fraction of the β phase. The dependence of the photoinduced absorption and photocurrent upon the excitation wavelength shows that there is a clear link between polaron and triplet photogeneration.

  16. Ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation and morphological changes in response to the tumour promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate in primary human tumour cells, established and transformed cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rance, A J; Thönnes, M; Issinger, O G

    1985-01-01

    The phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in fibroblasts, primary human tumour cells, established and SV40-transformed human cell lines was compared after the addition of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). In fibroblasts and primary tumour cell cultures, stimulation of S6 phosphorylati...

  17. Catalytic coherence transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Kaifeng; Singh, Uttam; Wu, Junde

    2016-04-01

    Catalytic coherence transformations allow the otherwise impossible state transformations using only incoherent operations with the aid of an auxiliary system with finite coherence that is not being consumed in any way. Here we find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the deterministic and stochastic catalytic coherence transformations between a pair of pure quantum states. In particular, we show that the simultaneous decrease of a family of Rényi entropies of the diagonal parts of the states under consideration is a necessary and sufficient condition for the deterministic catalytic coherence transformations. Similarly, for stochastic catalytic coherence transformations we find the necessary and sufficient conditions for achieving a higher optimal probability of conversion. We thus completely characterize the coherence transformations among pure quantum states under incoherent operations. We give numerous examples to elaborate our results. We also explore the possibility of the same system acting as a catalyst for itself and find that indeed self-catalysis is possible. Further, for the cases where no catalytic coherence transformation is possible we provide entanglement-assisted coherence transformations and find the necessary and sufficient conditions for such transformations.

  18. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  19. Morphological Mutations of Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hensler, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies (DGs) are extremely challenging objects in extragalactic astrophysics. They are expected to originate as the first units in Cold Dark-Matter cosmology. They are the galaxy type most sensitive to environmental influences and their division into multiple types with various properties have invoked the picture of their variant morphological transformations. Detailed observations reveal characteristics which allow to deduce the evolutionary paths and to witness how the environment has affected the evolution. Here we review peculiarities of general morphological DG types and refer to processes which can deplete gas-rich irregular DGs leading to dwarf ellipticals, while gas replenishment implies an evolutionary cycling. Finally, as the less understood DG types the Milky Way satellite dwarf spheroidal galaxies are discussed in the context of transformation.

  20. The Great Cometary Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  1. Fuzzy Morphological Polynomial Image Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Pan Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel signal representation using fuzzy mathematical morphology is developed. We take advantage of the optimum fuzzy fitting and the efficient implementation of morphological operators to extract geometric information from signals. The new representation provides results analogous to those given by the polynomial transform. Geometrical decomposition of a signal is achieved by windowing and applying sequentially fuzzy morphological opening with structuring functions. The resulting representation is made to resemble an orthogonal expansion by constraining the results of opening to equate adapted structuring functions. Properties of the geometric decomposition are considered and used to calculate the adaptation parameters. Our procedure provides an efficient and flexible representation which can be efficiently implemented in parallel. The application of the representation is illustrated in data compression and fractal dimension estimation temporal signals and images.

  2. Morphological transitions in molecular and polymeric materials: patterning, fabrication, devices

    OpenAIRE

    Calò, Annalisa

    2010-01-01

    This thesis individuates and characterizes irreversible transformations occurring in specific organic and oligomeric/polymeric thin films. These transformations are dewetting in discotic liquid crystals thin films and dewetting and smoothing in oligomeric and polyemeric films. Irreversible transformations are extensively characterized by means of optical and atomic force microscopy. In the case of discotic liquid crystals films the morphological characterization is performed sinchronically wi...

  3. Morphological plasticity of bacteria-Open questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie-Pan; Chou, Chia-Fu

    2016-05-01

    Morphological plasticity of bacteria is a cryptic phenomenon, by which bacteria acquire adaptive benefits for coping with changing environments. Some environmental cues were identified to induce morphological plasticity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Physical and chemical factors causing morphological changes in bacteria have been investigated and mostly associated with potential pathways linked to the cell wall synthetic machinery. These include starvation, oxidative stresses, predation effectors, antimicrobial agents, temperature stresses, osmotic shock, and mechanical constraints. In an extreme scenario of morphological plasticity, bacteria can be induced to be shapeshifters when the cell walls are defective or deficient. They follow distinct developmental pathways and transform into assorted morphological variants, and most of them would eventually revert to typical cell morphology. It is suggested that phenotypic heterogeneity might play a functional role in the development of morphological diversity and/or plasticity within an isogenic population. Accordingly, phenotypic heterogeneity and inherited morphological plasticity are found to be survival strategies adopted by bacteria in response to environmental stresses. Here, microfluidic and nanofabrication technology is considered to provide versatile solutions to induce morphological plasticity, sort and isolate morphological variants, and perform single-cell analysis including transcriptional and epigenetic profiling. Questions such as how morphogenesis network is modulated or rewired (if epigenetic controls of cell morphogenesis apply) to induce bacterial morphological plasticity could be resolved with the aid of micro-nanofluidic platforms and optimization algorithms, such as feedback system control. PMID:27375812

  4. Organelle transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Anjanabha; Kumar, Anish; Desai, Nirali; Parikh, Seema

    2012-01-01

    The source of genetic information in a plant cell is contained in nucleus, plastids, and mitochondria. Organelle transformation is getting a lot of attention nowadays because of its superior performance over the conventional and most commonly used nuclear transformation for obtaining transgenic lines. Absence of gene silencing, strong predictable transgene expression, and its application in molecular pharming, both in pharmaceutical and nutraceuticals, are some of many advantages. Other important benefits of utilizing this technology include the absence of transgene flow, as organelles are maternally inherited. This may increase the acceptability of organelle transformation technology in the development of transgenic crops in a wider scale all over the globe. As the need for crop productivity and therapeutic compounds increases, organelle transformation may be able to bridge the gap, thereby having a definite promise for the future. PMID:22610643

  5. Organelle transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Anjanabha; Kumar, Anish; Desai, Nirali; Parikh, Seema

    2012-01-01

    The source of genetic information in a plant cell is contained in nucleus, plastids, and mitochondria. Organelle transformation is getting a lot of attention nowadays because of its superior performance over the conventional and most commonly used nuclear transformation for obtaining transgenic lines. Absence of gene silencing, strong predictable transgene expression, and its application in molecular pharming, both in pharmaceutical and nutraceuticals, are some of many advantages. Other important benefits of utilizing this technology include the absence of transgene flow, as organelles are maternally inherited. This may increase the acceptability of organelle transformation technology in the development of transgenic crops in a wider scale all over the globe. As the need for crop productivity and therapeutic compounds increases, organelle transformation may be able to bridge the gap, thereby having a definite promise for the future.

  6. Landskabets transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2005-01-01

    Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den.......Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den....

  7. SHOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    鞋如其人,由一个人对鞋的选择,便可知道他的兴趣与品位所在。无论是球星、艺人还是任何一位你可以叫得出名字的人,无论是在球场上、秀场上还是随处可以偶遇的街头巷尾,你都可以见到NIKE、adidas抑或是奢侈的LV.

  8. SHOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    鞋如其人,由一个人对鞋的选择,便可知道他的兴趣与品位所在。无论是球星、艺人还是任何一位你可以叫得出名字的人,无论是在球场上、秀场上还是随处可以偶遇的等着巷尾,你都可以见到NIKE、adidas抑或是奢侈的LV.

  9. SHOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    鞋如其人,由一个人对鞋的选择,便可知道他的兴趣与品位所在。无论是球星、艺人还是任何一位你可以叫得出名字的人,无论是在球场上、秀场上还是随处可以偶遇的街头巷尾,你都可以见到NIKE、adidas抑或是奢侈的LV。

  10. A color discriminating broad range cell staining technology for early detection of cell transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagiv Idit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advanced diagnostic tools stand today at the heart of successful cancer treatment. CellDetect® is a new histochemical staining technology that enables color discrimination between normal cells and a wide variety of neoplastic tissues. Using this technology, normal cells are colored blue/green, while neoplastic cells color red. This tinctorial difference coincides with clear morphological visualization properties, mainly in tissue samples. Here we show that the CellDetect® technology can be deployed to distinguish normal cells from transformed cells and most significantly detect cells in their early pre-cancerous transformed state. Materials and Methods: In tissue culture, we studied the ability of the CellDetect® technology to color discriminate foci in a number of two stage transformation systems as well as in a well defined cellular model for cervical cancer development, using HPV16 transformed keratinocytes. Results: In all these cellular systems, the CellDetect® technology was able to sensitively show that all transformed cells, including pre-cancerous HPV 16 transformed cells, are colored red, whereas normal cells are colored blue/green. The staining technology was able to pick up: (i early transformation events in the form of small type 1 foci (non-invasive, not piled up small, with parallel alignment of cells, and (ii early HPV16 transformed cells, even prior to their ability to form colonies in soft agar. The study shows the utility of the CellDetect® technology in early detection of transformation events.

  11. Solid phase transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Čermák, J

    2008-01-01

    This special-topic book, devoted to ""Solid Phase Transformations"" , covers a broad range of phenomena which are of importance in a number of technological processes. Most commercial alloys undergo thermal treatment after casting, with the aim of imparting desired compositions and/or optimal morphologies to the component phases. In spite of the fact that the topic has lain at the center of physical metallurgy for a long time, there are numerous aspects which are wide open to potential investigative breakthroughs. Materials with new structures also stimulate research in the field, as well as n

  12. Morphological attributes and production components of potato cv. Baronesa and its transformed genotype=Atributos morfológicos e componentes de produção de batata, cv. Baronesa e seu genótipo transformado.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilda Mariclei de Castro da Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to compare the morphological attributes and production components of the wild-type Baronesa cultivar potato with those of Baronesa potato plants that have been genetically modified using the potato virus Y coat protein (CP gene. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions (Biosecurity Quality Certificate no. 081/98 issued by the National Biosecurity Technical Committee at the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel, Pelotas-RS. The shoot and root lengths and the mean leaf number were determined six times at 14-day intervals after sowing; the length, width and fresh weight of the tubers were measured during the last harvest, which occurred 84 days after sowing. There were no statistical differences between the two genotypes with respect to morphological attributes or production components.Plantas de batata, cv. Baronesa, resistentes ao PVY foram obtidas mediante transformação genética com gene que codifica para a proteína do capsídeo do vírus. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo comparar os atributos morfológicos e os componentes de produção da cv. Baronesa e de suas plantas geneticamente modificadas, em condições de casa de vegetação. Desse modo, a altura da parte aérea, comprimento da raiz e número médio de folhas foram determinados em seis épocas a intervalos regulares de 14 dias após o plantio, enquanto, volume, comprimento, largura e massa fresca dos tubérculos foram medidos na colheita final, aos 84 dias após o plantio. Não houve diferenças estatísticas significativas entre os dois genótipos, no que concerne aos atributos morfológicos e nem nos componentes de produção.

  13. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  14. The J and P transformer book a practical technology of the power transformer

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Arthur Charles

    1983-01-01

    The J&P Transformer Book, 11th Edition deals with the design, installation, and maintenance of transformers. The book contains technical information, tables, calculations, diagrams, and illustrations based on information supplied by transformer manufacturers and related industries. It reviews fundamental transformer principles, the magnetic circuit, the characteristics of, and general types of transformers. The text contains tables showing the information that should be given to the transformer manufacturer to be used as a basis in preparing quotations. Transformer designs include three import

  15. Photoinduced electro-optics measurements of biosilica transformation to cristobalite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Ido [Department of Chemistry and the Institute of Nanotechnology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Aluma, Yaniv; Ilan, Micha [Department of Zoology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801 (Israel); Kityk, Iwan [Institute of Electronic Systems, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa University, Czestochowa 42-201 (Poland); Mastai, Yitzhak, E-mail: Yitzhak.Mastai@biu.ac.il [Department of Chemistry and the Institute of Nanotechnology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)

    2015-03-15

    In this paper we studied the photoinduced electro optics effects in the thermal transformation process of biosilica to cristobalite, at a relatively low temperature and ambient pressure. This process was characterized by a variety of standards techniques with emphasis on linear electro optic effect measurements. Overall we demonstrated that photoinduced electro optics measurements are very sensitive to the transformation from amorphous structure of silica in the natural sponge samples to laminar string morphology of cristobalite. With this technique we could probe the change in the samples chirality from achiral bio silica to chiral cristobalite structure. Furthermore it is shown that natural biosilica have photoinduced linear electro optics respond indicating the chiral natural of biosilica. - Graphical abstract: The phase transformation of biosilica from marine sponges to Cristobalite under thermal treatment was investigated using photoinduced electro optics measurements. The figure shows the changes of the electro-optic coefficient of cristobalite and biosilica. - Highlights: • We examine phase transformation of biosilica. • We report transition from amorphous biosilica to crystalline Cristobalite. • Biosilica transformation to Cristobalite at temperature of 850 °C. • Biosilica transformation is studied with photoinduced measurements. • We examine changes in the photoinduced linear electro optics properties.

  16. ADE Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Donagi, Ron

    2015-01-01

    There is a beautiful correspondence between configurations of lines on a rational surface and tautological bundles over that surface. We extend this correspondence to families, by means of a generalized Fourier-Mukai transform that relates spectral data to bundles over a rational surface fibration.

  17. Birational transformations of weighted graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Flenner, Hubert; Kaliman, Shulim; ZAIDENBERG, MIKHAIL

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the notion of a standard weighted graph and show that every weighted graph has an essentially unique standard model. Moreover we classify birational transformations between such models. Our central result shows that these are composed of elementary transformations. The latter ones are defined similarly to the well known elementary transformations of ruled surfaces. In a forthcoming paper, we apply these results in the geometric setup to obtain standard equivariant completions of ...

  18. MMP1, MMP9, and COX2 Expressions in Promonocytes Are Induced by Breast Cancer Cells and Correlate with Collagen Degradation, Transformation-Like Morphological Changes in MCF-10A Acini, and Tumor Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimal-Ramírez, G. K.; Espinoza-Sánchez, N. A.; Utrera-Barillas, D.; Benítez-Bribiesca, L.; Velázquez, J. R.; Arriaga-Pizano, L. A.; Monroy-García, A.; Reyes-Maldonado, E.; Domínguez-López, M. L.; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia; Fuentes-Pananá, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-associated immune cells often lack immune effector activities, and instead they present protumoral functions. To understand how tumors promote this immunological switch, invasive and noninvasive breast cancer cell (BRC) lines were cocultured with a promonocytic cell line in a Matrigel-based 3D system. We hypothesized that if communication exists between tumor and immune cells, coculturing would result in augmented expression of genes associated with tumor malignancy. Upregulation of proteases MMP1 and MMP9 and inflammatory COX2 genes was found likely in response to soluble factors. Interestingly, changes were more apparent in promonocytes and correlated with the aggressiveness of the BRC line. Increased gene expression was confirmed by collagen degradation assays and immunocytochemistry of prostaglandin 2, a product of COX2 activity. Untransformed MCF-10A cells were then used as a sensor of soluble factors with transformation-like capabilities, finding that acini formed in the presence of supernatants of the highly aggressive BRC/promonocyte cocultures often exhibited total loss of the normal architecture. These data support that tumor cells can modify immune cell gene expression and tumor aggressiveness may importantly reside in this capacity. Modeling interactions in the tumor stroma will allow the identification of genes useful as cancer prognostic markers and therapy targets. PMID:23762835

  19. MMP1, MMP9, and COX2 Expressions in Promonocytes Are Induced by Breast Cancer Cells and Correlate with Collagen Degradation, Transformation-Like Morphological Changes in MCF-10A Acini, and Tumor Aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Chimal-Ramírez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-associated immune cells often lack immune effector activities, and instead they present protumoral functions. To understand how tumors promote this immunological switch, invasive and noninvasive breast cancer cell (BRC lines were cocultured with a promonocytic cell line in a Matrigel-based 3D system. We hypothesized that if communication exists between tumor and immune cells, coculturing would result in augmented expression of genes associated with tumor malignancy. Upregulation of proteases MMP1 and MMP9 and inflammatory COX2 genes was found likely in response to soluble factors. Interestingly, changes were more apparent in promonocytes and correlated with the aggressiveness of the BRC line. Increased gene expression was confirmed by collagen degradation assays and immunocytochemistry of prostaglandin 2, a product of COX2 activity. Untransformed MCF-10A cells were then used as a sensor of soluble factors with transformation-like capabilities, finding that acini formed in the presence of supernatants of the highly aggressive BRC/promonocyte cocultures often exhibited total loss of the normal architecture. These data support that tumor cells can modify immune cell gene expression and tumor aggressiveness may importantly reside in this capacity. Modeling interactions in the tumor stroma will allow the identification of genes useful as cancer prognostic markers and therapy targets.

  20. Similarity transformations of MAPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Allan T.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the notion of similar Markovian Arrival Processes (MAPs and show that the event stationary point processes related to two similar MAPs are stochastically equivalent. This holds true for the time stationary point processes too. We show that several well known stochastical equivalences as e.g. that between the H 2 renewal process and the Interrupted Poisson Process (IPP can be expressed by the similarity transformations of MAPs. In the appendix the valid region of similarity transformations for two-state MAPs is characterized.

  1. Discrete transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Firth, Jean M

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen­ tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...

  2. Transformative Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Klaus

    The purpose of this paper is to enhance the conceptual understanding of the mediatory relationship between paradoxes on an organizational and an individual level. It presents a concept of agency that comprises and mediates between a structural and individual pole. The constitution of this agency ...... is achieved through narrative activity that oscillates between the poles and transforms paradoxes through the configuration of plots and metaphors. Empirical cases are introduced in order to illustrate the implications of this understanding....

  3. RF transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

    1979-01-01

    There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

  4. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the lichen fungus, Umbilicaria muehlenbergii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook-Young Park

    Full Text Available Transformation-mediated mutagenesis in both targeted and random manners has been widely applied to decipher gene function in diverse fungi. However, a transformation system has not yet been established for lichen fungi, severely limiting our ability to study their biology and mechanism underpinning symbiosis via gene manipulation. Here, we report the first successful transformation of the lichen fungus, Umbilicaria muehlenbergii, via the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We generated a total of 918 transformants employing a binary vector that carries the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene as a selection marker and the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene for labeling transformants. Randomly selected transformants appeared mitotically stable, based on their maintenance of hygromycin B resistance after five generations of growth without selection. Genomic Southern blot showed that 88% of 784 transformants contained a single T-DNA insert in their genome. A number of putative mutants affected in colony color, size, and/or morphology were found among these transformants, supporting the utility of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT for random insertional mutagenesis of U. muehlenbergii. This ATMT approach potentially offers a systematic gene functional study with genome sequences of U. muehlenbergii that is currently underway.

  5. Spontaneous transformation of adult mesenchymal stem cells from cynomolgus macaques in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhenhua [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Department of Anatomy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Wang, Jiayin; Zhu, Wanwan; Guan, Yunqian; Zou, Chunlin [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Chen, Zhiguo, E-mail: chenzhiguo@gmail.com [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Stanford Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine and Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Zhang, Y. Alex, E-mail: yaz@bjsap.org [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China)

    2011-12-10

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown potential clinical utility in cell therapy and tissue engineering, due to their ability to proliferate as well as to differentiate into multiple lineages, including osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic specifications. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the safety of MSCs while extensive expansion ex vivo is a prerequisite to obtain the cell numbers for cell transplantation. Here we show that MSCs derived from adult cynomolgus monkey can undergo spontaneous transformation following in vitro culture. In comparison with MSCs, the spontaneously transformed mesenchymal cells (TMCs) display significantly different growth pattern and morphology, reminiscent of the characteristics of tumor cells. Importantly, TMCs are highly tumorigenic, causing subcutaneous tumors when injected into NOD/SCID mice. Moreover, no multiple differentiation potential of TMCs is observed in vitro or in vivo, suggesting that spontaneously transformed adult stem cells may not necessarily turn into cancer stem cells. These data indicate a direct transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs into tumor cells following long-term expansion in vitro. The spontaneous transformation of the cultured cynomolgus monkey MSCs may have important implications for ongoing clinical trials and for models of oncogenesis, thus warranting a more strict assessment of MSCs prior to cell therapy. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spontaneous transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells lack multipotency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells are highly tumorigenic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells do not have the characteristics of cancer stem cells.

  6. Spontaneous transformation of adult mesenchymal stem cells from cynomolgus macaques in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown potential clinical utility in cell therapy and tissue engineering, due to their ability to proliferate as well as to differentiate into multiple lineages, including osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic specifications. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the safety of MSCs while extensive expansion ex vivo is a prerequisite to obtain the cell numbers for cell transplantation. Here we show that MSCs derived from adult cynomolgus monkey can undergo spontaneous transformation following in vitro culture. In comparison with MSCs, the spontaneously transformed mesenchymal cells (TMCs) display significantly different growth pattern and morphology, reminiscent of the characteristics of tumor cells. Importantly, TMCs are highly tumorigenic, causing subcutaneous tumors when injected into NOD/SCID mice. Moreover, no multiple differentiation potential of TMCs is observed in vitro or in vivo, suggesting that spontaneously transformed adult stem cells may not necessarily turn into cancer stem cells. These data indicate a direct transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs into tumor cells following long-term expansion in vitro. The spontaneous transformation of the cultured cynomolgus monkey MSCs may have important implications for ongoing clinical trials and for models of oncogenesis, thus warranting a more strict assessment of MSCs prior to cell therapy. -- Highlights: ► Spontaneous transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs in vitro. ► Transformed mesenchymal cells lack multipotency. ► Transformed mesenchymal cells are highly tumorigenic. ► Transformed mesenchymal cells do not have the characteristics of cancer stem cells.

  7. Identity transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Robinson, Sarah; Jones, Sally

    This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional, with an understand......This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional......, with an understanding and rationale for using it, provides students with the opportunity to explore their own entrepreneurial identity in unforeseen ways. It builds on insights from three different streams of literature: (i) Bordieu’s theory of practice is used to analyze student understandings of themselves and others......) assists students in straddling the divide between identities, the emotions and tensions this elicits, and (iv) transform student understanding. We extend nudging theory into a new territory. Pedagogical nudging techniques may be able to unlock doors and bring our students beyond the unacknowledged...

  8. Multivariate Self-Dual Morphological Operators Based on Extremum Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-dual morphological operators (SDMO do not rely on whether one starts the sequence with erosion or dilation; they treat the image foreground and background identically. However, it is difficult to extend SDMO to multichannel images. Based on the self-duality property of traditional morphological operators and the theory of extremum constraint, this paper gives a complete characterization for the construction of multivariate SDMO. We introduce a pair of symmetric vector orderings (SVO to construct multivariate dual morphological operators. Furthermore, utilizing extremum constraint to optimize multivariate morphological operators, we construct multivariate SDMO. Finally, we illustrate the importance and effectiveness of the multivariate SDMO by applications of noise removal and segmentation performance. The experimental results show that the proposed multivariate SDMO achieves better results, and they suppress noises more efficiently without losing image details compared with other filtering methods. Moreover, the proposed multivariate SDMO is also shown to have the best segmentation performance after the filtered images via watershed transformation.

  9. Subspaces of FMmlet transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹红星; 戴琼海; 赵克; 陈桂明; 李衍达

    2002-01-01

    The subspaces of FMmlet transform are investigated.It is shown that some of the existing transforms like the Fourier transform,short-time Fourier transform,Gabor transform,wavelet transform,chirplet transform,the mean of signal,and the FM-1let transform,and the butterfly subspace are all special cases of FMmlet transform.Therefore the FMmlet transform is more flexible for delineating both the linear and nonlinear time-varying structures of a signal.

  10. Magnetic Materials for Current Transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilera, S; Ruffieux, P

    2013-01-01

    At CERN, the circulating beam current measurement is provided by two types of transformers, the Direct Current Current Transformers (DCCT) and the Fast Beam Current Transformers (FBCT). Each type of transformer requires different magnetic characteristics regarding parameters such as permeability, coercivity and shape of the magnetization curve. Each transformer is built based on toroidal cores of a magnetic material which gives these characteristics. For example, DCCTs consist of three cores, two for the measurement of the DC component and one for the AC component. In order to study the effect of changes in these parameters on the current transformers, several interesting raw materials based on their as-cast properties were selected with the annealing process used to tune their properties for the individual needs of each transformer. First annealing tests show that the magnetization curve, and therefore the permeability, of the material can be modified, opening the possibility for building and studying a vari...

  11. Lorentz transformations: Einstein's derivation simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Rothenstein, B; Popescu, Stefan; Rothenstein, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    We show that the Lorentz transformations for the space-time coordinates of the same event are a direct consequence of the principle of relativity and of Einstein's distant clocks synchronization procedure. In our approach, imposing the linear character of the Lorentz transformations we guess that the transformation equation for the space coordinate has the form x=ax'+cbt'. Imposing the condition that it accounts for the time dilation relativistic effect and taking into account the fact that due to the clock synchronization a la Einstein the space-time coordinates of the same event in the two frames are related by x=ct and x'=ct', we find out expressions for a and b. Dividing the transformation equation for the space coordinate by c we obtain the transformation equation for the time coordinate t=at'+b/cx'. Combining the two transformation equations we obtain directly the inverse Lorentz transformations.

  12. Isolated Polynucleotides and Methods of Promoting a Morphology in a Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasure, Linda L [Fall City, WA; Dai, Ziyu [Richland, WA

    2008-10-21

    The invention includes isolated polynucleotide molecules that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention includes a method of enhancing a bioprocess utilizing a fungus. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to a promoter. The polynucleotide sequence is expressed to promote a first morphology. The first morphology of the transformed fungus enhances a bioprocess relative to the bioprocess utilizing a second morphology.

  13. Relations of FMmlet Transform to Some Integral Transforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOUHongxing; DAIQionghai; WANGDianjun; LIYanda

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the relationships between FMmlet transform and some of the existing integral transforms, namely, the chirplet transform, dispersion transform, wavelet transform, chirp-Fourier transform, Short-time fourier transform (STFT), Gabor transform, Fourier transform, cosine transform, sine transform,Hartley transform, Laplace transform, z-transform, Mellintransform, Hilbert transform, autocorrelation function,cross-correlation function, energy, and the mean value.It is shown that all of these transforms are subspaces of FMmlet transform with specific parameters.

  14. Hamlet's Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, P. D.

    1997-12-01

    William Shakespeare's Hamlet has much evidence to suggest that the Bard was aware of the cosmological models of his time, specifically the geocentric bounded Ptolemaic and Tychonic models, and the infinite Diggesian. Moreover, Shakespeare describes how the Ptolemaic model is to be transformed to the Diggesian. Hamlet's "transformation" is the reason that Claudius, who personifies the Ptolemaic model, summons Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who personify the Tychonic. Pantometria, written by Leonard Digges and his son Thomas in 1571, contains the first technical use of the word "transformation." At age thirty, Thomas Digges went on to propose his Perfit Description, as alluded to in Act Five where Hamlet's age is given as thirty. In Act Five as well, the words "bore" and "arms" refer to Thomas' vocation as muster-master and his scientific interest in ballistics. England's leading astronomer was also the father of the poet whose encomium introduced the First Folio of 1623. His oldest child Dudley became a member of the Virginia Company and facilitated the writing of The Tempest. Taken as a whole, such manifold connections to Thomas Digges support Hotson's contention that Shakespeare knew the Digges family. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in Hamlet bear Danish names because they personify the Danish model, while the king's name is latinized like that of Claudius Ptolemaeus. The reason Shakespeare anglicized "Amleth" to "Hamlet" was because he saw a parallel between Book Three of Saxo Grammaticus and the eventual triumph of the Diggesian model. But Shakespeare eschewed Book Four, creating this particular ending from an infinity of other possibilities because it "suited his purpose," viz. to celebrate the concept of a boundless universe of stars like the Sun.

  15. Rotary Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLyman, Colonel Wm. T.

    1996-01-01

    None given. From first Par: Many spacecraft (S/C) and surface rovers require the transfer of signals and power across rotating interfaces. Science instruments, antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain (S/C) configurations. Delivery of signal and power has mainly been done by using the simplest means, the slip ring approach. This approach, although simple, leaves debris generating noise over a period of time...The rotary transformer is a good alternative to slip rings for signal and power transfer.

  16. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  17. Transparent Model Transformation: Turning Your Favourite Model Editor into a Transformation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acretoaie, Vlad; Störrle, Harald; Strüber, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Current model transformation languages are supported by dedicated editors, often closely coupled to a single execution engine. We introduce Transparent Model Transformation, a paradigm enabling modelers to specify transformations using a familiar tool: their model editor. We also present VMTL......, the first transformation language implementing the principles of Transparent Model Transformation: syntax, environment, and execution transparency. VMTL works by weaving a transformation aspect into its host modeling language. We show how our implementation of VMTL turns any model editor into a flexible...

  18. A Czech Morphological Lexicon

    OpenAIRE

    Skoumalova, Hana

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a treatment of Czech phonological rules in two-level morphology approach is described. First the possible phonological alternations in Czech are listed and then their treatment in a practical application of a Czech morphological lexicon.

  19. Advancement of Molecular Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾江

    2004-01-01

    @@ Molecular morphology is a new discipline of medical science that studies morphology at the molecular level. This includes the investigation of occurrence and distribution of proteins, peptides, DNA and RNA sequences at the tissue, cellular, and ultrastructural levels.

  20. Polythiophene: Synthesis in aqueous medium and controllable morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU RuoChen; LIU ZhengPing

    2009-01-01

    Various morphologies of polythiophene have been designed and successfully prepared by chemical oxidative polymerization in the presence of phase transfer catalyst (PTC) cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in aqueous medium. The morphologies of polythiophene could be controlled in ribbons, fibers and spherical particles by changing the concentrations of reductant, oxidant and phase transfer catalyst. The structure, thermal stability and the conductivity have been characterized, and a mechanism for the transformation of the morphology of polythiophene has been proposed.

  1. Commutation and Darboux transformation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M V Prabhakar; H Bhate

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we show that the Darboux transformation for a large class of nonlinear evolution equations arises due to factorization and commutation. The factorization and commutation has been pointed out earlier for Schrödinger operator. We show that it extends to a large class of nonlinear differential equations which admit Lax pairs including Boussinesq, Davey–Stewartson, Bogoyavlensky–Schiff and -wave interaction equation.

  2. Long term morphological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Deigaard, Rolf; Taaning, Martin;

    2010-01-01

    A morphological modelling concept for long term nearshore morphology is proposed and examples of its application are presented and discussed. The model concept combines parameterised representations of the cross-shore morphology, with a 2DH area model for waves, currents and sediment transport in...

