WorldWideScience

Sample records for showed unique patterns

  1. Co-residence patterns in hunter-gatherer societies show unique human social structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kim R; Walker, Robert S; Bozicević, Miran; Eder, James; Headland, Thomas; Hewlett, Barry; Hurtado, A Magdalena; Marlowe, Frank; Wiessner, Polly; Wood, Brian

    2011-03-11

    Contemporary humans exhibit spectacular biological success derived from cumulative culture and cooperation. The origins of these traits may be related to our ancestral group structure. Because humans lived as foragers for 95% of our species' history, we analyzed co-residence patterns among 32 present-day foraging societies (total n = 5067 individuals, mean experienced band size = 28.2 adults). We found that hunter-gatherers display a unique social structure where (i) either sex may disperse or remain in their natal group, (ii) adult brothers and sisters often co-reside, and (iii) most individuals in residential groups are genetically unrelated. These patterns produce large interaction networks of unrelated adults and suggest that inclusive fitness cannot explain extensive cooperation in hunter-gatherer bands. However, large social networks may help to explain why humans evolved capacities for social learning that resulted in cumulative culture.

  2. Practical relevance of pattern uniqueness in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, Paul T

    2013-09-10

    Uniqueness being unprovable, it has recently been argued that individualization in forensic science is irrelevant and, probability, as applied for DNA profiles, should be applied for all identifications. Critiques against uniqueness have omitted physical matching, a realistic and tangible individualization that supports uniqueness. Describing case examples illustrating pattern matches including physical matching, it is indicated that individualizations are practically relevant for forensic science as they establish facts on a definitive basis providing firm leads benefitting criminal investigation. As a tenet of forensic identification, uniqueness forms a fundamental paradigm relevant for individualization. Evidence on the indeterministic and stochastic causal pathways of characteristics in patterns available in the related fields of science sufficiently supports the proposition of uniqueness. Characteristics involved in physical matching and matching achieved in patterned evidence existing in the state of nature are not events amenable for counting; instead these are ensemble of visible units occupying the entire pattern area stretching the probability of re-occurrence of a verisimilitude pattern into infinity offering epistemic support to uniqueness. Observational methods are as respectable as instrumental or statistical methods since they are capable of generating results that are tangible and obviously valid as in physical matching. Applying the probabilistic interpretation used for DNA profiles to the other patterns would be unbefitting since these two are disparate, the causal pathways of the events, the loci, in the manipulated DNA profiles being determinable. While uniqueness enables individualizations, it does not vouch for eliminating errors. Instead of dismissing uniqueness and individualization, accepting errors as human or system failures and seeking remedial measures would benefit forensic science practice and criminal investigation. Copyright © 2013

  3. Is There a Weekly Pattern for Health Searches on Wikipedia and Is the Pattern Unique to Health Topics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarron, Elia; Lau, Annie Y S; Wynn, Rolf

    2015-12-22

    Online health information-seeking behaviors have been reported to be more common at the beginning of the workweek. This behavior pattern has been interpreted as a kind of "healthy new start" or "fresh start" due to regrets or attempts to compensate for unhealthy behavior or poor choices made during the weekend. However, the observations regarding the most common health information-seeking day were based only on the analyses of users' behaviors with websites on health or on online health-related searches. We wanted to confirm if this pattern could be found in searches of Wikipedia on health-related topics and also if this search pattern was unique to health-related topics or if it could represent a more general pattern of online information searching--which could be of relevance even beyond the health sector. The aim was to examine the degree to which the search pattern described previously was specific to health-related information seeking or whether similar patterns could be found in other types of information-seeking behavior. We extracted the number of searches performed on Wikipedia in the Norwegian language for 911 days for the most common sexually transmitted diseases (chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], and acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS]), other health-related topics (influenza, diabetes, and menopause), and 2 nonhealth-related topics (footballer Lionel Messi and pop singer Justin Bieber). The search dates were classified according to the day of the week and ANOVA tests were used to compare the average number of hits per day of the week. The ANOVA tests showed that the sexually transmitted disease queries had their highest peaks on Tuesdays (PJustin Bieber had the most hits on Tuesdays. Both these tracked search queries also showed significantly lower numbers on Saturdays (P<.001). Our study supports prior studies finding an increase in health information searching at the beginning of the workweek. However, we also

  4. Detecting beer intake by unique metabolite patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern...... representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1) 18 participants were given one at a time four different test beverages: strong, regular and non-alcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were...... assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e. N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum...

  5. On the uniqueness of color patterns in raptor feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    For this study, I compared sequentially molted feathers for a few captive raptors from year to year and symmetrically matched feathers (left/right pairs) for many raptors to see if color patterns of sequential feather pairs were identical or if symmetrical pairs were mirror-image identical. Feather pairs were found to be identical only when without color pattern (e.g., the all-white rectrices of Bald Eagles [Haliaeetus leucocephalus]). Complex patterns were not closely matched, but some simple patterns were sometimes closely matched, although not identical. Previous claims that complex color patterns in feather pairs are fingerprint-identical (and therefore that molted feathers from wild raptors can be used to identify breeding adults from year to year with certainty) were found to be untrue: each feather is unique. Although it is unwise to be certain of bird of origin using normal feathers, abnormal feathers can often be so used. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  6. Extreme delta brush: a unique EEG pattern in adults with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Sarah E; Pargeon, Kimberly; Frechette, Eric S; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Dalmau, Josep; Friedman, Daniel

    2012-09-11

    To determine continuous EEG (cEEG) patterns that may be unique to anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis in a series of adult patients with this disorder. We evaluated the clinical and EEG data of 23 hospitalized adult patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis who underwent cEEG monitoring between January 2005 and February 2011 at 2 large academic medical centers. Twenty-three patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis underwent a median of 7 (range 1-123) days of cEEG monitoring. The median length of hospitalization was 44 (range 2-200) days. Personality or behavioral changes (100%), movement disorders (82.6%), and seizures (78.3%) were the most common symptoms. Seven of 23 patients (30.4%) had a unique electrographic pattern, which we named "extreme delta brush" because of its resemblance to waveforms seen in premature infants. The presence of extreme delta brush was associated with a more prolonged hospitalization (mean 128.3 ± 47.5 vs 43.2 ± 39.0 days, p = 0.008) and increased days of cEEG monitoring (mean 27.6 ± 42.3 vs 6.2 ± 5.6 days, p = 0.012). The modified Rankin Scale score showed a trend toward worse scores in patients with the extreme delta brush pattern (mean 4.0 ± 0.8 vs 3.1 ± 1.1, p = 0.089). Extreme delta brush is a novel EEG finding seen in many patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. The presence of this pattern is associated with a more prolonged illness. Although the specificity of this pattern is unclear, its presence should raise consideration of this syndrome.

  7. Unique identification code for medical fundus images using blood vessel pattern for tele-ophthalmology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anushikha; Dutta, Malay Kishore; Sharma, Dilip Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Identification of fundus images during transmission and storage in database for tele-ophthalmology applications is an important issue in modern era. The proposed work presents a novel accurate method for generation of unique identification code for identification of fundus images for tele-ophthalmology applications and storage in databases. Unlike existing methods of steganography and watermarking, this method does not tamper the medical image as nothing is embedded in this approach and there is no loss of medical information. Strategic combination of unique blood vessel pattern and patient ID is considered for generation of unique identification code for the digital fundus images. Segmented blood vessel pattern near the optic disc is strategically combined with patient ID for generation of a unique identification code for the image. The proposed method of medical image identification is tested on the publically available DRIVE and MESSIDOR database of fundus image and results are encouraging. Experimental results indicate the uniqueness of identification code and lossless recovery of patient identity from unique identification code for integrity verification of fundus images. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrical Burn Causing a Unique Pattern of Neurological Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan R. Schaefer, BExSc, MBBS (Hons

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Neurological involvement is not uncommon in patients who sustain electrical injury. The exact mechanism of nervous system damage following electrical trauma is not fully understood. The gamut of possible neurologic manifestations following electrical injury is diverse. This case report describes a young man with a unique pattern of neurological injury following an electrical burn. The combination of brachial plexopathy, partial Horner’s syndrome, and phrenic nerve palsy secondary to electrical injury has not been previously described in the literature.

  9. Detecting Beer Intake by Unique Metabolite Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian; Bech, Lene; Lund, Erik; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-12-02

    Evaluation of the health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1), 18 participants were given, one at a time, four different test beverages: strong, regular, and nonalcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort, and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e., N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum of iso-α-acids and tricyclohumols) and the production process (i.e., pyro-glutamyl proline and 2-ethyl malate), was selected to establish a compliance biomarker model for detection of beer intake based on MSt1. The model predicted the MSt2 samples collected before and up to 12 h after beer intake correctly (AUC = 1). A biomarker model including four metabolites representing both beer raw materials and production steps provided a specific and accurate tool for measurement of beer consumption.

  10. Physical objects as vehicles of cultural transmission: maintaining harmony and uniqueness through colored geometric patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Keiko; Miyamoto, Yuri; Rule, Nicholas O; Toriyama, Rie

    2014-02-01

    We examined how cultural values of harmony and uniqueness are represented and maintained through physical media (i.e., colorings of geometric patterns) and how individuals play an active role in selecting and maintaining such cultural values. We found that colorings produced by European American adults and children were judged as more unique, whereas colorings produced by Japanese adults and children were judged as more harmonious, reflecting cultural differences in values. Harmony undergirded Japanese participants' preferences for colorings, whereas uniqueness undergirded European American participants' preferences for colorings. These cultural differences led participants to prefer own-culture colorings over other-culture colorings. Moreover, bicultural participants' preferences acculturated according to their identification with their host culture. Furthermore, child rearers in Japan and Canada gave feedback about the children's colorings that were consistent with their culture's values. These findings suggest that simple geometric patterns can embody cultural values that are socialized and reinforced from an early age.

  11. Unique features of Myf-5 in turtles: nucleotide deletion, alternative splicing, and unusual expression pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Yoshie Kawashima; Usuda, Ryo; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2006-01-01

    Turtles characteristically possess a bony shell and show an extensive reduction of the trunk muscles. To gain insight into the evolution of this animal group, we focused on the underlying mechanism of the turtle-specific developmental pattern associated with the somitic mesoderm, which differentiates into both skeleton and muscle. We isolated Myf-5, a member of the myogenic-transcription-factor-encoding gene family expressed in the myotome, from the Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis. We detected a deletion of 12 sequential nucleotides in P. sinensis Myf-5 (PsMyf-5), which appears to be shared by the turtle group. The expression pattern of PsMyf-5 in P. sinensis embryos differed from those of its orthologs in other amniotes, especially in the hypaxial region of the flank. We also identified two isoforms of the PsMyf-5 protein, a normal form similar to those of other vertebrates, and a short form produced by a translational frameshift. The short PsMyf-5 showed weaker myogenic activity in cultured cells than that of the normal protein, although the tissue distribution of the two isoforms overlapped perfectly. We propose that the unusual features of PsMyf-5 may be related to the unique developmental patterns of this animal group, and constitute one of the molecular bases for their evolutionary origin.

  12. Human placental immunoglobulins show unique re-association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study re-association pattern of human placental eluate immunoglobulins with acid treated isologous and third party trophoblast derived placental microvesicles. Design: Laboratory based experimentation. Setting: Biological Sciences Department and Discipline for Reproductive Medicine University of ...

  13. The Unique Propulsive Wake Pattern of the Swimming Sea Slug Aplysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuoyu; Mittal, Rajat

    2017-11-01

    The Aplysia, also sometimes referred to as the `Sea Hare,' is a sea slug that swims elegantly using large-amplitude flapping of its mantle. The Sea Hare has become a very valuable laboratory animal for investigation into nervous systems and brain behavior due to its simple neural system with large neurons and axons. Recently, attempts have also been made to develop biohybrid robots with both organic actuation and organic motor-pattern control inspired by the locomotion of Aplysia. While extensive works have been done to investigate this animal's neurobiology, relatively little is known about its propulsive mechanisms and swimming energetics. In this study, incompressible flow simulations with a simple kinematical model are used to gain insights into vortex dynamics, thrust generation and energetics of locomotion. The effect of mantle kinematics on the propulsive performance is examined, and simulations indicate a unique vortex wake pattern that is responsible for thrust generation. The research is supported by NSF Grant PLR-1246317 and NSF XSEDE Grant TG-CTS100002.

  14. Unique versus cumulative effects of physical and sexual assault on patterns of adolescent substance use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charak, R.; Koot, H.M.; Dvorak, R.D.; Elklit, A.; Elhai, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed the unique versus cumulative effects of physical and sexual assault, on patterns of substance-use in adolescents. It was hypothesized that experiencing a single assault (physical or sexual) when compared with exposure to both physical and sexual assault would be more

  15. Identification of unique cis-element pattern on simulated microgravity treated Arabidopsis by in silico and gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Hyuncheol; Choi, Yongsang; Lee, Taek-Kyun; Yeo, Up-Dong; Han, Kyeongsik; Auh, Chungkyun; Lee, Sukchan

    2012-08-01

    Arabidopsis gene expression microarray (44 K) was used to detect genes highly induced under simulated microgravity stress (SMS). Ten SMS-inducible genes were selected from the microarray data and these 10 genes were found to be abundantly expressed in 3-week-old plants. Nine out of the 10 SMS-inducible genes were also expressed in response to the three abiotic stresses of drought, touch, and wounding in 3-week-old Arabidopsis plants respectively. However, WRKY46 was elevated only in response to SMS. Six other WRKY genes did not respond to SMS. To clarify the characteristics of the genes expressed at high levels in response to SMS, 20 cis-elements in the promoters of the 40 selected genes including the 10 SMS-inducible genes, the 6 WRKY genes, and abiotic stress-inducible genes were analyzed and their spatial positions on each promoter were determined. Four cis-elements (M/T-G-T-P from MYB1AT or TATABOX5, GT1CONSENSUS, TATABOX5, and POLASIG1) showed a unique spatial arrangement in most SMS-inducible genes including WRKY46. Therefore the M/T-G-T-P cis-element patterns identified in the promoter of WRKY46 may play important roles in regulating gene expression in response to SMS. The presences of the cis-element patterns suggest that the order or spatial positioning of certain groups of cis-elements is more important than the existence or numbers of specific cis-elements. Taken together, our data indicate that WRKY46 is a novel SMS inducible transcription factor and the unique spatial arrangement of cis-elements shown in WRKY46 promoter may play an important role for its response to SMS.

  16. Common processes at unique volcanoes – a volcanological conundrum

    OpenAIRE

    Katharine eCashman; Juliet eBiggs

    2014-01-01

    An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behavior over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behavior (or “personali...

  17. Nonaggressive systemic mastocytosis (SM) without skin lesions associated with insect-induced anaphylaxis shows unique features versus other indolent SM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Twose, Iván; Zanotti, Roberta; González-de-Olano, David; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Vega, Arantza; Matito, Almudena; Sánchez-Muñoz, Laura; Morgado, José Mário; Perbellini, Omar; García-Montero, Andrés; De Matteis, Giovanna; Teodósio, Cristina; Rossini, Maurizio; Jara-Acevedo, María; Schena, Donatella; Mayado, Andrea; Zamò, Alberto; Mollejo, Manuela; Sánchez-López, Paula; Cabañes, Nieves; Orfao, Alberto; Escribano, Luis

    2014-02-01

    Indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM) without skin lesions (ISMs(-)) shows a higher prevalence in males, lower serum baseline tryptase levels, and KIT mutation more frequently restricted to bone marrow (BM) mast cells (MCs) than ISM with skin lesions (ISMs(+)). Interestingly, in almost one-half of ISMs(-) patients, MC-mediator release episodes are triggered exclusively by insects. We aimed to determine the clinical and laboratory features of ISMs(-) associated with insect-induced anaphylaxis (insectISMs(-)) versus other patients with ISM. A total of 335 patients presenting with MC activation syndrome, including 143 insectISMs(-), 72 ISMs(-) triggered by other factors (otherISMs(-)), 56 ISMs(+), and 64 nonclonal MC activation syndrome, were studied. Compared with otherISMs(-) and ISMs(+) patients, insectISMs(-) cases showed marked male predominance (78% vs 53% and 46%; P < .001), a distinct pattern of MC-related symptoms, and significantly lower median serum baseline tryptase levels (22.4 vs 28.7 and 45.8 μg/L; P ≤ .009). Moreover, insectISMs(-) less frequently presented BM MC aggregates (46% vs 70% and 81%; P ≤ .001), and they systematically showed MC-restricted KIT mutation. ISMs(-) patients with anaphylaxis triggered exclusively by insects display clinical and laboratory features that are significantly different from other ISM cases, including other ISMs(-) and ISMs(+) patients, suggesting that they represent a unique subgroup of ISM with a particularly low BM MC burden in the absence of adverse prognostic factors. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Classical many-particle systems with unique disordered ground states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Stillinger, F. H.; Torquato, S.

    2017-10-01

    Classical ground states (global energy-minimizing configurations) of many-particle systems are typically unique crystalline structures, implying zero enumeration entropy of distinct patterns (aside from trivial symmetry operations). By contrast, the few previously known disordered classical ground states of many-particle systems are all high-entropy (highly degenerate) states. Here we show computationally that our recently proposed "perfect-glass" many-particle model [Sci. Rep. 6, 36963 (2016), 10.1038/srep36963] possesses disordered classical ground states with a zero entropy: a highly counterintuitive situation . For all of the system sizes, parameters, and space dimensions that we have numerically investigated, the disordered ground states are unique such that they can always be superposed onto each other or their mirror image. At low energies, the density of states obtained from simulations matches those calculated from the harmonic approximation near a single ground state, further confirming ground-state uniqueness. Our discovery provides singular examples in which entropy and disorder are at odds with one another. The zero-entropy ground states provide a unique perspective on the celebrated Kauzmann-entropy crisis in which the extrapolated entropy of a supercooled liquid drops below that of the crystal. We expect that our disordered unique patterns to be of value in fields beyond glass physics, including applications in cryptography as pseudorandom functions with tunable computational complexity.

  19. Aggrecan-based extracellular matrix shows unique cortical features and conserved subcortical principles of mammalian brain organization in the Madagascan lesser hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi Martin, 1838).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawski, M; Brückner, G; Jäger, C; Seeger, G; Künzle, H; Arendt, T

    2010-02-03

    The Madagascan tenrecs (Afrotheria), an ancient mammalian clade, are characterized by unique brain anatomy. Striking features are an expanded paleocortex but a small and poorly differentiated neocortex devoid of a distinct granular layer IV. To investigate the organization of cortical areas we analyzed extracellular matrix components in perineuronal nets (PNs) using antibodies to aggrecan, lectin staining and hyaluronan-binding protein. Selected subcortical regions were studied to correlate the cortical patterns with features in evolutionary conserved systems. In the neocortex, paleocortex and hippocampus PNs were associated with nonpyramidal neurons. Quantitative analysis in the cerebral cortex revealed area-specific proportions and laminar distribution patterns of neurons ensheathed by PNs. Cortical PNs showed divergent structural phenotypes. Diffuse PNs forming a cotton wool-like perisomatic rim were characteristic of the paleocortex. These PNs were associated with a dense pericellular plexus of calretinin-immunoreactive fibres. Clearly contoured PNs were devoid of a calretinin-positive plexus and predominated in the neocortex and hippocampus. The organization of the extracellular matrix in subcortical nuclei followed the widely distributed mammalian type. We conclude that molecular properties of the aggrecan-based extracellular matrix are conserved during evolution of mammals; however, the matrix scaffold is adapted to specific wiring patterns of cortical and subcortical neuronal networks. Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lip prints- A study of its uniqueness among students of MediCiti Medical College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzapur, Archana; Nagothu, Rajani S; Nalluri, Hima B

    2017-01-01

    "Cheiloscopy" is a technique that deals with lip prints. The pattern of fine creases on the lips are unique to the individual. They are similar to finger prints and useful in crime investigation. To study the uniqueness, prevalence, and gender significance of lip print patterns in human subjects. The study was conducted on 100 randomly selected male and female undergraduate medical students. The lip print of each subject was obtained and its pattern was analyzed according to Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification. The study showed that Type I lip pattern was the commonest. Our study has added to confirmation of the distinctiveness of cheiloscopy, which can be used as an additional tool for identification. Studies on lip prints being very scanty, our findings add significantly to the meager literature on this subject. Further in-depth studies to establish prevalence of patterns in lip prints will certainly help as useful evidence in forensic investigations.

  1. Patterned basal seismicity shows sub-ice stream bedforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcheck, C. G.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Schwartz, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Patterns in seismicity emanating from the bottom of fast-moving ice streams and glaciers may indicate localized patches of higher basal resistance— sometimes called 'sticky spots', or otherwise varying basal properties. These seismogenic basal areas resist an unknown portion of the total driving stress of the Whillans Ice Plain (WIP), in West Antarctica, but may play an important role in the WIP stick-slip cycle and ice stream slowdown. To better understand the mechanism and importance of basal seismicity beneath the WIP, we analyze seismic data collected by a small aperture (micro-earthquakes in Dec 2014, and we compare the resulting map of seismicity to ice bottom depth measured by airborne radar. The number of basal earthquakes per area within the network is spatially heterogeneous, but a pattern of two 400m wide streaks of high seismicity rates is evident, with >50-500 earthquakes detected per 50x50m grid cell in 2 weeks. These seismically active streaks are elongated approximately in the ice flow direction with a spacing of 750m. Independent airborne radar measurements of ice bottom depth from Jan 2013 show a low-amplitude ( 5m) undulation in the basal topography superposed on a regional gradient in ice bottom depth. The flow-perpendicular wavelength of these low-amplitude undulations is comparable to the spacing of the high seismicity bands, and the streaks of high seismicity intersect local lows in the undulating basal topography. We interpret these seismic and radar observations as showing seismically active sub-ice stream bedforms that are low amplitude and elongated in the direction of ice flow, comparable to the morphology of mega scale glacial lineations (MSGLs), with high basal seismicity rates observed in the MSGL troughs. These results have implications for understanding the formation mechanism of MSGLS and well as understanding the interplay between basal topographic roughness, spatially varying basal till and hydrologic properties, basal

  2. Unique Pattern of Protein-Bound Maillard Reaction Products in Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) Honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Michael; Rückriemen, Jana; Sandner, Daniel; Henle, Thomas

    2017-05-03

    As a unique feature, honey from the New Zealand manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium) contains substantial amounts of dihydroxyacetone (DHA) and methylglyoxal (MGO). Although MGO is a reactive intermediate in the Maillard reaction, very little is known about reactions of MGO with honey proteins. We hypothesized that the abundance of MGO should result in a particular pattern of protein-bound Maillard reaction products (MRPs) in manuka honey. A protein-rich high-molecular-weight fraction was isolated from 12 manuka and 8 non-manuka honeys and hydrolyzed enzymatically. By HPLC-MS/MS, 8 MRPs, namely, N-ε-fructosyllysine, N-ε-maltulosyllysine, carboxymethyllysine, carboxyethyllysine (CEL), pyrraline, formyline, maltosine, and methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone 1 (MG-H1), were quantitated. Compared to non-manuka honeys, the manuka honeys were characterized by high concentrations of CEL and MG-H1, whereas the formation of N-ε-fructosyllysine was suppressed, indicating concurrence reactions of glucose and MGO at the ε-amino group of protein-bound lysine. Up to 31% of the lysine and 8% of the arginine residues, respectively, in the manuka honey protein can be modified to CEL and MG-H1, respectively. CEL and MG-H1 concentrations correlated strongly with the MGO concentration of the honeys. Manuka honey possesses a special pattern of protein-bound MRPs, which might be used to prove the reliability of labeled MGO levels in honeys and possibly enable the detection of fraudulent MGO or DHA addition to honey.

  3. Neuromolecular Imaging Shows Temporal Synchrony Patterns between Serotonin and Movement within Neuronal Motor Circuits in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Broderick

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present discourse links the electrical and chemical properties of the brain with neurotransmitters and movement behaviors to further elucidate strategies to diagnose and treat brain disease. Neuromolecular imaging (NMI, based on electrochemical principles, is used to detect serotonin in nerve terminals (dorsal and ventral striata and somatodendrites (ventral tegmentum of reward/motor mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal brain circuits. Neuronal release of serotonin is detected at the same time and in the same animal, freely moving and unrestrained, while open-field behaviors are monitored via infrared photobeams. The purpose is to emphasize the unique ability of NMI and the BRODERICK PROBE® biosensors to empirically image a pattern of temporal synchrony, previously reported, for example, in Aplysia using central pattern generators (CPGs, serotonin and cerebral peptide-2. Temporal synchrony is reviewed within the context of the literature on central pattern generators, neurotransmitters and movement disorders. Specifically, temporal synchrony data are derived from studies on psychostimulant behavior with and without cocaine while at the same time and continuously, serotonin release in motor neurons within basal ganglia, is detected. The results show that temporal synchrony between the neurotransmitter, serotonin and natural movement occurs when the brain is NOT injured via, e.g., trauma, addictive drugs or psychiatric illness. In striking contrast, in the case of serotonin and cocaine-induced psychostimulant behavior, a different form of synchrony and also asynchrony can occur. Thus, the known dysfunctional movement behavior produced by cocaine may well be related to the loss of temporal synchrony, the loss of the ability to match serotonin in brain with motor activity. The empirical study of temporal synchrony patterns in humans and animals may be more relevant to the dynamics of motor circuits and movement behaviors than are studies of

  4. Neuromolecular Imaging Shows Temporal Synchrony Patterns between Serotonin and Movement within Neuronal Motor Circuits in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Patricia A

    2013-06-21

    The present discourse links the electrical and chemical properties of the brain with neurotransmitters and movement behaviors to further elucidate strategies to diagnose and treat brain disease. Neuromolecular imaging (NMI), based on electrochemical principles, is used to detect serotonin in nerve terminals (dorsal and ventral striata) and somatodendrites (ventral tegmentum) of reward/motor mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal brain circuits. Neuronal release of serotonin is detected at the same time and in the same animal, freely moving and unrestrained, while open-field behaviors are monitored via infrared photobeams. The purpose is to emphasize the unique ability of NMI and the BRODERICK PROBE® biosensors to empirically image a pattern of temporal synchrony, previously reported, for example, in Aplysia using central pattern generators (CPGs), serotonin and cerebral peptide-2. Temporal synchrony is reviewed within the context of the literature on central pattern generators, neurotransmitters and movement disorders. Specifically, temporal synchrony data are derived from studies on psychostimulant behavior with and without cocaine while at the same time and continuously, serotonin release in motor neurons within basal ganglia, is detected. The results show that temporal synchrony between the neurotransmitter, serotonin and natural movement occurs when the brain is NOT injured via, e.g., trauma, addictive drugs or psychiatric illness. In striking contrast, in the case of serotonin and cocaine-induced psychostimulant behavior, a different form of synchrony and also asynchrony can occur. Thus, the known dysfunctional movement behavior produced by cocaine may well be related to the loss of temporal synchrony, the loss of the ability to match serotonin in brain with motor activity. The empirical study of temporal synchrony patterns in humans and animals may be more relevant to the dynamics of motor circuits and movement behaviors than are studies of static parameters

  5. Unique phytochrome responses of the holoparasitic plant Orobanche minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Kazuteru; Okazawa, Atsushi; Wada, Yu; Mongkolchaiyaphruek, Anchaya; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Yoneyama, Koichi; Takeuchi, Yasutomo; Kobayashi, Akio

    2009-06-01

    Holoparasitic plants such as Orobanche spp. have lost their photosynthetic ability, so photoresponses to optimize photosynthesis are not necessary in these plants. Photoresponses are also involved in the regulation of plant development but the photoresponses of holoparasites have not been characterized in detail. In this study, the phytochrome (phy)-related photoresponse of Orobanche minor was investigated. Its photoreceptor, phytochrome A (OmphyA), was also characterized. Light effects on germination, shoot elongation, anthocyanin biosynthesis, and OmphyA expression and subcellular localization were analyzed. Red light (R):far-red light (FR) reversible inhibition of O. minor seed germination demonstrated that phy-mediated responses are retained in this holoparasite. Shoot elongation was inhibited by FR but not by R. This pattern is unique among known patterns of plant photoresponses. Additionally, molecular analysis showed that OmphyA is able to respond to the light signals. Interestingly, the unique pattern of photoresponses in O. minor seems to have been modified for adaptation to its parasitic life cycle. We hypothesize that this alteration has resulted from the loss or alteration of some phy-signaling components. Elucidation of altered components in phy signaling in this parasite will provide useful information not only about its physiological characteristics but also about general plant photoreception systems.

  6. Common processes at unique volcanoes – a volcanological conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine eCashman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behaviour over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behaviour (or personality. In contrast, volcano classification schemes define eruption styles referenced to type volcanoes (e.g. Plinian, Strombolian, Vulcanian; this approach implicitly assumes that common processes underpin volcanic activity and can be used to predict the nature, extent and ensuing hazards of individual volcanoes. Actual volcanic eruptions, however, often include multiple styles, and type volcanoes may experience atypical eruptions (e.g., violent explosive eruptions of Kilauea, Hawaii1. The volcanological community is thus left with a fundamental conundrum that pits the uniqueness of individual volcanic systems against generalization of common processes. Addressing this challenge represents a major challenge to volcano research.

  7. Unusual facies, arthrogryposis, advanced skeletal maturation and unique bone changes. A new congenital malformation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jequier, S.; Kozlowski, K.

    1987-07-01

    Two strikingly similar infant siblings showed the following pattern of anomalies: unusual cranio-facial appearance, arthrogryposis, advanced bone age of the hips and unique skeletal X-ray abnormalities. They represent a previously unrecognised, fatal malformation syndrome.

  8. Unique versus cumulative effects of physical and sexual assault on patterns of adolescent substance use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charak, R.; Koot, H. M.; Dvorak, R. D.

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed the unique versus cumulative effects of physical and sexual assault, on patterns of substance-use in adolescents. It was hypothesized that experiencing a single assault (physical or sexual) when compared with exposure to both physical and sexual assault would be more...... strongly related to membership of polysubstance use classes. From the National Survey of Adolescents-1995 (N=4023) 918 adolescents (age range=12-17 years, M=14.92, 49.6% female) with reports of physical assault and/or sexual assault were selected. Using information on alcohol-use, cigarette...... to a single type of assault those exposed to both physical and sexual assault were two-to-three times more likely to be in the heavier polysubstance-use class. Females were more likely to be members of the polysubstance-use class than of the experimental use class. Gender did not emerge as a significant...

  9. Human uniqueness-self-interest and social cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Daijiro; Bingham, Paul M

    2008-07-21

    Humans are unique among all species of terrestrial history in both ecological dominance and individual properties. Many, or perhaps all, of the unique elements of this nonpareil status can be plausibly interpreted as evolutionary and strategic elements and consequences of the unprecedented intensity and scale of our social cooperation. Convincing explanation of this unique human social adaptation remains a central, unmet challenge to the scientific enterprise. We develop a hypothesis for the ancestral origin of expanded cooperative social behavior. Specifically, we present a game theoretic analysis demonstrating that a specific pattern of expanded social cooperation between conspecific individuals with conflicts of interest (including non-kin) can be strategically viable, but only in animals that possess a highly unusual capacity for conspecific violence (credible threat) having very specific properties that dramatically reduce the costs of coercive violence. The resulting reduced costs allow preemptive or compensated coercion to be an instantaneously self-interested behavior under diverse circumstances rather than in rare, idiosyncratic circumstances as in actors (animals) who do not have access to inexpensive coercive threat. Humans are apparently unique among terrestrial organisms in having evolved conspecific coercive capabilities that fulfill these stringent requirements. Thus, our results support the proposal that access to a novel capacity for projection of coercive threat might represent the essential initiating event for the evolution of a human-like pattern of social cooperation and the subsequent evolution of the diverse features of human uniqueness. Empirical evidence indicates that these constraints were, in fact, met only in our evolutionary lineage. The logic for the emergence of uniquely human cooperation suggested by our analysis apparently accounts simply for the human fossil record.

  10. Fungal communities in wheat grain show significant co-existence patterns among species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, M.; Justesen, A. F.; Knorr, K.

    2014-01-01

    identified as ‘core’ OTUs as they were found in all or almost all samples and accounted for almost 99 % of all sequences. The remaining OTUs were only sporadically found and only in small amounts. Cluster and factor analyses showed patterns of co-existence among the core species. Cluster analysis grouped...... the 21 core OTUs into three clusters: cluster 1 consisting of saprotrophs, cluster 2 consisting mainly of yeasts and saprotrophs and cluster 3 consisting of wheat pathogens. Principal component extraction showed that the Fusarium graminearum group was inversely related to OTUs of clusters 1 and 2....

  11. Genomic patterns in Acropora cervicornis show extensive population structure and variable genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Crawford; Schopmeyer, Stephanie; Goergen, Elizabeth; Bartels, Erich; Nedimyer, Ken; Johnson, Meaghan; Maxwell, Kerry; Galvan, Victor; Manfrino, Carrie; Lirman, Diego

    2017-08-01

    Threatened Caribbean coral communities can benefit from high-resolution genetic data used to inform management and conservation action. We use Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS) to investigate genetic patterns in the threatened coral, Acropora cervicornis , across the Florida Reef Tract (FRT) and the western Caribbean. Results show extensive population structure at regional scales and resolve previously unknown structure within the FRT. Different regions also exhibit up to threefold differences in genetic diversity (He), suggesting targeted management based on the goals and resources of each population is needed. Patterns of genetic diversity have a strong spatial component, and our results show Broward and the Lower Keys are among the most diverse populations in Florida. The genetic diversity of Caribbean staghorn coral is concentrated within populations and within individual reefs (AMOVA), highlighting the complex mosaic of population structure. This variance structure is similar over regional and local scales, which suggests that in situ nurseries are adequately capturing natural patterns of diversity, representing a resource that can replicate the average diversity of wild assemblages, serving to increase intraspecific diversity and potentially leading to improved biodiversity and ecosystem function. Results presented here can be translated into specific goals for the recovery of A. cervicornis , including active focus on low diversity areas, protection of high diversity and connectivity, and practical thresholds for responsible restoration.

  12. Large-Scale No-Show Patterns and Distributions for Clinic Operational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Davies

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Patient no-shows for scheduled primary care appointments are common. Unused appointment slots reduce patient quality of care, access to services and provider productivity while increasing loss to follow-up and medical costs. This paper describes patterns of no-show variation by patient age, gender, appointment age, and type of appointment request for six individual service lines in the United States Veterans Health Administration (VHA. This retrospective observational descriptive project examined 25,050,479 VHA appointments contained in individual-level records for eight years (FY07-FY14 for 555,183 patients. Multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed, with no-show rate as the dependent variable, and gender, age group, appointment age, new patient status, and service line as factors. The analyses revealed that males had higher no-show rates than females to age 65, at which point males and females exhibited similar rates. The average no-show rates decreased with age until 75–79, whereupon rates increased. As appointment age increased, males and new patients had increasing no-show rates. Younger patients are especially prone to no-show as appointment age increases. These findings provide novel information to healthcare practitioners and management scientists to more accurately characterize no-show and attendance rates and the impact of certain patient factors. Future general population data could determine whether findings from VHA data generalize to others.

  13. Large-Scale No-Show Patterns and Distributions for Clinic Operational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michael L; Goffman, Rachel M; May, Jerrold H; Monte, Robert J; Rodriguez, Keri L; Tjader, Youxu C; Vargas, Dominic L

    2016-02-16

    Patient no-shows for scheduled primary care appointments are common. Unused appointment slots reduce patient quality of care, access to services and provider productivity while increasing loss to follow-up and medical costs. This paper describes patterns of no-show variation by patient age, gender, appointment age, and type of appointment request for six individual service lines in the United States Veterans Health Administration (VHA). This retrospective observational descriptive project examined 25,050,479 VHA appointments contained in individual-level records for eight years (FY07-FY14) for 555,183 patients. Multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed, with no-show rate as the dependent variable, and gender, age group, appointment age, new patient status, and service line as factors. The analyses revealed that males had higher no-show rates than females to age 65, at which point males and females exhibited similar rates. The average no-show rates decreased with age until 75-79, whereupon rates increased. As appointment age increased, males and new patients had increasing no-show rates. Younger patients are especially prone to no-show as appointment age increases. These findings provide novel information to healthcare practitioners and management scientists to more accurately characterize no-show and attendance rates and the impact of certain patient factors. Future general population data could determine whether findings from VHA data generalize to others.

  14. Metaphyseal pattern: Uniqueness of this structure in growing bones originating from cartilaginous anlage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmain, N.; Moscofian, A.; Cuisinier-Gleizes, P.

    1983-01-01

    Microradiographic examination of metaphyses in long and short tubular growing bones allowed detection of a repetitive, clearly defined pattern of three adjacent zones; the latter are successively formed by the mineralization of cartilaginous longitudinal intercolumnar septa and by the subsequent apposition of other mineralized tissues concurrently with resorption. Consequently, each zone of the metaphysis includes mineralized tissues of various compositions and ages, identifiable by their different mineralization densities. Microradiography of pieces of the growing skeleton in several animal species shows that the same organization is not only present in long and short tubular bones but also in many other such as the pelvis and scapula, cuboid bones like the calcaneum and talus, and cartilaginous bones at the base of the skull. This suggests that there is no difference between the osteogenesis pattern of these bones and tubular ones. The problem of identifying the factors generating such metaphyseal organization is raised. (orig.)

  15. Unique associations between young adult men's emotional functioning and their body dissatisfaction and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Scott; Angus, Douglas; Murray, Stuart B; Touyz, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Research on emotional functioning, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating in males is predominated by studies of negative affect and emotion regulation. Other aspects of emotional functioning, namely emotion recognition and attentional biases toward emotional stimuli, have received little empirical attention. The present study investigated the unique associations between different aspects of men's emotional functioning and their disordered eating attitudes, muscularity dissatisfaction, and body fat dissatisfaction. Results from 132 male undergraduates showed that muscularity dissatisfaction was uniquely associated with both emotion regulation difficulties and an attentional bias toward rejecting faces. Body fat dissatisfaction was not uniquely associated with any aspect of emotional functioning. Disordered eating was uniquely associated with emotion regulation difficulties. Collectively, the results indicate differences in the patterns of associations between men's emotional functioning and their body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Artificial Neural Network approach to develop unique Classification and Raga identification tools for Pattern Recognition in Carnatic Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimani, P. K.; Parimala, Y. G.

    2011-12-01

    A unique approach has been developed to study patterns in ragas of Carnatic Classical music based on artificial neural networks. Ragas in Carnatic music which have found their roots in the Vedic period, have grown on a Scientific foundation over thousands of years. However owing to its vastness and complexities it has always been a challenge for scientists and musicologists to give an all encompassing perspective both qualitatively and quantitatively. Cognition, comprehension and perception of ragas in Indian classical music have always been the subject of intensive research, highly intriguing and many facets of these are hitherto not unravelled. This paper is an attempt to view the melakartha ragas with a cognitive perspective using artificial neural network based approach which has given raise to very interesting results. The 72 ragas of the melakartha system were defined through the combination of frequencies occurring in each of them. The data sets were trained using several neural networks. 100% accurate pattern recognition and classification was obtained using linear regression, TLRN, MLP and RBF networks. Performance of the different network topologies, by varying various network parameters, were compared. Linear regression was found to be the best performing network.

  17. Soil Bacterial and Fungal Communities Show Distinct Recovery Patterns during Forest Ecosystem Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shan; Li, Song; Avera, Bethany N; Strahm, Brian D; Badgley, Brian D

    2017-07-15

    Bacteria and fungi are important mediators of biogeochemical processes and play essential roles in the establishment of plant communities, which makes knowledge about their recovery after extreme disturbances valuable for understanding ecosystem development. However, broad ecological differences between bacterial and fungal organisms, such as growth rates, stress tolerance, and substrate utilization, suggest they could follow distinct trajectories and show contrasting dynamics during recovery. In this study, we analyzed both the intra-annual variability and decade-scale recovery of bacterial and fungal communities in a chronosequence of reclaimed mined soils using next-generation sequencing to quantify their abundance, richness, β-diversity, taxonomic composition, and cooccurrence network properties. Bacterial communities shifted gradually, with overlapping β-diversity patterns across chronosequence ages, while shifts in fungal communities were more distinct among different ages. In addition, the magnitude of intra-annual variability in bacterial β-diversity was comparable to the changes across decades of chronosequence age, while fungal communities changed minimally across months. Finally, the complexity of bacterial cooccurrence networks increased with chronosequence age, while fungal networks did not show clear age-related trends. We hypothesize that these contrasting dynamics of bacteria and fungi in the chronosequence result from (i) higher growth rates for bacteria, leading to higher intra-annual variability; (ii) higher tolerance to environmental changes for fungi; and (iii) stronger influence of vegetation on fungal communities. IMPORTANCE Both bacteria and fungi play essential roles in ecosystem functions, and information about their recovery after extreme disturbances is important for understanding whole-ecosystem development. Given their many differences in phenotype, phylogeny, and life history, a comparison of different bacterial and fungal recovery

  18. Separating macroecological pattern and process: comparing ecological, economic, and geological systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Blonder

    Full Text Available Theories of biodiversity rest on several macroecological patterns describing the relationship between species abundance and diversity. A central problem is that all theories make similar predictions for these patterns despite disparate assumptions. A troubling implication is that these patterns may not reflect anything unique about organizational principles of biology or the functioning of ecological systems. To test this, we analyze five datasets from ecological, economic, and geological systems that describe the distribution of objects across categories in the United States. At the level of functional form ('first-order effects', these patterns are not unique to ecological systems, indicating they may reveal little about biological process. However, we show that mechanism can be better revealed in the scale-dependency of first-order patterns ('second-order effects'. These results provide a roadmap for biodiversity theory to move beyond traditional patterns, and also suggest ways in which macroecological theory can constrain the dynamics of economic systems.

  19. Separating macroecological pattern and process: comparing ecological, economic, and geological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Benjamin; Sloat, Lindsey; Enquist, Brian J; McGill, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Theories of biodiversity rest on several macroecological patterns describing the relationship between species abundance and diversity. A central problem is that all theories make similar predictions for these patterns despite disparate assumptions. A troubling implication is that these patterns may not reflect anything unique about organizational principles of biology or the functioning of ecological systems. To test this, we analyze five datasets from ecological, economic, and geological systems that describe the distribution of objects across categories in the United States. At the level of functional form ('first-order effects'), these patterns are not unique to ecological systems, indicating they may reveal little about biological process. However, we show that mechanism can be better revealed in the scale-dependency of first-order patterns ('second-order effects'). These results provide a roadmap for biodiversity theory to move beyond traditional patterns, and also suggest ways in which macroecological theory can constrain the dynamics of economic systems.

  20. Did Lizards Follow Unique Pathways in Sex Chromosome Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Dianne; Georges, Arthur

    2018-01-01

    Reptiles show remarkable diversity in modes of reproduction and sex determination, including high variation in the morphology of sex chromosomes, ranging from homomorphic to highly heteromorphic. Additionally, the co-existence of genotypic sex determination (GSD) and temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) within and among sister clades makes this group an attractive model to study and understand the evolution of sex chromosomes. This is particularly so with Lizards (Order Squamata) which, among reptiles, show extraordinary morphological diversity. They also show no particular pattern of sex chromosome degeneration of the kind observed in mammals, birds and or even in snakes. We therefore speculate that sex determination sensu sex chromosome evolution is labile and rapid and largely follows independent trajectories within lizards. Here, we review the current knowledge on the evolution of sex chromosomes in lizards and discuss how sex chromosome evolution within that group differs from other amniote taxa, facilitating unique evolutionary pathways. PMID:29751579

  1. Did Lizards Follow Unique Pathways in Sex Chromosome Evolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayer Mahmood Ibney Alam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Reptiles show remarkable diversity in modes of reproduction and sex determination, including high variation in the morphology of sex chromosomes, ranging from homomorphic to highly heteromorphic. Additionally, the co-existence of genotypic sex determination (GSD and temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD within and among sister clades makes this group an attractive model to study and understand the evolution of sex chromosomes. This is particularly so with Lizards (Order Squamata which, among reptiles, show extraordinary morphological diversity. They also show no particular pattern of sex chromosome degeneration of the kind observed in mammals, birds and or even in snakes. We therefore speculate that sex determination sensu sex chromosome evolution is labile and rapid and largely follows independent trajectories within lizards. Here, we review the current knowledge on the evolution of sex chromosomes in lizards and discuss how sex chromosome evolution within that group differs from other amniote taxa, facilitating unique evolutionary pathways.

  2. Pattern-Induced Covert Category Learning in Songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comins, Jordan A; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2015-07-20

    Language is uniquely human, but its acquisition may involve cognitive capacities shared with other species. During development, language experience alters speech sound (phoneme) categorization. Newborn infants distinguish the phonemes in all languages but by 10 months show adult-like greater sensitivity to native language phonemic contrasts than non-native contrasts. Distributional theories account for phonetic learning by positing that infants infer category boundaries from modal distributions of speech sounds along acoustic continua. For example, tokens of the sounds /b/ and /p/ cluster around different mean voice onset times. To disambiguate overlapping distributions, contextual theories propose that phonetic category learning is informed by higher-level patterns (e.g., words) in which phonemes normally occur. For example, the vowel sounds /Ι/ and /e/ can occupy similar perceptual spaces but can be distinguished in the context of "with" and "well." Both distributional and contextual cues appear to function in speech acquisition. Non-human species also benefit from distributional cues for category learning, but whether category learning benefits from contextual information in non-human animals is unknown. The use of higher-level patterns to guide lower-level category learning may reflect uniquely human capacities tied to language acquisition or more general learning abilities reflecting shared neurobiological mechanisms. Using songbirds, European starlings, we show that higher-level pattern learning covertly enhances categorization of the natural communication sounds. This observation mirrors the support for contextual theories of phonemic category learning in humans and demonstrates a general form of learning not unique to humans or language. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Coexistence of uniquely ergodic subsystems of interval mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Xiangdong.

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that uniquely ergodic subsystems of interval mapping also coexist in the same way as minimal sets do. To do this we give some notations in section 2. In section 3 we define D-function of a uniquely ergodic system and show its basic properties. We prove the coexistence of uniquely ergodic subsystems of interval mapping in section 4. Lastly we give the examples of uniquely ergodic systems with given D-functions in section 5. 27 refs

  4. A Unique Branching Pattern of the Axillary Artery: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bagoji, Ishwar B.; Hadimani, Gavishiddappa A.; Bannur, Balappa M.; Patil, B.G.; Bharatha, Ambadasu

    2013-01-01

    During routine dissection classes for under graduate students, we found a unique and unusual case regarding the anomalous branching in the third part of the axillary artery was terminated into subscapular arterial trunk, superficial brachial artery and deep brachial artery. The subscapular arterial trunk was origin of several important arteries as the circumflex scapular, thoracodorsal, posterior circumflex humeral, thoraco-acromial and lateral thoracic arteries. The deep brachial artery in t...

  5. Pattern overlap implies runaway growth in hierarchical tile systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Doty

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We show that in the hierarchical tile assembly model, if there is a producible assembly that overlaps a nontrivial translation of itself consistently (i.e., the pattern of tile types in the overlap region is identical in both translations, then arbitrarily large assemblies are producible. The significance of this result is that tile systems intended to controllably produce finite structures must avoid pattern repetition in their producible assemblies that would lead to such overlap.This answers an open question of Chen and Doty (SODA 2012, who showed that so-called "partial-order" systems producing a unique finite assembly and avoiding such overlaps must require time linear in the assembly diameter. An application of our main result is that any system producing a unique finite assembly is automatically guaranteed to avoid such overlaps, simplifying the hypothesis of Chen and Doty's main theorem.

  6. Gastric cancers of Western European and African patients show different patterns of genomic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulder Chris JJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with H. pylori is important in the etiology of gastric cancer. Gastric cancer is infrequent in Africa, despite high frequencies of H. pylori infection, referred to as the African enigma. Variation in environmental and host factors influencing gastric cancer risk between different populations have been reported but little is known about the biological differences between gastric cancers from different geographic locations. We aim to study genomic instability patterns of gastric cancers obtained from patients from United Kingdom (UK and South Africa (SA, in an attempt to support the African enigma hypothesis at the biological level. Methods DNA was isolated from 67 gastric adenocarcinomas, 33 UK patients, 9 Caucasian SA patients and 25 native SA patients. Microsatellite instability and chromosomal instability were analyzed by PCR and microarray comparative genomic hybridization, respectively. Data was analyzed by supervised univariate and multivariate analyses as well as unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis. Results Tumors from Caucasian and native SA patients showed significantly more microsatellite instable tumors (p Conclusions Gastric cancers from SA and UK patients show differences in genetic instability patterns, indicating possible different biological mechanisms in patients from different geographical origin. This is of future clinical relevance for stratification of gastric cancer therapy.

  7. Molecular genetic features of polyploidization and aneuploidization reveal unique patterns for genome duplication in diploid Malus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Considine

    Full Text Available Polyploidization results in genome duplication and is an important step in evolution and speciation. The Malus genome confirmed that this genus was derived through auto-polyploidization, yet the genetic and meiotic mechanisms for polyploidization, particularly for aneuploidization, are unclear in this genus or other woody perennials. In fact the contribution of aneuploidization remains poorly understood throughout Plantae. We add to this knowledge by characterization of eupolyploidization and aneuploidization in 27,542 F₁ seedlings from seven diploid Malus populations using cytology and microsatellite markers. We provide the first evidence that aneuploidy exceeds eupolyploidy in the diploid crosses, suggesting aneuploidization is a leading cause of genome duplication. Gametes from diploid Malus had a unique combinational pattern; ova preserved euploidy exclusively, while spermatozoa presented both euploidy and aneuploidy. All non-reduced gametes were genetically heterozygous, indicating first-division restitution was the exclusive mode for Malus eupolyploidization and aneuploidization. Chromosome segregation pattern among aneuploids was non-uniform, however, certain chromosomes were associated for aneuploidization. This study is the first to provide molecular evidence for the contribution of heterozygous non-reduced gametes to fitness in polyploids and aneuploids. Aneuploidization can increase, while eupolyploidization may decrease genetic diversity in their newly established populations. Auto-triploidization is important for speciation in the extant Malus. The features of Malus polyploidization confer genetic stability and diversity, and present heterozygosity, heterosis and adaptability for evolutionary selection. A protocol using co-dominant markers was proposed for accelerating apple triploid breeding program. A path was postulated for evolution of numerically odd basic chromosomes. The model for Malus derivation was considerably revised

  8. Molecular genetic features of polyploidization and aneuploidization reveal unique patterns for genome duplication in diploid Malus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Michael J; Wan, Yizhen; D'Antuono, Mario F; Zhou, Qian; Han, Mingyu; Gao, Hua; Wang, Man

    2012-01-01

    Polyploidization results in genome duplication and is an important step in evolution and speciation. The Malus genome confirmed that this genus was derived through auto-polyploidization, yet the genetic and meiotic mechanisms for polyploidization, particularly for aneuploidization, are unclear in this genus or other woody perennials. In fact the contribution of aneuploidization remains poorly understood throughout Plantae. We add to this knowledge by characterization of eupolyploidization and aneuploidization in 27,542 F₁ seedlings from seven diploid Malus populations using cytology and microsatellite markers. We provide the first evidence that aneuploidy exceeds eupolyploidy in the diploid crosses, suggesting aneuploidization is a leading cause of genome duplication. Gametes from diploid Malus had a unique combinational pattern; ova preserved euploidy exclusively, while spermatozoa presented both euploidy and aneuploidy. All non-reduced gametes were genetically heterozygous, indicating first-division restitution was the exclusive mode for Malus eupolyploidization and aneuploidization. Chromosome segregation pattern among aneuploids was non-uniform, however, certain chromosomes were associated for aneuploidization. This study is the first to provide molecular evidence for the contribution of heterozygous non-reduced gametes to fitness in polyploids and aneuploids. Aneuploidization can increase, while eupolyploidization may decrease genetic diversity in their newly established populations. Auto-triploidization is important for speciation in the extant Malus. The features of Malus polyploidization confer genetic stability and diversity, and present heterozygosity, heterosis and adaptability for evolutionary selection. A protocol using co-dominant markers was proposed for accelerating apple triploid breeding program. A path was postulated for evolution of numerically odd basic chromosomes. The model for Malus derivation was considerably revised. Impacts of

  9. Unique specification of Yang-Mills solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, W.B.; Joseph, D.W.; Morgan, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Screened time-independent cylindrically-symmetric solutions of Yang-Mills equations are given which show that the source does not uniquely determine the field. However, these particular solutions suggest a natural way of uniquely specifying solutions in terms of a physical realization of a symmetry group. (orig.)

  10. Unique expression of cytoskeletal proteins in human soft palate muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Farhan; Berggren, Diana; Holmlund, Thorbjörn; Levring Jäghagen, Eva; Stål, Per

    2016-03-01

    The human oropharyngeal muscles have a unique anatomy with diverse and intricate functions. To investigate if this specialization is also reflected in the cytoarchitecture of muscle fibers, intermediate filament proteins and the dystrophin-associated protein complex have been analyzed in two human palate muscles, musculus uvula (UV) and musculus palatopharyngeus (PP), with immunohistochenmical and morphological techniques. Human limb muscles were used as reference. The findings show that the soft palate muscle fibers have a cytoskeletal architecture that differs from the limb muscles. While all limb muscles showed immunoreaction for a panel of antibodies directed against different domains of cytoskeletal proteins desmin and dystrophin, a subpopulation of palate muscle fibers lacked or had a faint immunoreaction for desmin (UV 11.7% and PP 9.8%) and the C-terminal of the dystrophin molecule (UV 4.2% and PP 6.4%). The vast majority of these fibers expressed slow contractile protein myosin heavy chain I. Furthermore, an unusual staining pattern was also observed in these fibers for β-dystroglycan, caveolin-3 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase nNOS, which are all membrane-linking proteins associated with the dystrophin C-terminus. While the immunoreaction for nNOS was generally weak or absent, β-dystroglycan and caveolin-3 showed a stronger immunostaining. The absence or a low expression of cytoskeletal proteins otherwise considered ubiquitous and important for integration and contraction of muscle cells indicate a unique cytoarchitecture designed to meet the intricate demands of the upper airway muscles. It can be concluded that a subgroup of muscle fibers in the human soft palate appears to have special biomechanical properties, and their unique cytoarchitecture must be taken into account while assessing function and pathology in oropharyngeal muscles. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  11. The embryology of the retinal pigmented epithelium in dwarf geckos (Gekkota: Sphaerodactylinae): a unique developmental pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Fuentes, Ricardo A; Daza, Juan D; Bauer, Aaron M

    2014-06-30

    The retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) is a rounded shaped structure in almost all lizards. In the New World dwarf geckos, this structure shows an unusual morphology. In addition to this ocular character, we describe notable differences in the development of these geckos in comparison with available developmental staging tables for other geckos and squamate reptiles. We identified two main patterns of development of the RPE for squamates. These patterns were mapped onto a metatree of concordant hypotheses of squamates based on molecular data. During post-ovopositional stages the representative species of sphaerodactyls exhibit a RPE layer that transforms gradually from an ovoid form into the generalized spherical form. Sphaerodactyls are the only group of squamates in which this pattern is known. This transition might be circumstantial evidence that the accessory RPE plays a role in providing additional protection for their apomorphic concaviclivate temporal fovea. We also report the presence of conjunctival papillae in a developmental stage prior to the formation of scleral ossicles. This developmental progression is similar to that of birds and turtles.

  12. Unique properties associated with normal martensitic transition and strain glass transition – A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dong; Ni, Yan; Gao, Jinghui; Zhang, Zhen; Ren, Xiaobing; Wang, Yunzhi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model the unique properties of strain glass which is different from that of normal martensite. ► We describe the importance of point defects in the formation of strain glass and related properties. ► The role of point defect can be attributed to global transition temperature effect (GTTE) and local field effect (LFE). -- Abstract: The transition behavior and unique properties associated with normal martensitic transition and strain glass transition are investigated by computer simulations using the phase field method. The simulations are based on a physical model that assumes that point defects alter the thermodynamic stability of martensite and create local lattice distortion. The simulation results show that strain glass transition exhibits different properties from those found in normal martensitic transformations. These unique properties include diffuse scattering pattern, “smear” elastic modulus peak, disappearance of heat flow peak and non-ergodicity. These simulation predictions agree well with the experimental observations

  13. Applying machine learning to pattern analysis for automated in-design layout optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Jason P.; Fakhry, Moutaz; Pathak, Piyush; Sweis, Jason; Gennari, Frank; Lai, Ya-Chieh

    2018-04-01

    Building on previous work for cataloging unique topological patterns in an integrated circuit physical design, a new process is defined in which a risk scoring methodology is used to rank patterns based on manufacturing risk. Patterns with high risk are then mapped to functionally equivalent patterns with lower risk. The higher risk patterns are then replaced in the design with their lower risk equivalents. The pattern selection and replacement is fully automated and suitable for use for full-chip designs. Results from 14nm product designs show that the approach can identify and replace risk patterns with quantifiable positive impact on the risk score distribution after replacement.

  14. Genomics of a Metamorphic Timing QTL: met1 Maps to a Unique Genomic Position and Regulates Morph and Species-Specific Patterns of Brain Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Robert B.; Boley, Meredith A.; Kump, David K.; Voss, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about genetic factors that regulate life history transitions during ontogeny. Closely related tiger salamanders (Ambystoma species complex) show extreme variation in metamorphic timing, with some species foregoing metamorphosis altogether, an adaptive trait called paedomorphosis. Previous studies identified a major effect quantitative trait locus (met1) for metamorphic timing and expression of paedomorphosis in hybrid crosses between the biphasic Eastern tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum) and the paedomorphic Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). We used existing hybrid mapping panels and a newly created hybrid cross to map the met1 genomic region and determine the effect of met1 on larval growth, metamorphic timing, and gene expression in the brain. We show that met1 maps to the position of a urodele-specific chromosome rearrangement on linkage group 2 that uniquely brought functionally associated genes into linkage. Furthermore, we found that more than 200 genes were differentially expressed during larval development as a function of met1 genotype. This list of differentially expressed genes is enriched for proteins that function in the mitochondria, providing evidence of a link between met1, thyroid hormone signaling, and mitochondrial energetics associated with metamorphosis. Finally, we found that met1 significantly affected metamorphic timing in hybrids, but not early larval growth rate. Collectively, our results show that met1 regulates species and morph-specific patterns of brain transcription and life history variation. PMID:23946331

  15. Characterization of GmENOD40, a gene showing novel patterns of cell-specific expression during soybean nodule development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, W.C.; Katinakis, P.; Hendriks, P.; Smolders, A.; Vries, de F.; Spee, J.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.; Franssen, H.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, the soybean 'early nodulin' clone pGmENOD40 is characterized. The GmENOD40 encoded protein does not contain methionine and does not show homology to proteins identified so far. In situ hybridizations showed that this gene has a complex expression pattern during development of

  16. Pattern of neural responses to verbal fluency shows diagnostic specificity for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walshe Muriel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impairments in executive function and language processing are characteristic of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Their functional neuroanatomy demonstrate features that are shared as well as specific to each disorder. Determining the distinct pattern of neural responses in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may provide biomarkers for their diagnoses. Methods 104 participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI scans while performing a phonological verbal fluency task. Subjects were 32 patients with schizophrenia in remission, 32 patients with bipolar disorder in an euthymic state, and 40 healthy volunteers. Neural responses to verbal fluency were examined in each group, and the diagnostic potential of the pattern of the neural responses was assessed with machine learning analysis. Results During the verbal fluency task, both patient groups showed increased activation in the anterior cingulate, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right putamen as compared to healthy controls, as well as reduced deactivation of precuneus and posterior cingulate. The magnitude of activation was greatest in patients with schizophrenia, followed by patients with bipolar disorder and then healthy individuals. Additional recruitment in the right inferior frontal and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was observed in schizophrenia relative to both bipolar disorder and healthy subjects. The pattern of neural responses correctly identified individual patients with schizophrenia with an accuracy of 92%, and those with bipolar disorder with an accuracy of 79% in which mis-classification was typically of bipolar subjects as healthy controls. Conclusions In summary, both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with altered function in prefrontal, striatal and default mode networks, but the magnitude of this dysfunction is particularly marked in schizophrenia. The pattern of response to verbal fluency is highly

  17. A Unique Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion Process Showing a Dynamic Transition of Physicochemical and Bacterial Characteristics from the Mesophilic to the Thermophilic Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Yukihiro; Kanda, Kosuke; Asakura, Yuya; Kii, Toshihiko; Cheng, Huijun; Poudel, Pramod; Okugawa, Yuki; Tashiro, Kosuke; Sakai, Kenji

    2018-03-15

    A unique autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) process has been used to convert human excreta to liquid fertilizer in Japan. This study investigated the changes in physicochemical and bacterial community characteristics during the full-scale ATAD process operated for approximately 3 weeks in 2 different years. After initiating simultaneous aeration and mixing using an air-inducing circulator (aerator), the temperature autothermally increased rapidly in the first 1 to 2 days with exhaustive oxygen consumption, leading to a drastic decrease and gradual increase in oxidation-reduction potential in the first 2 days, reached >50°C in the middle 4 to 6 days, and remained steady in the final phase. Volatile fatty acids were rapidly consumed and diminished in the first 2 days, whereas the ammonia nitrogen concentration was relatively stable during the process, despite a gradual pH increase to 9.3. Principal-coordinate analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons using next-generation sequencing divided the bacterial community structures into distinct clusters corresponding to three phases, and they were similar in the final phase in both years despite different transitions in the middle phase. The predominant phyla (closest species, dominancy) in the initial, middle, and final phases were Proteobacteria ( Arcobacter trophiarum , 19 to 43%; Acinetobacter towneri , 6.3 to 30%), Bacteroidetes ( Moheibacter sediminis , 43 to 54%), and Firmicutes ( Thermaerobacter composti , 11 to 28%; Heliorestis baculata , 2.1 to 16%), respectively. Two predominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the final phase showed very low similarities to the closest species, indicating that the process is unique compared with previously published ones. This unique process with three distinctive phases would be caused by the aerator with complete aeration. IMPORTANCE Although the autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) process has several advantages, such as a high degradation

  18. Plutonium uniqueness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    A standard is suggested against which the putative uniqueness of plutonium may be tested. It is common folklore that plutonium is unique among the chemical elements because its four common oxidation states can coexist in the same solution. Whether this putative uniqueness appears only during transit to equilibrium, or only at equilibrium, or all of the time, is not generally made clear. But while the folklore may contain some truth, it cannot be put to test until some measure of 'uniqueness' is agreed upon so that quantitative comparisons are possible. One way of measuring uniqueness is as the magnitude of the product of the mole fractions of the element at equilibrium. A 'coexistence index' is defined and discussed. (author)

  19. Identification of unique expression signatures and therapeutic targets in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wusheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC, the predominant histological subtype of esophageal cancer, is characterized by high mortality. Previous work identified important mRNA expression differences between normal and tumor cells; however, to date there are limited ex vivo studies examining expression changes occurring during normal esophageal squamous cell differentiation versus those associated with tumorigenesis. In this study, we used a unique tissue microdissection strategy and microarrays to measure gene expression profiles associated with cell differentiation versus tumorigenesis in twelve cases of patient-matched normal basal squamous epithelial cells (NB, normal differentiated squamous epithelium (ND, and squamous cell cancer. Class comparison and pathway analysis were used to compare NB versus tumor in a search for unique therapeutic targets. Results As a first step towards this goal, gene expression profiles and pathways were evaluated. Overall, ND expression patterns were markedly different from NB and tumor; whereas, tumor and NB were more closely related. Tumor showed a general decrease in differentially expressed genes relative to NB as opposed to ND that exhibited the opposite trend. FSH and IgG networks were most highly dysregulated in normal differentiation and tumorigenesis, respectively. DNA repair pathways were generally elevated in NB and tumor relative to ND indicating involvement in both normal and pathological growth. PDGF signaling pathway and 12 individual genes unique to the tumor/NB comparison were identified as therapeutic targets, and 10 associated ESCC gene-drug pairs were identified. We further examined the protein expression level and the distribution patterns of four genes: ODC1, POSTN, ASPA and IGF2BP3. Ultimately, three genes (ODC1, POSTN, ASPA were verified to be dysregulated in the same pattern at both the mRNA and protein levels. Conclusions These data reveal insight into genes and

  20. Unique coexistence of dispersion stability and nanoparticle chemisorption in alkylamine/alkylacid encapsulated silver nanocolloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoshima, Keisuke; Hirakawa, Yuya; Togashi, Takanari; Kurihara, Masato; Arai, Shunto; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2018-04-17

    Surface encapsulation of metal nanoparticles (NPs) is fundamental to achieve sufficient dispersion stability of metal nanocolloids, or metal nanoink. However, the feature is incompatible with surface reactive nature of the metal NPs, although these features are both essential to realizing the functional applications into printed electronics technologies. Here we show that two different kinds of encapsulation for silver NPs (AgNPs) by alkylamine and alkylacid together are the key to achieve unique compatibility between the high dispersion stability as dense nanoclolloids and the AgNP chemisorption printing on activated patterned polymer surfaces. Advanced confocal dynamic light scattering study reveals that an additive trace amount of oleic acid is the critical parameter for controlling the dispersion and coagulative (or surface-reactive) characteristics of the silver nanocolloids. The composition of the disperse media is also important for obtaining highly concentrated but low-viscosity silver nanocolloids that show very stable dispersion. The results demonstrate that the high-resolution AgNP chemisorption printing is possible only by using unique silver nanocolloids composed of an exceptional balance of ligand formulation and dispersant composition.

