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Sample records for showed significant atrophy

  1. Quantitative MRI study of progressive cerebral atrophy in multiple system atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konagaya, Masaaki; Matsuoka, Yukihiko; Konagaya, Yoko

    2002-01-01

    We investigated cerebral atrophy in multiple system atrophy (MSA) by quantitative analysis of MRI. The subjects were 28 patients with MSA (14 striato-nigral degeneration; SND, 14 olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy; OPCA. 106 MRI examinations were performed totally) and 85 normal persons for control. The ratios of the ventral pons to the infratentorial space in the sagittal section, the putamen, cerebrum, frontal lobe and parietal and occipital lobes to the intracranial space in the horizontal section, and the temporal lobe to the intracranial space in the coronal section were measured. In the early stage of the disease, OPCA showed significant atrophy of the ventral pons compared with SND, and conversely, SND demonstrated significantly smaller putamen than that in OPCA. According to the progression of the disease, the atrophy of these neural tissues progressed, which resulted in so significant differences between SND and OPCA. The cerebral atrophy was observed in 17 MSA patients. The atrophy of the frontal lobe was much frequent and prominent to that in the temporal lobe and parietal and occipital lobes. SND showed higher incidence of the cerebral atrophy than OPCA in the early stage of the disease. In long period follow-up cases, one case showed cerebral atrophy in earlier stage, and another case in late stage. We indicated the involvement of the cerebral hemispheres in MSA, especially the frontal lobe. (author)

  2. Quantitative MRI study of progressive cerebral atrophy in multiple system atrophy

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    Konagaya, Masaaki; Matsuoka, Yukihiko [Suzuka National Hospital, Suzuka, Mie (Japan); Konagaya, Yoko [JR Tokai General Hospital, Nagoya (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    We investigated cerebral atrophy in multiple system atrophy (MSA) by quantitative analysis of MRI. The subjects were 28 patients with MSA (14 striato-nigral degeneration; SND, 14 olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy; OPCA. 106 MRI examinations were performed totally) and 85 normal persons for control. The ratios of the ventral pons to the infratentorial space in the sagittal section, the putamen, cerebrum, frontal lobe and parietal and occipital lobes to the intracranial space in the horizontal section, and the temporal lobe to the intracranial space in the coronal section were measured. In the early stage of the disease, OPCA showed significant atrophy of the ventral pons compared with SND, and conversely, SND demonstrated significantly smaller putamen than that in OPCA. According to the progression of the disease, the atrophy of these neural tissues progressed, which resulted in so significant differences between SND and OPCA. The cerebral atrophy was observed in 17 MSA patients. The atrophy of the frontal lobe was much frequent and prominent to that in the temporal lobe and parietal and occipital lobes. SND showed higher incidence of the cerebral atrophy than OPCA in the early stage of the disease. In long period follow-up cases, one case showed cerebral atrophy in earlier stage, and another case in late stage. We indicated the involvement of the cerebral hemispheres in MSA, especially the frontal lobe. (author)

  3. Significance of frontal cortical atrophy in Parkinson's disease: computed tomographic study

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    Lee, Kyung Sang; Suh, Jung Ho; Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Dong Ik [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-10-15

    Fifty-five patients with Parkinson's disease were evaluated clinically and with brain computed tomography (CT) in order to determine the incidence of frontal cortical and subcortical atrophy. Twenty cases of age-related healthy control group were also scanned. The CT criteria of frontal cortical atrophy that was used in this study were the maximum width of frontal hemispheric cortical sulci and width of anterior interhemispheric fissure between frontal lobes comparing with maximum width of hemispheric cortical sulci except frontal lobes. And the criteria of frontal subcortical atrophy were bifrontal index bicaudate index, and Evans index. The results are as follows: 1. Cortical atrophic changes in Parkinson's disease were more prominent in frontal lobe rather than other causes of cortical atrophy. 2. Frontal cortical and subcortical atrophic changes were also more prominent in Parkinson's disease rather than age-related control group. 3. Subcortical atrophic changes in frontal lobe were always associated with cortical atrophic changes. 4. Changes of basal ganglia were hardly seen in Parkinson's disease. 5. Cortical atrophic changes in frontal lobe must be the one of significant findings in Parkinson's disease.

  4. Significance of frontal cortical atrophy in Parkinson's disease: computed tomographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Sang; Suh, Jung Ho; Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Dong Ik

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-five patients with Parkinson's disease were evaluated clinically and with brain computed tomography (CT) in order to determine the incidence of frontal cortical and subcortical atrophy. Twenty cases of age-related healthy control group were also scanned. The CT criteria of frontal cortical atrophy that was used in this study were the maximum width of frontal hemispheric cortical sulci and width of anterior interhemispheric fissure between frontal lobes comparing with maximum width of hemispheric cortical sulci except frontal lobes. And the criteria of frontal subcortical atrophy were bifrontal index bicaudate index, and Evans index. The results are as follows: 1. Cortical atrophic changes in Parkinson's disease were more prominent in frontal lobe rather than other causes of cortical atrophy. 2. Frontal cortical and subcortical atrophic changes were also more prominent in Parkinson's disease rather than age-related control group. 3. Subcortical atrophic changes in frontal lobe were always associated with cortical atrophic changes. 4. Changes of basal ganglia were hardly seen in Parkinson's disease. 5. Cortical atrophic changes in frontal lobe must be the one of significant findings in Parkinson's disease

  5. Correlation of clinical course with MRI findings in olivo-pontocerebellar atrophy and late-cortical cerebellar atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konagaya, Masaaki; Morishita, Shinji; Konagaya, Yoko; Takayanagi, Tetsuya; Iwasaki, Satoru

    1989-01-01

    We quantitatively analyzed 1.5 T MRI in 36 cases of sporadic spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and 30 control cases without intracranial lesions, using graphic analyzer. SCD consisted of 21 olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy (OPCA) and 15 late cortical cerebellar atrophy (LCCA). There was negative correlation between vermian size and the duration of illness both in OPCA (r=0.8960, p<0.001) and LCCA (r=0.7756, p<0.01), but the progression rate in OPCA was three times greater than that in LCCA. LCCA was suggested the preclinical vermian atrophy by the statistical regression study. In OPCA, the duration of illness also revealed significant correlations with atrophy of ventral pons (r=0.8308, p<0.001) and also cerebellar hemisphere (medial hemiphere; r=0.7278, p<0.001. lateral hemisphere; r=0.6039, p<0.01). OPCA showed diffuse atrophy of cerebellar hemisphere, whereas LCCA showed medial dominant atrophy. OPCA demonstrated significant correlation between the fourth ventricle dilatation and the duration of illness (r=0.6005, p<0.01). A discriminant study significantly separated OPCA, LCCA and control each other by sizes of ventral pons and cerebellar vermis (p<0.001). In T2 weighted MRI, 10 cases out of 14 LCCA did not show hypointensity in dentate nucleus in spite of normal appearance in the other portions usually decreased intensity. The dentate nucleus of OPCA showed a significant atrophy. The insidence of putaminal hypointensity in OPCA was significantly greater than that of control group (ki-quare=6.476, p<0.05). There were no atrophies in red nucleus and tegmentum of midbrain, which indicated minimum involvement in cerebellar efferent system both in OPCA and LCCA. We concluded that the quantitative and qualitative analysis of high field MRI is useful in clinical discrimination between OPCA and LCCA. (author)

  6. Cerebral atrophy in Parkinson's disease - represented in CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, H.; Schneider, E.; Hacker, H.; Fischer, P.A.; Frankfurt Univ.

    1979-01-01

    To clarify the importance of brain atrophy in relation to the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, 173 patients were examined by computed tomography (CT). In 51.4% of the CT findings, brain atrophy was considered to be pathological. Statistically significant relations of age and sex were found with regard to the extent and localization of brain atrophy. Cortical atrophy also showed a significant dependence on duration of disease. Linear measurements at the lateral ventricles and the third ventricle lead us to assume that brain atrophy in Parkinson's patients is more prevalent than in normal patients within the scope of age involution. (orig.)

  7. Cerebral atrophy in Parkinson's disease - represented in CT

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    Becker, H; Schneider, E; Hacker, H; Fischer, P A [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Neurologie)

    1979-01-01

    To clarify the importance of brain atrophy in relation to the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, 173 patients were examined by computed tomography (CT). In 51.4% of the CT findings, brain atrophy was considered to be pathological. Statistically significant relations of age and sex were found with regard to the extent and localization of brain atrophy. Cortical atrophy also showed a significant dependence on duration of disease. Linear measurements at the lateral ventricles and the third ventricle lead us to assume that brain atrophy in Parkinson's patients is more prevalent than in normal patients within the scope of age involution.