  3. Advancement of Molecular Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾江

    2004-01-01

    Molecular morphology is a new discipline of medical science that studies morphology at the molecular level. This includes the investigation of occurrence and distribution of proteins, peptides, DNA and RNA sequences at the tissue, cellular, and uhrastructural levels. Morphology is defined as a field of science investigating the shape,

  4. Transgenic barley overexpressing a cytokinin dehydrogenase gene shows greater tolerance to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospíšilová, Hana; Jiskrová, Eva; Vojta, Petr; Mrízová, Katarína; Kokáš, Filip; Čudejková, Mária Majeská; Bergougnoux, Veronique; Plíhal, Ondřej; Klimešová, Jana; Novák, Ondřej; Dzurová, Lenka; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-09-25

    Together with auxins, cytokinins are the main plant hormones involved in many different physiological processes. Given this knowledge, cytokinin levels can be manipulated by genetic modification in order to improve agronomic parameters of cereals in relation to, for example, morphology, yield, and tolerance to various stresses. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar Golden Promise was transformed using the cytokinin dehydrogenase 1 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtCKX1) under the control of mild root-specific β-glucosidase promoter from maize. Increased cytokinin degradation activity was observed positively to affect the number and length of lateral roots. The impact on morphology depended upon the recombinant protein's subcellular compartmentation. While assumed cytosolic and vacuolar targeting of AtCKX1 had negligible effect on shoot growth, secretion of AtCKX1 protein to the apoplast had a negative effect on development of the aerial part and yield. Upon the application of severe drought stress, all transgenic genotypes maintained higher water content and showed better growth and yield parameters during revitalization. Higher tolerance to drought stress was most caused by altered root morphology resulting in better dehydration avoidance. PMID:26773738

  5. Combined Reduced-Rank Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Torokhti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose and justify a new approach to constructing optimal nonlinear transforms of random vectors. We show that the proposed transform improves such characteristics of {rank-reduced} transforms as compression ratio, accuracy of decompression and reduces required computational work. The proposed transform ${mathcal T}_p$ is presented in the form of a sum with $p$ terms where each term is interpreted as a particular rank-reduced transform. Moreover, terms in ${mathcal T}_p$ are represented as a combination of three operations ${mathcal F}_k$, ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ with $k=1,ldots,p$. The prime idea is to determine ${mathcal F}_k$ separately, for each $k=1,ldots,p$, from an associated rank-constrained minimization problem similar to that used in the Karhunen--Lo`{e}ve transform. The operations ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ are auxiliary for f/inding ${mathcal F}_k$. The contribution of each term in ${mathcal T}_p$ improves the entire transform performance. A corresponding unconstrained nonlinear optimal transform is also considered. Such a transform is important in its own right because it is treated as an optimal filter without signal compression. A rigorous analysis of errors associated with the proposed transforms is given.

  6. Experimental impact crater morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, A.; Poelchau, M. H.; Hoerth, T.; Schaefer, F.; Thoma, K.; Deutsch, A.; Kenkmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    The research group MEMIN (Multidisciplinary Experimental and Impact Modelling Research Network) is conducting impact experiments into porous sandstones, examining, among other parameters, the influence of target pore-space saturation with water, and projectile velocity, density and mass, on the cratering process. The high-velocity (2.5-7.8 km/s) impact experiments were carried out at the two-stage light-gas gun facilities of the Fraunhofer Institute EMI (Germany) using steel, iron meteorite (Campo del Cielo IAB), and aluminium projectiles with Seeberg Sandstone as targets. The primary objectives of this study within MEMIN are to provide detailed morphometric data of the experimental craters, and to identify trends and characteristics specific to a given impact parameter. Generally, all craters, regardless of impact conditions, have an inner depression within a highly fragile, white-coloured centre, an outer spallation (i.e. tensile failure) zone, and areas of arrested spallation (i.e. spall fragments that were not completely dislodged from the target) at the crater rim. Within this general morphological framework, distinct trends and differences in crater dimensions and morphological characteristics are identified. With increasing impact velocity, the volume of craters in dry targets increases by a factor of ~4 when doubling velocity. At identical impact conditions (steel projectiles, ~5km/s), craters in dry and wet sandstone targets differ significantly in that "wet" craters are up to 76% larger in volume, have depth-diameter ratios generally below 0.19 (whereas dry craters are almost consistently above this value) at significantly larger diameters, and their spallation zone morphologies show very different characteristics. In dry craters, the spall zone surfaces dip evenly at 10-20° towards the crater centre. In wet craters, on the other hand, they consist of slightly convex slopes of 10-35° adjacent to the inner depression, and of sub-horizontal tensile

  7. Transforming Normal Programs by Replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossi, Annalisa; Cocco, Nicoletta; Etalle, Sandro; Pettorossi, A.

    1992-01-01

    The replacement transformation operation, already defined in [28], is studied wrt normal programs. We give applicability conditions able to ensure the correctness of the operation wrt Fitting's and Kunen's semantics. We show how replacement can mimic other transformation operations such as thinning,

  8. Experiments with a Differential Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía

    2016-01-01

    An experiment with an electric transformer based on single coils shows how electromagnetic induction changes when the magnetic coupling between coils is adjusted. This transformer has two secondary outputs which are taken differentially. This is the basis for a widely used position transducer known as LVDT.

  9. Influence of austenitizing temperature on apparent morphologies of as-quenched microstructures of steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yue-jun; LI Yi-min; HUANG Bai-yun

    2006-01-01

    The effects of austenitizing temperature on the morphologies and substructures of as-quenched microstructure were investigated by using 13 medium and high carbon steels. The formation reasons of various morphologies of martensite quenched at different austenitizing temperatures were also studied. The results show that the packet martensite in medium and high carbon steels quenched at higher austenitizing temperature is entirely different from that in as-quenched low carbon steels, which is still plate martensite, and not lath martensite. All the change laws of as-quenched microstructures in medium and high carbon steels are identical with an increase in austenitizing temperature, and the austenitizing temperature can merely change the combined morphology of martensitic platelets,but cannot alter the type of product of martensitic transformation in commercial steels.

  10. Analytical electron microscope study of the omega phase transformation in a zirconium-niobium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaluzec, N. J.

    1979-01-01

    The study of the as-quenched omega phase morphology shows that the domain size of Zr-15% Nb is on the order of 30 A. No alignment of omega domains along <222>..beta.. directions was observed and samples having undergone thermal cycling in thin foil form, did not develop a long-period structure of alternating ..beta.. and ..omega.. phases below the omega transformation temperature. (FS)

  11. Silica gel-assisted solvothermal production of CdS,CuxS(x=1,2) and ZnS with different morphologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Titipun THONGTEM; Chalermchai PILAPONG; Somchai THONGTEM

    2009-01-01

    CdS, CuxS (x=1, 2) and ZnS with different morphologies were produced by the solvothermal reactions of M(CH3COO)2'2H2O (M=Cd, Cu and Zn) and NH2CSNH2 in hexane with and without silica gel as a hard template at 200 ℃ for 24 h. The product phases were detected using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Different morphologies were characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The existence of silica gel in modeling morphologies of the sulfides was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Raman spectra of different products show the vibrations at the same wavenumbers, although they are composed of different morphologies. Photoluminescence (PL) emissions of the corresponding phases with different morphologies are at the same values, but their intensities are increased by template adding.

  12. Morphological change in cranial shape following the transition to agriculture across western Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheronet, Olivia; Finarelli, John A; Pinhasi, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The Neolithic transition brought about fundamental social, dietary and behavioural changes in human populations, which, in turn, impacted skeletal morphology. Crania are shaped through diverse genetic, ontogenetic and environmental factors, reflecting various elements of an individual's life. To determine the transition's effect on cranial morphology, we investigated its potential impact on the face and vault, two elements potentially responding to different influences. Three datasets from geographically distant regions (Ukraine, Iberia, and the Levant plus Anatolia) were analysed. Craniometric measurements were used to compare the morphology of pre-transition populations with that of agricultural populations. The Neolithic transition corresponds to a statistically significant increase only in cranial breadth of the Ukrainian vaults, while facial morphology shows no consistent transformations, despite expected changes related to the modification of masticatory behaviour. The broadening of Ukrainian vaults may be attributable to dietary and/or social changes. However, the lack of change observed in the other geographical regions and the lack of consistent change in facial morphology are surprising. Although the transition from foraging to farming is a process that took place repeatedly across the globe, different characteristics of transitions seem responsible for idiosyncratic responses in cranial morphology. PMID:27622425

  13. MR morphology of triangular fibrocartilage complex: correlation with quantitative MR and biomechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Won C.; Chang, Eric Y.; Chung, Christine B. [VA San Diego Healthcare System, Radiology Service, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California-San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Ruangchaijatuporn, Thumanoon [Mahidol University, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Rachathewi, Bangkok (Thailand); Biswas, Reni; Du, Jiang; Statum, Sheronda [University of California-San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate pathology of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) using high-resolution morphologic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and compare with quantitative MR and biomechanical properties. Five cadaveric wrists (22-70 years) were imaged at 3 T using morphologic (proton density weighted spin echo, PD FS, and 3D spoiled gradient echo, 3D SPGR) and quantitative MR sequences to determine T2 and T1rho properties. In eight geographic regions, morphology of TFC disc and laminae were evaluated for pathology and quantitative MR values. Samples were disarticulated and biomechanical indentation testing was performed on the distal surface of the TFC disc. On morphologic PD SE images, TFC disc pathology included degeneration and tears, while that of the laminae included degeneration, degeneration with superimposed tear, mucinous transformation, and globular calcification. Punctate calcifications were highly visible on 3D SPGR images and found only in pathologic regions. Disc pathology occurred more frequently in proximal regions of the disc than distal regions. Quantitative MR values were lowest in normal samples, and generally higher in pathologic regions. Biomechanical testing demonstrated an inverse relationship, with indentation modulus being high in normal regions with low MR values. The laminae studied were mostly pathologic, and additional normal samples are needed to discern quantitative changes. These results show technical feasibility of morphologic MR, quantitative MR, and biomechanical techniques to characterize pathology of the TFCC. Quantitative MRI may be a suitable surrogate marker of soft tissue mechanical properties, and a useful adjunct to conventional morphologic MR techniques. (orig.)

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ISOZYME PATTERN AND MORPHOLOGY OF THREE MARINE FISH CELL LINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华荣; 张士璀; 李红岩; 童裳亮; 相建海

    2002-01-01

    Three continuous marine fish cell lines of FG (i. e., Hounder Gill) from flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) gill, SPH (i. e. , Sea Perch Heart) from sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicus) heart and RSBF (i.e., Red Sea Bream Fin) from red sea bream (Pagrosomus major) fin, were characterized by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme and morphological analysis. The LDH isozyme patterns of these three cell lines and their corresponding tissues of origin were investigated and compared. The results showed: (1) No difference was found in the LDH isozyme patterns of FG and flounder gill tissue. However, the LDH isozyme patterns of SPH and RSBF were significantly different from their corresponding tissues of origin; (2) LDH isozyme patterns of FG, SPH and RSBF were markedly different from each other and could serve as genetic markers for species identification and detection of cross contamination. Morphological change analysis of these three cell lines in comparison to their original tissues indicated that FG cells still appeared epithelioid without morphological transformation. However, morphological changes were found in SPH and RSBF compared to their original tissues. Therefore, the cellular morphology was still plastic in the relatively stable culture conditions, and it was possible that change of LDH patterns wasrelated to morphological changes of fish cells in vitro.

  15. Controlled synthesis of BiVO{sub 4} with multiple morphologies via an ethylenediamine-assisted hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Xuemei, E-mail: qixuemei@shiep.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Key Lab of Electrical Insulation and Thermal Aging, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Zhu, Xinyuan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Key Lab of Electrical Insulation and Thermal Aging, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wu, Jiang, E-mail: wujiang@shiep.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); School of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Wu, Qiang [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Li, Xian [School of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Gu, Miaoli [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Graphical abstract: BiVO{sub 4} samples with various morphologies were synthesized via a simple ethylenediamine (EN) assisted hydrothermal route. One of the mixed crystal phase with spherical and porous morphology showed excellent photocatalytic activity and about 90% Rhodamine B was degraded after 140 min visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • BiVO{sub 4} samples with various morphologies were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • Ethylenediamine mainly acts as alkaline source to adjust pH values of precursor. • BiVO{sub 4} with spherical morphology has excellent photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: In this work, BiVO{sub 4} particles with different crystal structures and morphologies including hexahedral, spherical porous and hyperbranched ones were fabricated in the presence of ethylenediamine by hydrothermal process. The as-fabricated samples were well characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the morphology and crystal structure of BiVO{sub 4} particles could be well controlled by only changing the ethylenediamine content in the deionized water solution. Photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible-light irradiation. It was shown that BiVO{sub 4} sample with spherical porous morphology and mixed crystal phase exhibited the best photocatalytic performance after optimizing the ethylenediamine content. The best degradation ratio of Rhodamine B could reach about 87% after 140 min visible-light irradiation.

  16. 基于小波变换的多模态医学图像的融合及性能评价%Multi-morphological Fusion of Medical Image and Performance Evaluation based on Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高清河; 刚晶; 王和禹; 刘海英

    2014-01-01

    We choosed multi-focus images and standard MRI/CT gray images for source images and applied the following strate-gies to decomposition and fusion.On the one hand,decomposition of low frequency and high frequency wavelet coefficients was adopted with single scale and multi-scale way.On the other hand,image fusion region was selected by independent pixel and neighborhood operation.Through above different operation of decomposition and fusion,the fusion image of different fusion rule was obtained.Based on the fusion image of different fusion rule,the influences of various fusion rules on the fusion results were compared and analyzed, which was the purpose of this paper.By means of analyzing the experimental results and evaluation results of multi-focus fusion ima-ges and clinical MRI/CT fusion images.It show that neighborhood filtering operation can greatly improve the result of image fusion and make the detail of the image information more rich;multi-scale decompose can increase the brightness of the fusion image with respect to single scale decompose.%为了研究小波变换分解的尺度和融合策略对图像融合效果的影响。我们选择已配准后的多聚焦医学图像以及MRI/C T灰度图像,在提取图像的低频和高频小波系数时,分别进行单尺度和多尺度分解,融合时采取了基于独立像素点和基于邻域窗口的多种融合策略,深入对比分析各种融合规则对医学图像融合性能的影响。实验结果和性能评价表明:使用局部滤波的操作可以明显改善图像融合的效果,使图像的细节信息更加丰富,而多尺度融合能明显提高融合图像的亮度。

  17. Blob Objects Analysis Using Watershed Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for overlapping or touching blob object ( particles ) segmentation. It is based on the watershed transformation, one of the most powerful image analysis tools provided by mathematical morphology. In this method, we first build the distance function of the blob image, and then extract the regional minima as markers, and finally the watershed transformation is performed. The applications of this algorithm illustrated using the examples of red blood cell segmentation and broken medicine pill detection.

  18. Transformation and precipitation in vanadium treated steels

    OpenAIRE

    Vassiliou, Andreas Demetriou

    1987-01-01

    A series of carbon manganese steels containing varying amounts of carbon, vanadium and nitrogen was investigated in relation to the solubility of VC and VN in austenite, the grain coarsening characteristics of austenite, the tempering of martensite and other structures, the transformation during continuous cooling, the effect of vanadium addition and increasing nitrogen content on the thermo-mechanical processing of austenite, and the transformation of various morphologies of austenite to fer...

  19. A Multi-Scale Gradient Algorithm Based on Morphological Operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Watershed transformation is a powerful morphological tool for image segmentation. However, the performance of the image segmentation methods based on watershed transformation depends largely on the algorithm for computing the gradient of the image to be segmented. In this paper, we present a multi-scale gradient algorithm based on morphological operators for watershed-based image segmentation, with effective handling of both step and blurred edges. We also present an algorithm to eliminate the local minima produced by noise and quantization errors. Experimental results indicate that watershed transformation with the algorithms proposed in this paper produces meaningful segmentations, even without a region-merging step.

  20. Transformation Experiment Using Bioluminescence Genes of "Vibrio fischeri."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slock, James

    1995-01-01

    Bioluminescence transformation experiments show students the excitement and power of recombinant DNA technology. This laboratory experiment utilizes two plasmids of "Vibrio fischeri" in a transformation experiment. (LZ)

  1. Leaf Vein Extraction Based on Gray-scale Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Zheng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf features play an important role in plant species identification and plant taxonomy. The type of the leaf vein is an important morphological feature of the leaf in botany. Leaf vein should be extracted from the leaf in the image before discriminating its type. In this paper a new method of leaf vein extraction has been proposed based on gray-scale morphology. Firstly, the color image of the plant leaf is transformed to the gray image according to the hue and intensity information. Secondly, the gray-scale morphology processing is applied to the image to eliminate the color overlap in the whole leaf vein and the whole background. Thirdly, the linear intensity adjustment is adopted to enlarge the gray value difference between the leaf vein and its background. Fourthly, calculate a threshold with OSTU method to segment the leaf vein from its background. Finally, the leaf vein can be got after some processing on details. Experiments have been conducted with several images. The results show the effectiveness of the method. The idea of the method is also applicable to other linear objects extraction.

  2. Multi-scale Image Segmentation Based on Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXiaopeng; HAOChongyang; FANYangyu; XIYinglai

    2005-01-01

    The combination of scale-space and watershed is a common way to implement multi-scale segmentation; however, classical scale-space often surfers from the essential contours lost, low localization precision and noise caused spurious contours. Though watershed transform can produce closed contours, it tends to over-segmentation. A method for multi-scale image segmentation using morphological scale-space and modified gradient watershed is proposed to improve the above performance. First, morphological reconstructive opening and closing scale-space is used to simplify the original image, and then on the basis of the simplified images, modified gradient watershed transformis employed to detect region contours. During the imagesimplifying process, noise and small details are removed while essential contours preserved owing to the strong filtering and contour preserving properties of the morphological reconstructive opening and closing scale-space. Modified gradient avoids too many irrelevant minima to be detected,and over-segmentatlon is eliminated. Simulations show that this method can eifficiently not only segment image without over-segmentatlon, but also satisfy the scale monotonicity of scale-space.

  3. On infinitesimal increase of volumes of morphological transforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiderlen, Markus; Rataj, Jan

    2007-01-01

    for the hit-or-miss function. Secondly, in a design based setting, different random digitizations of a deterministic set A are treated. It is shown how the number of configurations in such a digitization is related to the surface area measure of A as the lattice distance converges to zero....

  4. Transformation from atypical chronic myeloid leukemia to chronic myelomonocytic leukemia as progression of myeloid neoplasm with platelet-derived growth factor ß rearrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid neoplasms associated with platelet-derived growth factor b (PDGFRB rearrangement usually keep only one morphologic type unless blast crisis. We describe a unique case of hematological features transformation from atypical chronic myeloid leukemia to chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, and imatinib showed no clinical therapeutic effects. The phenomenon indicates that different types of myeloid neoplasms associated with PDGFRB rearrangement can transform into one another with the progression of the disease, and to some extent, this transformation suggests the aggravation of disease.

  5. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.;

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games...

  6. Power System Transients Analysis by Wavelet Transforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈维荣; 宋永华; 赵蔚

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to Fourier transform, wavelet transform is especially suitable for transient analysis because of its time-frequency characteristics with automatically-adjusted window lengths. Research shows that wavelet transform is one of the most powerful tools for power system transient analysis. The basic ideas of wavelet transform are presented in the paper together with several power system applications. It is clear that wavelet transform has some clear advantages over other transforms in detecting, analyzing, and identifying various types of power system transients.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Rice Transformation Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhyzobium leguminosarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsidah Rahmawati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to study the effectiveness of Rhizobium transformation system compared to the most widely used Agrobacterium mediated transformation system on three rice cultivars, Ciherang (Indica, Nipponbare (Japonica, and Rojolele (Javanica. Six day old calli induced from immature embryos were inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv trifolii ANU845 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA288 that harbored with vector pCAMBIA 5106. This plasmid contained a minimum set of transfer machinery genes and had a gusplus and an hptII gene driven by 35S CaMV promoter in the T-DNA. The results showed that the transformation frequencies (number of PCR positive plants per number of calli inoculated ranging from 0 to 12.05 % depend on the genotype and transfer agent used. The highest transformation frequency (12.05% was obtained in Ciherang transformed with R. leguminosarum. Most of the transgenic rice obtainedby Rhizobium transformation were normal in morphology and fertile similar to those obtained by Agrobacterium transformation. Integration, expression and inheritance of transgenes were demonstrated by molecular and genetic analysis in T0 and T1 generations.Key words : Rhizobium leguminosarum, immature embryos, Agrobacterium tumefaciens

  8. Unitary Transformation in Quantum Teleportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-Chuan

    2006-01-01

    In the well-known treatment of quantum teleportation, the receiver should convert the state of his EPR particle into the replica of the unknown quantum state by one of four possible unitary transformations. However, the importance of these unitary transformations must be emphasized. We will show in this paper that the receiver cannot transform the state of his particle into an exact replica of the unknown state which the sender wants to transfer if he has not a proper implementation of these unitary transformations. In the procedure of converting state, the inevitable coupling between EPR particle and environment which is needed by the implementation of unitary transformations will reduce the accuracy of the replica.

  9. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  10. Natural plasmid transformation in a high-frequency-of transformation marine Vibrio strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estuarine bacterium Vibrio strain DI-9 has been shown to be naturally transformable with both broad host range plasmid multimers and homologous chromosomal DNA at average frequencies of 3.5 x 10-9 and 3.4 x 10-7 transformants per recipient, respectively. Growth of plasmid transformants in nonselective medium resulted in cured strains that transformed 6 to 42,857 times more frequently than the parental strain, depending on the type of transforming DNA. These high-frequency-of-transformation (HfT) strains were transformed at frequencies ranging from 1.1 x 10-8 to 1.3 x 10-4 transformants per recipient with plasmid DNA and at an average frequency of 8.3 x 10-5 transformants per recipient with homologous chromosomal DNA. The highest transformation frequencies were observed by using multimers of an R1162 derivative carrying the transposon Tn5 (pQSR50). Probing of total DNA preparations from one of the cured strains demonstrated that no plasmid DNA remained in the cured strains which may have provided homology to the transforming DNA. All transformants and cured strains could be differentiated from the parental strains by colony morphology. DNA binding studies indicated that late-log-phase HfT strains bound [3H]bacteriophage lambda DNA 2.1 times more rapidly than the parental strain. These results suggest that the original plasmid transformation event of strain DI-9 was the result of uptake and expression of plasmid DNA by a competent mutant (HfT strain). Additionally, it was found that a strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, USFS 3420, could be naturally transformed with plasmid DNA. Natural plasmid transformation by high-transforming mutants may be a means of plasmid acquisition by natural aquatic bacterial populations

  11. Detection of inrush current in distribution transformer using wavelet transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedighi, A.-R.; Haghifam, M.-R. [Tarbiat Modarres Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Tehran (Iran)

    2005-07-01

    Inrush currents in transformers are non-sinusoidal, high magnitude currents generated due to flux saturation in the core during energization. For protection purpose, in this paper an efficient method for detection of inrush current in distribution transformer based on wavelet transform is presented. Using this method inrush current can be discriminated from the other switching transients such as: load switching, capacitor switching and single phase to ground fault. Inrush current and other events for feature extraction and discrimination are simulated using Electro Magnetic Transient Program (EMTP). Results in all cases show the effectiveness of proposed procedure in identifying inrush current from other transients. (Author)

  12. THE CONTINUOUS SCHWARTZ-CHRISTOFFEL TRANSFORMS CSCT

    OpenAIRE

    Rechea Alberola, Manuel; Basset Salom, Luisa

    1996-01-01

    This paper shows a method, developped by the authors, to transform series of curvilinear segments, which intersect at angles of non zero magnitude, into real axis, as a complex function transform.The method initiates from the Schwarz-Christofel transformation an generalizes it.. Examples of how to carry out the computations are shown and some new results are presented Rechea Alberola, M.; Basset Salom, L. (1996). THE CONTINUOUS SCHWARTZ-CHRISTOFFEL TRANSFORMS CSCT. III Congreso de Métodos ...

  13. The limits on trypanosomatid morphological diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard John Wheeler

    Full Text Available Cell shape is one, often overlooked, way in which protozoan parasites have adapted to a variety of host and vector environments and directional transmissions between these environments. Consequently, different parasite life cycle stages have characteristic morphologies. Trypanosomatid parasites are an excellent example of this in which large morphological variations between species and life cycle stage occur, despite sharing well-conserved cytoskeletal and membranous structures. Here, using previously published reports in the literature of the morphology of 248 isolates of trypanosomatid species from different hosts, we perform a meta-analysis of the occurrence and limits on morphological diversity of different classes of trypanosomatid morphology (trypomastigote, promastigote, etc. in the vertebrate bloodstream and invertebrate gut environments. We identified several limits on cell body length, cell body width and flagellum length diversity which can be interpreted as biomechanical limits on the capacity of the cell to attain particular dimensions. These limits differed for morphologies with and without a laterally attached flagellum which we suggest represent two morphological superclasses, the 'juxtaform' and 'liberform' superclasses. Further limits were identified consistent with a selective pressure from the mechanical properties of the vertebrate bloodstream environment; trypanosomatid size showed limits relative to host erythrocyte dimensions. This is the first comprehensive analysis of the limits of morphological diversity in any protozoan parasite, revealing the morphogenetic constraints and extrinsic selection pressures associated with the full diversity of trypanosomatid morphology.

  14. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

  15. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  16. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and lung branching morphogenesis. Role of polyamines and transforming growth factor ß1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Stabellini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung branching morphogenesis is a result of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, which are in turn dependent on extracellular matrix composition and cytokine regulation. Polyamines have recently been demonstrated as able to modify chick embryo skin differentiation. In this work we have examined the effects of putrescine and spermidine during chick embryo lung morphogenesis in organotypic cultures by morphological, histochemical and biochemical examination. To verify the role of polyamines, we used specific inhibitors, such as bis-cyclohexylammonium sulphate and alfa-difluoromethylornithine, and transforming growth factor ß1, an ornithine decarboxylase and polyamine stimulator. Our data show that lung morphogenesis is significantly altered following the induced mesenchymal glycosaminoglycan changes. The increase of mesenchymal glycosaminoglycans is correlated with a stimulation of lung development in the presence of polyamines, and with its inhibition when transforming growth factor ß1 is added to the culture medium. The morphometric data show a uniform increase of both the mesenchyme and epithelial branching with spermidine and putrescine stimulus, whereas the mesenchymal substance alone is significantly increased in apical-median lung sections with transforming growth factor ß1 and transforming growth factor ß1 + spermidine lung cultures. Transforming growth factor ß1 and transforming growth factor ß1 + spermidine confirm the blocking of epithelial branching formations and fibroblast activation, and show that polyamines are unable to prevent the blocking of epithelial cells due to the inhibitory effect of transforming growth factor ß1.

  17. Pembrolizumab Shows Promise for NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Data from the KEYNOTE-001 trial show that pembrolizumab improves clinical outcomes for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and is well tolerated. PD-L1 expression in at least 50% of tumor cells correlated with improved efficacy.

  18. Heterospecific transformation among cyanobacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, S E; Porter, R D

    1986-01-01

    Heterospecific transformation occurred between cyanobacteria currently classified in either the genus Synechococcus or Synechocystis. Cyanobacterial strains 73109 and 6906 were capable of physiological transformation.

  19. Morphology-controlled syntheses of α-MnO2 for electrochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weidong; Yang, Wenjin; Wang, Chenggang; Deng, Xiaolong; Liu, Baodan; Xu, Xijin

    2016-06-01

    Manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanoarchitectures including microspheres assembled by nanosheets and hollow urchins assembled by nanorods have been successfully synthesized using a facile and efficient hydrothermal method at 150 °C. The effects of concentrations of the reactants and reaction time on the structures and morphologies of MnO2 were systematically investigated. The experimental results showed that the morphologies of MnO2 transformed into nanosheet-assembled microspheres (10 min) from nanorod-assembled hollow urchins (5 min) by tuning the suitable reaction time. The nanorod-assembled hollow urchins experienced the morphology transformation cycle from urchin to a disordered structure to urchin with the extension of the reaction time. Furthermore, the nanorods with different diameters and lengths were formed with different concentrations of reactants at the same reaction time (8 h). The MnO2 nanorods fabricated with 0.59 g KMnO4 showed a maximum specific capacitance (198 F g(-1)) with a good rate capability and excellent cycling stability (maintained 94% after 2000 cycles). Furthermore, the nanosheet-assembled microspheres exhibited the higher specific capacitance of 131 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) with a long-term cycling stability for the samples at different reaction times. These results indicated their promising applications as high-performance supercapacitor electrodes and provided a generic guideline in developing different nanostructured electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage. PMID:27211207

  20. Synthesis of CZTS Nanocrystals and Transformation into CZTSe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Li, Zhenggang; Lek, Jun Yan;

    2014-01-01

    ) is injected and a transformation from CZTS to CZTSe is observed to occur. Here we present a demonstration that the transformation is possible, a first view on how the morphology of the nanoparticles changes, and our results from optimizing the conversion ratio with respect to temperature. Our X...

  1. The Watershed Transform : Definitions, Algorithms and Parallelization Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Meijster, Arnold

    2000-01-01

    The watershed transform is the method of choice for image segmentation in the field of mathematical morphology. We present a critical review of several definitions of the watershed transform and the associated sequential algorithms, and discuss various issues which often cause confusion in the liter

  2. The Assembly of Diversity in the Morphologies and Stellar Populations of High-Redshift Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Papovich, C; Giavalisco, M; Conselice, C J; Ferguson, H C; Papovich, Casey; Dickinson, Mark; Giavalisco, Mauro; Conselice, Christopher J.; Ferguson, Henry C.

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the evolution in the morphologies, sizes, stellar-masses, colors, and internal color dispersion (ICD) of galaxies at z=1 and 2.3, using a near-IR, flux-limited catalog for the HDF-N. At z=1 most luminous galaxies have morphologies of early-to-mid Hubble-types, and many show transformations between their rest-frame UV-optical morphologies. Galaxies at z=2.3 have compact and irregular morphologies with no clearly evident Hubble-sequence candidates. The mean galaxy size grows from z=2.3 to 1 by 40%, and the density of galaxies larger than 3 kpc increases by 7 times. At z=1, the size-luminosity distribution is broadly consistent with that of local galaxies, with passive evolution. However, galaxies at z=2.3 are smaller than the large present-day galaxies, and must continue to grow in size and stellar mass. We have measured the galaxies' UV-optical ICD, which quantifies differences in morphology and the relative amount of on-going star-formation. The mean and scatter in galaxies' total colors and I...