  1. An image-processing methodology for extracting bloodstain pattern features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Ravishka M; Humburg, Philomena J; Hoogenboom, Jerry; Baiker, Martin; Taylor, Michael C; de Bruin, Karla G

    2017-08-01

    There is a growing trend in forensic science to develop methods to make forensic pattern comparison tasks more objective. This has generally involved the application of suitable image-processing methods to provide numerical data for identification or comparison. This paper outlines a unique image-processing methodology that can be utilised by analysts to generate reliable pattern data that will assist them in forming objective conclusions about a pattern. A range of features were defined and extracted from a laboratory-generated impact spatter pattern. These features were based in part on bloodstain properties commonly used in the analysis of spatter bloodstain patterns. The values of these features were consistent with properties reported qualitatively for such patterns. The image-processing method developed shows considerable promise as a way to establish measurable discriminating pattern criteria that are lacking in current bloodstain pattern taxonomies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Unique dietary patterns and chronic disease risk profiles of adult men: the Framingham nutrition studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millen, Barbara E; Quatromoni, Paula A; Pencina, Michael; Kimokoti, Ruth; Nam, Byung-H O; Cobain, Sonia; Kozak, Waldemar; Appugliese, Danielle P; Ordovas, Jose; D'Agostino, Ralph B

    2005-11-01

    To identify the dietary patterns of adult men and examine their relationships with nutrient intake and chronic disease risk over long-term follow-up. Baseline 145-item food frequency questionnaires from 1,666 Framingham Offspring-Spouse cohort men were used to identify comprehensive dietary patterns. Independent 3-day dietary records at baseline and 8 years later provided estimates of subjects' nutrient intake by dietary pattern. Chronic disease risk factor status was compared at baseline and 16-year follow-up across all male dietary patterns. Cluster analysis was applied to food frequency data to identify non-overlapping male dietary patterns. Analysis of covariance and logistic regression were used to compare nutrient intake, summary nutritional risk scores, and chronic disease risk status at baseline and follow-up by male dietary pattern. Five distinct and comprehensive dietary patterns of Framingham Offspring-Spouse men were identified and ordered according to overall nutritional risk: Transition to Heart Healthy, Higher Starch, Average Male, Lower Variety, and Empty Calories. Nutritional risk was high and varied by dietary pattern; key nutrient contrasts were stable over 8-year follow-up. Chronic disease risk also varied by dietary pattern and specific subgroup differences persisted over 16 years, notably rates of overweight/obesity and smoking. Quantitative cluster analysis applied to food frequency questionnaire data identified five distinct, comprehensive, and stable dietary patterns of adult Framingham Offspring-Spouse cohort men. The close associations between the dietary patterns, nutritional risk, and chronic disease profiles of men emphasize the importance of targeted preventive nutrition interventions to promote health in the male population.

  3. Traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia of the palate showing an angiocentric/angiodestructive growth pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Ferreira Brasileiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia (TUGSE is a benign, self-limiting lesion of the oral mucosa with unknown pathogenesis. A 65-year-old male patient presented with an ulcerative palate lesion, which on microscopic examination exhibited an exuberant polymorphic lymphoid proliferation, numerous eosinophils, and extensive vascular destruction. The atypical lymphoid cells infiltrating the medium-sized vessels showed positivity for CD3, CD30, and granzyme B, implicating an activated cytotoxic T-cell phenotype. The lesion diagnosed as TUGSE achieved complete resolution within 3 months. This unusual presentation has expanded the spectrum of oral CD30+ T-cell atypical infiltrates and must be distinguished from lymphomas showing angiocentric/angiodestructive growth pattern.

  4. A metric for quantifying El Niño pattern diversity with implications for ENSO-mean state interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmon, Danielle E.; Karnauskas, Kristopher B.

    2018-04-01

    Recent research on the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon increasingly reveals the highly complex and diverse nature of ENSO variability. A method of quantifying ENSO spatial pattern uniqueness and diversity is presented, which enables (1) formally distinguishing between unique and "canonical" El Niño events, (2) testing whether historical model simulations aptly capture ENSO diversity by comparing with instrumental observations, (3) projecting future ENSO diversity using future model simulations, (4) understanding the dynamics that give rise to ENSO diversity, and (5) analyzing the associated diversity of ENSO-related atmospheric teleconnection patterns. Here we develop a framework for measuring El Niño spatial SST pattern uniqueness and diversity for a given set of El Niño events using two indices, the El Niño Pattern Uniqueness (EPU) index and El Niño Pattern Diversity (EPD) index, respectively. By applying this framework to instrumental records, we independently confirm a recent regime shift in El Niño pattern diversity with an increase in unique El Niño event sea surface temperature patterns. However, the same regime shift is not observed in historical CMIP5 model simulations; moreover, a comparison between historical and future CMIP5 model scenarios shows no robust change in future ENSO diversity. Finally, we support recent work that asserts a link between the background cooling of the eastern tropical Pacific and changes in ENSO diversity. This robust link between an eastern Pacific cooling mode and ENSO diversity is observed not only in instrumental reconstructions and reanalysis, but also in historical and future CMIP5 model simulations.

  5. Intraspecific Arabidopsis hybrids show different patterns of heterosis despite the close relatedness of the parental genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groszmann, Michael; Gonzalez-Bayon, Rebeca; Greaves, Ian K; Wang, Li; Huen, Amanda K; Peacock, W James; Dennis, Elizabeth S

    2014-09-01

    Heterosis is important for agriculture; however, little is known about the mechanisms driving hybrid vigor. Ultimately, heterosis depends on the interactions of specific alleles and epialleles provided by the parents, which is why hybrids can exhibit different levels of heterosis, even within the same species. We characterize the development of several intraspecific Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) F1 hybrids that show different levels of heterosis at maturity. We identify several phases of heterosis beginning during embryogenesis and culminating in a final phase of vegetative maturity and seed production. During each phase, the hybrids show different levels and patterns of growth, despite the close relatedness of the parents. For instance, during the vegetative phases, the hybrids develop larger leaves than the parents to varied extents, and they do so by exploiting increases in cell size and cell numbers in different ratios. Consistent with this finding, we observed changes in the expression of genes known to regulate leaf size in developing rosettes of the hybrids, with the patterns of altered expression differing between combinations. The data show that heterosis is dependent on changes in development throughout the growth cycle of the hybrid, with the traits of mature vegetative biomass and reproductive yield as cumulative outcomes of heterosis at different levels, tissues, and times of development. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Security patterns in practice designing secure architectures using software patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Buglioni, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Learn to combine security theory and code to produce secure systems Security is clearly a crucial issue to consider during the design and implementation of any distributed software architecture. Security patterns are increasingly being used by developers who take security into serious consideration from the creation of their work. Written by the authority on security patterns, this unique book examines the structure and purpose of security patterns, illustrating their use with the help of detailed implementation advice, numerous code samples, and descriptions in UML. Provides

  7. Three-dimensional recurring patterns in excitable media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biton, Y.; Rabinovitch, A.; Braunstein, D.; Friedman, M.; Aviram, I.

    2011-01-01

    A new method to create three-dimensional periodic patterns in excitable media is presented. The method is demonstrated and the patterns are obtained with the help of two types of 3D 'spiral pairs' generators, which are respectively based on a 'corner effect' and a 'unidirectional propagation' processes. The results portray time-repeating patterns resembling fruits or potteries. The method is easy to implement and can be used to form other types of 3D patterns in excitable media. The question of periodicity of the patterns thus obtained is resolved by calculating the singular lines (filaments) around which they evolve and showing their unique reattachment property. Actual realizations could be conceived e.g. in chemical reactions such as Belousov-Zhabotinsky. Possible severe cardiac arrhythmias following the appearance of such patterns in the action potential of the heart are considered. -- Highlights: → New method to create three-dimensional periodic patterns in excitable media. → Singular lines (filaments) for the corner effect are presented. → Filaments are shown to exhibit periodic behavior.

  8. Usefullness of palatal rugae patterns in establishing identity: Preliminary results from Bengaluru city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indira, Ap; Gupta, Manish; David, Maria Priscilla

    2012-01-01

    Palatal rugoscopy is the name given to the study of palatal rugae. Rugae pattern are widely considered to remain unchanged during an individual's lifetime. The rugae pattern has the potential to remain intact by virtue of their internal position in the head when most other anatomical structures are destroyed or burned. Moreover, rugae pattern are considered to be unique similar to fingerprints and are advocated in personal identification. The purpose of the study is to establish, individual identity using palatal rugae patterns. The study group consisted of 100 study models all of whom were subjects above 14 years old. Martin dos Santos' classification was followed based on form and position to assess the individuality of rugae pattern. Each individual had different rugae patterns including dizygous twins and the rugae patterns were not symmetrical, both in number and in its distribution. The preliminary study undertaken here shows no two palates are alike in terms of their rugae pattern. Palatal rugae possess unique characteristics as they are absolutely individualistic and therefore, can be used as a personal soft-tissue 'oral' print for identification in forensic cases.

  9. Non-unique Product Groups on Two Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, William Paul

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to better understand groups that do not have the unique product property. In particular, the goal is to better understand Promislow's example, G, of such a group. In doing so, we will develop methods for generating examples of other sets that do not have the unique product property. With these methods we can show that there exists other distinct 14 element, square, non-unique product sets in G that are not inversions or translations. Also, this paper answers ...

  10. Compositional symbol grounding for motor patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Alberto; Caneva, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    We developed a new experimental and simulative paradigm to study the establishing of compositional grounded representations for motor patterns. Participants learned to associate non-sense arm motor patterns, performed in three different hand postures, with non-sense words. There were two group conditions: in the first (compositional), each pattern was associated with a two-word (verb-adverb) sentence; in the second (holistic), each same pattern was associated with a unique word. Two experiments were performed. In the first, motor pattern recognition and naming were tested in the two conditions. Results showed that verbal compositionality had no role in recognition and that the main source of confusability in this task came from discriminating hand postures. As the naming task resulted too difficult, some changes in the learning procedure were implemented in the second experiment. In this experiment, the compositional group achieved better results in naming motor patterns especially for patterns where hand postures discrimination was relevant. In order to ascertain the differential effect, upon this result, of memory load and of systematic grounding, neural network simulations were also made. After a basic simulation that worked as a good model of subjects performance, in following simulations the number of stimuli (motor patterns and words) was increased and the systematic association between words and patterns was disrupted, while keeping the same number of words and syntax. Results showed that in both conditions the advantage for the compositional condition significantly increased. These simulations showed that the advantage for this condition may be more related to the systematicity rather than to the mere informational gain. All results are discussed in connection to the possible support of the hypothesis of a compositional motor representation and toward a more precise explanation of the factors that make compositional representations working.

  11. Compositional symbol grounding for motor patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eGreco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed a new experimental and simulative paradigm to study the establishing of compositional grounded representations for motor patterns. Participants learned to associate nonsense arm motor patterns, performed in three different hand postures, with nonsense words. There were two group conditions: in the first (compositional, each pattern was associated with a two-word (verb-adverb sentence; in the second (holistic, each same pattern was associated with a unique word. Two experiments were performed. In the first, motor pattern recognition and naming were tested in the two conditions. Results showed that verbal compositionality had no role in recognition and that the main source of confusability in this task came from discriminating hand postures. As the naming task resulted too difficult, some changes in the learning procedure were implemented in the second experiment. In this experiment, the compositional group achieved better results in naming motor patterns especially for patterns where hand postures discrimination was relevant. In order to ascertain the differential effect, upon this result, of memory load and of systematic grounding, neural network simulations were also made. After a basic simulation that worked as a good model of subjects performance, in following simulations the number of stimuli (motor patterns and words was increased and the systematic association between words and patterns was disrupted, while keeping the same number of words and syntax. Results showed that in both conditions the advantage for the compositional condition significantly increased. These simulations showed that the advantage for this condition may be more related to the systematicity rather than to the mere informational gain. All results are discussed in connection to the possible support of the hypothesis of a compositional motor representation and towards a more precise explanation of the factors that make compositional representations working.

  12. Transcriptome analysis reveals novel patterning and pigmentation genes underlying Heliconius butterfly wing pattern variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hines Heather M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heliconius butterfly wing pattern diversity offers a unique opportunity to investigate how natural genetic variation can drive the evolution of complex adaptive phenotypes. Positional cloning and candidate gene studies have identified a handful of regulatory and pigmentation genes implicated in Heliconius wing pattern variation, but little is known about the greater developmental networks within which these genes interact to pattern a wing. Here we took a large-scale transcriptomic approach to identify the network of genes involved in Heliconius wing pattern development and variation. This included applying over 140 transcriptome microarrays to assay gene expression in dissected wing pattern elements across a range of developmental stages and wing pattern morphs of Heliconius erato. Results We identified a number of putative early prepattern genes with color-pattern related expression domains. We also identified 51 genes differentially expressed in association with natural color pattern variation. Of these, the previously identified color pattern “switch gene” optix was recovered as the first transcript to show color-specific differential expression. Most differentially expressed genes were transcribed late in pupal development and have roles in cuticle formation or pigment synthesis. These include previously undescribed transporter genes associated with ommochrome pigmentation. Furthermore, we observed upregulation of melanin-repressing genes such as ebony and Dat1 in non-melanic patterns. Conclusions This study identifies many new genes implicated in butterfly wing pattern development and provides a glimpse into the number and types of genes affected by variation in genes that drive color pattern evolution.

  13. Customization: Ideal Varieties, Product Uniqueness and Price Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Loginova; X. Henry Wang

    2009-01-01

    We study customization in the Hotelling model with two firms. In addition to providing ideal varieties, the perceived uniqueness of a customized product contributes independently to consumer utility. We show that only when consumer preferences for uniqueness are high customization occurs in equilibrium.

  14. Landscape pattern metrics and regional assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, R. V.; Riitters, K.H.; Wickham, J.D.; Jones, K.B.

    1999-01-01

    The combination of remote imagery data, geographic information systems software, and landscape ecology theory provides a unique basis for monitoring and assessing large-scale ecological systems. The unique feature of the work has been the need to develop and interpret quantitative measures of spatial pattern-the landscape indices. This article reviews what is known about the statistical properties of these pattern metrics and suggests some additional metrics based on island biogeography, percolation theory, hierarchy theory, and economic geography. Assessment applications of this approach have required interpreting the pattern metrics in terms of specific environmental endpoints, such as wildlife and water quality, and research into how to represent synergystic effects of many overlapping sources of stress.

  15. Investigation of unique hue setting changes with ageing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenyang Fu; Kaida Xiao; Dimosthenis Karatzas; Sophie Wuerger

    2011-01-01

    Clromatic sensitivity along the protan, deutan, and tritan lines and the loci of the unique hues (red, green,yellow, blue) for a very large sample (n = 185) of colour-normal observers ranging from 18 to 75 years of age are assessed. Visual judgments are obtained under normal viewing conditions using colour patches on self-luminous display under controlled adaptation conditions. Trivector discrimination thresholds show an increase as a function of age along the protan, deutan, and tritan axes, with the largest increase present along the tritan line, less pronounced shifts in unique hue settings are also observed. Based on the chromatic (protan, deutan, tritan) thresholds and using scaled cone signals, we predict the unique hue changes with ageing. A dependency on age for unique red and unique yellow for predicted hue angle is found. We conclude that the chromatic sensitivity deteriorates significantly with age, whereas the appearance of unique hues is much less affected, remaining almost constant despite the known changes in the ocular media.%@@ Clromatic sensitivity along the protan, deutan, and tritan lines and the loci of the unique hues (red, green,yellow, blue) for a very large sample (n = 185) of colour-normal observers ranging from 18 to 75 years of age are assessed.Visual judgments are obtained under normal viewing conditions using colour patches on self-luminous display under controlled adaptation conditions.Trivector discrimination thresholds show an increase as a function of age along the protan, deutan, and tritan axes, with the largest increase present along the tritan line, less pronounced shifts in unique hue settings are also observed.

  16. Can facial uniqueness be inferred from impostor scores?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2013-01-01

    In Biometrics, facial uniqueness is commonly inferred from impostor similarity scores. In this paper, we show that such uniqueness measures are highly unstable in the presence of image quality variations like pose, noise and blur. We also experimentally demonstrate the instability of a recently

  17. Might "Unique" Factors Be "Common"? On the Possibility of Indeterminate Common-Unique Covariances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Dave

    2006-01-01

    The present paper shows that the usual factor analytic structured data dispersion matrix lambda psi lambda' + delta can readily arise from a set of scores y = lambda eta + epsilon, shere the "common" (eta) and "unique" (epsilon) factors have nonzero covariance: gamma = Cov epsilon,eta) is not equal to 0. Implications of this finding are discussed…

  18. Comparative phylogeography: concepts, methods and general patterns in neotropical birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbelaez Cortes, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the patterns and processes involved in intraspecific lineages diversification in time and space is the aim of phylogeography. The comparison of those phylogeographic patterns among co-distributed species shows insights of a community history. Here I review the concepts and methodologies of comparative phylogeography, an active research field that has heterogeneous analytical methods. In order to present a framework for phylogeography in the neotropics, I comment the general phylogeographic patterns of the birds from this region. this review is based on more than 100 studies conducted during the last 25 years and indicate that despite different co-distributed species seem to share some points in their phylogeographic pattern they have idiosyncratic aspects, indicating an unique history for each one.

  19. A unique mountainous vertical distribution patterns and related environmental interpretation-a case study on the northern slope of the ili river valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Z.P.; Wang, X.L.; Zhuang, L.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of plant diversity and soil factors along the altitude gradient on the northern slope of Ili River Valley were examined. Plant and environment characteristics were surveyed from 1000-2200 m. There were a total of 155 vascular plant, 133 herbage, 18 shrub, and 7 tree species in 44 sampled plots. The plant richness of vegetation types generally showed a special pattern along altitude, with a bimodal change of plant species number at 100m intervals of altitude samples. The two belts of higher plant richness were in transient areas between vegetation types, the first in areas from low-mountain desert to forest, and the other from dry grass to coniferous forest. Matching the change of richness of plant species to environmental factors along altitude by GAM model and relation analysis revealed that the environmental factors controlling species richness and their patterns were the combined effects of soil salt and nutrition. Water was more important at lower altitude, and temperature at higher altitude, the role of the inversion layer at high altitude coniferous forest species diversity appearing to rise. Soil nutrition and salt also showed a similar distribution pattern of diversity. Especially, diversity index and soil salinity showed a strong correlation. This study provides insights into plant diversity conservation of ili River Valley in Tianshan Mountain. (author)

  20. Disruption of an Evolutionarily Novel Synaptic Expression Pattern in Autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiling Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive defects in autism spectrum disorder (ASD include socialization and communication: key behavioral capacities that separate humans from other species. Here, we analyze gene expression in the prefrontal cortex of 63 autism patients and control individuals, as well as 62 chimpanzees and macaques, from natal to adult age. We show that among all aberrant expression changes seen in ASD brains, a single aberrant expression pattern overrepresented in genes involved synaptic-related pathways is enriched in nucleotide variants linked to autism. Furthermore, only this pattern contains an excess of developmental expression features unique to humans, thus resulting in the disruption of human-specific developmental programs in autism. Several members of the early growth response (EGR transcription factor family can be implicated in regulation of this aberrant developmental change. Our study draws a connection between the genetic risk architecture of autism and molecular features of cortical development unique to humans.

  1. Disruption of an Evolutionarily Novel Synaptic Expression Pattern in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xi; Hu, Haiyang; Guijarro, Patricia; Mitchell, Amanda; Ely, John J.; Sherwood, Chet C.; Hof, Patrick R.; Qiu, Zilong; Pääbo, Svante; Akbarian, Schahram; Khaitovich, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive defects in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include socialization and communication: key behavioral capacities that separate humans from other species. Here, we analyze gene expression in the prefrontal cortex of 63 autism patients and control individuals, as well as 62 chimpanzees and macaques, from natal to adult age. We show that among all aberrant expression changes seen in ASD brains, a single aberrant expression pattern overrepresented in genes involved synaptic-related pathways is enriched in nucleotide variants linked to autism. Furthermore, only this pattern contains an excess of developmental expression features unique to humans, thus resulting in the disruption of human-specific developmental programs in autism. Several members of the early growth response (EGR) transcription factor family can be implicated in regulation of this aberrant developmental change. Our study draws a connection between the genetic risk architecture of autism and molecular features of cortical development unique to humans. PMID:27685936

  2. Analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxin; Wu, Liang; Zhou, Ping; Zhu, Shengfeng; An, Wei; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Lin

    2013-11-01

    The codon usage patterns of rhizobia have received increasing attention. However, little information is available regarding the conserved features of the codon usage patterns in a typical rhizobial genus. The codon usage patterns of six completely sequenced strains belonging to the genus Rhizobium were analysed as model rhizobia in the present study. The relative neutrality plot showed that selection pressure played a role in codon usage in the genus Rhizobium. Spearman's rank correlation analysis combined with correspondence analysis (COA) showed that the codon adaptation index and the effective number of codons (ENC) had strong correlation with the first axis of the COA, which indicated the important role of gene expression level and the ENC in the codon usage patterns in this genus. The relative synonymous codon usage of Cys codons had the strongest correlation with the second axis of the COA. Accordingly, the usage of Cys codons was another important factor that shaped the codon usage patterns in Rhizobium genomes and was a conserved feature of the genus. Moreover, the comparison of codon usage between highly and lowly expressed genes showed that 20 unique preferred codons were shared among Rhizobium genomes, revealing another conserved feature of the genus. This is the first report of the codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

  3. New Examples of Torsion-Free Non-unique Product Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, William

    2013-01-01

    We give an infinite family of torsion-free groups that do not satisfy the unique product property. For these examples, we also show that each group contains arbitrarily large sets whose square has no uniquely represented element.

  4. Simultaneous growth of self-patterned carbon nanotube forests with dual height scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Ebru Devrim; Kucukayan-Dogu, Gokce; Baykal, Beril; Dalkilic, Zeynep; Rana, Kuldeep; Bengu, Erman

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we report on a unique, one-step fabrication technique enabling the simultaneous synthesis of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) with dual height scales through alcohol catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (ACCVD). Regions of VA-MWCNTs with different heights were well separated from each other leading to a self-patterning on the surface. We devised a unique layer-by-layer process for application of catalyst and inhibitor precursors on oxidized Si (100) surfaces before the ACCVD step to achieve a hierarchical arrangement. Patterning could be controlled by adjusting the molarity and application sequence of precursors. Contact angle measurements on these self-patterned surfaces indicated that manipulation of these hierarchical arrays resulted in a wide range of hydrophobic behavior changing from that of a sticky rose petal to a lotus leaf.In this study, we report on a unique, one-step fabrication technique enabling the simultaneous synthesis of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) with dual height scales through alcohol catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (ACCVD). Regions of VA-MWCNTs with different heights were well separated from each other leading to a self-patterning on the surface. We devised a unique layer-by-layer process for application of catalyst and inhibitor precursors on oxidized Si (100) surfaces before the ACCVD step to achieve a hierarchical arrangement. Patterning could be controlled by adjusting the molarity and application sequence of precursors. Contact angle measurements on these self-patterned surfaces indicated that manipulation of these hierarchical arrays resulted in a wide range of hydrophobic behavior changing from that of a sticky rose petal to a lotus leaf. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1; AFM image of the Co-O layer which was first dried at 40 °C and then oxidized at 200 °C. Fig. S2; graph relative to the area of CNT islands for different

  5. Adolescents with current major depressive disorder show dissimilar patterns of age-related differences in ACC and thalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy C. Hagan

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The depressed adolescent brain shows dissimilar age-related and symptom-sensitive patterns of GMV differences compared with controls. The thalamus and ACC may comprise neural markers for detecting these effects in youth. Further investigations therefore need to take both age and level of current symptoms into account when disaggregating antecedent neural vulnerabilities for MDD from the effects of MDD on the developing brain.

  6. Food pattern modeling shows that the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for sodium and potassium cannot be met simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, Matthieu; Monsivais, Pablo; Drewnowski, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The 2010 US Dietary Guidelines recommended limiting intake of sodium to 1500 mg/d for people older than 50 years, African Americans, and those suffering from chronic disease. The guidelines recommended that all other people consume less than 2300 mg sodium and 4700 mg of potassium per day. The theoretical feasibility of meeting the sodium and potassium guidelines while simultaneously maintaining nutritional adequacy of the diet was tested using food pattern modeling based on linear programming. Dietary data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2002 were used to create optimized food patterns for 6 age-sex groups. Linear programming models determined the boundary conditions for the potassium and sodium content of the modeled food patterns that would also be compatible with other nutrient goals. Linear programming models also sought to determine the amounts of sodium and potassium that both would be consistent with the ratio of Na to K of 0.49 and would cause the least deviation from the existing food habits. The 6 sets of food patterns were created before and after an across-the-board 10% reduction in sodium content of all foods in the Food and Nutrition Database for Dietary Studies. Modeling analyses showed that the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for sodium were incompatible with potassium guidelines and with nutritionally adequate diets, even after reducing the sodium content of all US foods by 10%. Feasibility studies should precede or accompany the issuing of dietary guidelines to the public. PMID:23507224

  7. Partial discharge patterns and surface deterioration in voids in filled and unfilled epoxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    /height analyses were performed over a period of 2400 h and showed very characteristic discharge patterns for each material combination. A unique behavior with regard to changes of pulse repetition rate and maximum apparent charge was observed for PD in alumina- and silica-filled epoxy. The void surfaces were...

  8. The unique stem cell system of the immortal larva of the human parasite Echinococcus multilocularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background It is believed that in tapeworms a separate population of undifferentiated cells, the germinative cells, is the only source of cell proliferation throughout the life cycle (similar to the neoblasts of free living flatworms). In Echinococcus multilocularis, the metacestode larval stage has a unique development, growing continuously like a mass of vesicles that infiltrate the tissues of the intermediate host, generating multiple protoscoleces by asexual budding. This unique proliferation potential indicates the existence of stem cells that are totipotent and have the ability for extensive self-renewal. Results We show that only the germinative cells proliferate in the larval vesicles and in primary cell cultures that undergo complete vesicle regeneration, by using a combination of morphological criteria and by developing molecular markers of differentiated cell types. The germinative cells are homogeneous in morphology but heterogeneous at the molecular level, since only sub-populations express homologs of the post-transcriptional regulators nanos and argonaute. Important differences are observed between the expression patterns of selected neoblast marker genes of other flatworms and the E. multilocularis germinative cells, including widespread expression in E. multilocularis of some genes that are neoblast-specific in planarians. Hydroxyurea treatment results in the depletion of germinative cells in larval vesicles, and after recovery following hydroxyurea treatment, surviving proliferating cells grow as patches that suggest extensive self-renewal potential for individual germinative cells. Conclusions In E. multilocularis metacestodes, the germinative cells are the only proliferating cells, presumably driving the continuous growth of the larval vesicles. However, the existence of sub-populations of the germinative cells is strongly supported by our data. Although the germinative cells are very similar to the neoblasts of other flatworms in function and

  9. Family Patterns Associated with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Darryl N.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Used family systems perspective to explore familial transactional patterns related to anorexia nervosa among 22 families with an anorexic child and 22 matched control families. Identified 7 family groups with unique family dynamics differentiating one from another. With no single family pattern characterizing families of anorexics, results…

  10. Satellite III non-coding RNAs show distinct and stress-specific patterns of induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Sonali; Parihar, Rashmi; Ganesh, Subramaniam

    2009-01-01

    The heat shock response in human cells is associated with the transcription of satellite III repeats (SatIII) located in the 9q12 locus. Upon induction, the SatIII transcripts remain associated with the locus and recruit several transcription and splicing factors to form the nuclear stress bodies (nSBs). The nSBs are thought to modulate epigenetic changes during the heat shock response. We demonstrate here that the nSBs are induced by a variety of stressors and show stress-specific patterns of induction. While the transcription factor HSF1 is required for the induction of SatIII locus by the stressors tested, its specific role in the transcriptional process appears to be stress dependent. Our results suggest the existence of multiple transcriptional loci for the SatIII transcripts and that their activation might depend upon the type of stressors. Thus, induction of SatIII transcripts appears to be a generic response to a variety of stress conditions.

  11. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis versus exogenous lipoid pneumonia showing crazy-paving pattern: Comparison of their clinical features and high-resolution CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hei Kyung; Park, Chang Min; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Hyun Ju (Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, and Inst. of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National Univ. Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea)), e-mail: cmpark@radiol.snu.ac.kr

    2010-05-15

    Background: Although pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) and exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP) require different treatment strategies, both manifest as a crazy-paving pattern on CT and often have similar clinical manifestations and radiologic features. Purpose: To investigate the clinical features and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of PAP and ELP showing the crazy-paving pattern. Material and Methods: The clinical features and HRCT findings of eight patients with pathologically proven PAP and six patients with pathologically proven ELP showing the crazy-paving pattern were retrospectively evaluated. Two radiologists analyzed the HRCT findings of PAP and ELP in consensus in terms of the presence, severity, and extent of illdefined centrilobular nodules, consolidations, ground-glass opacities (GGOs), reticulations, and the crazy-paving pattern. Results: With respect to the clinical features of these two diseases, all patients with ELP were retrospectively found to have a history of oil ingestion. In terms of the HRCT findings, ill-defined centrilobular nodules were seen in five of six patients (83%) with ELP, whereas they were not present in any patient with PAP (P=0.003). Consolidation was also more frequently present in patients with ELP (83%) than in those with PAP (11%), which was statistically different (P=0.0265). In terms of the severity and extent, the crazy-paving pattern and reticulations on HRCT were significantly more extensive and severe in patients with PAP than in those with ELP. Conclusion: PAP and ELP with the crazy-paving pattern have several distinctive characteristics with respect to their HRCT findings as well as history of oil ingestion, and can therefore be distinguished from one another

  12. Neighborhood diversity of large trees shows independent species patterns in a mixed dipterocarp forest in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punchi-Manage, Ruwan; Wiegand, Thorsten; Wiegand, Kerstin; Getzin, Stephan; Huth, Andreas; Gunatilleke, C V Savitri; Gunatilleke, I A U Nimal

    2015-07-01

    Interactions among neighboring individuals influence plant performance and should create spatial patterns in local community structure. In order to assess the role of large trees in generating spatial patterns in local species richness, we used the individual species-area relationship (ISAR) to evaluate the species richness of trees of different size classes (and dead trees) in circular neighborhoods with varying radius around large trees of different focal species. To reveal signals of species interactions, we compared the ISAR function of the individuals of focal species with that of randomly selected nearby locations. We expected that large trees should strongly affect the community structure of smaller trees in their neighborhood, but that these effects should fade away with increasing size class. Unexpectedly, we found that only few focal species showed signals of species interactions with trees of the different size classes and that this was less likely for less abundant focal species. However, the few and relatively weak departures from independence were consistent with expectations of the effect of competition for space and the dispersal syndrome on spatial patterns. A noisy signal of competition for space found for large trees built up gradually with increasing life stage; it was not yet present for large saplings but detectable for intermediates. Additionally, focal species with animal-dispersed seeds showed higher species richness in their neighborhood than those with gravity- and gyration-dispersed seeds. Our analysis across the entire ontogeny from recruits to large trees supports the hypothesis that stochastic effects dilute deterministic species interactions in highly diverse communities. Stochastic dilution is a consequence of the stochastic geometry of biodiversity in species-rich communities where the identities of the nearest neighbors of a given plant are largely unpredictable. While the outcome of local species interactions is governed for each

  13. Transcriptome profiling in conifers and the PiceaGenExpress database show patterns of diversification within gene families and interspecific conservation in vascular gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raherison Elie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conifers have very large genomes (13 to 30 Gigabases that are mostly uncharacterized although extensive cDNA resources have recently become available. This report presents a global overview of transcriptome variation in a conifer tree and documents conservation and diversity of gene expression patterns among major vegetative tissues. Results An oligonucleotide microarray was developed from Picea glauca and P. sitchensis cDNA datasets. It represents 23,853 unique genes and was shown to be suitable for transcriptome profiling in several species. A comparison of secondary xylem and phelloderm tissues showed that preferential expression in these vascular tissues was highly conserved among Picea spp. RNA-Sequencing strongly confirmed tissue preferential expression and provided a robust validation of the microarray design. A small database of transcription profiles called PiceaGenExpress was developed from over 150 hybridizations spanning eight major tissue types. In total, transcripts were detected for 92% of the genes on the microarray, in at least one tissue. Non-annotated genes were predominantly expressed at low levels in fewer tissues than genes of known or predicted function. Diversity of expression within gene families may be rapidly assessed from PiceaGenExpress. In conifer trees, dehydrins and late embryogenesis abundant (LEA osmotic regulation proteins occur in large gene families compared to angiosperms. Strong contrasts and low diversity was observed in the dehydrin family, while diverse patterns suggested a greater degree of diversification among LEAs. Conclusion Together, the oligonucleotide microarray and the PiceaGenExpress database represent the first resource of this kind for gymnosperm plants. The spruce transcriptome analysis reported here is expected to accelerate genetic studies in the large and important group comprised of conifer trees.

  14. The Dissociative Subtype of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Unique Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Basolateral and Centromedial Amygdala Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Andrew A; Densmore, Maria; Frewen, Paul A; Théberge, Jean; Neufeld, Richard Wj; McKinnon, Margaret C; Lanius, Ruth A

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies point towards differential connectivity patterns among basolateral (BLA) and centromedial (CMA) amygdala regions in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as compared with controls. Here we describe the first study to compare directly connectivity patterns of the BLA and CMA complexes between PTSD patients with and without the dissociative subtype (PTSD+DS and PTSD-DS, respectively). Amygdala connectivity to regulatory prefrontal regions and parietal regions involved in consciousness and proprioception were expected to differ between these two groups based on differential limbic regulation and behavioral symptoms. PTSD patients (n=49) with (n=13) and without (n=36) the dissociative subtype and age-matched healthy controls (n=40) underwent resting-state fMRI. Bilateral BLA and CMA connectivity patterns were compared using a seed-based approach via SPM Anatomy Toolbox. Among patients with PTSD, the PTSD+DS group exhibited greater amygdala functional connectivity to prefrontal regions involved in emotion regulation (bilateral BLA and left CMA to the middle frontal gyrus and bilateral CMA to the medial frontal gyrus) as compared with the PTSD-DS group. In addition, the PTSD+DS group showed greater amygdala connectivity to regions involved in consciousness, awareness, and proprioception-implicated in depersonalization and derealization (left BLA to superior parietal lobe and cerebellar culmen; left CMA to dorsal posterior cingulate and precuneus). Differences in amygdala complex connectivity to specific brain regions parallel the unique symptom profiles of the PTSD subgroups and point towards unique biological markers of the dissociative subtype of PTSD.

  15. Fractal assembly of micrometre-scale DNA origami arrays with arbitrary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Grigory; Petersen, Philip; Qian, Lulu

    2017-12-01

    Self-assembled DNA nanostructures enable nanometre-precise patterning that can be used to create programmable molecular machines and arrays of functional materials. DNA origami is particularly versatile in this context because each DNA strand in the origami nanostructure occupies a unique position and can serve as a uniquely addressable pixel. However, the scale of such structures has been limited to about 0.05 square micrometres, hindering applications that demand a larger layout and integration with more conventional patterning methods. Hierarchical multistage assembly of simple sets of tiles can in principle overcome this limitation, but so far has not been sufficiently robust to enable successful implementation of larger structures using DNA origami tiles. Here we show that by using simple local assembly rules that are modified and applied recursively throughout a hierarchical, multistage assembly process, a small and constant set of unique DNA strands can be used to create DNA origami arrays of increasing size and with arbitrary patterns. We illustrate this method, which we term ‘fractal assembly’, by producing DNA origami arrays with sizes of up to 0.5 square micrometres and with up to 8,704 pixels, allowing us to render images such as the Mona Lisa and a rooster. We find that self-assembly of the tiles into arrays is unaffected by changes in surface patterns on the tiles, and that the yield of the fractal assembly process corresponds to about 0.95m - 1 for arrays containing m tiles. When used in conjunction with a software tool that we developed that converts an arbitrary pattern into DNA sequences and experimental protocols, our assembly method is readily accessible and will facilitate the construction of sophisticated materials and devices with sizes similar to that of a bacterium using DNA nanostructures.

  16. Bilateral versus ipsilesional cortico-subcortical activity patterns in stroke show hemispheric dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Ana C; Banca, Paula; Pascoal, Augusto G; Cordeiro, Gustavo; Sargento-Freitas, João; Gouveia, Ana; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Background Understanding of interhemispheric interactions in stroke patients during motor control is an important clinical neuroscience quest that may provide important clues for neurorehabilitation. In stroke patients bilateral overactivation in both hemispheres has been interpreted as a poor prognostic indicator of functional recovery. In contrast, ipsilesional patterns have been linked with better motor outcomes. Aim We investigated the pathophysiology of hemispheric interactions during limb movement without and with contralateral restraint, to mimic the effects of constraint-induced movement therapy. We used neuroimaging to probe brain activity with such a movement-dependent interhemispheric modulation paradigm. Methods We used a functional magnetic resonance imaging block design during which the plegic/paretic upper limb was recruited/mobilized to perform unilateral arm elevation, as a function of presence versus absence of contralateral limb restriction (n = 20, with balanced left/right lesion sites). Results Analysis of 10 right hemispheric stroke participants yielded bilateral sensorimotor cortex activation in all movement phases in contrast with the unilateral dominance seen in the 10 left hemispheric stroke participants. Superimposition of contralateral restriction led to a prominent shift from activation to deactivation response patterns, in particular in cortical and basal ganglia motor areas in right hemispheric stroke. Left hemispheric stroke was, in general, characterized by reduced activation patterns, even in the absence of restriction, which induced additional cortical silencing. Conclusion The observed hemispheric-dependent activation/deactivation shifts is novel and these pathophysiological observations suggest short-term neuroplasticity that may be useful for hemisphere-tailored neurorehabilitation.

  17. Human microRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors show significantly different biological patterns: from functions to targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs which play essential roles in many important biological processes. Therefore, their dysfunction is associated with a variety of human diseases, including cancer. Increasing evidence shows that miRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors, and although there is great interest in research into these cancer-associated miRNAs, little is known about them. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of putative human miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors. We found that miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors clearly show different patterns in function, evolutionary rate, expression, chromosome distribution, molecule size, free energy, transcription factors, and targets. For example, miRNA oncogenes are located mainly in the amplified regions in human cancers, whereas miRNA tumor suppressors are located mainly in the deleted regions. miRNA oncogenes tend to cleave target mRNAs more frequently than miRNA tumor suppressors. These results indicate that these two types of cancer-associated miRNAs play different roles in cancer formation and development. Moreover, the patterns identified here can discriminate novel miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors with a high degree of accuracy. This study represents the first large-scale bioinformatic analysis of human miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Our findings provide help for not only understanding of miRNAs in cancer but also for the specific identification of novel miRNAs as miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors. In addition, the data presented in this study will be valuable for the study of both miRNAs and cancer.

  18. A unique branching pattern of the axillary artery: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagoji, Ishwar B; Hadimani, Gavishiddappa A; Bannur, Balappa M; Patil, B G; Bharatha, Ambadasu

    2013-12-01

    During routine dissection classes for under graduate students, we found a unique and unusual case regarding the anomalous branching in the third part of the axillary artery was terminated into subscapular arterial trunk, superficial brachial artery and deep brachial artery. The subscapular arterial trunk was origin of several important arteries as the circumflex scapular, thoracodorsal, posterior circumflex humeral, thoraco-acromial and lateral thoracic arteries. The deep brachial artery in the arm gave anterior circumflex humeral artery at the surgical neck of humerus, which terminated in the cubital fossa by dividing into radial and ulnar arteries. The superficial brachial artery gave two profunda brachii arteries, both of which passed through spiral groove, along with radial nerve and three muscular branches, to brachialis muscle. This variation is very rare. As per our knowledge, we did not find any literature which explained variations which were similar to this. The normal and abnormal anatomy of the axillary region has practical importance among vascular radiologists and surgeons and it should be known for making an accurate diagnostic interpretation.

  19. A unique case of primary effusion lymphoma-like lymphoma showing disappearance and recurrence of the body cavity effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeda, Chikahiko; Sato, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yuki; Usui, Yuta; Kunugida, Fusanori; Ogawa, Muneyoshi

    2017-03-01

    Primary effusion lymphoma-like lymphoma (PEL-LL) is a rare B-cell lymphoma that the etiology remains unclear. We describe a case of PEL-LL with a pleuropericardial effusion. Diagnosis required long period of time as it followed a unique progress of disappearance and recurrence of the body cavity effusion. We finally had a diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma by the immunocytochemistry of effusion using the cell block procedure. Authors consider that it is valuable to actively try the cell block procedure at the time of the first drainage for early diagnosis, if the body cavity effusion due to the malignancy is suspected.

  20. King Lear Reveals the Tragic Pattern of Shakespeare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Eflih Al-Ibia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rather than focusing on the obvious traditions of evaluating Shakespearean tragic heroes, this paper presents a groundbreaking approach to unfold the pattern William Shakespeare follows as he designed his unique characters. This pattern applies to most, if not all, Shakespearean tragic heroes. I argue that Shakespeare himself reveals a great portion of this pattern on the tongue of Lear as the latter disowns Goneril and Regan promising to have “such revenges on [them] both” in King Lear. Lear’s threats bestow four unique aspects that apply not only to his character but they also apply to Shakespearean tragic heroes. Lear’s speech tells us that he is determined to have an awful type of revenge on his daughters. However, the very same speech tells us that he seems uncertain about the method through which he should carry out this revenge. Lear does not express any type of remorse as he pursues his vengeful plans nor should he aim at amnesty. He also admits his own madness as he closes his revealing speech. This research develops these facts about Lear to unfold the unique pattern Shakespeare follows as he portrayed his major tragic figures. This pattern is examined, described and analyzed in King Lear, Othello, and Hamlet. We will find out that the pattern suggested in this study helps us better understand Shakespeare’s tragedies and enables us to provide better explanations for some controversial scenes in the tragedies discussed.

  1. PatternQuery: web application for fast detection of biomacromolecular structural patterns in the entire Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehnal, David; Pravda, Lukáš; Svobodová Vařeková, Radka; Ionescu, Crina-Maria; Koča, Jaroslav

    2015-07-01

    Well defined biomacromolecular patterns such as binding sites, catalytic sites, specific protein or nucleic acid sequences, etc. precisely modulate many important biological phenomena. We introduce PatternQuery, a web-based application designed for detection and fast extraction of such patterns. The application uses a unique query language with Python-like syntax to define the patterns that will be extracted from datasets provided by the user, or from the entire Protein Data Bank (PDB). Moreover, the database-wide search can be restricted using a variety of criteria, such as PDB ID, resolution, and organism of origin, to provide only relevant data. The extraction generally takes a few seconds for several hundreds of entries, up to approximately one hour for the whole PDB. The detected patterns are made available for download to enable further processing, as well as presented in a clear tabular and graphical form directly in the browser. The unique design of the language and the provided service could pave the way towards novel PDB-wide analyses, which were either difficult or unfeasible in the past. The application is available free of charge at http://ncbr.muni.cz/PatternQuery. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-04

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Using Quantum Confinement to Uniquely Identify Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J.; Bagci, I. E.; Zawawi, M. A. M.; Sexton, J.; Hulbert, N.; Noori, Y. J.; Young, M. P.; Woodhead, C. S.; Missous, M.; Migliorato, M. A.; Roedig, U.; Young, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    Modern technology unintentionally provides resources that enable the trust of everyday interactions to be undermined. Some authentication schemes address this issue using devices that give a unique output in response to a challenge. These signatures are generated by hard-to-predict physical responses derived from structural characteristics, which lend themselves to two different architectures, known as unique objects (UNOs) and physically unclonable functions (PUFs). The classical design of UNOs and PUFs limits their size and, in some cases, their security. Here we show that quantum confinement lends itself to the provision of unique identities at the nanoscale, by using fluctuations in tunnelling measurements through quantum wells in resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs). This provides an uncomplicated measurement of identity without conventional resource limitations whilst providing robust security. The confined energy levels are highly sensitive to the specific nanostructure within each RTD, resulting in a distinct tunnelling spectrum for every device, as they contain a unique and unpredictable structure that is presently impossible to clone. This new class of authentication device operates with minimal resources in simple electronic structures above room temperature.

  4. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  5. Agave tequilana MADS genes show novel expression patterns in meristems, developing bulbils and floral organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Sandoval, Silvia del Carmen; Abraham Juárez, María Jazmín; Simpson, June

    2012-03-01

    Agave tequilana is a monocarpic perennial species that flowers after 5-8 years of vegetative growth signaling the end of the plant's life cycle. When fertilization is unsuccessful, vegetative bulbils are induced on the umbels of the inflorescence near the bracteoles from newly formed meristems. Although the regulation of inflorescence and flower development has been described in detail for monocarpic annuals and polycarpic species, little is known at the molecular level for these processes in monocarpic perennials, and few studies have been carried out on bulbils. Histological samples revealed the early induction of umbel meristems soon after the initiation of the vegetative to inflorescence transition in A. tequilana. To identify candidate genes involved in the regulation of floral induction, a search for MADS-box transcription factor ESTs was conducted using an A. tequilana transcriptome database. Seven different MIKC MADS genes classified into 6 different types were identified based on previously characterized A. thaliana and O. sativa MADS genes and sequences from non-grass monocotyledons. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the seven candidate MADS genes in vegetative, inflorescence, bulbil and floral tissues uncovered novel patterns of expression for some of the genes in comparison with orthologous genes characterized in other species. In situ hybridization studies using two different genes showed expression in specific tissues of vegetative meristems and floral buds. Distinct MADS gene regulatory patterns in A. tequilana may be related to the specific reproductive strategies employed by this species.

  6. Pattern self-repetition of fingerprints, lip prints, and palatal rugae among three generations of family: A forensic approach to identify family hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mala, Sankeerti; Rathod, Vanita; Pundir, Siddharth; Dixit, Sudhanshu

    2017-01-01

    The unique pattern and structural diversity of fingerprints, lip prints, palatal rugae, and their occurrence in different patterns among individuals make it questionable whether they are completely unique even in a family hierarchy? Do they have any repetition of the patterns among the generations? Or is this a mere chaos theory? The present study aims to assess the pattern self-repetition of fingerprints, lip prints, and palatal rugae among three generations of ten different families. The present study was conducted at Rungta College of Dental Science and Research, Bhilai, India. Participants birth by origin of Chhattisgarh were only included in the study. Thirty participants from three consecutive generations of ten different families were briefed about the purpose of the study, and their fingerprints, lip prints, and palatal rugae impression were recorded and analyzed for the pattern of self-repetition. Multiple comparisons among the generations and one-way analysis of variance test were performed using SPSS 20 trial version. Among the pattern of primary palatal rugae, 10% showed repetition in all the three generations. Thirty percent showed repetition of the pattern of thumb fingerprints in all the three generation. The pattern of lip prints in the middle 1/3 rd of lower lip, 20% showed repetition in alternative generations. The evaluations of fingerprints, lip prints, and palatal rugae showed fractal dimensions, occurring variations in dimensions according to the complexity of each structure. Even though a minute self-repetition in the patterns of lip, thumb, and palate among the three consequent generations in a family was observed considering the sample size, these results need to be confirmed in a larger sample, either to establish the role of chaos theory in forensic science or identifying a particular pattern of the individual in his family hierarchy.

  7. Accessibility of physical states and non-uniqueness of entanglement measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikoshi, Fumiaki; Santos, Marcelo Franca; Vedral, Vlatko

    2004-01-01

    Ordering physical states is the key to quantifying some physical property of the states uniquely. Bipartite pure entangled states are totally ordered under local operations and classical communication (LOCC) in the asymptotic limit and uniquely quantified by the well-known entropy of entanglement. However, we show that mixed entangled states are partially ordered under LOCC even in the asymptotic limit. Therefore, non-uniqueness of entanglement measure is understood on the basis of an operational notion of asymptotic convertibility

  8. Transposable elements generate population-specific insertional patterns and allelic variation in genes of wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, Katherine; Keidar, Danielle; Yaakov, Beery; Khasdan, Vadim; Kashkush, Khalil

    2017-10-27

    Natural populations of the tetraploid wild emmer wheat (genome AABB) were previously shown to demonstrate eco-geographically structured genetic and epigenetic diversity. Transposable elements (TEs) might make up a significant part of the genetic and epigenetic variation between individuals and populations because they comprise over 80% of the wild emmer wheat genome. In this study, we performed detailed analyses to assess the dynamics of transposable elements in 50 accessions of wild emmer wheat collected from 5 geographically isolated sites. The analyses included: the copy number variation of TEs among accessions in the five populations, population-unique insertional patterns, and the impact of population-unique/specific TE insertions on structure and expression of genes. We assessed the copy numbers of 12 TE families using real-time quantitative PCR, and found significant copy number variation (CNV) in the 50 wild emmer wheat accessions, in a population-specific manner. In some cases, the CNV difference reached up to 6-fold. However, the CNV was TE-specific, namely some TE families showed higher copy numbers in one or more populations, and other TE families showed lower copy numbers in the same population(s). Furthermore, we assessed the insertional patterns of 6 TE families using transposon display (TD), and observed significant population-specific insertional patterns. The polymorphism levels of TE-insertional patterns reached 92% among all wild emmer wheat accessions, in some cases. In addition, we observed population-specific/unique TE insertions, some of which were located within or close to protein-coding genes, creating allelic variations in a population-specific manner. We also showed that those genes are differentially expressed in wild emmer wheat. For the first time, this study shows that TEs proliferate in wild emmer wheat in a population-specific manner, creating new alleles of genes, which contribute to the divergent evolution of homeologous genes

  9. Uniqueness and non-uniqueness of semigroups generated by singular diffusion operators

    CERN Document Server

    Eberle, Andreas

    1999-01-01

    This book addresses both probabilists working on diffusion processes and analysts interested in linear parabolic partial differential equations with singular coefficients. The central question discussed is whether a given diffusion operator, i.e., a second order linear differential operator without zeroth order term, which is a priori defined on test functions over some (finite or infinite dimensional) state space only, uniquely determines a strongly continuous semigroup on a corresponding weighted Lp space. Particular emphasis is placed on phenomena causing non-uniqueness, as well as on the relation between different notions of uniqueness appearing in analytic and probabilistic contexts.

  10. DNA methylation patterns in tissues from mid-gestation bovine foetuses produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer show subtle abnormalities in nuclear reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Rita SF

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cloning of cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT is associated with a high incidence of pregnancy failure characterized by abnormal placental and foetal development. These abnormalities are thought to be due, in part, to incomplete re-setting of the epigenetic state of DNA in the donor somatic cell nucleus to a state that is capable of driving embryonic and foetal development to completion. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation patterns were not appropriately established during nuclear reprogramming following SCNT. A panel of imprinted, non-imprinted genes and satellite repeat sequences was examined in tissues collected from viable and failing mid-gestation SCNT foetuses and compared with similar tissues from gestation-matched normal foetuses generated by artificial insemination (AI. Results Most of the genomic regions examined in tissues from viable and failing SCNT foetuses had DNA methylation patterns similar to those in comparable tissues from AI controls. However, statistically significant differences were found between SCNT and AI at specific CpG sites in some regions of the genome, particularly those associated with SNRPN and KCNQ1OT1, which tended to be hypomethylated in SCNT tissues. There was a high degree of variation between individuals in methylation levels at almost every CpG site in these two regions, even in AI controls. In other genomic regions, methylation levels at specific CpG sites were tightly controlled with little variation between individuals. Only one site (HAND1 showed a tissue-specific pattern of DNA methylation. Overall, DNA methylation patterns in tissues of failing foetuses were similar to apparently viable SCNT foetuses, although there were individuals showing extreme deviant patterns. Conclusion These results show that SCNT foetuses that had developed to mid-gestation had largely undergone nuclear reprogramming and that the epigenetic signature at this stage was not a

  11. Left Hand Thumb Imprint Patterns Among Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Omair; Haroon, Muhammad Zeeshan; Rashid, Muhammad Adnan; Khan, Muhammad Naseem; Khan, Delawar

    2017-01-01

    Finger printing is an absolute method of identification. Recovery of finger prints from a crime scene is an important method of Forensic identification. Human finger prints are detailed, unique, difficult to alter, easily classifiable and durable over life making them stable and long-term tool of human identification. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 95,3rd year MBBS students of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad from December 2014 to August 2015 to establish the frequency of left hand thumb imprints by rolling and plain method. Study shows Loops among most common finger print pattern in 55 (58%) students out of 95, followed by whorls 33 (35%), arches 5 (5%) and composite 2 (2%). It is thus concluded that most common finger print pattern is loops followed by whorls, arches and composite.

  12. Patterned Colloidal Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jue; Li, Mingzhu; Song, Yanlin

    2018-03-01

    Colloidal photonic crystals (PCs) have been well developed because they are easy to prepare, cost-effective, and versatile with regards to modification and functionalization. Patterned colloidal PCs contribute a novel approach to constructing high-performance PC devices with unique structures and specific functions. In this review, an overview of the strategies for fabricating patterned colloidal PCs, including patterned substrate-induced assembly, inkjet printing, and selective immobilization and modification, is presented. The advantages of patterned PC devices are also discussed in detail, for example, improved detection sensitivity and response speed of the sensors, control over the flow direction and wicking rate of microfluidic channels, recognition of cross-reactive molecules through an array-patterned microchip, fabrication of display devices with tunable patterns, well-arranged RGB units, and wide viewing-angles, and the ability to construct anti-counterfeiting devices with different security strategies. Finally, the perspective of future developments and challenges is presented. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Seed coat color, weight and eye pattern inheritance in gamma-rays induced cowpea M2-mutant line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda M. Gaafar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gamma radiation is a very effective tool for inducing genetic variation in characters of many plants. Black seeds of M2 mutant were obtained after exposure of an Egyptian cowpea cultivar (Kaha 1 to a low dose of gamma rays. Segregation of seed coat color, weight of 100 seeds and seed eye pattern of the black seeds of this mutant line were further examined in this study. Four colors were observed for seed coat in the M3 plants ranging from cream to reddish brown and three eye patterns were distinguished from each other. SDS–PAGE of the seed storage proteins showed 18 protein bands; five of these bands disappeared in the seeds of M3 plants compared to M2 and M0 controls while other 5 protein bands were specifically observed in seeds of M3 plants. PCR analysis using twelve ISSR primers showed 47 polymorphic and 8 unique amplicons. The eight unique amplicons were characteristic of the cream coat color and brown wide eye pattern (M03-G10 while the polymorphic bands were shared by 6 coat-color groups. A PCR fragment of 850 bp was amplified, using primer HB-12, in M3-G04 which showed high-100 seed weight. These results demonstrated the mutagenic effects of gamma rays on seed coat color, weight of 100 seeds and eye pattern of cowpea M3 mutant plants.

  14. On the Existence and Uniqueness of JML Estimates for the Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoli-Barsotti, Lucio

    2005-01-01

    A necessary and sufficient condition is given in this paper for the existence and uniqueness of the maximum likelihood (the so-called joint maximum likelihood) estimate of the parameters of the Partial Credit Model. This condition is stated in terms of a structural property of the pattern of the data matrix that can be easily verified on the basis…

  15. [Uniqueness seeking behavior as a self-verification: an alternative approach to the study of uniqueness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, S

    1995-06-01

    Uniqueness theory explains that extremely high perceived similarity between self and others evokes negative emotional reactions and causes uniqueness seeking behavior. However, the theory conceptualizes similarity so ambiguously that it appears to suffer from low predictive validity. The purpose of the current article is to propose an alternative explanation of uniqueness seeking behavior. It posits that perceived uniqueness deprivation is a threat to self-concepts, and therefore causes self-verification behavior. Two levels of self verification are conceived: one based on personal categorization and the other on social categorization. The present approach regards uniqueness seeking behavior as the personal-level self verification. To test these propositions, a 2 (very high or moderate similarity information) x 2 (with or without outgroup information) x 2 (high or low need for uniqueness) between-subject factorial-design experiment was conducted with 95 university students. Results supported the self-verification approach, and were discussed in terms of effects of uniqueness deprivation, levels of self-categorization, and individual differences in need for uniqueness.

  16. Seizures and Sleep in the Thalamus: Focal Limbic Seizures Show Divergent Activity Patterns in Different Thalamic Nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Motelow, Joshua E; Ma, Chanthia; Biche, William; McCafferty, Cian; Smith, Nicholas; Liu, Mengran; Zhan, Qiong; Jia, Ruonan; Xiao, Bo; Duque, Alvaro; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2017-11-22

    The thalamus plays diverse roles in cortical-subcortical brain activity patterns. Recent work suggests that focal temporal lobe seizures depress subcortical arousal systems and convert cortical activity into a pattern resembling slow-wave sleep. The potential simultaneous and paradoxical role of the thalamus in both limbic seizure propagation, and in sleep-like cortical rhythms has not been investigated. We recorded neuronal activity from the central lateral (CL), anterior (ANT), and ventral posteromedial (VPM) nuclei of the thalamus in an established female rat model of focal limbic seizures. We found that population firing of neurons in CL decreased during seizures while the cortex exhibited slow waves. In contrast, ANT showed a trend toward increased neuronal firing compatible with polyspike seizure discharges seen in the hippocampus. Meanwhile, VPM exhibited a remarkable increase in sleep spindles during focal seizures. Single-unit juxtacellular recordings from CL demonstrated reduced overall firing rates, but a switch in firing pattern from single spikes to burst firing during seizures. These findings suggest that different thalamic nuclei play very different roles in focal limbic seizures. While limbic nuclei, such as ANT, appear to participate directly in seizure propagation, arousal nuclei, such as CL, may contribute to depressed cortical function, whereas sleep spindles in relay nuclei, such as VPM, may interrupt thalamocortical information flow. These combined effects could be critical for controlling both seizure severity and impairment of consciousness. Further understanding of differential effects of seizures on different thalamocortical networks may lead to improved treatments directly targeting these modes of impaired function. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Temporal lobe epilepsy has a major negative impact on quality of life. Previous work suggests that the thalamus plays a critical role in thalamocortical network modulation and subcortical arousal

  17. On the Non-Uniqueness of Sediment Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Fatichi, S.

    2014-12-01

    There has been ample experimental evidence that soil erosion does not necessarily occur at the same rate, given the same amount of rainfall or runoff. Such a non-unique phenomenon has been often referred to in literature as due to 'natural variability'. Our recent study hypothesized that uncertainties in the distribution and properties of a sediment layer can be a potential clue to one of the reasons of the non-unique sediment yield. Specifically, numerical experimentation with a sophisticated two-dimensional model showed that a deposited layer plays two conflicting roles: it can both increase and decrease soil erosion, given the same magnitude of runoff. The difference in erodibilities of the "original, intact soil layer" and the "deposited, loose soil layer" and the composition of soil particles in the underlying layers give rise to the non-uniqueness of the amount of eroded materials. In continuing efforts, we attempt to investigate this phenomenon using a comprehensive the Universal Soil Loss Erosion (USLE) database, that contains data on paired hillslopes that show a high degree of non-uniqueness in the response, even though the hillslopes exhibit the same topography, soil type, rainfall and meteorological forcings, and landuse. An underlying hypothesis of this study is that uncertainties in the distribution of soil substrate prior to a rainfall event lead to low predictability skill, i.e., a stochastically-varying outcome. A large number of simulation cases demonstrating the proposed hypothesis are conducted using a coupled numerical model, tRIBS-VEGGIE-FEaST (Triangulated irregular network - based Real time Integrated Basin Simulator- VEGetation Generator for Interactive Evolution -Flow Erosion and Sediment Transport).

  18. Grasping convergent evolution in syngnathids: a unique tale of tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutens, C; Adriaens, D; Christiaens, J; De Kegel, B; Dierick, M; Boistel, R; Van Hoorebeke, L

    2014-01-01

    Seahorses and pipehorses both possess a prehensile tail, a unique characteristic among teleost fishes, allowing them to grasp and hold onto substrates such as sea grasses. Although studies have focused on tail grasping, the pattern of evolutionary transformations that made this possible is poorly understood. Recent phylogenetic studies show that the prehensile tail evolved independently in different syngnathid lineages, including seahorses, Haliichthys taeniophorus and several types of so-called pipehorses. This study explores the pattern that characterizes this convergent evolution towards a prehensile tail, by comparing the caudal musculoskeletal organization, as well as passive bending capacities in pipefish (representing the ancestral state), pipehorse, seahorse and H. taeniophorus. To study the complex musculoskeletal morphology, histological sectioning, μCT-scanning and phase contrast synchrotron scanning were combined with virtual 3D-reconstructions. Results suggest that the independent evolution towards tail grasping in syngnathids reflects at least two quite different strategies in which the ancestral condition of a heavy plated and rigid system became modified into a highly flexible one. Intermediate skeletal morphologies (between the ancestral condition and seahorses) could be found in the pygmy pipehorses and H. taeniophorus, which are phylogenetically closely affiliated with seahorses. This study suggests that the characteristic parallel myoseptal organization as already described in seahorse (compared with a conical organization in pipefish and pipehorse) may not be a necessity for grasping, but represents an apomorphy for seahorses, as this pattern is not found in other syngnathid species possessing a prehensile tail. One could suggest that the functionality of grasping evolved before the specialized, parallel myoseptal organization seen in seahorses. However, as the grasping system in pipehorses is a totally different one, this cannot be

  19. Preservation of a traditional Korean dietary pattern and emergence of a fruit and dairy dietary pattern among adults in South Korea: secular transitions in dietary patterns of a prospective study from 1998 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyunjung; Kim, Sang Yeun; Wang, Youfa; Lee, Sun Ju; Oh, Kyungwon; Sohn, Chun Young; Moon, Young Myoung; Jee, Sun Ha

    2014-09-01

    Transitions in nutrition patterns tend to emerge through industrialization and economic development. We hypothesized that the dietary patterns among South Korean adults who were 20 years or older have changed significantly from 1998 to 2010. Herein, a repeated cross-sectional analysis of data was followed for 140601 adults. We noted changes in consumption, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and exercise, and tested the trends across the study period. Factor and cluster analyses were used to derive dietary patterns. A decrease in traditional Korean food consumption, including cereals, vegetables (252-176 g), and Kimchi (127-82 g), occurred, whereas fruit (172-252 g), egg, and fried food intakes increased (P dietary patterns: "Korean" diet (rice, vegetables, and Kimchi), "Western" diet (soda, eggs, and oil), and "New" diet (low sugar and high fruit and dairy product intakes). Compared to 1998, approximately 40% of participants still followed a Korean diet in 2010. Interestingly, the popularity of the Western diet fell by approximately 20%, whereas the new diet pattern increased 2-fold over the study period. Overall, these data show secular trends in dietary patterns that included a preservation of the traditional Korean diet and the emergence of a new diet pattern, and it demonstrated a unique transition in food and nutrient intakes in Korea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sufficient conditions for uniqueness of the weak value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressel, J; Jordan, A N

    2012-01-01

    We review and clarify the sufficient conditions for uniquely defining the generalized weak value as the weak limit of a conditioned average using the contextual values formalism introduced in Dressel, Agarwal and Jordan (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.240401). We also respond to criticism of our work by Parrott (arXiv:1105.4188v1) concerning a proposed counter-example to the uniqueness of the definition of the generalized weak value. The counter-example does not satisfy our prescription in the case of an underspecified measurement context. We show that when the contextual values formalism is properly applied to this example, a natural interpretation of the measurement emerges and the unique definition in the weak limit holds. We also prove a theorem regarding the uniqueness of the definition under our sufficient conditions for the general case. Finally, a second proposed counter-example by Parrott (arXiv:1105.4188v6) is shown not to satisfy the sufficiency conditions for the provided theorem. (paper)

  1. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Dietary Patterns among Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Jessica S; van Assema, Patricia; Kremers, Stef P J

    2013-06-01

    Energy balance-related behavioral patterns find their origin in early childhood. The current paper provides an overview of studies that have examined such behavioral patterns, i.e., the clustering of dietary behaviors, physical activity, and/or sedentary behavior. The paper discusses the importance of examining energy balance-related behavioral patterns in children, outlines methods to examine these patterns, and provides examples of patterns that have been found (e.g., the universal sedentary-snacking and healthy intake patterns, as well as more unique or local patterns), child and parental characteristics predicting such patterns (e.g., child gender and maternal educational level), and the relationship of these patterns with overweight and related measures.