  8. Brain atrophy during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju; Yamada, Kenji; Yamada, Susumu; Ono, Shuichi; Takeda, Shunpei; Hatazawa, Jun; Ito, Masatoshi; Kubota, Kazuo

    1985-01-01

    Age-related brain atrophy was investigated in thousands of persons with no neurologic disturbances using X-CT and NMR-CT. Brain atrophy was minimal in 34-35 years old in both sexes, increased exponentially to the increasing age after 34-35 years, and probably resulted in dementia, such as vascular or multi-infarct dementia. Brain atrophy was significantly greater in men than in women at all ages. Brain volumes were maximal in 34-35 years old in both sexes with minimal individual differences which increased proportionally to the increasing age. Remarkable individual differences in the extent of brain atrophy (20 - 30 %) existed among aged subjects. Progression of brain atrophy was closely related to loss of mental activities independently of their ages. Our longitudinal study has revealed that the most important factors promoting brain atrophy during aging was the decrease in the cerebral blood flow. We have classified brain atrophy into sulcal and cisternal enlargement type (type I), ventricular enlargement type (type II) and mixed type (type III) according to the clinical study using NMR-CT. Brain atrophy of type I progresses significantly in almost all of the geriatric disorders. This type of brain atrophy progresses significantly in heavy smokers and drinkers. Therefore this type of brain atrophy might be caused by the decline in the blood flow in anterior and middle cerebral arteries. Brain atrophy of type II was caused by the disturbance of cerebrospinal fluid circulation after cerebral bleeding and subarachnoid bleeding. Brain atrophy of type III was seen in vascular dementia or multi-infarct dementia which was caused by loss of brain matter after multiple infarction, and was seen also in dementia of Alzheimer type in which degeneration of nerve cells results in brain atrophy. NMR-CT can easily detect small infarction (lacunae) and edematous lesions resulting from ischemia and hypertensive encephalopathy. (J.P.N.)

  9. Clinical significance of corpus callosum atrophy in a mixed elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, C; Rostrup, E; Stegmann, M B

    2007-01-01

    ) score, history of depression, geriatric depression scale (GDS) score, subjective gait difficulty, history of falls, walking speed, and total score on the short physical performance battery (SPPB) were analyzed. Significant correlations between CC atrophy and MMSE, SPPB, and walking speed were identified...... subjects with ARWMC from the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) study, the CC was segmented on the normalised mid-sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) slice and subdivided into five regions. Correlations between the CC areas and subjective memory complaints, mini mental state examination (MMSE...

  10. Clinical significance of corpus callosum atrophy in a mixed elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, C.; Rostrup, E.; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2007-01-01

    subjects with ARWMC from the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) study, the CC was segmented on the normalised mid-sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) slice and subdivided into five regions. Correlations between the CC areas and subjective memory complaints, mini mental state examination (MMSE......, and the CC areas were smaller in subjects with subjective gait difficulty. The correlations remained significant after correction for ARWMC grade. In conclusion, CC atrophy was independently associated with impaired global cognitive and motor function in subjects with ARWMC. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights...

  11. Early and Degressive Putamen Atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis

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    Julia Krämer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Putamen atrophy and its long-term progress during disease course were recently shown in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Here we investigated retrospectively the time point of atrophy onset in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS. 68 patients with RRMS and 26 healthy controls (HC were admitted to 3T MRI in a cross-sectional study. We quantitatively analyzed the putamen volume of individual patients in relation to disease duration by correcting for age and intracranial volume (ICV. Patient’s relative putamen volume (RPV, expressed in percent of ICV, was significantly reduced compared to HC. Based on the correlation between RPV and age, we computed the age-corrected RPV deviation (ΔRPV from HC. Patients showed significantly negative ΔRPV. Interestingly, the age-corrected ΔRPV depended logarithmically on disease duration: Directly after first symptom manifestation, patients already showed a reduced RPV followed by a further degressive volumetric decline. This means that atrophy progression was stronger in the first than in later years of disease. Putamen atrophy starts directly after initial symptom manifestation or even years before, and progresses in a degressive manner. Due to its important role in neurological functions, early detection of putamen atrophy seems necessary. High-resolution structural MRI allows monitoring of disease course.

  12. Abnormalities of fixation, saccade and pursuit in posterior cortical atrophy.

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    Shakespeare, Timothy J; Kaski, Diego; Yong, Keir X X; Paterson, Ross W; Slattery, Catherine F; Ryan, Natalie S; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2015-07-01

    The clinico-neuroradiological syndrome posterior cortical atrophy is the cardinal 'visual dementia' and most common atypical Alzheimer's disease phenotype, offering insights into mechanisms underlying clinical heterogeneity, pathological propagation and basic visual phenomena (e.g. visual crowding). Given the extensive attention paid to patients' (higher order) perceptual function, it is surprising that there have been no systematic analyses of basic oculomotor function in this population. Here 20 patients with posterior cortical atrophy, 17 patients with typical Alzheimer's disease and 22 healthy controls completed tests of fixation, saccade (including fixation/target gap and overlap conditions) and smooth pursuit eye movements using an infrared pupil-tracking system. Participants underwent detailed neuropsychological and neurological examinations, with a proportion also undertaking brain imaging and analysis of molecular pathology. In contrast to informal clinical evaluations of oculomotor dysfunction frequency (previous studies: 38%, current clinical examination: 33%), detailed eyetracking investigations revealed eye movement abnormalities in 80% of patients with posterior cortical atrophy (compared to 17% typical Alzheimer's disease, 5% controls). The greatest differences between posterior cortical atrophy and typical Alzheimer's disease were seen in saccadic performance. Patients with posterior cortical atrophy made significantly shorter saccades especially for distant targets. They also exhibited a significant exacerbation of the normal gap/overlap effect, consistent with 'sticky fixation'. Time to reach saccadic targets was significantly associated with parietal and occipital cortical thickness measures. On fixation stability tasks, patients with typical Alzheimer's disease showed more square wave jerks whose frequency was associated with lower cerebellar grey matter volume, while patients with posterior cortical atrophy showed large saccadic intrusions

  13. Brain atrophy in Huntington's disease: A CT-scan study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkstein, S.E.; Folstein, S.E.; Brandt, J.; McDonnell, A.; Folstein, M.

    1989-01-01

    CT-scan measurements of cortical and subcortical atrophy were carried out in 34 patients with Huntington's disease (HD). While a significant correlation was observed between parameters of subcortical atrophy (bicaudate ratio, bifrontal ratio and third ventricular ratio) and duration of the disease, there was no significant correlation between these parameters and age. On the other hand, measurements of cortical atrophy (frontal fissure ratio and cortical sulci ratio) correlated significantly with age but not with duration of the disease. When a group of 24 HD patients were compared on CT-scan measurements with a group of 24 age-matched normal controls, significant differences were obtained for all the variables examined, but the bicaudate ratio showed the highest sensitivity and specificity. Even mildly affected patients, with duration of motor symptoms less than 3 years had higher bicaudate ratios than age-matched controls. (orig.)

  14. Computed tomography in alcoholic cerebellar atrophy

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    Haubek, A; Lee, K [Hvidovre Hospital Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Radiology; Municipal Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Neurology)

    1979-01-01

    This is a controlled CT evaluation of the infratentorial region in 41 male alcoholics under age 35. Criteria for the presence of atrophy are outlined. Twelve patients had cerebellar atrophy. Vermian atrophy was present in all. Atrophy of the cerebellar hemispheres was demonstrated in eight patients as well. The results are statistically significant when compared to an age-matched group of 40 non-alcoholic males among whom two cases of vermian atrophy were found. There were clinical signs of alcoholic cerebellar atrophy in one patient only. The disparity between the clinical and the radiological data are discussed with reference to previous pneumoencephalographic findings. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MKO.

  15. Frontal parenchymal atrophy measures in multiple sclerosis.

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    Locatelli, Laura; Zivadinov, Robert; Grop, Attilio; Zorzon, Marino

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether, in a cross-sectional study, the normalized measures of whole and regional brain atrophy correlate better with tests assessing the cognitive function than the absolute brain atrophy measures. The neuropsychological performances and disability have been assessed in 39 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). T1- and T2-lesion load (LL) of total brain and frontal lobes (FLs) were measured using a reproducible semiautomated technique. The whole brain volume and the regional brain parenchymal volume (RBPV) of FLs were obtained using a computerized interactive program, which incorporates semiautomated and automated segmentation processes. Normalized measures of brain atrophy, i.e., brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) and regional brain parenchymal fraction (RBPF) of FLs, were calculated. The scan-rescan, inter- and intrarater coefficient of variation (COV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) have been estimated. The RBPF of FLs showed an acceptable level of reproducibility which ranged from 1.7% for intrarater variability to 3.2% for scan-rescan variability. The mean ICC was 0.88 (CI 0.82-0.93). The RBPF of FLs demonstrated stronger magnitudes of correlation with neuropsychological functioning, disability and quantitative MRI lesion measures than RBPV. These differences were statistically significant: PColor Word Interference test, Pcognitive functions, whereas BPAV did not. The correlation analysis results were supported by the results of multiple regression analysis which showed that only the normalized brain atrophy measures were associated with tests exploring the cognitive functions. These data suggest that RBPF is a reproducible and sensitive method for measuring frontal parenchymal atrophy. The normalized measures of whole and regional brain parenchymal atrophy should be preferred to absolute measures in future studies that correlate neuropsychological performances and brain atrophy measures

  16. Computed tomographic myelography characteristics of spinal cord atrophy in juvenile muscular atrophy of the upper extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabuki, Norio; Mitomo, Masanori; Miura, Takashi; Hashimoto, Tsutomu; Kawai, Ryuji; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1991-01-01