  3. Effect of silk sericin on morphology and structure of calcium carbonate crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui-Bo; Han, Hua-Feng; Ding, Shao; Li, Ze-Hao; Kong, Xiang-Dong

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, silk sericin was employed to regulate the mineralization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). CaCO3 composite particles were prepared by the precipitation reaction of sodium carbonate with calcium chloride solution in the presence of silk sericin. The as-prepared samples were collected at different reaction time to study the crystallization process of CaCO3 by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that silk sericin significantly affected the morphology and crystallographic polymorph of CaCO3. With increasing the reaction time, the crystal phase of CaCO3 transferred from calcite dominated to vaterite dominated mixtures, while the morphology of CaCO3 changed from disk-like calcite crystal to spherical vaterite crystal. These studies showed the potential of silk sericin used as a template molecule to control the growth of inorganic crystal.

  4. Carbon nanotubes dispersed polymer nanocomposites: mechanical, electrical, thermal properties and surface morphology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nitin Sankar; Mamilla Nagarjun Reddy; R Krishna Prasad

    2016-02-01

    The various properties and surface morphology of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dispersed polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) matrix were studied to determine their usefulness in various applications. The tensile strength, Young's modulus and electrical breakdown strength of CNT/polymer composites were 0.35MPa, 1.2MPa and 8.1 kV, respectively. The thermal conductivity and dielectric constant for the material having 4.28 wt% CNT were 0.225 W m−1 K−1 and 2.329, respectively. The CNT/polymer composites are promising functional composites with improved mechanical and electrical properties. The scanning electron microscope analysis of surface morphology of PDMS/CNT composite showed that the rough surface texture on nanocomposite has large surface area with circular pores. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the functional groups present in polymer nanocomposite.

  5. Auroral Morphologies of Jupiter and Saturn

    OpenAIRE

    Grodent, Denis

    2015-01-01

    We review the principal differences and similarities of the morphologies of Jupiter and Saturn's auroral emissions. We then show some examples of UV images that are expected to be acquired with Cassini UVIS at Saturn and Juno UVS at Jupiter.

  6. Transforming quantum operations: quantum supermaps

    OpenAIRE

    Chiribella, G.; D'Ariano, G. M.; Perinotti, P.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the concept of quantum supermap, describing the most general transformation that maps an input quantum operation into an output quantum operation. Since quantum operations include as special cases quantum states, effects, and measurements, quantum supermaps describe all possible transformations between elementary quantum objects (quantum systems as well as quantum devices). After giving the axiomatic definition of supermap, we prove a realization theorem, which shows that any sup...

  7. Illumination Compensation for 2-D Barcode Recognition Basing Morphologic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hua Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of image quality has been highly demanded in digital imaging systems. This study presents a novel illumination normalization approach for 2-D barcode recognition under varying lighting conditions. MMs (Morphological transformations are employed to original images using big scale multiple SEs (structuring elements. Then we make use of entropy to fuse images. The performance of proposed methodology is illustrated through the processing of images with different kinds of 2-D barcodes under different backgrounds. The experimental results show that this approach can process different kinds of 2-D barcodes under varying lighting conditions adaptively. Compared with other conventional methods, our proposed approach does a better job in processing 2-D barcode under non-uniform illumination.

  8. Analysis of quantitative pore features based on mathematical morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Heng-nian; CHEN Feng-nong; WANG Hang-jun

    2008-01-01

    Wood identification is a basic technique of wood science and industry. Pore features are among the most important identification features for hardwoods. We have used a method based on an analysis of quantitative pore feature, which differs from traditional qualitative methods. We applies mathematical morphology methods such as dilation and erosion, open and close transformation of wood cross-sections, image repairing, noise filtering and edge detection to segment the pores from their background. Then the mean square errors (MSE) of pores were computed to describe the distribution of pores. Our experiment shows that it is easy to classift the pore features into three basic types, just as in traditional qualitative methods, but with the use of MSE of pores. This quantitative method improves wood identification considerably.

  9. Pattern Matching under Polynomial Transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Butman, Ayelet; Clifford, Raphael; Jalsenius, Markus; Lewenstein, Noa; Porat, Benny; Porat, Ely; Sach, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    We consider a class of pattern matching problems where a polynomial transformation can be applied to the pattern at every alignment. Given a pattern of length m and a longer text of length n where both are assumed to contain integer values only, we show O(n log m) algorithms for pattern matching under linear transformations even when wildcard symbols can occur in the input. We then show how to extend the technique to polynomial transformations of arbitrary degree. Next we consider the problem of finding the minimum Hamming distance under polynomial transformation. We show that, for any epsilon > 0, there cannot exist an O(nm^(1-epsilon)) algorithm for additive and linear transformations conditional on the hardness of the classic 3SUM problem. Finally, we consider a version of the Hamming distance problem under additive transformations with a bound k on the maximum distance that need be reported. We give a deterministic O(nk log k) time solution which we then improve by careful use of randomisation to O(n sqrt...

  10. Picasso on Show in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A staff member of the National Picasso Museum of France checks one of the great Spanish artist Pablo Picasso’s works at the China Pavilion inside the site of the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai on October 12.Sixty-two priceless paintings and statues selected from the works of the renowned artist have been brought to the pavilion for an upcoming exhibition to premiere on October 18.Besides these representative masterpieces,50 valuable photographs showing the artist’s whole life will also be presented.The exhibition’s estimated value is 678 million euros ($934 million).It will be held until January 10,2012.

  11. Evolutionary analysis of pollinaria morphology of subtribe Aeridinae (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topik Hidayat

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available HIDAYAT,  TOPIK; YUKAWA,  TOMOHISA; ITO, MOTOMI.  2006. Evolutionary analysis of  pollinaria morphology of subtribe Aeridinae (Orchidaceae. Reinwardtia 12(3: 223–235. –– Pollinarium is one of the distinct synapomorphies of Orchidaceae. With using characters  derived from the  pollinarium,  phylogenetic relationships among  genera of subtribe  Aeridinae was examined. Cladistic analysis showed that (1 Subtribe  Aeridinae is monophyletic group. (2 Five of six groups constructed in the analysis are consistent with the groups recognized in previous molecular  phylogenetic analyses.  (3 The  genera Cleisostoma and  Phalaenopsis are  non-monophyletic group. (4 Pollinarium morphology endorses monophyly  Trichoglottis  and Phalaenopsis alliances.  (5 Although transformation of the stipe and viscidium shapes in the subtribe is subjected to parallelism, the results showed that these characters are much useful in determining relationships in the subtribe than those of pollinium.

  12. Cellular neoplastic transformation induced by 916 MHz microwave radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Hao, Dongmei; Wang, Minglian; Zeng, Yi; Wu, Shuicai; Zeng, Yanjun

    2012-08-01

    There has been growing concern about the possibility of adverse health effects resulting from exposure to microwave radiations, such as those emitted by mobile phones. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cellular neoplastic transformation effects of electromagnetic fields. 916 MHz continuous microwave was employed in our study to simulate the electromagnetic radiation of mobile phone. NIH/3T3 cells were adopted in our experiment due to their sensitivity to carcinogen or cancer promoter in environment. They were divided randomly into one control group and three microwave groups. The three microwave groups were exposed to 916 MHz EMF for 2 h per day with power density of 10, 50, and 90 w/m(2), respectively, in which 10 w/m(2) was close to intensity near the antenna of mobile phone. The morphology and proliferation of NIH/3T3 cells were examined and furthermore soft agar culture and animal carcinogenesis assay were carried out to determine the neoplastic promotion. Our experiments showed NIH/3T3 cells changed in morphology and proliferation after 5-8 weeks exposure and formed clone in soft agar culture after another 3-4 weeks depending on the exposure intensity. In the animal carcinogenesis study, lumps developed on the back of SCID mice after being inoculated into exposed NIH/3T3 cells for more than 4 weeks. The results indicate that microwave radiation can promote neoplastic transformation of NIH/3T3cells.

  13. Morphological neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.X.; Sussner, P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. Thresholding usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network. In this paper we introduce a novel class of neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before thresholding. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different than those of traditional neural network models. In this paper we consider some of these differences and provide some particular examples of morphological neural network.

  14. Morphological and molecular convergences in mammalian phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhengting; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees reconstructed from molecular sequences are often considered more reliable than those reconstructed from morphological characters, in part because convergent evolution, which confounds phylogenetic reconstruction, is believed to be rarer for molecular sequences than for morphologies. However, neither the validity of this belief nor its underlying cause is known. Here comparing thousands of characters of each type that have been used for inferring the phylogeny of mammals, we find that on average morphological characters indeed experience much more convergences than amino acid sites, but this disparity is explained by fewer states per character rather than an intrinsically higher susceptibility to convergence for morphologies than sequences. We show by computer simulation and actual data analysis that a simple method for identifying and removing convergence-prone characters improves phylogenetic accuracy, potentially enabling, when necessary, the inclusion of morphologies and hence fossils for reliable tree inference. PMID:27585543

  15. Galaxy morphology - an unsupervised machine learning approach

    CERN Document Server

    Schutter, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Structural properties posses valuable information about the formation and evolution of galaxies, and are important for understanding the past, present, and future universe. Here we use unsupervised machine learning methodology to analyze a network of similarities between galaxy morphological types, and automatically deduce a morphological sequence of galaxies. Application of the method to the EFIGI catalog show that the morphological scheme produced by the algorithm is largely in agreement with the De Vaucouleurs system, demonstrating the ability of computer vision and machine learning methods to automatically profile galaxy morphological sequences. The unsupervised analysis method is based on comprehensive computer vision techniques that compute the visual similarities between the different morphological types. Rather than relying on human cognition, the proposed system deduces the similarities between sets of galaxy images in an automatic manner, and is therefore not limited by the number of galaxies being ...

  16. SDSS superclusters: morphology and galaxy content

    CERN Document Server

    Einasto, M; Tempel, E; Gramann, M; Liivamagi, L J; Einasto, J

    2014-01-01

    We compare the galaxy populations in superclusters of different morphology in the nearby Universe (180 < d < 270 Mpc) to see whether the inner structure and overall morphology of superclusters are important in shaping galaxy properties in superclusters. Supercluster morphology has been found with Minkowski functionals. We analyse the probability density distributions of colours, morphological types, stellar masses, star formation rates (SFR) of galaxies, and the peculiar velocities of the main galaxies in groups in superclusters of filament and spider types, and in the field. We show that the fraction of red, early-type, low SFR galaxies in filament-type superclusters is higher than in spider-type superclusters; in low-density global environments their fraction is lower than in superclusters. In all environments the fraction of red, high stellar mass, and low SFR galaxies in rich groups is higher than in poor groups. In superclusters of spider morphology red, high SFR galaxies have higher stellar masses...

  17. Semigroups of Upsilon transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Maejima, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    Upsilon transformations satisfying certain regularity conditions are shown to generate semigroups of such transformations. This is based on a general commutativity property of the Upsilon transformations, and uses log infinite divisibility. The existence of random integral representations of...... Upsilon transformations and of the generated semigroups is also discussed....

  18. Negotiated Grammar Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaytsev, V.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study controlled adaptability of metamodel transformations. We consider one of the most rigid metamodel transformation formalisms — automated grammar transformation with operator suites, where a transformation script is built in such a way that it is essentially meant to be applica

  19. Morphology and photocatalysis of mesoporous titania thin films annealed in different atmosphere for degradation of methyl orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qing; Qin, Tian Pang; Liu, Shao Jun; Weng, Lv Qian; Dong, Wen Yi

    2011-07-01

    The effect of different annealing atmosphere on the morphology and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO2 thin films by dip-coating technique is investigated. The annealing temperature and atmosphere causes significant change of the morphology, thermal stability, photoluminescence, and photocatalytic properties of mesoporous TiO2 films. As-prepared mesoporous thin films have an amorphous structure that is transformed to crystalline TiO2 with well-maintained mesoporous structure at 450°C in various annealing atmosphere except that the mesoporous structure is fully destroyed for films annealed in air. Films annealed in N2 show the enhanced UV photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) resulting from the enhanced crystallinity in these films evidenced by XRD and Raman spectra. These findings can be used to tailor the structure and morphology of mesoporous TiO2 films and thus improve their photocatalytic activity for efficient removal of dye effluents in wastewater.

  20. Effects of liquid morphology and distribution on the apparent properties of porous media made of stacked particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhi Yu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To understand the effects of liquid morphology on the apparent transfer properties of porous media formed by stacked particles, the authors investigate the particles’ aggregation state, apparent volume, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity of wet stacked glass beads. It shows that the liquid mainly exists as liquid bridges when the liquid content is low and connects each other when high. The transformation of liquid morphology and distribution influences the liquid effects on particles, thus changing the aggregation state of the particles and the apparent properties of the porous media in turn. A model is developed for predicting the critical liquid content at which the liquid morphology shifts from the state of liquid bridges into the state of interconnectedness. The prediction from the model is in good agreement with the experiment.

  1. The IHS Transformations Based Image Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Wassai, Firouz Abdullah; Al-Zuky, Ali A

    2011-01-01

    The IHS sharpening technique is one of the most commonly used techniques for sharpening. Different transformations have been developed to transfer a color image from the RGB space to the IHS space. Through literature, it appears that, various scientists proposed alternative IHS transformations and many papers have reported good results whereas others show bad ones as will as not those obtained which the formula of IHS transformation were used. In addition to that, many papers show different formulas of transformation matrix such as IHS transformation. This leads to confusion what is the exact formula of the IHS transformation?. Therefore, the main purpose of this work is to explore different IHS transformation techniques and experiment it as IHS based image fusion. The image fusion performance was evaluated, in this study, using various methods to estimate the quality and degree of information improvement of a fused image quantitatively.

  2. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  3. Automatic Target Detection by Optimal Morphological Filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Nong(余农); WU Hao(吴昊); WU ChangYong(吴常泳); LI YuShu(李予蜀)

    2003-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the design of morphological filters, which are optimal in some sense, is a difficult task. In this paper a novel method for optimal learning of morphological filtering parameters (Genetic training algorithm for morphological filters, GTAMF) is presented.GTAMF adopts new crossover and mutation operators called the curved cylinder crossover and master-slave mutation to achieve optimal filtering parameters in a global searching. Experimental results show that this method is practical, easy to extend, and markedly improves the performances of morphological filters. The operation of a morphological filter can be divided into two basic problems including morphological operation and structuring element (SE) selection. The rules for morphological operations are predefined so that the filter's properties depend merely on the selection of SE. By means of adaptive optimization training, structuring elements possess the shape and structural characteristics of image targets, and give specific information to SE. Morphological filters formed in this way become certainly intelligent and can provide good filtering results and robust adaptability to image targets with clutter background.

  4. Pea Plants Show Risk Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dener, Efrat; Kacelnik, Alex; Shemesh, Hagai

    2016-07-11

    Sensitivity to variability in resources has been documented in humans, primates, birds, and social insects, but the fit between empirical results and the predictions of risk sensitivity theory (RST), which aims to explain this sensitivity in adaptive terms, is weak [1]. RST predicts that agents should switch between risk proneness and risk aversion depending on state and circumstances, especially according to the richness of the least variable option [2]. Unrealistic assumptions about agents' information processing mechanisms and poor knowledge of the extent to which variability imposes specific selection in nature are strong candidates to explain the gap between theory and data. RST's rationale also applies to plants, where it has not hitherto been tested. Given the differences between animals' and plants' information processing mechanisms, such tests should help unravel the conflicts between theory and data. Measuring root growth allocation by split-root pea plants, we show that they favor variability when mean nutrient levels are low and the opposite when they are high, supporting the most widespread RST prediction. However, the combination of non-linear effects of nitrogen availability at local and systemic levels may explain some of these effects as a consequence of mechanisms not necessarily evolved to cope with variance [3, 4]. This resembles animal examples in which properties of perception and learning cause risk sensitivity even though they are not risk adaptations [5]. PMID:27374342

  5. Disformal transformations on the CMB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrage, Clare; Cespedes, Sebastian; Davis, Anne-Christine

    2016-08-01

    In this work we study the role of disformal transformation on cosmological backgrounds and its relation to the speed of sound for tensor modes. A speed different from one for tensor modes can arise in several contexts, such as Galileons theories or massive gravity, nevertheless the speed is very constrained to be one by observations of gravitational wave emission. It has been shown that in inflation a disformal transformation allows to set the speed for tensor modes to one without making changes to the curvature power spectrum. Here we show that this invariance does not hold when considering the CMB anisotropy power spectrum. It turns out that the after doing the transformation there is an imprint on the acoustic peaks and the diffusion damping. This has interesting consequences; here we explore quartic galileon theories which allow a modified speed for tensor modes. For these theories the transformation can be used to constraint the parameter space in different regimes.

  6. Morphological spectrum of peripheral nerve sheath tumors: A series of 126 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabhane Sushma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available By convention, soft tissue tumors include the peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST although they arise from neuroectoderm. PNSTs display a wide spectrum of morphology and biological behavior. Malignant transformation in benign tumors, especially neurofibroma, is an acknowledged phenomenon.This article describes clinico-pathological features of 126 PNSTs with their morphological variants and those associated with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1 encountered in a single center over a 6-year period. Benign PNSTs were more common [118 (93.65%] when compared with their malignant counterparts [8 (6.34%]. Histological variants including plexiform schwannomas and diffuse, plexiform and pigmented forms of neurofibromas, though rare, were observed. Eleven (8.73% patients with NF1 showed a strong association with plexiform neurofibroma. A malignant transformation in pre-existing neurofibroma was seen in 1 patient with NF1. This series highlights the clinico-pathological spectrum of PNSTs, their morphological variants and the incidence of associated NF1. The importance of detecting plexiform variants lies in their vastly different prognostic implications particularly when occurring in the setting of NF1

  7. The spider effect: morphological and orienting classification of microglia in response to stimuli in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul A Jonas

    Full Text Available The different morphological stages of microglial activation have not yet been described in detail. We transected the olfactory bulb of rats and examined the activation of the microglial system histologically. Six stages of bidirectional microglial activation (A and deactivation (R were observed: from stage 1A to 6A, the cell body size increased, the cell process number decreased, and the cell processes retracted and thickened, orienting toward the direction of the injury site; until stage 6A, when all processes disappeared. In contrast, in deactivation stages 6R to 1R, the microglia returned to the original site exhibiting a stepwise retransformation to the original morphology. Thin highly branched processes re-formed in stage 1R, similar to those in stage 1A. This reverse transformation mirrored the forward transformation except in stages 6R to 1R: cells showed multiple nuclei which were slowly absorbed. Our findings support a morphologically defined stepwise activation and deactivation of microglia cells.

  8. Analysis of Graphite Morphology of Gray Cast Iron in Pulse Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiu-shu; LIU Li-qiang; ZHAI Qi-jie

    2005-01-01

    By self-made pulse electrical source and strong magnetic field solidification tester,the effect of strong pulse magnetic field on graphite morphology and solidification structure of gray cast iron was studied.The results show that the structure is remarkably refined after treated by pulse magnetic field,and the width of graphite flakes is decreased while the length is increased after a slight decrease.The solidification temperature and eutectic temperature are increased and the undercooling degree of eutectic transformation is decreased by magnetic field.

  9. Multi scale Harris corner detector based on Differential Morphological Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    GUEGUEN LIONEL; Pesaresi, Martino

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel method for multi scale corner analysis and detection is presented. First, stateof-the-art Harris–Laplace corner detector is reminded, which benefits from linear scale-space analysis. Secondly, a non-linear scale-space transform, namely Differential Morphological Decomposition, is described. This multi-scale transform is used jointly with the Harris corner indicator to build a new multi scale corner detector. Both corner detectors are visually assessed on synthet...

  10. Transforming the Way We Teach Function Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkenberry, Eileen Durand; Faulkenberry, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss "function," a well-defined rule that relates inputs to outputs. They have found that by using the input-output definition of "function," they can examine transformations of functions simply by looking at changes to input or output and the respective changes to the graph. Applying transformations to the input…

  11. Tschirnhausen transformation of a cubic generic polynomial and a $2$-dimensional involutive Cremona transformation

    OpenAIRE

    HOSHI, Akinari; Miyake, Katsuya

    2007-01-01

    We study the field isomorphism problem for a cubic generic polynomial $X^3+sX+s$ via Tschirnhausen transformation. Through this process, there naturally appears a $2$-dimensional involutive Cremona transformation. We show that the fixed field under the action of the transformation is purely transcendental over an arbitrary base field.

  12. Solvent-tunable morphology and emission of pyrene-dipeptide organogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartocci, S; Morbioli, I; Maggini, M; Mba, M

    2015-12-01

    Two pyrene based organogelators in which the pyrene moiety has been linked to the diphenylalanine dipeptide have been synthesized. We show how the solvent can tune both the morphology and the optical properties of the organogels: spherical aggregates with quenched emission were obtained in acetonitrile, whereas an entangled fibrillar network with enhanced emission was formed in o-dichlorobenzene. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments suggest that both π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding contribute to the formation of the supramolecular networks. Ultraviolet-visible and steady state emission studies demonstrated the formation of I-aggregates in acetonitrile. In contrast, in o-dichlorobenzene, the formation of J-type aggregates leads to assemblies with enhanced emission. These results give some insight into the important role of the gelling solvent in the morphology of the supramolecular gels and may help in the design of new soft-materials. PMID:26767742

  13. Alkali Induced Morphology and Property Improvements of TiO2 by Hydrothermal Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Qiong; WEN Xianming; MA Peihua; DENG Xiaochuan

    2008-01-01

    Alkali induced morphology and property improvements of TiO2 by hydrothermal reaction were investigated.The products were characterized by SEM,TEM,XRD,TG,EDX,FT-IR and DRS.The results indicate that,with the phase transformation from anatase to rutile,the morphologies changed from high aggregated particles to nanofibers with the diameter of about 100 nm and the length up to several tens of micrometers,meanwhile the process is controllable by manipulating the nature of the alkali,alkalinity and hydrothermal temperature.DRS analysis shows the property improvement of the nanofibers in the UV-Vis light absorption compared with the raw materials,implying the products have potential application in photocatalysis.

  14. Fast lane recognition based on morphological multi-struc-ture element model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Tao; FAN Yang-yu; HUANG Lian-bing

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a lane detection algorithm based on multi-structure element model of morphological. The innovative point of the algorithm lies in the facts that the flexible structure has the multi-structure elements that lane model features have, and that the algorithm adopts the morphological filtering principle to extract the pixels in the image, which is similar to the lane model. In the algorithm, the interested area is extracted by a model of trapezium from original image, which is detected by the operator of Canny, and the lanes are extracted by the structure elements, which have similar characteristics to that of lane model. Several lines are detected by Hough transformation, then the traffic lanes are reconstructed. Experi-ments show that this algorithm is simple and robust, and can efficiently detect the lane mask accurately and quickly.

  15. On discrete cosine transform

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jianqin

    2011-01-01

    The discrete cosine transform (DCT), introduced by Ahmed, Natarajan and Rao, has been used in many applications of digital signal processing, data compression and information hiding. There are four types of the discrete cosine transform. In simulating the discrete cosine transform, we propose a generalized discrete cosine transform with three parameters, and prove its orthogonality for some new cases. A new type of discrete cosine transform is proposed and its orthogonality is proved. Finally, we propose a generalized discrete W transform with three parameters, and prove its orthogonality for some new cases.

  16. General Aspects about the Martensitic Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwar A. Torres-López

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With the time, the number of studies associated to the martensitic transformation has been expanded; therefore, understand as this mechanism operates and as it confers different characteristics to diverse materials where it occurs, many studies has been conducted in different areas carrying out to discoveries at microstructural, kinetic and crystallographic level. This paper presents an overview of the martensitic transformation, beginning with a historical development, through a review on their morphology and kinetically characteristics, in addition to an analysis of the prospects of the studies carried out in the area, with a special interest in the phenomena of thermo-elasticity and shape memory.

  17. Tuned Morphological Electrospun Hydroxyapatite Nanofibers via pH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng Song; Fengguang Ling; Haotian Li; Zhantuan Gao; Xuesi Chen

    2012-01-01

    The concept of biocompatible,osteoconductive and noninflammatory material mimicking the structure of natural bone has generated a considerable interest in recent decades.Hydroxyapatite (HA) is an important bionic material that is used for bone grafting in osseous defects and drug carriers.HA with various morphologies and surface properties have been widely investigated.In this paper,HA nanofibers are produced through a combination of electrospinning and sol-gel technique.The morphologies,composition and structure are investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM),Thermogravimetic Analysis (TGA),Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR),X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns,Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).The results show that HA nanofibers are even and well-crystallized,and pH is crucial for producing HA nanofibers.With the change ofpH from 4 to 9,nanofibers grow densely along (210) plane and become compact while surface area,pore volume and pore size decrease correspondingly.The synthesized HA nanofibers are nontoxic and safe.Zn can be also incorporated into HA nanofibers,which will endow them with more perfect function.

  18. Morphological Investigation and Fractal Properties of Realgar Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lashgari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some arsenic compounds can show extraordinary polymorphism. Realgar (As4S4 is among several minerals with various crystal forms and is one of the most important sources of arsenic for pharmaceutical use. Currently, realgar is used as an arsenic source in many industries, such as weaponry, publishing, textiles, cosmetics, and health products. In this paper, we used and reported new methods for the purification, nanonization, and structural morphological investigations of As4S4 by using planetary ball mills process for nanonization of the compound. The product was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry spectra, and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM imaging. We investigated the morphological properties of FESEM-imaged realgar nanoparticles by an image-processing technique that calculates fractal dimensions using values on a computer with MATLAB software. We applied the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software for statistics data extracted from the FESEM image and obtained the statistics results of the fractal dimension and histogram plot for the FESEM image.

  19. STRUCTURE AND MORPHOLOGY CHANGES OF HYDROBIOTITES MODIFIED BY CATIONIC SURFACTANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this study, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) together with Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the complexes, where the hydrobiotites (Xinjiang) were modified by single-chain surfactants octyltrimethylammonium bromide (OTMA) and octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (ODTMA). XRD patterns showed that the structure of complexes was significantly influenced by the surfactant concentration and the alkyl chain length, because obvious changes took place in the basal spacing. Furthermore, according to the XRD results, several arrangements of surfactant molecules within the hydrobiotite interlayer space were deduced. The FTIR spectrum indicated that the surfactant contents in complexes dramatically increased with the alkyl chain length. The SPM micrographs demonstrated that the surfaces of complexes prepared at lower surfactant concentration were relatively flat compared with that prepared at higher concentration, while those with higher surfactant concentration had much steeper surface due to the alkyl chain length. It was concluded that structure and morphology of surfactant/hydrobiotite complexes depend not only on the surfactant concentration, but also strongly on the surfactant species.

  20. Morphological Errors Made By Jordanian University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadan Saleh

    2015-01-01

    This study tries to identify, classify, describe and find out the causes of the morphological errors made by the fourth year university students majoring in English in Jordan. The students who participated in the study were 20 students from Al–Zaytoonah Private University of Jordan. The procedure followed was essay writing. After analyzing the errors, the study shows that (a) the students’ competence in English morphology is poor and (b) The errors are caused by some factors such as the incon...

  1. Morphology of photoreceptor systems in microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, P

    2001-06-01

    The polyphyletic artificial assemblage of O(2)-evolving, photosynthetic organisms, collectively referred to as algae, include a highly diverse array of organisms from large seaweeds (macroalgae) to unicellular microalgae. Phycology, the study of algae, focuses on morphological, ecological, physiological and molecular biological aspects of these organisms. Most microalgae show a photo-behaviour, i.e. they sense light and move towards it; in this review we will describe morphological similarities and differences in the photoreceptive system of microalgae.

  2. Improvement of the BALB/c-3T3 cell transformation assay: a tool for investigating cancer mechanisms and therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poburski, Doerte; Thierbach, René

    2016-01-01

    The identification of cancer preventive or therapeutic substances as well as carcinogenic risk assessment of chemicals is nowadays mostly dependent on animal studies. In vitro cell transformation assays mimic different stages of the in vivo neoplastic process and represent an excellent alternative to study carcinogenesis and therapeutic options. In the BALB/c-3T3 two-stage transformation assay cells are chemically transformed by treatment with MCA and TPA, along with the final Giemsa staining of morphological aberrant foci. In addition to the standard method we can show, that it is possible to apply other chemicals in parallel to identify potential preventive or therapeutic substances during the transformation process. Furthermore, we successfully combined the BALB/c cell transformation assay with several endpoint applications for protein analysis (immunoblot, subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence) or energy parameter measurements (glucose and oxygen consumption) to elucidate cancer mechanisms in more detail. In our opinion the BALB/c cell transformation assay proves to be an excellent model to investigate alterations in key proteins or energy parameters during the different stages of transformation as well as therapeutic substances and their mode of action.

  3. Improvement of the BALB/c-3T3 cell transformation assay: a tool for investigating cancer mechanisms and therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poburski, Doerte; Thierbach, René

    2016-01-01

    The identification of cancer preventive or therapeutic substances as well as carcinogenic risk assessment of chemicals is nowadays mostly dependent on animal studies. In vitro cell transformation assays mimic different stages of the in vivo neoplastic process and represent an excellent alternative to study carcinogenesis and therapeutic options. In the BALB/c-3T3 two-stage transformation assay cells are chemically transformed by treatment with MCA and TPA, along with the final Giemsa staining of morphological aberrant foci. In addition to the standard method we can show, that it is possible to apply other chemicals in parallel to identify potential preventive or therapeutic substances during the transformation process. Furthermore, we successfully combined the BALB/c cell transformation assay with several endpoint applications for protein analysis (immunoblot, subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence) or energy parameter measurements (glucose and oxygen consumption) to elucidate cancer mechanisms in more detail. In our opinion the BALB/c cell transformation assay proves to be an excellent model to investigate alterations in key proteins or energy parameters during the different stages of transformation as well as therapeutic substances and their mode of action. PMID:27611302

  4. Improvement of the BALB/c-3T3 cell transformation assay: a tool for investigating cancer mechanisms and therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poburski, Doerte; Thierbach, René

    2016-01-01

    The identification of cancer preventive or therapeutic substances as well as carcinogenic risk assessment of chemicals is nowadays mostly dependent on animal studies. In vitro cell transformation assays mimic different stages of the in vivo neoplastic process and represent an excellent alternative to study carcinogenesis and therapeutic options. In the BALB/c-3T3 two-stage transformation assay cells are chemically transformed by treatment with MCA and TPA, along with the final Giemsa staining of morphological aberrant foci. In addition to the standard method we can show, that it is possible to apply other chemicals in parallel to identify potential preventive or therapeutic substances during the transformation process. Furthermore, we successfully combined the BALB/c cell transformation assay with several endpoint applications for protein analysis (immunoblot, subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence) or energy parameter measurements (glucose and oxygen consumption) to elucidate cancer mechanisms in more detail. In our opinion the BALB/c cell transformation assay proves to be an excellent model to investigate alterations in key proteins or energy parameters during the different stages of transformation as well as therapeutic substances and their mode of action. PMID:27611302

  5. Chemical Transformation Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical Transformation Simulator (CTS) is a web-based, high-throughput screening tool that automates the calculation and collection of physicochemical properties for an organic chemical of interest and its predicted products resulting from transformations in environmental sy...