  2. TKA patients with unsatisfying knee function show changes in neuromotor synergy pattern but not joint biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardestani, Marzieh M; Malloy, Philip; Nam, Denis; Rosenberg, Aaron G; Wimmer, Markus A

    2017-12-01

    Nearly 20% of patients who have undergone total knee arthroplasty (TKA) report persistent poor knee function. This study explores the idea that, despite similar knee joint biomechanics, the neuro-motor synergies may be different between high-functional and low-functional TKA patients. We hypothesized that (1) high-functional TKA recruit a more complex neuro-motor synergy pattern compared to low-functional TKA and (2) high-functional TKA patients demonstrate more stride-to-stride variability (flexibility) in their synergies. Gait and electromyography (EMG) data were collected during level walking for three groups of participants: (i) high-functional TKA patients (n=13); (ii) low-functional TKA patients (n=13) and (iii) non-operative controls (n=18). Synergies were extracted from EMG data using non-negative matrix factorization. Analysis of variance and Spearman correlation analyses were used to investigate between-group differences in gait and neuro-motor synergies. Results showed that synergy patterns were different among the three groups. Control subjects used 5-6 independent neural commands to execute a gait cycle. High functional TKA patients used 4-5 independent neural commands while low-functional TKA patients relied on only 2-3 independent neural commands to execute a gait cycle. Furthermore, stride-to-stride variability of muscles' response to the neural commands was reduced up to 15% in low-functional TKAs compared to the other two groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling activity patterns of wildlife using time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jindong; Hull, Vanessa; Ouyang, Zhiyun; He, Liang; Connor, Thomas; Yang, Hongbo; Huang, Jinyan; Zhou, Shiqiang; Zhang, Zejun; Zhou, Caiquan; Zhang, Hemin; Liu, Jianguo

    2017-04-01

    The study of wildlife activity patterns is an effective approach to understanding fundamental ecological and evolutionary processes. However, traditional statistical approaches used to conduct quantitative analysis have thus far had limited success in revealing underlying mechanisms driving activity patterns. Here, we combine wavelet analysis, a type of frequency-based time-series analysis, with high-resolution activity data from accelerometers embedded in GPS collars to explore the effects of internal states (e.g., pregnancy) and external factors (e.g., seasonal dynamics of resources and weather) on activity patterns of the endangered giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca ). Giant pandas exhibited higher frequency cycles during the winter when resources (e.g., water and forage) were relatively poor, as well as during spring, which includes the giant panda's mating season. During the summer and autumn when resources were abundant, pandas exhibited a regular activity pattern with activity peaks every 24 hr. A pregnant individual showed distinct differences in her activity pattern from other giant pandas for several months following parturition. These results indicate that animals adjust activity cycles to adapt to seasonal variation of the resources and unique physiological periods. Wavelet coherency analysis also verified the synchronization of giant panda activity level with air temperature and solar radiation at the 24-hr band. Our study also shows that wavelet analysis is an effective tool for analyzing high-resolution activity pattern data and its relationship to internal and external states, an approach that has the potential to inform wildlife conservation and management across species.

  4. Diet and bone mineral density study in postmenopausal women from the TwinsUK registry shows a negative association with a traditional English dietary pattern and a positive association with wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Skinner, Jane; Guile, Geoffrey R; Cassidy, Aedín; Spector, Tim D; MacGregor, Alex J

    2011-11-01

    The effect of diet on bone mineral density (BMD) remains controversial, mainly because of difficulties in isolating dietary factors from the confounding influences of age, lifestyle, and genetic factors. The aim of this study was to use a novel method to examine the relation between BMD and diet. A co-twin control study design with linear regression modeling was used to test for associations between BMD and habitual intakes of calcium, vitamin D, protein, and alcohol plus 5 previously identified dietary patterns in postmenopausal women from the TwinsUK registry. This approach exploited the unique matching of twins to provide an estimate of an association that was not confounded by age, genetic background, or shared lifestyle. In >2000 postmenopausal women (BMD data on 1019, 1218, and 1232 twin pairs at the hip neck, hip, and spine, respectively), we observed a positive association between alcohol intake (from wine but not from beer or spirits) and spine BMD (P = 0.01) and a negative association with a traditional 20th-century English diet at the hip neck (P = 0.01). Both associations remained borderline significant after adjustment for mean twin-pair intakes (P = 0.04 and P = 0.055, respectively). Other dietary patterns and intakes of calcium, vitamin D, and protein were unrelated to BMD. Our results showed that diet has an independent but subtle effect on BMD; wine intake was positively associated with spine BMD, whereas a traditional (20th-century) English diet had a negative association with hip BMD.

  5. Uniqueness of the gauge invariant action for cosmological perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In second order perturbation theory different definitions are known of gauge invariant perturbations in single field inflationary models. Consequently the corresponding gauge invariant cubic actions do not have the same form. Here we show that the cubic action for one choice of gauge invariant variables is unique in the following sense: the action for any other, non-linearly related variable can be brought to the same bulk action, plus additional boundary terms. These boundary terms correspond to the choice of hypersurface and generate extra, disconnected contributions to the bispectrum. We also discuss uniqueness of the action with respect to conformal frames. When expressed in terms of the gauge invariant curvature perturbation on uniform field hypersurfaces the action for cosmological perturbations has a unique form, independent of the original Einstein or Jordan frame. Crucial is that the gauge invariant comoving curvature perturbation is frame independent, which makes it extremely helpful in showing the quantum equivalence of the two frames, and therefore in calculating quantum effects in nonminimally coupled theories such as Higgs inflation

  6. Non-Eosinophilic Nasal Polyps Shows Increased Epithelial Proliferation and Localized Disease Pattern in the Early Stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kyu Kim

    Full Text Available Non-eosinophilic nasal polyps (NPs show less inflammatory changes and are less commonly associated with lower airway inflammatory disorders such as asthma, compared with eosinophilic NPs. However, the development of non-eosinophilic NPs which is a predominant subtype in Asian population still remains unclear.A total of 81 patients (45 with non-eosinophilic NPs and 36 with eosinophilic NPs were enrolled. Clinical information and computed tomography (CT, endoscopic, and histological findings were investigated. Tissue samples were analyzed for total IgE levels and for mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, interferon (IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-23p19, transforming growth factor (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, and periostin. Immunostaining assessment of Ki-67 as a proliferation marker was performed.We found that epithelial in-growing patterns such as pseudocysts were more frequently observed in histological and endoscopic evaluations of non-eosinophilic NPs, which was linked to increase epithelial staining of Ki-67, a proliferating marker. Eosinophilic NPs were characterized by high infiltration of inflammatory cells, compared with non-eosinophilic NPs. To investigate the developmental course of each subtype, CT was analyzed according to CT scores and subtypes. Non-eosinophilic NPs showed more localized pattern and maxillary sinus involvement, but lesser olfactory involvement in early stage whereas eosinophilic NPs were characterized by diffuse ethmoidal and olfactory involvement. In addition, high ethmoidal/maxillary (E/M CT scores, indicating ethmoidal dominant involvement, were one of surrogate markers for eosinophilic NP. E/M CT scores was positively correlated with levels of TH2 inflammatory markers, including IL-4, IL-5, periostin mRNA expression and total IgE levels in NPs, whereas levels of the TH1 cytokine, IFN- γ were inversely correlated. Moreover, if the combinatorial algorithm meet the three

  7. Neurogenesis paradoxically decreases both pattern separation and memory interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory eFinnegan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus has been the focus of memory research for decades. While the functional role of this structure is not fully understood, it is widely recognized as being vital for rapid yet accurate encoding of associative memories. Since the discovery of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus by Altman and Das in the 1960's, many theories and models have been put forward to explain the functional role it plays in learning and memory. These models postulate different ways new in which neurons are introduced into the dentate gyrus and their functional importance for learning and memory. Few if any previous models have incorporated the full range of unique properties of young adult-born dentate granule cells and their developmental trajectory. In this paper, we propose a novel computational model of the dentate gyrus that incorporates the developmental trajectory of the adult-born dentate granule cells, including changes in synaptic plasticity, connectivity, excitability and lateral inhibition, using a modified version of the Restricted Boltzmann machine. Our results show superior performance on memory reconstruction tasks for both recent and distally learned items, when the unique characteristics of young dentate granule cells are taken into account. Even though the hyperexcitability of the young neurons generates more overlapping neural codes, reducing pattern separation, the unique properties of the young neurons nonetheless contribute to reducing retroactive and proactive interference, at both short and long time scales. The sparse connectivity is particularly important for generating distinct memory traces for highly overlapping patterns that are learned within the same context.

  8. Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIU-LAN

    2012-01-01

    A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.

  9. Discovery of a remarkable subpulse drift pattern in PSR B0818-41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, B.; Gupta, Y.; Gil, J.; Sendyk, M.

    2007-05-01

    We report the discovery of a remarkable subpulse drift pattern in the relatively less-studied wide profile pulsar B0818-41 using high-sensitivity Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) observations. We find simultaneous occurrences of three drift regions with two different drift rates: an inner region with steeper apparent drift rate flanked on each side by a region of slower apparent drift rate. Furthermore, these closely spaced drift bands always maintain a constant phase relationship. Though these drift regions have significantly different values for the measured P2, the measured P3 value is the same and equal to 18.3P1. We interpret the unique drift pattern of this pulsar as being created by the intersection of our line of sight (LOS) with two conal rings on the polar cap of a fairly aligned rotator (inclination angle α ~ 11°), with an `inner' LOS geometry (impact angle ). We argue that both rings have the same values for the carousel rotation periodicity P4 and the number of sparks Nsp. We find that Nsp is 19-21 and show that it is very likely that P4 is the same as the measured P3, making it a truly unique pulsar. We present results from simulations of the radiation pattern using the inferred parameters, which support our interpretations and reproduce the average profile as well as the observed features in the drift pattern quite well.

  10. Akinetic-rigid and tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease patients show different patterns of intrinsic brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiuquan; Wei, Luqing; Hu, Xiaofei; Xie, Bing; Zhang, Yanling; Wu, Guo-Rong; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a surprisingly heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder. It is well established that different subtypes of PD present with different clinical courses and prognoses. However, the neural mechanism underlying these disparate presentations is uncertain. Here we used resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) and the regional homogeneity (ReHo) method to determine neural activity patterns in the two main clinical subgroups of PD (akinetic-rigid and tremor-dominant). Compared with healthy controls, akinetic-rigid (AR) subjects had increased ReHo mainly in right amygdala, left putamen, bilateral angular gyrus, bilateral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), and decreased ReHo in left post cingulate gyrus/precuneus (PCC/PCu) and bilateral thalamus. In contrast, tremor-dominant (TD) patients showed higher ReHo mostly in bilateral angular gyrus, left PCC, cerebellum_crus1, and cerebellum_6, while ReHo was decreased in right putamen, primary sensory cortex (S1), vermis_3, and cerebellum_4_5. These results indicate that AR and TD subgroups both represent altered spontaneous neural activity in default-mode regions and striatum, and AR subjects exhibit more changed neural activity in the mesolimbic cortex (amygdala) but TD in the cerebellar regions. Of note, direct comparison of the two subgroups revealed a distinct ReHo pattern primarily located in the striatal-thalamo-cortical (STC) and cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CTC) loops. Overall, our findings highlight the involvement of default mode network (DMN) and STC circuit both in AR and TD subtypes, but also underscore the importance of integrating mesolimbic-striatal and CTC loops in understanding neural systems of akinesia and rigidity, as well as resting tremor in PD. This study provides improved understanding of the pathophysiological models of different subtypes of PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Beverage consumption patterns among 4-19 y old children in 2009-14 NHANES show that the milk and 100% juice pattern is associated with better diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, Matthieu; Rehm, Colin D; Vieux, Florent; Rose, Chelsea M; Drewnowski, Adam

    2018-05-24

    Patterns of beverage consumption among children and adolescents can be indicative of food choices and total diet quality. Analyses of beverage consumption patterns among 8119 children aged 4-19 y were based on the first 24-h recall of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009-14 NHANES). Four pre-defined beverage patterns were: 1) milk pattern; 2) 100% juice pattern; 3) milk and 100% juice pattern; and 4) other caloric beverages. Food- and nutrient-based diet quality measures included the Healthy Eating Index 2010. Most children drank other caloric beverages, as opposed to milk (17.8%), 100% juice (5.6%), or milk and 100% juice (13.5%). Drinkers of milk and 100% juice had diets that did not differ from each other in total calories, total and added sugars, fiber, or vitamin E. Milk drinkers consumed more dairy and had higher intakes of calcium, potassium, vitamin A and vitamin D as compared to all other patterns. Juice drinkers consumed more total fruit, same amounts of whole fruit, and had higher intakes of vitamin C as compared to the other consumption patterns. Drinkers of both milk and 100% juice had the highest HEI 2010 scores of all the consumption patterns. Beverage consumption patterns built around milk and/or 100% juice were relatively uncommon. Promoting the drinking of milk and 100% juice, in preference to other caloric beverages, may be an effective strategy to improve children's diet quality. Restricting milk and 100% juice consumption may encourage the selection of other caloric beverages.

  12. Surface-immobilized hydrogel patterns on length scales from micrometer to nanometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeira, Assaf

    The present work concentrates on the study of pattern generation and transfer processes of monolayer covered surfaces, deriving from the basic working concept of Constructive Lithography. As an advancement of constructive lithography, we developed a direct, one-step printing (contact electrochemical printing, CEP) and replication (contact electrochemical replication, CER) of hydrophilic organic monolayer patterns surrounded by a hydrophobic monolayer background. In addition, we present a process of transfer of metal between two contacting solid surfaces to predefined monolayer template pattern sites (contact electrochemical transfer, CET). This thesis shows that CEP, CER, and CET may be implemented under a variety of different experimental conditions, regardless of whether the initial "master" pattern was created by a parallel (fast) or serial (slow) patterning process. CEP and CER also posses the unique attractive property that each replica may equally function as master stamp in the fabrication of additional replicas. Moreover, due to a mechanism of selfcorrection patterned surfaces produced these process are often free of defects that the initial "master" stamp may had. We finally show that the electrochemical patterning of OTS monolayers on silicon can be further extended to flexible polymeric substrate materials as well as to a variety of chemical manipulations, allowing the fabrication of tridimensional (3D) composite structures made on the basis of readily available OTS compound. The results obtained suggest that such contact electrochemical processes could be used to rapidly generate multiple copies of surface patterns spanning variable length scales, this basic approach being applicable to rigid as well as flexible substrate materials.

  13. Common patterns and disease-related signatures in tuberculosis and sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertzdorf, Jeroen; Weiner, January; Mollenkopf, Hans-Joachim; Bauer, Torsten; Prasse, Antje; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Kaufmann, Stefan H E

    2012-05-15

    In light of the marked global health impact of tuberculosis (TB), strong focus has been on identifying biosignatures. Gene expression profiles in blood cells identified so far are indicative of a persistent activation of the immune system and chronic inflammatory pathology in active TB. Definition of a biosignature with unique specificity for TB demands that identified profiles can differentiate diseases with similar pathology, like sarcoidosis (SARC). Here, we present a detailed comparison between pulmonary TB and SARC, including whole-blood gene expression profiling, microRNA expression, and multiplex serum analytes. Our analysis reveals that previously disclosed gene expression signatures in TB show highly similar patterns in SARC, with a common up-regulation of proinflammatory pathways and IFN signaling and close similarity to TB-related signatures. microRNA expression also presented a highly similar pattern in both diseases, whereas cytokines in the serum of TB patients revealed a slightly elevated proinflammatory pattern compared with SARC and controls. Our results indicate several differences in expression between the two diseases, with increased metabolic activity and significantly higher antimicrobial defense responses in TB. However, matrix metallopeptidase 14 was identified as the most distinctive marker of SARC. Described communalities as well as unique signatures in blood profiles of two distinct inflammatory pulmonary diseases not only have considerable implications for the design of TB biosignatures and future diagnosis, but they also provide insights into biological processes underlying chronic inflammatory disease entities of different etiology.

  14. Bark and Ambrosia Beetles Show Different Invasion Patterns in the USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Rassati

    Full Text Available Non-native bark and ambrosia beetles represent a threat to forests worldwide. Their invasion patterns are, however, still unclear. Here we investigated first, if the spread of non-native bark and ambrosia beetles is a gradual or a discontinuous process; second, which are the main correlates of their community structure; third, whether those correlates correspond to those of native species. We used data on species distribution of non-native and native scolytines in the continental 48 USA states. These data were analyzed through a beta-diversity index, partitioned into species richness differences and species replacement, using Mantel correlograms and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS ordination for identifying spatial patterns, and regression on distance matrices to test the association of climate (temperature, rainfall, forest (cover area, composition, geographical (distance, and human-related (import variables with β-diversity components. For both non-native bark and ambrosia beetles, β-diversity was mainly composed of species richness difference than species replacement. For non-native bark beetles, a discontinuous invasion process composed of long distance jumps or multiple introduction events was apparent. Species richness differences were primarily correlated with differences in import values while temperature was the main correlate of species replacement. For non-native ambrosia beetles, a more continuous invasion process was apparent, with the pool of non-native species arriving in the coastal areas that tended to be filtered as they spread to interior portions of the continental USA. Species richness differences were mainly correlated with differences in rainfall among states, while rainfall and temperature were the main correlates of species replacement. Our study suggests that the different ecology of bark and ambrosia beetles influences their invasion process in new environments. The lower dependency that bark beetles have

  15. Fingerprint Recognition using Fuzzy Logic with Triangular Pattern Template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2006-01-01

    A fingerprint is a pattern of ridges and valleys that exist on the surface of the finger. The uniqueness of a fingerprint is typically determined by the overall pattern of ridges and valleys as well as the local ridge structures e.g., a ridge bifurcation or a ridge ending, which are called minutiae...

  16. Peanut sensitization pattern in Norwegian children and adults with specific IgE to peanut show age related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namork, Ellen; Stensby, Berit A

    2015-01-01

    Peanuts contain potent food allergens and the prevalence of allergy is reported to increase, especially in children. Since peanut sensitization may differ between different geographical regions, we wanted to investigate the sensitization pattern to the individual peanut allergens in a Norwegian population. Cases reported to the Norwegian Food Allergy Register with sera positive to peanut extract were analyzed for specific IgE (sIgE) to the recombinant peanut allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, Ara h 8 and Ara h 9 and to birch pollen extract. Serum samples negative to the above allergens were analyzed for sIgE to Ara h 6, and sIgE to Pru p 3 in peach were analyzed in sera positive to the cross-reactive allergen Ara h 9. Highest frequency of sIgE to Ara h 2, often co-sensitized to Ara h 1 and 3, were found in the small children up to 6 years of age. From the age of 6 years, sensitization to Ara h 8 was predominant. The sIgE levels to the storage proteins Ara h 1, 2 and 3 were strongly correlated, as was the sIgE levels to Ara h 8 and birch pollen extract. A low sensitization rate of sIgE to Ara h 9 in young adults was observed, which sIgE levels were very strongly correlated to Pru p 3. The sensitization to peanut allergens in a Norwegian population shows a clear age dependent pattern. The results add to the previously published research on the sensitization patterns of peanut sensitized patients in different geographical areas.

  17. Macroecological factors shape local-scale spatial patterns in agriculturalist settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Tingting; Abades, Sebastián; Teng, Shuqing; Huang, Zheng Y X; Reino, Luís; Chen, Bin J W; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Chi; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-11-15

    Macro-scale patterns of human systems ranging from population distribution to linguistic diversity have attracted recent attention, giving rise to the suggestion that macroecological rules shape the assembly of human societies. However, in which aspects the geography of our own species is shaped by macroecological factors remains poorly understood. Here, we provide a first demonstration that macroecological factors shape strong local-scale spatial patterns in human settlement systems, through an analysis of spatial patterns in agriculturalist settlements in eastern mainland China based on high-resolution Google Earth images. We used spatial point pattern analysis to show that settlement spatial patterns are characterized by over-dispersion at fine spatial scales (0.05-1.4 km), consistent with territory segregation, and clumping at coarser spatial scales beyond the over-dispersion signals, indicating territorial clustering. Statistical modelling shows that, at macroscales, potential evapotranspiration and topographic heterogeneity have negative effects on territory size, but positive effects on territorial clustering. These relationships are in line with predictions from territory theory for hunter-gatherers as well as for many animal species. Our results help to disentangle the complex interactions between intrinsic spatial processes in agriculturalist societies and external forcing by macroecological factors. While one may speculate that humans can escape ecological constraints because of unique abilities for environmental modification and globalized resource transportation, our work highlights that universal macroecological principles still shape the geography of current human agricultural societies. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Uniqueness of the joint measurement and the structure of the set of compatible quantum measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerini, Leonardo; Terra Cunha, Marcelo

    2018-04-01

    We address the problem of characterising the compatible tuples of measurements that admit a unique joint measurement. We derive a uniqueness criterion based on the method of perturbations and apply it to show that extremal points of the set of compatible tuples admit a unique joint measurement, while all tuples that admit a unique joint measurement lie in the boundary of such a set. We also provide counter-examples showing that none of these properties are both necessary and sufficient, thus completely describing the relation between the joint measurement uniqueness and the structure of the compatible set. As a by-product of our investigations, we completely characterise the extremal and boundary points of the set of general tuples of measurements and of the subset of compatible tuples.

  19. Arabidopsis roots and shoots show distinct temporal adaptation patterns toward nitrogen starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapp, Anne; Berthomé, Richard; Orsel, Mathilde; Mercey-Boutet, Stéphanie; Yu, Agnes; Castaings, Loren; Elftieh, Samira; Major, Hilary; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise

    2011-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient for plants. N levels in soil vary widely, and plants have developed strategies to cope with N deficiency. However, the regulation of these adaptive responses and the coordinating signals that underlie them are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize N starvation in adult Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants in a spatiotemporal manner by an integrative, multilevel global approach analyzing growth, metabolites, enzyme activities, and transcript levels. We determined that the remobilization of N and carbon compounds to the growing roots occurred long before the internal N stores became depleted. A global metabolite analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed organ-specific differences in the metabolic adaptation to complete N starvation, for example, for several tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, but also for carbohydrates, secondary products, and phosphate. The activities of central N metabolism enzymes and the capacity for nitrate uptake adapted to N starvation by favoring N remobilization and by increasing the high-affinity nitrate uptake capacity after long-term starvation. Changes in the transcriptome confirmed earlier studies and added a new dimension by revealing specific spatiotemporal patterns and several unknown N starvation-regulated genes, including new predicted small RNA genes. No global correlation between metabolites, enzyme activities, and transcripts was evident. However, this multilevel spatiotemporal global study revealed numerous new patterns of adaptation mechanisms to N starvation. In the context of a sustainable agriculture, this work will give new insight for the production of crops with increased N use efficiency.

  20. Losing memories overnight: a unique form of human amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christine N; Frascino, Jennifer C; Kripke, Donald L; McHugh, Paul R; Treisman, Glenn J; Squire, Larry R

    2010-08-01

    Since an automobile accident in 2005, patient FL has reported difficulty retaining information from one day to the next. During the course of any given day, she describes her memory as normal. However, memory for each day disappears during a night of sleep. She reports good memory for events that occurred before the accident. Although this pattern of memory impairment is, to our knowledge, unique to the medical literature, it was depicted in the fictional film "50 First Dates". On formal testing, FL performed moderately well when trying to remember material that she had learned during the same day, but she exhibited no memory at all for material that she knew had been presented on a previous day. For some tests, unbeknownst to FL, material learned on the previous day was intermixed with material learned on the same day as the test. On these occasions, FL's memory was good. Thus, she was able to remember events from earlier days when memory was tested covertly. FL performed differently in a number of ways from individuals who were instructed to consciously feign her pattern of memory impairment. It was also the impression of those who worked with FL that she believed she had the memory impairment that she described and that she was not intentionally feigning amnesia. On the basis of her neuropsychological findings, together with a normal neurological exam, normal MRI findings, and psychiatric evaluation, we suggest that FL exhibits a unique form of functional amnesia and that its characterization may have been influenced by knowledge of how amnesia was depicted in a popular film. She subsequently improved (and began retaining day-to-day memory) at Johns Hopkins University where she was in a supportive in-patient environment and was shown how to take control of her condition by interrupting her sleep at 4-h intervals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Less healthy dietary pattern is associated with smoking in Korean men according to nationally representative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sang-Yeon; Lee, Ju Hyun; Park, Sang Shin; Seo, Ah-Ram; Ahn, Hong-Yup; Bae, Woo Kyung; Lee, Yong Joo; Yim, Eunji

    2013-06-01

    The relationship between smoking and nutrient intake has been widely investigated in several countries. However, Korea presents a population with a smoking rate of approximately 50% and dietary consumption of unique foods. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of dietary patterns with smoking in Korean men using a nationally representative sample. The study subjects were comprised of 4,851 Korean men over 19 yr of age who participated in the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Dietary data were assessed by the 24-hr recall method. The smoking group comprised 2,136 men (46.6%). Five dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis: 'sugar & fat', 'vegetables & seafood', 'meat & drinks', 'grains & eggs', and 'potatoes, fruits and dairy products.' Current smokers showed a more significant 'sugar & fat' pattern (P = 0.001) while significantly less of the 'vegetables & seafood' and 'potatoes, fruits and dairy products' patterns (P = 0.011, P Korean male smokers showed less healthy dietary patterns than nonsmokers. Thus, the result of this study underlines the need for health professionals to also provide advice on dietary patterns when counseling patients on smoking cessation.

  2. Comparison of Lip Print Patterns in Two Indian Subpopulations and Its Correlation in ABO Blood Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sr, Ashwinirani; Suragimath, Girish; Sande, Abhijeet R; Kulkarni, Prasad; Nimbal, Anand; Shankar, T; Gowd, T Snigdha; Shetty, Prajwal K

    2014-10-01

    The study of lip-print pattern (cheiloscopy) is a scientific method for personal identification and plays a major role in forensic and criminal investigations. To compare the lip print patterns in Kerala and Maharashtra population and correlate between ABO blood groups. Two hundred subjects, 100 from Maharashtra and 100 from Kerala were considered for the study. Lip prints were recorded, analyzed according to Tsuchihashi classification. The lip print patterns were compared in the two populations, correlated in ABO blood groups. The data obtained was statistically analyzed with SPSS software using chi-square test. In our study, predominant lip print pattern observed in Kerala population was type IV (53%) and Maharashtra population was type II (42%). The difference between the two population was statistically significant (pblood groups had type II lip print predominance. Subjects with B+, AB+ and O+ blood groups had type IV predominance. The lip print patterns do not show any correlation in ABO blood groups. Lip prints are unique to each individual and are different even in two persons. Lip print patterns were different in the two sub populations studied, and they showed no correlation in ABO blood groups.

  3. Determining hydraulic parameters of a karst aquifer using unique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-07-15

    Jul 15, 2014 ... 1 Faculty of Natural Sciences, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, ... a first-ever attempt to utilise various sets of unique historical data ..... Even though the aquifer shows characteristics of all major ...... Earth Sci.

  4. Simulation of the diffraction pattern of one dimensional quasicrystal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, it has been found that each golden mean produces a unique diffraction pattern and that the lower the golden mean the better the diffraction pattern resembles that of a periodic chain. Also the intensity of the central peak was found to decrease as the golden mean increases. However the value of golden mean ...

  5. Concentration and mindfulness meditations: unique forms of consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, B R; Hartigan, J A; Mikulas, W L

    1999-09-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from 19 scalp recording sites were used to differentiate among two posited unique forms of mediation, concentration and mindfulness, and a normal relaxation control condition. Analyzes of all traditional frequency bandwidth data (i.e., delta 1-3 Hz; theta, 4-7 Hz; alpha, 8-12 Hz; beta 1, 13-25 Hz; beta 2, 26-32 Hz) showed strong mean amplitude frequency differences between the two meditation conditions and relaxation over numerous cortical sites. Furthermore, significant differences were obtained between concentration and mindfulness states at all bandwidths. Taken together, our results suggest that concentration and mindfulness "meditations" may be unique forms of consciousness and are not merely degrees of a state of relaxation.

  6. Colloquium paper: uniquely human evolution of sialic acid genetics and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varki, Ajit

    2010-05-11

    Darwinian evolution of humans from our common ancestors with nonhuman primates involved many gene-environment interactions at the population level, and the resulting human-specific genetic changes must contribute to the "Human Condition." Recent data indicate that the biology of sialic acids (which directly involves less than 60 genes) shows more than 10 uniquely human genetic changes in comparison with our closest evolutionary relatives. Known outcomes are tissue-specific changes in abundant cell-surface glycans, changes in specificity and/or expression of multiple proteins that recognize these glycans, and novel pathogen regimes. Specific events include Alu-mediated inactivation of the CMAH gene, resulting in loss of synthesis of the Sia N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and increase in expression of the precursor N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac); increased expression of alpha2-6-linked Sias (likely because of changed expression of ST6GALI); and multiple changes in SIGLEC genes encoding Sia-recognizing Ig-like lectins (Siglecs). The last includes binding specificity changes (in Siglecs -5, -7, -9, -11, and -12); expression pattern changes (in Siglecs -1, -5, -6, and -11); gene conversion (SIGLEC11); and deletion or pseudogenization (SIGLEC13, SIGLEC14, and SIGLEC16). A nongenetic outcome of the CMAH mutation is human metabolic incorporation of foreign dietary Neu5Gc, in the face of circulating anti-Neu5Gc antibodies, generating a novel "xeno-auto-antigen" situation. Taken together, these data suggest that both the genes associated with Sia biology and the related impacts of the environment comprise a relative "hot spot" of genetic and physiological changes in human evolution, with implications for uniquely human features both in health and disease.

  7. Loss of uniqueness in poro-mechanical model with enhanced media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieffert, Y.; Marinelli, F.; Chambon, R.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. These paper deals with the problem of uniqueness in simulation the behavior of geo-materials with enhanced media to controlled the widths of bands. In the last 10 years, the loss of uniqueness has been clearly demonstrated in some initial boundary value problems involving constitutive equations modeling the degradation of the strength of materials. First in theoretical aspect with a simple test for a one dimensional problem of traction in a bar where the analytical solutions can be developed. In this article, It was also demonstrated that it is possible to retrieve all the analytical solutions in numerical simulations, only by using different starting guesses in the Newton's method. Then thanks to some classical numerical and experimental tests in geomechanical the non uniqueness is proved: the biaxial test and the borehole problem. However in all theses study, the geo-material is assumed to be monophasic. That's why is relevant to investigated the problem of uniqueness in taken into account the fluid part in the media. We deals in the framework of poro-mechanical model where the mechanical part is obeying a second gradient theory (not local) to ensure a regularization of the localisation pattern. This work is realized within the framework of the European Project TIMODAZ (Thermal Impact on the Damaged Zone Around a Radioactive Waste Disposal in Clay Host Rocks, http:// www.timodaz.eu/). As one benchmark in this project, the classical mechanical part is a Druecker-Prager model with a softening in the cohesion and a hardening in the frictional angle. It is a non-associated plasticity model for limited dilatancy. The parameters of this model are the same of this benchmark to simulated the Boom Clay material. Finally this paper demonstrates that several numerical solutions could be obtained as monophasic for the biaxial test modelling. (authors)

  8. Laser Shock Wave-Assisted Patterning on NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhom, Saidjafarzoda; Seyitliyev, Dovletgeldi; Kholikov, Khomidkohodza; Thomas, Zachary; Er, Ali O.; Li, Peizhen; Karaca, Haluk E.; San, Omer

    2018-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a unique class of smart materials and they were employed in various applications in engineering, biomedical, and aerospace technologies. Here, we report an advanced, efficient, and low-cost direct imprinting method with low environmental impact to create thermally controllable surface patterns. Patterned microindents were generated on Ni50Ti50 (at. %) SMAs using an Nd:YAG laser with 1064 nm wavelength at 10 Hz. Laser pulses at selected fluences were focused on the NiTi surface and generated pressure pulses of up to a few GPa. Optical microscope images showed that surface patterns with tailorable sizes can be obtained. The depth of the patterns increases with laser power and irradiation time. Upon heating, the depth profile of SMA surfaces changed where the maximum depth recovery ratio of 30% was observed. Recovery ratio decreased and stabilized when the number of pulses and thus the well depth were further increased. A numerical simulation of pressure evolution in shape memory alloys showed a good agreement with the experimental results. The stress wave closely followed the rise time of the laser pulse to its peak value and initial decay. Rapid attenuation and dispersion of the stress wave were found in our simulation.

  9. Laser Shock Wave-Assisted Patterning on NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhom, Saidjafarzoda; Seyitliyev, Dovletgeldi; Kholikov, Khomidkohodza; Thomas, Zachary; Er, Ali O.; Li, Peizhen; Karaca, Haluk E.; San, Omer

    2018-03-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a unique class of smart materials and they were employed in various applications in engineering, biomedical, and aerospace technologies. Here, we report an advanced, efficient, and low-cost direct imprinting method with low environmental impact to create thermally controllable surface patterns. Patterned microindents were generated on Ni50Ti50 (at. %) SMAs using an Nd:YAG laser with 1064 nm wavelength at 10 Hz. Laser pulses at selected fluences were focused on the NiTi surface and generated pressure pulses of up to a few GPa. Optical microscope images showed that surface patterns with tailorable sizes can be obtained. The depth of the patterns increases with laser power and irradiation time. Upon heating, the depth profile of SMA surfaces changed where the maximum depth recovery ratio of 30% was observed. Recovery ratio decreased and stabilized when the number of pulses and thus the well depth were further increased. A numerical simulation of pressure evolution in shape memory alloys showed a good agreement with the experimental results. The stress wave closely followed the rise time of the laser pulse to its peak value and initial decay. Rapid attenuation and dispersion of the stress wave were found in our simulation.

  10. Patterns of differences in brain morphology in humans as compared to extant apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Although human evolution is characterized by a vast increase in brain size, it is not clear whether or not certain regions of the brain are enlarged disproportionately in humans, or how this enlargement relates to differences in overall neural morphology. The aim of this study is to determine whether or not there are specific suites of features that distinguish the morphology of the human brain from that of apes. The study sample consists of whole brain, in vivo magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) and five ape species (gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos). Twenty-nine 3D landmarks, including surface and internal features of the brain were located on 3D MRI reconstructions of each individual using MEASURE software. Landmark coordinate data were scaled for differences in size and analyzed using Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis (EDMA) to statistically compare the brains of each non-human ape species to the human sample. Results of analyses show both a pattern of brain morphology that is consistently different between all apes and humans, as well as patterns that differ among species. Further, both the consistent and species-specific patterns include cortical and subcortical features. The pattern that remains consistent across species indicates a morphological reorganization of 1) relationships between cortical and subcortical frontal structures, 2) expansion of the temporal lobe and location of the amygdala, and 3) expansion of the anterior parietal region. Additionally, results demonstrate that, although there is a pattern of morphology that uniquely defines the human brain, there are also patterns that uniquely differentiate human morphology from the morphology of each non-human ape species, indicating that reorganization of neural morphology occurred at the evolutionary divergence of each of these groups. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. O'nyong nyong virus molecular determinants of unique vector specificity reside in non-structural protein 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kali D Saxton-Shaw

    Full Text Available O'nyong nyong virus (ONNV and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV are two closely related alphaviruses with very different infection patterns in the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. ONNV is the only alphavirus transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes, but specific molecular determinants of infection of this unique vector specificity remain unidentified. Fifteen distinct chimeric viruses were constructed to evaluate both structural and non-structural regions of the genome and infection patterns were determined through artificial infectious feeds in An. gambiae with each of these chimeras. Only one region, non-structural protein 3 (nsP3, was sufficient to up-regulate infection to rates similar to those seen with parental ONNV. When ONNV non-structural protein 3 (nsP3 replaced nsP3 from CHIKV virus in one of the chimeric viruses, infection rates in An. gambiae went from 0% to 63.5%. No other single gene or viral region addition was able to restore infection rates. Thus, we have shown that a non-structural genome element involved in viral replication is a major element involved in ONNV's unique vector specificity.

  12. Colour patterns do not diagnose species: quantitative evaluation of a DNA barcoded cryptic bumblebee complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Carolan

    Full Text Available Cryptic diversity within bumblebees (Bombus has the potential to undermine crucial conservation efforts designed to reverse the observed decline in many bumblebee species worldwide. Central to such efforts is the ability to correctly recognise and diagnose species. The B. lucorum complex (Bombus lucorum, B. cryptarum and B. magnus comprises one of the most abundant and important group of wild plant and crop pollinators in northern Europe. Although the workers of these species are notoriously difficult to diagnose morphologically, it has been claimed that queens are readily diagnosable from morphological characters. Here we assess the value of colour-pattern characters in species identification of DNA-barcoded queens from the B. lucorum complex. Three distinct molecular operational taxonomic units were identified each representing one species. However, no uniquely diagnostic colour-pattern character state was found for any of these three molecular units and most colour-pattern characters showed continuous variation among the units. All characters previously deemed to be unique and diagnostic for one species were displayed by specimens molecularly identified as a different species. These results presented here raise questions on the reliability of species determinations in previous studies and highlights the benefits of implementing DNA barcoding prior to ecological, taxonomic and conservation studies of these important key pollinators.

  13. Cancer: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z › Cancer › Unique to Older Adults Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Unique ... group with other older people with the same type of cancer. Researchers have found that support groups ...

  14. Turtle Flexion Reflex Motor Patterns Show Windup, Mediated Partly by L-type Calcium Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith P. Johnson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Windup is a form of multisecond temporal summation in which identical stimuli, delivered seconds apart, trigger increasingly strong neuronal responses. L-type Ca2+ channels have been shown to play an important role in the production of windup of spinal cord neuronal responses, initially in studies of turtle spinal cord and later in studies of mammalian spinal cord. L-type Ca2+ channels have also been shown to contribute to windup of limb withdrawal reflex (flexion reflex in rats, but flexion reflex windup has not previously been described in turtles and its cellular mechanisms have not been studied. We studied windup of flexion reflex motor patterns, evoked with weak mechanical and electrical stimulation of the dorsal hindlimb foot skin and assessed via a hip flexor (HF nerve recording, in spinal cord-transected and immobilized turtles in vivo. We found that an L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist, nifedipine, applied at concentrations of 50 μM or 100 μM to the hindlimb enlargement spinal cord, significantly reduced windup of flexion reflex motor patterns, while lower concentrations of nifedipine had no such effect. Nifedipine similarly reduced the amplitude of an individual flexion reflex motor pattern evoked by a stronger mechanical stimulus, in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that L-type Ca2+ channels contribute to each flexion reflex as well as to multisecond summation of flexion reflex responses in turtles. We also found that we could elicit flexion reflex windup consistently using a 4-g von Frey filament, which is not usually considered a nociceptive stimulus. Thus, it may be that windup can be evoked by a wide range of tactile stimuli and that L-type calcium channels contribute to multisecond temporal summation of diverse tactile stimuli across vertebrates.

  15. On uniqueness in diffuse optical tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrach, Bastian

    2009-01-01

    A prominent result of Arridge and Lionheart (1998 Opt. Lett. 23 882–4) demonstrates that it is in general not possible to simultaneously recover both the diffusion (aka scattering) and the absorption coefficient in steady-state (dc) diffusion-based optical tomography. In this work we show that it suffices to restrict ourselves to piecewise constant diffusion and piecewise analytic absorption coefficients to regain uniqueness. Under this condition both parameters can simultaneously be determined from complete measurement data on an arbitrarily small part of the boundary

  16. Peatlands as a unique climatic hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowinska, S.; Marcisz, K.; Slowinski, M. M.; Blazejczyk, K.; Lamentowicz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Peatlands are unique environments, often acting as microrefugia of various taxa. High groundwater table, organic soils, specific vegetation and topography are important determinants of their local climatic conditions. However, relations between those determinants are not stable. For example, seasonal changes in weather patterns, hydrological dynamics, and local vegetation may alter microclimate. Additionally, long-term changes are important factor, as for example overgrowing due to significant change of microclimate conditions, what in turn changes geochemical and biological processes in the peat layer. We have been investigating interactions between abiotic and biotic factors of a small Sphagnum mire (ca. 6.0 ha) for over ten years now. The mire is located in Poland in transitional temperate climate and is the only place in polish lowlands where glacial relict Betula nana occurs. Identification of local climate of the mire, its microclimatic differentiation and its influence on surroundings were objectives of the study. We recorded water level fluctuations, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air temperature and humidity, and peat temperature at five monitoring plots at the mire and observed significant differences between them. We also investigated Sphagnum mosses growth and testate amoeba diversity and community structure to understand biological response of those differences. We observed that local climate of the mire was significantly different from open area reference place, it was much colder especially during nights. The average minimal temperature at the height 30 cm for growing seasons 2010-2012 was 3.7oC lower there and ground frosts occurred even in the summer. The climate of the mire affected the forest directly adjacent to it, and depending on weather conditions the strength and the distance of this interaction was different. Our results show that micro-environmental changes affects on biological processes and should be taken into consideration

  17. Fluorescent Photo-conversion: A second chance to label unique cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellott, Adam J; Shinogle, Heather E; Moore, David S; Detamore, Michael S

    2015-03-01

    Not all cells behave uniformly after treatment in tissue engineering studies. In fact, some treated cells display no signs of treatment or show unique characteristics not consistent with other treated cells. What if the "unique" cells could be isolated from a treated population, and further studied? Photo-convertible reporter proteins, such as Dendra2 , allow for the ability to selectively identify unique cells with a secondary label within a primary labeled treated population. In the current study, select cells were identified and labeled through photo-conversion of Dendra2 -transfected human Wharton's Jelly cells (hWJCs) for the first time. Robust photo-conversion of green-to-red fluorescence was achieved consistently in arbitrarily selected cells, allowing for precise cell identification of select hWJCs. The current study demonstrates a method that offers investigators the opportunity to selectively label and identify unique cells within a treated population for further study or isolation from the treatment population. Photo-convertible reporter proteins, such as Dendra2 , offer the ability over non-photo-convertible reporter proteins, such as green fluorescent protein, to analyze unique individual cells within a treated population, which allows investigators to gain more meaningful information on how a treatment affects all cells within a target population.

  18. Skipper genome sheds light on unique phenotypic traits and phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Qian; Borek, Dominika; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Grishin, Nick V

    2015-08-27

    Butterflies and moths are emerging as model organisms in genetics and evolutionary studies. The family Hesperiidae (skippers) was traditionally viewed as a sister to other butterflies based on its moth-like morphology and darting flight habits with fast wing beats. However, DNA studies suggest that the family Papilionidae (swallowtails) may be the sister to other butterflies including skippers. The moth-like features and the controversial position of skippers in Lepidoptera phylogeny make them valuable targets for comparative genomics. We obtained the 310 Mb draft genome of the Clouded Skipper (Lerema accius) from a wild-caught specimen using a cost-effective strategy that overcomes the high (1.6 %) heterozygosity problem. Comparative analysis of Lerema accius and the highly heterozygous genome of Papilio glaucus revealed differences in patterns of SNP distribution, but similarities in functions of genes that are enriched in non-synonymous SNPs. Comparison of Lepidoptera genomes revealed possible molecular bases for unique traits of skippers: a duplication of electron transport chain components could result in efficient energy supply for their rapid flight; a diversified family of predicted cellulases might allow them to feed on cellulose-enriched grasses; an expansion of pheromone-binding proteins and enzymes for pheromone synthesis implies a more efficient mate-recognition system, which compensates for the lack of clear visual cues due to the similarities in wing colors and patterns of many species of skippers. Phylogenetic analysis of several Lepidoptera genomes suggested that the position of Hesperiidae remains uncertain as the tree topology varied depending on the evolutionary model. Completion of the first genome from the family Hesperiidae allowed comparative analyses with other Lepidoptera that revealed potential genetic bases for the unique phenotypic traits of skippers. This work lays the foundation for future experimental studies of skippers and

  19. Comparing Unique Title Coverage of Web of Science and Scopus in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Philip; Lascar, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The current journal titles in earth and atmospheric sciences, that are unique to each of two databases, Web of Science and Scopus, were identified using different methods. Comparing by subject category shows that Scopus has hundreds of unique titles, and Web of Science just 16. The titles unique to each database have low SCImago Journal Rank…

  20. Double segmental tibial fractures - an unusual fracture pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bali Kamal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】A case of a 50-year-old pedestrian who was hit by a bike and suffered fractures of both bones of his right leg was presented. Complete clinical and radiographic assessment showed double segmental fractures of the tibia and multisegmental fractures of the fibula. Review of the literature revealed that this fracture pattern was unique and only a single case was reported so far. Moreover, we discussed the possible mechanisms which can lead to such an injury. We also discussed the management of segmental tibial fracture and the difficulties encountered with them. This case was managed by modern osteosynthesis tech- nique with a pleasing outcome. Key words: Fracture, bone; Tibia; Fibula; Nails

  1. Uniqueness in time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, P.

    1981-01-01

    According to P. Janich a clock is defined as an apparatus in which a point ( hand ) is moving uniformly on a straight line ( path ). For the definition of uniformly first the scaling (as a constant ratio of velocities) is defined without clocks. Thereafter the uniqueness of the time measurement can be proved using the prove of scaling of all clocks. But the uniqueness can be defined without scaling, as it is pointed out here. (orig.) [de

  2. Herbarium specimens show patterns of fruiting phenology in native and invasive plant species across New England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallinat, Amanda S; Russo, Luca; Melaas, Eli K; Willis, Charles G; Primack, Richard B

    2018-01-01

    Patterns of fruiting phenology in temperate ecosystems are poorly understood, despite the ecological importance of fruiting for animal nutrition and seed dispersal. Herbarium specimens represent an under-utilized resource for investigating geographical and climatic factors affecting fruiting times within species, patterns in fruiting times among species, and differences between native and non-native invasive species. We examined over 15,000 herbarium specimens, collected and housed across New England, and found 3159 specimens with ripe fruits, collected from 1849-2013. We examined patterns in fruiting phenology among 37 native and 18 invasive woody plant species common to New England. We compared fruiting dates between native and invasive species, and analyzed how fruiting phenology varies with temperature, space, and time. Spring temperature and year explained a small but significant amount of the variation in fruiting dates. Accounting for the moderate phylogenetic signal in fruiting phenology, invasive species fruited 26 days later on average than native species, with significantly greater standard deviations. Herbarium specimens can be used to detect patterns in fruiting times among species. However, the amount of intraspecific variation in fruiting times explained by temporal, geographic, and climatic predictors is small, due to a combination of low temporal resolution of fruiting specimens and the protracted nature of fruiting. Later fruiting times in invasive species, combined with delays in autumn bird migrations in New England, may increase the likelihood that migratory birds will consume and disperse invasive seeds in New England later into the year. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  3. Smoking Patterns, Attitudes and Motives: Unique Characteristics among 2-Year versus 4-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, C. J.; An, L. C.; Thomas, J. L.; Lust, K. A.; Sanem, J. R.; Swan, D. W.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Given the previously documented higher rates of smoking among 2-year college students in comparison with 4-year university students, this study compares smoking patterns, attitudes and motives among 2-year and 4-year college students. Two thousand two hundred and sixty-five undergraduate students aged 18-25 years at a 2-year college and a 4-year…

  4. Pattern Classification in Kampo Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yakubo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pattern classification is very unique in traditional medicine. Kampo medical patterns have transformed over time during Japan’s history. In the 17th to 18th centuries, Japanese doctors advocated elimination of the Ming medical theory and followed the basic concepts put forth by Shang Han Lun and Jin Gui Yao Lue in the later Han dynasty (25–220 AD. The physician Todo Yoshimasu (1702–1773 emphasized that an appropriate treatment could be administered if a set of patterns could be identified. This principle is still referred to as “matching of pattern and formula” and is the basic concept underlying Kampo medicine today. In 1868, the Meiji restoration occurred, and the new government changed its policies to follow that of the European countries, adopting only Western medicine. Physicians trained in Western medicine played an important role in the revival of Kampo medicine, modernizing Kampo patterns to avoid confusion with Western biomedical terminology. In order to understand the Japanese version of traditional disorders and patterns, background information on the history of Kampo and its role in the current health care system in Japan is important. In this paper we overviewed the formation of Kampo patterns.

  5. Why Is Family Firms' Internationalization Unique? : A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arregle, Jean-Luc; Duran, Patricio; Hitt, Michael A.; van Essen, M.

    Despite its importance, there is no clear understanding of the uniqueness of family firms' internationalization. This article sheds new light on this issue with a meta-analysis of 76 studies covering 41 countries. We show that the considerable study and cross-country differences in the relationship

  6. Patterns in the acquisition of some cognate consonants in portuguese Patterns in the acquisition of some cognate consonants in portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marígia Viana

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring the phonology of a language requires the development of a high complex series of processes on which, unfortunately, we still lack much information. As a result of the uniqueness of languages we are faced with the problem of identifying these processes and their ordering of appearance in apparently a quite distinct manner within each language and from child to child. While the general trend is that children use systematic patterns to distinguish between cognate pairs of sounds, these patterns may vary from language to language. Moreover, this discrimination task may be a result of the acquisition of different skills acquired at different stages (cf. Macken and Barton, 1979. Acquiring the phonology of a language requires the development of a high complex series of processes on which, unfortunately, we still lack much information. As a result of the uniqueness of languages we are faced with the problem of identifying these processes and their ordering of appearance in apparently a quite distinct manner within each language and from child to child. While the general trend is that children use systematic patterns to distinguish between cognate pairs of sounds, these patterns may vary from language to language. Moreover, this discrimination task may be a result of the acquisition of different skills acquired at different stages (cf. Macken and Barton, 1979.

  7. Workflow patterns the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Nick; ter Hofstede, Arthur H M

    2016-01-01

    The study of business processes has emerged as a highly effective approach to coordinating an organization's complex service- and knowledge-based activities. The growing field of business process management (BPM) focuses on methods and tools for designing, enacting, and analyzing business processes. This volume offers a definitive guide to the use of patterns, which synthesize the wide range of approaches to modeling business processes. It provides a unique and comprehensive introduction to the well-known workflow patterns collection -- recurrent, generic constructs describing common business process modeling and execution scenarios, presented in the form of problem-solution dialectics. The underlying principles of the patterns approach ensure that they are independent of any specific enabling technology, representational formalism, or modeling approach, and thus broadly applicable across the business process modeling and business process technology domains. The authors, drawing on extensive research done by...

  8. Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shettleworth, Sara J

    2012-10-05

    Darwin's claim 'that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind' is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference in cognitive capabilities and/or mechanisms between adult humans and other animals. Dual-process theories for some cognitive domains propose that adult human cognition shares simple basic processes with that of other animals while additionally including slower-developing and more explicit uniquely human processes. These theories are consistent with a modular account of cognition and the 'core knowledge' account of children's cognitive development. A complementary proposal is that human infants have unique social and/or cognitive adaptations for uniquely human learning. A view of human cognitive architecture as a mosaic of unique and species-general modular and domain-general processes together with a focus on uniquely human developmental mechanisms is consistent with modern evolutionary-developmental biology and suggests new questions for comparative research.

  9. SEM based overlay measurement between resist and buried patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Osamu; Okagawa, Yutaka; Hasumi, Kazuhisa; Shao, Chuanyu; Leray, Philippe; Lorusso, Gian; Baudemprez, Bart

    2016-03-01

    With the continuous shrink in pattern size and increased density, overlay control has become one of the most critical issues in semiconductor manufacturing. Recently, SEM based overlay of AEI (After Etch Inspection) wafer has been used for reference and optimization of optical overlay (both Image Based Overlay (IBO) and Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO)). Overlay measurement at AEI stage contributes monitor and forecast the yield after formation by etch and calibrate optical measurement tools. however those overlay value seems difficult directly for feedback to a scanner. Therefore, there is a clear need to have SEM based overlay measurements of ADI (After Develop Inspection) wafers in order to serve as reference for optical overlay and make necessary corrections before wafers go to etch. Furthermore, to make the corrections as accurate as possible, actual device like feature dimensions need to be measured post ADI. This device size measurement is very unique feature of CDSEM , which can be measured with smaller area. This is currently possible only with the CD-SEM. This device size measurement is very unique feature of CD-SEM , which can be measured with smaller area. In this study, we assess SEM based overlay measurement of ADI and AEI wafer by using a sample from an N10 process flow. First, we demonstrate SEM based overlay performance at AEI by using dual damascene process for Via 0 (V0) and metal 1 (M1) layer. We also discuss the overlay measurements between litho-etch-litho stages of a triple patterned M1 layer and double pattern V0. Second, to illustrate the complexities in image acquisition and measurement we will measure overlay between M1B resist and buried M1A-Hard mask trench. Finally, we will show how high accelerating voltage can detect buried pattern information by BSE (Back Scattering Electron). In this paper we discuss the merits of this method versus standard optical metrology based corrections.

  10. Boundary-induced pattern formation from uniform temporal oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohsokabe, Takahiro; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2018-04-01

    Pattern dynamics triggered by fixing a boundary is investigated. By considering a reaction-diffusion equation that has a unique spatially uniform and limit cycle attractor under a periodic or Neumann boundary condition, and then by choosing a fixed boundary condition, we found three novel phases depending on the ratio of diffusion constants of activator to inhibitor: transformation of temporally periodic oscillation into a spatially periodic fixed pattern, travelling wave emitted from the boundary, and aperiodic spatiotemporal dynamics. The transformation into a fixed, periodic pattern is analyzed by crossing of local nullclines at each spatial point, shifted by diffusion terms, as is analyzed by using recursive equations, to obtain the spatial pattern as an attractor. The generality of the boundary-induced pattern formation as well as its relevance to biological morphogenesis is discussed.

  11. Physical processes in thin-film electroluminescent structures based on ZnS:Mn showing self-organized patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuccaro, S.; Raker, Th.; Niedernostheide, F.-J.; Kuhn, T.; Purwins, H.-G.

    2003-01-01

    Physical processes in thin ZnS:Mn films and their relation to the formation of dynamical patterns in the electroluminescence of AC driven films are investigated. The technique of photo-depolarization-spectroscopy is used to investigate defect states in these films and it is shown that specific features in the spectra correlate with the observed self-organized patterns. Furthermore, the time dependence of the dissipative current is measured at the same samples and compared with current waveforms obtained from numerical simulations of a drift-diffusion model. The results are used to discuss the origin of the self-organized processes in ZnS:Mn-films

  12. Duality based direct resolution of unique profiles using zero concentration region information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Elnaz; Rajkó, Róbert; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2018-07-01

    Self Modeling Curve Resolution (SMCR) is a class of techniques concerned with estimating pure profiles underlying a set of measurements on chemical systems. In general, the estimated profiles are ambiguous (non-unique) except if some special conditions fulfilled. Implementing the adequate information can reduce the so-called rotational ambiguity effectively, and in the most desirable cases lead to the unique solution. Therefore, studies on circumstances resulting in unique solution are of particular importance. The conditions of unique solution can particularly be studied based on duality principle. In bilinear chemical (e.g., spectroscopic) data matrix, there is a natural duality between its row and column vector spaces using minimal constraints (non-negativity of concentrations and absorbances). In this article, the conditions of the unique solution according to duality concept and using zero concentration region information is intended to show. A simulated dataset of three components and an experimental system with synthetic mixtures containing three amino acids tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan are analyzed. It is shown that in the presence of sufficient information, the reliable unique solution is obtained that is valuable in analytical qualification and for quantitative verification analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Antecedents of transition patterns of depressive symptom trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Kyoung; Wickrama, Kandauda A S; Kwon, Josephine A; Lorenz, Frederick O; Oshri, Assaf

    2017-11-01

    This study examined (a) transition patterns from adolescent-specific depressive symptom trajectory classes to young adult-specific trajectory classes (N = 537; 15-26 years) and (b) identified risk factors associated with these transition patterns. The latent classes and transition analyses identified three transitional patterns of depressive symptom trajectories, including a deteriorating pattern (8.2%), a recovering pattern (22.5%), and a consistently low pattern (69.3%). Additionally, the results showed that contextual risk factors (i.e., negative economic events, negative romantic relationships, and low college enrolment rates) in the transition period to young adulthood were more positively associated with deteriorated or recovered transition patterns of depressive symptom trajectories than with the consistently low transition patterns even after taking into account the effects of adolescent risk factors. The identification of dynamic transition patterns in depressive symptom trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood and risk factors provide useful tools for preventive and intervention efforts. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Heterogeneous trajectories of depressive symptoms across adolescence and young adulthood have been reported. Psychosocial characteristics differentiate trajectories of depressive symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood. What does this study add? Dynamic transition patterns of depressive symptom trajectories are found between adolescence and young adulthood. Life experiences in the transition period are uniquely associated with the transition patterns of depressive symptom trajectories even after adjusting the effects of adolescent characteristics. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Unique method of tooth replacement in durophagous placodont marine reptiles, with new data on the dentition of Chinese taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neenan, James M; Li, Chun; Rieppel, Olivier; Bernardini, Federico; Tuniz, Claudio; Muscio, Giuseppe; Scheyer, Torsten M

    2014-05-01

    The placodonts of the Triassic period (~252-201 mya) represent one of the earliest and most extreme specialisations to a durophagous diet of any known reptile group. Exceptionally enlarged crushing tooth plates on the maxilla, dentary and palatine cooperated to form functional crushing areas in the buccal cavity. However, the extreme size of these teeth, combined with the unusual way they occluded, constrained how replacement occurred. Using an extensive micro-computed tomographic dataset of 11 specimens that span all geographic regions and placodont morphotypes, tooth replacement patterns were investigated. In addition, the previously undescribed dental morphologies and formulae of Chinese taxa are described for the first time and incorporated into the analysis. Placodonts have a unique tooth replacement pattern and results follow a phylogenetic trend. The plesiomorphic Placodus species show many replacement teeth at various stages of growth, with little or no discernible pattern. On the other hand, the more derived cyamodontoids tend to have fewer replacement teeth growing at any one time, replacing teeth unilaterally and/or in functional units, thus maintaining at least one functional crushing area at all times. The highly derived placochelyids have fewer teeth and, as a result, only have one or two replacement teeth in the upper jaw. This supports previous suggestions that these taxa had an alternative diet to other placodonts. Importantly, all specimens show at least one replacement tooth growing at the most posterior palatine tooth plates, indicating increased wear at this point and thus the most efficient functional crushing area. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  15. Assessing elders using the functional health pattern assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyea, S; Matzo, M

    1989-01-01

    The impact of older Americans on the health care system requires we increase our students' awareness of their unique needs. The authors discuss strategies to develop skills using Gordon's Functional Health Patterns Assessment for assessing older clients.

  16. Spiral patterns of gold nanoclusters in silicon (100) produced by metal vapour vacuum arc implantation of gold ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalam, Dinesh Kumar; Sood, Dinesh Kumar; Bhargava, Suresh Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Self-assembled gold nanoclusters are attractive building blocks for future nanoscale sensors and optical devices due to their exciting catalytic properties. In this work, we report direct bottom-up synthesis of spiral patterns of gold nanoclusters in silicon (100) substrates by Au ion implantation followed by thermal annealing. This unique phenomenon is observed only above a critical threshold implantation dose and annealing temperature. Systematic study by electron microscopy, analytical x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy shows the temperature- and time-dependent nucleation, growth of Au nanoclusters and evolution of the spiral patterns. The observed patterns of gold nanoclusters bear a resemblance to the spiral growth prevalent in some directionally solidified eutectic alloys. Based on this systematic study of the growth and morphology of nanoclusters, a tentative model has been proposed for the formation mechanism of this unusual self-assembled pattern in an amorphous Si/Au system. This model shows that melting of the implanted layer is essential and without which no spiral patterns are observed. A better understanding of this self-assembly process will open up new ways to fabricate ordered arrays of gold nanoclusters in silicon substrates for seeding selective growth of one-dimensional nanostructures

  17. Bird diversity and dissimilarity show contrasting patterns along heavy metal pollution gradients in the Urals, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belskii, Eugen A; Mikryukov, Vladimir S

    2018-05-07

    The effects of industrial pollution on bird diversity have been widely studied using traditional diversity measures, which assume all species to be equivalent. We compared species richness and Shannon index with distance-based measures of taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity (the abundance-weighted mean nearest taxon distances), which describe within-community dissimilarity at terminal branches. Analysis of dissimilarity can shed light on the processes underlying community assembly, i.e., environmental filtering decreases dissimilarity whereas competitive exclusion increases it. In the 2-year study near Karabash and Revda copper smelters in Russia, point counts of nesting birds and habitat descriptions were taken at 10 sites (40 plots) along each pollution gradient. The abundance and diversity of birds showed good repeatability in both regions. The total density of birds, number of species per plot, and Shannon diversity decreased at high toxic load in both regions. The taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic nearest taxon distances showed the same pattern within regions. Species dissimilarity within communities increased with pollution in Karabash (due to loss of functionally similar species), but did not change in Revda (due to mass replacement of forest species by species of open habitats). Pollution-induced changes in bird communities near Karabash were greater due to the stronger deterioration of the forest ecosystems and less favorable natural conditions (more arid climate, lower diversity and vitality of the tree stand and understorey) compared to Revda. This study emphasizes the need for a multi-level approach to the analysis of bird communities using traditional indices of diversity, functional, taxonomic, or phylogenetic distances between species and environmental variables.

  18. Discovery of remarkable subpulse drifting pattern in PSR B0818-41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, B.; Gupta, Y.; Gil, J.; Sendyk, M.

    The study of pulsars showing systematic subpulse drift patterns provides important clues for understanding of pulsar emission mechanism. Pulsars with wide profiles provide extra insights because of the presence of multiple drift bands (e.g PSR B0826-34). We report the discovery of a remarkable subpulse drift pattern in a relatively less studied wide profile pulsar, PSR B0818-41, using the GMRT. We find simultaneous occurrence of three drift regions with two drift rates, an inner region with steeper apparent drift rate flanked on each side by a region of slower apparent drift rate. Furthermore, the two closely spaced drift regions always maintain a constant phase relationship. These unique drift properties seen for this pulsar is very rare. We interpret that the observed drift pattern is created by intersection of our line of sight (LOS) with two conal rings in a inner LOS (negative beta) geometry. We argue that the carousel rotation periodicity (P_4) and the number of sparks (N_sp) are the same for the rings and claim that P_4 is close to the measured P_3. Based on our analysis results and interpretations, we simulate the radiation from B0818-41. The simulations support our interpretations and reproduce the average profile and the observed drift pattern. The results of our study show that PSR B0818-41 is a powerful system to explore the pulsar radio emission mechanism, the implications of which are also discussed in our work.