    Although atrophy of the lower cervical and upper thoracic cord in juvenile muscular atrophy of distal upper extremity has been reported, the atrophic patterns of the cord, especially in the transverse section, have not been studied extensively. The aim of this study is to clarify the atrophic patterns of the cord by CT myelography (CTM) and to discuss the pathogenesis of cord atrophy. Sixteen patients with juvenile muscular atrophy of distal upper extremity were examined by CTM. Atrophy of the lower cervical and upper thoracic cord, consistent with the segmental weakness, was seen in all patients. Flattening of the ventral convexity was a characteristic atrophic pattern of the cord. Bilateral cord atrophy was commonly observed; 8/12 patients with unilateral clinical form and all 4 patients with bilateral form showed bilateral cord atrophy with dominance on the clinical side. There was no correlation between the degree of cord atrophy and duration of symptoms. Flattening of the ventral convexity, associated with purely motor disturbances, reflects selective atrophy of the anterior horns in the cord, which is attributable to chronic ischemia. Cord atrophy proved to precede clinical manifestations. The characteristic atrophy of the cord provides useful information to confirm the diagnosis without long-term observation. (author). 21 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. Brain atrophy during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju; Takeda, Shumpei; Hatazawa, Jun

    1985-01-01

    Age-related brain atrophy was investigated in thousands of persons with no neurologic disturbances using X-CT and NMR-CT and following results were obtained. Brain atrophy was minimal in 34 -- 35 years old in both sexes, increased exponentially to the increasing age after 34 -- 35 years, and probably resulted in dementia, such as vascular or multiinfarct dementia. Brain atrophy was significantly greater in men than in women at all ages. Brain volumes were maximal in 34 -- 35 years old in both sexes with minimal individual differences which increased proportionally to the increasing age. Remarkable individual differences in the extents of brain atrophy (20 -- 30 %) existed among aged subjects. Some aged subjects had little or no atrophy of their brains, as seen in young subjects, and others had markedly shrunken brains associated with senility. From these results there must be pathological factors promoting brain atrophy with a great individual difference. We have studied the relation of intelligence to brain volume, and have ascertained that progression of brain atrophy was closely related to loss of mental activities independently of their ages. Our longitudinal study has revealed that the most important factors promoting brain atrophy during aging was decrease in the cerebral blood flow. MNR-CT can easily detected small infarction (lacunae) and edematous lesions resulting from ischemia and hypertensive encephalopathy, while X-CT can not. Therefore NMR-CT is very useful for detection of subtle changes in the brain. (J.P.N.)

  18. Evaluation of supra- and infratentorial brain atrophy by computerized tomography in spinocerebellar degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hiroko; Asano, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Takatoshi; Hirao, Yoshitaka; Mizuno, Yasushi; Sobue, Itsuro

    1986-01-01

    Measurement of various parameters of supra- and infratentorial brain atrophy in computerized tomographs of 142 cases of spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and 100 age and sex matched controls was carried out in order to investigate whether these parameters would correspond to the subtypes of this disease and differing grades of various clinical manifestations. One supra- and all infratentorial parameters of SCD showed statistically significant atrophy with a risk of P < 0.005. Among the subtypes, OPCA had a more severely atrophied pons than LCCA (P < 0.005), Menzel (P < 0.05) and SSP (P < 0.01). There was a correlation between the distribution of symptoms like gait, speech, ataxia of extremities and ocular movement disorders, and distribution and degree of infratentorial atrophy with statistical significance (P < 0.05 ∼ P < 0.005). The degree of atrophy of the pons and the width of the IV ventricle were directly proportional to the duration of the illness in cases of less than 10 years, but not to those of over 10 years. Follow-up CT scan was done for 24 patients, 12 within 3 years, 12 after the lapse of 3 years. The latter group showed statistically significant atrophy between the 1st and 2nd scans in several parameters, but there was no significance between those of the former group. (author)

  19. Evaluation of supra- and infratentorial brain atrophy by computerized tomography in spinocerebellar degeneration

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    Yamamoto, Hiroko; Asano, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Takatoshi; Hirao, Yoshitaka; Mizuno, Yasushi; Sobue, Itsuro

    1986-08-01

    Measurement of various parameters of supra- and infratentorial brain atrophy in computerized tomographs of 142 cases of spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and 100 age and sex matched controls was carried out in order to investigate whether these parameters would correspond to the subtypes of this disease and differing grades of various clinical manifestations. One supra- and all infratentorial parameters of SCD showed statistically significant atrophy with a risk of P < 0.005. Among the subtypes, OPCA had a more severely atrophied pons than LCCA (P < 0.005), Menzel (P < 0.05) and SSP (P < 0.01). There was a correlation between the distribution of symptoms like gait, speech, ataxia of extremities and ocular movement disorders, and distribution and degree of infratentorial atrophy with statistical significance (P < 0.05 -- P < 0.005). The degree of atrophy of the pons and the width of the IV ventricle were directly proportional to the duration of the illness in cases of less than 10 years, but not to those of over 10 years. Follow-up CT scan was done for 24 patients, 12 within 3 years, 12 after the lapse of 3 years. The latter group showed statistically significant atrophy between the 1st and 2nd scans in several parameters, but there was no significance between those of the former group.

  20. Fronto-striatal atrophy in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia & Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime eBertoux

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD has only recently been associated with significant striatal atrophy, whereas the striatum appears to be relatively preserved in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Considering the critical role the striatum has in cognition and behaviour, striatal degeneration, together with frontal atrophy, could be responsible of some characteristic symptoms in bvFTD and emerges therefore as promising novel diagnostic biomarker to distinguish bvFTD and AD. Previous studies have, however, only taken either cortical or striatal atrophy into account when comparing the two diseases. In this study, we establish for the first time a profile of fronto-striatal atrophy in 23 bvFTD and 29 AD patients at presentation, based on the structural connectivity of striatal and cortical regions. Patients are compared to 50 healthy controls by using a novel probabilistic connectivity atlas, which defines striatal regions by their cortical white matter connectivity, allowing us to explore the degeneration of the frontal and striatal regions that are functionally linked. Comparisons with controls revealed that bvFTD showed substantial fronto-striatal atrophy affecting the ventral as well as anterior and posterior dorso-lateral prefrontal cortices and the related striatal subregions. By contrast, AD showed few fronto-striatal atrophy, despite having significant posterior dorso-lateral prefrontal degeneration. Direct comparison between bvFTD and AD revealed significantly more atrophy in the ventral striatal-ventromedial prefrontal cortex regions in bvFTD. Consequently, deficits in ventral fronto-striatal regions emerge as promising novel and efficient diagnosis biomarker for bvFTD. Future investigations into the contributions of these fronto-striatal loops on bvFTD symptomology are needed to develop simple diagnostic and disease tracking algorithms.

  1. Comparison between MRI and 3D-SSP in olivopontocerebellar atrophy and cortical cerebellar atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Hirotoshi; Kanda, Fumio; Hosaka, Kayo; Fujii, Masahiko; Chihara, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    We compared images of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP) of SPECT with MRI images in spinocerebellar degeneration patients (13 olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) and 7 cortical cerebellar atrophy (CCA)). We analyzed a brain blood flow pattern with an image of statistics by 123 I-IMP SPECT. In OPCA patients, a blood flow reduction was more remarkable in 3D-SSP than a degree of cerebellar atrophy in MRI. In patients with CCA, the cerebellum showed little blood flow reduction in 3D-SSP despite of apparent atrophy in MRI. Simultaneous examination both MRI and 3D-SSP might be useful for differential diagnosis of spinocerebellar degenerations. (author)

  2. Age-related infra-tentorial brain atrophy on CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitani, Mitsuhiro; Kobayashi, Shotai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Okada, Kazunori; Murata, Akihiro; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1985-01-01

    We had reported that the brain atrophy progressed significantly with advancing age using the two dimensional CT measurement by digitizer which was connected with personal computer. Using this method, we studied the age-related infra-tentrial brain atrophy in 67 normal subjects (14-90 years), and compared that with age-related supra-tentrial brain atrophy. There was a significant correlation between age and all indices [cranio-ventricular index (CVI), ventricular area index (VAI) and brain atrophy index (BAI)] in supratentrial brain. These indices did not correlated to the age in infra-tentrial brain (brainstem and cerebellum). Significant change of the brain atrophy occured above 60 years old was observed by BAI and VAI in supra-tentrial brain. There was a significant correlation between supra-tentrial brain atrophy index (BAI) and that of infratentrial brain. These results indicate that age-related brain atrophy might progress more slowly in brainstem and cerebellum than in cerebrum. (author)

  3. Vaginal Atrophy

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    ... an Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Vaginal Atrophy October 2017 Download PDFs English Editors Christine ... during this time, including vaginal dryness. What is vaginal atrophy? Vaginal atrophy (also referred to as vulvovaginal ...