  6. 28-Channel rotary transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1981-01-01

    Transformer transmits power and digital data across rotating interface. Array has many parallel data channels, each with potential l megabaud data rate. Ferrite-cored transformers are spaced along rotor; airgap between them reduces crosstalk.

  7. Optical source transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundtz, N; Roberts, D A; Allen, J; Cummer, S; Smith, D R

    2008-12-22

    Transformation optics is a recently appreciated methodology for the design of complex media that control the propagation of electromagnetic and other types of waves. The transformation optical technique involves the use of coordinate transformations applied to some region of space, providing a conceptual means to redirect the flow of waves. Successfully designed devices to date have made use of transformations acting on passive space only; however, the technique can also be applied when source distributions (e.g., current and charge) are included within the space being transformed. In this paper we present examples of source transformations that illustrate the potential of these expanded transformation optical methods. In particular, using finite-element full-wave simulations, we confirm the restoration of dipole radiation patterns from both a distorted 'pin-wheel' antenna and a bent dipole partially occluded by a cylindrical scatterer. We propose the technique of source transformations as a powerful approach for antenna design, especially in relation to conformal antennas.

  8. Ecological radiation with limited morphological diversification in salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankers, Thomas; Adams, D C; Wiens, J J

    2012-04-01

    A major goal of evolutionary biology is to explain morphological diversity among species. Many studies suggest that much morphological variation is explained by adaptation to different microhabitats. Here, we test whether morphology and microhabitat use are related in plethodontid salamanders, which contain the majority of salamander species, and have radiated into a striking diversity of microhabitats. We obtained microhabitat data for 189 species that also had both morphometric and phylogenetic data. We then tested for associations between morphology and microhabitat categories using phylogenetic comparative methods. Associations between morphology and ecology in plethodontids are largely confined to a single clade within one subfamily (Bolitoglossinae), whereas variation in morphology across other plethodontids is unrelated to microhabitat categories. These results demonstrate that ecological radiation and morphological evolution can be largely decoupled in a major clade. The results also offer a striking contrast to lizards, which typically show close relationships between morphology and microhabitat.

  9. Ecological radiation with limited morphological diversification in salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankers, Thomas; Adams, D C; Wiens, J J

    2012-04-01

    A major goal of evolutionary biology is to explain morphological diversity among species. Many studies suggest that much morphological variation is explained by adaptation to different microhabitats. Here, we test whether morphology and microhabitat use are related in plethodontid salamanders, which contain the majority of salamander species, and have radiated into a striking diversity of microhabitats. We obtained microhabitat data for 189 species that also had both morphometric and phylogenetic data. We then tested for associations between morphology and microhabitat categories using phylogenetic comparative methods. Associations between morphology and ecology in plethodontids are largely confined to a single clade within one subfamily (Bolitoglossinae), whereas variation in morphology across other plethodontids is unrelated to microhabitat categories. These results demonstrate that ecological radiation and morphological evolution can be largely decoupled in a major clade. The results also offer a striking contrast to lizards, which typically show close relationships between morphology and microhabitat. PMID:22268991

  10. Shiftable multiscale transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoncelli, Eero P.; Freeman, William T.; Adelson, Edward H.; Heeger, David J.

    1992-01-01

    A type of translational invariance, referred to as shiftability, is defined for wavelet transforms. The property of shiftability is first discussed with respect to individual parameters: spatial position, orientation, and scale. The discussion then focuses on transformations that are simultaneously shiftable with respect to subsets of these parameters. It is shown that the critical sampling condition on the wavelet transforms must be relaxed to achieve shiftability. Two example transforms are implemented and applied to several signal and image processing problems.

  11. Entropy of Baker's Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾长福

    2003-01-01

    Four theorems about four different kinds of entropies for Baker's transformation are presented. The Kolmogorov entropy of Baker's transformation is sensitive to the initial flips by the time. The topological entropy of Baker's transformation is found to be log k. The conditions for the state of Baker's transformation to be forbidden are also derived. The relations among the Shanonn, Kolmogorov, topological and Boltzmann entropies are discussed in details.

  12. Vocabulary— Teaching Through Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A large vocabulary is crucial to learners of English, but how to teach vocabulary effectively is equally important to a teacher of English. This article tries to emphasize the importance of part of speech in vocabulary teaching by analyzing the characteristics of English words from the aspect of morphology.

  13. Entanglement Continuous Unitary Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Sahin, S; Orus, R

    2016-01-01

    Continuous unitary transformations are a powerful tool to extract valuable information out of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, in which the so-called flow equation transforms the Hamiltonian to a diagonal or block-diagonal form in second quantization. Yet, one of their main challenges is how to approximate the infinitely-many coupled differential equations that are produced throughout this flow. Here we show that tensor networks offer a natural and non-perturbative truncation scheme in terms of entanglement. The corresponding scheme is called "entanglement-CUT" or eCUT. It can be used to extract the low-energy physics of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, including quasiparticle energy gaps. We provide the general idea behind eCUT and explain its implementation for finite 1d systems using the formalism of matrix product operators, and we present proof-of-principle results for the spin-1/2 1d quantum Ising model in a transverse field. Entanglement-CUTs can also be generalized to higher dimensions and to the thermo...

  14. Transformational silicon electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2014-02-25

    In today\\'s traditional electronics such as in computers or in mobile phones, billions of high-performance, ultra-low-power devices are neatly integrated in extremely compact areas on rigid and brittle but low-cost bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) wafers. Ninety percent of global electronics are made up of silicon. Therefore, we have developed a generic low-cost regenerative batch fabrication process to transform such wafers full of devices into thin (5 μm), mechanically flexible, optically semitransparent silicon fabric with devices, then recycling the remaining wafer to generate multiple silicon fabric with chips and devices, ensuring low-cost and optimal utilization of the whole substrate. We show monocrystalline, amorphous, and polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide fabric, all from low-cost bulk silicon (100) wafers with the semiconductor industry\\'s most advanced high-κ/metal gate stack based high-performance, ultra-low-power capacitors, field effect transistors, energy harvesters, and storage to emphasize the effectiveness and versatility of this process to transform traditional electronics into flexible and semitransparent ones for multipurpose applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  15. On some hypergeometric transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.

    1999-01-01

    A method that may generate new transformations is mentioned. It is shown that the approach applies to some of the cubic transformations of 3F2, and, moreover, to a quartic and a sextic transformation of 2F1. Regions of validity are established. Many of the results are established by the aid of...

  16. SELECTION OF POWER TRANSFORMERS

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Gonchar

    2016-01-01

    The paper reveals that while loading transformers from idle running till nominal value it is preferable to apply transformers with less power losses in steel because total losses of active power in the indicated range are less than in transformers with larger losses in steel.

  17. Tuning the particle size and morphology of high energetic material nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphology controlled synthesis of nanoparticles of powerful high energetic compounds (HECs such as 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX were achieved by a simple solvent–antisolvent interaction (SAI method at 70 °C. The effects of different solvents on particle size and morphology of the prepared nano-HECs were studied systematically. Particle size and morphology of the nano-HECs was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM imaging. X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy studies revealed that RDX and HMX were precipitated in their most stable polymorphic forms, i.e. α and β, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis coupled with differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC studies showed that the thermal response of the nanoparticles was similar to the respective raw-HECs. HEC nanoparticles with spherical and rod shaped morphology were observed under different solvent conditions. The mean particle size also varied considerably with the use of different solvents.

  18. Head morphology in perinatal dolphins: a window into phylogeny and ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschmann, Michael A; Huggenberger, Stefan; Kossatz, Lars S; Oelschläger, Helmut H A

    2006-11-01

    In this paper on the ontogenesis and evolutionary biology of odontocete cetaceans (toothed whales), we investigate the head morphology of three perinatal pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) with the following methods: computer-assisted tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, conventional X-ray imaging, cryo-sectioning as well as gross dissection. Comparison of these anatomical methods reveals that for a complete structural analysis, a combination of modern imaging techniques and conventional morphological methods is needed. In addition to the perinatal dolphins, we include series of microslides of fetal odontocetes (S. attenuata, common dolphin Delphinus delphis, narwhal Monodon monoceros). In contrast to other mammals, newborn cetaceans represent an extremely precocial state of development correlated to the fact that they have to swim and surface immediately after birth. Accordingly, the morphology of the perinatal dolphin head is very similar to that of the adult. Comparison with early fetal stages of dolphins shows that the ontogenetic change from the general mammalian bauplan to cetacean organization was characterized by profound morphological transformations of the relevant organ systems and roughly seems to parallel the phylogenetic transition from terrestrial ancestors to modern odontocetes. PMID:17051542

  19. Synthesis and morphological modification of semiconducting Mg(Zn)Al(Ga)–LDH/ITO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, Jaime S., E-mail: jsanchez@imp.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central # 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico); López-Salinas, Esteban [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central # 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico); Prince, Julia [Universidad Anáhuac México Norte, Av. Universidad Anáhuac # 46, Huixquilucan, Edo. de México 52786 (Mexico); González, Ignacio; Acevedo-Peña, Prospero [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Química, Apdo. Postal 55-534, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Ángel, Paz del [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central # 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-09-15

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) thin films with different chemical compositions (MgZnAl, MgZnGa, MgGaAl) and varying thicknesses were easily prepared by sol–gel method followed by dip-coating. Films were chemically uniform, transparent and well adhered to a conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. Structure, chemical composition and morphology of the thin films were characterized by XRD-GADDS, SEM-EDS and AFM. Additionally, the semiconducting properties of all the prepared films were studied through the Mott–Schottky relationship; such properties were closely related to the chemical compositions of the film. The films were characterized after electrochemical treatment and important modifications regarding surface morphology, particle and crystal sizes were observed. An in-depth study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of several different electrochemical treatments on the morphology, particle size distribution and crystal size of LDH thin films. Upon electrochemical treatment, the films' surface became smooth and the particles forming the films were transformed from flaky open LDH platelets to uniformly distributed close-packed LDH nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Semiconducting Mg(Zn)Al(Ga)–LDH/ITO thin films prepared by sol–gel. • LDH thin films show a turbostratic morphology made up of porous flakes. • Electrochemical treatments change the flaky structure into a nanoparticle array.

  20. Morphology Of Diesel Soot Residuals From Supercooled Water Droplets And Ice Crystals: Implications For Optical Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    China, Swarup; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Scarnatio, Barbara; Sharma, Noopur; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Shilling, John E.; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Chand, Duli; Liu, Shang; Aiken, Allison; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Laskin, Alexander; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Mazzoleni, Claudio

    2015-11-04

    Freshly emitted soot particles are fractal-like aggregates, but atmospheric processing often transforms their morphology. Morphology of soot particles plays an important role in determining their optical properties, life cycle and hence their effect on Earth’s radiative balance. However, little is known about the morphology of soot particles that participated in cold cloud processes. Here we report results from laboratory experiments that simulate cold cloud processing of diesel soot particles by allowing them to form supercooled droplets and ice crystals at -20 and -40°C, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that soot residuals from ice crystals were more compact (roundness~0.55) than those from supercooled droplets (roundness ~0.45), while nascent soot particles were the least compact (roundness~0.41). Optical simulations using the discrete dipole approximation showed that the more compact structure enhances soot single scattering albedo by a factor up to 1.4, thereby reducing the top-of-the-atmosphere direct radiative forcing by ~63%. These results underscore that climate models should consider the morphological evolution of soot particles due to cold cloud processing to improve the estimate of direct radiative forcing of soot.

  1. Model Validation in Ontology Based Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. Almendros-Jiménez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Model Driven Engineering (MDE is an emerging approach of software engineering. MDE emphasizes the construction of models from which the implementation should be derived by applying model transformations. The Ontology Definition Meta-model (ODM has been proposed as a profile for UML models of the Web Ontology Language (OWL. In this context, transformations of UML models can be mapped into ODM/OWL transformations. On the other hand, model validation is a crucial task in model transformation. Meta-modeling permits to give a syntactic structure to source and target models. However, semantic requirements have to be imposed on source and target models. A given transformation will be sound when source and target models fulfill the syntactic and semantic requirements. In this paper, we present an approach for model validation in ODM based transformations. Adopting a logic programming based transformational approach we will show how it is possible to transform and validate models. Properties to be validated range from structural and semantic requirements of models (pre and post conditions to properties of the transformation (invariants. The approach has been applied to a well-known example of model transformation: the Entity-Relationship (ER to Relational Model (RM transformation.

  2. Generalized Tree-Based Wavelet Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Ram, Idan; Cohen, Israel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new wavelet transform applicable to functions defined on graphs, high dimensional data and networks. The proposed method generalizes the Haar-like transform proposed in \\cite{gavish2010mwot}, and it is similarly defined via a hierarchical tree, which is assumed to capture the geometry and structure of the input data. It is applied to the data using a multiscale filtering and decimation scheme, which can employ different wavelet filters. We propose a tree construction method which results in efficient representation of the input function in the transform domain. We show that the proposed transform is more efficient than both the 1D and 2D separable wavelet transforms in representing images. We also explore the application of the proposed transform to image denoising, and show that combined with a subimage averaging scheme, it achieves denoising results which are similar to the ones obtained with the K-SVD algorithm.

  3. Empirical ugri-UBVRc Transformations for Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, David O; Johnson, Benjamin D; Van Zee, Liese; Lee, Janice C; Kennicutt, Robert C; Calzetti, Daniela; Staudaher, Shawn M; Engelbracht, Charles W

    2014-01-01

    We present empirical color transformations between Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugri and Johnson-Cousins UBVRc photometry for nearby galaxies (D < 11 Mpc). We use the Local Volume Legacy (LVL) galaxy sample where there are 90 galaxies with overlapping observational coverage for these two filter sets. The LVL galaxy sample consists of normal, non-starbursting galaxies. We also examine how well the LVL galaxy colors are described by previous transformations derived from standard calibration stars and model-based galaxy templates. We find significant galaxy color scatter around most of the previous transformation relationships. In addition, the previous transformations show systematic offsets between transformed and observed galaxy colors which are visible in observed color-color trends. The LVL-based $galaxy$ transformations show no systematic color offsets and reproduce the observed color-color galaxy trends.

  4. Solid-solid phase transformation kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Rico

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 2 of this thesis presents the investigation of the microstructural evolution of Co precipitates formed upon isochronal annealing of an initially supersaturated Au 10.12 at. % Co solid solution. It was proven, that initially plate like bcc Co precipitates have formed, which deviates from the expected stable fcc Co crystal structure. Upon prolonged annealing, i. e. with ongoing precipitation reaction, the bcc Co was transformed into fcc Co accompanied with a morphological change of th...

  5. North American sturgeon otolith morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate expedient species identification of deceased sturgeon (Acipenseridae) when external physical characteristic analysis is inconclusive has become a high priority due to the endangered or threatened status of sturgeon species around the world. Examination of otoliths has provided useful information to aid in population management, age and size-class analysis, understanding predator–prey interactions, and archeological research in other fish species. The relationship between otolith characteristics and sturgeon species has remained unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the shape of otoliths from the eight species of sturgeon found in North America to test the utility of otolith characteristic morphology in species identification. There were distinct differences in the size and shape of the otoliths between species of sturgeon with little shape variation among individuals of the same species. The relationship between otolith length axes was linear, and most of the variability was explained by a Log (axis + 1) transformation of the x and y axes (r2 = 0.8983) using the equation y = 0.73x + 0.0612. Images of otoliths from all eight North American species are presented to assist in the identification process.

  6. Morphological, ontogenetic and molecular characterization of Scutellospora reticulata (Glomeromycota)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Souza, F.A.; Declerck, S.; Smit, E.; Kowalchuk, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Scutellospora reticulata (CNPAB11) was characterized using morphological, ontogenetic and molecular approaches. Spore ontogenesis was studied using Ri T-DNA transformed carrot roots and observations were compared with those published for eight other, pot-cultur

  7. Context-aware modeling of neuronal morphologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eTorben-Nielsen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal morphologies are pivotal for brain functioning: physical overlap between dendrites and axons constrain the circuit topology, and the precise shape and composition of dendrites determine the integration of inputs to produce an output signal. At the same time, morphologies are highly diverse and variant. The variance, presumably, originates from neurons developing in a densely packed brain substrate where they interact (e.g., repulsion or attraction with other actors in this substrate. However, when studying neurons their context is never part of the analysis and they are treated as if they existed in isolation.Here we argue that to fully understand neuronal morphology and its variance it is important to consider neurons in relation to each other and to other actors in the surrounding brain substrate, i.e., their context. We propose a context-aware computational framework, NeuroMaC, in which large numbers of neurons can be grown simultaneously according to growth rules expressed in terms of interactions between the developing neuron and the surrounding brain substrate.As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that by using NeuroMaC we can generate accurate virtual morphologies of distinct classes both in isolation and as part of neuronal forests. Accuracy is validated against population statistics of experimentally reconstructed morphologies. We show that context-aware generation of neurons can explain characteristics of variation. Indeed, plausible variation is an inherent property of the morphologies generated by context-aware rules. We speculate about the applicability of this framework to investigate morphologies and circuits, to classify healthy and pathological morphologies, and to generate large quantities of morphologies for large-scale modeling.

  8. EVALUATION OF MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS AND ASSESMENT OF DNA CONTENT USING FLOWCYTOMETRY ANALYSIS IN REGENERANTS DWARF NAPIERGRASS FROM EMBRYOGENIC CALLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiatul Umami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Callus is an excellent source for in vitro plant regeneration, but plants regenerated from callus sometimes show phenotypic and genotypic variation from the initial plants. In this study, there was no variations between regenerated plants and dwarf napiergrass as control. Research result on six morphological characters did not show differences between regenerated plants and control plants. There were not either significant differences of DNA content between control and regenerated plants. The method established by this research was a stable and efficient method that can be applied for supplying transformation materials using callus.

  9. "Sleeping Giants" Transform a School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, R. Eleanor

    1995-01-01

    Describes the transformation of St. John Neumann School, in South Carolina, from a financially unstable parish school to a thriving and fully accredited institution through parent participation and the efforts of a new principal. Argues that the school's experience shows what can be achieved when families, communities, and schools commit…

  10. Transformation optics and invisibility cloaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Min; Yan, Min; Yan, Wei

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we briefly summarize the theory of transformation optics and introduce its application in achieving perfect invisibility cloaking. In particular, we theoretically show how the task of realizing cylindrical invisibility cloaks can be eased by using either structural approximation...

  11. Diabetic Retinopathy Grading by Digital Curvelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Hajeb Mohammad Alipour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major complications of diabetes is diabetic retinopathy. As manual analysis and diagnosis of large amount of images are time consuming, automatic detection and grading of diabetic retinopathy are desired. In this paper, we use fundus fluorescein angiography and color fundus images simultaneously, extract 6 features employing curvelet transform, and feed them to support vector machine in order to determine diabetic retinopathy severity stages. These features are area of blood vessels, area, regularity of foveal avascular zone, and the number of micro-aneurisms therein, total number of micro-aneurisms, and area of exudates. In order to extract exudates and vessels, we respectively modify curvelet coefficients of color fundus images and angiograms. The end points of extracted vessels in predefined region of interest based on optic disk are connected together to segment foveal avascular zone region. To extract micro-aneurisms from angiogram, first extracted vessels are subtracted from original image, and after removing detected background by morphological operators and enhancing bright small pixels, micro-aneurisms are detected. 70 patients were involved in this study to classify diabetic retinopathy into 3 groups, that is, (1 no diabetic retinopathy, (2 mild/moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, (3 severe nonproliferative/proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and our simulations show that the proposed system has sensitivity and specificity of 100% for grading.

  12. Microprocessor Protection of Power Reducing Transformers

    OpenAIRE

    F. A. Romanuk; Korolev, S. P.; M. S. Loman

    2011-01-01

    The paper contains analysis of advantages and disadvantages of existing differential protection terminals of power reducing transformers. The paper shows that there are good reasons to develop microprocessor protection of power reducing transformer which contains required functions and settings and which is based on Belarusian principles of relay protection system construction. The paper presents functional structure of microprocessor terminal of power reducing transformer which is developed. 

  13. Microprocessor Protection of Power Reducing Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Romanuk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of advantages and disadvantages of existing differential protection terminals of power reducing transformers. The paper shows that there are good reasons to develop microprocessor protection of power reducing transformer which contains required functions and settings and which is based on Belarusian principles of relay protection system construction. The paper presents functional structure of microprocessor terminal of power reducing transformer which is developed. 

  14. Transformer - type pulse high voltage generator

    OpenAIRE

    寺尾, 薫; 高野, 三郎; 入澤, 壽逸

    1995-01-01

    Atriple-resonance pulse transformer cuircuit is compared experimentally to the well-known double-resonance one. The primary circuit of each are fixed and a turn ratio of the transformer is varied from 1:10 to 1:50 by every 10 turns. The triple-resonance mode shows high voltage multiplication and high efficiency of energy transfer compared to the double resonance mode, particularly at high turn ratio of the transformer.

  15. Conformal transformations and conformal invariance in gravitation

    OpenAIRE

    Dabrowski, Mariusz P.; Garecki, Janusz; Blaschke, David B.

    2008-01-01

    Conformal transformations are frequently used tools in order to study relations between various theories of gravity and the Einstein relativity. In this paper we discuss the rules of these transformations for geometric quantities as well as for the matter energy-momentum tensor. We show the subtlety of the matter energy-momentum conservation law which refers to the fact that the conformal transformation "creates" an extra matter term composed of the conformal factor which enters the conservat...

  16. Novel cellular genes essential for transformation of endothelial cells by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggo, Camilo; Ruhl, Rebecca; McAllister, Shane; Koon, Henry; Dezube, Bruce J; Früh, Klaus; Moses, Ashlee V

    2005-06-15

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is involved in the development of lymphoproliferative diseases and Kaposi's sarcoma. The oncogenicity of this virus is reflected in vitro by its ability to transform B cells and endothelial cells. Infection of dermal microvascular endothelial cells (DMVEC) transforms the cells from a cobblestone-like monolayer to foci-forming spindle cells. This transformation is accompanied by dramatic changes in the cellular transcriptome. Known oncogenes, such as c-Kit, are among the KSHV-induced host genes. We previously showed that c-Kit is an essential cellular component of the KSHV-mediated transformation of DMVEC. Here, we test the hypothesis that the transformation process can be used to discover novel oncogenes. When expression of a panel of KSHV-induced cellular transcripts was inhibited with antisense oligomers, we observed inhibition of DMVEC proliferation and foci formation using antisense molecules to RDC1 and Neuritin. We further showed that transformation of KSHV-infected DMVEC was inhibited by small interfering RNA directed at RDC1 or Neuritin. Ectopic expression of Neuritin in NIH 3T3 cells resulted in changes in cell morphology and anchorage-independent growth, whereas RDC1 ectopic expression significantly increased cell proliferation. In addition, both RDC1- and Neuritin-expressing cells formed tumors in nude mice. RDC1 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor, whereas Neuritin is a growth-promoting protein known to mediate neurite outgrowth. Neither gene has been previously implicated in tumorigenesis. Our data suggest that KSHV-mediated transformation involves exploitation of the hitherto unrealized oncogenic properties of RDC1 and Neuritin. PMID:15958552

  17. Welfare State Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obinger, Herbert; Starke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes welfare state transformation in OECD countries since the 1970s against the background of the post-war settlement. Relying on quantitative macro-data and qualitative information from the literature, we show that welfare states have con-verged, especially regarding various...... by generous welfare states and disagree with the view that a supply-side orientation equals ‘lean government’ in terms of social expenditure. But convergence implies that the space to maneuver has shrunk for policy-makers. The consequences of the 2008 financial crisis for welfare states are difficult...... to predict; short-term counter-cyclical measures in reac-tion to the crisis highlight the importance of protective buffers in highly integrated economies. Still, some countries have experienced harsh austerity measures since then, and thus the 2008 financial crisis may mark the end of the convergence period...

  18. Lorentz transformation of blackbody radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, G W; O'Connell, R F

    2013-10-01

    We present a simple calculation of the Lorentz transformation of the spectral distribution of blackbody radiation at temperature T. Here we emphasize that T is the temperature in the blackbody rest frame and does not change. We thus avoid the confused and confusing question of how temperature transforms. We show by explicit calculation that at zero temperature the spectral distribution is invariant. At finite temperature we find the well-known result familiar in discussions of the 2.7 K cosmic radiation. PMID:24229306

  19. Nanoscale Morphology Evolution Under Ion Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Michael J. [President & Fellows of Harvard College, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-11-10

    We showed that the half-century-old paradigm of morphological instability under irradiation due to the curvature-dependence of the sputter yield, can account neither for the phase diagram nor the amplification or decay rates that we measure in the simplest possible experimental system -- an elemental semiconductor with an amorphous surface under noble-gas ion irradiation; We showed that a model of pattern formation based on the impact-induced redistribution of atoms that do not get sputtered away explains our experimental observations; We developed a first-principles, parameter-free approach for predicting morphology evolution, starting with molecular dynamics simulations of single ion impacts, lasting picoseconds, and upscaling through a rigorous crater-function formalism to develop a partial differential equation that predicts morphology evolution on time scales more than twelve orders of magnitude longer than can be covered by the molecular dynamics; We performed the first quantitative comparison of the contributions to morphological instability from sputter removal and from impact-induced redistribution of atoms that are removed, and showed that the former is negligible compared to the latter; We established a new paradigm for impact-induced morphology evolution based on crater functions that incorporate both redistribution and sputter effects; and We developed a model of nanopore closure by irradiation-induced stress and irradiationenhanced fluidity, for the near-surface irradiation regime in which nuclear stopping predominates, and showed that it explains many aspects of pore closure kinetics that we measure experimentally.

  20. Mammographic image enhancement using wavelet transform and homomorphic filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Majidi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mammography is the most effective method for the early diagnosis of breast cancer diseases. As mammographic images contain low signal to noise ratio and low contrast, it becomes too difficult for radiologists to analyze mammogram. To deal with the above stated problems, it is very important to enhance the mammographic images using image processing methods. This paper introduces a new image enhancement approach for mammographic images which uses the modified mathematical morphology, wavelet transform and homomorphic filter to suppress the noise of images. For performance evaluation of the proposed method, contrast improvement index (CII and edge preservation index (EPI are adopted. Experimental results on mammographic images from Pejvak Digital Imaging Center (PDIC show that the proposed algorithm improves the two indexes, thereby achieving the goal of enhancing mammographic images.

  1. A multiscale perspective on the kinetics of solid state transformations with application to bainite formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claas Hüter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We give an excerpt of recent developments in the experimentally benchmarked modeling of bainite formation in the press hardening process. As the press hardening process poses a heavily multi-parameter dependent modeling challenge, we focus on three main branches which complement each other. We emphasise the combination of basic sharp interface and phase field models with pragmatically adapted multi phase field models and experimentally parametrized implementations of the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model. In the basic thermodynamic modeling part, we review fundamental aspects of displacive and diffusional-displacive transformations to predict dominant transformation morphologies. These results provide a link to multi-phase-field implementations which allow to simulate isothermal bainitic transformations, supported by available material data from thermodynamic databases. Excellent agreement with experiments, e.g. scanning electron microscopy for the transformed bainite in the high-carbon steel 100Cr6 shows the value of these model implementations. The further connection to Johnson-Mehl-Avrami models offers to extend the understanding to transformation plasticity for the press hardening steel 22MnB5.

  2. Matrix transformation of digital image and its periodicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The periodicity of a general matrix modular transformation is discussed, and a simple proof of a sufficient and necessary condition that a matrix transformation has periodicity is given. Using a block matrix method, the higher dimensional transformation and its inverse are studied, and a simple algorithm for calculating their periods is put forward. The security of n-dimensional Amold transformation and its inverse is also discussed. The results show that the two transformations are applicable in scrambling and recovering images.

  3. Disformal transformations on the CMB

    CERN Document Server

    Burrage, Clare; Davis, Anne-Christine

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the role of disformal transformation on cosmological backgrounds and its relation to the speed of sound for tensor modes. A speed different from one for tensor modes can arise in several contexts, such as Galileons theories or massive gravity, nevertheless the speed is very constrained to be one by observations of gravitational wave emission. It has been shown that in inflation a disformal trans- formation allows to set the speed for tensor modes to one without making changes to the curvature power spectrum. Here we show that this invariance does not hold when considering the CMB anisotropy power spectrum. It turns out that the after doing the transformation there is an imprint on the acoustic peaks and the diffusion damping. This has interesting consequences; here we explore quartic galileon theories which allow a modified speed for tensor modes. For these theories the transformation can be used to constraint the parameter space in different regimes.

  4. A Transformer Class E Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikolajewski Miroslaw

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a high-efficiency Class E ZVS resonant amplifier a matching and isolation transformer can replace some or even all inductive components of the amplifier thus simplifying the circuit and reducing its cost. In the paper a theoretical analysis, a design example and its experimental verification for a transformer Class E amplifier are presented. In the experimental amplifier with a transformer as the only inductive component in the circuit high efficiency ηMAX = 0.95 was achieved for supply voltage VI = 36 V, maximum output power POMAX = 100 W and the switching frequency f = 300 kHz. Measured parameters and waveforms showed a good agreement with theoretical predictions. Moreover, the relative bandwidth of the switching frequency was only 19% to obtain output power control from 4.8 W to POMAX with efficiency not less than 0.9 in the regulation range.

  5. Wavelets associated with Hankel transform and their Weyl transforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG; Lizhong; MA; Ruiqin

    2004-01-01

    The Hankel transform is an important transform. In this paper, westudy the wavelets associated with the Hankel transform, thendefine the Weyl transform of the wavelets. We give criteria of itsboundedness and compactness on the Lp-spaces.