  19. Muscle activation patterns and motor anatomy of Anna's hummingbirds Calypte anna and zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Edward R; Keeney, Brooke K; Kung, Eric; Makan, Sirish; Wild, J Martin; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2013-01-01

    Flying animals exhibit profound transformations in anatomy, physiology, and neural architecture. Although much is known about adaptations in the avian skeleton and musculature, less is known about neuroanatomy and motor unit integration for bird flight. Hummingbirds are among the most maneuverable and specialized of vertebrate fliers, and two unusual neuromuscular features have been previously reported: (1) the pectoralis major has a unique distribution pattern of motor end plates (MEPs) compared with all other birds and (2) electromyograms (EMGs) from the hummingbird's pectoral muscles, the pectoralis major and the supracoracoideus, show activation bursts composed of one or a few spikes that appear to have a very consistent pattern. Here, we place these findings in a broader context by comparing the MEPs, EMGs, and organization of the spinal motor neuron pools of flight muscles of Anna's hummingbird Calypte anna, zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, and, for MEPs, several other species. The previously shown MEP pattern of the hummingbird pectoralis major is not shared with its closest taxonomic relative, the swift, and appears to be unique to hummingbirds. MEP arrangements in previously undocumented wing muscles show patterns that differ somewhat from other avian muscles. In the parallel-fibered strap muscles of the shoulder, MEP patterns appear to relate to muscle length, with the smallest muscles having fibers that span the entire muscle. MEP patterns in pennate distal wing muscles were the same regardless of size, with tightly clustered bands in the middle portion of the muscle, not evenly distributed bands over the muscle's entire length. Muscle activations were examined during slow forward flight in both species, during hovering in hummingbirds, and during slow ascents in zebra finches. The EMG bursts of a wing muscle, the pronator superficialis, were highly variable in peak number, size, and distribution across wingbeats for both species. In the pectoralis

  20. Multivariate pattern analysis of MEG and EEG: A comparison of representational structure in time and space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichy, Radoslaw Martin; Pantazis, Dimitrios

    2017-09-01

    Multivariate pattern analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) data can reveal the rapid neural dynamics underlying cognition. However, MEG and EEG have systematic differences in sampling neural activity. This poses the question to which degree such measurement differences consistently bias the results of multivariate analysis applied to MEG and EEG activation patterns. To investigate, we conducted a concurrent MEG/EEG study while participants viewed images of everyday objects. We applied multivariate classification analyses to MEG and EEG data, and compared the resulting time courses to each other, and to fMRI data for an independent evaluation in space. We found that both MEG and EEG revealed the millisecond spatio-temporal dynamics of visual processing with largely equivalent results. Beyond yielding convergent results, we found that MEG and EEG also captured partly unique aspects of visual representations. Those unique components emerged earlier in time for MEG than for EEG. Identifying the sources of those unique components with fMRI, we found the locus for both MEG and EEG in high-level visual cortex, and in addition for MEG in low-level visual cortex. Together, our results show that multivariate analyses of MEG and EEG data offer a convergent and complimentary view on neural processing, and motivate the wider adoption of these methods in both MEG and EEG research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Maxillary and Mandibular First Premolars Showing Three-Cusp Pattern: An Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant Nayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental anatomy is the study of morphology of various teeth in human dentitions. The application of dental anatomy in clinical practice is important, and dentist should have a thorough knowledge regarding the morphology of the teeth. At times as a result of genetic variation, environmental factors, diet of an individual and race, variations in the morphology of the teeth can be observed. These variations have been extensively studied by the researcher in the field of anthropology to define a particular race. The most commonly observed changes include peg-shaped laterals, shovel-shaped incisors, and extra cusp on molar. Common variations documented with regard to maxillary and mandibular first premolars are the variation in the number of roots. But the variations with respect to crown morphology are few. We report a first documented unusual presentation of maxillary and mandibular first premolars with three-cusps pattern in a female patient.

  2. Computational topology and the Unique Games Conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Grochow, Joshua A.; Tucker-Foltz, Jamie

    2018-01-01

    Covering spaces of graphs have long been useful for studying expanders (as "graph lifts") and unique games (as the "label-extended graph"). In this paper we advocate for the thesis that there is a much deeper relationship between computational topology and the Unique Games Conjecture. Our starting point is Linial's 2005 observation that the only known problems whose inapproximability is equivalent to the Unique Games Conjecture - Unique Games and Max-2Lin - are instances of Maximum Section of...

  3. Flexible and efficient genome tiling design with penalized uniqueness score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a powerful tool in whole genome analysis, tiling array has been widely used in the answering of many genomic questions. Now it could also serve as a capture device for the library preparation in the popular high throughput sequencing experiments. Thus, a flexible and efficient tiling array design approach is still needed and could assist in various types and scales of transcriptomic experiment. Results In this paper, we address issues and challenges in designing probes suitable for tiling array applications and targeted sequencing. In particular, we define the penalized uniqueness score, which serves as a controlling criterion to eliminate potential cross-hybridization, and a flexible tiling array design pipeline. Unlike BLAST or simple suffix array based methods, computing and using our uniqueness measurement can be more efficient for large scale design and require less memory. The parameters provided could assist in various types of genomic tiling task. In addition, using both commercial array data and experiment data we show, unlike previously claimed, that palindromic sequence exhibiting relatively lower uniqueness. Conclusions Our proposed penalized uniqueness score could serve as a better indicator for cross hybridization with higher sensitivity and specificity, giving more control of expected array quality. The flexible tiling design algorithm incorporating the penalized uniqueness score was shown to give higher coverage and resolution. The package to calculate the penalized uniqueness score and the described probe selection algorithm are implemented as a Perl program, which is freely available at http://www1.fbn-dummerstorf.de/en/forschung/fbs/fb3/paper/2012-yang-1/OTAD.v1.1.tar.gz.

  4. On uniqueness of an inverse problem in electromagnetic obstacle scattering for an impedance cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Gen; Wang, Haibing; Sleeman, Brian D

    2012-01-01

    We consider an inverse problem for the scattering of an obliquely incident electromagnetic wave by an impedance cylinder. In previous work, we have shown that the direct scattering problem is governed by a pair of Helmholtz equations subject to coupled oblique boundary conditions, where the wave number depends on the frequency and the incident angle with respect to the axis of the cylinder. In this paper, we are concerned with the inverse problem of uniquely identifying the cross-section of an unknown cylinder and the impedance function from the far-field patterns at fixed frequency and a range of incident angles. A uniqueness result for such an inverse scattering problem is established. Our method is based on the analyticity of solution to the direct scattering problem, which is justified by using the Lax–Phillips method together with the perturbation theory of Fredholm operators. (paper)

  5. Pattern recognition with magnonic holographic memory device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozhevnikov, A.; Dudko, G.; Filimonov, Y.; Gertz, F.; Khitun, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present experimental data demonstrating the possibility of using magnonic holographic devices for pattern recognition. The prototype eight-terminal device consists of a magnetic matrix with micro-antennas placed on the periphery of the matrix to excite and detect spin waves. The principle of operation is based on the effect of spin wave interference, which is similar to the operation of optical holographic devices. Input information is encoded in the phases of the spin waves generated on the edges of the magnonic matrix, while the output corresponds to the amplitude of the inductive voltage produced by the interfering spin waves on the other side of the matrix. The level of the output voltage depends on the combination of the input phases as well as on the internal structure of the magnonic matrix. Experimental data collected for several magnonic matrixes show the unique output signatures in which maxima and minima correspond to specific input phase patterns. Potentially, magnonic holographic devices may provide a higher storage density compare to optical counterparts due to a shorter wavelength and compatibility with conventional electronic devices. The challenges and shortcoming of the magnonic holographic devices are also discussed

  6. Amygdala nuclei critical for emotional learning exhibit unique gene expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partin, Alexander C; Hosek, Matthew P; Luong, Jonathan A; Lella, Srihari K; Sharma, Sachein A R; Ploski, Jonathan E

    2013-09-01

    The amygdala is a heterogeneous, medial temporal lobe structure that has been implicated in the formation, expression and extinction of emotional memories. This structure is composed of numerous nuclei that vary in cytoarchitectonics and neural connections. In particular the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), and the basal (B) nucleus contribute an essential role to emotional learning. However, to date it is still unclear to what extent these nuclei differ at the molecular level. Therefore we have performed whole genome gene expression analysis on these nuclei to gain a better understanding of the molecular differences and similarities among these nuclei. Specifically the LA, CeA and B nuclei were laser microdissected from the rat brain, and total RNA was isolated from these nuclei and subjected to RNA amplification. Amplified RNA was analyzed by whole genome microarray analysis which revealed that 129 genes are differentially expressed among these nuclei. Notably gene expression patterns differed between the CeA nucleus and the LA and B nuclei. However gene expression differences were not considerably different between the LA and B nuclei. Secondary confirmation of numerous genes was performed by in situ hybridization to validate the microarray findings, which also revealed that for many genes, expression differences among these nuclei were consistent with the embryological origins of these nuclei. Knowing the stable gene expression differences among these nuclei will provide novel avenues of investigation into how these nuclei contribute to emotional arousal and emotional learning, and potentially offer new genetic targets to manipulate emotional learning and memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Making embedded systems design patterns for great software

    CERN Document Server

    White, Elecia

    2011-01-01

    Interested in developing embedded systems? Since they don't tolerate inefficiency, these systems require a disciplined approach to programming. This easy-to-read guide helps you cultivate a host of good development practices, based on classic software design patterns and new patterns unique to embedded programming. Learn how to build system architecture for processors, not operating systems, and discover specific techniques for dealing with hardware difficulties and manufacturing requirements. Written by an expert who's created embedded systems ranging from urban surveillance and DNA scanner

  8. Uniqueness and numerical methods in inverse obstacle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    The inverse problem we consider in this tutorial is to determine the shape of an obstacle from the knowledge of the far field pattern for scattering of time-harmonic plane waves. In the first part we will concentrate on the issue of uniqueness, i.e., we will investigate under what conditions an obstacle and its boundary condition can be identified from a knowledge of its far field pattern for incident plane waves. We will review some classical and some recent results and draw attention to open problems. In the second part we will survey on numerical methods for solving inverse obstacle scattering problems. Roughly speaking, these methods can be classified into three groups. Iterative methods interpret the inverse obstacle scattering problem as a nonlinear ill-posed operator equation and apply iterative schemes such as regularized Newton methods, Landweber iterations or conjugate gradient methods for its solution. Decomposition methods, in principle, separate the inverse scattering problem into an ill-posed linear problem to reconstruct the scattered wave from its far field and the subsequent determination of the boundary of the scatterer from the boundary condition. Finally, the third group consists of the more recently developed sampling methods. These are based on the numerical evaluation of criteria in terms of indicator functions that decide whether a point lies inside or outside the scatterer. The tutorial will give a survey by describing one or two representatives of each group including a discussion on the various advantages and disadvantages

  9. Heart Failure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Z › Heart Failure › Unique to Older Adults Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Unique ... will suffer from depression at some point. This type of severe depression is more serious than the ...

  10. Logic without unique readability - a study of semantic and syntactic ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    One of the main reasons for introducing a formal language is to remove ambiguity, the possibility of assigning several meanings to a linguistic expression. Typically, this is achieved through ensuring unique readability of formulas by using brackets (or another convention, such as Polish notation...... not hold true universally. Whereas e.g. scope ambiguities in natural languages have been studied extensively, ambiguous formal languages have not been the focus of in depth research. Here, we lift the assumption of unique readability by omitting the brackets from propositional logic, making it possible...... to formally distinguish between syntactic and semantic ambiguity. A valuation then amounts to a semantic disambiguation, and rather than a unique valuation (truth value), there is a set of valuations corresponding to ways a formula could have been constructed. We show what happens to familiar concepts...

  11. Granulomatous slack skin syndrome: Report of a unique case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswari, S Uma; Sampath, V; Ramesh, A

    2018-01-01

    Granulomatous slack skin syndrome is a rare variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides). It is characterized clinically by redundant skin folds, which show a predilection towards flexural areas such as the axilla and the groin. Histologically, it shows a granulomatous T-cell infiltrate and loss of elastic tissue. It has an indolent but progressive course; and is usually refractory to treatment. We report a unique case of slack skin syndrome, sparing the classical sites with rapid and unusual involvement of non-intertriginous areas.

  12. Computational Analysis of G-Quadruplex Forming Sequences across Chromosomes Reveals High Density Patterns Near the Terminal Ends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia H Chariker

    Full Text Available G-quadruplex structures (G4 are found throughout the human genome and are known to play a regulatory role in a variety of molecular processes. Structurally, they have many configurations and can form from one or more DNA strands. At the gene level, they regulate gene expression and protein synthesis. In this paper, chromosomal-level patterns of distribution are analyzed on the human genome to identify high-level distribution patterns potentially related to global functional processes. Here we show unique high density banding patterns on individual chromosomes that are highly correlated, appearing in a mirror pattern, across forward and reverse DNA strands. The highest density of G4 sequences occurs within four megabases of one end of most chromosomes and contains G4 motifs that bind with zinc finger proteins. These findings suggest that G4 may play a role in global chromosomal processes such as those found in meiosis.

  13. Unique properties of Drosophila spermatocyte primary cilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giovanna Riparbelli

    2013-09-01

    The primary cilium is an essential organelle required for animal development and adult homeostasis that is found on most animal cells. The primary cilium contains a microtubule-based axoneme cytoskeleton that typically grows from the mother centriole in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle as a membrane-bound compartment that protrudes from the cell surface. A unique system of bidirectional transport, intraflagellar transport (IFT, maintains the structure and function of cilia. While the axoneme is dynamic, growing and shrinking at its tip, at the same time it is very stable to the effects of microtubule-targeting drugs. The primary cilia found on Drosophila spermatocytes diverge from the general rules of primary cilium biology in several respects. Among these unique attributes, spermatocyte cilia assemble from all four centrioles in an IFT-independent manner in G2 phase, and persist continuously through two cell divisions. Here, we show that Drosophila spermatocyte primary cilia are extremely sensitive to microtubule-targeting drugs, unlike their mammalian counterparts. Spermatocyte cilia and their axonemes fail to assemble or be maintained upon nocodazole treatment, while centriole replication appears unperturbed. On the other hand, paclitaxel (Taxol, a microtubule-stabilizing drug, disrupted transition zone assembly and anchoring to the plasma membrane while causing spermatocyte primary cilia to grow extensively long during the assembly/elongation phase, but did not overtly affect the centrioles. However, once assembled to their mature length, spermatocyte cilia appeared unaffected by Taxol. The effects of these drugs on axoneme dynamics further demonstrate that spermatocyte primary cilia are endowed with unique assembly properties.

  14. The One or the Many: Quantified Subjectivity and Aggregated Uniqueness in Qualitative Rehabilitation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juritzen, Truls I; Soberg, Helene L; Røe, Cecilie; Saebu, Martin; Engen, Grace; Bliksvaer, Trond; Engebretsen, Eivind

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to identify and critically assess qualitative intervention studies of rehabilitation processes that target young adults. By applying a meta-epistemological approach inspired by the works of Michel Foucault and Julia Kristeva, we examine how the included studies present qualitative knowledge and whether they adhere to their own stated principles of qualitative knowledge. Through their stated aims and theoretical framing, the articles draw attention to individual processes of meaning making. Nonetheless, we find that the articles to a great extent emphasize frequencies of the qualitative data they present. Individual processes and experiences are subject to subdivisions and categorization and transformed into manageable objects of knowledge. In conclusion, these studies, with one important exception, contribute to self-marginalization of the knowledge they themselves promote: They undermine the uniqueness of the qualitative knowledge they proclaim by focusing on frequency and the general patterns and categories encompassing the unique. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Unique supply function equilibrium with capacity constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, Paer

    2008-01-01

    Consider a market where producers submit supply functions to a procurement auction with uncertain demand, e.g. an electricity auction. In the Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE), every firm commits to the supply function that maximises expected profit in the one-shot game given the supply functions of competitors. A basic weakness of the SFE is the presence of multiple equilibria. This paper shows that with (i) symmetric producers, (ii) perfectly inelastic demand, (iii) a price cap, and (iv) capacity constraints that bind with a positive probability, there exists a unique, symmetric SFE. (author)

  16. Comparative developmental psychology: how is human cognitive development unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Wobber, Victoria; Hughes, Kelly; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-04-29

    The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In the current article, we review recent work using this comparative developmental approach to study non-human primate cognition. We argue that comparative data on the pace and pattern of cognitive development across species can address major theoretical questions in both psychology and biology. In particular, such integrative research will allow stronger biological inferences about the function of developmental change, and will be critical in addressing how humans come to acquire species-unique cognitive abilities.

  17. A high quality finger vascular pattern dataset collected using a custom designed capturing device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ton, B.T.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2013-01-01

    The number of finger vascular pattern datasets available for the research community is scarce, therefore a new finger vascular pattern dataset containing 1440 images is prsented. This dataset is unique in its kind as the images are of high resolution and have a known pixel density. Furthermore this

  18. The unique karyotype of Henochilus wheatlandii, a critically endangered fish living in a fast-developing region in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla C Silva

    Full Text Available Henochilus wheatlandii, the only species of this genus, is critically endangered and was considered extinct for over a century. The rediscovery of this fish in 1996 made it possible to study its phylogenetic relationships with other species in the subfamily Bryconinae. The aim of this study was to characterise the karyotype of H. wheatlandii. Standard staining, C-positive heterochromatin and nucleolar organiser region (NOR banding, chromomycin A(3 staining, and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH using 5S rDNA and 18S rDNA probes were conducted on nineteen specimens collected in the Santo Antonio River, a sub-basin of the Doce River in Ferros municipality, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Henochilus wheatlandii shared the same diploid number and chromosome morphology as other species of Bryconinae. However, its heterochromatin distribution patterns, NOR localisation, and FISH patterns revealed a cytogenetic profile unique among Neotropical Bryconinae, emphasizing the evolutionary uniqueness of this threatened species.

  19. Hierarchical ultrathin alumina membrane for the fabrication of unique nanodot arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuyang; Wang, Yi; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Xinnan; Cong, Ming; Xu, Weiqing; Xu, Shuping

    2016-01-01

    Ultrathin alumina membranes (UTAMs) as evaporation masks have been a powerful tool for the fabrication of high-density nanodot arrays and have received much attention in magnetic memory devices, photovoltaics, and nanoplasmonics. In this paper, we report the fabrication of a hierarchical ultrathin alumina membrane (HUTAM) with highly ordered submicro/nanoscale channels and its application as an evaporation mask for the realization of unique non-hexagonal nanodot arrays dependent on the geometrical features of the HUTAM. This is the first report of a UTAM with a hierarchical geometry, breaking the stereotype that only limited sets of nanopatterns can be realized using the UTAM method (with typical inter-pore distance of 100 nm). The fabrication of a HUTAM is discussed in detail. An improved, longer wet etching time than previously reported is found to effectively remove the barrier layer and widen the pores of a HUTAM. A growth sustainability issue brought about by pre-patterning is discussed. Spectral comparison was made to distinguish the UTAM nanodots and HUTAM nanodots. Our results can be an inspiration for more sophisticated applications of pre-patterned anodized aluminum oxide in photocatalysis, photovoltaics, and nanoplasmonics. (paper)

  20. Identification of dietary patterns in urban population of Argentina: study on diet-obesity relation in population-based prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pou, Sonia Alejandra; Del Pilar Díaz, María; De La Quintana, Ana Gabriela; Forte, Carla Antonella; Aballay, Laura Rosana

    2016-12-01

    In Argentina, obesity prevalence rose from 14.6% in 2005 to 20.8% in 2013. Although the number of studies on noncommunicable diseases and dietary patterns as a unique dietary exposure measure has increased, information on this topic remains scarce in developing countries. This is the first population-based study investigating the association between diet and obesity using a dietary pattern approach in Argentina. We aimed (a) to identify current dietary patterns of the population of Córdoba city, (b) to investigate its association with obesity prevalence, and (c) to identify and describe dietary patterns from the subgroup of people with obesity. The Córdoba Obesity and Diet Study (CODIES) was conducted in Córdoba city by using a random sample of n = 4,327 subjects between 2005 and 2012. Empirically derived dietary patterns were identified through principal component factor analysis. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of dietary patterns with obesity. Four dietary patterns were identified, called " Starchy-Sugar ", " Prudent ", " Western ", and " Sugary drinks ". High scores for the " Western " pattern (with strongest factor loading on meats/eggs, processed meats, and alcohol) showed a positive association with obesity (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.06-1.67, for third versus first tertile of factor score). " Meats/Cheeses " and " Snacks/Alcohol " patterns emerged in people with obesity. The findings suggest that high adherence to the " Western " pattern promoted obesity in this urban population. In addition, people with obesity showed characteristic dietary patterns that differ from those identified in the overall population.

  1. Uniqueness of a pre-generator for $C_0$-semigroup on a general locally convex vector space

    OpenAIRE

    Lemle, Ludovic Dan; Wu, Liming

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose is to generalize a theorem of Arendt about uniqueness of $C_0$-semigroups from Banach space setting to the general locally convex vector spaces, more precisely, we show that cores are the only domains of uniqueness for $C_0$-semigroups on locally convex spaces. As an application, we find a necessary and sufficient condition for that the mass transport equation has one unique $L^1(\\R^d,dx)$ weak solution.

  2. Unique mitochondrial localization of arginase 1 and 2 in hepatocytes of air-breathing walking catfish, Clarias batrachus and their differential expression patterns under hyper-ammonia stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Bodhisattwa; Koner, Debaprasad; Lal, Priyanka; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2017-07-30

    Arginase (ARG) catalyzes the final step of ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) leading to a conversion of L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. Several isoforms of ARG have been reported in vertebrates, out of which the two predominant isoforms are the cytosolic ARG1 and the mitochondrial ARG2. The air-breathing walking catfish (Clarias batrachus) is frequently being challenged by different environmental insults such as hyper-ammonia, dehydration and osmotic stresses in their natural habitats throughout the year. The present study investigated the active presence of ARG1 and ARG2 isoforms in hepatocytes along with unique localization of both the isoforms inside the mitochondria, and also their specific expression patterns under hyper-ammonia stress (5mM NH 4 Cl) in isolated hepatocytes of walking catfish. Initially, full length sequences of both arg1 and arg2 genes were obtained by RACE-PCR. Studies on molecular characterization demonstrated the presence of all the conserved amino acids required for stability and activity of binuclear metal center in both the isoforms. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of ARG isoforms showed a differentiation of the ARG1 and ARG2 into two distinct clusters with their respective isoforms from other species. Most interestingly, both the isoforms of ARG in hepatocytes were found to be localized inside the mitochondria as evidenced by the presence of mitochondrial target peptide (mTP) in N-terminal of the derived amino acid sequences, and exclusive localization of ARG activity in the mitochondrial fraction. This was additionally confirmed by Western blot analysis of ARGs in mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions, and by immunocytochemical analysis in isolated hepatocytes. Although the possible reasons associated with the presence of both the isoforms of ARGs inside the mitochondria is not clearly understood, perhaps this mitochondrial localization of ARG is functionally advantageous in this catfish for the synthesis of N

  3. Giant cell tumor with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst shows heterogeneous metabolic pattern on {sup 18}F-FDG PET.CT: A case reort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Jeong; Kwon, Seong Young; Yoon, Yeon Hong [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Huasun (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sang Geon; Kim, Jahae; Song, Ho Chun; Kim, Sung Sun; Park, Jin Gyoon [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) is a generally benign bone tumor accounting for approximately 5 % of all primary bone neoplasms. Cystic components in GCTs that indicate secondary aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are reported in 14 % of GCTs. Although both of them have been described separately in previous reports that may show considerable fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake despite their benign nature, the findings of GCT with secondary ABC on 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) have not been well-known. We report a case of GCT with secondary ABC in a 26-year-old woman. 18F-FDG PET/CT revealed a heterogeneous hypermetabolic lesion in the left proximal femur with the maximum standardized uptake value of 4.7. The solid components of the tumor showed higher FDG uptake than the cystic components. These observations suggest that the ABC components in GCTs show heterogeneous metabolic patterns on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT.

  4. Giant cell tumor with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst shows heterogeneous metabolic pattern on "1"8F-FDG PET.CT: A case reort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Jeong; Kwon, Seong Young; Yoon, Yeon Hong; Cho, Sang Geon; Kim, Jahae; Song, Ho Chun; Kim, Sung Sun; Park, Jin Gyoon

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) is a generally benign bone tumor accounting for approximately 5 % of all primary bone neoplasms. Cystic components in GCTs that indicate secondary aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are reported in 14 % of GCTs. Although both of them have been described separately in previous reports that may show considerable fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake despite their benign nature, the findings of GCT with secondary ABC on 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) have not been well-known. We report a case of GCT with secondary ABC in a 26-year-old woman. 18F-FDG PET/CT revealed a heterogeneous hypermetabolic lesion in the left proximal femur with the maximum standardized uptake value of 4.7. The solid components of the tumor showed higher FDG uptake than the cystic components. These observations suggest that the ABC components in GCTs show heterogeneous metabolic patterns on "1"8F-FDG PET/CT

  5. Uniqueness of time-independent electromagnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.

    1974-01-01

    As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics......As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics...

  6. Changes in unique hues induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Susanne; Wachtler, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    A chromatic surround can have a strong influence on the perceived hue of a stimulus. We investigated whether chromatic induction has similar effects on the perception of colors that appear pure and unmixed (unique red, green, blue, and yellow) as on other colors. Subjects performed unique hue settings of stimuli in isoluminant surrounds of different chromaticities. Compared with the settings in a neutral gray surround, unique hue settings altered systematically with chromatic surrounds. The amount of induced hue shift depended on the difference between stimulus and surround hues, and was similar for unique hue settings as for settings of nonunique hues. Intraindividual variability in unique hue settings was roughly twice as high as for settings obtained in asymmetric matching experiments, which may reflect the presence of a reference stimulus in the matching task. Variabilities were also larger with chromatic surrounds than with neutral gray surrounds, for both unique hue settings and matching of nonunique hues. The results suggest that the neural representations underlying unique hue percepts are influenced by the same neural processing mechanisms as the percepts of other colors.

  7. Unique Temporal Expression of Triplicated Long-Wavelength Opsins in Developing Butterfly Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Arikawa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Following gene duplication events, the expression patterns of the resulting gene copies can often diverge both spatially and temporally. Here we report on gene duplicates that are expressed in distinct but overlapping patterns, and which exhibit temporally divergent expression. Butterflies have sophisticated color vision and spectrally complex eyes, typically with three types of heterogeneous ommatidia. The eyes of the butterfly Papilio xuthus express two green- and one red-absorbing visual pigment, which came about via gene duplication events, in addition to one ultraviolet (UV- and one blue-absorbing visual pigment. We localized mRNAs encoding opsins of these visual pigments in developing eye disks throughout the pupal stage. The mRNAs of the UV and blue opsin are expressed early in pupal development (pd, specifying the type of the ommatidium in which they appear. Red sensitive photoreceptors first express a green opsin mRNA, which is replaced later by the red opsin mRNA. Broadband photoreceptors (that coexpress the green and red opsins first express the green opsin mRNA, later change to red opsin mRNA and finally re-express the green opsin mRNA in addition to the red mRNA. Such a unique temporal and spatial expression pattern of opsin mRNAs may reflect the evolution of visual pigments and provide clues toward understanding how the spectrally complex eyes of butterflies evolved.

  8. Pattern analysis of directed graphs using DEDICOM: an application to Enron email.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Brett William; Harshman, Richard A. (University of Western Ontario London, Ontario, Canada); Kolda, Tamara Gibson (Sandia National Labs, Livermore, CA)

    2006-12-01

    DEDICOM is a linear algebra model for analyzing intrinsically asymmetric relationships, such as trade among nations or the exchange of emails among individuals. DEDICOM decomposes a complex pattern of observed relations among objects into a sum of simpler patterns of inferred relations among latent components of the objects. Three-way DEDICOM is a higher-order extension of the model that incorporates a third mode of the data, such as time, giving it stronger uniqueness properties and consequently enhancing interpretability of solutions. In this paper, we present algorithms for computing these decompositions on large, sparse data as well as a variant for computing an asymmetric nonnegative factorization. When we apply these techniques to adjacency arrays arising from directed graphs with edges labeled by time, we obtain a smaller graph on latent semantic dimensions and gain additional information about their changing relationships over time. We demonstrate these techniques on the Enron email corpus to learn about the social networks and their transient behavior. The mixture of roles assigned to individuals by DEDICOM showed strong correspondence with known job classifications and revealed the patterns of communication between these roles. Changes in the communication pattern over time, e.g., between top executives and the legal department, were also apparent in the solutions.

  9. Is Life Unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Is life physicochemically unique? No. Is life unique? Yes. Life manifests innumerable formalisms that cannot be generated or explained by physicodynamics alone. Life pursues thousands of biofunctional goals, not the least of which is staying alive. Neither physicodynamics, nor evolution, pursue goals. Life is largely directed by linear digital programming and by the Prescriptive Information (PI) instantiated particularly into physicodynamically indeterminate nucleotide sequencing. Epigenomic controls only compound the sophistication of these formalisms. Life employs representationalism through the use of symbol systems. Life manifests autonomy, homeostasis far from equilibrium in the harshest of environments, positive and negative feedback mechanisms, prevention and correction of its own errors, and organization of its components into Sustained Functional Systems (SFS). Chance and necessity—heat agitation and the cause-and-effect determinism of nature’s orderliness—cannot spawn formalisms such as mathematics, language, symbol systems, coding, decoding, logic, organization (not to be confused with mere self-ordering), integration of circuits, computational success, and the pursuit of functionality. All of these characteristics of life are formal, not physical. PMID:25382119

  10. The liberal illusion of uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Chadly; West, Tessa V; Schmitt, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    In two studies, we demonstrated that liberals underestimate their similarity to other liberals (i.e., display truly false uniqueness), whereas moderates and conservatives overestimate their similarity to other moderates and conservatives (i.e., display truly false consensus; Studies 1 and 2). We further demonstrated that a fundamental difference between liberals and conservatives in the motivation to feel unique explains this ideological distinction in the accuracy of estimating similarity (Study 2). Implications of the accuracy of consensus estimates for mobilizing liberal and conservative political movements are discussed.

  11. Brain activity patterns uniquely supporting visual feature integration after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali eRaja Beharelle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI patients typically respond more slowly and with more variability than controls during tasks of attention requiring speeded reaction time. These behavioral changes are attributable, at least in part, to diffuse axonal injury (DAI, which affects integrated processing in distributed systems. Here we use a multivariate method sensitive to distributed neural activity to compare brain activity patterns of patients with chronic phase moderate-to-severe TBI to those of controls during performance on a visual feature-integration task assessing complex attentional processes that has previously shown sensitivity to TBI. The TBI patients were carefully screened to be free of large focal lesions that can affect performance and brain activation independently of DAI. The task required subjects to hold either one or three features of a target in mind while suppressing responses to distracting information. In controls, the multi-feature condition activated a distributed network including limbic, prefrontal, and medial temporal structures. TBI patients engaged this same network in the single-feature and baseline conditions. In multi-feature presentations, TBI patients alone activated additional frontal, parietal, and occipital regions. These results are consistent with neuroimaging studies using tasks assessing different cognitive domains, where increased spread of brain activity changes was associated with TBI. Our results also extend previous findings that brain activity for relatively moderate task demands in TBI patients is similar to that associated with of high task demands in controls.

  12. A small set of succinct signature patterns distinguishes Chinese and non-Chinese HIV-1 genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of HIV-1 in China has unique features that may have led to unique viral strains. We therefore tested the hypothesis that it is possible to find distinctive patterns in HIV-1 genomes sampled in China. Using a rule inference algorithm we could indeed extract from sequences of the third variable loop (V3 of HIV-1 gp120 a set of 14 signature patterns that with 89% accuracy distinguished Chinese from non-Chinese sequences. These patterns were found to be specific to HIV-1 subtype, i.e. sequences complying with pattern 1 were of subtype B, pattern 2 almost exclusively covered sequences of subtype 01_AE, etc. We then analyzed the first of these signature patterns in depth, namely that L and W at two V3 positions are specifically occurring in Chinese sequences of subtype B/B' (3% false positives. This pattern was found to be in agreement with the phylogeny of HIV-1 of subtype B inside and outside of China. We could neither reject nor convincingly confirm that the pattern is stabilized by immune escape. For further interpretation of the signature pattern we used the recently developed measure of Direct Information, and in this way discovered evidence for physical interactions between V2 and V3. We conclude by a discussion of limitations of signature patterns, and the applicability of the approach to other genomic regions and other countries.

  13. Pattern of human chorionic gonadotropin binding in the polycystic ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brawer, J.; Richard, M.; Farookhi, R.

    1989-01-01

    The histologic evolution of polycystic ovaries in the estradiol valerate-treated rat coincides with the development of a unique plasma pattern of luteinizing hormone. To assess the role of luteinizing hormone in polycystic ovaries, it is necessary to evaluate the luteinizing hormone sensitivity of the specific tissues in the polycystic ovary. Therefore, we examined the pattern of luteinizing hormone binding sites in polycystic ovaries. Rats at 4 or 8 weeks after estradiol valerate treatment each received an intrajugular injection of iodine 125-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin. Some rats also received a 1000-fold excess of unlabeled human chorionic gonadotropin in the same injection. Ovaries were prepared for autoradiography. Dense accumulations of grains occurred over the theca of normal and atretic secondary follicles in all ovaries and over clusters of secondary interstitial cells. The iodine label was variable over the typically hypertrophied theca of precystic follicles. The theca of definitive cysts showed little or no label. These results indicate that cyst formation coincides with the loss of luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin binding to the affected follicles

  14. Pattern of human chorionic gonadotropin binding in the polycystic ovary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brawer, J.; Richard, M.; Farookhi, R. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1989-08-01

    The histologic evolution of polycystic ovaries in the estradiol valerate-treated rat coincides with the development of a unique plasma pattern of luteinizing hormone. To assess the role of luteinizing hormone in polycystic ovaries, it is necessary to evaluate the luteinizing hormone sensitivity of the specific tissues in the polycystic ovary. Therefore, we examined the pattern of luteinizing hormone binding sites in polycystic ovaries. Rats at 4 or 8 weeks after estradiol valerate treatment each received an intrajugular injection of iodine 125-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin. Some rats also received a 1000-fold excess of unlabeled human chorionic gonadotropin in the same injection. Ovaries were prepared for autoradiography. Dense accumulations of grains occurred over the theca of normal and atretic secondary follicles in all ovaries and over clusters of secondary interstitial cells. The iodine label was variable over the typically hypertrophied theca of precystic follicles. The theca of definitive cysts showed little or no label. These results indicate that cyst formation coincides with the loss of luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin binding to the affected follicles.

  15. Amygdala subnuclei connectivity in response to violence reveals unique influences of individual differences in psychopathic traits in a nonforensic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Keith J; Porges, Eric C; Decety, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Atypical amygdala function and connectivity have reliably been associated with psychopathy. However, the amygdala is not a unitary structure. To examine how psychopathic traits in a nonforensic sample are linked to amygdala response to violence, this study used probabilistic tractography to classify amygdala subnuclei based on anatomical projections to and from amygdala subnuclei in a group of 43 male participants. The segmentation identified the basolateral complex (BLA; lateral, basal, and accessory basal subnuclei) and the central subnucleus (CE), which were used as seeds in a functional connectivity analysis to identify differences in neuronal coupling specific to observed violence. While a full amygdala seed showed significant connectivity only to right middle occipital gyrus, subnuclei seeds revealed unique connectivity patterns. BLA showed enhanced coupling with anterior cingulate and prefrontal regions, while CE showed increased connectivity with the brainstem, but reduced connectivity with superior parietal and precentral gyrus. Further, psychopathic personality factors were related to specific patterns of connectivity. Fearless Dominance scores on the psychopathic personality inventory predicted increased coupling between the BLA seed and sensory integration cortices, and increased connectivity between the CE seed and posterior insula. Conversely, Self-Centered Impulsivity scores were negatively correlated with coupling between BLA and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and Coldheartedness scores predicted increased functional connectivity between BLA and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Taken together, these findings demonstrate how subnuclei segmentations reveal important functional connectivity differences that are otherwise inaccessible. Such an approach yields a better understanding of amygdala dysfunction in psychopathy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Study on the traditional pattern retrieval method of minorities in Gansu province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gang; Wang, Beizhan; Sun, Yuchun; Xu, Jin

    2018-03-01

    The traditional patterns of ethnic minorities in gansu province are ethnic arts with strong ethnic characteristics. It is the crystallization of the hard work and wisdom of minority nationalities in gansu province. Unique traditional patterns of ethnic minorities in Gansu province with rich ethnic folk arts, is the crystallization of geographical environment in Gansu minority diligence and wisdom. By using the Surf feature point identification algorithm, the feature point extractor in OpenCV is used to extract the feature points. And the feature points are applied to compare the pattern features to find patterns similar to the artistic features. The application of this method can quickly or efficiently extract pattern information in a database.

  17. [Reactance proneness, collectivism, uniqueness, and resistance to persuasion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imajo, Shuzo

    2002-10-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of Japanese psychological reactance scales. A total of 167 undergraduates completed a questionnaire of Therapeutic Reactance Scale (TRS), the Hong Reactance Scale (HRS), the Uniqueness Scale, and the Collectivism Scale. They also received messages involving three persuasion situations that were either high or low in terms of threat, and were asked to describe their reactions to them. The author categorized the reactions into three: acceptance, indirect resistance, and direct resistance. Reliabilities of the reactance scales were satisfactory. Their scores positively correlated with uniqueness scores, and negatively with collectivism scores. Those high on reactance proneness were less persuaded in two of the three situations. But in the third, an HRS by threat interaction was observed, indicating that only those who were high on reactance proneness under the high-threat condition showed resistance to persuasion. These results suggest that the Japanese versions of reactance scale were reliable and valid. However, the assertiveness aspect of TRS may not be appropriate for the definition of reactance. The influence of culture on psychological reactance was also discussed.

  18. Chemically Patterned Inverse Opal Created by a Selective Photolysis Modification Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Gao, Ning; Gu, Chen; Li, Jian; Wang, Hui; Lan, Yue; Yin, Xianpeng; Li, Guangtao

    2015-09-02

    Anisotropic photonic crystal materials have long been pursued for their broad applications. A novel method for creating chemically patterned inverse opals is proposed here. The patterning technique is based on selective photolysis of a photolabile polymer together with postmodification on released amine groups. The patterning method allows regioselective modification within an inverse opal structure, taking advantage of selective chemical reaction. Moreover, combined with the unique signal self-reporting feature of the photonic crystal, the fabricated structure is capable of various applications, including gradient photonic bandgap and dynamic chemical patterns. The proposed method provides the ability to extend the structural and chemical complexity of the photonic crystal, as well as its potential applications.

  19. Spatiotemporal patterns and predictability of cyberattacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Zhong Chen

    Full Text Available A relatively unexplored issue in cybersecurity science and engineering is whether there exist intrinsic patterns of cyberattacks. Conventional wisdom favors absence of such patterns due to the overwhelming complexity of the modern cyberspace. Surprisingly, through a detailed analysis of an extensive data set that records the time-dependent frequencies of attacks over a relatively wide range of consecutive IP addresses, we successfully uncover intrinsic spatiotemporal patterns underlying cyberattacks, where the term "spatio" refers to the IP address space. In particular, we focus on analyzing macroscopic properties of the attack traffic flows and identify two main patterns with distinct spatiotemporal characteristics: deterministic and stochastic. Strikingly, there are very few sets of major attackers committing almost all the attacks, since their attack "fingerprints" and target selection scheme can be unequivocally identified according to the very limited number of unique spatiotemporal characteristics, each of which only exists on a consecutive IP region and differs significantly from the others. We utilize a number of quantitative measures, including the flux-fluctuation law, the Markov state transition probability matrix, and predictability measures, to characterize the attack patterns in a comprehensive manner. A general finding is that the attack patterns possess high degrees of predictability, potentially paving the way to anticipating and, consequently, mitigating or even preventing large-scale cyberattacks using macroscopic approaches.

  20. Swimming performance and unique wake topology of the sea hare (Aplysia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuoyu; Mittal, Rajat

    2018-03-01

    The Aplysia, commonly referred to as the "sea hare," is a marine mollusc that swims using large-amplitude flapping of its wide, winglike parapodia. In this study, flow simulations with a relatively simple kinematical model are used to gain insights into the vortex dynamics, thrust generation, and energetics of locomotion for this animal. A unique vortex pattern characterized by three distinct trains of vortex ringlike structures is observed in the wake of this animal. These vortex rings are associated with a positive momentum flux in the wake that counteracts the drag generated by the body. Simulations indicate propulsive efficiencies of up to 24% and terminal swimming speeds of about 0.9 body length per cycle. Swimming speeds are found to increase with increasing parapodial flapping amplitude as well as wavelength of undulation.

  1. Geometric perspective on singularity resolution and uniqueness in loop quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Singh, Parampreet

    2009-01-01

    We reexamine the issue of singularity resolution in homogeneous loop quantum cosmology from the perspective of geometrical entities such as expansion rate and the shear scalar. These quantities are very reliable measures of the properties of spacetime and can be defined not only at the classical and effective level, but also at an operator level in the quantum theory. From their behavior in the effective constraint surface and in the effective loop quantum spacetime, we show that one can severely restrict the ambiguities in regularization of the quantum constraint and rule out unphysical choices. We analyze this in the flat isotropic model and the Bianchi-I spacetimes. In the former case we show that the expansion rate is absolutely bounded only for the so-called improved quantization, a result which synergizes with uniqueness of this quantization as proved earlier. Surprisingly, for the Bianchi-I spacetime, we show that out of the available choices, the expansion rate and shear are bounded for only one regularization of the quantum constraint. It turns out that only for this choice, the theory exhibits quantum gravity corrections at a unique scale, and is physically viable.

  2. On Selected Phonological Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Nozomi; Kozak, Viola

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on two selected phonological patterns that appear unique to Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL). For both sections of this paper, the overall methodology is the same as that discussed in Stephen and Mathur (this volume), with some additional modifications tailored to the specific studies discussed here, which will be expanded…

  3. Tattoos and piercings: bodily expressions of uniqueness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Hopkins, Louise A

    2011-06-01

    The study aimed to investigate the motivations underlying the body modification practices of tattooing and piercing. There were 80 participants recruited from an Australian music store, who provided descriptions of their tattoos and piercings and completed measures of need for uniqueness, appearance investment and distinctive appearance investment. It was found that tattooed individuals scored significantly higher on need for uniqueness than non-tattooed individuals. Further, individuals with conventional ear piercings scored significantly lower on need for uniqueness than individuals with no piercings or with facial and body piercings. Neither appearance investment nor distinctive appearance investment differed significantly among tattoo or piercing status groups. Strength of identification with music was significantly correlated with number of tattoos, but not number of piercings. It was concluded that tattooing, but not body piercing, represents a bodily expression of uniqueness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cone photoreceptor sensitivities and unique hue chromatic responses: correlation and causation imply the physiological basis of unique hues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Ralph W

    2013-01-01

    This paper relates major functions at the start and end of the color vision process. The process starts with three cone photoreceptors transducing light into electrical responses. Cone sensitivities were once expected to be Red Green Blue color matching functions (to mix colors) but microspectrometry proved otherwise: they instead peak in yellowish, greenish, and blueish hues. These physiological functions are an enigma, unmatched with any set of psychophysical (behavioral) functions. The end-result of the visual process is color sensation, whose essential percepts are unique (or pure) hues red, yellow, green, blue. Unique hues cannot be described by other hues, but can describe all other hues, e.g., that hue is reddish-blue. They are carried by four opponent chromatic response curves but the literature does not specify whether each curve represents a range of hues or only one hue (a unique) over its wavelength range. Here the latter is demonstrated, confirming that opponent chromatic responses define, and may be termed, unique hue chromatic responses. These psychophysical functions also are an enigma, unmatched with any physiological functions or basis. Here both enigmas are solved by demonstrating the three cone sensitivity curves and the three spectral chromatic response curves are almost identical sets (Pearson correlation coefficients r from 0.95-1.0) in peak wavelengths, curve shapes, math functions, and curve crossover wavelengths, though previously unrecognized due to presentation of curves in different formats, e.g., log, linear. (Red chromatic response curve is largely nonspectral and thus derives from two cones.) Close correlation combined with deterministic causation implies cones are the physiological basis of unique hues. This match of three physiological and three psychophysical functions is unique in color vision.

  5. Questions of uniqueness and resolution in reconstruction from projections

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Myron Bernard

    1978-01-01

    Reconstruction from projections has revolutionized radiology and as now become one of the most important tools of medical diagnosi- he E. M. I. Scanner is one example. In this text, some fundamental heoretical and practical questions are resolved. Despite recent research activity in the area, the crucial subject ·f the uniqueness of the reconstruction and the effect of noise in the ata posed some unsettled fundamental questions. In particular, Kennan mith proved that if we describe an object by a C~ function, i. e. , nfinitely differentiable with compact support, then there are other bjects with the same shape, i. e. , support, which can differ almost rhitrarily and still have the same projections in finitely many direc­ ions. On the other hand, he proved that objects in finite dimensional unction spaces are uniquely determined by a single projection for almost 11 angles, i. e. , except on a set of measure zero. Along these lines, erman and Rowland in [41) showed that reconstructions obtained from he common...

  6. Unique in the shopping mall: On the reidentifiability of credit card metadata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Radaelli, Laura; Singh, Vivek Kumar

    2015-01-01

    . We study 3 months of credit card records for 1.1 million people and show that four spatiotemporal points are enough to uniquely reidentify 90% of individuals. We show that knowing the price of a transaction increases the risk of reidentification by 22%, on average. Finally, we show that even data...... sets that provide coarse information at any or all of the dimensions provide little anonymity and that women are more reidentifiable than men in credit card metadata....

  7. Uniqueness conditions for finitely dependent random fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrushin, R.L.; Pecherski, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    The authors consider a random field for which uniqueness and some additional conditions guaranteeing that the correlations between the variables of the field decrease rapidly enough with the distance between the values of the parameter occur. The main result of the paper states that in such a case uniqueness is true for any other field with transition probabilities sufficiently close to those of the original field. Then they apply this result to some ''degenerate'' classes of random fields for which one can check this condition of correlation to decay, and thus obtain some new conditions of uniqueness. (Auth.)

  8. Cone photoreceptor sensitivities and unique hue chromatic responses: correlation and causation imply the physiological basis of unique hues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph W Pridmore

    Full Text Available This paper relates major functions at the start and end of the color vision process. The process starts with three cone photoreceptors transducing light into electrical responses. Cone sensitivities were once expected to be Red Green Blue color matching functions (to mix colors but microspectrometry proved otherwise: they instead peak in yellowish, greenish, and blueish hues. These physiological functions are an enigma, unmatched with any set of psychophysical (behavioral functions. The end-result of the visual process is color sensation, whose essential percepts are unique (or pure hues red, yellow, green, blue. Unique hues cannot be described by other hues, but can describe all other hues, e.g., that hue is reddish-blue. They are carried by four opponent chromatic response curves but the literature does not specify whether each curve represents a range of hues or only one hue (a unique over its wavelength range. Here the latter is demonstrated, confirming that opponent chromatic responses define, and may be termed, unique hue chromatic responses. These psychophysical functions also are an enigma, unmatched with any physiological functions or basis. Here both enigmas are solved by demonstrating the three cone sensitivity curves and the three spectral chromatic response curves are almost identical sets (Pearson correlation coefficients r from 0.95-1.0 in peak wavelengths, curve shapes, math functions, and curve crossover wavelengths, though previously unrecognized due to presentation of curves in different formats, e.g., log, linear. (Red chromatic response curve is largely nonspectral and thus derives from two cones. Close correlation combined with deterministic causation implies cones are the physiological basis of unique hues. This match of three physiological and three psychophysical functions is unique in color vision.

  9. Bilinear common spatial pattern for single-trial ERP-based rapid serial visual presentation triage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K.; Shen, K.; Shao, S.; Ng, W. C.; Li, X.

    2012-08-01

    Common spatial pattern (CSP) analysis is a useful tool for the feature extraction of event-related potentials (ERP). However, CSP is essentially time invariant, and thus unable to exploit the temporal information of ERP. This paper proposes a variant of CSP, namely bilinear common spatial pattern (BCSP), which is capable of accommodating both spatial and temporal information. BCSP generalizes CSP through iteratively optimizing bilinear filters. These bilinear filters constitute a spatio-temporal subspace in which the separation between two conditions is maximized. The method is unique in the sense that it is mathematically intuitive and simple, as all the bilinear filters are obtained by maximizing the power ratio as CSP does. The proposed method was evaluated on 20 subjects’ ERP data collected in rapid serial visual presentation triage experiments. The results show that BCSP achieved significantly higher average test accuracy (12.3% higher, p < 0.001).

  10. Cognitive Patterns of Learning Disability Subtypes as Measured by the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Michael J.

    1986-01-01

    The cognitive patterns of three learning disability subtypes were studied: (1) students with higher math than reading skills, (2) students with higher reading than math skills, and (3) students with equally low math and reading skills. Results indicated that although the three groups were characterized by a number of discrete or unique patterns,…

  11. Chromophobe hepatocellular carcinoma with abrupt anaplasia: a proposal for a new subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma with unique morphological and molecular features

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Laura D; Heaphy, Christopher M; Daniel, Hubert Darius-J; Naini, Bita V; Lassman, Charles R; Arroyo, May R; Kamel, Ihab R; Cosgrove, David P; Boitnott, John K; Meeker, Alan K; Torbenson, Michael S

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinomas exhibit heterogeneous morphologies by routine light microscopy. Although some morphologies represent insignificant variations in growth patterns, others may represent unrecognized subtypes of hepatocellular carcinoma. Identification of these subtypes could lead to separation of hepatocellular carcinomas into discrete groups with unique underlying genetic changes, prognosis, or therapeutic responses. In order to identify potential subtypes, two pathologists independen...

  12. Genome-wide analysis of the sox family in the calcareous sponge Sycon ciliatum: multiple genes with unique expression patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortunato Sofia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sox genes are HMG-domain containing transcription factors with important roles in developmental processes in animals; many of them appear to have conserved functions among eumetazoans. Demosponges have fewer Sox genes than eumetazoans, but their roles remain unclear. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the early evolutionary history of the Sox gene family by identification and expression analysis of Sox genes in the calcareous sponge Sycon ciliatum. Methods Calcaronean Sox related sequences were retrieved by searching recently generated genomic and transcriptome sequence resources and analyzed using variety of phylogenetic methods and identification of conserved motifs. Expression was studied by whole mount in situ hybridization. Results We have identified seven Sox genes and four Sox-related genes in the complete genome of Sycon ciliatum. Phylogenetic and conserved motif analyses showed that five of Sycon Sox genes represent groups B, C, E, and F present in cnidarians and bilaterians. Two additional genes are classified as Sox genes but cannot be assigned to specific subfamilies, and four genes are more similar to Sox genes than to other HMG-containing genes. Thus, the repertoire of Sox genes is larger in this representative of calcareous sponges than in the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica. It remains unclear whether this is due to the expansion of the gene family in Sycon or a secondary reduction in the Amphimedon genome. In situ hybridization of Sycon Sox genes revealed a variety of expression patterns during embryogenesis and in specific cell types of adult sponges. Conclusions In this study, we describe a large family of Sox genes in Sycon ciliatum with dynamic expression patterns, indicating that Sox genes are regulators in development and cell type determination in sponges, as observed in higher animals. The revealed differences between demosponge and calcisponge Sox genes repertoire highlight the need to

  13. Patterns of outpatient care utilization by seniors under the National Health Insurance in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chin Hsu

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: This study employed nationally representative data in the detection of patterns in outpatient care utilization by elderly individuals in Taiwan. Medical care providers and policymakers should be fully aware of the complex patterns unique to older patients. The results of this study could be used as a benchmark with which to assess the impact of future medical care policy on elderly people.

  14. The uniqueness and complexity of kampung city Bustaman Semarang Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarwanto, Budi; Hardiman, Gagoek; Suprapti, Atiek; Sarjono, Agung B.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the uniqueness and complexity of one village town Bustaman Semarang Indonesia. This research is in the domain of qualitative research paradigm with ethnography research strategy. The critical ethnography technique is chosen with the consideration of the purpose of this research, that is besides describing also the analysing urban spatial condition over its complexity. Bustaman town village has artifacts outdated and local economic activities namely culinary processed goat meat. Kampung Bustaman shows the common character as a city hometown, which is chaotic and shabby. Some artifacts and historical value of Bustaman village as well as community culture become potential to be developed and conserved. But for that the quality of Bustaman village hometown should be improved. Bustaman's urban halls are under distress by changes in urban modernization, including the pattern of life of Bustaman villagers. However, the existing phenomenon that the potential of local and cultural communities are still able to survive and exist, within the limitations of space and resources available. The process of culinary production of goat meat, the limitation of the kampong space, the social awareness of the villagers, the role of community leaders, and the necessities of daily life are the drivers of the complexity of Bustaman village space. The village road corridor and the house terrace become the victim room for all the activities of the town. Clutter seems clear can be found in every corner of Bustaman village space. Kampung Bustaman can be categorized as a spontaneous and compact informal village, but still survive on the urban spatial locality.

  15. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  16. In silico pattern-based analysis of the human cytomegalovirus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoutsos, Isidore; Novotny, Jiri; Huynh, Tien; Chin-Bow, Stephen T; Parida, Laxmi; Platt, Daniel; Coleman, David; Shenk, Thomas

    2003-04-01

    More than 200 open reading frames (ORFs) from the human cytomegalovirus genome have been reported as potentially coding for proteins. We have used two pattern-based in silico approaches to analyze this set of putative viral genes. With the help of an objective annotation method that is based on the Bio-Dictionary, a comprehensive collection of amino acid patterns that describes the currently known natural sequence space of proteins, we have reannotated all of the previously reported putative genes of the human cytomegalovirus. Also, with the help of MUSCA, a pattern-based multiple sequence alignment algorithm, we have reexamined the original human cytomegalovirus gene family definitions. Our analysis of the genome shows that many of the coded proteins comprise amino acid combinations that are unique to either the human cytomegalovirus or the larger group of herpesviruses. We have confirmed that a surprisingly large portion of the analyzed ORFs encode membrane proteins, and we have discovered a significant number of previously uncharacterized proteins that are predicted to be G-protein-coupled receptor homologues. The analysis also indicates that many of the encoded proteins undergo posttranslational modifications such as hydroxylation, phosphorylation, and glycosylation. ORFs encoding proteins with similar functional behavior appear in neighboring regions of the human cytomegalovirus genome. All of the results of the present study can be found and interactively explored online (http://cbcsrv.watson.ibm.com/virus/).

  17. Specific genes involved in synthesis and editing of heparan sulfate proteoglycans show altered expression patterns in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Vega, Iván; García, Olivia; Crespo, Ainara; Castañón, Sonia; Menéndez, Primitiva; Astudillo, Aurora; Quirós, Luis M

    2013-01-01

    , experienced a strong deregulation in all patients analyzed. IDCs show alterations in the expression of HSPG genes; principally the expression and localization of proteoglycans and the sulfation patterns of glycosaminoglycan chains, depending on the metastatic nature of the tumor. In addition, the anti-proliferative molecule heparanase 2 experiences strong deregulation, thus highlighting it as a potentially interesting diagnostic factor

  18. A unique skeletal microstructure of the deep-sea micrabaciid scleractinian corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewska, Katarzyna; Stolarski, Jaroslaw; Benzerara, Karim; Meibom, Anders; Mazur, Maciej; Kitahara, Marcelo; Cairns, Stephen D.

    2010-05-01

    Structural and biogeochemical properties of the skeleton of many invertebrates rely on organic matrix-mediated biomineralization processes. Organic matrices, composed of complex assemblages of macromolecules (proteins, polysaccharides), may control nucleation, spatial delineation and organization of basic microstructural units. Biologically controlled mineralization is also suggested for the scleractinian corals whose different, molecularly recognized clades are supported by distinct types of skeletal microstructures. Main differences in scleractinian coral skeletal microstructures suggested so far consist in (1) varying spatial relationships between Rapid Accretion Deposits (RAD, 'centers of calcification') and thickening deposits (TD, 'fibers'), and (2) varying arrangements of biomineral fibers into higher order structures (e.g., bundles of fibers perpendicular to skeletal surfaces in some 'caryophylliid' corals vs. scale-like units with fibers parallel to the surface in acroporiids). However, a common feature of biomineral fibers in corals described thus far was their similar crystallographic arrangement within larger meso-scale structures (bundles of fibers) and continuity between successive growth layers. Herein we show that representatives of the deep-sea scleractinian family Micrabaciidae (genera: Letepsammia, Rhombopsammia, Stephanophyllia, Leptopenus) have thickening deposits composed of irregular meshwork of short (1-2 μm) and extremely thin (ca. 100-300 nm) fibers organized into small bundles (ca. 1-2 μm thick). Longer axes of fibers are aligned within individual bundles that, in turn, show rather irregular arrangement on the growing surfaces and within the skeleton (irregular criss-cross pattern). In contrast to other scleractinians (including deep-water 'caryophylliids', fungiacyathids, and anthemiphyllids sympatric with micrabaciids), growth layers are not distinct. Also the regions of rapid accretion and thickening deposits are not clearly

  19. Identification of unique repeated patterns, location of mutation in DNA finger printing using artificial intelligence technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukunthan, B; Nagaveni, N

    2014-01-01

    In genetic engineering, conventional techniques and algorithms employed by forensic scientists to assist in identification of individuals on the basis of their respective DNA profiles involves more complex computational steps and mathematical formulae, also the identification of location of mutation in a genomic sequence in laboratories is still an exigent task. This novel approach provides ability to solve the problems that do not have an algorithmic solution and the available solutions are also too complex to be found. The perfect blend made of bioinformatics and neural networks technique results in efficient DNA pattern analysis algorithm with utmost prediction accuracy.

  20. Novel criteria of uniqueness for signal reconstruction from phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, C.

    1991-01-01

    An approach for ascertaining whether a signal is uniquely determined by its Fourier transform phase is proposed. It is shown that uniqueness corresponds to the nonsingularity of a matrix which can be formed from the finite-length real sequence. The criterion of uniqueness for reconstructing a

  1. Uniqueness of KMS states for continuous fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaekel, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989 Prof H. Narnhofer and Prof. W. Thirring established a (nonlocal) model of fermions with pair interactions. The existence of equilibrium states and the appearance of mixing properties was proofed. If this model reflects the basic facts of nature, one has to expect and to require that at high temperatures there is a unique equilibrium state and at low temperatures there are many different equilibrium states. Uniqueness of the equilibrium state at high temperatures is the topic of this dissertation. One may be astonished, that the proof of the uniqueness requires such a huge machinery, while the existence of KMS-states followes from fairly general conditions. Two states differ, if they can be distinguished by experiment. If one considers now that we have to show that two KMS-states at high temperatures result into the same value in all experiments one can think of, one might get an idea how unhandy this problem is. Even a conscious numeration of all experiments was a problem. Surprisingly only a few principal ideas of the treatment of spin-models survive. The temperature is the leading parameter and therefore it is a good idea to make a high temperature perturbation expansion for the KMS-condition, which fixes an equilibrium state in mathematical terms. But when we choose a generating vector for the perturbation expansion the similarities end. We better use physical considerations: at high temperatures we expect that chemical bounds will be broken up and the interacting equilibrium state will differ only slightly from the equilibrium state for the free time evolution. Roughly spoken, one can expect that high-energetic particles neglect interactions and fly in a straight line. In chapter 2.4 the whole machinery is presented in an easy-to-survey manner on a simple interaction. But in the case of pair interactions every particle interacts with each other and so the author was not able to find an easily accessible form of the developed method for this case

  2. Whose Balance Sheet is this? Neural Networks for Banks' Pattern Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon Rincon, Carlos; Moreno, José Fernando; Cely, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    The balance sheet is a snapshot that portraits the financial position of a firm at a specific point of time. Under the reasonable assumption that the financial position of a firm is unique and representative, we use a basic artificial neural network pattern recognition method on Colombian banks’

  3. Structure determination of human Lck unique and SH3 domains by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willbold Dieter

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein tyrosine kinases are involved in signal transduction pathways that regulate cell growth, differentiation, activation and transformation. Human lymphocyte specific kinase (Lck is a 56 kDa protein involved in T-cell- and IL2-receptor signaling. Three-dimensional structures are known for SH3, SH2 and kinase domains of Lck as well as for other tyrosine kinases. No structure is known for the unique domain of any Src-type tyrosine kinase. Results Lck(1–120 comprising unique and SH3 domains was structurally investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We found the unique domain, in contrast to the SH3 part, to have basically no defined structural elements. The solution structure of the SH3 part could be determined with very high precision. It does not show significant differences to Lck SH3 in the absence of the unique domain. Minor differences were observed to the X-ray structure of Lck SH3. Conclusion The unique domain of Lck does not contain any defined structure elements in the absence of ligands and membranes. Presence of the unique domain is not relevant to the three-dimensional structure of the Lck SH3 domain.

  4. Creating science simulations through Computational Thinking Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basawapatna, Ashok Ram

    Computational thinking aims to outline fundamental skills from computer science that everyone should learn. As currently defined, with help from the National Science Foundation (NSF), these skills include problem formulation, logically organizing data, automating solutions through algorithmic thinking, and representing data through abstraction. One aim of the NSF is to integrate these and other computational thinking concepts into the classroom. End-user programming tools offer a unique opportunity to accomplish this goal. An end-user programming tool that allows students with little or no prior experience the ability to create simulations based on phenomena they see in-class could be a first step towards meeting most, if not all, of the above computational thinking goals. This thesis describes the creation, implementation and initial testing of a programming tool, called the Simulation Creation Toolkit, with which users apply high-level agent interactions called Computational Thinking Patterns (CTPs) to create simulations. Employing Computational Thinking Patterns obviates lower behavior-level programming and allows users to directly create agent interactions in a simulation by making an analogy with real world phenomena they are trying to represent. Data collected from 21 sixth grade students with no prior programming experience and 45 seventh grade students with minimal programming experience indicates that this is an effective first step towards enabling students to create simulations in the classroom environment. Furthermore, an analogical reasoning study that looked at how users might apply patterns to create simulations from high- level descriptions with little guidance shows promising results. These initial results indicate that the high level strategy employed by the Simulation Creation Toolkit is a promising strategy towards incorporating Computational Thinking concepts in the classroom environment.

  5. Gelatin-based laser direct-write technique for the precise spatial patterning of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Nathan R; Chrisey, Douglas B; Corr, David T

    2011-03-01

    Laser direct-writing provides a method to pattern living cells in vitro, to study various cell-cell interactions, and to build cellular constructs. However, the materials typically used may limit its long-term application. By utilizing gelatin coatings on the print ribbon and growth surface, we developed a new approach for laser cell printing that overcomes the limitations of Matrigel™. Gelatin is free of growth factors and extraneous matrix components that may interfere with cellular processes under investigation. Gelatin-based laser direct-write was able to successfully pattern human dermal fibroblasts with high post-transfer viability (91% ± 3%) and no observed double-strand DNA damage. As seen with atomic force microscopy, gelatin offers a unique benefit in that it is present temporarily to allow cell transfer, but melts and is removed with incubation to reveal the desired application-specific growth surface. This provides unobstructed cellular growth after printing. Monitoring cell location after transfer, we show that melting and removal of gelatin does not affect cellular placement; cells maintained registry within 5.6 ± 2.5 μm to the initial pattern. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of gelatin in laser direct-writing to create spatially precise cell patterns with the potential for applications in tissue engineering, stem cell, and cancer research.

  6. Existence and uniqueness of solution for a model problem of transonic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangmanee, S.