  4. Brain atrophy and dementia from the aspect of CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkuni, Michiko

    1979-01-01

    Two major causes of dementia in the elderly are reported to be the degeneration of brain and cerebrovascular diseases. Recently, CT findings of cerebrovascular diseases and brain atrophy have been noticed, because they rather clearly show these changes. The authors examined the view of atrophy frequently observed on the dementia in the elderly. The results obtained are as follows: 1) In accordance with the increase of age the appearance of the view of atrophy increased in frequency and that of extreme brain atrophy also increased. 2) As the age increased, the average value of the width of the 3rd ventricle tended to increase. 3) In the cases accompanied with the view of cerebrovascular diseases remarkable ventricular dilatation was frequently observed, and in the very old dilatations of cerebral sulci, central fissure and Sylvian fissure were observed of all cases. 4) Of the group of severe dementia the view of extreme brain atrophy was observed in the major. However, there was no significant difference on the lesion of atrophy between the cases. The results mentioned above include some exceptional points respectively, so further investigation will be necessary from the qualitative and quantitative points of view. (author)

  5. Evaluating Alzheimer's disease progression using rate of regional hippocampal atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edit Frankó

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by neurofibrillary tangle and neuropil thread deposition, which ultimately results in neuronal loss. A large number of magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported a smaller hippocampus in AD patients as compared to healthy elderlies. Even though this difference is often interpreted as atrophy, it is only an indirect measurement. A more direct way of measuring the atrophy is to use repeated MRIs within the same individual. Even though several groups have used this appropriate approach, the pattern of hippocampal atrophy still remains unclear and difficult to relate to underlying pathophysiology. Here, in this longitudinal study, we aimed to map hippocampal atrophy rates in patients with AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI and elderly controls. Data consisted of two MRI scans for each subject. The symmetric deformation field between the first and the second MRI was computed and mapped onto the three-dimensional hippocampal surface. The pattern of atrophy rate was similar in all three groups, but the rate was significantly higher in patients with AD than in control subjects. We also found higher atrophy rates in progressive MCI patients as compared to stable MCI, particularly in the antero-lateral portion of the right hippocampus. Importantly, the regions showing the highest atrophy rate correspond to those that were described to have the highest burden of tau deposition. Our results show that local hippocampal atrophy rate is a reliable biomarker of disease stage and progression and could also be considered as a method to objectively evaluate treatment effects.

  6. Quantitative evaluation of tongue atrophy on midsagittal magnetic resonance images (MRIs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Akio; Oishi, Tomonari; Murai, Yoshiyuki; Tsukamoto, Yoshiki; Ikeda, Masato

    1992-01-01

    This study was undertaken mainly to establish the quantitative parameter to evaluate the tongue atrophy on midsagittal MRIs and to show the clinical usefulness of such quantitative evaluation. Midsagittal MRIs of the tongue of consecutive 103 patients were analyzed. They were classified into 67 patients showing normal size (group without atrophy), 11 patients showing atrophy (group with atrophy) and 25 patients showing unsatifactory MRIs with artifacts based on the routine evaluation. The patients in the group without atrophy did not show any pathologic processes to produce tongue atrophy on clinical findings. The area and perimeter of tongue and oral cavity, and the ratio of tongue area to oral cavity area and the ratio of tongue perimeter to oral cavity perimeter on midsagittal MRIs were obtained in each patient of groups with and without atrophy by using quantitative image analysis system. In the group without atrophy, regression analysis of the data on age was made and the 95% confidence interval of the data for age was obtained. No evidence that the tongue becomes atrophic with aging was obtained in the group without atrophy. Patients in the group with atrophy were best separated from those in the group without atrophy statistically when the ratio of tongue area to oral cavity area was regressed on age. Among 11 patients in the group with atrophy, 6 patients were not regarded as having tongue atrophy on clinical neurological examinations. Therefore, the evaluation of midsagittal MRIs is clinically useful. (author)

  7. Progressive hemifacial atrophy with ciliary body atrophy and ocular hypotony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Ashwini Kini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive hemifacial atrophy (PHA is a disease of unknown etiology affecting one-half of the face. Ocular involvement is uncommon. Atrophy of iris is rare, with only a few cases of partial atrophy being reported in the literature. We report a case of total atrophy of iris and ciliary body with associated ocular hypotony in a 16-year-old girl with PHA. We believe this is the first reported case of complete atrophy of iris and ciliary body in PHA. Ocular hypotony in PHA was thought to be due to intra-ocular inflammation. However in our case it appears to be secondary to severe atrophy of the ciliary body.

  8. Abnormal pain perception in patients with Multiple System Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ory-Magne, F; Pellaprat, J; Harroch, E; Galitzsky, M; Rousseau, V; Pavy-Le Traon, A; Rascol, O; Gerdelat, A; Brefel-Courbon, C

    2018-03-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease or Multiple System Atrophy frequently experience painful sensations. The few studies investigating pain mechanisms in Multiple System Atrophy patients have reported contradictory results. In our study, we compared pain thresholds in Multiple System Atrophy and Parkinson's disease patients and healthy controls and evaluated the effect of l-DOPA on pain thresholds. We assessed subjective and objective pain thresholds (using a thermotest and RIII reflex), and pain tolerance in OFF and ON conditions, clinical pain, motor and psychological evaluation. Pain was reported in 78.6% of Multiple System Atrophy patients and in 37.5% of Parkinson's disease patients. In the OFF condition, subjective and objective pain thresholds were significantly lower in Multiple System Atrophy patients than in healthy controls (43.8 °C ± 1.3 vs 45.7 °C ± 0.8; p = 0.0005 and 7.4 mA ± 3.8 vs 13.7 mA ± 2.8; p = 0.002, respectively). They were also significantly reduced in Multiple System Atrophy compared to Parkinson's disease patients. No significant difference was found in pain tolerance for the 3 groups and in the effect of l-DOPA on pain thresholds in Multiple System Atrophy and Parkinson's disease patients. In the ON condition, pain tolerance tended to be reduced in Multiple System Atrophy versus Parkinson's disease patients (p = 0.05). Multiple System Atrophy patients had an increase in pain perception compared to Parkinson's disease patients and healthy controls. The l-DOPA effect was similar for pain thresholds in Multiple System Atrophy and Parkinson's disease patients, but tended to worsen pain tolerance in Multiple System Atrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of voxel-based rCBF in patients with olivopontocerebellar atrophy of multiple system atrophy

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    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Sang Ho; Kim, Jae Woo [School of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Olivopontocerebellar Atrophy (OPCA) is one phenotype of multiple system atrophy (MSA) and is characterized neuropathologically by neuronal degeneration in the inferior olives, pons and cerebellar cortex. The diagnosis of OPCA requires clinical evaluation to exclude other diseases. And it's usually supported by atrophy of the cerebellum and brainstem visualized on CT or MRI. But there are some reports that the disease can occur without demonstrable atrophy in these anatomic studies. There are only a few reports about perfusion SPECT imaging in patients with OPCA. The aim of this study was to describe voxel-based rCBF of OPCA in comparison of healthy volunteers. We studied 5 patients with OPCA (1 men, 4 women: age 50.4{+-}9.6y) and age matched 13 healthy volunteers (4 men, 9 women: age 54.9{+-}6.6y). All subjects injected 20mCi of Tc-99m HMPAO and scanning was initiated 20 min after injection. Images were analyzed using SPM (SPM99) with Matlab 5.3. On visual analysis, in 3 patients with OPCA, SPECT image showed significant hypoperfusion in the cerebellum. In another 2 patients, diffuse hypoperfusion was found in the both cerebro-cerebellar hemispheres, untypical perfusion pattern in OPCA. So there is existed limitation to diagnosis by only visual analysis. On SPM analysis, in OPCA patients significantly decreased perfusion was present in culmen, tonsil, tuber in Lt. cerebellum and declive, tonsil, pyramid and inf. Semi-lunar lobule in Rt. cerebellum, Rt. inf. frontal gyrus and Rt. temporal lobe (p<0.001, uncorrected). We also performed individual analysis with SPM. Two of 5 patients have additional hypoperfusion brain lesions. In one patient, decreased perfusion found in Lt. temporal, both occipital lobe, Lt. parahippocampal gyrus. In another patient, decreased perfusion found in both frontal and parietal lobe. This study is one of a few trials analysis with SPM for OPCA. We defined the specific location of decreased perfusion in patients with OPCA.