  6. Transformation of iopamidol during chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Friedrich M; Lütke Eversloh, Christian; Machek, Edward J; Duirk, Stephen E; Plewa, Michael J; Richardson, Susan D; Ternes, Thomas A

    2014-11-01

    The transformation of the iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) iopamidol, iopromide, iohexol, iomeprol, and diatrizoate was examined in purified water over the pH range from 6.5 to 8.5 in the presence of sodium hypochlorite, monochloramine, and chlorine dioxide. In the presence of aqueous chlorine, only iopamidol was transformed. All other ICM did not show significant reactivity, regardless of the oxidant used. Chlorination of iopamidol followed a second order reaction, with an observed rate constant of up to 0.87 M(-1) s(-1) (±0.021 M(-1) s(-1)) at pH 8.5. The hypochlorite anion was identified to be the reactive chlorine species. Iodine was released during the transformation of iopamidol, and was mainly oxidized to iodate. Only a small percentage (less than 2% after 24 h) was transformed to known organic iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) of low molecular weight. Some of the iodine was still present in high-molecular weight DBPs. The chemical structures of these DBPs were elucidated via MSn fragmentation and NMR. Side chain cleavage was observed as well as the exchange of iodine by chlorine. An overall transformation pathway was proposed for the degradation of iopamidol. CHO cell chronic cytotoxicity tests indicate that chlorination of iopamidol generates a toxic mixture of high molecular weight DBPs (LC50 332 ng/μL).

  7. c-Myc Transforms Human Mammary Epithelial Cells through Repression of the Wnt Inhibitors DKK1 and SFRP1▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, Victoria H.; D'Cruz, Celina M.; Chodosh, Lewis A.; Cole, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    c-myc is frequently amplified in breast cancer; however, the mechanism of myc-induced mammary epithelial cell transformation has not been defined. We show that c-Myc induces a profound morphological transformation in human mammary epithelial cells and anchorage-independent growth. c-Myc suppresses the Wnt inhibitors DKK1 and SFRP1, and derepression of DKK1 or SFRP1 reduces Myc-dependent transforming activity. Myc-dependent repression of DKK1 and SFRP1 is accompanied by Wnt target gene activation and endogenous T-cell factor activity. Myc-induced mouse mammary tumors have repressed SFRP1 and increased expression of Wnt target genes. DKK1 and SFRP1 inhibit the transformed phenotype of breast cancer cell lines, and DKK1 inhibits tumor formation. We propose a positive feedback loop for activation of the c-myc and Wnt pathways in breast cancer. PMID:17485441

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis of SrF2:Yb3+/Er3+micro-/nanocrystals with multiform morphologies and upconversion properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jiayue; XIAN Jianbo; ZHANG Xiangyan; DU Haiyan

    2011-01-01

    Micro-and nanocrystals cubic-phase SrF2:Yb3+/Er3+ upconversion luminescence phosphors were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route in the presence of different surfactants. The samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction(XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and upconversion emission spectra.As-prepared products showed a variety of morphologies, such as cubic-shaped microcrystal, hierarchical structure microspheres,spherical-shaped nanocrystals and nanosheets.The intrinsic structural feature of cubic-phase SrF2 and two important external factors, namely,the mechanisms for products with various architectures were presented. A systematic study on the photoluminescence of Yb3+/Er3+-doped SrF2 samples with cubic shape, microspheres, spherical and nanosheets shapes showed that the optical properties of these products were strongly dependent on their morphologies and size.

  9. Effects of 5-azacytidine on the progressive nature of cell transformation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, W L; Gattoni-Celli, S; Weinstein, I B

    1985-01-01

    C3H 10T1/2 mouse embryo fibroblasts were exposed to 3 microM 5-azacytidine for 24 h and then serially passaged in the absence of 5-azacytidine and examined for subsequent changes in growth properties. The treated cells showed changes in morphology, saturation density, growth rate, and serum dependence. By the 5th passage they acquired the ability to grow in 0.3% agarose, and by the 30th passage they gave rise to fully transformed foci that grew in agarose, in agar, and in liquid suspension. T...

  10. Solution-phase synthesis of inorganic nanostructures by chemical transformation from reactive templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The solution-phase synthesis by chemical transformation from reactive templates has proved to be very effective in morphology-controlled synthesis of inorganic nanostructures. This review paper summarizes the recent progress in solution-phase synthesis of one-dimensional and hollow inorganic nanostructures via reactive templates, focusing on the approaches developed in our lab. The formation mechanisms based on reactive templates are discussed in depth to show the general concepts for the preparation processes. An outlook on the future development in this area is also presented.

  11. The Fresnel-Weyl complementary transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Chuan-Mei; Fan Hong-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Based on the newly developed coherent-entangled state representation,we propose the so-called Fresnel-Weyl complementary transformation operator.The new operator plays the roles of both Fresnel transformation (for (a1 - a2)/√2)and the Weyl transformation (for (a1 + a2)/√2).Physically,(a1 - a2)/√2 and (a1 + a2)/√2 could be a symmetric beamsplitter's two output fields for the incoming fields a1 and a2.We show that the two transformations are concisely expressed in the coherent-entangled state representation as a projective operator in the integration form.

  12. Tensor power spectrum and disformal transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Fumagalli, Jacopo; Postma, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    In a general effective theory description of inflation a disformal transformation can be used to set the tensor sound speed to one. After the transformation, the tensor power spectrum then automatically only depends on the Hubble parameter. We show that this disformal transformation, however, is nothing else than a change of units. It is a very useful tool for simplifying and interpreting computations, but it cannot change any physics. While the apparent parametrical dependence of the tensor power spectrum does change under a disformal transformation, the physics described is frame invariant. We further illustrate the frame invariance of the tensor power spectrum by writing it exclusively in terms of separately invariant quantities.

  13. Computer-controlled experiments with a transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transformer is a key device for electrical energy transfer. It displays a unique collection of basic physical phenomena; therefore, the transformer is an invaluable educational resource. With a data-acquisition system, the characteristics of a transformer are obtainable in a short time, and exhaustive illustrations can be displayed on the screen of a computer. The experiments give the students deeper understanding of fundamental physical phenomena and show how physical laws work in power engineering. Learning about the transformer should not be an exclusive privilege of students of electrical engineering; students of physics would also be interested in such laboratory experiments

  14. Isotopically enriched ammonium shows high nitrogen transformation in the pile top zone of dairy manure compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Maeda

    2016-03-01

    significantly high 15N (δ15N: 12.7–29.8 ‰ values, indicating that extremely high nitrogen conversion, nitrification–denitrification activity of the microbes and NH3 volatilization occurred in this zone.

  15. Revisiting Riesz transforms on Heisenberg groups

    CERN Document Server

    Sanjay, P K

    2011-01-01

    We characterise higher order Riesz transforms on the Heisenberg group and also show that they satisfy dimension-free bounds under some assumptions on the multipliers. Using transfer- ence theorems, we deduce boundedness theorems for Riesz trans- forms on the reduced Heisenberg group and hence also for the Riesz transforms associated to multiple Hermite and Laguerre ex- pansions.

  16. Has the Nordic Welfare Model Been Transformed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent; Kvist, Jon

    2011-01-01

    The Nordic welfare model is undergoing a fundamental transformation. Using Denmark we show how a universal welfare state model is gradually being transformed into an emergent multi-tiered welfare state. Whereas the Danish pension system's having become multi-tiered in the 1990s, with private...

  17. Topological Transformation during Normal Grain Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaogang LOU; Michael A.Player

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates topological transformation during normal grain growth by carrying out a computer vertex simulation.Results show that topological correlation agrees with the models proposed by Blanc et al. and Weaire. Topological transformation occurs more often on grains with some topological classes instead of equal probability on each boundary. This can be qualitatively explained by topological correlation.

  18. Realization of Wavelet Transform Using SAW Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of surface acoustic wave(SAW) devices, the theory for realizing wavelet transform (WT) by SAW is deduced. Simulated experiment shows that the method of implementing WT using SAW devices has virtues of high speed and utility and is compatible with digital technique. It is important to implement wavelet transform.

  19. CPS Transformation of Beta-Redexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Nielsen, Lasse

    2005-01-01

    The extra compaction of the most compacting CPS transformation in existence, which is due to Sabry and Felleisen, is generally attributed to (1) making continuations occur first in CPS terms and (2) classifying more redexes as administrative. We show that this extra compaction is actually...... independent of the relative positions of values and continuations and furthermore that it is solely due to a context-sensitive transformation of beta-redexes. We stage the more compact CPS transformation into a first-order uncurrying phase and a context-insensitive CPS transformation. We also define a context......-insensitive CPS transformation that provides the extra compaction. This CPS transformation operates in one pass and is dependently typed....

  20. CPS Transformation of Beta-Redexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Nielsen, Lasse R.

    2000-01-01

    The extra compaction of the most compacting CPS transformation in existence, which is due to Sabry and Felleisen, is generally attributed to (1) making continuations occur first in CPS terms and (2) classifying more redexes as administrative. We show that this extra compaction is actually...... independent of the relative positions of values and continuations and furthermore that it is solely due to a context-sensitive transformation of beta-redexes. We stage the more compact CPS transformation into a first-order uncurrying phase and a context-insensitive CPS transformation. We also define a context......-insensitive CPS transformation that provides the extra compaction. This CPS transformation operates in one pass and is dependently typed....

  1. Finite transformers for construction of fractal curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisovik, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we continue the study of infinite R{sup n}-transformers that can be used to define real functions and three-dimensional curves. An R{sup n}-transformer A generates an output n-tuple A(x) = (Y{sub 1},...,Y{sub n}), consisting of output binary representations. We have previously shown that finite R{sup n}-transformers with n = 1, 2 can be used to define a continuous, nowhere differentiable function and a Peano curve. Curves of this kind are objects of fractal geometry. Here we show that some other fractal curves, which are analogs of the Koch curve and the Sierpinski napkin, can be defined by finite R{sup 2}-transformers. R{sup n}-transformers (and also finite R{sup n}-transformers) thus provide a convenient tool for definition of fractal curves.

  2. Finite Element Analysis of a Contactless Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyu Lan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Inductively coupling power transfer is an emerging technique, which enables power transfer to loads through air. The contactless transformer is the key component of it, and the design of a transformer is a time-consuming work with a large number of tests. In this paper, a design method of contactless transformer with finite element analysis is presented. First the contactless transformer model is deduced from Maxwell Equations, and the self inductance and mutual inductance computational equations are given as well. Then the magnetic field distributions of contactless transformer with different air gaps are presented by simulation of MAXWELL ANSOFT. Furthermore, the skin and proximity effects are analyzed as well. At last, the results are compared with the experimental results with the same dimension and material. The analyses show that there has a good agreement with each other. So by this method, the design period of a contactless transformer will be shorter than before

  3. Cladogenesis and morphological diversification in passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Robert E

    2004-07-15

    Morphological diversity tends to increase within evolving lineages over time, but the relative roles of gradual evolutionary change (anagenesis) and abrupt shifts associated with speciation events (cladogenesis, or 'punctuated equilibrium') have not been resolved for most groups of organisms. However, these two modes of evolution can be distinguished by the fact that morphological variance increases in proportion to time under anagenesis, and in proportion to the logarithm of the number of species under cladogenesis. Although species and time are themselves correlated, multiple regression analysis provides a statistical framework for partitioning their relative contributions. In this study, I use multiple regressions to evaluate the effects of time and species number on morphological diversity within clades of passerine birds. The results show clearly that number of species exerts a strong influence on morphological variance independent of time, but that time has no unique effect. Thus, morphological evolution in birds seems to be associated with cladogenesis. How lineage splitting promotes morphological diversification poses an important challenge to ecologists and evolutionary biologists. PMID:15254535

  4. Transformation optics, curvature and beyond (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Martin W.

    2016-04-01

    Although the transformation algorithm is very well established and implemented, some intriguing questions remain unanswered. 1) In what precise mathematical sense is the transformation optics algorithm `exact'? The invariance of Maxwell's equations is well understood, but in what sense does the same principle not apply to acoustics (say)? 2) Even if the fields are transformed in a way that apparently mimic vacuum perfectly, it is easy to construct very simple examples where the impedance of the transformed medium is no longer isotropic and homogeneous. This would seem to imply a fundamental shortcoming in any claim that electromagnetic cloaking has been reduced to technology. 3) Transformations are known to exist that introduce a discrepancy between the Poynting vector and the wave-vector. Does this distinction carry any physical significance? We have worked extensively on understanding a commonality between transformation theories that operates at the level of rays - being interpreted as geodesics of an appropriate manifold. At this level we now understand that the *key* problem underlying all attempts to unify the transformational approach to disparate areas of physics is how to relate the transformation of the base metric (be it Euclidean for spatial transformation optics, or Minkowskian for spacetime transformation optics) to the medium parameters of a given physical domain (e.g. constitutive parameters for electromagnetism, bulk modulus and mass density for acoustics, diffusion constant and number density for diffusion physics). Another misconception we will seek to address is the notion of the relationship between transformation optics and curvature. Many have indicated that transformation optics evinces similarities with Einstein's curvature of spacetime. Here we will show emphatically that transformation optics cannot induce curvature. Inducing curvature in an electromagnetic medium requires the equivalent of a gravitational source. We will propose a scheme

  5. Dynamics of clade diversification on the morphological hypercube

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilets, S

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between taxonomic and morphological changes is important in identifying the reasons for accelerated morphological diversification early in the history of animal phyla. Here, a simple general model describing the joint dynamics of taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity is presented and applied to the data on the diversification of blastozoans. I show that the observed patterns of deceleration in clade diversification can be explicable in terms of the geometric structure of the morphospace and the effects of extinction and speciation on morphological disparity without invoking major declines in the size of morphological transitions or taxonomic turnover rates. The model allows testing of hypotheses about patterns of diversification and estimation of rates of morphological evolution. In the case of blastozoans, I find no evidence that major changes in evolutionary rates and mechanisms are responsible for the deceleration of morphological diversification seen during the per...

  6. GOOD GOVERNANCE AND TRANSFORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Wagener, Hans-Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    Transformation of a totalitarian, basically administratively coordinated system into a democratic one that is coordinated predominantly by markets and competition has been triggered by, among others, the perception of a serious deficit in welfare and happiness. Public policy has a special task transforming the economic order by liberalisation, privatisation, stabilisation and the installation of institutions that are supportive for competition. After 15 years since transformation began, there...

  7. Digital Transformation og Forandringskommunikation

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Nina Helene Damgaard; Andersen, Emil Frost

    2016-01-01

    The need for digital transformation is greater than ever due to the speed at which new technologies are developed and applied in the population. This thesis examines the process of digital transformation in large companies. The study aims to theorize the topic of digital transformation as the existing material in this area mainly consists of consulting houses' own promotional materials. There are a myriad of models and methods to develop great ideas and products, but we have not been able to ...

  8. Nanostructured Polypyrrole Powder: A Structural and Morphological Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar A. Sanches

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypyrrole (PPY powder was chemically synthesized using ferric chloride (FeCl3 and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Le Bail Method, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. XRD pattern showed a broad scattering of a semicrystalline structure composed of main broad peaks centered at 2θ = 11.4°, 22.1°, and 43.3°. Crystallinity percentage was estimated by the ratio between the sums of the peak areas to the area of amorphous broad halo due to the amorphous phase and showed that PPY has around 20 (1%. FTIR analysis allowed assigning characteristic absorption bands in the structure of PPY. SEM showed micrometric particles of varying sizes with morphologies similar to cauliflower. Crystal data (monoclinic, space group P 21/c, a=7.1499 (2 Å, b=13.9470 (2 Å, c=17.3316 (2 Å, α=90 Å, β=61.5640 (2 Å and γ=90 Å were obtained using the FullProf package program under the conditions of the method proposed by Le Bail. Molecular relaxation was performed using the density functional theory (DFT and suggests that tetramer polymer chains are arranged along the “c” direction. Average crystallite size was found in the range of 20 (1 Å. A value of 9.33 × 10−9 S/cm was found for PPY conductivity.

  9. The convolution transform

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschman, Isidore Isaac

    2005-01-01

    In studies of general operators of the same nature, general convolution transforms are immediately encountered as the objects of inversion. The relation between differential operators and integral transforms is the basic theme of this work, which is geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. It may be read easily by anyone with a working knowledge of real and complex variable theory. Topics include the finite and non-finite kernels, variation diminishing transforms, asymptotic behavior of kernels, real inversion theory, representation theory, the Weierstrass transform, and

  10. Magnetically Controlled Variable Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Improved variable-transformer circuit, output voltage and current of which controlled by use of relatively small current supplied at relatively low power to control windings on its magnetic cores. Transformer circuits of this type called "magnetic amplifiers" because ratio between controlled output power and power driving control current of such circuit large. This ratio - power gain - can be as large as 100 in present circuit. Variable-transformer circuit offers advantages of efficiency, safety, and controllability over some prior variable-transformer circuits.

  11. Program Transformation in HATS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, V.L.

    1999-02-24

    HATS is a general purpose syntax derivation tree based transformation system in which transformation sequences are described in special purpose language. A powerful feature of this language is that unification is an explicit operation. By making unification explicit, an elegant framework arises in which to express complex application conditions which in turn enables refined control strategies to be realized. This paper gives an overview of HATS, focusing especially on the framework provided by the transformation language and its potential with respect to control and general purpose transformation.

  12. Distributed photovoltaic grid transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Shertukde, Hemchandra Madhusudan

    2014-01-01

    The demand for alternative energy sources fuels the need for electric power and controls engineers to possess a practical understanding of transformers suitable for solar energy. Meeting that need, Distributed Photovoltaic Grid Transformers begins by explaining the basic theory behind transformers in the solar power arena, and then progresses to describe the development, manufacture, and sale of distributed photovoltaic (PV) grid transformers, which help boost the electric DC voltage (generally at 30 volts) harnessed by a PV panel to a higher level (generally at 115 volts or higher) once it is

  13. Phase transformation and diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, G B; Dey, G K

    2008-01-01

    Given that the basic purpose of all research in materials science and technology is to tailor the properties of materials to suit specific applications, phase transformations are the natural key to the fine-tuning of the structural, mechanical and corrosion properties. A basic understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of phase transformation is therefore of vital importance. Apart from a few cases involving crystallographic martensitic transformations, all phase transformations are mediated by diffusion. Thus, proper control and understanding of the process of diffusion during nucleation, g

  14. A DC Transformer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the period of this project three different possible DC transformer concepts were proposed, theoretically modeled, and then experimentally tested with the...

  15. Twisted Legendre transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Zakrzewski, S.

    1996-01-01

    The general framework of Legendre transformation is extended to the case of symplectic groupoids, using an appropriate generalization of the notion of generating function (of a Lagrangian submanifold).

  16. The Watershed Transform: Definitions, Algorithms and Parallelization Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Roerdink, Jos B. T. M.; Meijster, Arnold

    2000-01-01

    The watershed transform is the method of choice for image segmentation in the field of mathematical morphology. We present a critical review of several definitions of the watershed transform and the associated sequential algorithms, and discuss various issues which often cause confusion in the literature. The need to distinguish between definition, algorithm specification and algorithm implementation is pointed out. Various examples are given which illustrate differences between watershed tra...

  17. The application of Hartley transform to ocean engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hequan Sun; Dahong Qiu; Yongxue Wang

    2003-01-01

    The Hartley transform is a real integral transform based on harmonic functions and hassome characteristics similar to the Fourier transform. Most applications in ocean engineering requiringthe Fourier transform can also be performed by the Hartley transform. The fast Hartley transform istwice faster and more convenient to handle than the corresponding fast Fourier transform, so it is a realvalued alternative to the complex Fourier transform in many applications. The use of the Hartley trans-form in ocean engineering is presented in detail in this paper, including wave spectral analysis, separationof waves, cross-correlation in PIV technique and expression of equation in the Hartley domain. The ex-amples in the paper show deeply the advantage and efficiency of the Hartley transform over the Fouriertransform.

  18. Star Shows It Has The Right Stuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Astronomers have used an observation by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to make the best case yet that a star can be engulfed by its companion star and survive. This discovery will help astronomers better understand how closely coupled stars, and perhaps even stars and planets, evolve when one of the stars expands enormously in its red giant phase. The binary star system known as V471 Tauri comprises a white dwarf star (the primary) in a close orbit -- one thirtieth of the distance between Mercury and the Sun -- with a normal Sun-like star (the secondary). Chandra's data showed that the hot upper atmosphere of the secondary star has a deficit of carbon atoms relative to nitrogen atoms. "This deficit of carbon atoms is the first clear observational evidence that the normal star was engulfed by its companion in the past," according to Jeremy Drake of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, MA, who coauthored an article on V471 in The Astrophysical Journal Letters with Marek Sarna of the N. Copernicus Astronomical Center in Poland. The white dwarf star was once a star several times as massive as the Sun. Nuclear fusion reactions in the core of such a star convert carbon into nitrogen over a period of about a billion years. When the fuel in the core of the star is exhausted, the core collapses, triggering more energetic nuclear reactions that cause the star to expand and transform into a red giant before eventually collapsing to become a white dwarf. The carbon-poor material in the core of the red giant is mixed with outer part of the star, so its atmosphere shows a deficit of carbon, as compared with Sun-like stars. The X-ray spectra of a red giant star (top panel) and a Sun-like star (bottom panel) show the large difference in the peaks due to carbon atoms in the two stars. Theoretical calculations indicate that a red giant in a binary system can completely envelop its companion star and dramatically affect its evolution. During this common envelope

  19. Relation between catalyst-assisted transformation and multiple-copy transformation for bipartite pure states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that in some cases, catalyst-assisted entanglement transformation cannot be implemented by multiple-copy transformation for pure states. This fact, together with the result we obtained in R. Y. Duan, Y. Feng, X. Li, and M. S. Ying, Phys. Rev. A 71, 042319 (2005), namely that the latter can be completely implemented by the former, indicates that catalyst-assisted transformation is strictly more powerful than multiple-copy transformation. For the purely probabilistic setting we find, however, these two kinds of transformations are geometrically equivalent in the sense that the sets of pure states that can be converted into a given pure state with maximal probabilities not less than a given value have the same closure, regardless of whether catalyst-assisted transformation or multiple-copy transformation is used

  20. Memory of Power Transformed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Maleska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay is focused on the phenomenon of power. Special attention is paid to the past understanding, research and explanation of what power is, and how it has been understood throughout history. Traditionally, power has referred to authority, influence, control. The research of literary works, however, has led me to the realization that the notion of power is understood in different terms in literature in comparison to how it is explained in philosophy and the social sciences. In order to contribute to the broader understanding of power from a literary point of view, this essay examines many questions concerning this phenomenon, such as: how does the past understanding of power determine how it is accepted and interpreted in the present? How are the success of the present efforts and initiatives affected by the memory of power? The essay attempts to show that the memory of the notion of power is not and cannot be fixed and given once and for all. Therefore, the literary examples provided demonstrate how the definitions of power given in the past are transformed and transfigured by present literary works, which show how we may “forget” what we know about this phenomenon, and define it from a new perspective.

  1. Evaluation of the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of ferrite: martensite microalloyed steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovri Henry

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of starting point microstructures on the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of a micro alloyed steel after annealing in the alpha + gamma region have been investigated. Three different microstructures: austenite, pearlite in a ferrite matrix and martensite were used as starting point microstructures for the production of dual (alpha + phase structures in the test steel. Photomicrographs obtained from metallographic examination of the heat treated samples were used as criteria for the assessment of results obtained from impact toughness and hardness testing. The results obtained showed that the transformation mechanisms and hence the morphology of ferrite - martensite microalloyed steels are strongly influenced by their initial microstructural details. Ferrite - martensite structures produced via the intercritical quench (IQ treatment, with martensite as the starting point microstructure, have the best combination of hardness and impact energy.

  2. Size- and morphology-controllable synthesis of MIL-96 (Al) by hydrolysis and coordination modulation of dual aluminium source and ligand systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dandan; Liu, Yunqi; Dai, Fangna; Zhao, Jinchong; Yang, Kang; Liu, Chenguang

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, an efficient method to fabricate Al-based metal organic framework (Al-MOF) MIL-96 crystals with controllable size and morphology, by mixing other forms of reactants to replace the coordination modulators or capping agents, is presented. The size and morphology of the MIL-96 crystals can be selectively varied by simply altering the ratio of dual reactants via their hydrolysis reaction. All the samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and nitrogen sorption. Then based on the BFDH theory, a mechanism for the impact of hydrolysis of reactants on the crystal size and morphology is presented and discussed. We also evaluated the performance of these MOFs as sorbents for capturing CO2, and they all show enhanced adsorption properties compared with the bulk material, displaying high adsorption capacities on CO2 at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. PMID:26309045

  3. Morphology of urethral tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Bert; Schulz, Georg; Herzen, Julia; Mushkolaj, Shpend; Bormann, Therese; Beckmann, Felix; Püschel, Klaus

    2010-09-01

    Micro computed tomography has been developed to a powerful technique for the characterization of hard and soft human and animal tissues. Soft tissues including the urethra, however, are difficult to be analyzed, since the microstructures of interest exhibit X-ray absorption values very similar to the surroundings. Selective staining using highly absorbing species is a widely used approach, but associated with significant tissue modification. Alternatively, one can suitably embed the soft tissue, which requires the exchange of water. Therefore, the more recently developed phase contrast modes providing much better contrast of low X-ray absorbing species are especially accommodating in soft tissue characterization. The present communication deals with the morphological characterization of sheep, pig and human urethras on the micrometer scale taking advantage of micro computed tomography in absorption and phase contrast modes. The performance of grating-based tomography is demonstrated for freshly explanted male and female urethras in saline solution. The micro-morphology of the urethra is important to understand how the muscles close the urethra to reach continence. As the number of incontinent patients is steadily increasing, the function under static and, more important, under stress conditions has to be uncovered for the realization of artificial urinary sphincters, which needs sophisticated, biologically inspired concepts to become nature analogue.

  4. Deployment & Market Transformation (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    NREL's deployment and market transformation (D and MT) activities encompass the laboratory's full range of technologies, which span the energy efficiency and renewable energy spectrum. NREL staff educates partners on how they can advance sustainable energy applications and also provides clients with best practices for reducing barriers to innovation and market transformation.

  5. Disc piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Jirií; Půlpán, Petr; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution, we present our study on disc-shaped and homogeneously poled piezoelectric ceramic transformers working in planar-extensional vibration modes. Transformers are designed with electrodes divided into wedge, axisymmetrical ring-dot, moonie, smile, or yin-yang segments. Transformation ratio, efficiency, and input and output impedances were measured for low-power signals. Transformer efficiency and transformation ratio were measured as a function of frequency and impedance load in the secondary circuit. Optimum impedance for the maximum efficiency has been found. Maximum efficiency and no-load transformation ratio can reach almost 100% and 52 for the fundamental resonance of ring-dot transformers and 98% and 67 for the second resonance of 2-segment wedge transformers. Maximum efficiency was reached at optimum impedance, which is in the range from 500 Ω to 10 kΩ, depending on the electrode pattern and size. Fundamental vibration mode and its overtones were further studied using frequency-modulated digital holographic interferometry and by the finite element method. Complementary information has been obtained by the infrared camera visualization of surface temperature profiles at higher driving power.

  6. Genetic Transformation of Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Robert.

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students transform an ampicillin-sensitive strain of E. coli with a plasmid containing a gene for ampicillin resistance is described. The procedure for the preparation of competent cells and the transformation of competent E. coli is provided. (KR)

  7. Fieldwork in Transforming Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Ed; Michailova, Snejina

    The contributors to this text discuss the personal and professional challenges of conducting fieldwork in the difficult, sometimes threatening contexts of the transforming societies of post-socialist Europe and China.......The contributors to this text discuss the personal and professional challenges of conducting fieldwork in the difficult, sometimes threatening contexts of the transforming societies of post-socialist Europe and China....

  8. On an integral transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Naylor

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes properties of a convolution type integral transform whose kernel is a Macdonald type Bessel function of zero order. An inversion formula is developed and the transform is applied to obtain the solution of some related integral equations.

  9. Direct current transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, S. M.; Urban, E. W. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A direct current transformer in which the primary consists of an elongated strip of superconductive material, across the ends of which is direct current potential is described. Parallel and closely spaced to the primary is positioned a transformer secondary consisting of a thin strip of magnetoresistive material.

  10. Transformation of technical infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    1998-01-01

    article about the need of new planning forums in order to initiate transformations with in management of large technical systems for energy, waste and water supply.......article about the need of new planning forums in order to initiate transformations with in management of large technical systems for energy, waste and water supply....

  11. Transformation of technical infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    The scope of the project is to investigate the possibillities of - and the barriers for a transformation of technical infrastructure conserning energy, water and waste. It focus on urban ecology as a transformation strategy. The theoretical background of the project is theories about infrastructure...... on sustainable sewage management....

  12. Integral transformational coaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, W.A.J.; Nandram, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    In Chap. 12, Keizer and Nandram present the concept of Integral Transformational Coaching based on the concept of Flow and its effects on work performance. Integral Transformational Coaching is a method that prevents and cures unhealthy stress and burnout. They draw on some tried and tested spiritua

  13. Adaptive Wavelet Transforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szu, H.; Hsu, C. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Human sensors systems (HSS) may be approximately described as an adaptive or self-learning version of the Wavelet Transforms (WT) that are capable to learn from several input-output associative pairs of suitable transform mother wavelets. Such an Adaptive WT (AWT) is a redundant combination of mother wavelets to either represent or classify inputs.

  14. Gauge transformations and quasitriangularity

    OpenAIRE

    Zakrzewski, S.

    1996-01-01

    Natural conditions on a Poisson/quantum group G to implement Poisson/quantum gauge transformations on the lattice are investigated. In addition to our previous result that transformations on one lattice link require G to be coboundary, it is shown that for a sequence of links one needs a quasitriangular G.

  15. Flames of Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tim Flohr; Bille, Mikkel

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the transformative power of fire, its fundamental ability to change material worlds and affect our experience of its materiality. The paper examines material transformations related to death as a means of illustrating the powerful property of fire as a materially destructive yet...