    1985-11-01

    A model problem of transonic flow ''the Tricomi equation'' bounded by the rectangular-curve boundary is studied. We transform the model problem into a symmetric positive system and an admissible boundary condition is posed. We show that with some conditions the existence and uniqueness of the solution are guaranteed. (author)

  7. Nematode spatial and ecological patterns from tropical and temperate rainforests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota L Porazinska

    Full Text Available Large scale diversity patterns are well established for terrestrial macrobiota (e.g. plants and vertebrates, but not for microscopic organisms (e.g. nematodes. Due to small size, high abundance, and extensive dispersal, microbiota are assumed to exhibit cosmopolitan distributions with no biogeographical patterns. This assumption has been extrapolated from local spatial scale studies of a few taxonomic groups utilizing morphological approaches. Recent molecularly-based studies, however, suggest something quite opposite. Nematodes are the most abundant metazoans on earth, but their diversity patterns are largely unknown. We conducted a survey of nematode diversity within three vertical strata (soil, litter, and canopy of rainforests at two contrasting latitudes in the North American meridian (temperate: the Olympic National Forest, WA, U.S.A and tropical: La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica using standardized sampling designs and sample processing protocols. To describe nematode diversity, we applied an ecometagenetic approach using 454 pyrosequencing. We observed that: 1 nematode communities were unique without even a single common species between the two rainforests, 2 nematode communities were unique among habitats in both rainforests, 3 total species richness was 300% more in the tropical than in the temperate rainforest, 4 80% of the species in the temperate rainforest resided in the soil, whereas only 20% in the tropics, 5 more than 90% of identified species were novel. Overall, our data provided no support for cosmopolitanism at both local (habitats and large (rainforests spatial scales. In addition, our data indicated that biogeographical patterns typical of macrobiota also exist for microbiota.

  8. Nematode Spatial and Ecological Patterns from Tropical and Temperate Rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porazinska, Dorota L.; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Powers, Thomas O.; Thomas, W. Kelley

    2012-01-01

    Large scale diversity patterns are well established for terrestrial macrobiota (e.g. plants and vertebrates), but not for microscopic organisms (e.g. nematodes). Due to small size, high abundance, and extensive dispersal, microbiota are assumed to exhibit cosmopolitan distributions with no biogeographical patterns. This assumption has been extrapolated from local spatial scale studies of a few taxonomic groups utilizing morphological approaches. Recent molecularly-based studies, however, suggest something quite opposite. Nematodes are the most abundant metazoans on earth, but their diversity patterns are largely unknown. We conducted a survey of nematode diversity within three vertical strata (soil, litter, and canopy) of rainforests at two contrasting latitudes in the North American meridian (temperate: the Olympic National Forest, WA, U.S.A and tropical: La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica) using standardized sampling designs and sample processing protocols. To describe nematode diversity, we applied an ecometagenetic approach using 454 pyrosequencing. We observed that: 1) nematode communities were unique without even a single common species between the two rainforests, 2) nematode communities were unique among habitats in both rainforests, 3) total species richness was 300% more in the tropical than in the temperate rainforest, 4) 80% of the species in the temperate rainforest resided in the soil, whereas only 20% in the tropics, 5) more than 90% of identified species were novel. Overall, our data provided no support for cosmopolitanism at both local (habitats) and large (rainforests) spatial scales. In addition, our data indicated that biogeographical patterns typical of macrobiota also exist for microbiota. PMID:22984536

  9. Islamic geometric patterns their historical development and traditional methods of construction

    CERN Document Server

    Bonner, Jay

    2017-01-01

    The main focus of this unique book is an in-depth examination of the polygonal technique; the primary method used by master artists of the past in creating Islamic geometric patterns. The author details the design methodology responsible for this all-but-lost art form and presents evidence for its use from the historical record, both of which are vital contributions to the understanding of this ornamental tradition. Additionally, the author examines the historical development of Islamic geometric patterns, the significance of geometric design within the broader context of Islamic ornament as a whole, the formative role that geometry plays throughout the Islamic ornamental arts (including calligraphy, the floral idiom, dome decoration, geometric patterns, and more), and the underexamined question of pattern classification. Featuring over 600 beautiful color images, Islamic Geometric Patterns: Their Historical Development and Traditional Methods of Construction is a valuable addition to the literature of Islam...

  10. Dietary patterns in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Louise R.; Northstone, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children that used empirically derived dietary patterns were reviewed. The relationships of dietary patterns with socioeconomic background and childhood development were examined. Diet was assessed using food frequency questionnaires and food records. Three statistical methods were used: principal components analysis, cluster analysis, and reduced rank regression. Throughout childhood, children and parents have similar dietary patterns. The “health-conscious” and “traditional” patterns were associated with high intakes of fruits and/or vegetables and better nutrient profiles than the “processed” patterns. There was evidence of tracking in childhood diet, with the “health-conscious” patterns tracking most strongly, followed by the “processed” pattern. An “energy-dense, low-fiber, high-fat” dietary pattern was extracted using reduced rank regression; high scores on this pattern were associated with increasing adiposity. Maternal education was a strong determinant of pattern score or cluster membership; low educational attainment was associated with higher scores on processed, energy-dense patterns in both parents and children. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children has provided unique insights into the value of empirically derived dietary patterns and has demonstrated that they are a useful tool in nutritional epidemiology. PMID:26395343

  11. EXISTENCE AND UNIQUENESS OF THE ENTROPY SOLUTION TO A NONLINEAR HYPERBOLIC EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.EYMARD; T.Gallouёt; R.Herbin

    1995-01-01

    This work is concerned with the proof of the existence and uniqueness of the entropy weak solution to the following nonlinear hyperbolic equation: ut+div(vf(u)) = 0 in IRN×(0, T), with initial data u(-, 0) = u0(-) in IRN, where u0 ∈ L∞(IRN) is a given function, v is a divergence-free bounded fnnction of class C1 from IRN × [0, T] to IRN, and f is a 5motion of class C1 from IR to IR. It also gives a result of convergence of a numerical scheme for the discretization of this equation. The authors first show the existence of a “process” solution (which generalizes the concept of entropy weak solutions, and can be obtained by passing to the limit of solutions ofthe numerical scheme). The uniqueness of this entropy process solution is then proven; it isalso proven that the entropy process solution is in fact an entropy weak solution. Hence the existence and uniqueness of the entropy weak solution are proven.

  12. MicroRNAs show mutually exclusive expression patterns in the brain of adult male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Line; Klausen, Mikkel; Helboe, Lone

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The brain is a major site of microRNA (miRNA) gene expression, but the spatial expression patterns of miRNAs within the brain have not yet been fully covered. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have characterized the regional expression profiles of miRNAs in five distinct regions...... of the adult rat brain: amygdala, cerebellum, hippocampus, hypothalamus and substantia nigra. Microarray profiling uncovered 48 miRNAs displaying more than three-fold enrichment between two or more brain regions. Notably, we found reciprocal expression profiles for a subset of the miRNAs predominantly found...... (> ten times) in either the cerebellum (miR-206 and miR-497) or the forebrain regions (miR-132, miR-212, miR-221 and miR-222). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate that some miRNAs could be important for area-specific functions in the brain. Our data, combined with previous studies in mice...

  13. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Urinary Incontinence Related Documents PDF Choosing Wisely: Diabetes Tests and Treatments Download Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ...

  14. Within-culture variations of uniqueness: towards an integrative approach based on social status, gender, life contexts, and interpersonal comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causse, Elsa; Félonneau, Marie-Line

    2014-01-01

    Research on uniqueness is widely focused on cross-cultural comparisons and tends to postulate a certain form of within-culture homogeneity. Taking the opposite course of this classic posture, we aimed at testing an integrative approach enabling the study of within-culture variations of uniqueness. This approach considered different sources of variation: social status, gender, life contexts, and interpersonal comparison. Four hundred seventy-nine participants completed a measure based on descriptions of "self" and "other." Results showed important variations of uniqueness. An interaction between social status and life contexts revealed the expression of uniqueness in the low-status group. This study highlights the complexity of uniqueness that appears to be related to both cultural ideology and social hierarchy.

  15. The electrocardiographic "triangular QRS-ST-T waveform" pattern in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: Incidence, pathophysiology and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Alberto; D'Amico, Gianpiero; Brunello, Giulia; Perazzolo Marra, Martina; Migliore, Federico; Cacciavillani, Luisa; Tarantini, Giuseppe; Bauce, Barbara; Iliceto, Sabino; Corrado, Domenico; Zorzi, Alessandro

    A specific ECG pattern of presentation of ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI), characterized by "triangular QRS-ST-T waveform" (TW), has been associated with poor in-hospital prognosis but longitudinal data on its incidence and clinical impact are lacking. We prospectively evaluated the incidence and prognostic meaning of the TW pattern in a cohort of consecutive STEMI patients. All STEMI patients who presented within 12h of symptoms onset and showed no complete bundle branch block or paced ventricular rhythm were included. The TW pattern was defined as a unique, giant wave (amplitude≥1mV) resulting from the fusion of the QRS complex, the ST-segment and the T-wave and showing a "triangular" morphology with a positive polarity in the leads exploring the ischemic region. Among 428 consecutive STEMI patients, 367 fulfilled the enrollment criteria. The TW pattern was identified in 5 of 367 patients (1.4%) on the admission ECG. This subset of STEMI patients with TW pattern significantly more often showed a left main coronary artery involvement (2/4, 50% vs 2/322, 0.6%; p<0.001), experienced ventricular fibrillation (5/5, 100% vs 35/362, 9.6% p<0.001), had cardiogenic shock (4/5, 80% vs. 14/362, 3.8%, p<0.001) and died during hospitalization (2/5, 40% vs 15/362, 4.1% p=0.02), compared with those with other ST-segment elevation ECG patterns. The TW pattern is an uncommon ECG finding, which reflects the presence of a large area of transmural myocardial ischemia and predicts cardiogenic shock accounting for high in-hospital mortality. When present, this ECG pattern should prompt aggressive therapeutic strategies, including mechanical support of circulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Weak unique continuation property and a related inverse source problem for time-fractional diffusion-advection equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Daijun; Li, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yikan; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we first establish a weak unique continuation property for time-fractional diffusion-advection equations. The proof is mainly based on the Laplace transform and the unique continuation properties for elliptic and parabolic equations. The result is weaker than its parabolic counterpart in the sense that we additionally impose the homogeneous boundary condition. As a direct application, we prove the uniqueness for an inverse problem on determining the spatial component in the source term by interior measurements. Numerically, we reformulate our inverse source problem as an optimization problem, and propose an iterative thresholding algorithm. Finally, several numerical experiments are presented to show the accuracy and efficiency of the algorithm.

  17. [Wetland landscape pattern change based on GIS and RS: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fan-Ting; Xi, Min; Li, Yue; Kong, Fan-Long; Chen, Wan

    2013-04-01

    Wetland is an ecological landscape with most biodiversity in nature, which has unique ecological structure and function, and contains abundant natural resources to provide material guarantee for human's living and development. Wetland landscape pattern is the comprehensive result of various ecological processes, and has become a hot issue in wetland ecological study. At present, the combination of geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technologies is an important way to study the wetland landscape pattern change. This paper reviewed the research progress in the wetland landscape change based on GIS and RS from the aspects of the research methods of wetland landscape pattern, index of wetland landscape pattern, and driving forces of wetland landscape pattern evolution, and discussed the applications of the combination of GIS and RS in monitoring the wetland landscape pattern change, the index selection of wetland landscape pattern, and the driving mechanisms of the combined action of human and nature. Some deficiencies in the current studies were put forward, and the directions of the future-studies were prospected.

  18. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Roy L; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  19. Detection of circulating tumor cells harboring a unique ALK rearrangement in ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailler, Emma; Adam, Julien; Barthélémy, Amélie; Oulhen, Marianne; Auger, Nathalie; Valent, Alexander; Borget, Isabelle; Planchard, David; Taylor, Melissa; André, Fabrice; Soria, Jean Charles; Vielh, Philippe; Besse, Benjamin; Farace, Françoise

    2013-06-20

    The diagnostic test for ALK rearrangement in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for crizotinib treatment is currently done on tumor biopsies or fine-needle aspirations. We evaluated whether ALK rearrangement diagnosis could be performed by using circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The presence of an ALK rearrangement was examined in CTCs of 18 ALK-positive and 14 ALK-negative patients by using a filtration enrichment technique and filter-adapted fluorescent in situ hybridization (FA-FISH), a FISH method optimized for filters. ALK-rearrangement patterns were determined in CTCs and compared with those present in tumor biopsies. ALK-rearranged CTCs and tumor specimens were characterized for epithelial (cytokeratins, E-cadherin) and mesenchymal (vimentin, N-cadherin) marker expression. ALK-rearranged CTCs were monitored in five patients treated with crizotinib. All ALK-positive patients had four or more ALK-rearranged CTCs per 1 mL of blood (median, nine CTCs per 1 mL; range, four to 34 CTCs per 1 mL). No or only one ALK-rearranged CTC (median, one per 1 mL; range, zero to one per 1 mL) was detected in ALK-negative patients. ALK-rearranged CTCs harbored a unique (3'5') split pattern, and heterogeneous patterns (3'5', only 3') of splits were present in tumors. ALK-rearranged CTCs expressed a mesenchymal phenotype contrasting with heterogeneous epithelial and mesenchymal marker expressions in tumors. Variations in ALK-rearranged CTC levels were detected in patients being treated with crizotinib. ALK rearrangement can be detected in CTCs of patients with ALK-positive NSCLC by using a filtration technique and FA-FISH, enabling both diagnostic testing and monitoring of crizotinib treatment. Our results suggest that CTCs harboring a unique ALK rearrangement and mesenchymal phenotype may arise from clonal selection of tumor cells that have acquired the potential to drive metastatic progression of ALK-positive NSCLC.

  20. Development and performance evaluation of 32-channel gamma densitometer for the measurement of flow pattern and void fraction in the downcomer of MIDAS test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, In Cheol; Kim, Y. K.; Yun, B. J.; Kwon, T. S.; Euh, D. J.; Song, C.

    2002-03-01

    APR 1400, which adopts DVI type of ECCS, is expected to show its unique thermal hydraulic phenomena. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate whether existing safety analysis code can correctly predict the thermal hydraulic phenomena. Among the several phenomena, void fraction and flow pattern govern the other major phenomena. Therefore, the main objective of the present study is to develop the 32-channel gamma densitometer which can measure the void fraction and flow pattern in the downcomer at various locations. The 32-channel gamma densitometer for MIDAS test apparatus has been developed. Throughout the performance evaluation test, the integrity of the 32 channel gamma densitometer has been validated. The measurement error of water film thickness is expected to be less than ±0.5mm. Also, it can correctly predict the flow patterns and the transition location of flow pattern in the downcomer of MIDAS test apparatus

  1. Spatiotemporal Wave Patterns: Information Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhail Rabinovich; Lev Tsimring

    2006-01-20

    Pattern formation has traditionally been studied in non-equilibrium physics from the viewpoint of describing the basic structures and their interactions. While this is still an important area of research, the emphasis in the last few years has shifted towards analysis of specific properties of patterns in various complex media. For example, diverse and unexpected phenomena occur in neuro-like media that are characterized by highly non-trivial local dynamics. We carried out an active research program on analysis of spatio-temporal patterns in various physical systems (convection, oscillating fluid layer, soap film), as well as in neuro-like media, with an emphasis on informational aspects of the dynamics. Nonlinear nonequilibrium media and their discrete analogs have a unique ability to represent, memorize, and process the information contained in spatio-temporal patterns. Recent neurophysiological experiments demonstrated a certain universality of spatio-temporal representation of information by neural ensembles. Information processing is also revealed in the spatio-temporal dynamics of cellular patterns in nonequilibrium media. It is extremely important for many applications to study the informational aspects of these dynamics, including the origins and mechanisms of information generation, propagation and storage. Some of our results are: the discovery of self-organization of periodically oscillatory patterns in chaotic heterogeneous media; the analysis of the propagation of the information along a chaotic media as function of the entropy of the signal; the analysis of wave propagation in discrete non-equilibrium media with autocatalytic properties, which simulates the calcium dynamics in cellular membranes. Based on biological experiments we suggest the mechanism by which the spatial sensory information is transferred into the spatio-temporal code in the neural media. We also found a new mechanism of self-pinning in cellular structures and the related phenomenon

  2. The unique case of foot drop secondary to a large ovarian cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Maleeha; Kumar, Aditaya; Thomson, Simon

    2014-08-01

    We describe the unique case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with right leg radiculopathy caused by an ovarian cyst mimicking lumbar pathology. A review of the literature shows that this is a rare case where a histologically confirmed benign ovarian cystadenoma (of indeterminate type) is shown to cause foot drop and radiculopathy.

  3. Geodesic patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut; Huang, Qixing; Deng, Bailin; Schiftner, Alexander; Kilian, Martin; Guibas, Leonidas J.; Wallner, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.

  4. Geodesic patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2010-07-26

    Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.

  5. Heel–toe running: A new look at the influence of foot strike pattern on impact force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Mercer

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The unique observation of this study was that impact force was different when participants were instructed to run with either an Obvious-HS or a Subtle-HS at contact. Both these foot strike patterns would have been considered rear foot strike patterns, suggesting that something other than which specific part of the foot strikes the ground initially influenced impact force.

  6. Common and unique associations of adolescents' affective and cognitive empathy development with conflict behavior towards parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lissa, Caspar J; Hawk, Skyler T; Branje, Susan; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim H J

    2016-02-01

    Adolescents' development of two empathy dimensions, affective empathic concern and cognitive perspective taking, may be associated with shifts towards more constructive behaviors in conflict with parents. This six-year longitudinal study (ages 13-18) used multivariate latent growth curve modeling to investigate correlations between the developmental trajectories of adolescents' (N = 497) empathic dispositions and trajectories of their conflict behaviors towards both parents. There were some similarities between the associations of both empathy dimensions with conflict behaviors. Both empathy dimensions were associated with reduced conflict escalation with mothers, and increased problem solving with both parents. However, these associations were consistently stronger for perspective taking than for empathic concern. Furthermore, higher levels of compliance with mothers in early adolescence were uniquely associated with over-time increasing empathic concern. Perspective taking was uniquely associated with decreased withdrawal from conflicts. Perspective taking thus appears to be more strongly associated with a pattern of constructive conflict behaviors. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Patterns of species diversity and phylogenetic structure of vascular plants on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yujing; Yang, Xian; Tang, Zhiyao

    2013-11-01

    Large-scale patterns of species richness and the underlying mechanisms regulating these patterns have long been the central issues in biogeography and macroecology. Phylogenetic community structure is a result of combined effects of contemporary ecological interactions, environmental filtering, and evolutionary history, and it links community ecology with biogeography and trait evolution. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau provides a good opportunity to test the influence of contemporary climate on shaping species richness because of its unique geological history, cold climate, and high biodiversity. In this study, based on high-resolution distributions of ˜9000 vascular plant species, we explored how species richness and phylogenetic structure of vascular plants correlate with climates on the highest (and species rich) plateau on the Earth. The results showed that most of the vascular plants were distributed on the eastern part of the plateau; there was a strong association between species richness and climate, even after the effects of habitat heterogeneity were controlled. However, the responses of richness to climate remarkably depended on life-forms. Richness of woody plants showed stronger climatic associations than that of herbaceous plants; energy and water availability together regulated richness pattern of woody plants; whereas water availability predominantly regulated richness pattern of herbaceous plants. The phylogenetic structure of vascular species clustered in most areas of the plateau, suggesting that rapid speciation and environment filtering dominated the assembly of communities on the plateau. We further propose that biodiversity conservation in this area should better take into account ecological features for different life-forms and phylogenetic lineages.

  8. Spitzenkorper, exocyst, and polarisome components in Candida albicans hyphae show different patterns of localization and have distinct dynamic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laura A; Sudbery, Peter E

    2010-10-01

    During the extreme polarized growth of fungal hyphae, secretory vesicles are thought to accumulate in a subapical region called the Spitzenkörper. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans can grow in a budding yeast or hyphal form. When it grows as hyphae, Mlc1 accumulates in a subapical spot suggestive of a Spitzenkörper-like structure, while the polarisome components Spa2 and Bud6 localize to a surface crescent. Here we show that the vesicle-associated protein Sec4 also localizes to a spot, confirming that secretory vesicles accumulate in the putative C. albicans Spitzenkörper. In contrast, exocyst components localize to a surface crescent. Using a combination of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) experiments and cytochalasin A to disrupt actin cables, we showed that Spitzenkörper-located proteins are highly dynamic. In contrast, exocyst and polarisome components are stably located at the cell surface. It is thought that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae exocyst components are transported to the cell surface on secretory vesicles along actin cables. If each vesicle carried its own complement of exocyst components, then it would be expected that exocyst components would be as dynamic as Sec4 and would have the same pattern of localization. This is not what we observe in C. albicans. We propose a model in which a stream of vesicles arrives at the tip and accumulates in the Spitzenkörper before onward delivery to the plasma membrane mediated by exocyst and polarisome components that are more stable residents of the cell surface.

  9. Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas in children: a 15-year experience and the identification of a unique immunohistochemical marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laje, Pablo; Bhatti, Tricia R; Adzick, N Scott

    2013-10-01

    To review our 15-year experience in the management of children with solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPPN) of the pancreas at a single pediatric institution, to delineate a unique immunohistochemical marker for SPPN, and to analyze cumulative data on this rare entity in the literature. We did a retrospective analysis of the demographic data, clinical presentation, immunohistochemical characteristics, surgical approach, and long-term outcomes of all patients diagnosed with SPPN between 1997 and 2012. There were 6 patients in the series, 5 females and 1 male. Median age at presentation and at surgery was 15 years (11-18 years). Abdominal pain was the presenting symptom in 5 cases and jaundice in 1 case. Two patients had a pancreatic head tumor and underwent a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. Two patients had the tumor in the pancreatic tail and underwent a distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy. Two patients had the tumor in the pancreatic body and underwent a distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy in one case and with preservation of the spleen in the other. All tumors were completely resected with pathologic margins free of disease. The median maximum diameter was 6.8 cm (3 to 15 cm). On immunohistochemistry the tumors exhibited different combinations of non-specific markers like chromogranin, vimentin and neuron-specific enolase, but all tumors showed the highly SPPN-specific paranuclear dot-like immunoreactivity pattern for CD99 in the solid as well as in the pseudopapillary areas. No patient had metastasis at presentation. Median follow-up was 6.5 years (6 months to 15 years). There were no recurrences, no long-term metastasis, and all patients are disease-free. Our series supports the concept that complete resection is necessary to achieve the best possible long-term results. Additionally, we demonstrate that SPPN exhibits a very unique immunostaining pattern for CD99 that is present in all cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Kosovo case: A unique arbitrariness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakarada Radmila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of Cold war, contrary to expectations has brought new conflicts and forms of violence, new divisions and new relativizations of the international legal order. Taking as an example the endeavors to resolve the Kosovo conflict, the author attempts to indicate the broader implications of the international efforts to constitute an independent state on part of the territory of an existing sovereign state. The arguments used to justify the redefinition of the borders of the Serbian state without its consent, the moral, democratic, peace arguments, are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the argument that Kosovo is a unique case and therefore unique rules should be applied. The author seeks to understand the deeper significance of these efforts, concluding that dismantling the present international legal order is not only a potential danger but a possible aim.

  11. Specially designed B4C/SnO2 nanocomposite for photocatalysis: traditional ceramic with unique properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Paviter; Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Kulwinder; Singh, Bikramjeet; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Manjot; Krishnan, Unni; Kumar, Manjeet; Bala, Rajni; Kumar, Akshay

    2018-02-01

    Boron carbide: A traditional ceramic material shows unique properties when explored in nano-range. Specially designed boron-based nanocomposite has been synthesized by reflux method. The addition of SnO2 in base matrix increases the defect states in boron carbide and shows unique catalytic properties. The calculated texture coefficient and Nelson-Riley factor show that the synthesized nanocomposite has large number of defect states. Also this composite is explored for the first time for catalysis degradation of industrial used dyes. The degradation analysis of industrial pollutants such as Novacron red Huntsman (NRH) and methylene blue (MB) dye reveals that the composite is an efficient catalyst. Degradation study shows that 1 g/L catalyst concentration of B4C/SnO2 degrades NRH and MB dye up to approximately 97.38 and 79.41%, respectively, in 20 min under sunlight irradiation. This water-insoluble catalyst can be recovered and reused.

  12. An anisotropically and heterogeneously aligned patterned electrospun scaffold with tailored mechanical property and improved bioactivity for vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He; Li, Haiyan; Ke, Qinfei; Chang, Jiang

    2015-04-29

    The development of vascular scaffolds with controlled mechanical properties and stimulatory effects on biological activities of endothelial cells still remains a significant challenge to vascular tissue engineering. In this work, we reported an innovative approach to prepare a new type of vascular scaffolds with anisotropically and heterogeneously aligned patterns using electrospinning technique with unique wire spring templates, and further investigated the structural effects of the patterned electrospun scaffolds on mechanical properties and angiogenic differentiation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results showed that anisotropically aligned patterned nanofibrous structure was obtained by depositing nanofibers on template in a structurally different manner, one part of nanofibers densely deposited on the embossments of wire spring and formed cylindrical-like structures in the transverse direction, while others loosely suspended and aligned along the longitudinal direction, forming a three-dimensional porous microstructure. We further found that such structures could efficiently control the mechanical properties of electrospun vascular scaffolds in both longitudinal and transverse directions by altering the interval distances between the embossments of patterned scaffolds. When HUVECs were cultured on scaffolds with different microstructures, the patterned scaffolds distinctively promoted adhesion of HUVECs at early stage and proliferation during the culture period. Most importantly, cells experienced a large shape change associated with cell cytoskeleton and nuclei remodeling, leading to a stimulatory effect on angiogenesis differentiation of HUVECs by the patterned microstructures of electrospun scaffolds, and the scaffolds with larger distances of intervals showed a higher stimulatory effect. These results suggest that electrospun scaffolds with the anisotropically and heterogeneously aligned patterns, which could efficiently control the

  13. Knowledge of Conditional Spelling Patterns Supports Word Spelling among Danish Fifth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber

    2017-01-01

    Graphotactic knowledge and word-specific orthographic knowledge have been shown to account for unique variance in concurrent spelling skills beyond phonological skills in the early school years.The present study examined whether knowledge of spelling patterns conditioned by phonological context would add to the concurrent prediction of spelling…

  14. Acquisition, extinction, and recall of opiate reward memory are signaled by dynamic neuronal activity patterns in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ninglei; Chi, Ning; Lauzon, Nicole; Bishop, Stephanie; Tan, Huibing; Laviolette, Steven R

    2011-12-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) comprises an important component in the neural circuitry underlying drug-related associative learning and memory processing. Neuronal activation within mPFC circuits is correlated with the recall of opiate-related drug-taking experiences in both humans and other animals. Using an unbiased associative place conditioning procedure, we recorded mPFC neuronal populations during the acquisition, recall, and extinction phases of morphine-related associative learning and memory. Our analyses revealed that mPFC neurons show increased activity both in terms of tonic and phasic activity patterns during the acquisition phase of opiate reward-related memory and demonstrate stimulus-locked associative activity changes in real time, during the recall of opiate reward memories. Interestingly, mPFC neuronal populations demonstrated divergent patterns of bursting activity during the acquisition versus recall phases of newly acquired opiate reward memory, versus the extinction of these memories, with strongly increased bursting during the recall of an extinction memory and no associative bursting during the recall of a newly acquired opiate reward memory. Our results demonstrate that neurons within the mPFC are involved in both the acquisition, recall, and extinction of opiate-related reward memories, showing unique patterns of tonic and phasic activity patterns during these separate components of the opiate-related reward learning and memory recall.

  15. Conquered from the deep sea? A new deep-sea isopod species from the Antarctic shelf shows pattern of recent colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Riehl

    Full Text Available The Amundsen Sea, Antarctica, is amongst the most rapidly changing environments of the world. Its benthic inhabitants are barely known and the BIOPEARL 2 project was one of the first to biologically explore this region. Collected during this expedition, Macrostylis roaldi sp. nov. is described as the first isopod discovered on the Amundsen-Sea shelf. Amongst many characteristic features, the most obvious characters unique for M. roaldi are the rather short pleotelson and short operculum as well as the trapezoid shape of the pleotelson in adult males. We used DNA barcodes (COI and additional mitochondrial markers (12S, 16S to reciprocally illuminate morphological results and nucleotide variability. In contrast to many other deep-sea isopods, this species is common and shows a wide distribution. Its range spreads from Pine Island Bay at inner shelf right to the shelf break and across 1,000 m bathymetrically. Its gene pool is homogenized across space and depth. This is indicative for a genetic bottleneck or a recent colonization history. Our results suggest further that migratory or dispersal capabilities of some species of brooding macrobenthos have been underestimated. This might be relevant for the species' potential to cope with effects of climate change. To determine where this species could have survived the last glacial period, alternative refuge possibilities are discussed.

  16. Afrikaans Syllabification Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilla Fick

    2010-01-01

    note that the frequency of words ending with s is even higher than for words starting with s. The two and three letter patterns that occur most are er (10% of all two letter patterns and ing (4% of all three letter patterns. In an analysis of syllables in Afrikaans words, we found that (as for complete words syllables most often start with the letter s and end with e, while the frequency of syllables ending with s is almost as high as the frequency of syllables starting with s. This indicates that problems with hyphenation can be expected around the letter s. The two and three letter syllables that occur most often are -ge- and -ver-, respectively.In an attempt to decide on the window length to use to generate training data for machine-learning techniques we also analysed the length of syllables. The results show that two and three letter syllables occur most often, but that four letter syllables have the most unique instances. We also analysed a spectrum of window configurations and found that the ideal configuration will have to be determined empirically. One major problem we identified in this study is that irregular syllabification often occurs where letter patterns include the letter s. The reasons being (i the use of the combining s when joining words, (ii almost equal frequencies of syllables starting and ending with s and (iii vague hyphe- nation rules for letter combinations containing s. To effectively address automatic syllabification in Afrikaans, it is necessary to develop more sophisticated methods to handle vagueness around the letter s. 

  17. Identifying Ancient Settlement Patterns through LiDAR in the Mosquitia Region of Honduras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T Fisher

    Full Text Available The Mosquitia ecosystem of Honduras occupies the fulcrum between the American continents and as such constitutes a critical region for understanding past patterns of socio-political development and interaction. Heavy vegetation, rugged topography, and remoteness have limited scientific investigation. This paper presents prehistoric patterns of settlement and landuse for a critical valley within the Mosquitia derived from airborne LiDAR scanning and field investigation. We show that (i though today the valley is a wilderness it was densely inhabited in the past; (ii that this population was organized into a three-tiered system composed of 19 settlements dominated by a city; and, (iii that this occupation was embedded within a human engineered landscape. We also add to a growing body of literature that demonstrates the utility of LiDAR as means for rapid cultural assessments in undocumented regions for analysis and conservation. Our ultimate hope is for our work to promote protections to safeguard the unique and critically endangered Mosquitia ecosystem and other similar areas in need of preservation.

  18. Identifying Ancient Settlement Patterns through LiDAR in the Mosquitia Region of Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Diaz, Juan Carlos; Cohen, Anna S.; Neil Cruz, Oscar; Gonzáles, Alicia M.; Leisz, Stephen J.; Pezzutti, Florencia; Shrestha, Ramesh; Carter, William

    2016-01-01

    The Mosquitia ecosystem of Honduras occupies the fulcrum between the American continents and as such constitutes a critical region for understanding past patterns of socio-political development and interaction. Heavy vegetation, rugged topography, and remoteness have limited scientific investigation. This paper presents prehistoric patterns of settlement and landuse for a critical valley within the Mosquitia derived from airborne LiDAR scanning and field investigation. We show that (i) though today the valley is a wilderness it was densely inhabited in the past; (ii) that this population was organized into a three-tiered system composed of 19 settlements dominated by a city; and, (iii) that this occupation was embedded within a human engineered landscape. We also add to a growing body of literature that demonstrates the utility of LiDAR as means for rapid cultural assessments in undocumented regions for analysis and conservation. Our ultimate hope is for our work to promote protections to safeguard the unique and critically endangered Mosquitia ecosystem and other similar areas in need of preservation. PMID:27560962

  19. Identifying Ancient Settlement Patterns through LiDAR in the Mosquitia Region of Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Christopher T; Fernández-Diaz, Juan Carlos; Cohen, Anna S; Neil Cruz, Oscar; Gonzáles, Alicia M; Leisz, Stephen J; Pezzutti, Florencia; Shrestha, Ramesh; Carter, William

    2016-01-01

    The Mosquitia ecosystem of Honduras occupies the fulcrum between the American continents and as such constitutes a critical region for understanding past patterns of socio-political development and interaction. Heavy vegetation, rugged topography, and remoteness have limited scientific investigation. This paper presents prehistoric patterns of settlement and landuse for a critical valley within the Mosquitia derived from airborne LiDAR scanning and field investigation. We show that (i) though today the valley is a wilderness it was densely inhabited in the past; (ii) that this population was organized into a three-tiered system composed of 19 settlements dominated by a city; and, (iii) that this occupation was embedded within a human engineered landscape. We also add to a growing body of literature that demonstrates the utility of LiDAR as means for rapid cultural assessments in undocumented regions for analysis and conservation. Our ultimate hope is for our work to promote protections to safeguard the unique and critically endangered Mosquitia ecosystem and other similar areas in need of preservation.

  20. EEG Oscillatory States: Universality, Uniqueness and Specificity across Healthy-Normal, Altered and Pathological Brain Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Fingelkurts, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time the dynamic repertoires and oscillatory types of local EEG states in 13 diverse conditions (examined over 9 studies) that covered healthy-normal, altered and pathological brain states were quantified within the same methodological and conceptual framework. EEG oscillatory states were assessed by the probability-classification analysis of short-term EEG spectral patterns. The results demonstrated that brain activity consists of a limited repertoire of local EEG states in any of the examined conditions. The size of the state repertoires was associated with changes in cognition and vigilance or neuropsychopathologic conditions. Additionally universal, optional and unique EEG states across 13 diverse conditions were observed. It was demonstrated also that EEG oscillations which constituted EEG states were characteristic for different groups of conditions in accordance to oscillations’ functional significance. The results suggested that (a) there is a limit in the number of local states available to the cortex and many ways in which these local states can rearrange themselves and still produce the same global state and (b) EEG individuality is determined by varying proportions of universal, optional and unique oscillatory states. The results enriched our understanding about dynamic microstructure of EEG-signal. PMID:24505292

  1. Car and Motorcycle Show Brings “Gearheads” and Fans Together | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer On Sept. 24, the Building 549 parking lot was full of cars; however, unlike any regular work day, the spaces were filled with a variety of classic cars, street rods, motorcycles, and unique modern cars for display in the first car and motorcycle show hosted at NCI at Frederick.

  2. Conversion of palatal rugae pattern to scanable Quick Response code in an Arabian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadatullah Syed

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The alphanumeric and QR code of the rugae pattern are unique for each individual and can be used for digital record keeping and person identification. A high degree of sexual dimorphism in PR exists in the studied Arab population studied.

  3. Uniqueness of non-linear ground states for fractional Laplacians in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Rupert L.; Lenzmann, Enno

    2013-01-01

    We prove uniqueness of ground state solutions Q = Q(|x|) ≥ 0 of the non-linear equation (−Δ)sQ+Q−Qα+1=0inR,where 0 fractional Laplacian in one dimension. In particular, we answer affirmatively an open question...... recently raised by Kenig–Martel–Robbiano and we generalize (by completely different techniques) the specific uniqueness result obtained by Amick and Toland for s=12 and α = 1 in [5] for the Benjamin–Ono equation. As a technical key result in this paper, we show that the associated linearized operator L...... + = (−Δ) s +1−(α+1)Q α is non-degenerate; i.e., its kernel satisfies ker L + = span{Q′}. This result about L + proves a spectral assumption, which plays a central role for the stability of solitary waves and blowup analysis for non-linear dispersive PDEs with fractional Laplacians, such as the generalized...

  4. Existence and uniqueness in anisotropic conductivity reconstruction with Faraday's law

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Min-Gi

    2015-03-18

    We show that three sets of internal current densities are the right amount of data that give the existence and the uniqueness at the same time in reconstructing an anisotropic conductivity in two space dimensions. The curl free equation of Faraday’s law is taken instead of the usual divergence free equation of the electrical impedance to- mography. Boundary conditions related to given current densities are introduced which complete a well determined problem for conductivity reconstruction together with Fara- day’s law.

  5. Peripheral formalin injection induces unique spinal cord microglial phenotypic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kai-Yuan; Tan, Yong-Hui; Sung, Backil; Mao, Jianren

    2014-01-01

    Microglia are resident immune cells of brain and activated by peripheral tissue injury. In the present study, we investigated the possible induction of several microglial surface immunomolecules in the spinal cord, including leukocyte common antigen (LCA/CD45), MHC class I antigen, MHC class II antigen, Fc receptor, and CD11c following formalin injection into the rat’s hind paw. CD45 and MHC class I were upregulated in the activated microglia, which was evident on day 3 with the peak expression on day 7 following peripheral formalin injection. There was a very low basal expression of MHC class II, CD11c, and the Fc receptor, which did not change after the formalin injection. These results, for the first time, indicate that peripheral formalin injection can induce phenotypic changes of microglia with distinct upregulation of CD45 and MHC class I antigen. The data suggest that phenotypic changes of the activated microglia may be a unique pattern of central changes following peripheral tissue injury. PMID:19015000

  6. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy L Caldwell

    Full Text Available Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  7. A Novel Approach to Beam Steering Using Arrays Composed of Multiple Unique Radiating Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie, Nathan Richard

    Phased array antennas have found wide application in both radar and wireless communications systems particularly as implementation costs continue to decrease. The primary advantages of electronically scanned arrays are speed of beam scan and versatility of beamforming compared to mechanically scanned fixed beam antennas. These benefits come at the cost of a few well known design issues including element pattern rolloff and mutual coupling between elements. Our primary contribution to the field of research is the demonstration of significant improvement in phased array scan performance using multiple unique radiating modes. In short, orthogonal radiating modes have minimal coupling by definition and can also be generated with reduced rolloff at wide scan angles. In this dissertation, we present a combination of analysis, full-wave electromagnetic simulation and measured data to support our claims. The novel folded ring resonator (FRR) antenna is introduced as a wideband and multi-band element embedded in a grounded dielectric substrate. Multiple radiating modes of a small ground plane excited by a four element FRR array were also investigated. A novel hemispherical null steering antenna composed of two collocated radiating elements, each supporting a unique radiating mode, is presented in the context of an anti-jam GPS receiver application. Both the antenna aperture and active feed network were fabricated and measured showing excellent agreement with analytical and simulated data. The concept of using an antenna supporting multiple radiating modes for beam steering is also explored. A 16 element hybrid linear phased array was fabricated and measured demonstrating significantly improved scan range and scanned gain compared to a conventional phased array. This idea is expanded to 2 dimensional scanning arrays by analysis and simulation of a hybrid phased array composed of novel multiple mode monopole on patch antenna sub-arrays. Finally, we fabricated and

  8. Variable pattern contamination control under positive pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippi, H.M.

    1997-01-01

    Airborne contamination control in nuclear and biological laboratories is traditionally achieved by directing the space ventilation air at subatmospheric pressures in one fixed flow pattern. However, biological and nuclear contamination flow control in the new Biological Research Facility, to be commissioned at the Chalk River Laboratories in 1996, will have the flexibility to institute a number of contamination control patterns, all achieved at positive (above atmospheric) pressures. This flexibility feature, made possible by means of a digitally controlled ventilation system, changes the facility ventilation system from being a relatively rigid building service operated by plant personnel into a flexible building service which can be operated by the facility research personnel. This paper focuses on and describes the application of these unique contamination control features in the design of the new Biological Research Facility. 3 refs., 7 figs

  9. Variable pattern contamination control under positive pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippi, H.M. [Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada)

    1997-08-01

    Airborne contamination control in nuclear and biological laboratories is traditionally achieved by directing the space ventilation air at subatmospheric pressures in one fixed flow pattern. However, biological and nuclear contamination flow control in the new Biological Research Facility, to be commissioned at the Chalk River Laboratories in 1996, will have the flexibility to institute a number of contamination control patterns, all achieved at positive (above atmospheric) pressures. This flexibility feature, made possible by means of a digitally controlled ventilation system, changes the facility ventilation system from being a relatively rigid building service operated by plant personnel into a flexible building service which can be operated by the facility research personnel. This paper focuses on and describes the application of these unique contamination control features in the design of the new Biological Research Facility. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Asymmetrical Pedaling Patterns in Parkinson's Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penko, Amanda L.; Hirsch, Joshua R.; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Martin, Philip E.; Blackburn, Gordon; Alberts, Jay L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 1.5 million Americans are affected by Parkinson's disease [1] which includes the symptoms of postural instability and gait dysfunction. Currently, clinical evaluations of postural instability and gait dysfunction consist of a subjective rater assessment of gait patterns using items from the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, and assessments can be insensitive to the effectiveness of medical interventions. Current research suggests the importance of cycling for Parkinson's disease patients, and while Parkinson's gait has been evaluated in previous studies, little is known about lower extremity control during cycling. The purpose of this study is to examine the lower extremity coordination patterns of Parkinson's patients during cycling. Methods Twenty five participants, ages 44-72, with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease participated in an exercise test on a cycle ergometer that was equipped with pedal force measurements. Crank torque, crank angle and power produced by right and left leg were measured throughout the test to calculate Symmetry Index at three stages of exercise (20 Watt, 60 Watt, maximum performance). Findings Decreases in Symmetry Index were observed for average power output in Parkinson's patients as workload increased. Maximum power Symmetry Index showed a significant difference in symmetry between performance at both the 20 Watt and 60 Watt stage and the maximal resistance stage. Minimum power Symmetry Index did not show significant differences across the stages of the test. While lower extremity asymmetries were present in Parkinson's patients during pedaling, these asymmetries did not correlate to postural instability and gait dysfunction Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores. Interpretation This pedaling analysis allows for a more sensitive measure of lower extremity function than the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and may help to provide unique insight into current and

  11. Relation between the Macroscopic Pattern of Elephant Ivory and Its Three-Dimensional Micro-Tubular Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albéric, Marie; Dean, Mason N.; Gourrier, Aurélien; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Dunlop, John W. C.; Staude, Andreas; Fratzl, Peter; Reiche, Ina

    2017-01-01

    Macroscopic, periodic, dark and bright patterns are observed on sections of elephant tusk, in the dentin part (ivory). The motifs—also called Schreger pattern—vary depending on the orientation in the tusk: on sections perpendicular to the tusk axis, a checkerboard pattern is present whereas on sections longitudinal to it, alternating stripes are observed. This pattern has been used to identify elephant and mammoth ivory in archeological artifacts and informs on the continuous tissue growth mechanisms of tusk. However, its origin, assumed to be related to the 3D structure of empty microtubules surrounded by the ivory matrix has yet to be characterized unequivocally. Based on 2D observations of the ivory microtubules by means of a variety of imaging techniques of three different planes (transverse, longitudinal and tangential to the tusk axis), we show that the dark areas of the macroscopic pattern are due to tubules oblique to the surface whereas bright areas are related to tubules parallel to it. The different microstructures observed in the three planes as well as the 3D data obtained by SR-μCT analysis allow us to propose a 3D model of the microtubule network with helical tubules phase-shifted in the tangential direction. The phase shift is a combination of a continuous phase shift of π every 1 mm with a stepwise phase shift of π/2 every 500 μm. By using 3D modeling, we show how the 3D helical model better represents the experimental microstructure observed in 2D planes compared to previous models in the literature. This brings new information on the origin of the unique Schreger pattern of elephant ivory, crucial for better understanding how archaeological objects were processed and for opening new routes to rethink how biological materials are built. PMID:28125603

  12. Distinctive patterns of evolution of the δ-globin gene (HBD in primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moleirinho

    Full Text Available In most vertebrates, hemoglobin (Hb is a heterotetramer composed of two dissimilar globin chains, which change during development according to the patterns of expression of α- and β-globin family members. In placental mammals, the β-globin cluster includes three early-expressed genes, ε(HBE-γ(HBG-ψβ(HBBP1, and the late expressed genes, δ (HBD and β (HBB. While HBB encodes the major adult β-globin chain, HBD is weakly expressed or totally silent. Paradoxically, in human populations HBD shows high levels of conservation typical of genes under strong evolutionary constraints, possibly due to a regulatory role in the fetal-to-adult switch unique of Anthropoid primates. In this study, we have performed a comprehensive phylogenetic and comparative analysis of the two adult β-like globin genes in a set of diverse mammalian taxa, focusing on the evolution and functional divergence of HBD in primates. Our analysis revealed that anthropoids are an exception to a general pattern of concerted evolution in placental mammals, showing a high level of sequence conservation at HBD, less frequent and shorter gene conversion events. Moreover, this lineage is unique in the retention of a functional GATA-1 motif, known to be involved in the control of the developmental expression of the β-like globin genes. We further show that not only the mode but also the rate of evolution of the δ-globin gene in higher primates are strictly associated with the fetal/adult β-cluster developmental switch. To gain further insight into the possible functional constraints that have been shaping the evolutionary history of HBD in primates, we calculated dN/dS (ω ratios under alternative models of gene evolution. Although our results indicate that HBD might have experienced different selective pressures throughout primate evolution, as shown by different ω values between apes and Old World Monkeys + New World Monkeys (0.06 versus 0.43, respectively, these estimates

  13. Application of next-generation sequencing technology to study genetic diversity and identify unique SNP markers in bread wheat from Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavrukov, Yuri; Suchecki, Radoslaw; Eliby, Serik; Abugalieva, Aigul; Kenebayev, Serik; Langridge, Peter

    2014-09-28

    New SNP marker platforms offer the opportunity to investigate the relationships between wheat cultivars from different regions and assess the mechanism and processes that have led to adaptation to particular production environments. Wheat breeding has a long history in Kazakhstan and the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between key varieties from Kazakhstan and germplasm from breeding programs for other regions. The study revealed 5,898 polymorphic markers amongst ten cultivars, of which 2,730 were mapped in the consensus genetic map. Mapped SNP markers were distributed almost equally across the A and B genomes, with between 279 and 484 markers assigned to each chromosome. Marker coverage was approximately 10-fold lower in the D genome. There were 863 SNP markers identified as unique to specific cultivars, and clusters of these markers (regions containing more than three closely mapped unique SNPs) showed specific patterns on the consensus genetic map for each cultivar. Significant intra-varietal genetic polymorphism was identified in three cultivars (Tzelinnaya 3C, Kazakhstanskaya rannespelaya and Kazakhstanskaya 15). Phylogenetic analysis based on inter-varietal polymorphism showed that the very old cultivar Erythrospermum 841 was the most genetically distinct from the other nine cultivars from Kazakhstan, falling in a clade together with the American cultivar Sonora and genotypes from Central and South Asia. The modern cultivar Kazakhstanskaya 19 also fell into a separate clade, together with the American cultivar Thatcher. The remaining eight cultivars shared a single sub-clade but were categorised into four clusters. The accumulated data for SNP marker polymorphisms amongst bread wheat genotypes from Kazakhstan may be used for studying genetic diversity in bread wheat, with potential application for marker-assisted selection and the preparation of a set of genotype-specific markers.

  14. Trickle-down boundary conditions in aeolian dune-field pattern formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R. C.; Kocurek, G.

    2015-12-01

    One the one hand, wind-blown dune-field patterns emerge within the overarching boundary conditions of climate, tectonics and eustasy implying the presence of these signals in the aeolian geomorphic and stratigraphic record. On the other hand, dune-field patterns are a poster-child of self-organization, in which autogenic processes give rise to patterned landscapes despite remarkable differences in the geologic setting (i.e., Earth, Mars and Titan). How important are climate, tectonics and eustasy in aeolian dune field pattern formation? Here we develop the hypothesis that, in terms of pattern development, dune fields evolve largely independent of the direct influence of 'system-scale' boundary conditions, such as climate, tectonics and eustasy. Rather, these boundary conditions set the stage for smaller-scale, faster-evolving 'event-scale' boundary conditions. This 'trickle-down' effect, in which system-scale boundary conditions indirectly influence the event scale boundary conditions provides the uniqueness and richness of dune-field patterned landscapes. The trickle-down effect means that the architecture of the stratigraphic record of dune-field pattern formation archives boundary conditions, which are spatially and temporally removed from the overarching geologic setting. In contrast, the presence of an aeolian stratigraphic record itself, reflects changes in system-scale boundary conditions that drive accumulation and preservation of aeolian strata.

  15. Pattern graph rewrite systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleks Kissinger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available String diagrams are a powerful tool for reasoning about physical processes, logic circuits, tensor networks, and many other compositional structures. Dixon, Duncan and Kissinger introduced string graphs, which are a combinatoric representations of string diagrams, amenable to automated reasoning about diagrammatic theories via graph rewrite systems. In this extended abstract, we show how the power of such rewrite systems can be greatly extended by introducing pattern graphs, which provide a means of expressing infinite families of rewrite rules where certain marked subgraphs, called !-boxes ("bang boxes", on both sides of a rule can be copied any number of times or removed. After reviewing the string graph formalism, we show how string graphs can be extended to pattern graphs and how pattern graphs and pattern rewrite rules can be instantiated to concrete string graphs and rewrite rules. We then provide examples demonstrating the expressive power of pattern graphs and how they can be applied to study interacting algebraic structures that are central to categorical quantum mechanics.

  16. Uniqueness of magnetotomography for fuel cells and fuel cell stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustfeld, H; Hirschfeld, J; Reissel, M; Steffen, B

    2009-01-01

    The criterion for the applicability of any tomographic method is its ability to construct the desired inner structure of a system from external measurements, i.e. to solve the inverse problem. Magnetotomography applied to fuel cells and fuel cell stacks aims at determining the inner current densities from measurements of the external magnetic field. This is an interesting idea since in those systems the inner electric current densities are large, several hundred mA per cm 2 and therefore relatively high external magnetic fields can be expected. Still the question remains how uniquely the inverse problem can be solved. Here we present a proof that by exploiting Maxwell's equations extensively the inverse problem of magnetotomography becomes unique under rather mild assumptions and we show that these assumptions are fulfilled in fuel cells and fuel cell stacks. Moreover, our proof holds true for any other device fulfilling the assumptions listed here. Admittedly, our proof has one caveat: it does not contain an estimate of the precision requirements the measurements need to fulfil for enabling reconstruction of the inner current densities from external magnetic fields.

  17. DECISIONS ET COMPETITIVITE SUR LE MARCHE UNIQUE EUROPEEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirghi Nicoleta

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available L’un des traits importants du marché unique européen, a comme source le męme énoncé du principal objectif de l’intégration européenne ainsi que: l’harmonisation des niveaux du développement des Etats Membres et l’augmentation du niveau de vie dans l’ensemble de la communauté. Pour le marché unique européen, cet aspect se traduit par une permanente et soutenue augmentation de la demande. Cet ouvrage présente au début une analyse des éléments spécifiques du marché européen. Ensuite on identifie les opportunités et les risques au niveau macroéconomique adjointes aux perspectives du marché unique européen. Comme fondement on présente des stratégies du développement réalisables au niveau microéconomique que puissent assurer l’augmentation du niveau sur la compétitivité des sociétés sur le marché unique européen.

  18. [Sudeck syndrome (CRPS) caused by unique personality traits: myth and fiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesky, J

    2010-12-01

    In analogy to the thesis of "pain-proneness", conceptualised by G. Engel more than 50 years ago, the idea of a unique structure in personality emerged, which was given a causal meaning in the development of Sudeck's Disease (now known as complex regional pain syndrome - CRPS), of which the pathogenesis is particularly unknown until today. It was supposed that certain psychological traits predispose one to develop CRPS. Predisposition in this context was apprehended as a personal susceptibility to produce and maintain an excessive reaction to nociceptive stimulations. This model has been maintained for a long time and was the subject of scientific examination just in the last two decades. Some publications reporting sporadic correlations between CRPS and certain personality traits, for example anxiety, neuroticism and depressive mood, are presented as are also 15 current empirical studies and five reviews, which deal in a more differentiated manner with the formulated question and lead to sobering results. The relevant state of research as well as the fundamental and methodical difficulties in regard to verifying a CRPS personality or pain-prone personality are discussed critically. In general, there is a lack of high-quality relevant studies. Some retrospective/cross-sectional studies yield contradictory results regarding psychological problems in patients with CRPS but the majority shows no association, and studies with higher methodological quality tend to the conclusion of no relationship between psychological factors like depression, anxiety, neuroticism, or anger and CRPS. Especially, the few prospective studies do not report such a relationship, psychological factors are not associated with CRPS onset. Compared to other patients with chronic pain there is no unique disturbed psychological profile and no higher degree of psychosocial disturbance in CRPS patients. In all, the results of research cannot confirm the hypothesis of correlations between

  19. Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory contains selected information on physicians, doctors of Osteopathy, limited licensed practitioners and...

  20. Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Knops, Robin John

    1971-01-01

    The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...

  1. Deregulated power prices: comparison of diurnal patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Li; Flynn, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    We examine electrical power price, and in particular its daily and average weekday vs. weekend pattern of change, for 14 deregulated markets. Power price in deregulated markets shows fundamentally different patterns. North American markets show a monotonic diurnal weekday price pattern, while all other markets studied show more than one price peak. Deregulated power markets differ in maximum vs. minimum daily average price and in average weekday to weekend price, in turn creating a different incentive for a consumer to time shift power consuming activities. Markets differ in the extent to which a small fraction of the days shapes the average diurnal pattern and value of price. Deregulated markets show a wide variation in the correlation between load and price. Some deregulated markets, most notably Britain and Spain, show patterns that are predictable and consistent, and hence that can encourage a customer to shape consumption behaviors. Other markets, for example South Australia, have patterns that are inconsistent and irregular, and hence are hard for a customer to interpret; a customer in such a market will have a higher incentive to escape risk through hedging mechanisms. (Author)

  2. Deregulated power prices: comparison of diurnal patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ying; Flynn, Peter C.

    2004-01-01

    We examine electrical power price, and in particular its daily and average weekday vs. weekend pattern of change, for 14 deregulated markets. Power price in deregulated markets shows fundamentally different patterns. North American markets show a monotonic diurnal weekday price pattern, while all other markets studied show more than one price peak. Deregulated power markets differ in maximum vs. minimum daily average price and in average weekday to weekend price, in turn creating a different incentive for a consumer to time shift power consuming activities. Markets differ in the extent to which a small fraction of the days shapes the average diurnal pattern and value of price. Deregulated markets show a wide variation in the correlation between load and price. Some deregulated markets, most notably Britain and Spain, show patterns that are predictable and consistent, and hence that can encourage a customer to shape consumption behaviors. Other markets, for example South Australia, have patterns that are inconsistent and irregular, and hence are hard for a customer to interpret; a customer in such a market will have a higher incentive to escape risk through hedging mechanisms

  3. Glucose metabolite patterns as markers of functional differentiation in freshly isolated and cultured mouse mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerman, J.T.; Bartley, J.C.; Bissel, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In the mammary gland of non-ruminant animals, glucose is utilized in a characteristic and unique way during lacation. By measuring the incorporation of glucose carbon from [U- 14 C]glucose into intermediary metabolitees and metabolic products in mammary epithelia cells from virgin, pregnant, and lacating mice, we domonstrate that glucose metabolite patterns can be used to recognize stages of differentiated function. For these cells, the rates of synthesis of glycogen and lactose, the ratio of lactate to alanine, and the ratio of citrate to malate are important parameters in identifying the degree of expression of differentiation. We further show that these patterns can be used as markers to determine the differentiated state of cultured mammary epithelial cells. Cells maintained on plastic substrates lose their distinctive glucose metabolite patterns while those on floating collagen gels do not. Cells isolated from pregnant mice and cultured on collagen gels have a pattern similar to that of their freshly isolated counter-parts. When isolated from lacating mice, the metabolite patterns of cells cultured on collagen gels are different from that of the cells of origin, and resembles that of freshly isolated cells from pregnant mice. Our findings suggest that the floating collagen gels under the culture conditions used in these experiments provide an environment for the functional expression of the pregnant state, while additional factors are needed for the expression of the lactating state

  4. On the uniqueness of minimal coupling in higher-spin gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, Nicolas; Sundell, Per; Leclercq, Serge

    2008-01-01

    We address the uniqueness of the minimal couplings between higher-spin fields and gravity. These couplings are cubic vertices built from gauge non-invariant connections that induce non-abelian deformations of the gauge algebra. We show that Fradkin-Vasiliev's cubic 2-s-s vertex, which contains up to 2s-2 derivatives dressed by a cosmological constant Λ, has a limit where: (i) Λ → 0; (ii) the spin-2 Weyl tensor scales non-uniformly with s; and (iii) all lower-derivative couplings are scaled away. For s = 3 the limit yields the unique non-abelian spin 2-3-3 vertex found recently by two of the authors, thereby proving the uniqueness of the corresponding FV vertex. We extend the analysis to s = 4 and a class of spin 1-s-s vertices. The non-universality of the flat limit high-lightens not only the problematic aspects of higher-spin interactions with Λ = 0 but also the strongly coupled nature of the derivative expansion of the fully nonlinear higher-spin field equations with Λ≠0, wherein the standard minimal couplings mediated via the Lorentz connection are subleading at energy scales (|Λ|) 1/2 || E || M p . Finally, combining our results with those obtained by Metsaev, we give the complete list of all the manifestly covariant cubic couplings of the form 1-s-s and 2-s-s , in Minkowski background.

  5. Patterning Multi-Nanostructured Poly(l-lactic acid) Fibrous Matrices to Manipulate Biomolecule Distribution and Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wenwu; Li, Qingtao; He, Huimin; Li, Wenxiu; Cao, Xiaodong; Dong, Hua

    2018-03-14

    Precise manipulation of biomolecule distribution and functions via biomolecule-matrix interaction is very important and challenging for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. As a well-known biomimetic matrix, electrospun fibers often lack the unique spatial complexity compared to their natural counterparts in vivo and thus cannot deliver fully the regulatory cues to biomolecules. In this paper, we report a facile and reliable method to fabricate micro- and nanostructured poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) fibrous matrices with spatial complexity by a combination of advanced electrospinning and agarose hydrogel stamp-based micropatterning. Specifically, advanced electrospinning is used to construct multi-nanostructures of fibrous matrices while solvent-loaded agarose hydrogel stamps are used to create microstructures. Compared with other methods, our method shows extreme simplicity and flexibility originated from the mono-/multi-spinneret conversion and limitless micropatterns of agarose hydrogel stamps. Three types of PLLA fibrous matrices including patterned nano-Ag/PLLA hybrid fibers, patterned bicompartment polyethylene terephthalate/PLLA fibers, and patterned hollow PLLA fibers are fabricated and their capability to manipulate biomolecule distribution and functions, that is, bacterial distribution and antibacterial performance, cell patterning and adhesion/spreading behaviors, and protein adsorption and delivery, is demonstrated in detail. The method described in our paper provides a powerful tool to restore spatial complexity in biomimetic matrices and would have promising applications in the field of biomedical engineering.

  6. Differential and Cooperative Cell Adhesion Regulates Cellular Pattern in Sensory Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Hideru

    2016-01-01

    Animal tissues are composed of multiple cell types arranged in complex and elaborate patterns. In sensory epithelia, including the auditory epithelium and olfactory epithelium, different types of cells are arranged in unique mosaic patterns. These mosaic patterns are evolutionarily conserved, and are thought to be important for hearing and olfaction. Recent progress has provided accumulating evidence that the cellular pattern formation in epithelia involves cell rearrangements, movements, and shape changes. These morphogenetic processes are largely mediated by intercellular adhesion systems. Differential adhesion and cortical tension have been proposed to promote cell rearrangements. Many different types of cells in tissues express various types of cell adhesion molecules. Although cooperative mechanisms between multiple adhesive systems are likely to contribute to the production of complex cell patterns, our current understanding of the cooperative roles between multiple adhesion systems is insufficient to entirely explain the complex mechanisms underlying cellular patterning. Recent studies have revealed that nectins, in cooperation with cadherins, are crucial for the mosaic cellular patterning in sensory organs. The nectin and cadherin systems are interacted with one another, and these interactions provide cells with differential adhesive affinities for complex cellular pattern formations in sensory epithelia, which cannot be achieved by a single mechanism.

  7. Muscle Fiber Type Composition and Knee Extension Isometric Strength Fatigue Patterns in Power- and Endurance-Trained Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Walter; And Others

    1980-01-01

    There is a degree of uniqueness in fatigue patterns, particularly between different levels of absolute maximum strength. Caution should be used when analyzing fatigue curves among subjects with unspecified strength levels. (CJ)

  8. Two Galaxies for a Unique Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    of the image is clearly demonstrated by the remarkable number of background galaxies seen, as well as the huge numbers of individual stars that can be counted within NGC 55. The second image shows another galaxy belonging to the Sculptor group. This is NGC 7793, which has a chaotic spiral structure, unlike the class of grand-design spiral galaxies to which our Milky Way belongs. The image shows how difficult it is to identify any particular spiral arm in these chaotic structures, although it is possible to guess at a general rotating pattern. NGC 7793 is located slightly further away than NGC 55, about 12.5 million light-years from us, and is about half the size of NGC 55. NGC 7793 was observed with one of the workhorses of the ESO Paranal Observatory, the FORS instrument, attached to the Very Large Telescope.

  9. Onset of human preterm and term birth is related to unique inflammatory transcriptome profiles at the maternal fetal interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Preterm birth is a main determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity and a major contributor to the overall mortality and burden of disease. However, research of the preterm birth is hindered by the imprecise definition of the clinical phenotype and complexity of the molecular phenotype due to multiple pregnancy tissue types and molecular processes that may contribute to the preterm birth. Here we comprehensively evaluate the mRNA transcriptome that characterizes preterm and term labor in tissues comprising the pregnancy using precisely phenotyped samples. The four complementary phenotypes together provide comprehensive insight into preterm and term parturition. Methods Samples of maternal blood, chorion, amnion, placenta, decidua, fetal blood, and myometrium from the uterine fundus and lower segment (n = 183 were obtained during cesarean delivery from women with four complementary phenotypes: delivering preterm with (PL and without labor (PNL, term with (TL and without labor (TNL. Enrolled were 35 pregnant women with four precisely and prospectively defined phenotypes: PL (n = 8, PNL (n = 10, TL (n = 7 and TNL (n = 10. Gene expression data were analyzed using shrunken centroid analysis to identify a minimal set of genes that uniquely characterizes each of the four phenotypes. Expression profiles of 73 genes and non-coding RNA sequences uniquely identified each of the four phenotypes. The shrunken centroid analysis and 10 times 10-fold cross-validation was also used to minimize false positive finings and overfitting. Identified were the pathways and molecular processes associated with and the cis-regulatory elements in gene’s 5′ promoter or 3′-UTR regions of the set of genes which expression uniquely characterized the four phenotypes. Results The largest differences in gene expression among the four groups occurred at maternal fetal interface in decidua, chorion and amnion. The gene expression profiles showed

  10. Domain knowledge patterns in pedagogical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miarka, Rostislav

    2017-07-01

    This paper shows a proposal of representation of knowledge patterns in RDF(S) language. Knowledge patterns are used for reuse of knowledge. They can be divided into two groups - Top-level knowledge patterns and Domain knowledge patterns. Pedagogical diagnostics is aimed at testing of knowledge of students at primary and secondary school. An example of domain knowledge pattern from pedagogical diagnostics is part of this paper.

  11. Using pattern analysis methods to do fast detection of manufacturing pattern failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Evan; Wang, Jessie; Sun, Mason; Wang, Jeff; Zhang, Yifan; Sweis, Jason; Lai, Ya-Chieh; Ding, Hua

    2016-03-01

    At the advanced technology node, logic design has become extremely complex and is getting more challenging as the pattern geometry size decreases. The small sizes of layout patterns are becoming very sensitive to process variations. Meanwhile, the high pressure of yield ramp is always there due to time-to-market competition. The company that achieves patterning maturity earlier than others will have a great advantage and a better chance to realize maximum profit margins. For debugging silicon failures, DFT diagnostics can identify which nets or cells caused the yield loss. But normally, a long time period is needed with many resources to identify which failures are due to one common layout pattern or structure. This paper will present a new yield diagnostic flow, based on preliminary EFA results, to show how pattern analysis can more efficiently detect pattern related systematic defects. Increased visibility on design pattern related failures also allows more precise yield loss estimation.

  12. Unique Perspectives on a Transforming Energy Economy: 2014 Annual Report (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossett, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    What makes JISEA unique? Unique perspectives. This brochure highlights the unique perspectives provided by the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis through JISEA's recent accomplishments and the people behind them.