  10. Analysis of voxel-based rCBF in patients with olivopontocerebellar atrophy of multiple system atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Sang Ho; Kim, Jae Woo

    2004-01-01

    Olivopontocerebellar Atrophy (OPCA) is one phenotype of multiple system atrophy (MSA) and is characterized neuropathologically by neuronal degeneration in the inferior olives, pons and cerebellar cortex. The diagnosis of OPCA requires clinical evaluation to exclude other diseases. And it's usually supported by atrophy of the cerebellum and brainstem visualized on CT or MRI. But there are some reports that the disease can occur without demonstrable atrophy in these anatomic studies. There are only a few reports about perfusion SPECT imaging in patients with OPCA. The aim of this study was to describe voxel-based rCBF of OPCA in comparison of healthy volunteers. We studied 5 patients with OPCA (1 men, 4 women: age 50.4±9.6y) and age matched 13 healthy volunteers (4 men, 9 women: age 54.9±6.6y). All subjects injected 20mCi of Tc-99m HMPAO and scanning was initiated 20 min after injection. Images were analyzed using SPM (SPM99) with Matlab 5.3. On visual analysis, in 3 patients with OPCA, SPECT image showed significant hypoperfusion in the cerebellum. In another 2 patients, diffuse hypoperfusion was found in the both cerebro-cerebellar hemispheres, untypical perfusion pattern in OPCA. So there is existed limitation to diagnosis by only visual analysis. On SPM analysis, in OPCA patients significantly decreased perfusion was present in culmen, tonsil, tuber in Lt. cerebellum and declive, tonsil, pyramid and inf. Semi-lunar lobule in Rt. cerebellum, Rt. inf. frontal gyrus and Rt. temporal lobe (p<0.001, uncorrected). We also performed individual analysis with SPM. Two of 5 patients have additional hypoperfusion brain lesions. In one patient, decreased perfusion found in Lt. temporal, both occipital lobe, Lt. parahippocampal gyrus. In another patient, decreased perfusion found in both frontal and parietal lobe. This study is one of a few trials analysis with SPM for OPCA. We defined the specific location of decreased perfusion in patients with OPCA

  11. Is the Supraspinatus Muscle Atrophy Truly Irreversible after Surgical Repair of Rotator Cuff Tears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seok Won; Kim, Sae Hoon; Tae, Suk-Kee; Yoon, Jong Pil; Choi, Jung-Ah

    2013-01-01

    Background Atrophy of rotator cuff muscles has been considered an irreversible phenomenon. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether atrophy is truly irreversible after rotator cuff repair. Methods We measured supraspinatus muscle atrophy of 191 patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and postoperative multidetector computed tomography images, taken at least 1 year after operation. The occupation ratio was calculated using Photoshop CS3 software. We compared the change between pre- and postoperative occupation ratios after modifying the preoperative occupation ratio. In addition, possible relationship between various clinical factors and the change of atrophy, and between the change of atrophy and cuff integrity after surgical repair were evaluated. Results The mean occupation ratio was significantly increased postoperatively from 0.44 ± 0.17 to 0.52 ± 0.17 (p < 0.001). Among 191 patients, 81 (42.4%) showed improvement of atrophy (more than a 10% increase in occupation ratio) and 33 (17.3%) worsening (more than a 10% decrease). Various clinical factors such as age tear size, or initial degree of atrophy did not affect the change of atrophy. However, the change of atrophy was related to repair integrity: cuff healing failure rate of 48.5% (16 of 33) in worsened atrophy; and 22.2% (18 of 81) in improved atrophy (p = 0.007). Conclusions The supraspinatus muscle atrophy as measured by occupation ratio could be improved postoperatively in case of successful cuff repair. PMID:23467404

  12. Evaluation of both perfusion and atrophy in multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type using brain SPECT alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Kuji, Ichiei; Seto, Akira; Ito, Kimiteru; Kikuta, Daisuke; Yamada, Minoru; Shimano, Yasumasa; Sato, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    Partial volume effects in atrophied areas should be taken into account when interpreting brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of neurodegenerative diseases. To evaluate both perfusion and atrophy using brain SPECT alone, we developed a new technique applying tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to SPECT. After linear spatial normalization of brain perfusion SPECT using 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer ( 99m Tc-ECD) to a Talairach space, high-dimension-warping was done using an original 99m Tc-ECD template. Contraction map images calculated from Jacobian determinants and spatially normalized SPECT images using this high-dimension-warping were compared using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) between two groups of 16 multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C) patients and 73 age-matched normal controls. This comparison was also performed in conventionally warped SPECT images. SPM2 demonstrated statistically significant contraction indicating local atrophy and decreased perfusion in the whole cerebellum and pons of MSA-C patients as compared to normal controls. Higher significance for decreased perfusion in these areas was obtained in high-dimension-warping than in conventional warping, possibly due to sufficient spatial normalization to a 99m Tc-ECD template in high-dimensional warping of severely atrophied cerebellum and pons. In the present high-dimension-warping, modification of tracer activity remained within 3% of the original tracer distribution. The present new technique applying TBM to brain SPECT provides information on both perfusion and atrophy at the same time thereby enhancing the role of brain perfusion SPECT

  13. Evaluation of both perfusion and atrophy in multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type using brain SPECT alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuda Hiroshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partial volume effects in atrophied areas should be taken into account when interpreting brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images of neurodegenerative diseases. To evaluate both perfusion and atrophy using brain SPECT alone, we developed a new technique applying tensor-based morphometry (TBM to SPECT. Methods After linear spatial normalization of brain perfusion SPECT using 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD to a Talairach space, high-dimension-warping was done using an original 99mTc-ECD template. Contraction map images calculated from Jacobian determinants and spatially normalized SPECT images using this high-dimension-warping were compared using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2 between two groups of 16 multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C patients and 73 age-matched normal controls. This comparison was also performed in conventionally warped SPECT images. Results SPM2 demonstrated statistically significant contraction indicating local atrophy and decreased perfusion in the whole cerebellum and pons of MSA-C patients as compared to normal controls. Higher significance for decreased perfusion in these areas was obtained in high-dimension-warping than in conventional warping, possibly due to sufficient spatial normalization to a 99mTc-ECD template in high-dimensional warping of severely atrophied cerebellum and pons. In the present high-dimension-warping, modification of tracer activity remained within 3% of the original tracer distribution. Conclusions The present new technique applying TBM to brain SPECT provides information on both perfusion and atrophy at the same time thereby enhancing the role of brain perfusion SPECT

  14. Relationship between plasma analytes and SPARE-AD defined brain atrophy patterns in ADNI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon B Toledo

    Full Text Available Different inflammatory and metabolic pathways have been associated with Alzheimeŕs disease (AD. However, only recently multi-analyte panels to study a large number of molecules in well characterized cohorts have been made available. These panels could help identify molecules that point to the affected pathways. We studied the relationship between a panel of plasma biomarkers (Human DiscoveryMAP and presence of AD-like brain atrophy patterns defined by a previously published index (SPARE-AD at baseline in subjects of the ADNI cohort. 818 subjects had MRI-derived SPARE-AD scores, of these subjects 69% had plasma biomarkers and 51% had CSF tau and Aβ measurements. Significant analyte-SPARE-AD and analytes correlations were studied in adjusted models. Plasma cortisol and chromogranin A showed a significant association that did not remain significant in the CSF signature adjusted model. Plasma macrophage inhibitory protein-1α and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 showed a significant association with brain atrophy in the adjusted model. Cortisol levels showed an inverse association with tests measuring processing speed. Our results indicate that stress and insulin responses and cytokines associated with recruitment of inflammatory cells in MCI-AD are associated with its characteristic AD-like brain atrophy pattern and correlate with clinical changes or CSF biomarkers.

  15. Prominent microglial activation in cortical white matter is selectively associated with cortical atrophy in primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohm, Daniel T; Kim, Garam; Gefen, Tamar; Rademaker, Alfred; Weintraub, Sandra; Bigio, Eileen; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Rogalski, Emily; Geula, Changiz

    2018-04-21

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a clinical syndrome characterized by selective language impairments associated with focal cortical atrophy favouring the language dominant hemisphere. PPA is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), and significant accumulation of activated microglia. Activated microglia can initiate an inflammatory cascade that may contribute to neurodegeneration, but their quantitative distribution in cortical white matter and their relationship with cortical atrophy are unknown. We investigated white matter activated microglia and their association with grey matter atrophy in 10 PPA cases with either AD or FTLD-TDP pathology. Activated microglia were quantified with optical density measures of HLA-DR immunoreactivity in two regions with peak cortical atrophy, and one non-atrophied region within the language dominant hemisphere of each PPA case. Non-atrophied contralateral homologues of the language dominant regions were examined for hemispheric asymmetry. Qualitatively, greater densities of activated microglia were observed in cortical white matter when compared to grey matter. Quantitative analyses revealed significantly greater densities of activated microglia in the white matter of atrophied regions compared to non-atrophied regions in the language dominant hemisphere (p<0.05). Atrophied regions of the language dominant hemisphere also showed significantly more activated microglia compared to contralateral homologues (p<0.05). White matter activated microglia accumulate more in atrophied regions in the language dominant hemisphere of PPA. While microglial activation may constitute a response to neurodegenerative processes in white matter, the resultant inflammatory processes may also exacerbate disease progression and contribute to cortical atrophy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Seronegative Intestinal Villous Atrophy: A Diagnostic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Martins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is the most important cause of intestinal villous atrophy. Seronegative intestinal villous atrophy, including those that are nonresponsive to a gluten-free diet, is a diagnostic challenge. In these cases, before establishing the diagnosis of seronegative celiac disease, alternative etiologies of atrophic enteropathy should be considered. Recently, a new clinical entity responsible for seronegative villous atrophy was described—olmesartan-induced sprue-like enteropathy. Herein, we report two uncommon cases of atrophic enteropathy in patients with arterial hypertension under olmesartan, who presented with severe chronic diarrhea and significant involuntary weight loss. Further investigation revealed intestinal villous atrophy and intraepithelial lymphocytosis. Celiac disease and other causes of villous atrophy were ruled out. Drug-induced enteropathy was suspected and clinical improvement and histologic recovery were verified after olmesartan withdrawal. These cases highlight the importance for clinicians to maintain a high index of suspicion for olmesartan as a precipitant of sprue-like enteropathy.