  16. Anthropogenic transformation of city parks soils: spatial and time peculiarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poputnikov, Vadim; Prokofieva, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    Despite of quasi-natural status of urban parks, these territories often have a complicated history of local landuse. Urban park territories can accumulate maximum volume of information about the ways and peculiarities of soil anthropogenic transformation due to the absence of large-scale ground works and sealing of territories. As an objects of research 2 Moscow historical forest parks - "Pokrovskoe-Streshnevo" and "Tushinskiy" were chosen. From the one hand, these parks are characterizing by sufficiently square, which are representative by abundance of areas with different land use type. On the other hand, these areas have distinction both in soil forming factors and anthropogenic activities history. For the description of anthropogenic soil cover transformation the set of landuse types schemes were created. By these schemes were characterized a more than 250 years period. A range of soil pits were described on the different land use types territories. Different physical-chemical (pH, cation exchange capacity, amount of total organic carbon and nutrient element (P2O5 & K2O), amount of carbonates, and total amount of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn & Ni), physical (particle size composition, bulk density and penetration resistance) properties were measured. The micromorphological (in thin sections) properties were described. Using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, the main morphological and chemical properties of black carbon particles were disclosed in every surface horizons type. Using above-mentioned methods, we described following types of anthropogenic-transformed horizons - "postagricultural" horizons of abandoned tillage field soils, "urbic" horizons of settlements area soils, "technogenic" horizons of soils of constructed or reclaimed territories and different intergrade horizons. The presence of different type horizons with various properties marks existence of fixed land use for different periods. The whole way of anthropogenic

  17. An efficient method to modulate the structure, morphology and properties of WO3 through niobium doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nb-doped WO3 micro- and nanostructures have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. • Nb doping in WO3 structure results in phase transformation and morphology evolution. • Band gap increases from 2.72 to 2.78 eV after 0–5 at% Nb doping in WO3 structure. • A balance between defect oxygen and absorbed oxygen results in steady-state photocurrent at 2 at% niobium doping. - Abstract: Doped tungsten oxide has been reported to provide enhanced photocatalytic and photoelectronic properties in catalyst and smart window applications. Here Nb-doped WO3 was synthesized to investigate the effect of doping on composition, structure and optical properties. It is shown that niobium ion implantation in WO3 structure results in the morphological evolution from nanosheet into nanoparticle. 5 at% niobium ion doping induces the phase transformation from monoclinic γ-WO3 to monoclinic ε-WO3. UV–vis spectrum shows that niobium implantation results in the increase of the band gap and the shift of absorption edge. Photoelectric measurement indicates that photocurrent increases firstly and then decreases under UV irradiation. The results reported in this study will be useful in formulating optimum doping process to enhance desired photoelectric properties

  18. Transformation of Digital Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Hedman, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    In digital ecosystems, the fusion relation between business and technology means that the decision of technical compatibility of the offering is also the decision of how to position the firm relative to the coopetive relations that characterize business ecosystems. In this article we develop...... the Digital Ecosystem Technology Transformation (DETT) framework for explaining technology-based transformation of digital ecosystems by integrating theories of business and technology ecosystems. The framework depicts ecosystem transformation as distributed and emergent from micro-, meso-, and macro- level...... coopetition. The DETT framework consists an alternative to the existing explanations of digital ecosystem transformation as the rational management of one central actor balancing ecosystem tensions. We illustrate the use of the framework by a case study of transformation in the digital payment ecosystem...

  19. Photochemical transformation of silver nanoparticles by combining blue and green irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso-Avila, P. E.; Pichardo-Molina, J. L., E-mail: jpichardo@cio.mx [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A.C (Mexico); Krishna, C. Murali [Advanced Center for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Center (TMC) (India); Castro-Beltran, R. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A.C (Mexico)

    2015-03-15

    Spherical silver nanoparticles (diameter 3 nm) were transformed by means of photochemical synthesis using superluminescent LEDs. Flat rounded (21 nm) and decahedral nanoparticles (78 nm) were, respectively, obtained when the colloid was exposed to green and blue radiation. Furthermore, by changing from blue to green radiation at different exposure times, various morphologies and sizes were obtained. Exposure times shorter than 30 min of blue radiation followed by green radiation resulted on different morphologies such as twine rounded (42 nm), flat elongated (peanuts, 17 nm), and flat rounded nanoparticles (11 and 24 nm). Times longer than 45 min produced decahedral nanoparticles with corners ranging from rounded to sharp (size 71–78 nm). Additionally, these results showed that by controlling morphologies and sizes through the combination of blue and green light at different exposure times, it was possible to tune the plasmon band from 511 to 594 nm. Moreover, controlling the morphology of nanoparticles is of prime importance in order to exploit their properties as part of novel emerging technologies.

  20. Boron carbide morphology changing under purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullin, I. A.; Sivkov, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Boron carbide synthesized by using coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator with graphite electrodes was purified by two different ways. XRD-investigations showed content changing and respectively powder purification. Moreover TEM-investigations demonstrated morphology changing of product under purification that was discussed in the work.

  1. Children's Early Productivity with Verbal Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Laura; Swensen, Lauren D.; Naigles, Letitia R.

    2009-01-01

    Three studies using the intermodal preferential looking paradigm examined onset of productive comprehension of tense/aspect morphology in English. When can toddlers understand these forms with novel verbs and novel events? The first study used familiar verbs and showed that 26-36-month olds correctly matched a past/perfective form ("-ed" or…

  2. Thermal instability of DLC film surface morphology - an AFM study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswaran, R.; Thiruvadigal, D. John; Gopalakrishnan, C.

    2012-06-01

    The surface morphology of the DLC film during thermal annealing at particular temperature above the graphitization temperature shows blistering and buckling and also delaminates from the substrate. The DLC film shows poor thermal stability at higher temperature.

  3. Differential Equations for Morphological Amoebas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Martin; Breuß, Michael; Vogel, Oliver

    This paper is concerned with amoeba median filtering, a structure-adaptive morphological image filter. It has been introduced by Lerallut et al. in a discrete formulation. Experimental evidence shows that iterated amoeba median filtering leads to segmentation-like results that are similar to those obtained by self-snakes, an image filter based on a partial differential equation. We investigate this correspondence by analysing a space-continuous formulation of iterated median filtering. We prove that in the limit of vanishing radius of the structuring elements, iterated amoeba median filtering indeed approximates a partial differential equation related to self-snakes and the well-known (mean) curvature motion equation. We present experiments with discrete iterated amoeba median filtering that confirm qualitative and quantitative predictions of our analysis.

  4. Anisotropic Morphological Changes in Goethite during Fe(2+)-Catalyzed Recrystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Prachi; Gorski, Christopher A

    2016-07-19

    When goethite is exposed to aqueous Fe(2+), rapid and extensive Fe atom exchange can occur between solid-phase Fe(3+) and aqueous Fe(2+) in a process referred to as Fe(2+)-catalyzed recrystallization. This process can lead to the structural incorporation or release of trace elements, which has important implications for contaminant remediation and nutrient biogeochemical cycling. Prior work found that the process did not cause major changes to the goethite structure or morphology. Here, we further investigated if and how goethite morphology and aggregation behavior changed temporally during Fe(2+)-catalyzed recrystallization. On the basis of existing literature, we hypothesized that Fe(2+)-catalyzed recrystallization of goethite would not result in changes to individual particle morphology or interparticle interactions. To test this, we reacted nanoparticulate goethite with aqueous Fe(2+) at pH 7.5 over 30 days and used transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cryogenic TEM, and (55)Fe as an isotope tracer to observe changes in particle dimensions, aggregation, and isotopic composition over time. Over the course of 30 days, the goethite particles substantially recrystallized, and the particle dimensions changed anisotropically, resulting in a preferential increase in the mean particle width. The temporal changes in goethite morphology could not be completely explained by a single mineral-transformation mechanism but rather indicated that multiple transformation mechanisms occurred concurrently. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the morphology of goethite nanoparticles does change during recrystallization, which is an important step toward identifying the driving force(s) of recrystallization.

  5. The conformal transformation of the night sky

    CERN Document Server

    Minguzzi, E

    2016-01-01

    We give a simple differential geometric proof of the conformal transformation of the night sky under change of observer. The proof does not rely on the four dimensionality of spacetime or on spinor methods. Furthermore, it really shows that the result does not depend on Lorentz transformations. This approach, by giving a transparent covariant expression to the conformal factor, shows that in most situations it is possible to define a thermal sky metric independent of the observer.

  6. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Song-Ze, E-mail: dingsongze@hotmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Wei-Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000 (China); Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Yang, Yu-Xiu; Li, Xiu-Ling [Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Wei-Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000 (China); Michelli-Rivera, Audrey [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Han, Shuang-Yin [Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Wei-Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000 (China); Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Xin; Lu, Jian; Yin, Yuan-Qin; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, Andrew J. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhancement the binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention. - Graphical abstract: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: • We study if Cr(VI) might induce EMT and invasion in epithelial cells. • Cr(VI) induces EMT by altering E-cadherin and vimentin expression. • It also increases cell invasion and promotes oncogenic transformation. • Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced EMT, invasion and

  7. Differential Protection of Three Phase Power Transformer Using Wavelet Packet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Jitendra Singh Chandra*; Amit Goswami

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the use of a new & innovatory wavelet packet transform (WPT) based method to sensitize the transients resulting from inrush current, CT saturation and fault currents in electric power transformers. This method will efficiently help in the development of differential protective relay to automatically detect and discriminate internal incipient faults from inrush currents, CT saturation condition in electric power transformers. This method can provide very accurate i...

  8. Fractional Radon Transform and Transform of Wigner Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; CHEN Jun-Hua

    2003-01-01

    Based on the Radon transform and fractional Fourier transform we introduce the fractional Radon trans-formation (FRT). We identify the transform kernel for FRT. The FRT of Wigner operator is derived, which naturallyreduces to the projector of eigenvector of the rotated quadrature in the usual Radon transform case.

  9. Morphological disintegration as a mode of morphological evolution of plants

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya P. Savinykh

    2014-01-01

    Morphological disintegration evaluated as a mode of morphological evolution, condition and adaptation of plants to biotopes the conditions of with high humidity. The value of morphological disintegration and autonomization of the parts of organism in these conditions was shown. The life forms of oligoennial plants, as well as of annual aquatic and coastal-aquatic plants were clarified. The spectrum of biomorphes of oligoennial and annual plants of vegetative origin was represented.

  10. Chemical and morphological characterization of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a delignification process for enhanced enzymatic digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende Camila

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass to produce multi-products such as ethanol and other biomaterials has become a dynamic research area. Pretreatment technologies that fractionate sugarcane bagasse are essential for the successful use of this feedstock in ethanol production. In this paper, we investigate modifications in the morphology and chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a two-step treatment, using diluted acid followed by a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations. Detailed chemical and morphological characterization of the samples after each pretreatment condition, studied by high performance liquid chromatography, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, is reported, together with sample crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. Results Chemical composition analysis performed on samples obtained after different pretreatment conditions showed that up to 96% and 85% of hemicellulose and lignin fractions, respectively, were removed by this two-step method when sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1% (m/v or higher were used. The efficient lignin removal resulted in an enhanced hydrolysis yield reaching values around 100%. Considering the cellulose loss due to the pretreatment (maximum of 30%, depending on the process, the total cellulose conversion increases significantly from 22.0% (value for the untreated bagasse to 72.4%. The delignification process, with consequent increase in the cellulose to lignin ratio, is also clearly observed by nuclear magnetic resonance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments. We also demonstrated that the morphological changes contributing to this remarkable improvement occur as a consequence of lignin removal from the sample. Bagasse unstructuring is favored by the loss of cohesion between

  11. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  12. Morphological Errors Made By Jordanian University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan Saleh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to identify, classify, describe and find out the causes of the morphological errors made by the fourth year university students majoring in English in Jordan. The students who participated in the study were 20 students from Al–Zaytoonah Private University of Jordan. The procedure followed was essay writing. After analyzing the errors, the study shows that (a the students’ competence in English morphology is poor and (b The errors are caused by some factors such as the inconsistency in English as well as misapplication of rules. Interference and overgeneralization are also other causes. Since the course of morphology is selective in the university plan, it is also considered as an important cause. In order to reduce their errors, the researcher has suggested some remedies.

  13. Organic Based Solar Cells with Morphology Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Rieks

    to be addressed. Among these are a more direct transfer of new materials tested on a laboratory scale to large scale production than offered by spincoating, a method offering direct control of the morphology in the active layer, and a more environmental friendly processing, where the vast use of organic solvents...... offers a great challenge. In this thesis the development of inks with a pre-arranged morphology was attempted by two methods. First by grafting of silicon nanoparticles with an organic phenylene vinylene oligomer, the resulting particles were analyzed by 1H-NMR, absorption spectroscopy, Atomic Force...... Microscopy and as solar cells in a blend with PCBM. It was concluded that these particles did not show a potential large enough for continuous work due to a high material loss and low efficiency when applied in solar cells. The second method to achieve was preparation of pre-arranged morphology organic...

  14. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  15. Using Multiple Sources of Information for Constraint-Based Morphological Disambiguation

    CERN Document Server

    Tur, G

    1999-01-01

    This thesis presents a constraint-based morphological disambiguation approach that is applicable to languages with complex morphology--specifically agglutinative languages with productive inflectional and derivational morphological phenomena. For morphologically complex languages like Turkish, automatic morphological disambiguation involves selecting for each token morphological parse(s), with the right set of inflectional and derivational markers. Our system combines corpus independent hand-crafted constraint rules, constraint rules that are learned via unsupervised learning from a training corpus, and additional statistical information obtained from the corpus to be morphologically disambiguated. The hand-crafted rules are linguistically motivated and tuned to improve precision without sacrificing recall. In certain respects, our approach has been motivated by Brill's recent work, but with the observation that his transformational approach is not directly applicable to languages like Turkish. Our approach a...

  16. Morphological Enhancement of Microcalcifications in Digital Mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannath, H. S.; Virmani, J.; Kumar, V.

    2012-09-01

    Mammography is a commonly used technique for early detection of breast cancer. In mammograms, microcalcifications show low contrast margin with the background parenchymal tissue (specifically when the background tissue type is fibroglandular) as a result, subjective analysis of these calcifications with respect to their size, shape and morphology presents a daunting challenge even for experienced radiologists. Thus the present work investigates the potential of two morphological techniques i.e., top-hat morphological processing and h-dome morphological processing for enhancement of microcalcifications embedded in variety of background tissue types including fatty, glandular and fibroglandular tissues while restoring their shape and size. The enhancement results are also compared with standard contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization method. For subjective analysis, 25 synthetic images with simulated microcalcifications of various shapes and sizes are used. Objective analysis is carried out on 50 mammographic images taken from benchmark dataset (McGill University mammographic database) by computing quantitative indices like contrast improvement ratio and detail variance/background variance ratios. After rigorous experimentation on both synthetic and benchmark data set it was observed that h-dome morphological processing (with h = 60) is ideally suited for enhancement of microcalcifications while restoring their shape and size.

  17. A Selective CPS Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Riechstein

    2001-01-01

    The CPS transformation makes all functions continuation-passing, uniformly. Not all functions, however, need continuations: they only do if their evaluation includes computational effects. In this paper we focus on control operations, in particular "call with current continuation" and "throw". We...... characterize this involvement as a control effect and we present a selective CPS transformation that makes functions and expressions continuation-passing if they have a control effect, and that leaves the rest of the program in direct style. We formalize this selective CPS transformation with an operational...

  18. Laplace transforms essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Shafii-Mousavi, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Laplace Transforms includes the Laplace transform, the inverse Laplace transform, special functions and properties, applications to ordinary linear differential equations, Fourier tr

  19. Solid phase transformations II

    CERN Document Server

    Čermák, J

    2009-01-01

    This topical volume includes ten invited papers that cover selected areas of the field of solid phase transformations. The first two contributions represent a burgeoning branch; that of the computer simulation of physical phenomena. The following three articles deal with the thermodynamics of phase transformations as a basic theory for describing the phenomenology of phase changes in matter. The next paper describes the interconnections between structural stability and the electronic structure of phases. Two further articles are devoted to displacive transformations; a field where there are ma

  20. Transformers and motors

    CERN Document Server

    Shultz, George

    1991-01-01

    Transformers and Motors is an in-depth technical reference which was originally written for the National Joint Apprenticeship Training Committee to train apprentice and journeymen electricians. This book provides detailed information for equipment installation and covers equipment maintenance and repair. The book also includes troubleshooting and replacement guidelines, and it contains a minimum of theory and math.In this easy-to-understand, practical sourcebook, you'll discover:* Explanations of the fundamental concepts of transformers and motors* Transformer connections and d

  1. Calcium phosphate coating on magnesium alloy by biomimetic method :Investigation of morphology ,composition and formation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Magnesium alloy has similar mechanical properties with natural bone and can degrade via corrosion in the electrolytic environment of the human body.Calcium phosphate has been proven to possess bioactivity and bone inductivity.In order to integrate both advantages,calcium phosphate coating was fabricated on magnesium alloy by a biomimetic method.Supersaturated calcification solutions (SCSs) with different Ca/P ratio and C1- concentration were used as mimetic solutions.The morphology,composition and formation process of the coating were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM),energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS),Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).The results show that a uniform calcium phosphate coating was observed on magnesium alloy,the properties of which could be adjusted by the SCSs with different Ca/P ratio.The formation process of the coating was explored by immersing magnesium alloy in SCSs with different Cl- concentration which could adjust the hydrogen production.According to SEM results,the hydrogen bubbles were associated with the formation of grass-like and flower-like coating morphologies.In conclusion,the biomimetic method was effective to form calcium phosphate coating on magnesium alloy and the morphology and composition of the coating could be accommodated by the Ca/P ratio and Cl- concentration in SCSs.

  2. Polymerization Process and Morphology of Polyurethane/Vinyl Ester Resin Interpenetrating Polymer Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongyan TANG; Xuelian WU; Liangsheng QIANG

    2007-01-01

    A series of polyurethane (PU)/vinyl ester resin (VER) simultaneous IPNs (interpenetrating polymer networks) with different component ratios and comonomers types introduced to VER were synthesized and the polymerization processes were traced by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to study the kinetics of IPNs and hydrogen bonding action within multi-component. Furthermore, the relationship of polymerization process with morphology was investigated in detail for the first time by the morphological information given by chemical action between two networks besides physical entanglement, atomic force microscope (AFM) observation and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The results indicated that the degree of hydrogen bonding (Xb,UT,%), calculated from functional group conversional rate and fine structures gained from FT-IR spectra of two networks, were affected by PU/VER weight ratios and comonomer types of VER. The relationship of formation kinetics and morphology showed that the change of Xb,UT (%) values exhibited excellent consistency with that of phase sizes observed by AFM and detected by DMA.

  3. Multisensor image fusion algorithm using nonseparable wavelet frame transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhenhua; Jing Zhongliang; Wang Hong; Sun Shaoyuan

    2005-01-01

    A multisensor image fusion algorithm is described using 2-dimensional nonseparable wavelet frame (NWF) transform. The source multisensor images are first decomposed by the NWF transform. Then, the NWF transform coefficients of the source images are combined into the composite NWF transform coefficients. Inverse NWF transform is performed on the composite NWF transform coefficients in order to obtain the intermediate fused image. Finally, intensity adjustment is applied to the intermediate fused image in order to maintain the dynamic intensity range. Experiment results using real data show that the proposed algorithm works well in multisensor image fusion.

  4. Low Complexity Integer Transform and Adaptive Quantization Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Wei Ma; Wen Gao

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new low complexity integer transform is proposed, which has been adopted by AVS1-PT. The proposed transform can enable AVS1-P7 to share the same quantization/dequantization table with AVS1-P2. As the bases of the proposed transform coefficients are very close, the transform normalization can be implemented only on the encoder side and the dequantization table size can be reduced compared with the transform used in H.264/MPEG-4 AVC. Along with the feature of the proposed transform, adaptive dead-zone quantization optimization for the proposed transform is studied.Experimental results show that the proposed integer transform has similar coding performance compared with the transform used in H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, and would gain near 0.1dB with the adaptive dead-zone quantization optimization.

  5. Microbial Transformation of Acetophenone to 2-Phenylethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺兆星; 郝宁; 陈国强

    2003-01-01

    Microorganisms are commonly used to transform chemicals to chiral compounds.Pseudomonas cepacia 1813, Pseudomonas stutzeri 1317, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1912, and 5 Escherichia coli strains were used to transform acetophenone to 2-phenylethanol.The results show that the E.coli strains have the poorest biotransformation ability.P.stutzeri 1317 provides the best transformation ability with a transformation rate of 30% achieved with either whole or broken P.stutzeri 1317 cells for a reaction pH of 8.2 and an initial acetophenone concentration of 2 g/L.An acetophenone concentration of 10 g/L strongly inhibits the biotransformation for a pH of 8.2.Crude alcohol dehydrogenase obtained from S.cerevisiae 1912 transforms acetophenone to 2-phenylethanol when nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH) is added.

  6. Conformal transformations and conformal invariance in gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Dabrowski, Mariusz P; Blaschke, David B

    2008-01-01

    Conformal transformations are frequently used tools in order to study relations between various theories of gravity and Einstein relativity. Because of that, in this paper we discuss the rules of conformal transformations for geometric quantities in general relativity. In particular, we discuss the conformal transformations of the matter energy-momentum tensor. We thoroughly discuss the latter and show the subtlety of the conservation law (i.e., the geometrical Bianchi identity) imposed in one of the conformal frames in reference to the other. The subtlety refers to the fact that conformal transformation ``creates'' an extra matter term composed of the conformal factor which enters the conservation law. In an extreme case of the flat original spacetime the matter is ``created'' due to work done by the conformal transformation to bend the spacetime which was originally flat. We also discuss how to construct the conformally invariant gravity which, in the simplest version, is a special case of the Brans-Dicke t...

  7. Transformation elastodynamics and cloaking for flexural waves

    CERN Document Server

    Colquitt, D J; Gei, M; Movchan, A B; Movchan, N V; Jones, I S

    2014-01-01

    The paper addresses an important issue of cloaking transformations for fourth-order partial differential equations representing flexural waves in thin elastic plates. It is shown that, in contrast with the Helmholtz equation, the general form of the partial differential equation is not invariant with respect to the cloaking transformation. The significant result of this paper is the analysis of the transformed equation and its interpretation in the framework of the linear theory of pre-stressed plates. The paper provides a formal framework for transformation elastodynamics as applied to elastic plates. Furthermore, an algorithm is proposed for designing a square cloak for flexural waves, which employs a regularised push-out transformation. Illustrative numerical examples show high accuracy and efficiency of the proposed cloaking algorithm. In particular, a physical configuration involving a perturbation of an interference pattern generated by two coherent sources is presented. It is demonstrated that the pert...

  8. Ultrasonography of sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation in the spleen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We report three rare cases of sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation(SANT) in the spleen.We compared the conventional and contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic appearance.The conventional sonographic examinations exhibited solitary lesions without common respects,while contrast-enhanced ultrasonography(CEUS) revealed nodular appearance mimicking its pathologic characteristics.It suggests that CEUS can provide morphologic information for diagnosing SANT.

  9. Transformation quantum optics: designing spontaneous emission using coordinate transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spontaneous decay is a fundamental quantum property of emitters that can be controlled in a material environment via modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS). Here we use transformation optics methods in order to design required density of states and thus spontaneous emission (SE) rate. Specifically, we show that the SE rate can be either enhanced or suppressed using invisibility cloaks or gradient index lenses. Furthermore, the anisotropic material profile of the cloak enables the directional control of SE. We also discuss how the practical issues, such as dispersion and losses, affect the LDOS in complex materials. Tailoring SE properties using transformation optics approach provides an innovative way for designing emission properties in a complex material environment needed for the development of active nanophotonic devices. (paper)

  10. Stable genetic transformation of Vigna mungo L. Hepper via Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, R; Sonia; Jaiwal, P K; Jaiwal, S

    2003-06-01

    Vigna mungo is one of the large-seeded grain legumes that has not yet been transformed. We report here for the first time the production of morphologically normal and fertile transgenic plants from cotyledonary-node explants inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying binary vector pCAMBIA2301, the latter of which contains a neomycin phosphotransferase ( nptII) gene and a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene ( uidA) interrupted with an intron. The transformed green shoots, selected and rooted on medium containing kanamycin, tested positive for nptII and uidA genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. These shoots were established in soil and grown to maturity to collect the seeds. Mechanical wounding of the explants prior to inoculation with Agrobacterium, time lag in regeneration due to removal of the cotyledons from explants and a second round of selection at the rooting stage were found to be critical for transformation. Analysis of T(0) plants showed the expression and integration of uidA into the plant genome. GUS activity in leaves, roots, flowers, anthers and pollen grains was detected by histochemical assay. PCR analysis of T(1) progeny revealed a Mendelian transgene inheritance pattern. The transformation frequency was 1%, and 6-8 weeks were required for the generation of transgenics.

  11. Role of STAT3 in in vitro transformation triggered by TRK oncogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Miranda

    Full Text Available TRK oncoproteins are chimeric versions of the NTRK1/NGF receptor and display constitutive tyrosine kinase activity leading to transformation of NIH3T3 cells and neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT 3 is activated in response to cytokines and growth factors and it has been recently identified as a novel signal transducer for TrkA, mediating the functions of NGF in nervous system. In this paper we have investigated STAT3 involvement in signalling induced by TRK oncogenes. We showed that TRK oncogenes trigger STAT3 phosphorylation both on Y705 and S727 residues and STAT3 transcriptional activity. MAPK pathway was involved in the induction of STAT3 phosphorylation. Interestingly, we have shown reduced STAT3 protein level in NIH3T3 transformed foci expressing TRK oncogenes. Overall, we have unveiled a dual role for STAT3 in TRK oncogenes-induced NIH3T3 transformation: i decreased STAT3 protein levels, driven by TRK oncoproteins activity, are associated to morphological transformation; ii residual STAT3 transcriptional activity is required for cell growth.

  12. Transformation of primary cultures of shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris) lymphoid (Oka) organ with Simian virus-40 (T) antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapay, L M; Lu, Y; Brock, J A; Nadala, E C; Loh, P C

    1995-05-01

    Primary cultures of lymphoid (Oka) organ from Penaeus stylirostris were transformed with naked or Lipofectin-mediated pSV-3 neo, a shuttle vector containing the tumor (T) antigen gene from Simian virus-40. The transformed cells, OKTr-1 and OKTr-23, exhibited the following characteristics: rounded morphology forming grapelike aggregates, loosely adhesive, increased growth rate in Medium-199, resistance to G-418 (a neomycin analog marker in the shuttle vector), cloning efficiencies of 68.7% and 36.7% in soft agarose, respectively, and stability in liquid nitrogen storage. Immunofluorescence staining (IFA) of the transformed cells using a monoclonal antibody against SV-40 tumor antigen showed positive results. In contrast, primary cell cultures exhibited fibroblast-like morphology and formed a tight, adhesive monolayer on the surface of the culture vessel. They were sensitive to G-418, and showed negative results with IFA. To date, OKTr-1 and OKTr-23 have undergone 44 and 18 passages, respectively. Primary cultures of the lymphoid organ have not been successfully passaged beyond the primary stage.

  13. Structural, morphological and optical properties of Mn doped ZnS nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Mote

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mn doped ZnS samples with composition formula Zn1-xMn xS where x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.10 were prepared by chemical method. Samples characterized for its structural, morphological and optical properties by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and UV-vis spectrometer. XRD patterns confirm cubic zinc blend structure with no secondary phases for pure and Mn doped ZnS. Lattice constant value increases slightly with Mn concentration due to the substitution of Mn in ZnS lattice. TEM images show that the particles have spherical in shape with an average particle size between 3-4 nm. The chemical species of the grown crystals are identified by FTIR spectra. Optical absorption spectra show decrement in band gap with increasing Mn concentration.

  14. Generation of fuzzy mathematical morphologies

    OpenAIRE

    Burillo López, Pedro; Frago Paños, Noé; Fuentes-González, Ramón

    2001-01-01

    Fuzzy Mathematical Morphology aims to extend the binary morphological operators to grey-level images. In order to define the basic morphological operations fuzzy erosion, dilation, opening and closing, we introduce a general method based upon fuzzy implication and inclusion grade operators, including as particular case, other ones existing in related literature In the definition of fuzzy erosion and dilation we use several fuzzy implications (Annexe A, Table of fuzzy implic...

  15. Morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges in river restoration - the Thur River case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, M.; Luster, J.; Linde, N.; Perona, P.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Barry, D. A.; Hollender, J.; Cirpka, O. A.; Schneider, P.; Vogt, T.; Radny, D.; Durisch-Kaiser, E.

    2014-06-01

    River restoration can enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity, but the underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals, and adverse effects are prevented. In particular, we need to comprehend how hydromorphological variability quantitatively relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity as well as ground- and surface water quality in restored river corridors. This involves (i) physical processes and structural properties, determining erosion and sedimentation, as well as solute and heat transport behavior in surface water and within the subsurface; (ii) biogeochemical processes and characteristics, including the turnover of nutrients and natural water constituents; and (iii) ecological processes and indicators related to biodiversity and ecological functioning. All these aspects are interlinked, requiring an interdisciplinary investigation approach. Here, we present an overview of the recently completed RECORD (REstored CORridor Dynamics) project in which we combined physical, chemical, and biological observations with modeling at a restored river corridor of the perialpine Thur River in Switzerland. Our results show that river restoration, beyond inducing morphologic changes that reshape the river bed and banks, triggered complex spatial patterns of bank infiltration, and affected habitat type, biotic communities and biogeochemical processes. We adopted an interdisciplinary approach of monitoring the continuing changes due to restoration measures to address the following questions: How stable is the morphological variability established by restoration? Does morphological variability guarantee an improvement in biodiversity? How does morphological variability affect biogeochemical transformations in the river corridor? What are some potential adverse effects of river restoration? How is river restoration influenced by catchment-scale hydraulics

  16. Transforming Homeland Security [video

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre, David; Center for Homeland Defense and Security Naval Postgraduate School

    2011-01-01

    A pioneer in homeland security, and homeland security education, David McIntyre discusses the complexities in transforming homeland security from a national program in its inception, to also include state and local agencies and other public and private parties.

  17. Optical nonsubsampled contourlet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Liang; Zhang, Wen-Li; Pu, Xiujuan; Cheng, Wanqi; Liu, Xia

    2016-09-20

    The nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) is a fully shift-invariant, multiscale, and multidirectional expansion implemented in optics using the Fourier transform of its filters. In this paper, we propose a novel optical NSCT filter design method and the corresponding post-processing method to avoid the use of holographic techniques. The novel optical NSCT filter has real and non-negative Fourier transforms. The input image is placed in the input plane of the VanderLugt 4f correlator, and these real and non-negative Fourier transform NSCT filters are placed in the frequency plane of the VanderLugt 4f correlator. Next, the NSCT result is captured by a CCD in the output plane of the VanderLugt 4f correlator, and its perfect reconstruction is theoretically possible, which is demonstrated by both simulation and optical experiment. PMID:27661604

  18. The Extended Laplace Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabra Ramadan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The space of new generalized functions has been constructed. The operation of associative multiplication has been defined on this space. The Extended Laplace Transform has been defined

  19. Transformer design tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    In space, power system transformer components are frequently the heaviest and bulkiest items in the power conversion circuit. They also have a significant effect upon the overall performance and efficiency of the system. Accordingly, the design of such transformers has an important effect on overall system weight, power-inversion efficiency, and cost. Relationships were between the parameters used by transformer designers that can be used as new tools to standardize and simplify transformer design. They can be used to optimize the design either for small size and weight or efficiency. The metric system of units, rather than the familiar English units, is used; however, material is presented to assist the reader in the transition from one system to the other.