  13. PET-CT in the typification of unique pulmonary injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobos, P.; San Roman, Jose L.; Dalurzo, L.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this document is to evaluate the usefulness of the PET-CT for the characterization of the unique pulmonary injuries. Retrospective analysis was made to patients with unique pulmonary injuries who carried out a PET-CT in the Italian Hospital between May of 2003 - March of 2005. Those patients with pulmonary outlying nodule, or unique pulmonary mass that had pathological anatomy of injury or follow-up through a computed tomography of thorax made with an interval of time not minor at 2 years of the PET-CT were included [es

  14. Direct Laser Interference Patterning: Tailoring of Contact Area for Frictional and Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Rosenkranz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface functionalization by topographic micro- and nano-structures in order to achieve unique properties, like super-hydrophobicity or ultrahigh light absorption, is a common strategy in nature. In this paper, direct laser interference patterning (DLIP is presented as a promising tool allowing for the generation of such surface patterns on technical surfaces in order to mimic these biological surfaces and effects. Friction optimization and antibacterial effects by DLIP are exemplarily described. Topographic surface patterns on the micro- and nano-scale demonstrated a significant reduction in the coefficient of friction and bacterial adhesion. It was shown that in both cases, the control of the contact area between surfaces or between surface and bacteria is of utmost importance.

  15. Lattices with unique complements

    CERN Document Server

    Saliĭ, V N

    1988-01-01

    The class of uniquely complemented lattices properly contains all Boolean lattices. However, no explicit example of a non-Boolean lattice of this class has been found. In addition, the question of whether this class contains any complete non-Boolean lattices remains unanswered. This book focuses on these classical problems of lattice theory and the various attempts to solve them. Requiring no specialized knowledge, the book is directed at researchers and students interested in general algebra and mathematical logic.

  16. Evolution and functional significance of derived sternal ossification patterns in ornithothoracine birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’connor, J. K.; Zheng, X.-T.; Sullivan, C.; Chuong, C.-M.; Wang, X.-L.; Li, A.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, X.-M.; Zhou, Z.-H.

    2017-01-01

    The midline pattern of sternal ossification characteristic of the Cretaceous enantiornithine birds is unique among the Ornithodira, the group containing birds, nonavian dinosaurs and pterosaurs. This has been suggested to indicate that Enantiornithes is not the sister group of Ornithuromorpha, the clade that includes living birds and their close relatives, which would imply rampant convergence in many nonsternal features between enantiornithines and ornithuromorphs. However, detailed comparisons reveal greater similarity between neornithine (i.e. crown group bird) and enantiornithine modes of sternal ossification than previously recognized. Furthermore, a new subadult enantiornithine specimen demonstrates that sternal ossification followed a more typically ornithodiran pattern in basal members of the clade. This new specimen, referable to the Pengornithidae, indicates that the unique ossification pattern observed in other juvenile enantiornithines is derived within Enantiornithes. A similar but clearly distinct pattern appears to have evolved in parallel in the ornithuromorph lineage. The atypical mode of sternal ossification in some derived enantiornithines should be regarded as an autapomorphic condition rather than an indication that enantiornithines are not close relatives of ornithuromorphs. Based on what is known about molecular mechanisms for morphogenesis and the possible selective advantages, the parallel shifts to midline ossification that took place in derived enantiornithines and living neognathous birds appear to have been related to the development of a large ventral keel, which is only present in ornithuromorphs and enantiornithines. Midline ossification can serve to medially reinforce the sternum at a relatively early ontogenetic stage, which would have been especially beneficial during the protracted development of the superprecocial Cretaceous enantiornithines. PMID:26079847

  17. An unusual scintigraphic pattern in sickle cell patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaser, A.M.; Chen, D.C.P.; Siegel, M.E.; Norris, S.L.; Haywood, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    We reviewed the nuclear medicine files of all patients enrolled in the sickle cell disease clinic who had had scans performed within the previous 5 years. We specifically looked for patterns of tracer uptake in these scans that would correlate with the severe anemia and consequent bone marrow hyperactivity of sickle cell patients. Thirty-three patients were included (21 men and 12 women) with a mean age of 26.8 years (range 17-48 years). The appearance of each of these patients' most recent scans was examined in the areas of the distal femurs, the proximal tibias and the distal tibias; a distinct triangular shaped pattern of increased activity was identified in these areas in a majority of patients. Thirty-three patients without sickle cell disease served as age-matched controls. This pattern was seen in 65.1% (95 out of 146 images) of the sickle cell patients' delayed images and 80.4% (82 out of 102 images) of their blood pool images. In contrast, the control patients demonstrated the triangular pattern in none of their blood pool studies (0%) and only 10.9% of their delayed bone images (P<0.001). The mean age of sickle cell patients with this pattern is 25.6 years which was significantly lower than that of those without this pattern (mean=37.5 years, P<0.05). Given the high prevalence of this unique scintigraphic pattern in a group of patients with known accelerated bone marrow function, these findings may be scintigraphic evidence of bone marrow expansion. The patient's age appears to be an important factor in visualization of this pattern. (orig.)

  18. Professional ASPNET Design Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Millett, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Professional ASP.NET Design Patterns will show you how to implement design patterns in real ASP.NET applications by introducing you to the basic OOP skills needed to understand and interpret design patterns. A sample application used throughout the book is an enterprise level ASP.NET website with multi-tiered, SOA design techniques that can be applied to your future ASP.NET projects. Read about each design pattern in detail, including how to interpret the UML design, how to implement it in ASP.NET, its importance for ASP.NET development, and how it's integrated into the final project.

  19. ASD Is Not DLI: Individuals With Autism and Individuals With Syntactic DLI Show Similar Performance Level in Syntactic Tasks, but Different Error Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nufar Sukenik

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Do individuals with autism have a developmental syntactic impairment, DLI (formerly known as SLI? In this study we directly compared the performance of 18 individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD aged 9;0–18;0 years with that of 93 individuals with Syntactic-Developmental Language Impairment (SyDLI aged 8;8–14;6 (and with 166 typically-developing children aged 5;2–18;1. We tested them using three syntactic tests assessing the comprehension and production of syntactic structures that are known to be sensitive to syntactic impairment: elicitation of subject and object relative clauses, reading and paraphrasing of object relatives, and repetition of complex syntactic structures including Wh questions, relative clauses, topicalized sentences, sentences with verb movement, sentences with A-movement, and embedded sentences. The results were consistent across the three tasks: the overall rate of correct performance on the syntactic tasks is similar for the children with ASD and those with SyDLI. However, once we look closer, they are very different. The types of errors of the ASD group differ from those of the SyDLI group—the children with ASD provide various types of pragmatically infelicitous responses that are not evinced in the SyDLI or in the age equivalent typically-developing groups. The two groups (ASD and SyDLI also differ in the pattern of performance—the children with SyDLI show a syntactically-principled pattern of impairment, with selective difficulty in specific sentence types (such as sentences derived by movement of the object across the subject, and normal performance on other structures (such as simple sentences. In contrast, the ASD participants showed generalized low performance on the various sentence structures. Syntactic performance was far from consistent within the ASD group. Whereas all ASD participants had errors that can originate in pragmatic/discourse difficulties, seven of them had completely normal syntax

  20. ASD Is Not DLI: Individuals With Autism and Individuals With Syntactic DLI Show Similar Performance Level in Syntactic Tasks, but Different Error Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukenik, Nufar; Friedmann, Naama

    2018-01-01

    Do individuals with autism have a developmental syntactic impairment, DLI (formerly known as SLI)? In this study we directly compared the performance of 18 individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) aged 9;0-18;0 years with that of 93 individuals with Syntactic-Developmental Language Impairment (SyDLI) aged 8;8-14;6 (and with 166 typically-developing children aged 5;2-18;1). We tested them using three syntactic tests assessing the comprehension and production of syntactic structures that are known to be sensitive to syntactic impairment: elicitation of subject and object relative clauses, reading and paraphrasing of object relatives, and repetition of complex syntactic structures including Wh questions, relative clauses, topicalized sentences, sentences with verb movement, sentences with A-movement, and embedded sentences. The results were consistent across the three tasks: the overall rate of correct performance on the syntactic tasks is similar for the children with ASD and those with SyDLI. However, once we look closer, they are very different. The types of errors of the ASD group differ from those of the SyDLI group-the children with ASD provide various types of pragmatically infelicitous responses that are not evinced in the SyDLI or in the age equivalent typically-developing groups. The two groups (ASD and SyDLI) also differ in the pattern of performance-the children with SyDLI show a syntactically-principled pattern of impairment, with selective difficulty in specific sentence types (such as sentences derived by movement of the object across the subject), and normal performance on other structures (such as simple sentences). In contrast, the ASD participants showed generalized low performance on the various sentence structures. Syntactic performance was far from consistent within the ASD group. Whereas all ASD participants had errors that can originate in pragmatic/discourse difficulties, seven of them had completely normal syntax in the structures we

  1. New Inspiring Planetarium Show Introduces ALMA to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    As part of a wide range of education and public outreach activities for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), ESO, together with the Association of French Language Planetariums (APLF), has produced a 30-minute planetarium show, In Search of our Cosmic Origins. It is centred on the global ground-based astronomical Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project and represents a unique chance for planetariums to be associated with the IYA2009. ESO PR Photo 09a/09 Logo of the ALMA Planetarium Show ESO PR Photo 09b/09 Galileo's first observations with a telescope ESO PR Photo 09c/09 The ALMA Observatory ESO PR Photo 09d/09 The Milky Way band ESO PR Video 09a/09 Trailer in English ALMA is the leading telescope for observing the cool Universe -- the relic radiation of the Big Bang, and the molecular gas and dust that constitute the building blocks of stars, planetary systems, galaxies and life itself. It is currently being built in the extremely arid environment of the Chajnantor plateau, at 5000 metres altitude in the Chilean Andes, and will start scientific observations around 2011. ALMA, the largest current astronomical project, is a revolutionary telescope, comprising a state-of-the-art array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas observing at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. In Search of our Cosmic Origins highlights the unprecedented window on the Universe that this facility will open for astronomers. "The show gives viewers a fascinating tour of the highest observatory on Earth, and takes them from there out into our Milky Way, and beyond," says Douglas Pierce-Price, the ALMA Public Information Officer at ESO. Edited by world fulldome experts Mirage3D, the emphasis of the new planetarium show is on the incomparable scientific adventure of the ALMA project. A young female astronomer guides the audience through a story that includes unique animations and footage, leading the viewer from the first observations by Galileo

  2. Integration by parts and by substitution unified, Green's Theorem and uniqueness for ODEs

    OpenAIRE

    Cid, J. A.; Pouso, Rodrigo López

    2015-01-01

    We present a rather unknown version of the change of variables formula for non-autonomous functions. We will show that this formula is equivalent to Green's Theorem for regions of the plane bounded by the graphs of two continuously differentiable functions. Besides, the formula has interesting applications in the uniqueness of solution of ordinary differential equations.

  3. Relating neuronal firing patterns to functional differentiation of cerebral cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Shinomoto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been empirically established that the cerebral cortical areas defined by Brodmann one hundred years ago solely on the basis of cellular organization are closely correlated to their function, such as sensation, association, and motion. Cytoarchitectonically distinct cortical areas have different densities and types of neurons. Thus, signaling patterns may also vary among cytoarchitectonically unique cortical areas. To examine how neuronal signaling patterns are related to innate cortical functions, we detected intrinsic features of cortical firing by devising a metric that efficiently isolates non-Poisson irregular characteristics, independent of spike rate fluctuations that are caused extrinsically by ever-changing behavioral conditions. Using the new metric, we analyzed spike trains from over 1,000 neurons in 15 cortical areas sampled by eight independent neurophysiological laboratories. Analysis of firing-pattern dissimilarities across cortical areas revealed a gradient of firing regularity that corresponded closely to the functional category of the cortical area; neuronal spiking patterns are regular in motor areas, random in the visual areas, and bursty in the prefrontal area. Thus, signaling patterns may play an important role in function-specific cerebral cortical computation.

  4. Salmonella strains isolated from Galápagos iguanas show spatial structuring of serovar and genomic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankau, Emily W; Cruz Bedon, Lenin; Mackie, Roderick I

    2012-01-01

    It is thought that dispersal limitation primarily structures host-associated bacterial populations because host distributions inherently limit transmission opportunities. However, enteric bacteria may disperse great distances during food-borne outbreaks. It is unclear if such rapid long-distance dispersal events happen regularly in natural systems or if these events represent an anthropogenic exception. We characterized Salmonella enterica isolates from the feces of free-living Galápagos land and marine iguanas from five sites on four islands using serotyping and genomic fingerprinting. Each site hosted unique and nearly exclusive serovar assemblages. Genomic fingerprint analysis offered a more complex model of S. enterica biogeography, with evidence of both unique strain pools and of spatial population structuring along a geographic gradient. These findings suggest that even relatively generalist enteric bacteria may be strongly dispersal limited in a natural system with strong barriers, such as oceanic divides. Yet, these differing results seen on two typing methods also suggests that genomic variation is less dispersal limited, allowing for different ecological processes to shape biogeographical patterns of the core and flexible portions of this bacterial species' genome.

  5. Father involvement: Identifying and predicting family members' shared and unique perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, W Justin; Day, Randal D; Harper, James M

    2014-08-01

    Father involvement research has typically not recognized that reports of involvement contain at least two components: 1 reflecting a view of father involvement that is broadly recognized in the family, and another reflecting each reporter's unique perceptions. Using a longitudinal sample of 302 families, this study provides a first examination of shared and unique views of father involvement (engagement and warmth) from the perspectives of fathers, children, and mothers. This study also identifies influences on these shared and unique perspectives. Father involvement reports were obtained when the child was 12 and 14 years old. Mother reports overlapped more with the shared view than father or child reports. This suggests the mother's view may be more in line with broadly recognized father involvement. Regarding antecedents, for fathers' unique view, a compensatory model partially explains results; that is, negative aspects of family life were positively associated with fathers' unique view. Children's unique view of engagement may partially reflect a sentiment override with father antisocial behaviors being predictive. Mothers' unique view of engagement was predicted by father and mother work hours and her unique view of warmth was predicted by depression and maternal gatekeeping. Taken, together finding suggests a far more nuanced view of father involvement should be considered.

  6. Age and area predict patterns of species richness in pumice rafts contingent on oceanic climatic zone encountered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Eleanor; Bryan, Scott E; Ekins, Merrick; Cook, Alex G; Hurrey, Lucy; Firn, Jennifer

    2018-05-01

    The theory of island biogeography predicts that area and age explain species richness patterns (or alpha diversity) in insular habitats. Using a unique natural phenomenon, pumice rafting, we measured the influence of area, age, and oceanic climate on patterns of species richness. Pumice rafts are formed simultaneously when submarine volcanoes erupt, the pumice clasts breakup irregularly, forming irregularly shaped pumice stones which while floating through the ocean are colonized by marine biota. We analyze two eruption events and more than 5,000 pumice clasts collected from 29 sites and three climatic zones. Overall, the older and larger pumice clasts held more species. Pumice clasts arriving in tropical and subtropical climates showed this same trend, where in temperate locations species richness (alpha diversity) increased with area but decreased with age. Beta diversity analysis of the communities forming on pumice clasts that arrived in different climatic zones showed that tropical and subtropical clasts transported similar communities, while species composition on temperate clasts differed significantly from both tropical and subtropical arrivals. Using these thousands of insular habitats, we find strong evidence that area and age but also climatic conditions predict the fundamental dynamics of species richness colonizing pumice clasts.

  7. Do North Atlantic eels show parallel patterns of spatially varying selection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Malene G.; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Ferchaud, Anne-Laure

    2014-01-01

    was used to genotype European eel individuals (glass eels) from 8 sampling locations across the species distribution. We tested for single-generation signatures of spatially varying selection in European eel by searching for elevated genetic differentiation using F-ST-based outlier tests and by testing...... for significant associations between allele frequencies and environmental variables. Results: We found signatures of possible selection at a total of 11 coding-gene SNPs. Candidate genes for local selection constituted mainly genes with a major role in metabolism as well as defense genes. Contrary to what has...... been found for American eel, only 2 SNPs in our study correlated with differences in temperature, which suggests that other explanatory variables may play a role. None of the genes found to be associated with explanatory variables in European eel showed any correlations with environmental factors...

  8. Uniqueness of solutions for a mathematical model for magneto-viscoelastic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlömerkemper, A.; Žabenský, J.

    2018-06-01

    We investigate uniqueness of weak solutions for a system of partial differential equations capturing behavior of magnetoelastic materials. This system couples the Navier–Stokes equations with evolutionary equations for the deformation gradient and for the magnetization obtained from a special case of the micromagnetic energy. It turns out that the conditions on uniqueness coincide with those for the well-known Navier–Stokes equations in bounded domains: weak solutions are unique in two spatial dimensions, and weak solutions satisfying the Prodi–Serrin conditions are unique among all weak solutions in three dimensions. That is, we obtain the so-called weak-strong uniqueness result in three spatial dimensions.

  9. «Paralipomena» on uniqueness in inverse scattering from a finite number of data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Persico

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows new proof of non-uniqueness of the solution for the retrieving of a compact-supported function starting from a finite number of samples of its spectrum. As will be shown, this is relevant for linear inverse scattering problems, that in many cases can be recast as the reconstruction of a compact supported function from a finite set of samples of its spectrum. Since this reconstruction is not unique, from a practical point of view, any linear inverse scattering algorithm that can be recast in terms of a Fourier relationship between unknowns and data necessarily «trusts» on the absence of invisible objects in the particular situation at hand.

  10. Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and health-risk factors in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Son, Say Jin; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Juyoung; Park, Chan; Lee, Lilha; Erickson, Kent L; Jung, In-Kyung

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to identify dietary patterns in Korean men and to determine the associations among dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and health-risk factors. Using baseline data from the Korean Health and Genome Study, dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and associations between these dietary patterns and health-risk factors were analyzed. Three dietary patterns were identified: 1) the "animal-food" pattern (greater intake of meats, fish, and dairy products), 2) the "rice-vegetable" pattern (greater intake of rice, tofu, kimchi, soybean paste, vegetables, and seaweed), and 3) the "noodle-bread" pattern (greater intake of instant noodles, Chinese noodles, and bread). The animal-food pattern (preferred by younger people with higher income and education levels) had a positive correlation with obesity and hypercholesterolemia, whereas the rice-vegetable pattern (preferred by older people with lower income and educational levels) was positively associated with hypertension. The noodle-bread pattern (also preferred by younger people with higher income and education levels) had a positive association with abdominal obesity and hypercholesterolemia. This study identifies three unique dietary patterns in Korean men, which are independently associated with certain health-risk factors. The rice-vegetable dietary pattern, modified for a low sodium intake, might be a healthy dietary pattern for Korean men. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. In situ follicular neoplasia/lymphoma: Three illustrative cases exemplifying unique disease presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sakhadeo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report three elderly patients with follicular lymphoma in situ (FLIS each highlighting a unique pattern of disease presentation and progression. The first patient had incidentally detected FLIS with peripheral blood spill and yet had an 11-year uneventful follow up. The second patient with an overt follicular lymphoma (FL developed high-grade transformation in jejunum with FLIS extensively involving the Payers patches. The third patient had a FLIS but that qualified as higher grade and was treated in spite of lack of overt FL mainly because of higher grade and patient subsequently did develop overt FL. The first case of typical FLIS confirms that peripheral blood spill does not connote poor prognosis in FLIS, the second case illustrates that FLIS may colonize mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue as part of homing in process of a disseminated FL and the third case validates the aggressive nature of high-grade FLIS.

  12. Uniqueness of the electrostatic solution in Schwarzschild space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, Pal G.; Elsaesser, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    In this Brief Report we give the proof that the solution of any static test charge distribution in Schwarzschild space is unique. In order to give the proof we derive the first Green's identity written with p-forms on (pseudo) Riemannian manifolds. Moreover, the proof of uniqueness can be shown for either any purely electric or purely magnetic field configuration. The spacetime geometry is not crucial for the proof

  13. Multi-stability and variable stiffness of cellular solids designed based on origami patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Sattam; Li, Suyi

    2017-04-01

    The application of origami-inspired designs to engineered structures and materials has been a subject of much research efforts. These structures and materials, whose mechanical properties are directly related to the geometry of folding, are capable of achieving a host of unique adaptive functions. In this study, we investigate a three-dimensional multistability and variable stiffness function of a cellular solid based on the Miura-Ori folding pattern. The unit cell of such a solid, consisting of two stacked Miura-Ori sheets, can be elastically bistable due to the nonlinear relationship between rigid-folding deformation and crease material bending. Such a bistability possesses an unorthodox property: the critical, unstable configuration lies on the same side of two stable ones, so that two different force-deformation curves co-exist within the same range of deformation. By exploiting such unique stability properties, we can achieve a programmable stiffness change between the two elastically stable states, and the stiffness differences can be prescribed by tailoring the crease patterns of the cell. This paper presents a comprehensive parametric study revealing the correlations between such variable stiffness and various design parameters. The unique properties stemming from the bistability and design of such a unit cell can be advanced further by assembling them into a solid which can be capable of shape morphing and programmable mechanical properties.

  14. Freshwater fishes in Greek lakes: Species richness and body size patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi Oikonomou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater ecosystems are widely recognised as hotspots of biodiversity and endemism; thus they are of great value for conservation biogeography. Amongst the taxa found in freshwater ecosystems, fish are the ideal biological model for testing biogeographical patterns and have often been used in large-scale ecological and biogeographical analyses. Lakes of Greece provide a unique opportunity to test biogeographical theories, however, biogeographical studies in Greece at broader, regional, scales, based on the distribution of freshwater species, species richness and endemism, are scarce. The aim of the current study is to test the effect of key environmental factors and spatial variables on species richness of lacustrine fishes and to test their effect on species’ size distributions. We assembled datasets of species richness and body size and environmental (predictor factors for 13 Greek lakes. Model selection procedures revealed that fish species richness increased with ecosystem area and decreased with altitude. In addition, our results showed that latitude per se is a good predictor of body size. Indeed, the mean size of lacustrine communities in the northern and southern lake ecosystems differed significantly. These patterns reflect the biogeographical history of these areas and highlight the crucial role connectivity plays in communities’ species composition.

  15. The influence of radiographic phenotype and smoking status on peripheral blood biomarker patterns in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Bon

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by both airway remodeling and parenchymal destruction. The identification of unique biomarker patterns associated with airway dominant versus parenchymal dominant patterns would support the existence of unique phenotypes representing independent biologic processes. A cross-sectional study was performed to examine the association of serum biomarkers with radiographic airway and parenchymal phenotypes of COPD.Serum from 234 subjects enrolled in a CT screening cohort was analyzed for 33 cytokines and growth factors using a multiplex protein array. The association of serum markers with forced expiratory volume in one second percent predicted (FEV1% and quantitative CT measurements of airway thickening and emphysema was assessed with and without stratification for current smoking status. Significant associations were found with several serum inflammatory proteins and measurements of FEV1%, airway thickening, and parenchymal emphysema independent of smoking status. The association of select analytes with airway thickening and emphysema was independent of FEV1%. Furthermore, the relationship between other inflammatory markers and measurements of physiologic obstruction or airway thickening was dependent on current smoking status.Airway and parenchymal phenotypes of COPD are associated with unique systemic serum biomarker profiles. Serum biomarker patterns may provide a more precise classification of the COPD syndrome, provide insights into disease pathogenesis and identify targets for novel patient-specific biological therapies.

  16. New taxa, including three new genera show uniqueness of Neotropical Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik van Nieukerken

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available After finding distinct clades in a molecular phylogeny for Nepticulidae that could not be placed in any known genera and discovering clear apomorphic characters that define these clades, as well as a number of Neotropical species that could be placed in known genera but were undescribed, three new genera and nine new species are here described from the Neotropics: Stigmella gallicola van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. reared from galls on Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae in Costa Rica, representing the first example of a gall making Stigmella; S. schinivora van Nieukerken, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Schinus terebinthifolia (Anacardiaceae in Argentina, Misiones; S. costaricensis van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. and S. intronia van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. each from a single specimen collected the same night in Costa Rica, Parque Nacional Chirripó; S. molinensis van Nieukerken & Snyers, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Salix humboldtiana, Peru, Lima, the first Neotropical species of the Stigmella salicis group sensu stricto; Ozadelpha van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species O. conostegiae van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n., reared from leafmines on Conostegia oerstediana (Melastomataceae from Costa Rica; Neotrifurcula van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species N. gielisorum van Nieukerken, sp. n. from Chile; Hesperolyra van Nieukerken, gen. n.. with type species Fomoria diskusi Puplesis & Robinson, 2000; Hesperolyra saopaulensis van Nieukerken, sp. n., reared from an unidentified Myrtaceae, Sao Paulo, Brasil; and Acalyptris janzeni van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. from Costa Rica, Guanacaste. Five new combinations are made: Ozadelpha ovata (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000, comb. n. and Ozadelpha guajavae (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002, comb. n., Hesperolyra diskusi (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000, comb. n., Hesperolyra molybditis (Zeller, 1877, comb. n. and Hesperolyra repanda (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002, comb. n. Three specimens are briefly described, but left unnamed: Ozadelpha specimen EvN4680, Neotrifurcula specimen EvN4504 and Neotrifurcula specimen RH2.

  17. New taxa, including three new genera show uniqueness of Neotropical Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.; Doorenweerd, C.; Nishida, K.; Snyers, C.

    2016-01-01

    After finding distinct clades in a molecular phylogeny for Nepticulidae that could not be placed in any known genera and discovering clear apomorphic characters that define these clades, as well as a number of Neotropical species that could be placed in known genera but were undescribed, three new

  18. New taxa, including three new genera show uniqueness of Neotropical Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Nishida, Kenji; Snyers, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Abstract After finding distinct clades in a molecular phylogeny for Nepticulidae that could not be placed in any known genera and discovering clear apomorphic characters that define these clades, as well as a number of Neotropical species that could be placed in known genera but were undescribed, three new genera and nine new species are here described from the Neotropics: Stigmella gallicola van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. reared from galls on Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae) in Costa Rica, representing the first example of a gall making Stigmella; Stigmella schinivora van Nieukerken, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Schinus terebinthifolia (Anacardiaceae) in Argentina, Misiones; Stigmella costaricensis van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. and Stigmella intronia van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. each from a single specimen collected the same night in Costa Rica, Parque Nacional Chirripó; Stigmella molinensis van Nieukerken & Snyers, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Salix humboldtiana, Peru, Lima, the first Neotropical species of the Stigmella salicis group sensu stricto; Ozadelpha van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species Ozadelpha conostegiae van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n., reared from leafmines on Conostegia oerstediana (Melastomataceae) from Costa Rica; Neotrifurcula van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species Neotrifurcula gielisorum van Nieukerken, sp. n. from Chile; Hesperolyra van Nieukerken, gen. n.. with type species Fomoria diskusi Puplesis & Robinson, 2000; Hesperolyra saopaulensis van Nieukerken, sp. n., reared from an unidentified Myrtaceae, Sao Paulo, Brasil; and Acalyptris janzeni van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. from Costa Rica, Guanacaste. Five new combinations are made: Ozadelpha ovata (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000), comb. n. and Ozadelpha guajavae (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002), comb. n., Hesperolyra diskusi (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000), comb. n., Hesperolyra molybditis (Zeller, 1877), comb. n. and Hesperolyra repanda (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002), comb. n. Three specimens are briefly described, but left unnamed: Ozadelpha specimen EvN4680, Neotrifurcula specimen EvN4504 and Neotrifurcula specimen RH2. PMID:27917037

  19. Mechanisms and Neural Basis of Object and Pattern Recognition: A Study with Chess Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilalic, Merim; Langner, Robert; Erb, Michael; Grodd, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Comparing experts with novices offers unique insights into the functioning of cognition, based on the maximization of individual differences. Here we used this expertise approach to disentangle the mechanisms and neural basis behind two processes that contribute to everyday expertise: object and pattern recognition. We compared chess experts and…

  20. An eye tracking study of bloodstain pattern analysts during pattern classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, R M; Hoogenboom, J; Green, R D; Taylor, M C; de Bruin, K G

    2018-05-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) is the forensic discipline concerned with the classification and interpretation of bloodstains and bloodstain patterns at the crime scene. At present, it is unclear exactly which stain or pattern properties and their associated values are most relevant to analysts when classifying a bloodstain pattern. Eye tracking technology has been widely used to investigate human perception and cognition. Its application to forensics, however, is limited. This is the first study to use eye tracking as a tool for gaining access to the mindset of the bloodstain pattern expert. An eye tracking method was used to follow the gaze of 24 bloodstain pattern analysts during an assigned task of classifying a laboratory-generated test bloodstain pattern. With the aid of an automated image-processing methodology, the properties of selected features of the pattern were quantified leading to the delineation of areas of interest (AOIs). Eye tracking data were collected for each AOI and combined with verbal statements made by analysts after the classification task to determine the critical range of values for relevant diagnostic features. Eye-tracking data indicated that there were four main regions of the pattern that analysts were most interested in. Within each region, individual elements or groups of elements that exhibited features associated with directionality, size, colour and shape appeared to capture the most interest of analysts during the classification task. The study showed that the eye movements of trained bloodstain pattern experts and their verbal descriptions of a pattern were well correlated.

  1. Thermodynamics of complexity and pattern manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Andrew J. P.; Thompson, Jayne; Vedral, Vlatko; Gu, Mile

    2017-04-01

    Many organisms capitalize on their ability to predict the environment to maximize available free energy and reinvest this energy to create new complex structures. This functionality relies on the manipulation of patterns—temporally ordered sequences of data. Here, we propose a framework to describe pattern manipulators—devices that convert thermodynamic work to patterns or vice versa—and use them to build a "pattern engine" that facilitates a thermodynamic cycle of pattern creation and consumption. We show that the least heat dissipation is achieved by the provably simplest devices, the ones that exhibit desired operational behavior while maintaining the least internal memory. We derive the ultimate limits of this heat dissipation and show that it is generally nonzero and connected with the pattern's intrinsic crypticity—a complexity theoretic quantity that captures the puzzling difference between the amount of information the pattern's past behavior reveals about its future and the amount one needs to communicate about this past to optimally predict the future.

  2. A Comprehensive Curation Shows the Dynamic Evolutionary Patterns of Prokaryotic CRISPRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqin Mai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR is a genetic element with active regulation roles for foreign invasive genes in the prokaryotic genomes and has been engineered to work with the CRISPR-associated sequence (Cas gene Cas9 as one of the modern genome editing technologies. Due to inconsistent definitions, the existing CRISPR detection programs seem to have missed some weak CRISPR signals. Results. This study manually curates all the currently annotated CRISPR elements in the prokaryotic genomes and proposes 95 updates to the annotations. A new definition is proposed to cover all the CRISPRs. The comprehensive comparison of CRISPR numbers on the taxonomic levels of both domains and genus shows high variations for closely related species even in the same genus. The detailed investigation of how CRISPRs are evolutionarily manipulated in the 8 completely sequenced species in the genus Thermoanaerobacter demonstrates that transposons act as a frequent tool for splitting long CRISPRs into shorter ones along a long evolutionary history.

  3. Social marketing's unique contribution to mental health stigma reduction and HIV testing: two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Keller, Heidi; Heilbronner, Jennifer Messenger; Dellinger, Laura K Lee

    2011-03-01

    Since its inception in 2005, articles in Health Promotion Practice's social marketing department have focused on describing social marketing's unique contributions and the application of each to the practice of health promotion. This article provides a brief review of six unique features (marketing mix, consumer orientation, segmentation, exchange, competition, and continuous monitoring) and then presents two case studies-one on reducing stigma related to mental health and the other a large-scale campaign focused on increasing HIV testing among African American youth. The two successful case studies show that social marketing principles can be applied to a wide variety of topics among various population groups.

  4. Cyclophilin Inhibitors Remodel the Endoplasmic Reticulum of HCV-Infected Cells in a Unique Pattern Rendering Cells Impervious to a Reinfection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udayan Chatterji

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of action by which cyclophilin inhibitors (CypI interfere with the HCV life cycle remain poorly understood. We reported that CypI and NS5A inhibitors (NS5Ai, but not other classes of anti-HCV agents, prevent assembly of double membrane vesicles (DMVs, which protect replication complexes. We demonstrated that both NS5A and the isomerase cyclophilin A (CypA are required for DMV formation. Here, we examined whether CypI mediate an additional antiviral effect that could further explain the high efficacy of CypI. We identified a unique action of CypI. CypI remodel the organization of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER of HCV-infected cells, but not of uninfected cells. This effect is specific since it was not observed for other classes of anti-HCV agents including NS5Ai, and has no effect on the viability of CypI-treated cells. Since ER serves as platform for the establishment of HCV replication complexes, we asked whether the ER reorganization by CypI would prevent cells from being newly infected. Remarkably, CypI-treated HCV-pre-infected cells remain totally impervious to a reinfection, suggesting that the CypI-mediated ER reorganization prevents a reinfection. This block is not due to residual CypI since CypI-resistant HCV variants also fail to infect these cells. The ER reorganization by CypI is rapid and reversible. This study provides the first evidence that CypI trigger a unique ER reorganization of infected cells, rendering cells transiently impervious to a reinfection. This study further suggests that the HCV-induced ER rearrangement represents a key target for the development of new therapies.

  5. Divergent Drinking Patterns of Restaurant Workers: The Influence of Social Networks and Job Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Michael R; Ames, Genevieve M; Moore, Roland S; Cunradi, Carol B

    2013-01-01

    Restaurant workers have higher rates of problem drinking than most occupational groups. However, little is known about the environmental risks and work characteristics that may lead to these behaviors. An exploration of restaurant workers' drinking networks may provide important insights into their alcohol consumption patterns, thus guiding workplace prevention efforts. Drawing from social capital theory, this paper examines the unique characteristics of drinking networks within and between various job categories. Our research suggests that these multiple, complex networks have unique risk characteristics, and that self-selection is based on factors such as job position and college attendance, among other factors.

  6. Clinical Approach to the Standardization of Oriental Medical Diagnostic Pattern Identification in Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Jung Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, many stroke patients receive oriental medical care, in which pattern-identification plays a major role. Pattern-identification is Oriental Medicine's unique diagnostic system. This study attempted to standardize oriental medical pattern-identification for stroke patients. This was a community-based multicenter study that enrolled stroke patients within 30 days after their ictus. We assessed the patients' general characteristics and symptoms related to pattern-identification. Each patient's pattern was determined when two doctors had the same opinion. To determine which variables affect the pattern-identification, binary logistic regression analysis was used with the backward method. A total of 806 stroke patients were enrolled. Among 480 patients who were identified as having a certain pattern, 100 patients exhibited the Fire Heat Pattern, 210 patients the Phlegm Dampness Pattern, nine patients the Blood Stasis Pattern, 110 patients the Qi Deficiency Pattern, and 51 patients the Yin Deficiency Pattern. After the regression analysis, the predictive logistic equations for the Fire Heat, Phlegm Dampness, Qi Deficiency, and Yin Deficiency patterns were determined. The Blood Stasis Pattern was omitted because the sample size was too small. Predictive logistic equations were suggested for four of the patterns. These criteria would be useful in determining each stroke patient's pattern in clinics. However, further studies with large samples are necessary to validate and confirm these criteria.

  7. Multiple floating metatarsals: a unique injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trikha Vivek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Concomitant dislocation of the tar-sometatarsal and metatarsophalangeal joints of foot is an extremely rare injury. Such injuries presenting in a single or adjacent dual rays have been described in few cases previously. We describe such an injury in adjacent three metatarsals of a polytrauma patient. These injuries are likely to be missed in the initial assessment of a polytrauma patient. These patients are at risk of an overlooked diagnosis but the consequences of missing this type of injury may be Vivek Trikha*, Tarun Goyal, Amit K Agarwal quite severe. This case is presented in view of its unique-ness along with possible mechanism of injury, the sequence of reduction and follow-up. Knowledge of such injury and its proper management may be useful to the trauma surgeons. Key words: Metatarsal bones; Metatarsophalangeal joint; Wounds and injuries

  8. The Structure and Assessment of a Unique and Popular Interdisciplinary Science Course for Nonmajors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Train, Tonya Laakko; Gammon, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Science Without Borders is a unique interdisciplinary science course that uses group and active-learning strategies and is in high demand among nonscience majors at a masters-level university. Registrar data showed that nonscience majors were far more likely to choose this course compared with other, discipline-based science courses. In an…

  9. Inheritance pattern of lip prints among Malay population: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Renjith; Nora Afandi, Nurulain Syafinaz Binti; Zainal Abidin, Siti Nur Hayati Binti; Binti Ishak, Nur Ismawani; Soe, Htoo Htoo Kyaw; Ismail, Abdul Rashid Hj

    2016-04-01

    We assessed the resemblance of lip print patterns between parents and biological offspring in families of 31 Malay students as well as the distribution of different types of lip print in the study group. Only a few studies have successfully established the inheritance pattern of lip prints. Such studies can be population specific and need to be conducted in various populations. No such study have been conducted in Malay population in Malaysia, according to our knowledge. Present study was carried out to ascertain whether there is any inherence pattern in lip prints and thereby to investigate the potential role of lip prints in personal identification. We found 58.06% resemblance of lip print patterns between the parents and their biological offspring in our study. The influence of heredity in lip print pattern is still a new concept and there is lack of concrete evidence. The data from our study shows that there is potential influence of inheritance in the lip print patterns among the family members. Further researches involving larger samples size are suggested to derive more reliable and accurate results. The most common lip print pattern among the study group is type I (29.84%) followed by type II (23.12%), type III (22.45%), type I' (13.44%), type IV (9.54%) and type V (1.61%). Racial variations in lip print patterns and their prevalence may serve as an aid in forensic identification and crime scene investigation. The results of this pilot study will help in establishing guidelines for future researches on lip print analysis in Malaysia. Lip print patterns are unique and individualistic. However, there are some similarities in basic patterns of lip prints between family members which may be attributed to influence of inheritance. 1. To determine the inheritance pattern of lip prints among Malay family members of the student. 2. To identify the distribution of different types of lip prints among Malay population. and Observational pilot study. Lip prints of 124

  10. Nature inspired capacitive sensor with unique and unclonable characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuthedath, C. B.; Schwesinger, N.

    2018-02-01

    Background of this paper is the development of sensors showing a nature like characteristic. The sensor is able to detect excitations on inertia bases and operates capacitive. It consists of a miniaturized interdigitated electrode structure on a printed circuit board, a flexible and conductive membrane of PDMS located in a certain distance above and a certain number of steel balls fixed on top of the membrane. The steel ball distribution is random and the conductivity of the membrane is not homogeneous across the membrane. Due to this double random distribution, no sensor equals the other, although the external geometry is equal. The overall size of the sensor is 4.7mm x 4.7mm x 1.7mm. Tilt, acceleration or magnetic fields are capable of causing forces on the steel balls and therefore relative movements between the membrane and the electrode structures. Due to this movement, capacity changes of the arrangement are measurable. This paper describes besides the fabrication of conductive membranes the preparation of regarding sensors. Process technology makes cloning of the sensors impossible. Although all process steps are suited for mass production, no sensor equals the other. Measurements with these sensors prove that each sensor reacts differently to the same excitation. Calculations of the Intra-Concordance-Coefficient show the similarity of the sensors for equal excitations. On the other hand, the maximum Inter-Concordance-Coefficient reveals the differences of such sensors very clearly. Such a characteristic, i.e. equal reaction to equal excitation and an output of significantly different signals allows considering each sensor as a unique device. The sensors obviously behave like receptors in natural organisms. These unusual properties of uniqueness and impossibility to clone make the sensors very interesting for highly secure identification demands. In combination with a very simple measurement procedure, the sensors are an attractive hardware base for

  11. TECA: Petascale pattern recognition for climate science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat, . [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Byna, Surendra [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vishwanath, Venkatram [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wehner, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Collins, William D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-26

    Climate Change is one of the most pressing challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. Climate simulations provide us with a unique opportunity to examine effects of anthropogenic emissions. Highresolution climate simulations produce “Big Data”: contemporary climate archives are ≈ 5PB in size and we expect future archives to measure on the order of Exa-Bytes. In this work, we present the successful application of TECA (Toolkit for Extreme Climate Analysis) framework, for extracting extreme weather patterns such as Tropical Cyclones, Atmospheric Rivers and Extra-Tropical Cyclones from TB-sized simulation datasets. TECA has been run at full-scale on Cray XE6 and IBM BG/Q systems, and has reduced the runtime for pattern detection tasks from years to hours. TECA has been utilized to evaluate the performance of various computational models in reproducing the statistics of extreme weather events, and for characterizing the change in frequency of storm systems in the future.

  12. Differences in health insurance and health service utilization among Asian Americans: method for using the NHIS to identify unique patterns between ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruy, Hosihn; Young, Wendy B; Kwak, Hoil

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to outline a method to identify the characteristics of socioeconomic variables in determining the differences in health insurance coverage and health services utilization patterns for different ethnic groups, using the behavioural model of health service utilization. A sample drawn from Asian American adult respondents to the 1992, 1993, and 1994 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) in the USA formed the data set. The results showed Asian Americans as not being homogeneous. There were distinctly different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics between six Asian American ethnic groups that affect health insurance coverage and health service utilization. The study method is useful for constructing health policy and services to address the general public need without adversely affecting smaller minority groups. Secondary analysis of well-constructed national data sets such as the specific Asian ethnic groups in NHIS, offers a rich method for predicting the differential impact of specific health policies on various ethnic groups.

  13. Broad geographic, taxonomic and ecological patterns of interpopulation variation in the dietary habits of snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Luiselli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of their unique morphological and ecological characteristics (i.e. being obligate carnivorous, solitary, and ingesting their prey whole, snakes are expected to show unusual dietary patterns compared to other ectothermic vertebrates, and the best way to explore this is to analyse the snake dietary patterns globally. Here I review and analyse the peer-reviewed snake diet literature available in order to explore whether there are broad patterns in the interpopulation variability of diet composition in these unique ectothermic predators. I collated data for 181 independent populations belonging to 58 species of snakes from some of the main families (1 Boidae, 2 Pythonidae, 27 Colubridae, 10 Elapidae, and 18 Viperidae and from all the continents (4 from South and Central America, 13 from North America, 12 from Europe, 18 from Africa, 4 from Asia, and 7 from Australia. All these populations satisfied some precise criteria of inclusion, and were therefore re-analysed in a comparative perspective. I classified each literature entry according to 1 snake species, 2 snake family, 3 geographic position (continent of the study areas, 4 climatic region (temperate versus tropical, 5 guild (if the species is aquatic, terrestrial, or arboreal, 6 hunting strategy (sit-and-wait versus active forager, and 7 venom (if the species is venomous or not. All these seven factors were analysed by GLM procedures to evaluate their effects on the interpopulation diet variation within snake species, that was assessed by using a univariate similarity index. The various taxonomical categories of snake prey were grouped according to two different levels of taxonomic affinity: a general affinity, e.g. frogs and toads, salamanders, lizards, birds, etc., and b close affinity, by grouping prey types belonging to a same genus. My study revealed that, within-species snake populations showed a very low variability in terms of diet composition. As for the general affinity

  14. Association between Cheiloscopic Patterns and ABO Blood Groups among South Indian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanapure, Sneha; Suhas, H G; Potdar, Shrudha; Sam, George; Sudeep, C B; Arjun, M R

    2017-07-01

    Human beings have few characteristics that are unique from others. Lip prints are one of such feature. They are not changed throughout the life and are not influenced by injuries, diseases, or environmental changes. According to the various antigen-antibody reactions in the bloodstream, different individuals have specific blood groups. To study the distribution of lip print patterns among individuals with different ABO and Rh blood groups and also to know the relation between their characters and blood groups. In the present study, lip prints were collected randomly from 85 individuals, and their blood group matching was performed. This is to identify the most common lip print type and to know any association between lip print types and blood groups. Tsuchihashi's classification of lip prints was used to compare with the ABO and Rh blood grouping systems. It was observed that in individuals with B+, A+, and O- blood groups, predominant pattern was Type IV and individuals having blood group O+ and AB+ common lip print pattern was Type II. This study showed strong association between lip print patterns and ABO blood groups as some blood groups were not included in statistical analysis; further studies including larger sample are essential to substantiate the results. Correlating lip print with blood group helps in identification of the suspects. Along with lip prints, another biological record that remains unchanged throughout the lifetime of a person is the blood group. Determining the blood group of a person from the samples obtained at the site of crime and also recovering lip prints from site can help identify a person.

  15. MCAW-DB: A glycan profile database capturing the ambiguity of glycan recognition patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoda, Masae; Takahashi, Yushi; Shiota, Masaaki; Shinmachi, Daisuke; Inomoto, Renji; Higashimoto, Shinichi; Aoki-Kinoshita, Kiyoko F

    2018-05-11

    Glycan-binding protein (GBP) interaction experiments, such as glycan microarrays, are often used to understand glycan recognition patterns. However, oftentimes the interpretation of glycan array experimental data makes it difficult to identify discrete GBP binding patterns due to their ambiguity. It is known that lectins, for example, are non-specific in their binding affinities; the same lectin can bind to different monosaccharides or even different glycan structures. In bioinformatics, several tools to mine the data generated from these sorts of experiments have been developed. These tools take a library of predefined motifs, which are commonly-found glycan patterns such as sialyl-Lewis X, and attempt to identify the motif(s) that are specific to the GBP being analyzed. In our previous work, as opposed to using predefined motifs, we developed the Multiple Carbohydrate Alignment with Weights (MCAW) tool to visualize the state of the glycans being recognized by the GBP under analysis. We previously reported on the effectiveness of our tool and algorithm by analyzing several glycan array datasets from the Consortium of Functional Glycomics (CFG). In this work, we report on our analysis of 1081 data sets which we collected from the CFG, the results of which we have made publicly and freely available as a database called MCAW-DB. We introduce this database, its usage and describe several analysis results. We show how MCAW-DB can be used to analyze glycan-binding patterns of GBPs amidst their ambiguity. For example, the visualization of glycan-binding patterns in MCAW-DB show how they correlate with the concentrations of the samples used in the array experiments. Using MCAW-DB, the patterns of glycans found to bind to various GBP-glycan binding proteins are visualized, indicating the binding "environment" of the glycans. Thus, the ambiguity of glycan recognition is numerically represented, along with the patterns of monosaccharides surrounding the binding region. The

  16. The Unique Molecular Signatures of Contact Dermatitis and Implications for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Alexandra; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2018-05-12

    Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common skin disorders that are characterized by inflammation, oozing, crusting, and pruritus. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disease characterized by immune and barrier abnormalities and is additionally a risk factor for acquiring ICD and ACD. New work on allergic sensitization to common allergens (e.g., nickel and fragrance) in human skin has shown that different allergens have distinct molecular fingerprinting. For example, nickel promotes strong Th1/Th17 polarization, whereas fragrance allergy causes Th2/Th22 skewing, which is similar to the phenotype of AD. While ACD has previously been considered to be constant across all allergens, largely based on mouse models involving strong sensitizers, these new data suggest that ACD differs mechanistically according to allergen. Further, ACD in the setting of concurrent AD shows a different and attenuated phenotype as compared to healthy individuals with ACD, which influences the way AD patients respond to vaccination and other treatment modalities. As in contact sensitization, skin challenged by food patch testing shows that common food allergens (e.g., peanut and barley) also cause distinct immune polarizations in the skin. Additionally, house dust mite reactions in human skin have been profiled to show unique Th2, Th9, and Th17/22 activation as compared to controls, which are similar to the phenotype of psoriasis and contact responses to nickel. Given this information, ACD patients should be treated based on their unique allergen polarity. Refined understanding of the molecular behavior of contact dermatitis and related diseases translates to improved methods of inducing tolerance in sensitized allergic patients, such as with targeted drug therapy and epicutaneous immunotherapy.

  17. Antiproliferative Effects of Bacillus coagulans Unique IS2 in Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madempudi, Ratna Sudha; Kalle, Arunasree M

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, the in vitro anticancer (antiproliferative) effects of Bacillus coagulans Unique IS2 were evaluated on human colon cancer (COLO 205), cervical cancer (HeLa), and chronic myeloid leukemia (K562) cell lines with a human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK 293T) as noncancerous control cells. The Cytotoxicity assay (MTT) clearly demonstrated a 22%, 31.7%, and 19.5% decrease in cell proliferation of COLO 205, HeLa, and K562 cells, respectively, when compared to the noncancerous HEK 293T cells. Normal phase-contrast microscopic images clearly suggested that the mechanism of cell death is by apoptosis. To further confirm the induction of apoptosis by Unique IS2, the sub-G0-G1 peak of the cell cycle was quantified using a flow cytometer and the data indicated 40% of the apoptotic cells in Unique IS2-treated COLO cells when compared with their untreated control cells. The Western blot analysis showed an increase in pro-apoptotic protein BAX, decrease in antiapoptotic protein, Bcl2, decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, increase in cytochrome c release, increase in Caspase 3 activity, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. The present study suggests that the heat-killed culture supernatant of B. coagulans can be more effective in inducing apoptosis of colon cancer cells and that can be considered for adjuvant therapy in the treatment of colon carcinoma.

  18. Modification of medullary respiratory-related discharge patterns by behaviors and states of arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, F C

    1992-02-07

    The modulatory influences of behaviors and states of arousal on bulbar respiratory-related unit (RRU) discharge patterns were studied in an unanesthetized, freely behaving guinea pig respiratory model system. When fully instrumented, this model system permits concurrent monitoring and recording of (i) single units from either Bötzinger complex or nucleus para-ambiguus; (ii) electrocorticogram; and, (iii) diaphragmatic EMG. In addition to being used in surveys of RRU discharge patterns in freely behaving states, the model system also offered a unique opportunity in investigating the effects of pentobarbital on RRU discharge patterns before, throughout the course of, and during recovery from anesthesia. In anesthetized preparations, a particular RRU discharge pattern (such as tonic, incrementing or decrementing) typically displayed little, if any notable variation. The most striking development following pentobarbital was a state of progressive bradypnea attributable to a significantly augmented RRU cycle duration, burst duration and an increase in the RRU spike frequencies during anesthesia. In freely behaving states, medullary RRU activities rarely adhered to a fixed, immutable discharge pattern. More specifically, the temporal organization (such as burst duration, cycle duration, and the extent of modulation of within-burst spike frequencies) of RRU discharge patterns regularly showed complex and striking variations, not only with states of arousal (sleep/wakefulness, anesthesia) but also with discrete alterations in electrocorticogram (ECoG) activities and a multitude of on-going behavioral repertoires such as volitional movement, postural modification, phonation, mastication, deglutition, sniffing/exploratory behavior, alerting/startle reflexes. Only during sleep, and on occasions when the animal assumed a motionless, resting posture, could burst patterns of relatively invariable periodicity and uniform temporal attributes be observed. RRU activities during

  19. A study of morphological patterns of lip prints in relation to gender of North Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shalini; Gupta, Khushboo; Gupta, Op

    2011-01-01

    Establishing a person's identity is a very important process in civil and criminal cases. Dental, fingerprint and DNA comparisons are probably the most common techniques allowing fast and secure identification processes. However, in certain circumstances related to the scene of the crime or due to lack of experienced personnel, these techniques might be unavailable; so there is still an increasing need for reliable alternative methods of establishing identity. The objective of the study was to check for any peculiar lip patterns in relation to the sex of the individual and determine the most common lip patterns in the given population. This study was conducted on 150 subjects, which included 75 males and 75 females, in the age group of 18-30 years. After applying lipstick evenly, the lip print of each subject was obtained on a simple bond paper by a researcher, and later the lip print was then analyzed and interpreted. The intersected type was most commonly seen in females and branched in males. Reticular pattern was the least common type in both males and females. This study shows that the lip prints are unique to an individual and behold the potential for recognition of the sex of an individual.

  20. Consciousness: a unique way of processing information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Giorgio

    2018-02-08

    In this article, I argue that consciousness is a unique way of processing information, in that: it produces information, rather than purely transmitting it; the information it produces is meaningful for us; the meaning it has is always individuated. This uniqueness allows us to process information on the basis of our personal needs and ever-changing interactions with the environment, and consequently to act autonomously. Three main basic cognitive processes contribute to realize this unique way of information processing: the self, attention and working memory. The self, which is primarily expressed via the central and peripheral nervous systems, maps our body, the environment, and our relations with the environment. It is the primary means by which the complexity inherent to our composite structure is reduced into the "single voice" of a unique individual. It provides a reference system that (albeit evolving) is sufficiently stable to define the variations that will be used as the raw material for the construction of conscious information. Attention allows for the selection of those variations in the state of the self that are most relevant in the given situation. Attention originates and is deployed from a single locus inside our body, which represents the center of the self, around which all our conscious experiences are organized. Whatever is focused by attention appears in our consciousness as possessing a spatial quality defined by this center and the direction toward which attention is focused. In addition, attention determines two other features of conscious experience: periodicity and phenomenal quality. Self and attention are necessary but not sufficient for conscious information to be produced. Complex forms of conscious experiences, such as the various modes of givenness of conscious experience and the stream of consciousness, need a working memory mechanism to assemble the basic pieces of information selected by attention.

  1. Patterns of ovarian and luteal activity in captive and wild Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry V. Fanson; Nadja C. Wielebnowski; Tanya M. Shenk; Jennifer H. Vashon; John R. Squires; Jeffrey R. Lucas

    2010-01-01

    Canada lynx face some unique breeding restrictions, which may have implications for population viability and captive management. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of basic reproductive physiology in Canada lynx. Using fecal hormone metabolite analysis, we established normative patterns of fecal estrogen (fE) and progestagen (fP)...

  2. Transcriptome profile and unique genetic evolution of positively selected genes in yak lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, DaoLiang; Xiong, XianRong; Ji, WenHui; Li, Jian; Mipam, Tserang-Donko; Ai, Yi; Chai, ZhiXin

    2018-04-01

    The yak (Bos grunniens), which is a unique bovine breed that is distributed mainly in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, is considered a good model for studying plateau adaptability in mammals. The lungs are important functional organs that enable animals to adapt to their external environment. However, the genetic mechanism underlying the adaptability of yak lungs to harsh plateau environments remains unknown. To explore the unique evolutionary process and genetic mechanism of yak adaptation to plateau environments, we performed transcriptome sequencing of yak and cattle (Bos taurus) lungs using RNA-Seq technology and a subsequent comparison analysis to identify the positively selected genes in the yak. After deep sequencing, a normal transcriptome profile of yak lung that containing a total of 16,815 expressed genes was obtained, and the characteristics of yak lungs transcriptome was described by functional analysis. Furthermore, Ka/Ks comparison statistics result showed that 39 strong positively selected genes are identified from yak lungs. Further GO and KEGG analysis was conducted for the functional annotation of these genes. The results of this study provide valuable data for further explorations of the unique evolutionary process of high-altitude hypoxia adaptation in yaks in the Tibetan Plateau and the genetic mechanism at the molecular level.

  3. Muscle Sensor Model Using Small Scale Optical Device for Pattern Recognitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreangsak Tamee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new sensor system for measuring contraction and relaxation of muscles by using a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. The small scale optical device is designed and configured to perform the coupling effects between the changes in optical device phase shift and human facial muscle movement, which can be used to form the relationship between optical phase shift and muscle movement. By using the Optiwave and MATLAB programs, the results obtained have shown that the measurement of the contraction and relaxation of muscles can be obtained after the muscle movements, in which the unique pattern of individual muscle movement from facial expression can be established. The obtained simulation results, that is, interference signal patterns, can be used to form the various pattern recognitions, which are useful for the human machine interface and the human computer interface application and discussed in detail.

  4. MOLECULAR PATTERN OF MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS ISOLATES AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PRESENCE OF BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS IN NORTHERN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. F. Padilla

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the molecular pattern of M. bovis isolates from cattle of Northern Mexico and its relationship with some risk factors. Isolates (n=60 were obtained from the states of Coahuila (COA, n=14, Tamaulipas (TAM, n=16, Nuevo Leon (NL, n=14 and Baja California and Durango (DUR, n=16. The risk factors studied were: system of production (Dairy and Beef, state, age, lesion type (localized and generalized, and type of presentation (caseous and calcified. Samples were analyzed at the Regional Laboratory of Monterrey NL, following a spoligotyping protocol. Twenty-five spoligotypes belonging to the M. bovis complex were identified. Eleven (18.3% isolates presented a unique pattern, whereas 49 (81.7% were grouped in 14 clusters. The largest clusters had 12 and 17 isolates. The average heterozygocities per state were 21.4% (NL, 15.6% (TAM, 15.6% COA and 9.9% (DUR. The genetic distances of the isolates between states did not show differences (P > 0.05 when examined by Chi-square tests. The average genetic diversity (15.6% was due to the variation of strains within subpopulations. In this study an 8.3% difference among states was obtained, which suggest the idea of a unique strain of M. bovis with many variants and that the genetic diversity found for M. bovis could be in part due to the movement of animals between regions. Statistical analysis did not show association (P > 0.05 between risk factors and strains of M. bovis.

  5. Adaptive evolution of facial colour patterns in Neotropical primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Sharlene E; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica; Alfaro, Michael E

    2012-06-07

    The rich diversity of primate faces has interested naturalists for over a century. Researchers have long proposed that social behaviours have shaped the evolution of primate facial diversity. However, the primate face constitutes a unique structure where the diverse and potentially competing functions of communication, ecology and physiology intersect, and the major determinants of facial diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we provide the first evidence for an adaptive role of facial colour patterns and pigmentation within Neotropical primates. Consistent with the hypothesis that facial patterns function in communication and species recognition, we find that species living in smaller groups and in sympatry with a higher number of congener species have evolved more complex patterns of facial colour. The evolution of facial pigmentation and hair length is linked to ecological factors, and ecogeographical rules related to UV radiation and thermoregulation are met by some facial regions. Our results demonstrate the interaction of behavioural and ecological factors in shaping one of the most outstanding facial diversities of any mammalian lineage.

  6. Superior Pattern Processing is the Essence of the Evolved Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eMattson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans have long pondered the nature of their mind/brain and, particularly why its capacities for reasoning, communication and abstract thought are far superior to other species, including closely related anthropoids. This article considers superior pattern processing (SPP as the fundamental basis of most, if not all, unique features of the human brain including intelligence, language, imagination, invention, and the belief in imaginary entities such as ghosts and gods. SPP involves the electrochemical, neuronal network-based, encoding, integration, and transfer to other individuals of perceived or mentally-fabricated patterns. During human evolution, pattern processing capabilities became increasingly sophisticated as the result of expansion of the cerebral cortex, particularly the prefrontal cortex and regions involved in processing of images. Specific patterns, real or imagined, are reinforced by emotional experiences, indoctrination and even psychedelic drugs. Impaired or dysregulated SPP is fundamental to cognitive and psychiatric disorders. A broader understanding of SPP mechanisms, and their roles in normal and abnormal function of the human brain, may enable the development of interventions that reduce irrational decisions and destructive behaviors.

  7. Conservation of a unique mechanism of immune evasion across the Lyssavirus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltzer, L; Larrous, F; Oksayan, S; Ito, N; Marsh, G A; Wang, L F; Blondel, D; Bourhy, H; Jans, D A; Moseley, G W

    2012-09-01

    The evasion of host innate immunity by Rabies virus, the prototype of the genus Lyssavirus, depends on a unique mechanism of selective targeting of interferon-activated STAT proteins by the viral phosphoprotein (P-protein). However, the immune evasion strategies of other lyssaviruses, including several lethal human pathogens, are unresolved. Here, we show that this mechanism is conserved between the most distantly related members of the genus, providing important insights into the pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targeting of lyssaviruses.

  8. Plastic-casting intrinsic-surface unique identifier (tag)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, R.G.; De Volpi, A.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the development of an authenticated intrinsic-surf ace tagging method for unique- identification of controlled items. Although developed for control of items limited by an arms control treaty, this method has other potential applications to keep track of critical or high-value items. Each tag (unique-identifier) consists of the intrinsic, microscopic surface topography of a small designated area on a controlled item. It is implemented by making a baseline plastic casting of the designated tag area and usually placing a cover (for example, a bar-code label) over this area to protect the surface from environmental alteration. The plastic casting is returned to a laboratory and prepared for high-resolution scanning electron microscope imaging. Several images are digitized and stored for use as a standard for authentication of castings taken during future inspections. Authentication is determined by numerically comparing digital images. Commercially available hardware and software are used for this tag. Tag parameters are optimized, so unique casting images are obtained from original surfaces, and images obtained from attempted duplicate surfaces are detected. This optimization uses the modulation transfer function, a first principle of image analysis, to determine the parameters. Surface duplication experiments confirmed the optimization

  9. Spatio-temporal patterns of soil erosion and suspended sediment dynamics in the Mekong River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suif, Zuliziana; Fleifle, Amr; Yoshimura, Chihiro; Saavedra, Oliver

    2016-10-15

    Understanding of the distribution patterns of sediment erosion, concentration and transport in river basins is critically important as sediment plays a major role in river basin hydrophysical and ecological processes. In this study, we proposed an integrated framework for the assessment of sediment dynamics, including soil erosion (SE), suspended sediment load (SSL) and suspended sediment concentration (SSC), and applied this framework to the Mekong River Basin. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model was adopted with a geographic information system to assess SE and was coupled with a sediment accumulation and a routing scheme to simulate SSL. This framework also analyzed Landsat imagery captured between 1987 and 2000 together with ground observations to interpolate spatio-temporal patterns of SSC. The simulated SSL results from 1987 to 2000 showed the relative root mean square error of 41% and coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.89. The polynomial relationship of the near infrared exoatmospheric reflectance and the band 4 wavelength (760-900nm) to the observed SSC at 9 sites demonstrated the good agreement (overall relative RMSE=5.2%, R(2)=0.87). The result found that the severe SE occurs in the upper (China and Lao PDR) and lower (western part of Vietnam) regions. The SSC in the rainy season (June-November) showed increasing and decreasing trends longitudinally in the upper (China and Lao PDR) and lower regions (Cambodia), respectively, while the longitudinal profile of SSL showed a fluctuating trend along the river in the early rainy season. Overall, the results described the unique spatio-temporal patterns of SE, SSL and SSC in the Mekong River Basin. Thus, the proposed integrated framework is useful for elucidating complex process of sediment generation and transport in the land and river systems of large river basins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hepatitis B, C, and D virus infection showing distinct patterns between injection drug users and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Fengfan; Wen, Bo; Luo, Shan; Yuan, Dongping; Lin, Yingbiao; Ou, Wensheng; Tang, Ping; Dai, Guozhi; Li, Fangfang; Liu, Wenpei; Qu, Xiaowang

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis B, C, and D virus (HBV, HCV, and HDV) infections are known to be prevalent in injection drug users (IDUs); however, the relationship between the molecular epidemiologic features of hepatitis virus infection in high-risk individuals and the general population has not yet been established. In total, 1049 IDUs and 672 individuals who underwent physical examinations at Chenzhou hospital, Hunan Province, China, were enrolled. HBV, HCV, and HDV infections were screened with serologic tests in both populations. HBsAg-positive, anti-HCV IgG-positive, and anti-HDV IgG-positive samples were further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing. Significantly higher HBV (21.54 vs 16.52%, P = 0.01), HCV (45.95% vs 1.34%, P infections were detected in IDUs compared with the general population. The dual infection of HBV/HCV or HBV/HDV was also significantly higher in IDUs than in the general population. HBV genotype B and HDV genotype II were dominants in both populations. HCV infection showed genotype 6a (49.52%) dominant in IDUs, but genotype 1b accounted for 50% infection, which was followed by genotype 6a (33.33%) in the general population. Higher viral loads were associated with HBV genotype B and HCV genotype 6a compared with non-dominant genotypic infections. HBV and HDV infections shared similar patterns by IDUs and the general populations, and HCV infection exhibited distinct features between two populations. Our results suggest different molecular epidemiologic characteristics of HBV, HCV, and HDV infection in two populations. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Weeping dragon, a unique ornamenal citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Weeping Dragon’ is a new ornamental citrus cultivar developed by intercrossing of two unusual and unique citrus types, Poncirus trifoliata cultivated variety (cv.) Flying Dragon, and Citrus sinensis cv. ‘Cipo’. This new hybrid cultivar combines strongly contorted and weeping growth traits in a smal...