  17. Neuropsychological correlates of brain atrophy in Huntington's disease: a magnetic resonance imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkstein, S.E.; Brandt, J.; Bylsma, F.; Peyser, C.; Folstein, M.; Folstein, S.E.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging and a comprehensive cognitive evaluation were carried out in a series of 29 patients with mild to moderate Huntington's disease (HD). A factor analysis of the neuropsychological test scores provided three factors: A memory/speed-of-processing factor, a 'frontal' factor, and a response inhibition factor. The memory/speed factor correlated significantly with measures of caudate atrophy, frontal atrophy, and atrophy of the left (but not the right) sylvian cistern. There were no significant correlations between the 'frontal' or response inhibition factors and measures of cortical or subcortical brain atrophy. Our findings confirm that subcortical atrophy is significantly correlated with specific cognitive deficits in HD, and demonstrate that cortical atrophy also has important association with the cognitive deficits of patients with HD. (orig.)

  18. Cerebral Cortex Regions Selectively Vulnerable to Radiation Dose-Dependent Atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, Tyler M.; Karunamuni, Roshan; Kaifi, Samar; Burkeen, Jeffrey; Connor, Michael [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Krishnan, Anitha Priya; White, Nathan S.; Farid, Nikdokht; Bartsch, Hauke [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Murzin, Vyacheslav [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Nguyen, Tanya T. [Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Moiseenko, Vitali [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Brewer, James B. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); McDonald, Carrie R. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Dale, Anders M. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A., E-mail: jhattangadi@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose and Objectives: Neurologic deficits after brain radiation therapy (RT) typically involve decline in higher-order cognitive functions such as attention and memory rather than sensory defects or paralysis. We sought to determine whether areas of the cortex critical to cognition are selectively vulnerable to radiation dose-dependent atrophy. Methods and Materials: We measured change in cortical thickness in 54 primary brain tumor patients who underwent fractionated, partial brain RT. The study patients underwent high-resolution, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (T1-weighted; T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, FLAIR) before RT and 1 year afterward. Semiautomated software was used to segment anatomic regions of the cerebral cortex for each patient. Cortical thickness was measured for each region before RT and 1 year afterward. Two higher-order cortical regions of interest (ROIs) were tested for association between radiation dose and cortical thinning: entorhinal (memory) and inferior parietal (attention/memory). For comparison, 2 primary cortex ROIs were also tested: pericalcarine (vision) and paracentral lobule (somatosensory/motor). Linear mixed-effects analyses were used to test all other cortical regions for significant radiation dose-dependent thickness change. Statistical significance was set at α = 0.05 using 2-tailed tests. Results: Cortical atrophy was significantly associated with radiation dose in the entorhinal (P=.01) and inferior parietal ROIs (P=.02). By contrast, no significant radiation dose-dependent effect was found in the primary cortex ROIs (pericalcarine and paracentral lobule). In the whole-cortex analysis, 9 regions showed significant radiation dose-dependent atrophy, including areas responsible for memory, attention, and executive function (P≤.002). Conclusions: Areas of cerebral cortex important for higher-order cognition may be most vulnerable to radiation-related atrophy. This is consistent with clinical observations

  19. Cerebral Cortex Regions Selectively Vulnerable to Radiation Dose-Dependent Atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibert, Tyler M.; Karunamuni, Roshan; Kaifi, Samar; Burkeen, Jeffrey; Connor, Michael; Krishnan, Anitha Priya; White, Nathan S.; Farid, Nikdokht; Bartsch, Hauke; Murzin, Vyacheslav; Nguyen, Tanya T.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Brewer, James B.; McDonald, Carrie R.; Dale, Anders M.; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose and Objectives: Neurologic deficits after brain radiation therapy (RT) typically involve decline in higher-order cognitive functions such as attention and memory rather than sensory defects or paralysis. We sought to determine whether areas of the cortex critical to cognition are selectively vulnerable to radiation dose-dependent atrophy. Methods and Materials: We measured change in cortical thickness in 54 primary brain tumor patients who underwent fractionated, partial brain RT. The study patients underwent high-resolution, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (T1-weighted; T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, FLAIR) before RT and 1 year afterward. Semiautomated software was used to segment anatomic regions of the cerebral cortex for each patient. Cortical thickness was measured for each region before RT and 1 year afterward. Two higher-order cortical regions of interest (ROIs) were tested for association between radiation dose and cortical thinning: entorhinal (memory) and inferior parietal (attention/memory). For comparison, 2 primary cortex ROIs were also tested: pericalcarine (vision) and paracentral lobule (somatosensory/motor). Linear mixed-effects analyses were used to test all other cortical regions for significant radiation dose-dependent thickness change. Statistical significance was set at α = 0.05 using 2-tailed tests. Results: Cortical atrophy was significantly associated with radiation dose in the entorhinal (P=.01) and inferior parietal ROIs (P=.02). By contrast, no significant radiation dose-dependent effect was found in the primary cortex ROIs (pericalcarine and paracentral lobule). In the whole-cortex analysis, 9 regions showed significant radiation dose-dependent atrophy, including areas responsible for memory, attention, and executive function (P≤.002). Conclusions: Areas of cerebral cortex important for higher-order cognition may be most vulnerable to radiation-related atrophy. This is consistent with clinical observations

  20. Characteristic MRI findings in multiple system atrophy: comparison of the three subtypes

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    Naka, H.; Ohshita, T.; Murata, Y.; Imon, Y.; Mimori, Y.; Nakamura, S. [Department of Internal Medicine, Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    We reviewed MRI findings in 29 patients with probable multiple system atrophy (MSA) to see whether there were common and or less common neuroradiological findings in the various clinical subtypes. We divided the patients into three clinical subtypes according to initial and predominant symptoms: 14 with olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA), eight with the Shy-Drager syndrome (SDS) and seven with striatonigral degeneration (SND). The patients showed atrophy of the brain stem and cerebellum, high signal on T2-weighted images of the base of the pons and middle cerebellar peduncles, high and low signal on T2-weighted images of the putamen and atrophy of frontal and parietal lobes. The degree of atrophy of the middle cerebellar peduncle and cerebellum was greater in OPCA patients and a high-signal lateral rim to the putamen more frequent in SND. However, all findings were observed in all subtypes, and the degrees of atrophy of the putamen and pons and the frequency of high signal in the base of the pons were similar in the subtypes. We also found atrophy of the cerebral hemispheres, especially the frontal and parietal lobes, but its degree was not significantly different in the various subtypes. Our findings suggest that, although MSA can be divided clinically into three subtypes, most of the features on MRI are common and overlap in the subtypes, independently of the clinical presentation. (orig.)

  1. Brain atrophy during aging. Quantitative studies with X-CT and NMR-CT

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    Matsuzawa, Taiju; Yamada, Kenji; Yamada, Susumu; Ono, Shuichi; Takeda, Shunpei; Hatazawa, Jun; Ito, Masatoshi; Kubota, Kazuo

    1985-12-01

    Age-related brain atrophy was investigated in thousands of persons with no neurologic disturbances using X-CT and NMR-CT. Brain atrophy was minimal in 34-35 years old in both sexes, increased exponentially to the increasing age after 34-35 years, and probably resulted in dementia, such as vascular or multi-infarct dementia. Brain atrophy was significantly greater in men than in women at all ages. Brain volumes were maximal in 34-35 years old in both sexes with minimal individual differences which increased proportionally to the increasing age. Remarkable individual differences in the extent of brain atrophy (20 - 30 %) existed among aged subjects. Progression of brain atrophy was closely related to loss of mental activities independently of their ages. Our longitudinal study has revealed that the most important factors promoting brain atrophy during aging was the decrease in the cerebral blood flow. We have classified brain atrophy into sulcal and cisternal enlargement type (type I), ventricular enlargement type (type II) and mixed type (type III) according to the clinical study using NMR-CT. Brain atrophy of type I progresses significantly in almost all of the geriatric disorders. This type of brain atrophy progresses significantly in heavy smokers and drinkers. Therefore this type of brain atrophy might be caused by the decline in the blood flow in anterior and middle cerebral arteries. Brain atrophy of type II was caused by the disturbance of cerebrospinal fluid circulation after cerebral bleeding and subarachnoid bleeding. Brain atrophy of type III was seen in vascular dementia or multi-infarct dementia which was caused by loss of brain matter after multiple infarction, and was seen also in dementia of Alzheimer type in which degeneration of nerve cells results in brain atrophy. NMR-CT can easily detect small infarction (lacunae) and edematous lesions resulting from ischemia and hypertensive encephalopathy. (J.P.N.).