  20. Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

    2011-07-01

    This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook.

  1. Matrices and transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Pettofrezzo, Anthony J

    1978-01-01

    Elementary, concrete approach: fundamentals of matrix algebra, linear transformation of the plane, application of properties of eigenvalues and eigenvectors to study of conics. Includes proofs of most theorems. Answers to odd-numbered exercises.

  2. Transformation of Abandonment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Mo Michelsen Stochholm

    2015-01-01

    Transformation of abandonment, a new critical practice” Abstract. While the major cities in Denmark are experiencing growth in population and economy, the surrounding rural areas face abandoned villages and increasing decay. This research focuses on the abandoned houses, seeking an alternative...... a new critical practice based on a series of full-scale transformations of abandoned buildings . These transformations, hereinafter referred to as actions, are the core of the research. The actions are implemented as physical interventions, each of which involves an abandoned building. The interventions...... are of such a radical manner it will not be possible to re-establish the former function of the building. The aim of the actions is to develop and test full-scale transformation prototypes in varying rural village environments. Interaction with local people and their response to the prototypes can be seen as real life...

  3. Entanglement-assisted transformation is asymptotically equivalent to multiple-copy transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that two ways of manipulating quantum entanglement - namely, entanglement-assisted local transformation [D. Jonathan and M. B. Plenio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3566 (1999)] and multiple-copy transformation [S. Bandyopadhyay, V. Roychowdhury, and U. Sen, Phys. Rev. A 65, 052315 (2002)]--are equivalent in the sense that they can asymptotically simulate each other's ability to implement a desired transformation from a given source state to another given target state with the same optimal success probability. As a consequence, this yields a feasible method to evaluate the optimal conversion probability of an entanglement-assisted transformation

  4. Four-quadrant spatial phase-shifting Fourier transform digital holography for recording of cosine transform coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chujun Zheng; Peng Han; Hongsen Chang

    2006-01-01

    @@ A new one-step four-quadrant spatial phase-shifting Fourier transform digital holography is presented for recording of cosine transform coefficients, because cosine transform is a real-even symmetric Fourier transform. This approach implements four quadrant spatial phase shifting at a time using a special phase mask, which is located in the reference arm, and the phase distributions of its four-quadrants are 0, π/2, π,and 3π/2 respectively. The theoretical analysis and computer simulation results show that cosine transform coefficients of real-valued image can be calculated by capturing single four-quadrant spatial phase-shifting Fourier transform digital hologram.

  5. NUMERICAL INVERSION OF MULTIDIMENSIONAL LAPLACE TRANSFORMS USING MOMENT METHODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops a numerical method to invert multi-dimensional Laplace transforms. By a variable transform, Laplace transforms are converted to multi-dimensional Hausdorff moment problems so that the numerical solution can be achieved. Stability estimation is also obtained. Numerical simulations show the efficiency and practicality of the method.

  6. Hierarchical similarity transformations between Gaussian mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigas, George; Nikou, Christophoros; Goletsis, Yorgos; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to estimate the density of a data space represented by a geometric transformation of an initial Gaussian mixture model. The geometric transformation is hierarchical, and it is decomposed into two steps. At first, the initial model is assumed to undergo a global similarity transformation modeled by translation, rotation, and scaling of the model components. Then, to increase the degrees of freedom of the model and allow it to capture fine data structures, each individual mixture component may be transformed by another, local similarity transformation, whose parameters are distinct for each component of the mixture. In addition, to constrain the order of magnitude of the local transformation (LT) with respect to the global transformation (GT), zero-mean Gaussian priors are imposed onto the local parameters. The estimation of both GT and LT parameters is obtained through the expectation maximization framework. Experiments on artificial data are conducted to evaluate the proposed model, with varying data dimensionality, number of model components, and transformation parameters. In addition, the method is evaluated using real data from a speech recognition task. The obtained results show a high model accuracy and demonstrate the potential application of the proposed method to similar classification problems. PMID:24808615

  7. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CONVOLUTION AND CORRELATION FOR FOURIER TRANSFORM ANDQUATERNION FOURIER TRANSFORM

    OpenAIRE

    Mawardi Bahri

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce convolution theorem for the Fourier transform (FT) of two complex functions. We show that the correlation theorem for the FT can be derived using properties of convolution. We develop this idea to derive the correlation theorem for the quaternion Fourier transform (QFT) of the two quaternion functions.

  8. Transformation and Rural Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Gertrud Schrieder; Franz Heidhues

    1998-01-01

    In the process of transformation from a centrally-planned to a market-orientated economy, the domestic financial sector plays two important roles. First, the financial sector itself has to be fundamentally restructured, and second, its efficient functioning is a crucial precondition for the necessary economic transformation. During the central-planning era, the financial sector typically carried out fiscal functions, namely it distributed subsidies and supported production plans. In a market-...

  9. Transformer Internal Faults Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOOCHAKI, A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method of modeling internal faults in a power transformer. The method leads to a model which is compatible with commercial phasor-based software packages. Consequently; it enables calculation of fault currents in any branch of the network due to a winding fault of a power transformer. These currents can be used for evaluation of protective relays' performance and can lead to better setting of protective functions.

  10. Power transformers quality assurance

    CERN Document Server

    Dasgupta, Indrajit

    2009-01-01

    About the Book: With the view to attain higher reliability in power system operation, the quality assurance in the field of distribution and power transformers has claimed growing attention. Besides new developments in the material technology and manufacturing processes of transformers, regular diagnostic testing and maintenance of any engineering product may be ascertained by ensuring: right selection of materials and components and their quality checks. application of correct manufacturing processes any systems engineering. the user`s awareness towards preventive maintenance. The

  11. Transforming social contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Sebastian; Koch, Lene

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of IVF in Denmark was accompanied by social transformations: contestations of medical authority, negotiations of who might access reproductive biomedicine and changes in individual and social identity due to reproductive technologies. Looking at the making of Danish IVF, this art......The introduction of IVF in Denmark was accompanied by social transformations: contestations of medical authority, negotiations of who might access reproductive biomedicine and changes in individual and social identity due to reproductive technologies. Looking at the making of Danish IVF...

  12. Business process transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Varun

    2015-01-01

    Featuring contributions from prominent thinkers and researchers, this volume in the ""Advances in Management Information Systems"" series provides a rich set of conceptual, empirical, and introspective studies that epitomize fundamental knowledge in the area of Business Process Transformation. Processes are interpreted broadly to include operational and managerial processes within and between organizations, as well as those involved in knowledge generation. Transformation includes radical and incremental change, its conduct, management, and outcome. The editors and contributing authors pay clo

  13. Fast parametrized biorthogonal transforms

    OpenAIRE

    Puchala, Dariusz; Yatsymirsyy, Mykhaylo

    2011-01-01

    W pracy zaproponowano schemat syntezy szybkich parametryzowanych przekształceń biortogonalnych oparty o diagramy przepływowe dla szybkich przekształceń ortonormalnych i dwupunktowe biortogonalne operatory motylkowe. In this paper the authors propose the technique ot synthesis of fast parametrised biorthogonal transforms that takes advantage of data-flow graphs for calculation of fast orthonormal transforms and two-point biorthogonal butterfly operators.

  14. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  15. Error Free Iterative Morphological Decomposition Algorithm for Shape Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A generalized skeleton transform allows a shape to be represented as a collection of modestly overlapped octagonal shape parts. One problem with several generalized Morphological skeleton transforms is that they generate noise after decomposition. The noise rate may not be effective for ordinary images; however this effect will be more when applied on printed or handwritten characters. Approach: The present study tackled this issue by applying a noise removal algorithm after morphological decomposition. Results: The algorithm was applied on various types of decomposition images. The Present method was compared with generalized skeleton algorithm and octagon-generating decomposition algorithm. Conclusion: The error rates with original image were evaluated using various error functions. The experimental results indicated that the present decomposition algorithm produces images with good clarity when compared with other algorithms.

  16. Bar piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Jiří; Pulpan, Půlpán; Rusin, Luboš

    2013-07-01

    Bar-shaped piezoelectric ceramic transformers (PTs) working in the longitudinal vibration mode (k31 mode) were studied. Two types of the transformer were designed--one with the electrode divided into two segments of different length, and one with the electrodes divided into three symmetrical segments. Parameters of studied transformers such as efficiency, transformation ratio, and input and output impedances were measured. An analytical model was developed for PT parameter calculation for both two- and three-segment PTs. Neither type of bar PT exhibited very high efficiency (maximum 72% for three-segment PT design) at a relatively high transformation ratio (it is 4 for two-segment PT and 2 for three-segment PT at the fundamental resonance mode). The optimum resistive loads were 20 and 10 kΩ for two- and three-segment PT designs for the fundamental resonance, respectively, and about one order of magnitude smaller for the higher overtone (i.e., 2 kΩ and 500 Ω, respectively). The no-load transformation ratio was less than 27 (maximum for two-segment electrode PT design). The optimum input electrode aspect ratios (0.48 for three-segment PT and 0.63 for two-segment PT) were calculated numerically under no-load conditions.

  17. Kinetics of phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains papers presented at the Materials Research Society symposium on Kinetics of Phase Transformations held in Boston, Massachusetts from November 26-29, 1990. The symposium provided a forum for research results in an exceptionally broad and interdisciplinary field. Presentations covered nearly every major class of transformations including solid-solid, liquid-solid, transport phenomena and kinetics modeling. Papers involving amorphous Si, a dominant topic at the symposium, are collected in the first section followed by sections on four major areas of transformation kinetics. The symposium opened with joint sessions on ion and electron beam induced transformations in conjunction with the Surface Chemistry and Beam-Solid Interactions: symposium. Subsequent sessions focused on the areas of ordering and nonlinear diffusion kinetics, solid state reactions and amorphization, kinetics and defects of amorphous silicon, and kinetics of melting and solidification. Seven internationally recognized invited speakers reviewed many of the important problems and recent results in these areas, including defects in amorphous Si, crystal to glass transformations, ordering kinetics, solid-state amorphization, computer modeling, and liquid/solid transformations

  18. Dualism of precipitation morphology in high strength low alloy steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chih-Yuan, Chen, E-mail: chen6563@gmail.com [Department of Energy Engineering, National United University, Miaoli 36003, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chien-Chon, Chen [Department of Energy Engineering, National United University, Miaoli 36003, Taiwan (China); Jer-Ren, Yang, E-mail: jryang@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2015-02-25

    While the role of microalloying elements on precipitation strengthening in ferrite matrix during austenite/ferrite transformation is quite clear, some uncertainty still exists concerning the variability of the microhardness distribution of ferrite grains in the isothermal holding condition. The objective of the present study was to clarify the intrinsic characteristics of carbide precipitation morphology in the ferrite matrix under different processing temperatures and times and to correlate it with austenite decomposition kinetics to elucidate why a large microhardness distribution occurs at low isothermal holding temperature. Better understanding of carbide precipitation behavior can help researchers to determine the root cause of variation in microhardness distribution, which would allow metallurgists to produce high quality steels. Measurement with a Vickers hardness indenter revealed that, in specimens isothermally held at 625 °C, the range of Vickers hardness distribution was 240–420 after 5 min of isothermal holding, and 270–340 after 60 min. For specimens isothermally held at 725 °C, the range of Vickers hardness distribution was 200–330 for 5 min of isothermal holding, and 200–250 for 60 min. Therefore, the average microhardness decreased with the isothermal holding temperature and time, and a larger range of distribution occurred with short isothermal holding times. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that interface precipitation and random precipitation can occur within the same ferrite grain. The reason is that the austenite decomposition rate varies with transformation temperature and time. An excessively fast austenite/ferrite interface movement velocity, which usually happens in small ferrite grains, would cause these ferrite grains with microalloying elements to exceed their solubility. Furthermore, these microalloying elements will be precipitated randomly after isothermal holding at longer times. Consequently, a large

  19. Dualism of precipitation morphology in high strength low alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the role of microalloying elements on precipitation strengthening in ferrite matrix during austenite/ferrite transformation is quite clear, some uncertainty still exists concerning the variability of the microhardness distribution of ferrite grains in the isothermal holding condition. The objective of the present study was to clarify the intrinsic characteristics of carbide precipitation morphology in the ferrite matrix under different processing temperatures and times and to correlate it with austenite decomposition kinetics to elucidate why a large microhardness distribution occurs at low isothermal holding temperature. Better understanding of carbide precipitation behavior can help researchers to determine the root cause of variation in microhardness distribution, which would allow metallurgists to produce high quality steels. Measurement with a Vickers hardness indenter revealed that, in specimens isothermally held at 625 °C, the range of Vickers hardness distribution was 240–420 after 5 min of isothermal holding, and 270–340 after 60 min. For specimens isothermally held at 725 °C, the range of Vickers hardness distribution was 200–330 for 5 min of isothermal holding, and 200–250 for 60 min. Therefore, the average microhardness decreased with the isothermal holding temperature and time, and a larger range of distribution occurred with short isothermal holding times. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that interface precipitation and random precipitation can occur within the same ferrite grain. The reason is that the austenite decomposition rate varies with transformation temperature and time. An excessively fast austenite/ferrite interface movement velocity, which usually happens in small ferrite grains, would cause these ferrite grains with microalloying elements to exceed their solubility. Furthermore, these microalloying elements will be precipitated randomly after isothermal holding at longer times. Consequently, a large

  20. Face Recognition using Curvelet Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Rami

    2011-01-01

    Face recognition has been studied extensively for more than 20 years now. Since the beginning of 90s the subject has became a major issue. This technology is used in many important real-world applications, such as video surveillance, smart cards, database security, internet and intranet access. This report reviews recent two algorithms for face recognition which take advantage of a relatively new multiscale geometric analysis tool - Curvelet transform, for facial processing and feature extraction. This transform proves to be efficient especially due to its good ability to detect curves and lines, which characterize the human's face. An algorithm which is based on the two algorithms mentioned above is proposed, and its performance is evaluated on three data bases of faces: AT&T (ORL), Essex Grimace and Georgia-Tech. k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) and Support vector machine (SVM) classifiers are used, along with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for dimensionality reduction. This algorithm shows good results, ...

  1. Dark channel prior based blurred image restoration method using total variation and morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yibing Li; Qiang Fu; Fang Ye; Hayaru Shouno

    2015-01-01

    The blurred image restoration method can dramatical y highlight the image details and enhance the global contrast, which is of benefit to improvement of the visual effect during practical ap-plications. This paper is based on the dark channel prior principle and aims at the prior information absent blurred image degradation situation. A lot of improvements have been made to estimate the transmission map of blurred images. Since the dark channel prior principle can effectively restore the blurred image at the cost of a large amount of computation, the total variation (TV) and image morphology transform (specifical y top-hat transform and bottom-hat transform) have been introduced into the improved method. Compared with original transmission map estimation methods, the proposed method features both simplicity and accuracy. The es-timated transmission map together with the element can restore the image. Simulation results show that this method could inhibit the il-posed problem during image restoration, meanwhile it can greatly improve the image quality and definition.

  2. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation: rice transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet-Loedin, Inez H; Chadha-Mohanty, Prabhjit; Torrizo, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium is a common soil bacterium with natural capacity for trans-kingdom transfer of genetic information by transferring its T-DNA into the eukaryotic genome. In agricultural plant biotechnology, combination of non-phytopathogenic strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens with modified T-DNA and vir-genes in a binary vector system is the most widely utilized system for genetic improvement in diverse plant species and for gene function validation. Here we have described a highly efficient A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation system for indica and japonica rice cultivars based on an immature embryo system.

  3. 8,9-DIHYDROXY-8,9-DIHYDRODIBENZO[A,L]PYRENE IS A POTENT MORPHOLOGICAL CELL-TRANSFORMING AGENT IN C3H10T1/2C18 MOUSE EMBRYO FIBROBLASTS IN THE ABSENCE OF DETECTABLE STABLE COVALENT DNA ADDUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The comparative genotoxic effects of racemic trans-8,9dihydroxy-8,9-dihydrodibenzo[a,l]pyrene (trans- DB[a,l]P8,9-diol), the metabolic K-region dihydrodiol of dibenzo[a,l] pyrene (DB[a,l]P) (dibenzo[def,p]chrysene) and DB[a,l]P in transformable mouse embryo C3HIOT1/2C18 (C3HIOT1/...

  4. Fish Manoeuvres and Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kiran; Pedley, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    The extraordinary manoeuvrability observed in many fish is attributed to their inherent flexibility, which might be enhanced by the use of appendages like fins. The aim of this work is to understand the role of morphological adaptations, such as body shape and deployment of median fins, on manoeuvrability and internal body dynamics. The 3d vortex lattice numerical method was employed to analyse the hydrodynamics for arbitrary body planforms of infinitesimal thickness. The internal structure of the body due to the combined skeletal system and soft tissue, is represented as an active Euler-Bernoulli beam, in which the time-dependent bending moment distribution is calculated from body inertia and the hydrodynamic pressure difference across the body. C-turns are the manoeuvre of choice for this work and the response for three different species of fish are examined. Angelfish(Pterophyllum eimekei), pike (Esox sp) and tuna (Thunnus albacares) were chosen for their differences in body profile, median fin use and manoeuvrability. Net direction change and bending moment response to prescribed backbone flexure are calculated and used to interpret the influence of body profile on manoeuvrability and muscle work done. Internal stresses may be computed from anatomical data on muscle fibre distribution and recruitment. To the future, it is intended to extend this work to other typical manoeuvres, such as fast starts for which muscle activation patterns have been measured quite widely.

  5. The EMF Model Transformation Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biermann, E.; Ehrig, K.; Ermel, C.; Krause, C. (born Köhler, C.); Taentzer, G.; Schuerr, A.; Nagl, M.; Zuendaorf, A.

    2008-01-01

    We present the EMF Model Transformation framework (EMT), which supports the rule-based modification of EMF models. Model transformation rules are defined graphically and compiled into Java code to be used in model transformation applications.

  6. Characteristics of radiation-induced neoplastic transformation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented to support the hypothesis that the initial step in the morphologic transformation of irradiated rodent (BALB/3T3) cells is a frequent cellular event involving a large fraction of the irradiated population. This process appears to involve DNA damage, but not to represent a targeted mutation in specific structural gene(s). Morphologic transformation and immortalization appear to be distinct steps in the overall process of transformation. In contradistinction to rodent cells, immortalization is a very rare event in human diploid cells which is induced at extremely low frequencies. The hypothesis is presented that immortality develops among clones of cells bearing stable chromosomal rearrangements which emerge during the proliferation of a population of radiation damaged cells.

  7. The Efficient Transformation of Wheat in Planta by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Dao-yi; LI Zhong-cun; WANG Hong-gang

    2003-01-01

    Transformation of wheat was performed by pipetting spikelets with Agrobacterium tumefaciens which contained expression vectors using Npt Ⅱ as reporter gene. Transformants were identified through kanamycin resistance, PCR and Southern blot. The results showed that transformation efficiency was within 2.0 to 3. 2 % in all tested varieties of wheat. Then the simple and efficient protocol of wheat transformation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in planta was primarily established.

  8. Effects of phosphate and silicate on the transformation of hydroxycarbonate green rust to ferric oxyhydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xionghan; Wang, Xiaoming; Zhu, Mengqiang; Koopal, Luuk K.; Xu, Huanhuan; Wang, Yan; Liu, Fan

    2015-12-01

    Hydroxycarbonate green rust (GR1(CO32-)) was prepared by oxidation of aerated aqueous suspensions of Fe(II) hydroxide, and the presence of light promoted the transformation of GR1(CO32-) by dissolved O2 at pH 7.8 and 25 °C. Further transformation of GR1(CO32-) in the light was conducted in the presence of orthophosphate (P) or silicate (Si) anions, followed by solution analysis and solid product characterization using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results show that both P and Si anions significantly affect the transformation of GR1(CO32-) through adsorption on the intermediate products. The time required for complete GR1(CO32-) transformation and the phases, crystallinity and morphology of the transformation products all depend on the Fe/anion molar ratio. When compared to the control, the transformation can be promoted by low Si concentrations but retarded by P. With decreasing Fe/P ratio, the products change from acicular goethite (absence of P) to tabular lepidocrocite (Fe/P: 120-48) and to mixed phases of platelets of ferric GR1(CO32-) (EX-GR1) and minor ferrihydrite (Fe/P: 24-3). In terms of Si, the products are goethites when the Fe/Si ratio of 48-12, and with increasing ratio, the goethite crystallinity and particle size decrease and the morphology changes from acicular (absence of Si) to plate-like or isodimensional particles. The goethite morphology at low Fe/Si ratios is comparable to natural goethite samples commonly found in soils. At Fe/Si = 3, the products are EX-GR1 platelets with minor ferrihydrite coexisting. The likely pathway of the oxidative GR1(CO32-) transformation in the control system and in the presence of low concentrations of Si (Fe/Si ⩾ 12) is GR1(CO32-) → amorphous γ-FeOOH-like phase → α-FeOOH via a dissolution-oxidation-precipitation mechanism. In addition, Fe(II) released during dissolution of GR1(CO32-) is adsorbed on the products and the

  9. Transformation from Al3BC phase to doped TiB2 or TiC particles in Al–Ti melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The reaction of phase Al3BC with Ti was investigated. ► The transformation leads to the formation of C-doped TiB2 and B-doped TiC. ► The doped particles show macroporous and lamellar morphologies. ► A model was proposed to illustrate the transformation mechanism. ► Grain refinement performance of the Al–5Ti–0.8B–0.2C on A356 alloy is excellent. -- Abstract: An Al–8B–2C master alloy was added into Al–Ti melts to study the reaction of Al3BC phase with Ti. As a result, a new Al–5Ti–0.8B–0.2C master alloy was fabricated. The microstructures were studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The analysis indicates that C-doped TiB2 and B-doped TiC which show macroporous and lamellar morphologies are transformed from Al3BC. The transformation mechanism is also discussed in this work. Furthermore, the grain refinement performance of the Al–5Ti–0.8B–0.2C on A356 alloy was investigated

  10. Illumination Compensation for 2-D Barcode Recognition Basing Morphologic

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Hua Li; Yi-Wen Wang; Yi Chen; Meng Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Improvement of image quality has been highly demanded in digital imaging systems. This study presents a novel illumination normalization approach for 2-D barcode recognition under varying lighting conditions. MMs (Morphological transformations) are employed to original images using big scale multiple SEs (structuring elements). Then we make use of entropy to fuse images. The performance of proposed methodology is illustrated through the processing of images with different kinds of 2-D barcode...

  11. Transformers analysis, design, and measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Fernandez, Xose M; Turowski, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on contemporary economic, design, diagnostics, and maintenance aspects of power, instrument, and high frequency transformers, which are critical to designers for a transformer stations. The text covers such topics as shell type and superconducting transformers as well as coreless PCB and planar transformers. It emphasizes challenges and strategies in transformer design and illustrates the importance of economics in transformers management by reviewing life cycle cost design and the use of decision methods to manage risk.

  12. Disformal transformation in Newton-Cartan geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peng; Yuan, Fang-Fang

    2016-08-01

    Newton-Cartan geometry has played a central role in recent discussions of the non-relativistic holography and condensed matter systems. Although the conformal transformation in non-relativistic holography can easily be rephrased in terms of Newton-Cartan geometry, we show that it requires a nontrivial procedure to arrive at the consistent form of anisotropic disformal transformation in this geometry. Furthermore, as an application of the newly obtained transformation, we use it to induce a geometric structure which may be seen as a particular non-relativistic version of the Weyl integrable geometry.

  13. Modelling the pulse transformer in SPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewska, Malgorzata; Górecki, Krzysztof; Górski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to modelling pulse transformers in SPICE. It shows the character of the selected models of this element, points out their advantages and disadvantages, and presents the results of experimental verification of the considered models. These models are characterized by varying degrees of complexity - from linearly coupled linear coils to nonlinear electrothermal models. The study was conducted for transformer with ring cores made of a variety of ferromagnetic materials, while exciting the sinusoidal signal of a frequency 100 kHz and different values of load resistance. The transformers operating conditions under which the considered models ensure the acceptable accuracy of calculations are indicated.

  14. [Morphology of the gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, Ondřej; Kokošková, Bohuslava; Švajdler, Marian

    2016-01-01

    The present definition of gastroesophageal reflux disease is based on clinical criteria that are difficult to reproduce accurately. Pathologists are supposed to confirm the presence of morphological changes induced by gastroesophageal reflux. Traditional evaluation of injury, inflammatory and reactive changes of esophageal squamous epithelium lacks both sufficient sensitivity and specificity, and thus the modern diagnostic focuses on chronic metaplastic changes of esophageal mucosa defined as any mucosal type proximal to the upper border of oxyntic mucosa (also called fundic mucosa of the stomach). In the setting of gastroesophageal reflux the esophageal mucosa, under normal conditions lined with squamous epithelium, undergoes columnar metaplasia. According to morphology and immunophenotype of columnar cells, the columnar metaplasia may be further subdivided to oxyntocardiac mucosa, cardiac mucosa, intestinal metaplasia, and an intermediate type of cardiac mucosa expressing intestinal transcription factor CDX2, but devoid of goblet cells. The latter two mucosal types are currently thought to represent the most probable candidates for neoplastic transformation, whereas oxyntocardiac mucosa is believed to represent a stable compensatory change with no risk of further progression. An evaluation of dysplastic changes (intraepithelial neoplasia) in the setting of columnar lined esophagus necessitates correlation with the second opinion of a GI expert to prevent potentially harmful under- or over-treatment of the patient. Regarding invasive adenocarcinoma, the pathologist should avoid overdiagnosis of the infiltration of the space between the two layers of columnar lined esophagus - associated split muscularis mucosae as invasion of submucosa, as it is associated with different prognosis. Critical evaluation of the real impact of acid suppression on neoplastic transformation in the setting of gastroesophageal reflux disease may represent the greatest challenge for future

  15. Cranial shape transformation in the evolution of the giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueirido, Borja; Palmqvist, Paul; Pérez-Claros, Juan A.; Dong, Wei

    2011-02-01

    In this study, landmark-based methods of geometric morphometrics are used for investigating the main aspects of cranial shape transformation in the evolution of the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Specifically, we explore if the highly derived cranial adaptations for bamboo feeding of the living panda were developed early in the panda's lineage. Results obtained show that the overall cranial morphologies of the oldest known panda, the "pygmy" Ailuropoda microta, and the late Pleistocene Ailuropoda baconi are both very similar to that of their closest living relative, A. melanoleuca, which agrees with a previous proposal based on qualitative criteria. However, we also describe several differences between the crania of A. microta, A. baconi, and A. melanoleuca, including the development of the postorbital process, the orientation of the occipital region, and the expansion of the braincase. As a result, the cranial morphology of A. microta shows a less specialized morphology toward a fibrous and durophagous diet compared to the giant panda. These results are confirmed by a comparative analysis of the dimensions of the upper teeth in bears, which has revealed differences in relative tooth size between A. microta and A. melanoleuca, most probably as a result of mosaic evolution. Therefore, we conclude that cranial shape did not remain essentially uniform in the Ailuropoda lineage, as previously thought, but underwent a number of changes during more than 2 Myr.

  16. A Research on the Transformation of Urban Form And Dynamics of Xiguan Area, Guangzhou

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tai, Y.; Liu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper mainly uses the method of Urban Morphology to study the transformation process of urban form of Xiguan historical district in Guangzhou, P.R.China. The paper tries to analyze the transformation process through studying the background of politics, economy, society, culture and natural cond

  17. Morphological knowledge and literacy acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, William E; Carlisle, Joanne F; Goodwin, Amanda P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities is to bring to the attention of researchers and educators studies on morphology and literacy that either involve students with learning difficulties or have educational implications for teaching such students. In our introduction, we first provide background information about morphological knowledge and consider the role of morphology in literacy, focusing on findings that are relevant for instruction of students who struggle with reading and writing. Next we present an overview of the studies included in this issue, organized by current issues concerning the role of morphological knowledge in literacy. Collectively, the articles in this issue suggest that students with weaker literacy skills tend to lag behind their peers in morphological knowledge but that all students are likely to benefit from morphological instruction. Morphological interventions hold promise, especially for students who face challenges in language learning and literacy, but additional research is needed to provide a basis for informed decisions about the design of effective morphological interventions. PMID:24219917

  18. A novel method for detecting apoptosis shows that hepatocytes undergo a time dependent increase in DNA cleavage and chromatin condensation which is augmented after TGF-beta 1 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, K; Inayat-Hussain, S H; Couet, C; Qin, H M; Oberhammer, F A

    1996-04-01

    This study describes a new method for quantitating apoptosis in hepatocyte monolayers in which nuclei were isolated from the cells and DNA strand breaks detected by in situ end-labeling and flow cytometry. Most (97%) nuclei from untreated hepatocytes had low end-labelling and were derived from non-apoptotic cells. Approximately 2-3% of the nuclei had high end-labelling and originated from apoptotic hepatocytes. The numbers of these nuclei increased linearly from 3 to 85% between 0 and 48 h after treatment with transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1). However, a morphological assessment of apoptosis with Hoechst H33258 showed that the proportion of apoptotic nuclei plateaued at 18-19% between 24 and 48 h after TGF-beta 1 treatment. Thus, the in situ end-labeling technique also detected DNA cleavage in nuclei which did not have an obvious apoptotic morphology. Confocal microscopy of low and high end-labelled nuclei which had been separated by fluorescent cell sorting showed that nuclei with high levels of end-labeling exhibited a wide diversity of morphologies. These included nuclei with little or no chromatin condensation and nuclei with characteristic apoptotic morphology. In addition, nuclei from untreated hepatocytes contained low levels of DNA cleavage, which were localized in areas of condensed chromatin and increased according to the time in culture. Thus, hepatocytes undergo a progressive and cumulative process of DNA cleavage/chromatin condensation which is markedly enhanced by TGF-beta 1. PMID:8900474

  19. NOVEL ADAPTIVE MULTIUSER DETECTIONALGORITHM BASED ON WAVELET TRANSFORM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGXiao-fei; XUDa-zhuan; YANGBei

    2004-01-01

    The wavelet transform-based adaptive multiuser detection algorithm is presented. The novel adaptive multiuser detection algorithm uses the wavelet transform for the preprocessing, and wavelet-transformed signal uses LMS algorithm to implement the adaptive multiuser detection. The algorithm makes use of wavelet transform to divide the wavelet space, which shows that the wavelet transform has a better decorrelation ability and leads to better convergence. White noise can be wiped off under the wavelet transform according to different characteristics of signal and white noise under the wavelet transform. Theoretical analyses and simulations demonstrate that the algorithm converges faster than the conventional adaptive multiuser detection algorithm, and has the better performance. Simulation results reveal that the algorithm convergence relates to the wavelet base, and show that the algorithm convergence gets better with the increasing of regularity for the same series of the wavelet base. Finally the algorithm shows that it can be easily implemented.