  12. Ordered patterns and structures via interfacial self-assembly: superlattices, honeycomb structures and coffee rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongmin; Hao, Jingcheng

    2011-11-01

    Self-assembly is now being intensively studied in chemistry, physics, biology, and materials engineering and has become an important "bottom-up" approach to create intriguing structures for different applications. Self-assembly is not only a practical approach for creating a variety of nanostructures, but also shows great superiority in building hierarchical structures with orders on different length scales. The early work in self-assembly focused on molecular self-assembly in bulk solution, including the resultant dye aggregates, liposomes, vesicles, liquid crystals, gels and so on. Interfacial self-assembly has been a great concern over the last two decades, largely because of the unique and ingenious roles of this method for constructing materials at interfaces, such as self-assembled monolayers, Langmuir-Blodgett films, and capsules. Nanocrystal superlattices, honeycomb films and coffee rings are intriguing structural materials with more complex features and can be prepared by interfacial self-assembly on different length scales. In this critical review, we outline the recent development in the preparation and application of colloidal nanocrystal superlattices, honeycomb-patterned macroporous structures by the breath figure method, and coffee-ring-like patterns (247 references). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  13. Programmable self-assembly of three-dimensional nanostructures from 10,000 unique components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Luvena L.; Hanikel, Nikita; Yaghi, Omar K.; Grun, Casey; Strauss, Maximilian T.; Bron, Patrick; Lai-Kee-Him, Josephine; Schueder, Florian; Wang, Bei; Wang, Pengfei; Kishi, Jocelyn Y.; Myhrvold, Cameron; Zhu, Allen; Jungmann, Ralf; Bellot, Gaetan; Ke, Yonggang; Yin, Peng

    2017-12-01

    Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) are widely used to construct nanometre-scale structures with ever increasing complexity, with possible application in fields such as structural biology, biophysics, synthetic biology and photonics. The nanostructures are formed through one-pot self-assembly, with early kilodalton-scale examples containing typically tens of unique DNA strands. The introduction of DNA origami, which uses many staple strands to fold one long scaffold strand into a desired structure, has provided access to megadalton-scale nanostructures that contain hundreds of unique DNA strands. Even larger DNA origami structures are possible, but manufacturing and manipulating an increasingly long scaffold strand remains a challenge. An alternative and more readily scalable approach involves the assembly of DNA bricks, which each consist of four short binding domains arranged so that the bricks can interlock. This approach does not require a scaffold; instead, the short DNA brick strands self-assemble according to specific inter-brick interactions. First-generation bricks used to create three-dimensional structures are 32 nucleotides long, consisting of four eight-nucleotide binding domains. Protocols have been designed to direct the assembly of hundreds of distinct bricks into well formed structures, but attempts to create larger structures have encountered practical challenges and had limited success. Here we show that DNA bricks with longer, 13-nucleotide binding domains make it possible to self-assemble 0.1-1-gigadalton, three-dimensional nanostructures from tens of thousands of unique components, including a 0.5-gigadalton cuboid containing about 30,000 unique bricks and a 1-gigadalton rotationally symmetric tetramer. We also assembled a cuboid that contains around 10,000 bricks and about 20,000 uniquely addressable, 13-base-pair ‘voxels’ that serves as a molecular canvas for three-dimensional sculpting. Complex, user-prescribed, three-dimensional cavities can

  14. Comparison of antibiotic resistance patterns in collections of Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis uropathogenic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamus-Bialek, Wioletta; Zajac, Elzbieta; Parniewski, Pawel; Kaca, Wieslaw

    2013-04-01

    Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis are important urinary tract pathogens. The constant increase in the antibiotic resistance of clinical bacterial strains has become an important clinical problem. The aim of this study was to compare the antibiotic resistance of 141 clinical (Sweden and Poland) and 42 laboratory (Czech Republic) P. mirabilis strains and 129 clinical (Poland) uropathogenic E. coli strains. The proportion of unique versus diverse patterns in Swedish clinical and laboratory P. mirabilis strain collections was comparable. Notably, a similar proportion of unique versus diverse patterns was observed in Polish clinical P. mirabilis and E. coli strain collections. Mathematical models of the antibiotic resistance of E. coli and P. mirabilis strains based on Kohonen networks and association analysis are presented. In contrast to the three clinical strain collections, which revealed complex associations with the antibiotics tested, laboratory P. mirabilis strains provided simple antibiotic association diagrams. The monitoring of antibiotic resistance patterns of clinical E. coli and P. mirabilis strains plays an important role in the treatment procedures for urinary tract infections and is important in the context of the spreading drug resistance in uropathogenic strain populations. The adaptability and flexibility of the genomes of E. coli and P. mirabilis strains are discussed.

  15. Salmonella Strains Isolated from Galápagos Iguanas Show Spatial Structuring of Serovar and Genomic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankau, Emily W.; Cruz Bedon, Lenin; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2012-01-01

    It is thought that dispersal limitation primarily structures host-associated bacterial populations because host distributions inherently limit transmission opportunities. However, enteric bacteria may disperse great distances during food-borne outbreaks. It is unclear if such rapid long-distance dispersal events happen regularly in natural systems or if these events represent an anthropogenic exception. We characterized Salmonella enterica isolates from the feces of free-living Galápagos land and marine iguanas from five sites on four islands using serotyping and genomic fingerprinting. Each site hosted unique and nearly exclusive serovar assemblages. Genomic fingerprint analysis offered a more complex model of S. enterica biogeography, with evidence of both unique strain pools and of spatial population structuring along a geographic gradient. These findings suggest that even relatively generalist enteric bacteria may be strongly dispersal limited in a natural system with strong barriers, such as oceanic divides. Yet, these differing results seen on two typing methods also suggests that genomic variation is less dispersal limited, allowing for different ecological processes to shape biogeographical patterns of the core and flexible portions of this bacterial species' genome. PMID:22615968

  16. Salmonella strains isolated from Galápagos iguanas show spatial structuring of serovar and genomic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily W Lankau

    Full Text Available It is thought that dispersal limitation primarily structures host-associated bacterial populations because host distributions inherently limit transmission opportunities. However, enteric bacteria may disperse great distances during food-borne outbreaks. It is unclear if such rapid long-distance dispersal events happen regularly in natural systems or if these events represent an anthropogenic exception. We characterized Salmonella enterica isolates from the feces of free-living Galápagos land and marine iguanas from five sites on four islands using serotyping and genomic fingerprinting. Each site hosted unique and nearly exclusive serovar assemblages. Genomic fingerprint analysis offered a more complex model of S. enterica biogeography, with evidence of both unique strain pools and of spatial population structuring along a geographic gradient. These findings suggest that even relatively generalist enteric bacteria may be strongly dispersal limited in a natural system with strong barriers, such as oceanic divides. Yet, these differing results seen on two typing methods also suggests that genomic variation is less dispersal limited, allowing for different ecological processes to shape biogeographical patterns of the core and flexible portions of this bacterial species' genome.

  17. INTER-RATER RELIABILITY FOR MOVEMENT PATTERN ANALYSIS (MPA: MEASURING PATTERNING OF BEHAVIORS VERSUS DISCRETE BEHAVIOR COUNTS AS INDICATORS OF DECISION-MAKING STYLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L Connors

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The unique yield of collecting observational data on human movement has received increasing attention in a number of domains, including the study of decision-making style. As such, interest has grown in the nuances of core methodological issues, including the best ways of assessing inter-rater reliability. In this paper we focus on one key topic – the distinction between establishing reliability for the patterning of behaviors as opposed to the computation of raw counts – and suggest that reliability for each be compared empirically rather than determined a priori. We illustrate by assessing inter-rater reliability for key outcome measures derived from Movement Pattern Analysis (MPA, an observational methodology that records body movements as indicators of decision-making style with demonstrated predictive validity. While reliability ranged from moderate to good for raw counts of behaviors reflecting each of two Overall Factors generated within MPA (Assertion and Perspective, inter-rater reliability for patterning (proportional indicators of each factor was significantly higher and excellent (ICC = .89. Furthermore, patterning, as compared to raw counts, provided better prediction of observable decision-making process assessed in the laboratory. These analyses support the utility of using an empirical approach to inform the consideration of measuring discrete behavioral counts versus patterning of behaviors when determining inter-rater reliability of observable behavior. They also speak to the substantial reliability that may be achieved via application of theoretically grounded observational systems such as MPA that reveal thinking and action motivations via visible movement patterns.

  18. Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method Applied to an Active Force Control Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Pitowarno, Musa Mailah, Hishamuddin Jamaluddin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The active force control (AFC method is known as a robust control scheme that dramatically enhances the performance of a robot arm particularly in compensating the disturbance effects. The main task of the AFC method is to estimate the inertia matrix in the feedback loop to provide the correct (motor torque required to cancel out these disturbances. Several intelligent control schemes have already been introduced to enhance the estimation methods of acquiring the inertia matrix such as those using neural network, iterative learning and fuzzy logic. In this paper, we propose an alternative scheme called Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method (KBTEPM to suppress the trajectory track error of the AFC scheme. The knowledge is developed from the trajectory track error characteristic based on the previous experimental results of the crude approximation method. It produces a unique, new and desirable error pattern when a trajectory command is forced. An experimental study was performed using simulation work on the AFC scheme with KBTEPM applied to a two-planar manipulator in which a set of rule-based algorithm is derived. A number of previous AFC schemes are also reviewed as benchmark. The simulation results show that the AFC-KBTEPM scheme successfully reduces the trajectory track error significantly even in the presence of the introduced disturbances.Key Words:  Active force control, estimated inertia matrix, robot arm, trajectory error pattern, knowledge-based.

  19. Shifting patterns of ENSO variability from a 492-year South Pacific coral core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangri, N.; Linsley, B. K.; Mucciarone, D.; Dunbar, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Anticipating the impacts of ENSO in a changing climate requires detailed reconstructions of changes in its timing, amplitude, and spatial pattern, as well as attempts to attribute those changes to external forcing or internal variability. A continuous coral δ18O record from American Samoa, in the tropical South Pacific, sheds light on almost five centuries of these changes. We find evidence of internally-driven 50-100 year cycles with broad peaks of high variability punctuated by short transitions of low variability. We see a long, slow trend towards more frequent ENSO events, punctuated by sharp decreases in frequency; the 20th century in particular shows a strong trend towards higher-frequency ENSO. Due to the unique location of American Samoa with respect to ENSO sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, we infer changes in the spatial pattern of ENSO. American Samoa currently lies on the ENSO 3.4 nodal line - the boomerang shape that separates waters warmed by El Niño from those that cool. Closer examination reveals that SST around American Samoa displays opposing responses to Eastern and Central Pacific ENSO events. However, this has not always been the case; in the late 19th and early 20th century, SST responded similarly to both flavors of ENSO. We interpret this to mean a geographic narrowing towards the equator of the eastern Pacific El Niño SST anomaly pattern in the first half of the 20th century.

  20. The unique and cooperative roles of the Grainy head-like transcription factors in epidermal development reflect unexpected target gene specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boglev, Yeliz; Wilanowski, Tomasz; Caddy, Jacinta; Parekh, Vishwas; Auden, Alana; Darido, Charbel; Hislop, Nikki R; Cangkrama, Michael; Ting, Stephen B; Jane, Stephen M

    2011-01-15

    The Grainy head-like 3 (Grhl3) gene encodes a transcription factor that plays essential roles in epidermal morphogenesis during embryonic development, with deficient mice exhibiting failed skin barrier formation, defective wound repair, and loss of eyelid fusion. Despite sharing significant sequence homology, overlapping expression patterns, and an identical core consensus DNA binding site, the other members of the Grhl family (Grhl1 and -2) fail to compensate for the loss of Grhl3 in these processes. Here, we have employed diverse genetic models, coupled with biochemical studies, to define the inter-relationships of the Grhl factors in epidermal development. We show that Grhl1 and Grhl3 have evolved complete functional independence, as evidenced by a lack of genetic interactions in embryos carrying combinations of targeted alleles of these genes. In contrast, compound heterozygous Grhl2/Grhl3 embryos displayed failed wound repair, and loss of a single Grhl2 allele in Grhl3-null embryos results in fully penetrant eyes open at birth. Expression of Grhl2 from the Grhl3 locus in homozygous knock-in mice corrects the wound repair defect, but these embryos still display a complete failure of skin barrier formation. This functional dissociation is due to unexpected differences in target gene specificity, as both GRHL2 and GRHL3 bind to and regulate expression of the wound repair gene Rho GEF 19, but regulation of the barrier forming gene, Transglutaminase 1 (TGase1), is unique to GRHL3. Our findings define the mechanisms underpinning the unique and cooperative roles of the Grhl genes in epidermal development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. On uniqueness in evolution quasivariational inequalities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brokate, M.; Krejčí, Pavel; Schnabel, H.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2004), s. 111-130 ISSN 0944-6532 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : evolution quasivariational inequality * uniqueness * sweeping process Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.425, year: 2004 http://www.heldermann-verlag.de/jca/jca11/jca0386.pdf

  2. Gustatory stimuli representing different perceptual qualities elicit distinct patterns of neuropeptide secretion from taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraedts, Maartje C P; Munger, Steven D

    2013-04-24

    Taste stimuli that evoke different perceptual qualities (e.g., sweet, umami, bitter, sour, salty) are detected by dedicated subpopulations of taste bud cells that use distinct combinations of sensory receptors and transduction molecules. Here, we report that taste stimuli also elicit unique patterns of neuropeptide secretion from taste buds that are correlated with those perceptual qualities. We measured tastant-dependent secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) from circumvallate papillae of Tas1r3(+/+), Tas1r3(+/-) and Tas1r3 (-/-) mice. Isolated tongue epithelia were mounted in modified Ussing chambers, permitting apical stimulation of taste buds; secreted peptides were collected from the basal side and measured by specific ELISAs. Appetitive stimuli (sweet: glucose, sucralose; umami: monosodium glutamate; polysaccharide: Polycose) elicited GLP-1 and NPY secretion and inhibited basal glucagon secretion. Sweet and umami stimuli were ineffective in Tas1r3(-/-) mice, indicating an obligatory role for the T1R3 subunit common to the sweet and umami taste receptors. Polycose responses were unaffected by T1R3 deletion, consistent with the presence of a distinct polysaccharide taste receptor. The effects of sweet stimuli on peptide secretion also required the closing of ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels, as the KATP channel activator diazoxide inhibited the effects of glucose and sucralose on both GLP-1 and glucagon release. Both sour citric acid and salty NaCl increased NPY secretion but had no effects on GLP-1 or glucagon. Bitter denatonium showed no effects on these peptides. Together, these results suggest that taste stimuli of different perceptual qualities elicit unique patterns of neuropeptide secretion from taste buds.

  3. Morphometric analysis of molars in a Middle Pleistocene population shows a mosaic of 'modern' and Neanderthal features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinón-Torres, María; Spěváčková, Petra; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Bruner, Emiliano; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies of upper first molar (M1) crown shape have shown significant differences between Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis that were already present in the European Middle Pleistocene populations, including the large dental sample from Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos (SH). Analysis of other M1 features such as the total crown base area, cusp proportions, cusp angles and occlusal polygon have confirmed the differences between both lineages, becoming a useful tool for the taxonomic assignment of isolated teeth from Late Pleistocene sites. However, until now the pattern of expression of these variables has not been known for the SH sample. This fossil sample, the largest collection from the European Middle Pleistocene, is generally interpreted as being from the direct ancestors of Neanderthals, and thus is a reference sample for assessing the origin of the Neanderthal morphologies. Surprisingly, our study reveals that SH M(1) s present a unique mosaic of H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens features. Regarding the cusp angles and the relative occlusal polygon area, SH matches the H. neanderthalensis pattern. However, regarding the total crown base area and relative cusps size, SH M(1) s are similar to H. sapiens, with a small crown area, a strong hypocone reduction and a protocone enlargement, although the protocone expansion in SH is significantly larger than in any other group studied. The SH dental sample calls into question the uniqueness of some so-called modern traits. Our study also sounds a note of caution on the use of M(1) occlusal morphology for the alpha taxonomy of isolated M(1) s. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  4. Unique Action of Interleukin-18 on T Cells and Other Immune Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Nakanishi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-18 was originally discovered as a factor that enhances interferon (IFN-γ production by anti-CD3-stimulated Th1 cells, particularly in association with IL-12. IL-12 is a cytokine that induces development of Th1 cells. IL-18 cannot induce Th1 cell development, but has the capacity to activate established Th1 cells to produce IFN-γ in the presence of IL-12. Thus, IL-18 is regarded as a proinflammatory cytokine that facilitates type 1 responses. However, in the absence of IL-12 but presence of IL-2, IL-18 stimulates natural killer cells, NKT cells, and even established Th1 cells to produce IL-3, IL-9, and IL-13. Thus, IL-18 also facilitates type 2 responses. This unique function of IL-18 contributes to infection-associated allergic diseases. Together with IL-3, IL-18 stimulates mast cells and basophils to produce IL-4, IL-13, and chemical mediators such as histamine. Thus, IL-18 also induces innate-type allergic inflammation. IL-18 belongs to the IL-1 family of cytokines, which share similar molecular structures, receptors structures, and signal transduction pathways. Nevertheless, IL-18 shows a unique function by binding to a specific receptor expressed on distinct types of cells. In this review article, I will focus on the unique features of IL-18 in lymphocytes, basophils, and mast cells, particularly in comparison with IL-33.

  5. Holistic Leadership-Nursing's Unique Contribution to Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Pamela N; Bleich, Michael R

    2018-04-01

    This dialogue is focused on holistic leadership from the perspective of a well-known leader in nursing. He frames the changing healthcare environment and nursing's unique contribution on the interprofessional team.

  6. 48 CFR 52.211-7 - Alternatives to Government-unique standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternatives to Government... Government-unique standards. The offeror may propose voluntary consensus standards that meet the Government's... voluntary consensus standard instead of the Government-unique standard if it meets the Government's...

  7. Characterization of Shigella Strains by Plasmid Profile Analysis and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns in a Pediatric Hospital in Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Sakhaei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: High incidences of dysentery and diarrhea were reported in a pediatric hospital in Ahvaz, Iran during March to April, 2013. Objectives: A cross-sectional study was therefore undertaken to identify the causative agents. Patients and Methods: A total of 230 diarrhea samples were collected from the patients and analyzed by routine bacteriological methods. Bacterial identification, serological assay, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs screening and plasmid profile analysis were performed according to the standard guidelines. Results: A total of 70 Shigella strains including %70 (n = 49 S. sonnei and 30% (n = 21 S. flexneri were isolated from diarrhea samples. Most of the Shigella isolates showed high degrees of resistance to ampicillin, ulafamethoxazole- trimethoprime and cefexim. Concurrent resistance to sulafametoxazole- trimethoprime and ampicillin was the most common resistance pattern. Overall, 11.4% of Shigella isolates showed the ESBL producer criteria. The plasmid profile patterns of all the strains were determined by a modified alkaline lysis method. By plasmid profile analysis 23 genotypes were identified among all the isolates, 14 and 9 genotypes among the S. sonnei and S. Flexneri respectively. S. sonnei and S. flexneri isolates demonstrated unique plasmid profiles. Conclusions: These data demonstrated that S. sonnei strains are the main cause of shigellosis as the prevalent Shigella serotype in Iran. We also found that the antibiotic resistance rates are increasing among Shigella strains. Plasmid profile analysis is more reliable than antibiotic susceptibility patterns in epidemiologic studies.

  8. UNiquant, a Program for Quantitative Proteomics Analysis Using Stable Isotope Labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xin; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Shen, Yulei; Liu, Miao; Huang, Lin; Zhang, Zhixin; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Chan, Wing C.; Hinrichs, Steven; Fu, Kai; Ding, Shi-Jian

    2011-03-04

    We present UNiquant, a new software program for analyzing stable isotope labeling (SIL) based quantitative proteomics data. UNiquant surpassed the performance of two other platforms, MaxQuant and Mascot Distiller, using complex proteome mixtures having either known or unknown heavy/light ratios. UNiquant is compatible with a broad spectrum of search engines and SIL methods, providing outstanding peptide pair identification and accurate measurement of the relative peptide/protein abundance.

  9. Executive Functions Contribute Uniquely to Reading Competence in Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Lisa A.; Koriakin, Taylor; Lipkin, Paul; Boada, Richard; Frijters, Jan; Lovett, Maureen; Hill, Dina; Willcutt, Erik; Gottwald, Stephanie; Wolf, Maryanne; Bosson-Heenan, Joan; Gruen, Jeffrey R.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2018-01-01

    Competent reading requires various skills beyond those for basic word reading (i.e., core language skills, rapid naming, phonological processing). Contributing “higher-level” or domain-general processes include information processing speed and executive functions (working memory, strategic problem solving, attentional switching). Research in this area has relied on largely Caucasian samples, with limited representation of children from racial or ethnic minority groups. This study examined contributions of executive skills to reading competence in 761 children of minority backgrounds. Hierarchical linear regressions examined unique contributions of executive functions (EF) to word reading, fluency, and comprehension. EF contributed uniquely to reading performance, over and above reading-related language skills; working memory contributed uniquely to all components of reading; while attentional switching, but not problem solving, contributed to isolated and contextual word reading and reading fluency. Problem solving uniquely predicted comprehension, suggesting that this skill may be especially important for reading comprehension in minority youth. Attentional switching may play a unique role in development of reading fluency in minority youth, perhaps as a result of the increased demand for switching between spoken versus written dialects. Findings have implications for educational and clinical practice with regard to reading instruction, remedial reading intervention, and assessment of individuals with reading difficulty. PMID:26755569

  10. Conservation of a Unique Mechanism of Immune Evasion across the Lyssavirus Genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltzer, L.; Larrous, F.; Oksayan, S.; Ito, N.; Marsh, G. A.; Wang, L. F.; Blondel, D.; Bourhy, H.; Jans, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    The evasion of host innate immunity by Rabies virus, the prototype of the genus Lyssavirus, depends on a unique mechanism of selective targeting of interferon-activated STAT proteins by the viral phosphoprotein (P-protein). However, the immune evasion strategies of other lyssaviruses, including several lethal human pathogens, are unresolved. Here, we show that this mechanism is conserved between the most distantly related members of the genus, providing important insights into the pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targeting of lyssaviruses. PMID:22740405

  11. Vegetation pattern formation in a fog-dependent ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthagaray, Ana I; Fuentes, Miguel A; Marquet, Pablo A

    2010-07-07

    Vegetation pattern formation is a striking characteristic of several water-limited ecosystems around the world. Typically, they have been described on runoff-based ecosystems emphasizing local interactions between water, biomass interception, growth and dispersal. Here, we show that this situation is by no means general, as banded patterns in vegetation can emerge in areas without rainfall and in plants without functional root (the Bromeliad Tillandsia landbeckii) and where fog is the principal source of moisture. We show that a simple model based on the advection of fog-water by wind and its interception by the vegetation can reproduce banded patterns which agree with empirical patterns observed in the Coastal Atacama Desert. Our model predicts how the parameters may affect the conditions to form the banded pattern, showing a transition from a uniform vegetated state, at high water input or terrain slope to a desert state throughout intermediate banded states. Moreover, the model predicts that the pattern wavelength is a decreasing non-linear function of fog-water input and slope, and an increasing function of plant loss and fog-water flow speed. Finally, we show that the vegetation density is increased by the formation of the regular pattern compared to the density expected by the spatially homogeneous model emphasizing the importance of self-organization in arid ecosystems. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of the Lower Jaw Position on the Running Pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Maurer

    Full Text Available The effects of manipulated dental occlusion on body posture has been investigated quite often and discussed controversially in the literature. Far less attention has been paid to the influence of dental occlusion position on human movement. If human movement was analysed, it was mostly while walking and not while running. This study was therefore designed to identify the effect of lower jaw positions on running behaviour according to different dental occlusion positions.Twenty healthy young recreational runners (mean age = 33.9±5.8 years participated in this study. Kinematic data were collected using an eight-camera Vicon motion capture system (VICON Motion Systems, Oxford, UK. Subjects were consecutively prepared with four different dental occlusion conditions in random order and performed five running trials per test condition on a level walkway with their preferred running shoes. Vector based pattern recognition methods, in particular cluster analysis and support vector machines (SVM were used for movement pattern identification.Subjects exhibited unique movement patterns leading to 18 clusters for the 20 subjects. No overall classification of the splint condition could be observed. Within individual subjects different running patterns could be identified for the four splint conditions. The splint conditions lead to a more symmetrical running pattern than the control condition.The influence of an occlusal splint on running pattern can be confirmed in this study. Wearing a splint increases the symmetry of the running pattern. A more symmetrical running pattern might help to reduce the risk of injuries or help in performance. The change of the movement pattern between the neutral condition and any of the three splint conditions was significant within subjects but not across subjects. Therefore the dental splint has a measureable influence on the running pattern of subjects, however subjects individuality has to be considered when choosing the

  13. Antinuclear antibodies: clinical significance of fluorescence patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordeiro, S.L.; Habermann, F.; Franco, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    Fifty-four patients with 212 sera positive for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were studied to: 1) determine the immunofluorescent nuclear staining patterns using Burnham's technique and simplified classification; 2) note the specificity of fluorescence patterns among the various connective tissue diseases; 3) study comparatively the fluorescence paterns employing 5 different antigen substrates; 4) correlate ANA titers and fluorescence patterns with renal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It was observed: 1) most of the sera gave nonparticulate fluorescent patterns: peripheral, homogeneous, or peripheral-homogeneneous; 2) 55,5% of the patients had LE and most of those sera showed nonparticulate fluorescent patterns; 3) the sera displayed no specificity for any of the following antigen substrates: imprints of human normal spleen, frozen rat liver and kidney sections, frozen mouse kidney sections and perypheral human blood smears; 4) imprints of normal human spleen were the best substrate for accurate identification of fluorescent patterns; 5) sera from SLE patients with renal involvement showed higher ANA titers in relation to patients without renal involvement; both groups of sera gave similar ANA fluorescent patterns. (Author) [pt

  14. Pattern Driven Stress Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Andrew; Crosby, Alfred

    2010-03-01

    The self-assembly of patterns from isotropic initial states is a major driver of modern soft-matter research. This avenue of study is directed by the desire to understand the complex physics of the varied structures found in Nature, and by technological interest in functional materials that may be derived through biomimicry. In this work we show how a simple striped phase can respond with significant complexity to an appropriately chosen perturbation. In particular, we show how a buckled elastic plate transitions into a state of stress localization using a simple, self-assembled variation in surface topography. The collection of topographic boundaries act in concert to change the state from isotropic sinusoidal wrinkles, to sharp folds or creases separated by relatively flat regions. By varying the size of the imposed topographic pattern or the wavelength of the wrinkles, we construct a state diagram of the system. The localized state has implications for both biological systems, and for the control of non-linear pattern formation.

  15. Unique Neural Characteristics of Atypical Lateralization of Language in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon P. Biduła

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 63 healthy participants, including left-handed and ambidextrous individuals, we tested how atypical lateralization of language—i. e., bilateral or right hemispheric language representation—differs from the typical left-hemisphere dominance. Although regardless of their handedness, all 11 participants from the atypical group engaged classical language centers, i.e., Broca's and Wernicke's areas, the right-hemisphere components of the default mode network (DMN, including the angular gyrus and middle temporal gyrus, were also critically involved during the verbal fluency task. Importantly, activity in these regions could not be explained in terms of mirroring the typical language pattern because left-hemisphere dominant individuals did not exhibit similar significant signal modulations. Moreover, when spatial extent of language-related activity across whole brain was considered, the bilateral language organization entailed more diffuse functional processing. Finally, we detected significant differences between the typical and atypical group in the resting-state connectivity at the global and local level. These findings suggest that the atypical lateralization of language has unique features, and is not a simple mirror image of the typical left hemispheric language representation.

  16. Phase change events of volatile liquid perfluorocarbon contrast agents produce unique acoustic signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheeran, Paul S; Dayton, Paul A; Matsunaga, Terry O

    2014-01-01

    Phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs) provide a dynamic platform to approach problems in medical ultrasound (US). Upon US-mediated activation, the liquid core vaporizes and expands to produce a gas bubble ideal for US imaging and therapy. In this study, we demonstrate through high-speed video microscopy and US interrogation that PCCAs composed of highly volatile perfluorocarbons (PFCs) exhibit unique acoustic behavior that can be detected and differentiated from standard microbubble contrast agents. Experimental results show that when activated with short pulses PCCAs will over-expand and undergo unforced radial oscillation while settling to a final bubble diameter. The size-dependent oscillation phenomenon generates a unique acoustic signal that can be passively detected in both time and frequency domain using confocal piston transducers with an ‘activate high’ (8 MHz, 2 cycles), ‘listen low’ (1 MHz) scheme. Results show that the magnitude of the acoustic ‘signature’ increases as PFC boiling point decreases. By using a band-limited spectral processing technique, the droplet signals can be isolated from controls and used to build experimental relationships between concentration and vaporization pressure. The techniques shown here may be useful for physical studies as well as development of droplet-specific imaging techniques. (paper)

  17. Pattern Laser Annealing by a Pulsed Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiya, Yoshio; Hoh, Koichiro; Murakami, Koichi; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Tarui, Yasuo

    1981-10-01

    Preliminary experiments with contact-type pattern laser annealing were made for local polycrystallization of a-Si, local evaporation of a-Si and local formation of Ni-Si alloy. These experiments showed that the mask patterns can be replicated as annealed regions with a resolution of a few microns on substrates. To overcome shortcomings due to the contact type pattern annealing, a projection type reduction pattern laser annealing system is proposed for resistless low temperature pattern forming processes.

  18. Denture identification using unique identification authority of India barcode

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhindra Mahoorkar; Anoop Jain

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, various denture marking systems have been reported in the literature for personal identification. They have been broadly divided into surface marking and inclusion methods. In this technique, patient's unique identification number and barcode printed in the patient's Aadhaar card issued by Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) are used as denture markers. This article describes a simple, quick, and economical method for identification of individual.

  19. Denture identification using unique identification authority of India barcode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoorkar, Sudhindra; Jain, Anoop

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, various denture marking systems have been reported in the literature for personal identification. They have been broadly divided into surface marking and inclusion methods. In this technique, patient's unique identification number and barcode printed in the patient's Aadhaar card issued by Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) are used as denture markers. This article describes a simple, quick, and economical method for identification of individual.

  20. Personal continuous route pattern mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian YE; Ling CHEN; Gen-cai CHEN

    2009-01-01

    In the daily life, people often repeat regular routes in certain periods. In this paper, a mining system is developed to find the continuous route patterns of personal past trips. In order to count the diversity of personal moving status, the mining system employs the adaptive GPS data recording and five data filters to guarantee the clean trips data. The mining system uses a client/server architecture to protect personal privacy and to reduce the computational load. The server conducts the main mining procedure but with insufficient information to recover real personal routes. In order to improve the scalability of sequential pattern mining, a novel pattern mining algorithm, continuous route pattern mining (CRPM), is proposed. This algorithm can tolerate the different disturbances in real routes and extract the frequent patterns. Experimental results based on nine persons' trips show that CRPM can extract more than two times longer route patterns than the traditional route pattern mining algorithms.

  1. Deep, diverse and definitely different: unique attributes of the world's largest ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ramirez-Llodra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The deep sea, the largest biome on Earth, has a series of characteristics that make this environment both distinct from other marine and land ecosystems and unique for the entire planet. This review describes these patterns and processes, from geological settings to biological processes, biodiversity and biogeographical patterns. It concludes with a brief discussion of current threats from anthropogenic activities to deep-sea habitats and their fauna.

    Investigations of deep-sea habitats and their fauna began in the late 19th century. In the intervening years, technological developments and stimulating discoveries have promoted deep-sea research and changed our way of understanding life on the planet. Nevertheless, the deep sea is still mostly unknown and current discovery rates of both habitats and species remain high. The geological, physical and geochemical settings of the deep-sea floor and the water column form a series of different habitats with unique characteristics that support specific faunal communities. Since 1840, 28 new habitats/ecosystems have been discovered from the shelf break to the deep trenches and discoveries of new habitats are still happening in the early 21st century. However, for most of these habitats the global area covered is unknown or has been only very roughly estimated; an even smaller – indeed, minimal – proportion has actually been sampled and investigated. We currently perceive most of the deep-sea ecosystems as heterotrophic, depending ultimately on the flux on organic matter produced in the overlying surface ocean through photosynthesis. The resulting strong food limitation thus shapes deep-sea biota and communities, with exceptions only in reducing ecosystems such as inter alia hydrothermal vents or cold seeps. Here, chemoautolithotrophic bacteria play the role of primary producers fuelled by chemical energy sources rather than sunlight. Other ecosystems, such as seamounts, canyons or cold

  2. An approach to evaluate the topological significance of motifs and other patterns in regulatory networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wingender Edgar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of network motifs as statistically over-represented topological patterns has become one of the most promising topics in the analysis of complex networks. The main focus is commonly made on how they operate by means of their internal organization. Yet, their contribution to a network's global architecture is poorly understood. However, this requires switching from the abstract view of a topological pattern to the level of its instances. Here, we show how a recently proposed metric, the pairwise disconnectivity index, can be adapted to survey if and which kind of topological patterns and their instances are most important for sustaining the connectivity within a network. Results The pairwise disconnectivity index of a pattern instance quantifies the dependency of the pairwise connections between vertices in a network on the presence of this pattern instance. Thereby, it particularly considers how the coherence between the unique constituents of a pattern instance relates to the rest of a network. We have applied the method exemplarily to the analysis of 3-vertex topological pattern instances in the transcription networks of a bacteria (E. coli, a unicellular eukaryote (S. cerevisiae and higher eukaryotes (human, mouse, rat. We found that in these networks only very few pattern instances break lots of the pairwise connections between vertices upon the removal of an instance. Among them network motifs do not prevail. Rather, those patterns that are shared by the three networks exhibit a conspicuously enhanced pairwise disconnectivity index. Additionally, these are often located in close vicinity to each other or are even overlapping, since only a small number of genes are repeatedly present in most of them. Moreover, evidence has gathered that the importance of these pattern instances is due to synergistic rather than merely additive effects between their constituents. Conclusion A new method has been proposed

  3. Localized conductive patterning via focused electron beam reduction of graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Songkil; Henry, Mathias [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Kulkarni, Dhaval D.; Zackowski, Paul; Jang, Seung Soon; Tsukruk, Vladimir V. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Fedorov, Andrei G., E-mail: agf@gatech.edu [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Parker H. Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2015-03-30

    We report on a method for “direct-write” conductive patterning via reduction of graphene oxide (GO) sheets using focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) of carbon. FEBID treatment of the intrinsically dielectric graphene oxide between two metal terminals opens up the conduction channel, thus enabling a unique capability for nanoscale conductive domain patterning in GO. An increase in FEBID electron dose results in a significant increase of the domain electrical conductivity with improving linearity of drain-source current vs. voltage dependence, indicative of a change of graphene oxide electronic properties from insulating to semiconducting. Density functional theory calculations suggest a possible mechanism underlying this experimentally observed phenomenon, as localized reduction of graphene oxide layers via interactions with highly reactive intermediates of electron-beam-assisted dissociation of surface-adsorbed hydrocarbon molecules. These findings establish an unusual route for using FEBID as nanoscale lithography and patterning technique for engineering carbon-based nanomaterials and devices with locally tailored electronic properties.

  4. Uniqueness of the Fock quantization of the Gowdy T3 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, Jeronimo; Marugan, Guillermo A. Mena; Velhinho, Jose M.

    2007-01-01

    After its reduction by a gauge-fixing procedure, the family of linearly polarized Gowdy T 3 cosmologies admits a scalar field description whose evolution is governed by a Klein-Gordon type equation in a flat background in 1+1 dimensions with the spatial topology of S 1 , though in the presence of a time-dependent potential. The model is still subject to a homogeneous constraint, which generates S 1 -translations. Recently, a Fock quantization of this scalar field was introduced and shown to be unique under the requirements of unitarity of the dynamics and invariance under the gauge group of S 1 -translations. In this work, we extend and complete this uniqueness result by considering other possible scalar field descriptions, resulting from reasonable field reparametrizations of the induced metric of the reduced model. In the reduced phase space, these alternate descriptions can be obtained by means of a time-dependent scaling of the field, the inverse scaling of its canonical momentum, and the possible addition of a time-dependent, linear contribution of the field to this momentum. Demanding again unitarity of the field dynamics and invariance under the gauge group, we prove that the alternate canonical pairs of fieldlike variables admit a Fock representation if and only if the scaling of the field is constant in time. In this case, there exists essentially a unique Fock representation, provided by the quantization constructed by Corichi, Cortez, and Mena Marugan. In particular, our analysis shows that the scalar field description proposed by Pierri does not admit a Fock quantization with the above unitarity and invariance properties

  5. Phytoplankton blooms in estuarine and coastal waters: Seasonal patterns and key species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Jacob; Klais, Riina; Cloern, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton blooms are dynamic phenomena of great importance to the functioning of estuarine and coastal ecosystems. We analysed a unique (large) collection of phytoplankton monitoring data covering 86 coastal sites distributed over eight regions in North America and Europe, with the aim of investigating common patterns in the seasonal timing and species composition of the blooms. The spring bloom was the most common seasonal pattern across all regions, typically occurring early (February–March) at lower latitudes and later (April–May) at higher latitudes. Bloom frequency, defined as the probability of unusually high biomass, ranged from 5 to 35% between sites and followed no consistent patterns across gradients of latitude, temperature, salinity, water depth, stratification, tidal amplitude or nutrient concentrations. Blooms were mostly dominated by a single species, typically diatoms (58% of the blooms) and dinoflagellates (19%). Diatom-dominated spring blooms were a common feature in most systems, although dinoflagellate spring blooms were also observed in the Baltic Sea. Blooms dominated by chlorophytes and cyanobacteria were only common in low salinity waters and occurred mostly at higher temperatures. Key bloom species across the eight regions included the diatoms Cerataulina pelagica and Dactyliosolen fragilissimus and dinoflagellates Heterocapsa triquetra and Prorocentrum cordatum. Other frequent bloom-forming taxa were diatom genera Chaetoceros, Coscinodiscus, Skeletonema, and Thalassiosira. Our meta-analysis shows that these 86 estuarine-coastal sites function as diatom-producing systems, the timing of that production varies widely, and that bloom frequency is not associated with environmental factors measured in monitoring programs. We end with a perspective on the limitations of conclusions derived from meta-analyses of phytoplankton time series, and the grand challenges remaining to understand the wide range of bloom patterns and

  6. Local failure patterns for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jia-xin; Huang, Shao-min; Jiang, Xin-hua; Ouyang, Bin; Han, Fei; Liu, Shuai; Wen, Bi-xiu; Lu, Tai-xiang

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the clinical feature and the local failure patterns after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Between March 2007 and July 2009, 710 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. The magnetic resonance imagings obtained at recurrence were registered with the original planning computed tomography for dosimetry analysis. With a median follow-up of 38 months, 34 patients have developed local recurrence (32 cases valid). The incidence of invasion to nasopharynx, parapharyngeal space and the retropharyngeal space by the primary tumors was 100%, 75.0% and 62.5%, respectively, but 78.1%, 34.4% and 21.9% at recurrence, respectively. The rate of invasion to ethmoid sinus was 3.1% by the primary tumors but 28.1% at recurrence (p = 0.005). The topographic analysis of the local failure patterns showed 'central' in 16 patients; 'marginal' in 9; and 'outside' in 7. The median volumes of primary gross tumor were 45.84 cm 3 in the central failure group, 29.44 cm 3 in the marginal failure group, and 21.52 cm 3 in the outside failure group, respectively (p = 0.012), and the median volumes of primary clinical target1 were 87.28 cm 3 , 61.90 cm 3 and 58.74 cm 3 in the three groups, respectively (p = 0.033). In patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy, the recurrent tumors had their unique characteristic and regularity of invasion to adjacent structures. 'Central' failure was the major local failure pattern. The volumes of primary gross tumor and clinical target1 were significantly correlated with recurrent patterns. Employ more aggressive approaches to tumor cells which will be insensitive to radiotherapy may be an effective way to reduce the central failure

  7. Ngram-derived pattern recognition for the detection and prediction of epileptic seizures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Eftekhar

    Full Text Available This work presents a new method that combines symbol dynamics methodologies with an Ngram algorithm for the detection and prediction of epileptic seizures. The presented approach specifically applies Ngram-based pattern recognition, after data pre-processing, with similarity metrics, including the Hamming distance and Needlman-Wunsch algorithm, for identifying unique patterns within epochs of time. Pattern counts within each epoch are used as measures to determine seizure detection and prediction markers. Using 623 hours of intracranial electrocorticogram recordings from 21 patients containing a total of 87 seizures, the sensitivity and false prediction/detection rates of this method are quantified. Results are quantified using individual seizures within each case for training of thresholds and prediction time windows. The statistical significance of the predictive power is further investigated. We show that the method presented herein, has significant predictive power in up to 100% of temporal lobe cases, with sensitivities of up to 70-100% and low false predictions (dependant on training procedure. The cases of highest false predictions are found in the frontal origin with 0.31-0.61 false predictions per hour and with significance in 18 out of 21 cases. On average, a prediction sensitivity of 93.81% and false prediction rate of approximately 0.06 false predictions per hour are achieved in the best case scenario. This compares to previous work utilising the same data set that has shown sensitivities of up to 40-50% for a false prediction rate of less than 0.15/hour.

  8. Changes in Nuclear Orientation Patterns of Chromosome 11 during Mouse Plasmacytoma Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Kristin Schmälter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Studying changes in nuclear architecture is a unique approach toward the understanding of nuclear remodeling during tumor development. One aspect of nuclear architecture is the orientation of chromosomes in the three-dimensional nuclear space. We studied mouse chromosome 11 in lymphocytes of [T38HxBALB/c]N mice with a reciprocal translocation between chromosome X and 11 (T38HT(X;11 exhibiting a long chromosome T(11;X and a short chromosome T(X;11 and in fast-onset plasmacytomas (PCTs induced in the same strain. We determined the three-dimensional orientation of chromosome 11 using a mouse chromosome 11 specific multicolor banding probe. We also examined the nuclear position of the small translocation chromosome T(X;11 which contains cytoband 11E2 and parts of E1. Chromosomes can point either with their centromeric or with their telomeric end toward the nuclear center or periphery, or their position is found in parallel to the nuclear border. In T38HT(X;11 nuclei, the most frequently observed orientation pattern was with both chromosomes 11 in parallel to the nuclear border (“PP”. PCT cells showed nuclei with two or more copies of chromosome 11. In PCTs, the most frequent orientation pattern was with one chromosome in parallel and the other pointing with its centromeric end toward the nuclear periphery (“CP”. There is a significant difference between the orientation patterns observed in T38HT(X;11 and in PCT nuclei (P < .0001.

  9. ICRPfinder: a fast pattern design algorithm for coding sequences and its application in finding potential restriction enzyme recognition sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafford Phillip

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction enzymes can produce easily definable segments from DNA sequences by using a variety of cut patterns. There are, however, no software tools that can aid in gene building -- that is, modifying wild-type DNA sequences to express the same wild-type amino acid sequences but with enhanced codons, specific cut sites, unique post-translational modifications, and other engineered-in components for recombinant applications. A fast DNA pattern design algorithm, ICRPfinder, is provided in this paper and applied to find or create potential recognition sites in target coding sequences. Results ICRPfinder is applied to find or create restriction enzyme recognition sites by introducing silent mutations. The algorithm is shown capable of mapping existing cut-sites but importantly it also can generate specified new unique cut-sites within a specified region that are guaranteed not to be present elsewhere in the DNA sequence. Conclusion ICRPfinder is a powerful tool for finding or creating specific DNA patterns in a given target coding sequence. ICRPfinder finds or creates patterns, which can include restriction enzyme recognition sites, without changing the translated protein sequence. ICRPfinder is a browser-based JavaScript application and it can run on any platform, in on-line or off-line mode.

  10. Individual, Social, and Environmental Correlates of Active Transportation Patterns in French Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchoux, Camille; Enaux, Christophe; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Menai, Mehdi; Charreire, Hélène; Salze, Paul; Weber, Christiane; Hercberg, Serge; Feuillet, Thierry; Hess, Franck; Roda, Célina; Simon, Chantal; Nazare, Julie-Anne

    2017-01-01

    The objectives were (1) to define physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) patterns in daily life contexts (work, leisure, and transportation) in French working women from NutriNet-Santé web-cohort and (2) to identify pattern(s) of active transportation and their individual, social, and environmental correlates. 23,432 participants completed two questionnaires to evaluate PA and SB in daily life contexts and individual representations of residential neighborhood and transportation modes. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed which identified 6 distinct movement behavior patterns: (i) active occupation, high sedentary leisure, (ii) sedentary occupation, low leisure, (iii) sedentary transportation, (iv) sedentary occupation and leisure, (v) active transportation, and (vi) active leisure. Multinomial logistic regressions were performed to identify correlates of the "active transportation" cluster. The perceived environmental characteristics positively associated with "active transportation" included "high availability of destinations around home," "presence of bicycle paths," and "low traffic." A "positive image of walking/cycling," the "individual feeling of being physically active," and a "high use of active transport modes by relatives/friends" were positively related to "active transportation," identified as a unique pattern regarding individual and environmental correlates. Identification of PA and SB context-specific patterns will help to understand movement behaviors' complexity and to design interventions to promote active transportation in specific subgroups.

  11. A robust uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fengtong

    2013-12-01

    User authentication plays an important role to protect resources or services from being accessed by unauthorized users. In a recent paper, Das et al. proposed a secure and efficient uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care. This scheme uses three factors, e.g. biometrics, password, and smart card, to protect the security. It protects user privacy and is believed to have many abilities to resist a range of network attacks, even if the secret information stored in the smart card is compromised. In this paper, we analyze the security of Das et al.'s scheme, and show that the scheme is in fact insecure against the replay attack, user impersonation attacks and off-line guessing attacks. Then, we also propose a robust uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care. Compared with the existing schemes, our protocol uses a different user authentication mechanism to resist replay attack. We show that our proposed scheme can provide stronger security than previous protocols. Furthermore, we demonstrate the validity of the proposed scheme through the BAN (Burrows, Abadi, and Needham) logic.

  12. A comparison of the accuracy of patterns processed from an inlay casting wax, an auto-polymerized resin and a light-cured resin pattern material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Praveen; Chitre, Vidya; Aras, Meena A

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, inlay casting waxes have been used to fabricate patterns for castings. Newer resin pattern materials offer greater rigidity and strength, allowing easier laboratory and intraoral adjustment without the fear of pattern damage. They also claim to possess a greater dimensional stability when compared to inlay wax. This study attempted to determine and compare the marginal accuracy of patterns fabricated from an inlay casting wax, an autopolymerized pattern resin and a light polymerized pattern resin on storage off the die for varying time intervals. Ten patterns each were fabricated from an inlay casting wax (GC Corp., Tokyo, Japan), an autopolymerized resin pattern material (Pattern resin, GC Corp, Tokyo, Japan) and a light-cured resin pattern material (Palavit GLC, Hereaus Kulzer GmbH, Germany). The completed patterns were stored off the die at room temperature. Marginal gaps were evaluated by reseating the patterns on their respective dies and observing it under a stereomicroscope at 1, 12, and 24 h intervals after pattern fabrication. The results revealed that the inlay wax showed a significantly greater marginal discrepancy at the 12 and 24 h intervals. The autopolymerized resin showed an initial (at 1 h) marginal discrepancy slightly greater than inlay wax, but showed a significantly less marginal gap (as compared to inlay wax) at the other two time intervals. The light-cured resin proved to be significantly more dimensionally stable, and showed minimal change during the storage period. The resin pattern materials studied, undergo a significantly less dimensional change than the inlay waxes on prolonged storage. They would possibly be a better alternative to inlay wax in situations requiring high precision or when delayed investment (more than 1 h) of patterns can be expected.

  13. Beyond equality and inequality in education: Bakhtinian dialogic ethics approach of human uniqueness to educational justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Matusov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In our essay, we challenge the hegemonic Kantian discourse of defining justice as equality (in a broader sense and injustice as inequality in education (and elsewhere. We argue that this discourse is based on the underlining assumption of replaceability and measurement of people and of educational practice itself. In contrast, we argue that people and their education are unique. Thus, it is necessary to develop an alternative notion of justice based on uniqueness and immeasurability of people and their education. We found that Bakhtin’s dialogic ethics framework is helpful for developing such an alternative approach. According to the Bakhtinian dialogic ethics, people are engaged in self-contradictory deeds, charged with ethical tensions. These ethically problematic deeds must be challenged by others and the self in critical dialogue and must demand responses by the authors of the deeds striving to achieve justice. Taking responsibility is not merely a discursive process of answering – it is not “answerability” – but rather another ethic deed of defining ethically good or bad, defining quality and values, accepting blame, standing grounds, committing to fixing negative consequences, emotional sympathy, and so on. The process of challenging people’s deeds in critical dialogue and their taking (or not taking responsibility defines (injustice of people’s deeds. We examine two cases of educational injustice based on the Bakhtinian dialogic ethics framework of uniquness. We try to show that education and its justice are essentially authorial and, thus, unique processes. Even when justice involves measurable things like money, it is still about unique people with unique educational goals, interests, and needs in unique circumstances that these measurable resources afford. We consider a case of allocation of measurable resources as a compromise between the Kantian formulistic and the Bakhtinian dialogic ethics approaches. We conclude our

  14. Auditory Pattern Memory and Group Signal Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sorkin, Robert

    1997-01-01

    .... The experiments with temporally-coded auditory patterns showed how listeners' attention is influenced by the position and the amount of information carried by different segments of the pattern...

  15. Learning to Recognize Patterns: Changes in the Visual Field with Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebko, James M.; Uchikawa, Keiji; Saida, Shinya; Ikeda, Mitsuo

    1995-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate changes which take place in the visual information processing of novel stimuli as they become familiar. Japanese writing characters (Hiragana and Kanji) which were unfamiliar to two native English speaking subjects were presented using a moving window technique to restrict their visual fields. Study time for visual recognition was recorded across repeated sessions, and with varying visual field restrictions. The critical visual field was defined as the size of the visual field beyond which further increases did not improve the speed of recognition performance. In the first study, when the Hiragana patterns were novel, subjects needed to see about half of the entire pattern simultaneously to maintain optimal performance. However, the critical visual field size decreased as familiarity with the patterns increased. These results were replicated in the second study with more complex Kanji characters. In addition, the critical field size decreased as pattern complexity decreased. We propose a three component model of pattern perception. In the first stage a representation of the stimulus must be constructed by the subject, and restricting of the visual field interferes dramatically with this component when stimuli are unfamiliar. With increased familiarity, subjects become able to reconstruct a previous representation from very small, unique segments of the pattern, analogous to the informativeness areas hypothesized by Loftus and Mackworth [J. Exp. Psychol., 4 (1978) 565].

  16. Is subjective social status a unique correlate of physical health? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Jenny M; Matthews, Karen A

    2017-12-01

    Both social stratification (e.g., social rank) as well as economic resources (e.g., income) are thought to contribute to socioeconomic health disparities. It has been proposed that subjective socioeconomic status (an individual's perception of his or her hierarchical rank) provides increased predictive utility for physical health over and above more traditional, well-researched socioeconomic constructs such as education, occupation, and income. PsycINFO and PubMed databases were systematically searched for studies examining the association of subjective socioeconomic status (SES) and physical health adjusting for at least 1 measure of objective SES. The final sample included 31 studies and 99 unique effects. Meta-analyses were performed to: (a) estimate the overlap among subjective and objective indicators of SES and (b) estimate the cumulative association of subjective SES with physical health adjusting for objective SES. Potential moderators such as race and type of health indicator assessed (global self-reports vs. more specific and biologically based indicators) were also examined. Across samples, subjective SES shows moderate overlap with objective indicators of SES, but associations are much stronger in Whites than Blacks. Subjective SES evidenced a unique cumulative association with physical health in adults, above and beyond traditional objective indicators of SES (Z = .07, SE = .01, p Subjective SES may provide unique information relevant to understanding disparities in health, especially self-rated health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Guide to good practices for operations aspects of unique processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Operations Aspects of Facility Chemistry and Unique Processes, Chapter XIII of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing employee training and facility management programs. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19. Operations Aspects of Unique Processes is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for all personnel to coordinate interrelated activities affecting unique processes.

  18. Unique sudden onsets capture attention even when observers are in feature-search mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalek, Thomas M; Yanko, Matthew R; Poiese, Paola; Lagroix, Hayley E P

    2012-01-01

    Two sources of attentional capture have been proposed: stimulus-driven (exogenous) and goal-oriented (endogenous). A resolution between these modes of capture has not been straightforward. Even such a clearly exogenous event as the sudden onset of a stimulus can be said to capture attention endogenously if observers operate in singleton-detection mode rather than feature-search mode. In four experiments we show that a unique sudden onset captures attention even when observers are in feature-search mode. The displays were rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) streams of differently coloured letters with the target letter defined by a specific colour. Distractors were four #s, one of the target colour, surrounding one of the non-target letters. Capture was substantially reduced when the onset of the distractor array was not unique because it was preceded by other sets of four grey # arrays in the RSVP stream. This provides unambiguous evidence that attention can be captured both exogenously and endogenously within a single task.

  19. Patterns of motor activity in the isolated nerve cord of the octopus arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfreund, Yoram; Matzner, Henry; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2006-12-01

    The extremely flexible octopus arm provides a unique opportunity for studying movement control in a highly redundant motor system. We describe a novel preparation that allows analysis of the peripheral nervous system of the octopus arm and its interaction with the muscular and mechanosensory elements of the arm's intrinsic muscular system. First we examined the synaptic responses in muscle fibers to identify the motor pathways from the axial nerve cord of the arm to the surrounding musculature. We show that the motor axons project to the muscles via nerve roots originating laterally from the arm nerve cord. The motor field of each nerve is limited to the region where the nerve enters the arm musculature. The same roots also carry afferent mechanosensory information from the intrinsic muscle to the axial nerve cord. Next, we characterized the pattern of activity generated in the dorsal roots by electrically stimulating the axial nerve cord. The evoked activity, although far reaching and long lasting, cannot alone account for the arm extension movements generated by similar electrical stimulation. The mismatch between patterns of activity in the isolated cord and in an intact arm may stem from the involvement of mechanosensory feedback in natural arm extension.

  20. Shift of biome patterns due to simulated climate variability and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claussen, M.

    1993-01-01

    The variability of simulated equilibrium-response patterns of biomes caused by simulated climate variability and climate shift is analysed. This investigation is based on various realisations of simulated present-day climate and climate shift. It has been found that the difference between biomes computed from three 10-year climatologies and from the corresponding 30-year climatology, simulated by the Hamburg climate model at T21 resolution, amounts to approximately 6% of the total land area, Antarctica excluded. This difference is mainly due to differences in annual moisture availability and winter temperatures. When intercomparing biomes from the 10-year climatologies a 10% difference is seen, but there is no unique difference pattern. In contrast to the interdecadal variability, the shift of conditions favorable for biomes due to a shift in climate in the next 100 years, caused by an increase in sea-surface temperatures and atmospheric CO 2 , reveals a unique trend pattern. It turns out that the strongest and most significant signal is the north-east shift of conditions for boreal biomes. This signal is caused by an increase of annual temperature sums as well as mean temperatures of the coldest and warmest months. Trends in annual moisture availability are of secondary importance globally. Regionally, a decrease in water availability affects biomes in Central and East Europe and an increase of water availability leads to a potential increase in tropical rain forest. In total, all differences amount to roughly 30% of the total land surface, Antarctica excluded. (orig./KW)

  1. Quantum pattern recognition with multi-neuron interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, E. Rezaei; Aghayar, K.; Amniat-Talab, M.

    2018-03-01

    We present a quantum neural network with multi-neuron interactions for pattern recognition tasks by a combination of extended classic Hopfield network and adiabatic quantum computation. This scheme can be used as an associative memory to retrieve partial patterns with any number of unknown bits. Also, we propose a preprocessing approach to classifying the pattern space S to suppress spurious patterns. The results of pattern clustering show that for pattern association, the number of weights (η ) should equal the numbers of unknown bits in the input pattern ( d). It is also remarkable that associative memory function depends on the location of unknown bits apart from the d and load parameter α.

  2. Social Change, Competition and Inequality: Macro Societal Patterns Reflected in Curriculum Practices of Turkish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somel, Rahsan Nazli; Nohl, Arnd-Michael

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum reforms provide a unique opportunity to investigate how in times of social change education is not only influenced by, but also itself a driver of, competition and inequality. This article sheds light on a specific instance of how macro-societal patterns in education intermingle in twenty-first century Turkey by inquiring into a major…

  3. Patterns - "A crime solver".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasupriya, A; Dhanapal, Raghu; Reena, K; Saraswathi, Tr; Ramachandran, Cr

    2011-01-01

    This study is intended to analyze the predominant pattern of lip and finger prints in males and females and to correlate lip print and finger print for gender identity. The study sample comprised of 200 students of Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, 100 males and 100 females aged between 18 to 27 years. Brown/pink colored lip stick was applied on the lips and the subject was asked to spread it uniformly over the lips. Lip prints were traced in the normal rest position of the lips with the help of cellophane tape. The imprint of the left thumb was taken on a white chart sheet and visualized using magnifying lens. While three main types of finger prints are identified, the classification of lip prints is simplified into branched, reticular, and vertical types. Association between lip prints and finger prints was statistically tested using Chi-square test. This study showed that lip and finger patterns did not reveal statistically significant results within the gender. The correlation between lip and finger patterns for gender identification, was statistically significant. In males, branched type of lip pattern associated with arch, loop, and whorl type of finger pattern was most significant. In females, vertical lip pattern associated with arch finger pattern and reticular lip pattern associated with whorl finger patterns were most significant. We conclude that a correlative study between the lip print and finger print will be very useful in forensic science for gender identification.

  4. Use of Frontal Sinus and Nasal Septum Pattern as an Aid in Personal Identification and Determination of Gender: A Radiographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Kavita; Nahar, Prashant; Singh, Mohit Pal; Mathur, Hemant; Bhuvaneshwari, S

    2017-01-01

    Personal identification and gender determination of unknown person has a vital importance in forensic investigation. Human skull radiography is a useful tool in human identification in natural disaster, in any accidents such as fire accident and road traffic accident where body remains become degraded or severely destroyed. Present study was performed to evaluate the measurement of frontal sinus, uniqueness of various pattern of nasal septum when combined with frontal sinus observed on posterio anterior cephalogram for sex determination as well as personal identification. A total of 80 individuals, 40 males and 40 females, between the age ranges of 18-30 years were selected. The selected individuals had their Posterio Anterior (PA) cephalogram performed after taking their informed consent. Right and left areas and the maximum height and width of the frontal sinus were determined and septum patterns were evaluated and both patterns were also combined and compared. The radiographs were taken on Xtropan 2000 OPG X-ray machine with cephalography attachment and KODAK CR 7400 digital radiography system. Mean and SD values of the greatest height and width of frontal sinus in male and female patients were thus evaluated. The mean values of the frontal sinus were greater in males and the left area was larger than the right area, based on student's t-test at the 5% level of significance. The combination of Frontal Sinus Patterns and Nasal Septum Patterns (FP+NSP) were assessed and found that there were nine classifiable patterns in 26 (32.5%) individuals (12 males and 14 females), each of which had common representations in more than one individual. Besides these patterns, there were unique unclassifiable patterns in 54 (67.5%) individuals. The present study supports the use of radiographic evaluation of frontal sinus dimensions, frontal sinus patterns, nasal septum deviations and the combination FP+NSP patterns for personal identification and gender determination in

  5. Foot shape in arboreal birds: two morphological patterns for the same pincer-like tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abourachid, Anick; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Cornette, Raphaël; Höfling, Elizabeth

    2017-07-01

    The feet are the only contact between the body and the substrate in limbed animals and as such they provide a crucial interface between the animal and its environment. This is especially true for bipedal and arboreal species living in a complex three-dimensional environment that likely induces strong selection on foot morphology. In birds, foot morphology is highly variable, with different orientations of the toes, making it a good model for the study of the role of functional, developmental, and phylogenetic constraints in the evolution of phenotypic diversity. Our data on the proportions of the phalanges analyzed in a phylogenetic context show that two different morphological patterns exist that depend mainly on habitat and toe orientation. In the anisodactyl foot, the hallux is the only backward-oriented toe and is enlarged in climbing species and reduced in terrestrial ones. Moreover, a proximo-distal gradient in phalanx size is observed depending on the degree of terrestriality. In the two other cases (heterodactyl and zygodactyl) that have two toes that point backward, the hallux is rather small in contrast to the other backward-pointing toe, which is enlarged. The first pattern is convergent and common among tetrapods and follows rules of skeletal development. The second pattern is unique for the clade and under muscle-morphogenetic control. In all cases, the functional result is the same tool, a pincer-like foot. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  6. The Uniqueness of Milton Friedman

    OpenAIRE

    J. Daniel Hammond

    2013-01-01

    That there is no Milton Friedman today is not a mystery; the mystery is how Milton Friedman could have been. The facts of Friedman’s biography make him unique among twentieth-century public figures. He had extensive knowledge and expertise in mathematics and statistics. Yet he became a critic of ‘formal’ theory, exemplified by mathematical economics, that failed to engage with real-world facts and data, and of econometric modeling that presumed more knowledge of economic structure than Friedm...

  7. The Analysis of Tree Species Distribution Information Extraction and Landscape Pattern Based on Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zeng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The forest ecosystem is the largest land vegetation type, which plays the role of unreplacement with its unique value. And in the landscape scale, the research on forest landscape pattern has become the current hot spot, wherein the study of forest canopy structure is very important. They determines the process and the strength of forests energy flow, which influences the adjustments of ecosystem for climate and species diversity to some extent. The extraction of influencing factors of canopy structure and the analysis of the vegetation distribution pattern are especially important. To solve the problems, remote sensing technology, which is superior to other technical means because of its fine timeliness and large-scale monitoring, is applied to the study. Taking Lingkong Mountain as the study area, the paper uses the remote sensing image to analyze the forest distribution pattern and obtains the spatial characteristics of canopy structure distribution, and DEM data are as the basic data to extract the influencing factors of canopy structure. In this paper, pattern of trees distribution is further analyzed by using terrain parameters, spatial analysis tools and surface processes quantitative simulation. The Hydrological Analysis tool is used to build distributed hydrological model, and corresponding algorithm is applied to determine surface water flow path, rivers network and basin boundary. Results show that forest vegetation distribution of dominant tree species present plaque on the landscape scale and their distribution have spatial heterogeneity which is related to terrain factors closely. After the overlay analysis of aspect, slope and forest distribution pattern respectively, the most suitable area for stand growth and the better living condition are obtained.

  8. How to Preserve the Benefits of Design Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Ellen; Cornils, Aino

    1998-01-01

    The rapid evolution of Design Patterns has hampered the benefits gained from using Design Patterns. The increase in the number of Design Patterns makes a common vocabulary unmanageable, and the tracing problem obscures the documentation that should be enhanced by using Design Patterns. We present...... an analysis of Design Patterns that will strongly reduce the number of Fundamental Design Patterns and show how strong language abstractions can solve the tracing problem and thereby enhance the documentation....

  9. Estimation of Diverse Porang (Amorphophallus Muelleri Blume Age in Forest Are Based on Brancing Pattern of Leaf Petiolule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunung Harijati

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Porang is higher plant which has unique morphology. Tuber, petiole and lamina are the main part of its body. Even Porang doesn’t have true stem, only petiole, its lamina not simple leaves but compound leaves with special pattern. Branching patterns of petiolule are not same in different age. Therefore the aim of research was to observe branching pattern of petiolule from Porang age 1-4 that lived in their native habitat i.e. forest. The research was conducted in secondary forest in Sumberbendo village, Madiun. Determination porang age was helped by expert farmer that worked with porang for long time. The result showed that Porang age 1 had petiolule with braching type 1-0. Porang age 2 was 1-3, Porang age 3 was 1-3-2, and Porang age 4 was 1-3-2-2. The petiolule which acted as a base of new branch had one or few single simple leaf. The leave could be both sinus and un-sinus leaves located in between two initial or base branching. The position of the leaves were opposite or alternate along with petiolule. If location single leaf just in point branching, the new petiolule morphology was not be considered as petiolule but midrib.

  10. Differential Lectin Binding Patterns Identify Distinct Heart Regions in Giant Danio (Devario aequipinnatus) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manalo, Trina; May, Adam; Quinn, Joshua; Lafontant, Dominique S.; Shifatu, Olubusola; He, Wei; Gonzalez-Rosa, Juan M.; Burns, Geoffrey C.; Burns, Caroline E.; Burns, Alan R.; Lafontant, Pascal J.