  2. Potential hippocampal region atrophy in diabetes mellitus type 2. A voxel-based morphometry VSRAD study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyama, Kazutoshi; Sugihara, Masaki; Wada, Akihiko

    2010-01-01

    Among diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) patients, the frequency of cognitive dysfunction is higher and the relative risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is approximately twice that of nondiabetics. Cognitive impairment symptoms of AD are induced by limbic system dysfunction, and an early-stage AD brain without dementia has the potential for atrophy in the hippocampal region. In this study, we estimated potential hippocampal region atrophy in DM2 and pursued the association between DM2 and cognitive impairment/AD. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was performed in 28 diabetics (14 men, 14 women; ages 59-79 years, mean 70.7 years) and 28 sex- and age- matched (±1 year) nondiabetics. Severity of gray matter loss in the hippocampal region and whole brain were investigated. Group analysis was performed using two-tailed unpaired t-test; significance was assumed with less than 1% (P<0.01) of the critical rate. There was a significant difference between diabetics and nondiabetics regarding the severity of hippocampal region atrophy and whole-brain atrophy. Only diabetics showed a positive correlation for severity of hippocampal region atrophy and whole-brain atrophy (rs=0.69, P<0.0001). Aged DM2 patients have the potential for hippocampal region atrophy, and its dysfunction can be related to the expression of a cognitive impairment that resembles AD. (author)

  3. Crossed cerebellar atrophy in children: a neurologic sequela of extreme prematurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollins, N.K.; Wen, T.S.; Dominguez, R.

    1995-01-01

    We retrospectively identified eight children, aged 8 months to 13 years, in whom cerebellar atrophy associated with cerebral injury was diagnosed on MR or CT, and reviewed their past medical history, neurologic findings, and neuroimaging studies. Seven patients were born extremely premature, EGA 25-28 weeks, and had severe perinatal intracranial hemorrhage. Neurologic problems include severe developmental delay in seven, spastic paresis in six, and seizures in five. Neuroimaging showed severe unilaterial holohemispheric atrophy in four, bilateral asymmetric holohemispheric atrophy in two, and left temporoparietal atrophy in one. Cerebellar atrophy was unilateral in five and bilateral but asymmetric in two. Gliosis of the atrophic cerebellum occurred in one patient. Sequential neuroimaging in one patient showed evolution of crossed cerebellar atrophy at 8 months of age. The final patient, a term infant, had an idiopathic perinatal left cerebral infarct. (orig./MG)

  4. Studies of cerebral atrophy and regional cerebral blood flow in patients with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Shin

    1983-01-01

    Cerebral atrophy and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of 25 patients with Parkinson's disease were studied. The rCBF was measured with the intra-arterial Xe-133 injection method. The results obtained were as follows: 1) Sixty four % of Parkinson's disease patients showed ventricular dilation, and 76% of Parkinson's disease patients showed cortical atrophy on the CT scan, but we had to allow for the effects of the natural aging process on these results. 2) No correlation was recognized either between cerebral atrophy and the severity of Parkinson's disease, or between cerebral atrophy and the duration of Parkinson's disease. 3) In Parkinson's disease patients, the mean rCBF was lower than that of normal control subjects. The difference was even more remarkable in older patients. Only 40% of Parkinson's disease patients showed hyperfrontal pattern. 4) There was no correlation either between the mean rCBF and the severity of Parkinson's disease, or between the mean rCBF and the duration of Parkinson's disease. There was no significant difference between the mean rCBF of Parkinson's disease patients receiving levodopa and that of untreated patients. 5) The mean rCBF decreased in patients with cerebral atrophy on the CT scan. 6) Parkinson's disease patients with intellectual impairment showed cerebral atrophy and a remarkable decrease of the mean rCBF. 7) The effect of aging on cerebral atrophy on the CT scan had to be allowed for, but judging from the decrease of the mean rCBF, the cerebral cortex is evidently involved in Parkinson's disease. 8) The rCBF decline in Parkinson's disease patients may be related with the diminished cortical metabolic rate due to a remote effect of striatal dysfunction and a disturbance of mesocortical dopaminergic pathways. (J.P.N.)

  5. Studies of cerebral atrophy and regional cerebral blood flow in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Shin [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo

    1983-04-01

    Cerebral atrophy and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of 25 patients with Parkinson's disease were studied. The rCBF was measured with the intra-arterial Xe-133 injection method. The results obtained were as follows: 1) Sixty four % of Parkinson's disease patients showed ventricular dilation, and 76% of Parkinson's disease patients showed cortical atrophy on the CT scan, but we had to allow for the effects of the natural aging process on these results. 2) No correlation was recognized either between cerebral atrophy and the severity of Parkinson's disease, or between cerebral atrophy and the duration of Parkinson's disease. 3) In Parkinson's disease patients, the mean rCBF was lower than that of normal control subjects. The difference was even more remarkable in older patients. Only 40% of Parkinson's disease patients showed hyperfrontal pattern. 4) There was no correlation either between the mean rCBF and the severity of Parkinson's disease, or between the mean rCBF and the duration of Parkinson's disease. There was no significant difference between the mean rCBF of Parkinson's disease patients receiving levodopa and that of untreated patients. 5) The mean rCBF decreased in patients with cerebral atrophy on the CT scan. 6) Parkinson's disease patients with intellectual impairment showed cerebral atrophy and a remarkable decrease of the mean rCBF. 7) The effect of aging on cerebral atrophy on the CT scan had to be allowed for, but judging from the decrease of the mean rCBF, the cerebral cortex is evidently involved in Parkinson's disease. 8) The rCBF decline in Parkinson's disease patients may be related with the diminished cortical metabolic rate due to a remote effect of striatal dysfunction and a disturbance of mesocortical dopaminergic pathways.

  6. Bilateral optical nerve atrophy secondary to lateral occipital lobe infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Junfeng; Wei, Shihui

    2013-06-01

    To report a phenomenon of optical nerve atrophy secondary to lateral occipital lobe infarction. Two successive patients with unilateral occipital lobe infarction who experienced bilateral optical nerve atrophy during the follow-up underwent cranial imaging, fundus photography, and campimetry. Each patient was diagnosed with occipital lobe infarction by cranial MRI. During the follow-up, a bilateral optic atrophy was revealed, and campimetry showed a right homonymous hemianopia of both eyes with concomitant macular division. Bilateral optic atrophy was related to occipital lobe infarction, and a possible explanation for the atrophy was transneuronal degeneration caused by occipital lobe infarction.

  7. Atrophy of the corpus callosum correlates with white matter lesions in patients with cerebral ischaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, K.; Yamadori, A.; Constans, J.M.; Courtheoux, P.; Theron, J.; Viader, F.

    2000-01-01

    Many studies of white matter high signal (WMHS) on T2-weighted MRI have disclosed that it is related to cerebral ischaemia and to brain atrophy. Atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) has also been studied in relation to ischaemia. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to ischaemia. We therefore assessed CC, WMHS and brain atrophy in patients with risk factors without strokes (the risk factor group) and in those with infarcts (the infarct group), to investigate the relationships between these factors. We studied 30 patients in the infarct group, 14 in the risk factor group, and 29 normal subjects. Using axial T1-weighted MRI, cortical atrophy and ventricular enlargement (brain atrophy) were visually rated. Using axial T2-weighted MRI, WMHS was assessed in three categories: periventricular symmetrical, periventricular asymmetrical and subcortical. Using the mid-sagittal T1-weighted image, the CC was measured in its anterior, posterior, midanterior and midposterior portions. In the normal group, no correlations were noted between parameters. In the infarct group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy, and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After removing the effects of age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations were noted between some CC measures and subcortical WMHS. In the risk factor group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After allowance for age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations between some CC measures and periventricular WMHS remained. The hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to cerebral ischaemia was supported by other analyses. Namely, for correlations between the extent of infarcts and partial CC atrophy in patients with anterior middle cerebral artery (MCA) and with posterior MCA infarcts, there were significant correlations between the extent of infarct and midanterior CC atrophy in the former, and posterior

  8. Atrophy of the corpus callosum correlates with white matter lesions in patients with cerebral ischaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meguro, K.; Yamadori, A. [Section of Neuropsychology, Division of Disability Science, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, 980-8575 Sendai (Japan); Constans, J.M.; Courtheoux, P.; Theron, J. [MR Unit, University of Caen School of Medicine, Caen (France); Viader, F. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Caen School of Medicine, Caen (France)

    2000-06-01

    Many studies of white matter high signal (WMHS) on T2-weighted MRI have disclosed that it is related to cerebral ischaemia and to brain atrophy. Atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) has also been studied in relation to ischaemia. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to ischaemia. We therefore assessed CC, WMHS and brain atrophy in patients with risk factors without strokes (the risk factor group) and in those with infarcts (the infarct group), to investigate the relationships between these factors. We studied 30 patients in the infarct group, 14 in the risk factor group, and 29 normal subjects. Using axial T1-weighted MRI, cortical atrophy and ventricular enlargement (brain atrophy) were visually rated. Using axial T2-weighted MRI, WMHS was assessed in three categories: periventricular symmetrical, periventricular asymmetrical and subcortical. Using the mid-sagittal T1-weighted image, the CC was measured in its anterior, posterior, midanterior and midposterior portions. In the normal group, no correlations were noted between parameters. In the infarct group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy, and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After removing the effects of age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations were noted between some CC measures and subcortical WMHS. In the risk factor group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After allowance for age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations between some CC measures and periventricular WMHS remained. The hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to cerebral ischaemia was supported by other analyses. Namely, for correlations between the extent of infarcts and partial CC atrophy in patients with anterior middle cerebral artery (MCA) and with posterior MCA infarcts, there were significant correlations between the extent of infarct and midanterior CC atrophy in the former, and posterior

  9. Pronounced impairment of everyday skills and self-care in posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Timothy J; Yong, Keir X X; Foxe, David; Hodges, John; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2015-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive visual dysfunction and parietal, occipital, and occipitotemporal atrophy. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of PCA and typical Alzheimer's disease (tAD) on everyday functional abilities and neuropsychiatric status. The Cambridge Behavioural Inventory-Revised was given to carers of 32 PCA and 71 tAD patients. PCA patients showed significantly greater impairment in everyday skills and self-care while the tAD group showed greater impairment in aspects of memory and orientation, and motivation. We suggest that PCA poses specific challenges for those caring for people affected by the condition.