  20. Morphology controlling method for amorphous silica nanoparticles and jellyfish-like nanowires and their luminescence properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Huang, Zhaohui; Huang, Juntong; Xu, Song; Fang, Minghao; Liu, Yan-Gai; Wu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shaowei

    2016-03-01

    Uniform silica nanoparticles and jellyfish-like nanowires were synthesized by a chemical vapour deposition method on Si substrates treated without and with Ni(NO3)2, using silicon powder as the source material. Composition and structural characterization using field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the as-prepared products were silica nanoparticles and nanowires which have amorphous structures. The form of nanoparticles should be related to gas-phase nucleation procedure. The growth of the nanowires was in accordance with vapour-liquid-solid mechanism, followed by Ostwald ripening to form the jellyfish-like morphology. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence measurements showed that the silica products excited by different light sources show different luminescence properties. The emission spectra of both silica nanoparticles and nanowires are due to the neutral oxygen vacancies (≡Si-Si≡). The as-synthesized silica with controlled morphology can find potential applications in future nanodevices with tailorable photoelectric properties.

  1. Path transformations of first passage bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoin, Jean

    2003-01-01

    We define the first passage bridge from 0 to $\\lambda$ as the Brownian motion on the time interval $[0,1]$ conditioned to first hit $\\lambda$ at time 1. We show that this process may be related to the Brownian bridge, the Bessel bridge or the Brownian excursion via some path transformations, the main one being an extension of Vervaat's transformation. We also propose an extension of these results to certain bridges with cyclically exchangeable increments.

  2. Atypical burkitt's lymphoma transforming from follicular lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Chung Lap P; Loong Florence; Hwang Yu Y; Chim Chor S

    2011-01-01

    Amongst follicular lymphoma that transforms into a high-grade lymphoma, majority are diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Here we reported a rare atypical Burkitt's lymphoma transformation from an asymptomatic follicular lymphoma. Lymph node biopsy showed a composite lymphoma with infiltration of the inter-follicular areas by high grade small non-cleaved lymphoma cells amongst neoplastic follicles. Moreover, FISH and molecular genetic study confirmed concomitant MYC translocations and t(14;18) in t...

  3. Transformer Short Circuit Current Calculation and Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Ling

    2013-01-01

    There are three goals for the thesis. The first one is to introduce types of short-circuits. The second one is to introduce the transformer short-circuit current calculations. And the last one is to find suitable reinforcement methods for the transformers which are running now. Using a comparative approach to analytic research, the advantages and disadvantages of different reinforcement methods can be analyzed. The result shows that the neutral reactor is the best choice to reinforce the S/C ...

  4. Quantitative analysis of radiation-induced changes in sperm morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When developing spermatogenic cells are exposed to radiation, chemical carcinogens or mutagens, the transformation in the morphology of the mature sperm can be used to determine the severity of the exposure. In this study five groups of mice with three mice per group received testicular doses of X irradiation at dosage levels ranging from 0 rad to 120 rad. A random sample of 100 mature sperm per mouse was analyzed five weeks later for the quantitative morphologic transformation as a function of dosage level. The cells were stained with gallocyanin chrome alum (GCA) so that only the DNA in the sperm head was visible. The ACUity quantitative microscopy system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was used to scan the sperm at a sampling density of 16 points per linear micrometer and with 256 brightness levels per point. The contour of each cell was extracted using conventional thresholding techniques on the high-contrast images. For each contour a variety of shape features was then computed to characterize the morphology of that cell. Using the control group and the distribution of their shape features to establish the variability of a normal sperm population, the 95% limits on normal morphology were established. Using only four shape features, a doubling dose of approximately 39 rad was determined. That is, at 39 rad exposure the percentage of abnormal cells was twice that occurring in the control population. This compared to a doubling dose of approximately 70 rad obtained from a concurrent visual procedure

  5. Reducing transformer inrush

    OpenAIRE

    Zoufalý, Marek

    2016-01-01

    V této diplomové práci je popsána funkce a návrh transformátoru navrženého na feromagnetickém jádře, složeného z transformátorových plechů. Je vysvětlen přechodový děj a zapínací proud transformátoru. V práci jsou vložené průběhy napětí a proudu při zapínání a řešený plošný spoj, sloužící k snížení zapínacího proudu. In this thesis is described the function and design of the transformer designed on ferromagnetic core, composed of transformer sheets. It is explained a transient inrush curre...

  6. Phase Transformations and Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H. W.

    2011-12-01

    Phase transformations have been cited as responsible for, or at least involved in, "deep" earthquakes for many decades (although the concept of "deep" has varied). In 1945, PW Bridgman laid out in detail the string of events/conditions that would have to be achieved for a solid/solid transformation to lead to a faulting instability, although he expressed pessimism that the full set of requirements would be simultaneously achieved in nature. Raleigh and Paterson (1965) demonstrated faulting during dehydration of serpentine under stress and suggested dehydration embrittlement as the cause of intermediate depth earthquakes. Griggs and Baker (1969) produced a thermal runaway model of a shear zone under constant stress, culminating in melting, and proposed such a runaway as the origin of deep earthquakes. The discovery of Plate Tectonics in the late 1960s established the conditions (subduction) under which Bridgman's requirements for earthquake runaway in a polymorphic transformation could be possible in nature and Green and Burnley (1989) found that instability during the transformation of metastable olivine to spinel. Recent seismic correlation of intermediate-depth-earthquake hypocenters with predicted conditions of dehydration of antigorite serpentine and discovery of metastable olivine in 4 subduction zones, suggests strongly that dehydration embrittlement and transformation-induced faulting are the underlying mechanisms of intermediate and deep earthquakes, respectively. The results of recent high-speed friction experiments and analysis of natural fault zones suggest that it is likely that similar processes occur commonly during many shallow earthquakes after initiation by frictional failure.

  7. Electromagnetic potentials without gauge transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we show that the use of the Helmholtz theorem enables the derivation of uniquely determined electromagnetic potentials without the necessity of using gauge transformation. We show that the electromagnetic field comprises two components, one of which is characterized by instantaneous action at a distance, whereas the other propagates in retarded form with the velocity of light. In our attempt to show the superiority of the new proposed method to the standard one, we argue that the action-at-a-distance components cannot be considered as a drawback of our method, because the recommended procedure for eliminating the action at a distance in the Coulomb gauge leads to theoretical subtleties that allow us to say that the needed gauge transformation is not guaranteed. One of the theoretical consequences of this new definition is that, in addition to the electric E and magnetic B fields, the electromagnetic potentials are real physical quantities. We show that this property of the electromagnetic potentials in quantum mechanics is also a property of the electromagnetic potentials in classical electrodynamics.

  8. Controllable Phase Transformation and Mid-infrared Emission from Er3+-Doped Hexagonal-/Cubic-NaYF4 Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dandan; Chen, Dongdan; He, Huilin; Pan, Qiwen; Xiao, Quanlan; Qiu, Jianrong; Dong, Guoping

    2016-07-01

    The morphology of hexagonal phase NaYF4:Er3+ nanorods synthesized by hydrothermal method changed greatly after a continuing calcination, along with a phase transformation to cubic phase. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicated that mid-infrared (MIR) emission was obtained in both hexagonal and cubic phase NaYF4:Er3+ nanocrystals for the first time. And the MIR emission of NaYF4:Er3+ nanocrystals enhanced remarkably at higher calcination temperature. To prevent uncontrollable morphology from phase transformation, the cubic phase NaYF4:Er3+ nanospheres with an average size of ~100 nm were prepared via a co-precipitation method directly. In contrast, the results showed better morphology and size of cubic phase NaYF4:Er3+ nanocrystals have realized when calcined at different temperatures. And PL spectra demonstrated a more intense MIR emission in the cubic phase NaYF4:Er3+ nanocrystals with an increasing temperature. Besides, the MIR emission peak of Er3+ ions had an obvious splitting in cubic phase NaYF4. Therefore, cubic phase NaYF4:Er3+ nanospheres with more excellent MIR luminescent properties seems to provide a new material for nanocrystal-glass composites, which is expected to open a broad new field for the realization of MIR lasers gain medium.

  9. Design of Warped Stretch Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoubfar, Ata; Chen, Claire Lifan; Jalali, Bahram

    2015-11-01

    Time stretch dispersive Fourier transform enables real-time spectroscopy at the repetition rate of million scans per second. High-speed real-time instruments ranging from analog-to-digital converters to cameras and single-shot rare-phenomena capture equipment with record performance have been empowered by it. Its warped stretch variant, realized with nonlinear group delay dispersion, offers variable-rate spectral domain sampling, as well as the ability to engineer the time-bandwidth product of the signal’s envelope to match that of the data acquisition systems. To be able to reconstruct the signal with low loss, the spectrotemporal distribution of the signal spectrum needs to be sparse. Here, for the first time, we show how to design the kernel of the transform and specifically, the nonlinear group delay profile dictated by the signal sparsity. Such a kernel leads to smart stretching with nonuniform spectral resolution, having direct utility in improvement of data acquisition rate, real-time data compression, and enhancement of ultrafast data capture accuracy. We also discuss the application of warped stretch transform in spectrotemporal analysis of continuous-time signals.

  10. Weighted inequalities for Hilbert transforms and multiplicators of Fourier transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokilashvili V

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available As is well known, invariant operators with a shift can be bounded from into only if . We show that the case might also hold for weighted spaces. We derive the sufficient conditions for the validity of strong (weak type inequalities for the Hilbert transform when . The examples of couple of weights which guarantee the fulfillness of two-weighted strong (weak type inequalities for singular integrals are presented. The method of proof of the main results allows us to generalize the results of this paper to the singular integrals which are defined on homogeneous groups. The Fourier multiplier theorem is also proved.

  11. Study of wavelet transform type high-current transformer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢文科; 朱长纯; 刘君华; 张建军

    2002-01-01

    The wavelet transformation is applied to the high-current transformer.The high-current transformer elaborated in the paper is mainly applied to the measurement of AC/DC high-current.The principle of the transformer is the Hall direct-measurement principle.The transformer has the following three characteristics:firstly, the effect of the remnant field of the iron core on the measurement is decreased;secondly,because the temperature compensation is adopted,the transformer has good temperature charactreristic;thirdly,be-cause the wavelet transfomation technology is adopted,the transformer has the capacity of good antijanming.

  12. Proteomic analysis of Schistosoma mansoni proteins released during in vitro miracidium-to-sporocyst transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiao-Jun; Sabat, Greg; Brown, James F.; Zhang, Mengzi; Taft, Andrew; Peterson, Nathan; Harms, Amy; YOSHINO, TIMOTHY P.

    2008-01-01

    Free-living miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni, upon penetration of the their snail intermediate host, undergo dramatic morphological and physiological changes as they transform to the parasitic sporocyst stage. During this transformation process, developing larvae release a diverse array of proteins, herein referred to as larval transformation proteins (LTPs), some of which are postulated to serve a parasite protective function. In the present study, nanoLC-tandem MS analysis was performed on ...

  13. Through child's eyes: from puppet to the puppet show

    OpenAIRE

    Abakumov, Johana

    2016-01-01

    My diploma thesis is based on puppets and its use in the past and today, how the theatre was created and what you can do with puppets in the kindergarten, how puppets impact child development and how children create a puppet show. In the theoretical part I touched on the short history of puppets, its origins and important events that changed puppet theatre and transformed it into a form that it is today. I am writing about the role of puppets in kindergarten, how it can be used and how it ...

  14. Balamuthia mandrillaris: Morphology, biology, and virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is a protist pathogen that can cause encephalitis with a fatality rate of >95%. This is due to our incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of B. mandrillaris encephalitis. B. mandrillaris has two stages in its life cycle, an active trophozoite stage during which it divides mitotically. However, under unfavorable conditions, the trophozoite transforms into a dormant cyst stage. A major concern during the course of therapy is that B. mandrillaris can transform into cysts. Cysts are highly resistant to physical and chemical conditions and present a problem in successful antimicrobial chemotherapy. Several lines of evidence suggest that B. mandrillaris encephalitis develops as a result of hematogenous spread, but it is unclear how circulating amoebae enter the central nervous system and cause inflammation, blood-brain barrier disruption, and neuronal injury. Recent studies have identified several parasite-host determinants for B. mandrillaris translocation of the blood-brain barrier, and host inflammatory markers that may be associated with neuronal injury. These determinants may provide important targets for the prevention and treatment of this devastating infection. Here, we present a brief overview of the current understanding of the morphology, biology, pathogenesis, and pathophysiology of B. mandrillaris encephalitis. PMID:25709948

  15. Transformation invariant sparse coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    Sparse coding is a well established principle for unsupervised learning. Traditionally, features are extracted in sparse coding in specific locations, however, often we would prefer invariant representation. This paper introduces a general transformation invariant sparse coding (TISC) model....... The model decomposes images into features invariant to location and general transformation by a set of specified operators as well as a sparse coding matrix indicating where and to what degree in the original image these features are present. The TISC model is in general overcomplete and we therefore invoke...... sparse coding to estimate its parameters. We demonstrate how the model can correctly identify components of non-trivial artificial as well as real image data. Thus, the model is capable of reducing feature redundancies in terms of pre-specified transformations improving the component identification....

  16. Bullying - transformative potentiality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Mathiassen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I argue that a person’s experience of having been bullied as a child can holdtransformative potentiality. This means that childhood exposure to bullying can both producenegative effects and provide fuel for transformative intention and actions. By exploring twoseparate narratives, I demonstrate how these individuals’ different ways of handling past incidentsare entangled with both present and future, as well as how they are closely connected to both thespecific situations and contexts in which the person lives and his/her movements across suchsituations and contexts. The concept of dynamic effectuality is introduced to describe thisphenomenon. Furthermore, I claim that, by analysing the dynamic effectuality of individuals’ pastexperiences with bullying and their present adult lives, certain processes can be found – includingrevenge, transformative intention and collective transformative actions.

  17. Integrated magnetic transformer assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an integrated magnetics transformer assembly comprising a first magnetically permeable core forming a first substantially closed magnetic flux path and a second magnetically permeable core forming a second substantially closed magnetic flux path. A first input...... inductor winding is wound around a first predetermined segment of the first magnetically permeable core and a second input inductor winding is wound around a first predetermined segment of the second magnetically permeable core. The integrated magnetics transformer assembly further comprises a first output......-winding of the first output inductor winding and the first half-winding of the second output inductor winding are configured to produce aligned, i.e. in the same direction, magnetic fluxes through the first substantially closed magnetic flux path. The integrated magnetics transformer assembly is well- suited for use...

  18. Evolution of the brightest cluster galaxies: the influence of morphology, stellar mass and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongyao; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Conselice, Christopher J.

    2015-11-01

    Using a sample of 425 nearby brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) from von der Linden et al., we study the relationship between their internal properties (stellar masses, structural parameters and morphologies) and their environment. More massive BCGs tend to inhabit denser regions and more massive clusters than lower mass BCGs. Furthermore, cDs, which are BCGs with particularly extended envelopes, seem to prefer marginally denser regions and tend to be hosted by more massive haloes than elliptical BCGs. cD and elliptical BCGs show parallel positive correlations between their stellar masses and environmental densities. However, at a fixed environmental density, cDs are, on average, ˜40 per cent more massive. Our results, together with the findings of previous studies, suggest an evolutionary link between elliptical and cD BCGs. We suggest that most present-day cDs started their life as ellipticals, which subsequently grew in stellar mass and size due to mergers. In this process, the cD envelope developed. The large scatter in the stellar masses and sizes of the cDs reflects their different merger histories. The growth of the BCGs in mass and size seems to be linked to the hierarchical growth of the structures they inhabit: as the groups and clusters became denser and more massive, the BCGs at their centres also grew. This process is nearing completion since the majority (˜60 per cent) of the BCGs in the local Universe have cD morphology. However, the presence of galaxies with intermediate morphological classes (between ellipticals and cDs) suggests that the growth and morphological transformation of some BCGs is still ongoing.

  19. Micro-mold design controls the 3D morphological evolution of self-assembling multicellular microtissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoronos, Alexander A; Tejavibulya, Nalin; Schell, Jacquelyn Y; Shenoy, Vivek B; Morgan, Jeffrey R

    2014-04-01

    When seeded into nonadhesive micro-molds, cells self-assemble three-dimensional (3D) multicellular microtissues via the action of cytoskeletal-mediated contraction and cell-cell adhesion. The size and shape of the tissue is a function of the cell type and the size, shape, and obstacles of the micro-mold. In this article, we used human fibroblasts to investigate some of the elements of mold design and how they can be used to guide the morphological changes that occur as a 3D tissue self-organizes. In a loop-ended dogbone mold with two nonadhesive posts, fibroblasts formed a self-constrained tissue whose tension induced morphological changes that ultimately caused the tissue to thin and rupture. Increasing the width of the dogbone's connecting rod increased the stability, whereas increasing its length decreased the stability. Mapping the rupture points showed that the balance of cell volume between the toroid and connecting rod regions of the dogbone tissue controlled the point of rupture. When cells were treated with transforming growth factor-β1, dogbones ruptured sooner due to increased cell contraction. In mold designs to form tissues with more complex shapes such as three interconnected toroids or a honeycomb, obstacle design controlled tension and tissue morphology. When the vertical posts were changed to cones, they became tension modulators that dictated when and where tension was released in a large self-organizing tissue. By understanding how elements of mold design control morphology, we can produce better models to study organogenesis, examine 3D cell mechanics, and fabricate building parts for tissue engineering. PMID:24147855

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PORTUGUESE ITALIAN RYEGRASS LANDRACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V LOPES

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. is one of the most important forage grass species in Europe. In Portugal 34% of the cultivated area is dedicated to animal fodder. Italian ryegrass area in Entre Douro e Minho (EDM region was mainly with landraces. Changes in traditional agricultural systems are contributing to a major loss of genetic diversity mainly to landraces. Portuguese Italian ryegrass landraces are threatened since nineteen years and collecting missions took place in EDM to ex situ conservation. The main Italian ryegrass landraces from EDM are “castelhano’s” and “verdeal’s” agro type. The aim of this study was to evaluate the existence of morphological variability between EDM Italian ryegrass landraces, to analyse the existence of duplicates in the germplasm collection and to evaluate the farmer’ classification. The landraces were characterised based on morphological traits of International Plant Genetic Resources Institute and International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants descriptors list and the most discriminated traits were utilised in the multivariate analysis, using NTSYS v.2.0. Italian ryegrass accessions belong to two different agro types based on morphological characteristics and farmers identified. Each landrace showed inter-population variability mainly on “verdeal” landrace. It was possible to differentiate the most of ryegrass accessions using the morphological traits used were initial stage of plant maturity. The EDM germplasm preserves the Italian ryegrass genetic diversity, which is conserved in ex situ and is a good basis for research programs.

  1. Successful Transformational Radiology Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douget, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Transformational radiology leaders elevate subordinates, expand self-awareness, develop lasting relationships, strive to exceed expectations, and uphold the vision and goals of the organization. In order for radiology leaders to become more transformational in their leadership style there are four fundamental elements they must learn: idealized influence, individualized consideration, inspirational motivation, and intellectual stimulation. Leaders can utilize personality and self-assessments to learn more about themselves, identify areas of strengths and weaknesses, and learn to be more effective when leading employees. PMID:26710553

  2. The quantum Arnold transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaya, V.; Cossío, F.; Guerrero, J.; López-Ruiz, F. F.

    2011-02-01

    Using a quantum version of the Arnold transformation of classical mechanics, all quantum dynamical systems whose classical equations of motion are non-homogeneous linear second-order ordinary differential equations, including systems with friction linear in velocity, can be related to the quantum free-particle dynamical system. This transformation provides a basic (Heisenberg-Weyl) algebra of quantum operators, along with well-defined Hermitian operators which can be chosen as evolution-like observables and complete the entire Schrödinger algebra. It also proves to be very helpful in performing certain computations quickly, to obtain, for example, wavefunctions and closed analytic expressions for time-evolution operators.

  3. Checking Model Transformation Refinement

    OpenAIRE

    Büttner, Fabian; Egea, Marina; Guerra, Esther; Lara, Juan De

    2013-01-01

    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-38883-5_15 Proceedings of 6th International Conference, ICMT 2013, Budapest, Hungary, June 18-19, 2013 Refinement is a central notion in computer science, meaning that some artefact S can be safely replaced by a refinement R, which preserves S’s properties. Having available techniques and tools to check transformation refinement would enable (a) the reasoning on whether a transformation correctly impl...

  4. Transforming shape in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prats, Miquel; Lim, Sungwoo; Jowers, Iestyn;

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with how design shapes are generated and explored by means of sketching. It presents research into the way designers transform shapes from one state to another using sketch representations. An experimental investigation of the sketching processes of designers is presented....... Connections between sketches are defined in terms of shape transformations and described according to shape rules. These rules provide a formal description of the shape exploration process and develop understanding of the mechanics of sketching in design. The paper concludes by discussing the important...

  5. Genetic Transformation of Switchgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yajun; Ge, Yaxin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a highly productive warm-season C4 species that is being developed into a dedicated biofuel crop. This chapter describes a protocol that allows the generation of transgenic switchgrass plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Embryogenic calluses induced from caryopses or inflorescences were used as explants for inoculation with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105. Hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph) was used as the selectable marker and hygromycin was used as the selection agent. Calluses resistant to hygromycin were obtained after 5-6 weeks of selection. Soil-grown switchgrass plants were regenerated about 6 months after callus induction and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  6. Killer whale morphology - Variation in morphology of killer whale ecotypes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are using elliptic Fourier analysis to determine the patterns of variation in morphology of dorsal fin shape, saddle patch shape, and eye patch shape of...

  7. Specificity of Czech Economic Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Haberle, Ondřej

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to describe the economic transformation in Czech Republic in 1990-1997 with accent on difference between transformation process in Czech Republic and other transition countries. Theoretical part is based on the description of the model of centrally planned economy and transformation theory. Practical part discuss macroeconomy a microeconomy measures of economic transformation.

  8. The effect of morphology upon mobility : Implications for bulk heterojunction solar cells with nonuniform blend morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, C.; Koster, L. J. A.; Greenham, N. C.

    2009-01-01

    We use a Monte Carlo model to predict the effect of composition, domain size, and energetic disorder upon the mobility of carriers in an organic donor-acceptor blend. These simulations show that, for the changes in local morphology expected within the thickness of a typical bulk heterojunction photo

  9. A new class of scrambling transformation and its application in the image information covering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐东旭; 邹建成; 韩效宥

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies two kinds of nonlinear transformations, namely the higher-dimensional Arnold transformation and the higher-dimensional Fibonacci Q-transformation and discusses the scrambling action of the two transformations focusing on the phase space of the digital images. A sufficient and necessary condition that a matrix transformation of digital image has periodicity is given. The results show that the two transformations have potential application in the storage and transportation of image information for the purpose of information security.

  10. SEGMENTATION USING MULTISCALE MORPHOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NANMOZHI.R

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation is a crucial step in the field of image processing and pattern recognition. Segmentation allows the identification of structures in an image which can be utilized for further processing. This paper proposes a technique for object segmentation from its background. We utilized both region-based and object-based segmentation capabilities to handle the object segmentation for large-scale database images in a robust and principled manner. MultiScalE Graylevel mOrphological recoNstructions (SEGON is used for segmenting an image. SEGON roughly identifies the background and object regions in the image. To further refine the boundaries of the objects mean-shift segmentation technique is applied on the SEGON processed image. Accuracy of segmentation is evaluated by computing structural similarity index (SSIM, for the image segmented with and without using SEGON. Images collected from Corel, Caltech, PASCAL, UCID and CMU-PIE databases are utilized for this work. Experimental results showed that the proposed object segmentation method outperforms the state-of-the-art image segmentation techniques.

  11. Phase Transformation of Nanosized Zirconia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The nanosized zirconia was synthesized via solid state reaction in the presence of surfactant. The results indicate that crystal phase of zirconia can be controlled by tuning the syn- thesis parameters such as OH-/Zr molar ratio, crystallizing temperature and time. It can be trans- formed among amorphous, tetragonal and monoclinic phases. The transformation is driven by particle size. The research shows the nanocrystalline zirconia possesses the higher thermal stability compared with amorphous framework. The "glow exotherm" can be observed for the amorphous samples. Otherwise, it is in the absence for nanocrystalline samples. Herein, the reason for retention of tetragonal zirconia is demonstrated.

  12. Alzheimer's Gene May Show Effects in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159854.html Alzheimer's Gene May Show Effects in Childhood Brain scans ... 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A gene related to Alzheimer's disease may start to show effects on brain ...

  13. Morphological and spectroscopic analysis of cellulose nanocrystals extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasan, Y. K.; Bhat, A. H.; Faiz, A.

    2015-07-01

    This work evaluates the use of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber as a source of cellulose to obtain nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC) by acid hydrolysis reaction. The raw OPEFB fibers were pretreated with aqueous Sodium hydroxide at 80°C followed by bleaching treatment and further hydrolyzed with Sulphuric acid at 45°C with limited range of hydrolysis time and acid concentration. The resulting CNC's were characterized for spectroscopic, crystallographic and morphological properties using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finding of this study shows that the properties of CNC's are strongly dependent on the hydrolysis time and acid concentration.

  14. Morphological and spectroscopic analysis of cellulose nanocrystals extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasan, Y. K., E-mail: aamir.bhat@petronas.com.my; Bhat, A. H., E-mail: aamir.bhat@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Faiz, A., E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    This work evaluates the use of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber as a source of cellulose to obtain nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC) by acid hydrolysis reaction. The raw OPEFB fibers were pretreated with aqueous Sodium hydroxide at 80°C followed by bleaching treatment and further hydrolyzed with Sulphuric acid at 45°C with limited range of hydrolysis time and acid concentration. The resulting CNC’s were characterized for spectroscopic, crystallographic and morphological properties using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finding of this study shows that the properties of CNC’s are strongly dependent on the hydrolysis time and acid concentration.

  15. A low-latency Glitch Classification Algorithm Based in Waveform Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Hunter; Mukherjee, Soma; Stone, Robert

    2016-03-01

    We present a novel and efficient algorithm for classification of signals that arise in gravitational wave channels of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO). Using data from LIGO's sixth science run (S6), we developed a new glitch classification algorithm based mainly on the morphology of the waveform as well as several other parameters (signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), duration, bandwidth, etc.). This is done using two novel methods, Kohonen Self Organizing Feature Maps (SOMs), and discrete wavelet transform coefficients. This study shows the feasibility of utilizing unsupervised machine learning techniques (SOMs) in order to display a multidimensional trigger set in a low-latency two dimensional format. UTRGV NSF REU Program.

  16. Transformation of hydrogen titanate nanoribbons to TiO2 nanoribbons and the influence of the transformation strategies on the photocatalytic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Rutar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the reaction conditions during the transformation of hydrogen titanate nanoribbons to TiO2 nanoribbons on the phase composition, the morphology, the appearance of the nanoribbon surfaces and their optical properties was investigated. The transformations were performed (i through a heat treatment in oxidative and reductive atmospheres in the temperature range of 400–650 °C, (ii through a hydrothermal treatment in neutral and basic environments at 160 °C, and (iii through a microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment in a neutral environment at 200 °C. Scanning electron microscopy investigations showed that the hydrothermal processing significantly affected the nanoribbon surfaces, which became rougher, while the transformations based on calcination in either oxidative or reductive atmospheres had no effect on the morphology or on the surface appearance of the nanoribbons. The transformations performed in the reductive atmosphere, an NH3(g/Ar(g flow, and in the ammonia solution led to nitrogen doping. The nitrogen content increased with an increasing calcination temperature, as was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. According to electron paramagnetic resonance measurements the calcination in the reductive atmosphere also resulted in a partial reduction of Ti4+ to Ti3+. The photocatalytic performance of the derived TiO2 NRs was estimated on the basis of the photocatalytic oxidation of isopropanol. After calcinating in air, the photocatalytic performance of the investigated TiO2 NRs increased with an increased content of anatase. In contrast, the photocatalytic performance of the N-doped TiO2 NRs showed no dependence on the calcination temperature. An additional comparison showed that the N-doping significantly suppressed the photocatalytic performance of the TiO2 NRs, i.e., by 3 to almost 10 times, in comparison with the TiO2 NRs derived by calcination in air. On the other hand, the photocatalytic performance of the

  17. Fourier transforms principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Eric W

    2014-01-01

    Fourier Transforms: Principles and Applications explains transform methods and their applications to electrical systems from circuits, antennas, and signal processors-ably guiding readers from vector space concepts through the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Fourier series, and Fourier transform to other related transform methods.  Featuring chapter end summaries of key results, over two hundred examples and four hundred homework problems, and a Solutions Manual this book is perfect for graduate students in signal processing and communications as well as practicing engineers.

  18. Comparison of heat and radiation sensitivity in normal C3H-10T1/2 cells and cells transformed by radiation or the H ras oncogene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C/sub 3/H 10T1/2 cells were transformed from the normal to the malignant state using X-rays or by transfection with a plasmid containing the active H ras oncogene. Clones of cells with a transformed morphology were isolated and grown into large populations. These cells were tested and produced tumors in C/sub 3/H mice. Seven clones transformed by radiation showed a range of sensitivity to heat and X-rays that varied from greater to lesser than the heat and X-ray sensitivity in normal cells. Similar results were observed for the cells transformed by the H ras oncogene. Thus, the malignant transformation of C/sub 3/H 10T1/2 cells by X-rays or H ras oncogenes did not, in general result in increased thermal sensitivity, implying that the malignant phenotype is not intrinsically more heat sensitive than the normal cell. The thermal sensitivity in the various transformed cell lines was not correlated with membrane cholesterol or phospholipid content

  19. Transforming Education with Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Marge

    2011-01-01

    In this EL interview, Karen Cator, the director of the Office of Educational Technology at the U.S. Department of Education, talks about ways to realize the potential of technology to transform education. She discusses what students need: their own digital devices for classroom use, the ability to use the information they access, the skills to…

  20. Transforming Primary Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Mike

    2011-01-01

    What is good mathematics teaching? What is mathematics teaching good for? Who is mathematics teaching for? These are just some of the questions addressed in "Transforming Primary Mathematics", a highly timely new resource for teachers which accessibly sets out the key theories and latest research in primary maths today. Under-pinned by findings…