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins commonly used as biochemical and histochemical tools to study glycoconjugate (glycoproteins, glycolipids) expression patterns in cells, tissues, including mammalian hearts. However, lectins have received little attention in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and giant danio (Devario aequipinnatus) heart studies. Here, we sought to determine the binding patterns of six commonly used lectins—wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin, Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin (BS lectin), concanavalin A (Con A), Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA I), and Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin (tomato lectin)—in these hearts. Con A showed broad staining in the myocardium. WGA stained cardiac myocyte borders, with binding markedly stronger in the compact heart and bulbus. BS lectin, which stained giant danio coronaries, was used to measure vascular reconstruction during regeneration. However, BS lectin reacted poorly in zebrafish. RCA I stained the compact heart of both fish. Tomato lectin stained the giant danio, and while low reactivity was seen in the zebrafish ventricle, staining was observed in their transitional cardiac myocytes. In addition, we observed unique staining patterns in the developing zebrafish heart. Lectins’ ability to reveal differential glycoconjugate expression in giant danio and zebrafish hearts suggests they can serve as simple but important tools in studies of developing, adult, and regenerating fish hearts. PMID:27680670

  11. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  12. Systematic data mining using a pattern database to accelerate yield ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Edward; Dai, Vito; Capodieci, Luigi; Lai, Ya-Chieh; Gennari, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Pattern-based approaches to physical verification, such as DRC Plus, which use a library of patterns to identify problematic 2D configurations, have been proven to be effective in capturing the concept of manufacturability where traditional DRC fails. As the industry moves to advanced technology nodes, the manufacturing process window tightens and the number of patterns continues to rapidly increase. This increase in patterns brings about challenges in identifying, organizing, and carrying forward the learning of each pattern from test chip designs to first product and then to multiple product variants. This learning includes results from printability simulation, defect scans and physical failure analysis, which are important for accelerating yield ramp. Using pattern classification technology and a relational database, GLOBALFOUNDRIES has constructed a pattern database (PDB) of more than one million potential yield detractor patterns. In PDB, 2D geometries are clustered based on similarity criteria, such as radius and edge tolerance. Each cluster is assigned a representative pattern and a unique identifier (ID). This ID is then used as a persistent reference for linking together information such as the failure mechanism of the patterns, the process condition where the pattern is likely to fail and the number of occurrences of the pattern in a design. Patterns and their associated information are used to populate DRC Plus pattern matching libraries for design-for-manufacturing (DFM) insertion into the design flow for auto-fixing and physical verification. Patterns are used in a production-ready yield learning methodology to identify and score critical hotspot patterns. Patterns are also used to select sites for process monitoring in the fab. In this paper, we describe the design of PDB, the methodology for identifying and analyzing patterns across multiple design and technology cycles, and the use of PDB to accelerate manufacturing process learning. One such

  13. Early Developmental and Evolutionary Origins of Gene Body DNA Methylation Patterns in Mammalian Placentas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane I Schroeder

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20-80 million years the mammalian placenta has taken on a variety of morphologies through both divergent and convergent evolution. Recently we have shown that the human placenta genome has a unique epigenetic pattern of large partially methylated domains (PMDs and highly methylated domains (HMDs with gene body DNA methylation positively correlating with level of gene expression. In order to determine the evolutionary conservation of DNA methylation patterns and transcriptional regulatory programs in the placenta, we performed a genome-wide methylome (MethylC-seq analysis of human, rhesus macaque, squirrel monkey, mouse, dog, horse, and cow placentas as well as opossum extraembryonic membrane. We found that, similar to human placenta, mammalian placentas and opossum extraembryonic membrane have globally lower levels of methylation compared to somatic tissues. Higher relative gene body methylation was the conserved feature across all mammalian placentas, despite differences in PMD/HMDs and absolute methylation levels. Specifically, higher methylation over the bodies of genes involved in mitosis, vesicle-mediated transport, protein phosphorylation, and chromatin modification was observed compared with the rest of the genome. As in human placenta, higher methylation is associated with higher gene expression and is predictive of genic location across species. Analysis of DNA methylation in oocytes and preimplantation embryos shows a conserved pattern of gene body methylation similar to the placenta. Intriguingly, mouse and cow oocytes and mouse early embryos have PMD/HMDs but their placentas do not, suggesting that PMD/HMDs are a feature of early preimplantation methylation patterns that become lost during placental development in some species and following implantation of the embryo.

  14. The family receiving home care: functional health pattern assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, J I

    1996-01-01

    The winds of change in health care make assessment of the family more important than ever as a tool for health care providers seeking to assist the family move themselves toward high-level wellness. Limited medical care and imposed self-responsibility for health promotion and illness prevention, which are natural consequences of these changes, move the locus of control for health management back to the family. The family's teachings, modeling, and interactions are greater influences than ever on the health of the patient. Gordon's functional health patterns provide a holistic model for assessment of the family because assessment data are classified under 11 headings: health perception and health management, nutritional-metabolic, elimination, activity and exercise, sleep and rest, cognition and perception, self-perception and self-concept, roles and relationships, sexuality and reproduction, coping and stress tolerance, and values and beliefs. Questions posed under each of the health patterns can be varied to reflect the uniqueness of the individual family as well as to inquire about family strengths and weaknesses in all patterns. Data using this model provide a comprehensive base for including the family in designing a plan of care.

  15. Extreme ultraviolet patterning of tin-oxo cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitjema, Jarich; Zhang, Yu; Vockenhuber, Michaela; Kazazis, Dimitrios; Ekinci, Yasin; Brouwer, Albert M.

    2017-07-01

    We report on the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) patterning performance of tin-oxo cages. These cage molecules were already known to function as a negative tone photoresist for EUV radiation, but in this work, we significantly optimized their performance. Our results show that sensitivity and resolution are only meaningful photoresist parameters if the process conditions are optimized. We focus on contrast curves of the materials using large area EUV exposures and patterning of the cages using EUV interference lithography. It is shown that baking steps, such as postexposure baking, can significantly affect both the sensitivity and contrast in the open-frame experiments as well as the patterning experiments. A layer thickness increase reduced the necessary dose to induce a solubility change but decreased the patterning quality. The patterning experiments were affected by minor changes in processing conditions such as an increased rinsing time. In addition, we show that the anions of the cage can influence the sensitivity and quality of the patterning, probably through their effect on physical properties of the materials.

  16. A Case of Porokeratosis Showing Different Clinical Patterns of the Disease with Anogenital Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Karabudak

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Porokeratosis (PK is a group of cutaneous entities characterized by marginate scaling lesions, histologically showing a column of parakeratotic keratinocytes (cornoid lamella. Various forms are recognized such as porokeratosis of Mibelli (PM, linear porokeratosis, disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis, punctate parakeratosis. PM should be treated because of the possibility of developing malignant epithelial tumors. We are presenting a 21 year old male patient suffering from PM on the back of the hands, foot, scrotum, oral mucosa and anal region. The histological biopsy specimens showed the characteristic features of porokeratosis. We destroyed the lesions by cryotherapy sessions. Here, we present a case of PM since it is rarely seen as multiple lesions with oral, anal and scrotal involvements altogether. (Turkderm 2008; 42: 97-9

  17. Psychological aspects of human cloning and genetic manipulation: the identity and uniqueness of human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, N M

    2009-01-01

    Human cloning has become one of the most controversial debates about reproduction in Western civilization. Human cloning represents asexual reproduction, but the critics of human cloning argue that the result of cloning is not a new individual who is genetically unique. There is also awareness in the scientific community, including the medical community, that human cloning and the creation of clones are inevitable. Psychology and other social sciences, together with the natural sciences, will need to find ways to help the healthcare system, to be prepared to face the new challenges introduced by the techniques of human cloning. One of those challenges is to help the healthcare system to find specific standards of behaviour that could be used to help potential parents to interact properly with cloned babies or children created through genetic manipulation. In this paper, the concepts of personality, identity and uniqueness are discussed in relationship to the contribution of twin studies in these areas. The author argues that an individual created by human cloning techniques or any other type of genetic manipulation will not show the donor's characteristics to the extent of compromising uniqueness. Therefore, claims to such an effect are needlessly alarmist.

  18. Unique Protein Signature of Circulating Microparticles in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer; Iversen, Line V

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases.......To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases....

  19. Learning alternative movement coordination patterns using reinforcement feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Hsiang; Denomme, Amber; Ranganathan, Rajiv

    2018-05-01

    One of the characteristic features of the human motor system is redundancy-i.e., the ability to achieve a given task outcome using multiple coordination patterns. However, once participants settle on using a specific coordination pattern, the process of learning to use a new alternative coordination pattern to perform the same task is still poorly understood. Here, using two experiments, we examined this process of how participants shift from one coordination pattern to another using different reinforcement schedules. Participants performed a virtual reaching task, where they moved a cursor to different targets positioned on the screen. Our goal was to make participants use a coordination pattern with greater trunk motion, and to this end, we provided reinforcement by making the cursor disappear if the trunk motion during the reach did not cross a specified threshold value. In Experiment 1, we compared two reinforcement schedules in two groups of participants-an abrupt group, where the threshold was introduced immediately at the beginning of practice; and a gradual group, where the threshold was introduced gradually with practice. Results showed that both abrupt and gradual groups were effective in shifting their coordination patterns to involve greater trunk motion, but the abrupt group showed greater retention when the reinforcement was removed. In Experiment 2, we examined the basis of this advantage in the abrupt group using two additional control groups. Results showed that the advantage of the abrupt group was because of a greater number of practice trials with the desired coordination pattern. Overall, these results show that reinforcement can be successfully used to shift coordination patterns, which has potential in the rehabilitation of movement disorders.

  20. Patterning of alloy precipitation through external pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Jack A.

    Due to the nature of their microstructure, alloyed components have the benefit of meeting specific design goals across a wide range of electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. In general by selecting the correct alloy system and applying a proper heat treatment it is possible to create a metallic sample whose properties achieve a unique set of design requirements. This dissertation presents an innovative processing technique intended to control both the location of formation and the growth rates of precipitates within metallic alloys in order to create multiple patterned areas of unique microstructure within a single sample. Specific experimental results for the Al-Cu alloy system will be shown. The control over precipitation is achieved by altering the conventional heat treatment process with an external surface load applied to selected locations during the quench and anneal. It is shown that the applied pressures affect both the rate and directionality of the atomic diffusion in regions close to the loaded surfaces. The control over growth rates is achieved by altering the enthalpic energy required for successful diffusion between lattice sites. Changes in the local chemical free energy required to direct the diffusion of atoms are established by introducing a non-uniform elastic strain energy field within the samples created by the patterned surface pressures. Either diffusion rates or atomic mobility can be selected as the dominating control process by varying the quench rate; with slower quenches having greater control over the mobility of the alloying elements. Results have shown control of Al2Cu precipitation over 100 microns on mechanically polished surfaces. Further experimental considerations presented will address consistency across sample ensembles. This includes repeatable pressure loading conditions and the chemical interaction between any furnace environments and both the alloy sample and metallic pressure loading devices.

  1. Morphometric analysis of molars in a Middle Pleistocene population shows a mosaic of ‘modern’ and Neanderthal features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinón-Torres, María; Spěváčková, Petra; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Bruner, Emiliano; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of upper first molar (M1) crown shape have shown significant differences between Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis that were already present in the European Middle Pleistocene populations, including the large dental sample from Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos (SH). Analysis of other M1 features such as the total crown base area, cusp proportions, cusp angles and occlusal polygon have confirmed the differences between both lineages, becoming a useful tool for the taxonomic assignment of isolated teeth from Late Pleistocene sites. However, until now the pattern of expression of these variables has not been known for the SH sample. This fossil sample, the largest collection from the European Middle Pleistocene, is generally interpreted as being from the direct ancestors of Neanderthals, and thus is a reference sample for assessing the origin of the Neanderthal morphologies. Surprisingly, our study reveals that SH M1s present a unique mosaic of H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens features. Regarding the cusp angles and the relative occlusal polygon area, SH matches the H. neanderthalensis pattern. However, regarding the total crown base area and relative cusps size, SH M1s are similar to H. sapiens, with a small crown area, a strong hypocone reduction and a protocone enlargement, although the protocone expansion in SH is significantly larger than in any other group studied. The SH dental sample calls into question the uniqueness of some so-called modern traits. Our study also sounds a note of caution on the use of M1 occlusal morphology for the alpha taxonomy of isolated M1s. PMID:23914934

  2. Uniqueness and reconstruction of an unknown semilinear term in a time-fractional reaction–diffusion equation

    KAUST Repository

    Luchko, Yuri

    2013-05-30

    In this paper, we consider a reaction-diffusion problem with an unknown nonlinear source function that has to be determined from overposed data. The underlying model is in the form of a time-fractional reaction-diffusion equation and the work generalizes some known results for the inverse problems posed for PDEs of parabolic type. For the inverse problem under consideration, a uniqueness result is proved and a numerical algorithm with some theoretical qualification is presented in the one-dimensional case. The key both to the uniqueness result and to the numerical algorithm relies on the maximum principle which has recently been shown to hold for the fractional diffusion equation. In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed method, results of numerical simulations are presented. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  3. Unidirectional pulmonary airflow patterns in the savannah monitor lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Emma R; Cieri, Robert L; Butler, James P; Farmer, C G

    2014-02-20

    The unidirectional airflow patterns in the lungs of birds have long been considered a unique and specialized trait associated with the oxygen demands of flying, their endothermic metabolism and unusual pulmonary architecture. However, the discovery of similar flow patterns in the lungs of crocodilians indicates that this character is probably ancestral for all archosaurs--the group that includes extant birds and crocodilians as well as their extinct relatives, such as pterosaurs and dinosaurs. Unidirectional flow in birds results from aerodynamic valves, rather than from sphincters or other physical mechanisms, and similar aerodynamic valves seem to be present in crocodilians. The anatomical and developmental similarities in the primary and secondary bronchi of birds and crocodilians suggest that these structures and airflow patterns may be homologous. The origin of this pattern is at least as old as the split between crocodilians and birds, which occurred in the Triassic period. Alternatively, this pattern of flow may be even older; this hypothesis can be tested by investigating patterns of airflow in members of the outgroup to birds and crocodilians, the Lepidosauromorpha (tuatara, lizards and snakes). Here we demonstrate region-specific unidirectional airflow in the lungs of the savannah monitor lizard (Varanus exanthematicus). The presence of unidirectional flow in the lungs of V. exanthematicus thus gives rise to two possible evolutionary scenarios: either unidirectional airflow evolved independently in archosaurs and monitor lizards, or these flow patterns are homologous in archosaurs and V. exanthematicus, having evolved only once in ancestral diapsids (the clade encompassing snakes, lizards, crocodilians and birds). If unidirectional airflow is plesiomorphic for Diapsida, this respiratory character can be reconstructed for extinct diapsids, and evolved in a small ectothermic tetrapod during the Palaeozoic era at least a hundred million years before the

  4. Multivariate pattern dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Anzellotti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available When we perform a cognitive task, multiple brain regions are engaged. Understanding how these regions interact is a fundamental step to uncover the neural bases of behavior. Most research on the interactions between brain regions has focused on the univariate responses in the regions. However, fine grained patterns of response encode important information, as shown by multivariate pattern analysis. In the present article, we introduce and apply multivariate pattern dependence (MVPD: a technique to study the statistical dependence between brain regions in humans in terms of the multivariate relations between their patterns of responses. MVPD characterizes the responses in each brain region as trajectories in region-specific multidimensional spaces, and models the multivariate relationship between these trajectories. We applied MVPD to the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS and to the fusiform face area (FFA, using a searchlight approach to reveal interactions between these seed regions and the rest of the brain. Across two different experiments, MVPD identified significant statistical dependence not detected by standard functional connectivity. Additionally, MVPD outperformed univariate connectivity in its ability to explain independent variance in the responses of individual voxels. In the end, MVPD uncovered different connectivity profiles associated with different representational subspaces of FFA: the first principal component of FFA shows differential connectivity with occipital and parietal regions implicated in the processing of low-level properties of faces, while the second and third components show differential connectivity with anterior temporal regions implicated in the processing of invariant representations of face identity.

  5. Addressing Unison and Uniqueness of Reliability and Safety for Better Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhaofeng; Safie, Fayssal

    2015-01-01

    For a long time, both in theory and in practice, safety and reliability have not been clearly differentiated, which leads to confusion, inefficiency, and sometime counter-productive practices in executing each of these two disciplines. It is imperative to address the uniqueness and the unison of these two disciplines to help both disciplines become more effective and to promote a better integration of the two for enhancing safety and reliability in our products as an overall objective. There are two purposes of this paper. First, it will investigate the uniqueness and unison of each discipline and discuss the interrelationship between the two for awareness and clarification. Second, after clearly understanding the unique roles and interrelationship between the two in a product design and development life cycle, we offer suggestions to enhance the disciplines with distinguished and focused roles, to better integrate the two, and to improve unique sets of skills and tools of reliability and safety processes. From the uniqueness aspect, the paper identifies and discusses the respective uniqueness of reliability and safety from their roles, accountability, nature of requirements, technical scopes, detailed technical approaches, and analysis boundaries. It is misleading to equate unreliable to unsafe, since a safety hazard may or may not be related to the component, sub-system, or system functions, which are primarily what reliability addresses. Similarly, failing-to-function may or may not lead to hazard events. Examples will be given in the paper from aerospace, defense, and consumer products to illustrate the uniqueness and differences between reliability and safety. From the unison aspect, the paper discusses what the commonalities between reliability and safety are, and how these two disciplines are linked, integrated, and supplemented with each other to accomplish the customer requirements and product goals. In addition to understanding the uniqueness in

  6. Mastering multi-depth bio-chip patterns with DVD LBRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Doug

    2017-08-01

    Bio chip and bio disc are rapidly growing technologies used in medical, health and other industries. While there are numerous unique designs and features, these products all rely on precise three-dimensional micro-fluidic channels or arrays to move, separate and combine samples under test. These bio chip and bio disc consumables are typically manufactured by molding these parts to a precise three-dimensional pattern on a negative metal stamper, or they can be made in smaller quantities using an appropriate curable resin and a negative mold/stamper. Stampers required for bio chips have been traditionally made using either micro machining or XY stepping lithography. Both of these technologies have their advantages as well as limitations when it comes to creating micro-fluidic patterns. Significant breakthroughs in continuous maskless lithography have enabled accurate and efficient manufacturing of micro-fluidic masters using LBRs (Laser Beam Recorders) and DRIE (Deep Reactive Ion Etching). The important advantages of LBR continuous lithography vs. XY stepping lithography and micro machining are speed and cost. LBR based continuous lithography is >100x faster than XY stepping lithography and more accurate than micro machining. Several innovations were required in order to create multi-depth patterns with sub micron accuracy. By combining proven industrial LBRs with DCA's G3-VIA pattern generator and DRIE, three-dimensional bio chip masters and stampers are being manufactured efficiently and accurately.

  7. The RTR complex as caretaker of genome stability and its unique meiotic function in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eKnoll

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The RTR complex consisting of a RecQ helicase, a type IA topoisomerase and the structural protein RMI1 is involved in the processing of DNA recombination intermediates in all eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana the complex partners RECQ4A, topoisomerase 3α and RMI1 have been shown to be involved in DNA repair and in the suppression of homologous recombination (HR in somatic cells. Interestingly, mutants of AtTOP3A and AtRMI1 are also sterile due to extensive chromosome breakage in meiosis I, a phenotype that seems to be specific for plants. Although both proteins are essential for meiotic recombination it is still elusive on what kind of intermediates they are acting on. Recent data indicate that the pattern of non-crossover (NCO-associated meiotic gene conversion (GC differs between plants and other eukaryotes, as less NCOs in comparison to crossovers (CO could be detected in Arabidopsis. This indicates that NCOs happen either more rarely in plants or that the conversion tract length is significantly shorter than in other organisms. As the TOP3α/RMI1-mediated dissolution of recombination intermediates results exclusively in NCOs, we suggest that the peculiar GC pattern found in plants is connected to the unique role, members of the RTR complex play in plant meiosis.

  8. Quantification of variability in trichome patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina eGreese

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While pattern formation is studied in various areas of biology, little is known about the intrinsic noise leading to variations between individual realizations of the pattern. One prominent example for de novo pattern formation in plants is the patterning of trichomes on Arabidopsis leaves, which involves genetic regulation and cell-to-cell communication. These processes are potentially variable due to , e.g., the abundance of cell components or environmental conditions. To elevate the understanding of the regulatory processes underlying the pattern formation it is crucial to quantitatively analyze the variability in naturally occurring patterns. Here, we review recent approaches towards characterization of noise on trichome initiation. We present methods for the quantification of spatial patterns, which are the basis for data-driven mathematical modeling and enable the analysis of noise from different sources. Besides the insight gained on trichome formation, the examination of observed trichome patterns also shows that highly regulated biological processes can be substantially affected by variability.

  9. Origin of the unique ventilatory apparatus of turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyson, Tyler R; Schachner, Emma R; Botha-Brink, Jennifer; Scheyer, Torsten M; Lambertz, Markus; Bever, G S; Rubidge, Bruce S; de Queiroz, Kevin

    2014-11-07

    The turtle body plan differs markedly from that of other vertebrates and serves as a model system for studying structural and developmental evolution. Incorporation of the ribs into the turtle shell negates the costal movements that effect lung ventilation in other air-breathing amniotes. Instead, turtles have a unique abdominal-muscle-based ventilatory apparatus whose evolutionary origins have remained mysterious. Here we show through broadly comparative anatomical and histological analyses that an early member of the turtle stem lineage has several turtle-specific ventilation characters: rigid ribcage, inferred loss of intercostal muscles and osteological correlates of the primary expiratory muscle. Our results suggest that the ventilation mechanism of turtles evolved through a division of labour between the ribs and muscles of the trunk in which the abdominal muscles took on the primary ventilatory function, whereas the broadened ribs became the primary means of stabilizing the trunk. These changes occurred approximately 50 million years before the evolution of the fully ossified shell.

  10. Word from the CSO - CERN’s unique scientific breadth

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Whilst we are all clearly focused on completion of the LHC and the detectors around it and look forward to a successful start of operations later this year, we should not forget that CERN has yet more to offer in addition to this highest priority programme ‘at the energy frontier’. Indeed, CERN also attracts a large scientific community seizing the opportunities offered by its other facilities. Sometimes I wonder whether we are not too modest and should not emphasize more CERN’s unique scientific breadth. ISOLDE, at the PS Booster, relies on innovative techniques to produce results at the forefront of nuclear physics very cost-effectively. nTOF has provided unique measurements of interest to nuclear technology, nuclear astrophysics and basic nuclear physics, and still has an ambitious programme ahead of it after refurbishment of the target. Another unique facility is the Antiproton Decelerator, at which the study of antimatter is being pursued with ingenious experiment...

  11. Unique interconnected graphene/SnO2 nanoparticle spherical multilayers for lithium-ion battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qingguo; Tang, Jie; Sun, Yige; Li, Jing; Zhang, Kun; Yuan, Jinshi; Zhu, Da-Ming; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2017-03-30

    We have designed and synthesized a unique structured graphene/SnO 2 composite, where SnO 2 nanoparticles are inserted in between interconnected graphene sheets which form hollow spherical multilayers. The hollow spherical multilayered structure provides much flexibility to accommodate the configuration and volume changes of SnO 2 in the material. When it is used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, such a novel nanostructure can not only provide a stable conductive matrix and suppress the mechanical stress, but also eliminate the need of any binders for constructing electrodes. Electrochemical tests show that the unique graphene/SnO 2 composite electrode as designed could exhibit a large reversible capacity over 1000 mA h g -1 and long cycling life with 88% retention after 100 cycles. These results indicate the great potential of the composite for being used as a high performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  12. A Unique Blend of 2-Fluorenyl-2-anthracene and 2-Anthryl-2-anthracence Showing White Emission and High Charge Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengyun; Zhao, Yang; Yan, Lijia; Yang, Shuai; Zhu, Yanan; Murtaza, Imran; He, Gufeng; Meng, Hong; Huang, Wei

    2017-01-16

    White-light-emitting materials with high mobility are necessary for organic white-light-emitting transistors, which can be used for self-driven OLED displays or OLED lighting. In this study, we combined two materials with similar structures-2-fluorenyl-2-anthracene (FlAnt) with blue emission and 2-anthryl-2-anthracence (2A) with greenish-yellow emission-to fabricate OLED devices, which showed unusual solid-state white-light emission with the CIE coordinates (0.33, 0.34) at 10 V. The similar crystal structures ensured that the OTFTs based on mixed FlAnt and 2A showed high mobility of 1.56 cm 2  V -1  s -1 . This simple method provides new insight into the design of high-performance white-emitting transistor materials and structures. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Cheiloscopy and dactyloscopy: Do they dictate personality patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidullah, Mohammed; Kumar, M Naveen; Bhorgonde, Kavita D; Reddy, D Shyam Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Cheiloscopy and dactyloscopy, both are well-established forensic tools used in individual identification in any scenario be it a crime scene or civil cause. Like finger prints, lip prints are unique and distinguishable for every individual. But their relationship to personality types has not been established excepting the hypothesis stating that finger prints could explain these personality patterns. The study was aimed to record and correlate the lip and finger prints with that of character/personality of a person. The lip and finger prints and character of a person were recorded and the data obtained was subjected for statistical analysis, especially for Pearson's Chi-square test and correlation/association between the groups was also studied. The study sample comprised of 200 subjects, 100 males and 100 females, aged between 18 and 30 years. For recording lip prints, brown/pink-colored lipstick was applied on the lips and the subjects were asked to spread uniformly over the lips. Lip prints were traced in the normal rest position on a plain white bond paper. For recording the finger prints, imprints of the fingers were taken on a plain white bond paper using ink pad. The collected prints were visualized using magnifying lens. To record the character of person, a pro forma manual for multivariable personality inventory by Dr. BC Muthayya was used. Data obtained was subjected for statistical analysis, especially for Pearson's Chi-square test and correlation/association between the groups was also studied. In males, predominant lip pattern recorded was Type I with whorls-type finger pattern and the character being ego ideal, pessimism, introvert, and dogmatic; whereas in females, predominant lip pattern recorded was Type II with loops-type finger pattern and the character being neurotic, need achievers, and dominant. Many studies on lip pattern, finger pattern, palatal rugae, etc., for individual identification and gender determination exist, but correlative

  14. The end of the unique myocardial band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacIver, David H; Partridge, John B; Agger, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Two of the leading concepts of mural ventricular architecture are the unique myocardial band and the myocardial mesh model. We have described, in an accompanying article published in this journal, how the anatomical, histological and high-resolution computed tomographic studies strongly favour th...

  15. Gain-of-function screen for genes that affect Drosophila muscle pattern formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Staudt

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the production of an EP-element insertion library with more than 3,700 unique target sites within the Drosophila melanogaster genome and its use to systematically identify genes that affect embryonic muscle pattern formation. We designed a UAS/GAL4 system to drive GAL4-responsive expression of the EP-targeted genes in developing apodeme cells to which migrating myotubes finally attach and in an intrasegmental pattern of cells that serve myotubes as a migration substrate on their way towards the apodemes. The results suggest that misexpression of more than 1.5% of the Drosophila genes can interfere with proper myotube guidance and/or muscle attachment. In addition to factors already known to participate in these processes, we identified a number of enzymes that participate in the synthesis or modification of protein carbohydrate side chains and in Ubiquitin modifications and/or the Ubiquitin-dependent degradation of proteins, suggesting that these processes are relevant for muscle pattern formation.

  16. The wheat powdery mildew genome shows the unique evolution of an obligate biotroph

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wicker, T.; Oberhaensli, S.; Parlange, F.; Buchmann, J.; Shatalina, M.; Roffler, S.; Ben-David, R.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Šimková, Hana; Schulze-Lefert, P.; Keller, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 9 (2013), s. 1092-1098 ISSN 1061-4036 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : EFFECTOR CANDIDATES * PATHOGEN * BLUMERIA-GRAMINIS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 29.648, year: 2013

  17. Emerging spatial patterns in Antarctic prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Chun-Wie; Pearce, David A; Convey, Peter

    2015-01-01

    . Based on our synthesis, it is clear that spatial patterns of Antarctic prokaryotes can be unique at local scales, while the limited evidence available to date supports the group exhibiting overall regional biogeographical patterns similar to the eukaryotes. We further consider the applicability of the concept of "functional redundancy" for the Antarctic microbial community and highlight the requirements for proper consideration of their important and distinctive roles in Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems.

  18. Evaluating the Applicability of Data-Driven Dietary Patterns to Independent Samples with a Focus on Measurement Tools for Pattern Similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, Adela; Buijsse, Brian; Martín, Miguel; Ruiz, Amparo; Casas, Ana M; Baena-Cañada, Jose M; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Antolín, Silvia; Ramos, Manuel; Muñoz, Monserrat; Lluch, Ana; de Juan-Ferré, Ana; Jara, Carlos; Lope, Virginia; Jimeno, María A; Arriola-Arellano, Esperanza; Díaz, Elena; Guillem, Vicente; Carrasco, Eva; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Vioque, Jesús; Pollán, Marina

    2016-12-01

    Diet is a key modifiable risk for many chronic diseases, but it remains unclear whether dietary patterns from one study sample are generalizable to other independent populations. The primary objective of this study was to assess whether data-driven dietary patterns from one study sample are applicable to other populations. The secondary objective was to assess the validity of two criteria of pattern similarity. Six dietary patterns-Western (n=3), Mediterranean, Prudent, and Healthy- from three published studies on breast cancer were reconstructed in a case-control study of 973 breast cancer patients and 973 controls. Three more internal patterns (Western, Prudent, and Mediterranean) were derived from this case-control study's own data. Applicability was assessed by comparing the six reconstructed patterns with the three internal dietary patterns, using the congruence coefficient (CC) between pattern loadings. In cases where any pair met either of two commonly used criteria for declaring patterns similar (CC ≥0.85 or a statistically significant [Pdietary patterns was double-checked by comparing their associations to risk for breast cancer, to assess whether those two criteria of similarity are actually reliable. Five of the six reconstructed dietary patterns showed high congruence (CC >0.9) to their corresponding dietary pattern derived from the case-control study's data. Similar associations with risk for breast cancer were found in all pairs of dietary patterns that had high CC but not in all pairs of dietary patterns with statistically significant correlations. Similar dietary patterns can be found in independent samples. The P value of a correlation coefficient is less reliable than the CC as a criterion for declaring two dietary patterns similar. This study shows that diet scores based on a particular study are generalizable to other populations. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Unique gene expression and MR T2 relaxometry patterns define chronic murine dextran sodium sulphate colitis as a model for connective tissue changes in human Crohn's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Breynaert

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronically relapsing inflammation, tissue remodeling and fibrosis are hallmarks of inflammatory bowel diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in connective tissue in a chronic murine model resulting from repeated cycles of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS ingestion, to mimic the relapsing nature of the human disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to DSS in drinking water for 1 week, followed by a recovery phase of 2 weeks. This cycle of exposure was repeated for up to 3 times (9 weeks in total. Colonic inflammation, fibrosis, extracellular matrix proteins and colonic gene expression were studied. In vivo MRI T 2 relaxometry was studied as a potential non-invasive imaging tool to evaluate bowel wall inflammation and fibrosis. RESULTS: Repeated cycles of DSS resulted in a relapsing and remitting disease course, which induced a chronic segmental, transmural colitis after 2 and 3 cycles of DSS with clear induction of fibrosis and remodeling of the muscular layer. Tenascin expression mirrored its expression in Crohn's colitis. Microarray data identified a gene expression profile different in chronic colitis from that in acute colitis. Additional recovery was associated with upregulation of unique genes, in particular keratins, pointing to activation of molecular pathways for healing and repair. In vivo MRI T2 relaxometry of the colon showed a clear shift towards higher T2 values in the acute stage and a gradual regression of T2 values with increasing cycles of DSS. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated cycles of DSS exposure induce fibrosis and connective tissue changes with typical features, as occurring in Crohn's disease. Colonic gene expression analysis revealed unique expression profiles in chronic colitis compared to acute colitis and after additional recovery, pointing to potential new targets to intervene with the induction of fibrosis. In vivo T2 relaxometry is a promising non-invasive assessment of

  20. How hot is he? A psychophysiological and psychosocial examination of the arousal patterns of sexually functional and dysfunctional men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Sabina; Amsel, Rhonda; Binik, Yitzchak M

    2014-07-01

    Despite much theorizing about the interchangeability of desire and arousal, research has yet to identify whether men with desire vs. arousal disorders can be differentiated based on their psychophysiological patterns of arousal. Additionally, little research has examined the relationship between subjective (SA) and genital arousal (GA) in sexually dysfunctional men. To compare patterns of SA and GA in a community sample of men meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), erectile dysfunction (ED), both HSDD and ED (ED/HSDD), and healthy controls. Seventy-one men (19 controls, 13 HSDD, 19 ED, 20 ED/HSDD) completed self-report measures and watched two 15-minute film clips (neutral and erotic), while GA and SA were measured both continuously and discretely. Groups were compared on genital temperature (as an indicator of GA), SA, and psychosocial variables (i.e., body image, emotion regulation, sexual attitudes, sexual inhibition/excitation, mood, and trauma). Genital temperature increased for all groups during the erotic condition, yet men with ED and ED/HSDD showed less GA than men without erectile difficulties. All groups increased in SA during the erotic condition, yet ED/HSDD men reported less SA than controls or ED men. SA and GA were highly correlated for controls, and less strongly correlated for clinical groups; men with ED showed low agreement between SA and GA. Groups also differed on body image, sexual inhibition/excitation, sexual attitudes and alexithymia. Low desire vs. arousal sufferers have unique patterns of response, with those with both difficulties showing greatest impairment. Results have important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. Transcription of the var genes from a freshly-obtained field isolate of Plasmodium falciparum shows more variable switching patterns than long laboratory-adapted isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Run; Zhang, Dongmei; Chen, Biaobang; Zhu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yilong; Wang, Shengyue; Pan, Weiqing

    2015-02-07

    Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum involves switching among multicopy var gene family and is responsible for immune evasion and the maintenance of chronic infections. Current understanding of var gene expression and switching patterns comes from experiments conducted on long laboratory-adapted strains, with little known about their wild counterparts. Genome sequencing was used to obtain 50 var genes from a parasite isolated from the China-Myanmar border. Four clones with different dominant var genes were cultured in vitro in replicates for 50 generations. Transcription of the individual var gene was detected by real-time PCR and then the switching process was analysed. The expression of multicopy var genes is mutually exclusive in clones of a wild P. falciparum isolate. The activation of distinct primary dominant var genes leads to different and favoured switching patterns in the four clones. The on/off rates of individual var genes are variable and the choice of subsequent dominant var genes are random, which results in the different switching patterns among replicates of each clonal wild P. falciparum isolate with near identical initial transcription profiles. This study suggests that the switching patterns of var genes are abundant, which consist of both conserved and random parts.

  2. Solitary intraosseous neurofibroma: Report of a unique case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Satish Jangam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural tumors located centrally in jaw bones are relatively rare compared with soft tissue neurofibromas. Less than 50 cases have been reported in the literature with a predilection for mandible. This article aims to elucidate a unique case of intraosseous neurofibroma of mandible in a 62-year-old edentulous female patient associated with facial asymmetry due to the swelling extending from the right body of mandible to left body of mandible. The uniqueness of this case is related to the age and extensiveness of this lesion. A review of clinical, radiographic, histological, and immunohistochemical features, and the surgical management pertaining to this case are discussed along with a review of the literature.

  3. Genome-Wide Identification of Genes Probably Relevant to the Uniqueness of Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis and Its Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is a popular beverage all over the world and a number of studies have focused on the genetic uniqueness of tea and its cultivars. However, molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena are largely undefined. In this report, based on expression data available from public databases, we performed a series of analyses to identify genes probably relevant to the uniqueness of C. sinensis and two of its cultivars (LJ43 and ZH2. Evolutionary analyses showed that the evolutionary rates of genes involved in the pathways were not significantly different among C. sinensis, C. oleifera, and C. azalea. Interestingly, a number of gene families, including genes involved in the pathways synthesizing iconic secondary metabolites of tea plant, were significantly upregulated, expressed in C. sinensis (LJ43 when compared to C. azalea, and this may partially explain its higher content of flavonoid, theanine, and caffeine. Further investigation showed that nonsynonymous mutations may partially contribute to the differences between the two cultivars of C. sinensis, such as the chlorina and higher contents of amino acids in ZH2. Genes identified as candidates are probably relevant to the uniqueness of C. sinensis and its cultivars should be good candidates for subsequent functional analyses and marker-assisted breeding.

  4. Electronic characterization of lithographically patterned microcoils for high sensitivity NMR detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demas, Vasiliki; Bernhardt, Anthony; Malba, Vince; Adams, Kristl L; Evans, Lee; Harvey, Christopher; Maxwell, Robert S; Herberg, Julie L

    2009-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) offers a non-destructive, powerful, structure-specific analytical method for the identification of chemical and biological systems. The use of radio frequency (RF) microcoils has been shown to increase the sensitivity in mass-limited samples. Recent advances in micro-receiver technology have further demonstrated a substantial increase in mass sensitivity [D.L. Olson, T.L. Peck, A.G. Webb, R.L. Magin, J.V. Sweedler, High-resolution microcoil H-1-NMR for mass-limited, nanoliter-volume samples, Science 270 (5244) (1995) 1967-1970]. Lithographic methods for producing solenoid microcoils possess a level of flexibility and reproducibility that exceeds previous production methods, such as hand winding microcoils. This paper presents electrical characterizations of RF microcoils produced by a unique laser lithography system that can pattern three dimensional surfaces and compares calculated and experimental results to those for wire wound RF microcoils. We show that existing optimization conditions for RF coil design still hold true for RF microcoils produced by lithography. Current lithographic microcoils show somewhat inferior performance to wire wound RF microcoils due to limitations in the existing electroplating technique. In principle, however, when the pitch of the RF microcoil is less than 100mum lithographic coils should show comparable performance to wire wound coils. In the cases of larger pitch, wire cross sections can be significantly larger and resistances lower than microfabricated conductors.

  5. Unique Features of Halophilic Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Rui; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Tokunaga, Masao

    2017-01-01

    Proteins from moderate and extreme halophiles have unique characteristics. They are highly acidic and hydrophilic, similar to intrinsically disordered proteins. These characteristics make the halophilic proteins soluble in water and fold reversibly. In addition to reversible folding, the rate of refolding of halophilic proteins from denatured structure is generally slow, often taking several days, for example, for extremely halophilic proteins. This slow folding rate makes the halophilic proteins a novel model system for folding mechanism analysis. High solubility and reversible folding also make the halophilic proteins excellent fusion partners for soluble expression of recombinant proteins.

  6. Unique microstructure and excellent mechanical properties of ADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jincheng Liu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the cast iron family, ADI has a unique microstructure and an excellent, optimised combination of mechanical properties. The main microstructure of ADI is ausferrite, which is a mixture ofextremely fine acicular ferrite and stable, high carbon austenite. There are two types of austenite in ADI:(1 the coarser and more equiaxed blocks of austenite between non-parallel acicular structures, which exist mainly in the last solidified area, and (2 the thin films of ustenite between the individual ferriteplatelets in the acicular structure. It is this unique microstructure, which gives ADI its excellent static and dynamic properties, and good low temperature impact toughness. The effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties is explained in more detail by examining the microstructure at the atomic scale. Considering the nanometer grain sizes, the unique microstructure, the excellent mechanical properties,good castability, (which enables near net shape components to be produced economically and in large volumes, and the fact that it can be 100% recycled, it is not overemphasized to call ADI a high-tech,nanometer and “green” material. ADI still has the potential to be further improved and its production and the number of applications for ADI will continue to grow, driven by the resultant cost savings over alternative materials.

  7. Individual, Social, and Environmental Correlates of Active Transportation Patterns in French Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Perchoux

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were (1 to define physical activity (PA and sedentary behaviors (SB patterns in daily life contexts (work, leisure, and transportation in French working women from NutriNet-Santé web-cohort and (2 to identify pattern(s of active transportation and their individual, social, and environmental correlates. 23,432 participants completed two questionnaires to evaluate PA and SB in daily life contexts and individual representations of residential neighborhood and transportation modes. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed which identified 6 distinct movement behavior patterns: (i active occupation, high sedentary leisure, (ii sedentary occupation, low leisure, (iii sedentary transportation, (iv sedentary occupation and leisure, (v active transportation, and (vi active leisure. Multinomial logistic regressions were performed to identify correlates of the “active transportation” cluster. The perceived environmental characteristics positively associated with “active transportation” included “high availability of destinations around home,” “presence of bicycle paths,” and “low traffic.” A “positive image of walking/cycling,” the “individual feeling of being physically active,” and a “high use of active transport modes by relatives/friends” were positively related to “active transportation,” identified as a unique pattern regarding individual and environmental correlates. Identification of PA and SB context-specific patterns will help to understand movement behaviors’ complexity and to design interventions to promote active transportation in specific subgroups.

  8. Femtosecond laser patterning, synthesis, defect formation, and structural modification of atomic layered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae-Hyuck; Kim, Eunpa; Hwang, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes recent research on laser-based processing of twodimensional (2D) atomic layered materials, including graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). Ultrafast lasers offer unique processing routes that take advantage of distinct interaction mechanisms with 2D materials to enable extremely localized energy deposition. Experiments have shown that ablative direct patterning of graphene by ultrafast lasers can achieve resolutions of tens of nanometers, as well as single-step pattern transfer. Ultrafast lasers also induce non-thermal excitation mechanisms that are useful for the thinning of TMDCs to tune the 2D material bandgap. Laser-assisted site-specific doping was recently demonstrated where ultrafast laser radiation under ambient air environment could be used for the direct writing of high-quality graphene patterns on insulating substrates. This article concludes with an outlook towards developing further advanced laser processing with scalability, in situ monitoring strategies and potential applications.

  9. Embodied history. Uniqueness and exemplarity of South African AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassin, Didier

    2002-01-01

    The exceptionality of AIDS in South Africa, both for its epidemiological features and public controversies, seems to have its correspondence in the exceptionalism of South African history, with its unprecedented regime of apartheid and its unexpected turn to democracy. The article shows that AIDS in this country can simultaneously be seen as unique (because of the historical context in which it is inscribed) and exemplar (of social determinants observed in other countries characterised by similar past or present of domination). As an alternative to cultural and behavioural models of the epidemic which have been widely spread on the African continent, the concept of embodiment of history is proposed in order to account for both the structural facts underlying the epidemic (inequality, violence, migration) and the construction of collective as well as individual narratives of the disease (including victimisation and accusation).

  10. Behavioral states may be associated with distinct spatial patterns in electrocorticogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotides, Heracles; Freeman, Walter J; Holmes, Mark D; Pantazis, Dimitrios

    2011-03-01

    To determine if behavioral states are associated with unique spatial electrocorticographic (ECoG) patterns, we obtained recordings with a microgrid electrode array applied to the cortical surface of a human subject. The array was constructed with the intent of extracting maximal spatial information by optimizing interelectrode distances. A 34-year-old patient with intractable epilepsy underwent intracranial ECoG monitoring after standard methods failed to reveal localization of seizures. During the 8-day period of invasive recording, in addition to standard clinical electrodes a square 1 × 1 cm microgrid array with 64 electrodes (1.25 mm separation) was placed on the right inferior temporal gyrus. Careful review of video recordings identified four extended naturalistic behaviors: reading, conversing on the telephone, looking at photographs, and face-to-face interactions. ECoG activity recorded with the microgrid that corresponded to these behaviors was collected and ECoG spatial patterns were analyzed. During periods of ECoG selected for analysis, no electrographic seizures or epileptiform patterns were present. Moments of maximal spatial variance are shown to cluster by behavior. Comparisons between conditions using a permutation test reveal significantly different spatial patterns for each behavior. We conclude that ECoG recordings obtained on the cortical surface with optimal high spatial frequency resolution reveal distinct local spatial patterns that reflect different behavioral states, and we predict that similar patterns will be found in many if not most cortical areas on which a microgrid is placed.

  11. Esperanto: A Unique Model for General Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulichenko, Aleksandr D.

    1988-01-01

    Esperanto presents a unique model for linguistic research by allowing the study of language development from project to fully functioning language. Esperanto provides insight into the growth of polysemy and redundancy, as well as into language universals and the phenomenon of social control. (Author/CB)

  12. Parametric classification of handvein patterns based on texture features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mahafzah, Harbi; Imran, Mohammad; Supreetha Gowda H., D.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we have developed Biometric recognition system adopting hand based modality Handvein,which has the unique pattern for each individual and it is impossible to counterfeit and fabricate as it is an internal feature. We have opted in choosing feature extraction algorithms such as LBP-visual descriptor, LPQ-blur insensitive texture operator, Log-Gabor-Texture descriptor. We have chosen well known classifiers such as KNN and SVM for classification. We have experimented and tabulated results of single algorithm recognition rate for Handvein under different distance measures and kernel options. The feature level fusion is carried out which increased the performance level.

  13. Formation of ring-patterned nanoclusters by laser–plume interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivayoganathan, Mugunthan; Tan Bo; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    This article reports for the first time a unique study performed to regulate the ring diameter of nanoclusters fabricated during femtosecond laser ablation of solids and a mechanism is proposed for the formation of those ring clusters. The ring nanoclusters are made out of nanoparticles with a range of 10–30 nm. Our experimental studies showed the synthesis of ring nanoclusters with random diameter distribution on metals, nonmetals, and semiconductors, such as titanium, aluminum, glasses, ceramics, graphite, and silicon. To regulate the ring size, the effects of laser parameters, such as wavelength, pulse duration, pulse energy, and repetition rate on the ring diameter are analyzed. The influence of ablated materials and the background gas on ring size is also elaborated in this article. The motion of plume species under the influence of ponderomotive force on free electrons possibly played a key role in the formation of the ring-patterned nanoclusters. This study could help to understand the fundamentals in laser ablative nanosynthesis as well as to produce nanostructures with organized ring diameter that controls the density and porosity of those 3D nanostructures.

  14. Typology of alcohol users based on longitudinal patterns of drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Magdalena; Velicer, Wayne F; Ramsey, Susan

    2014-03-01

    Worldwide, alcohol is the most commonly used psychoactive substance. However, heterogeneity among alcohol users has been widely recognized. This paper presents a typology of alcohol users based on an implementation of idiographic methodology to examine longitudinal daily and cyclic (weekly) patterns of alcohol use at the individual level. A secondary data analysis was performed on the pre-intervention data from a large randomized control trial. A time series analysis was performed at the individual level, and a dynamic cluster analysis was employed to identify homogenous longitudinal patterns of drinking behavior at the group level. The analysis employed 180 daily observations of alcohol use in a sample of 177 alcohol users. The first order autocorrelations ranged from -.76 to .72, and seventh order autocorrelations ranged from -.27 to .79. Eight distinct profiles of alcohol users were identified, each characterized by a unique configuration of first and seventh autoregressive terms and longitudinal trajectories of alcohol use. External validity of the profiles confirmed the theoretical relevance of different patterns of alcohol use. Significant differences among the eight subtypes were found on gender, marital status, frequency of drug use, lifetime alcohol dependence, family history of alcohol use and the Short Index of Problems. Our findings demonstrate that individuals can have very different temporal patterns of drinking behavior. The daily and cyclic patterns of alcohol use may be important for designing tailored interventions for problem drinkers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Baleen whales host a unique gut microbiome with similarities to both carnivores and herbivores

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Jon G.; Beichman, Annabel C.; Roman, Joe; Scott, Jarrod J.; Emerson, David; McCarthy, James J.; Girguis, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    Mammals host gut microbiomes of immense physiological consequence, but the determinants of diversity in these communities remain poorly understood. Diet appears to be the dominant factor, but host phylogeny also seems to be an important, if unpredictable, correlate. Here we show that baleen whales, which prey on animals (fish and crustaceans), harbor unique gut microbiomes with surprising parallels in functional capacity and higher level taxonomy to those of terrestrial herbivores. These simi...

  16. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Pregnancy Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuyang; Zhao, Diqi; Mao, Xun; Xia, Yinyin; Baker, Philip N.; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy will affect the outcomes for the mother and the baby. Many analyses of the relationship between diet and outcome are often based on a single or a few food items or nutrients. However, foods are not consumed in isolation and dietary patterns can be used to assess the whole diet consumed. The use of dietary pattern analysis to understand nutritional intake and pregnancy outcome is becoming more and more popular. Many published studies have showed the association between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. This review examined articles about the relationship between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. As a modifiable factor, dietary patterns may be more applicable to clinical and pregnant health interventions. PMID:27338455

  17. Novel chemistry of invasive plants: exotic species have more unique metabolomic profiles than native congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macel, Mirka; de Vos, Ric C H; Jansen, Jeroen J; van der Putten, Wim H; van Dam, Nicole M

    2014-07-01

    It is often assumed that exotic plants can become invasive when they possess novel secondary chemistry compared with native plants in the introduced range. Using untargeted metabolomic fingerprinting, we compared a broad range of metabolites of six successful exotic plant species and their native congeners of the family Asteraceae. Our results showed that plant chemistry is highly species-specific and diverse among both exotic and native species. Nonetheless, the exotic species had on average a higher total number of metabolites and more species-unique metabolites compared with their native congeners. Herbivory led to an overall increase in metabolites in all plant species. Generalist herbivore performance was lower on most of the exotic species compared with the native species. We conclude that high chemical diversity and large phytochemical uniqueness of the exotic species could be indicative of biological invasion potential.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging-based cerebral tissue classification reveals distinct spatiotemporal patterns of changes after stroke in non-human primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouts, Mark. J. R. J.; Westmoreland, Susan. V.; de Crespigny, Alex J.; Liu, Yutong; Vangel, Mark; Dijkhuizen, Rick M.; Wu, Ona; D'Arceuil, Helen E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spatial and temporal changes in brain tissue after acute ischemic stroke are still poorly understood. Aims of this study were three-fold: (1) to determine unique temporal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns at the acute, subacute and chronic stages after stroke in macaques by

  19. Relativity-Induced Bonding Pattern Change in Coinage Metal Dimers M2 (M = Cu, Ag, Au, Rg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wan-Lu; Lu, Jun-Bo; Wang, Zhen-Ling; Hu, Han-Shi; Li, Jun

    2018-05-07

    The periodic table provides a fundamental protocol for qualitatively classifying and predicting chemical properties based on periodicity. While the periodic law of chemical elements had already been rationalized within the framework of the nonrelativistic description of chemistry with quantum mechanics, this law was later known to be affected significantly by relativity. We here report a systematic theoretical study on the chemical bonding pattern change in the coinage metal dimers (Cu 2 , Ag 2 , Au 2 , Rg 2 ) due to the relativistic effect on the superheavy elements. Unlike the lighter congeners basically demonstrating ns- ns bonding character and a 0 g + ground state, Rg 2 shows unique 6d-6d bonding induced by strong relativity. Because of relativistic spin-orbit (SO) coupling effect in Rg 2 , two nearly degenerate SO states, 0 g + and 2 u , exist as candidate of the ground state. This relativity-induced change of bonding mechanism gives rise to various unique alteration of chemical properties compared with the lighter dimers, including higher intrinsic bond energy, force constant, and nuclear shielding. Our work thus provides a rather simple but clear-cut example, where the chemical bonding picture is significantly changed by relativistic effect, demonstrating the modified periodic law in heavy-element chemistry.

  20. Existence and uniqueness of solution for a system of equations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existence and uniqueness of solution for a system of equations of microwave heating of biologic issue is discussed. Using the Green function approach we establish the existence and uniqueness of solution. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics Vol. 8 2004: pp. 177-180 ...

  1. New patterns in human biogeography revealed by networks of contacts between linguistic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitán, José A; Bock Axelsen, Jacob; Manrubia, Susanna

    2015-03-07

    Human languages differ broadly in abundance and are distributed highly unevenly on the Earth. In many qualitative and quantitative aspects, they strongly resemble biodiversity distributions. An intriguing and previously unexplored issue is the architecture of the neighbouring relationships between human linguistic groups. Here we construct and characterize these networks of contacts and show that they represent a new kind of spatial network with uncommon structural properties. Remarkably, language networks share a meaningful property with food webs: both are quasi-interval graphs. In food webs, intervality is linked to the existence of a niche space of low dimensionality; in language networks, we show that the unique relevant variable is the area occupied by the speakers of a language. By means of a range model analogous to niche models in ecology, we show that a geometric restriction of perimeter covering by neighbouring linguistic domains explains the structural patterns observed. Our findings may be of interest in the development of models for language dynamics or regarding the propagation of cultural innovations. In relation to species distribution, they pose the question of whether the spatial features of species ranges share architecture, and eventually generating mechanism, with the distribution of human linguistic groups. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Gene expression patterns in blood leukocytes discriminate patients with acute infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Windy; Chung, Wendy; Mejias, Asuncion; Ardura, Monica; Glaser, Casey; Wittkowski, Knut M.; Piqueras, Bernard; Banchereau, Jacques; Palucka, A. Karolina; Chaussabel, Damien

    2007-01-01

    Each infectious agent represents a unique combination of pathogen-associated molecular patterns that interact with specific pattern-recognition receptors expressed on immune cells. Therefore, we surmised that the blood immune cells of individuals with different infections might bear discriminative transcriptional signatures. Gene expression profiles were obtained for 131 peripheral blood samples from pediatric patients with acute infections caused by influenza A virus, Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) or Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae) bacteria. Thirty-five genes were identified that best discriminate patients with influenza A virus infection from patients with either E coli or S pneumoniae infection. These genes classified with 95% accuracy (35 of 37 samples) an independent set of patients with either influenza A, E coli, or S pneumoniae infection. A different signature discriminated patients with E coli versus S aureus infections with 85% accuracy (34 of 40). Furthermore, distinctive gene expression patterns were observed in patients presenting with respiratory infections of different etiologies. Thus, microarray analyses of patient peripheral blood leukocytes might assist in the differential diagnosis of infectious diseases. PMID:17105821

  3. In situ preparation of CuS cathode with unique stability and high rate performance for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yourong; Zhang Xianwang; Chen Peng; Liao Hantao; Cheng Siqing

    2012-01-01

    A simple approach, for the first time, was presented for in situ preparation of the CuS cathode. The obtained CuS cathodes were investigated by the measurements of X-ray diffraction pattern, scanning electronic microscopy, and electrochemical performance. The results indicate the CuS cathodes are composed of plenty of nano flakes, which construct a large 3-D net structure. Moreover, the CuS cathodes exhibit reversible capacity of 447.4, 414.1, 389.9 and 376.0 mAh g −1 at 0.2 C, 0.5 C, 1 C and 2 C respectively and excellent cycle stability for more than 100 cycles. The possible mechanism of the unique stability of the CuS cathode was discussed.

  4. 4th Stage Transvaginal omental herniation during VBAC complicated by shoulder dystocia: a unique presentation of uterine rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Uterine rupture is a common complication in women attempting their first virginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC) but the risk diminishes with subsequent VBACs. It occurs in rates of 0.5-9% and is influenced by various factors. Case presentation A unique case of uterine rupture in a Kenyan woman of African descent during a repeat VBAC complicated by shoulder dystocia was discovered during the 4th stage of labour when omentum was noted protruding through the vagina. She had delivered 4 years earlier by caesarean section. Conclusion It is not common to experience uterine rupture among women attempting repeat VBAC. When it occurs, it may not always follow the known pattern intra-partum and is often associated with poor foetal outcome. PMID:23521920

  5. Affective and cognitive meta-bases of attitudes: Unique effects on information interest and persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Ya Hui Michelle; Petty, Richard E; Fabrigar, Leandre R

    2008-06-01

    The authors investigated the predictive utility of people's subjective assessments of whether their evaluations are affect- or cognition driven (i.e., meta-cognitive bases) as separate from whether people's attitudes are actually affect- or cognition based (i.e., structural bases). Study 1 demonstrated that meta-bases uniquely predict interest in affective versus cognitive information above and beyond structural bases and other related variables (i.e., need for cognition and need for affect). In Study 2, meta-bases were shown to account for unique variance in attitude change as a function of appeal type. Finally, Study 3 showed that as people became more deliberative in their judgments, meta-bases increased in predictive utility, and structural bases decreased in predictive utility. These findings support the existence of meta-bases of attitudes and demonstrate that meta-bases are distinguishable from structural bases in their predictive utility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. A unique distortion in K{sub 1/3}Ba{sub 2/3}AgTe{sub 2}: X-ray diffraction determination and electronic band structure analysis of its incommensurately modulated structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourdon, O; Hanko, J; Boucher, F; Petricek, V; Whangbo, M H; Kanatzidis, M G; Evain, M

    2000-04-03

    The incommensurately modulated structure of a square Te-net, namely that of K{sub 1/3}Ba{sub 2/3}AgTe{sub 2}, is determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data within a (3+1)D higher dimension formalism. The phase is shown to crystallize in the monoclinic symmetry, P2{sub 1}({alpha}0{gamma}) superspace group with the following lattice parameters: a = 4.6441(10) {angstrom}, b = 4.6292(12) {angstrom}, c = 23.765(9) {angstrom}, and {beta} = 101.28(2){degree} with q = 0.3248(6)a* {minus}0.07(8)c*, that is, in a symmetry different from that reported for the average structure (tetragonal) or that assumed from electron diffraction measurements (orthorhombic). After the introduction of a crenel function for the Te displacive description, the refinement converged to a residual factor R = 0.033 for 2583 observed reflections and 115 parameters (R = 0.024 and 0.101 for 1925 main reflections and 658 first-order satellites, respectively). The [Ag{sub 2}-Te{sub 2}] and the Ba/K layers are found to be only weakly modulated. The modulation of the square Te-net is, however, both substantial and unique. Namely, it results in two different units: a V-shaped Te{sub 3} trimer and a W-shaped Te{sub 5} pentamer. To examine both unit types, which are segregated in domains that aperiodically alternate within the Te layers, first principles electronic band structure calculations were carried out for three model commensurate structures using the tight-binding linear-muffin-tin-orbital method (LMTO). The calculations show that the distorted structures of V-pattern (model 2) and W-pattern (model 3) are more stable than the average structure (model 1) and that the V-pattern distortion provides a slightly larger stabilization than does the W-pattern distortion. The Fermi surface calculated for the average structure shows nesting vectors that are consistent with the occurrence of the V- and W-pattern distortions in the Te layers. However, these vectors do not predict the observed modulation

  7. Uniqueness of Gibbs states and global Markov property for Euclidean fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albeverio, S.; Hoeegh-Krohn, R.

    1981-01-01

    The authors briefly discuss the proof of the uniqueness of solutions of the DLR equations (uniqueness of Gibbs states) in the class of regular generalized random fields (in the sense of having second moments bounded by those of some Euclidean field), for the Euclidean fields with trigonometric interaction. (Auth.)

  8. Patterns in the distribution of digital games via BitTorrent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Anders; Veitch, Robert W. D.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of illegal copies of computer games via digital networks forms the centre in one of the most heated debates in the international games environment, but there is minimal objective information available. Here the results of a large-scale, open-method analysis of the distribution...... of computer games via BitTorrent peer-to-peer file-sharing protocol is presented. 173 games were included, tracked over a period of three months from 2010 to 2011. A total of 12.6 million unique peers were identified across over 200 countries. Analysis indicates that the distribution of illegal copies...... of games follows distinct pattern, e.g., that a few game titles drive the traffic - the 10 most accessed games encompassed 42.7% of the number of peers tracked. The traffic is geographically localised - 20 countries encompassed 76.7% of the total. Geographic patterns in the distribution of BitTorrent peers...

  9. Growth, Fabrication and Characterization of Patterned Semiconductor Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Archana

    In this work we developed a new technique for the growth of GaAs nanostrcutures and tungsten disulphide (WS2) nanodots, a two dimensional dichalcogenide (2D-TMD). We patterned a thin SiO2 film for the first time by reactive ion etching through the alumina templates and GaAs nanopillars and nanodots were grown through the holes in SiO2 film by MBE. The WS2 nanodots were synthesized by the atomic layer deposition of WS 2 via alumina template. First, WO3 nanodots were deposited through the porous template using e-beam evaporation and then WO3 vapor reacts with sulfur to obtain WS2 nanodots by chemical vapor deposition technique. We studied morphological and optical properties of patterned nanostructures using SEM, TEM photoluminescence(PL) technique, AFM and Raman microscopy. We used different As2/Ga ratio to obtain patterned nanostructures through the holes of the SiO2 film. These nanopillars were epitaxially aligned to the GaAs(111)B substrates. We achieved (111)B oriented nanopillars with typical diameters between 72 nm to 76 nm and lengths between 200 nm- 600 nm. These nanopillars have six {110} side facets. Though there were few defects, but mostly they were following the pattern in SiO 2. We obtained nanopillars with predominantly two types of tops, triangular pyramidal tops and hexagonal flat tops. We find that these nanopillars have a mixed crystal structure of zinc-blende and wurtzite structures. There is a high density of twins and stacking faults. Alternating wurtzite and zinc-blende layers within the nanopillars, however, lead to quantum confinement effect and thus a blue-shift of PL emission. WS2 nanodots precisely controlled in size have potential applications in nanoelectronics due to their unique optical and electrical properties. Most of the nanodots synthesized so far are produced using liquid exfoliation method from the bulk. Here we report the size controlled growth of uniform WS2 nanodots using self -organized alumina templates as a growth mask on

  10. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Douglas; Hogg, David H.

    The key to marketing a town is determining and promoting the town's "differential advantage" or uniqueness that would make people want to visit or live there. Exercises to help communities gain important insights into the town's competitive edge include a brainstorming session with knowledgeable community members, a visitor…

  11. Existence and uniqueness of mild and classical solutions of impulsive evolution equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamalai Anguraj

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the non-linear impulsive evolution equation $$displaylines{ u'(t=Au(t+f(t,u(t,Tu(t,Su(t, quad 0uniqueness of the mild solutions of the evolution equation by using semigroup theory and then show that the mild solutions give rise to a classical solutions.

  12. Efficient Serial and Parallel Algorithms for Selection of Unique Oligos in EST Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Montero, Manrique; Shalaby, Nabil; Sheppard, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining unique oligos from an EST database is a problem of great importance in bioinformatics, particularly in the discovery of new genes and the mapping of the human genome. Many algorithms have been developed to find unique oligos, many of which are much less time consuming than the traditional brute force approach. An algorithm was presented by Zheng et al. (2004) which finds the solution of the unique oligos search problem efficiently. We implement this algorithm as well as several new algorithms based on some theorems included in this paper. We demonstrate how, with these new algorithms, we can obtain unique oligos much faster than with previous ones. We parallelize these new algorithms to further improve the time of finding unique oligos. All algorithms are run on ESTs obtained from a Barley EST database.

  13. A unique Fock quantization for fields in non-stationary spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, Jerónimo; Marugán, Guillermo A. Mena; Olmedo, Javier; Velhinho, José M.

    2010-01-01

    In curved spacetimes, the lack of criteria for the construction of a unique quantization is a fundamental problem undermining the significance of the predictions of quantum field theory. Inequivalent quantizations lead to different physics. Recently, however, some uniqueness results have been obtained for fields in non-stationary settings. In particular, for vacua that are invariant under the background symmetries, a unitary implementation of the classical evolution suffices to pick up a unique Fock quantization in the case of Klein-Gordon fields with time-dependent mass, propagating in a static spacetime whose spatial sections are three-spheres. In fact, the field equation can be reinterpreted as describing the propagation in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime after a suitable scaling of the field by a function of time. For this class of fields, we prove here an even stronger result about the Fock quantization: the uniqueness persists when one allows for linear time-dependent transformations of the field in order to account for a scaling by background functions. In total, paying attention to the dynamics, there exists a preferred choice of quantum field, and only one SO(4)-invariant Fock representation for it that respects the standard probabilistic interpretation along the evolution. The result has relevant implications e.g. in cosmology

  14. How Game Location Affects Soccer Performance: T-Pattern Analysis of Attack Actions in Home and Away Matches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Diana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of game location on performance has been widely examined in sport contexts. Concerning soccer, game-location affects positively the secondary and tertiary level of performance; however, there are fewer evidences about its effect on game structure (primary level of performance. This