  10. Mitochondrial Myopathy: A Rare Cause of Early-Onset Vocal Fold Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Elizabeth A.; Bock, Jonathan M.; Peltier, Amanda C.; Oh, Shin J.; Garrett, C. Gaelyn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We present the second published case of laryngeal involvement in mitochondrial myopathy. Methods A patient with laryngeal involvement of mitochondrial myopathy is presented, together with a literature review. Results A 41-year-old man presented with progressive breathy dysphonia. His brother had mitochondrial myopathy. Biopsy of the biceps muscle demonstrated cytochrome C oxidase–negative ragged blue fibers confirming mitochondrial myopathy. Videostroboscopy showed marked vocal fold atrophy, but subsequent injection laryngoplasty did not significantly improve the patient’s voice, despite improved postoperative glottic closure. Conclusions Mitochondrial myopathy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of severe early-onset vocal fold atrophy. PMID:23577570

  11. Accelerating regional atrophy rates in the progression from normal aging to Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sluimer, Jasper D.; Flier, Wiesje M. van der; Scheltens, Philip; Karas, Giorgos B.; Barkhof, Frederik; Schijndel, Ronald van; Barnes, Josephine; Boyes, Richard G.; Cover, Keith S.; Olabarriaga, Silvia D.; Fox, Nick C.; Vrenken, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    We investigated progression of atrophy in vivo, in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We included 64 patients with AD, 44 with MCI and 34 controls with serial MRI examinations (interval 1.8 ± 0.7 years). A nonlinear registration algorithm (fluid) was used to calculate atrophy rates in six regions: frontal, medial temporal, temporal (extramedial), parietal, occipital lobes and insular cortex. In MCI, the highest atrophy rate was observed in the medial temporal lobe, comparable with AD. AD patients showed even higher atrophy rates in the extramedial temporal lobe. Additionally, atrophy rates in frontal, parietal and occipital lobes were increased. Cox proportional hazard models showed that all regional atrophy rates predicted conversion to AD. Hazard ratios varied between 2.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-6.2) for occipital atrophy and 15.8 (95% CI = 3.5-71.8) for medial temporal lobe atrophy. In conclusion, atrophy spreads through the brain with development of AD. MCI is marked by temporal lobe atrophy. In AD, atrophy rate in the extramedial temporal lobe was even higher. Moreover, atrophy rates also accelerated in parietal, frontal, insular and occipital lobes. Finally, in nondemented elderly, medial temporal lobe atrophy was most predictive of progression to AD, demonstrating the involvement of this region in the development of AD. (orig.)

  12. Local oestrogen for vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, J; Lethaby, A; Kennedy, R

    2006-10-18

    symptoms of vaginal atrophy, results indicated significant findings favouring the cream, ring, and tablets when compared to placebo and non-hormonal gel. Fourteen trials compared safety. Four looked at hyperplasia, four looked at endometrial overstimulation and seven looked at adverse effects. One trial showed significant adverse effects of the cream (conjugated equine oestrogen) when compared to tablets (oestradiol) which included uterine bleeding, breast pain and perineal pain (1 RCT; OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.50). Two trials showed significant endometrial overstimulation as evaluated by a progestagen challenge test with the cream (conjugated equine oestrogen) group when compared to the ring (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.78). Although not statistically significant there was a 2% incidence of simple hyperplasia in the ring group when compared to the cream (conjugated equine oestrogen) and 4% incidence of hyperplasia (one simple, one complex) in the cream group (conjugated equine oestrogen) when compared to the tablet (oestradiol). Eleven studies compared acceptability to the participants by comparing: comfort of product use, ease of use, overall product rating, delivery system and satisfaction. Results showed a significant preference for the oestradiol-releasing vaginal ring. Creams, pessaries, tablets and the oestradiol vaginal ring appeared to be equally effective for the symptoms of vaginal atrophy. One trial found significant side effects following cream (conjugated equine oestrogen) administration when compared to tablets causing uterine bleeding, breast pain and perineal pain. Another trial found significant endometrial overstimulation following use of the cream (conjugated equine oestrogen) when compared to the ring. As a treatment choice women appeared to favour the oestradiol-releasing vaginal ring for ease of use, comfort of product and overall satisfaction.

  13. Regional cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy in senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Shoutai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Kitani, Mituhiro; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the reduction of cerebal blood flow and brain atrophy in SDAT, these were measured in 13 cases of senile dementia of Alzheimer type, and compared to 15 cases of multi-infarct Dementia, 39 cases of lacunar infarction without dementia (non-demented CVD group) and 69 cases of aged normal control. Brain atrophy was evaluated by two-dimensional method on CT film by digitizer and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by 133 Xe inhalation method. The degree of brain atrophy in SDAT was almost similar of that of MID. But it was more severe than that of non-demented group. MID showed the lowest rCBF among these groups. SDAT showed significantly lower rCBF than that of aged control, but rCBF in SDAT was equal to that of lacunar stroke without dementia. Focal reduction of cerebral blood flow in bilateral fronto-parietal and left occipital regions were observed in SDAT. Verbal intelligence score (Hasegawa's score) correlated with rCBF and brain atrophy index in MID, and a tendency of correlation between rCBF and brain atrophy in MID was also observed. However, there was no correlation among those indices in SDAT. These findings suggest that the loss of brain substance dose not correspond to the reduction of rCBF in SDAT and simultaneous measurement of rCBF and brain atrophy was useful to differ SDAT from MID. (author)

  14. Progressive contralateral hippocampal atrophy following surgery for medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Cameron A; Gross, Donald W; Wheatley, B Matt; Beaulieu, Christian; Sankar, Tejas

    2016-09-01

    Determine the extent and time course of volumetric changes in the contralateral hippocampus following surgery for medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Serial T1-weighted MRI brain scans were obtained in 26 TLE patients pre- and post-temporal lobe epilepsy surgery as well as in 12 control subjects of similar age. Patients underwent either anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) or selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH). Blinded, manual hippocampal volumetry (head, body, and tail) was performed in two groups: 1) two scan group [ATL (n=6); SAH (n=10)], imaged pre-surgery and on average at 5.4 years post-surgery; and 2) longitudinal group [ATL (n=8); SAH (n=2)] imaged pre-surgery and on post-operative day 1, 2, 3, 6, 60, 120 and a delayed time point (average 2.4 years). In the two scan group, there was atrophy by 12% of the unresected contralateral hippocampus (p<0.001), with atrophy being most pronounced (27%) in the hippocampal body (p<0.001) with no significant differences seen for the hippocampal head or tail. In the longitudinal group, significant atrophy was also observed for the whole hippocampus and the body with atrophy seen as early as post-operative day #1 which progressed significantly over the first post-operative week (1.3%/day and 3.0%./day, respectively) before stabilizing over the long-term to a 13% reduction in total volume. There was no significant difference in atrophy compared by surgical approach (ATL vs. SAH; p=0.94) or side (p=0.31); however, atrophy was significantly more pronounced in patients with ongoing post-operative seizures (hippocampal body, p=0.019; whole hippocampus, p=0.048). There were no detectable post-operative neuropsychological deficits attributable to contralateral hippocampal atrophy. Significant contralateral hippocampal atrophy occurs following TLE surgery, which begins immediately and progresses over the first post-operative week. The observation that seizure free patients had significantly less atrophy of the

  15. Novel in vitro platform to investigate myotube atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelkrug, Christopher; Horn, Katharina; Makert, Gustavo R; Schubert, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The electrical current exclusion (ECE) principle provides an alternative to common methods of cell diameter measurement and especially in atrophy and cancer associated cachexia research. C2C12 myoblasts were differentiated into myotubes and treated with 100 μM dexamethasone to induce atrophy in vitro. Subsequently, they were incubated for 24 h with media containing different concentrations of curcumin and/or branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in order to counteract atrophy. After treatment with curcumin, an increase in cell diameter was detectable; the highest increase with 13.9 ± 0.4% was seen with 10 μM curcumin. The combination of curcumin and BCAAs showed an increase of 13.4 ± 1.2 %. Cell diameter measurement via the ECE showed that curcumin, and curcumin in combination with BCAAs, were able to restore atrophic C2C12 myotubes. Therefore, the application of ECE in muscle atrophy and also cancer-associated cachexia research allows rapid screening of novel compounds in order to test their efficacy in vitro. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  16. Childhood optic atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, A V; Repka, M X

    2000-02-01

    To determine the causes, and relative incidence of the common causes, of optic nerve atrophy in children under 10 years old and to compare prevalent aetiologies with those given in previous studies. The Wilmer Information System database was searched to identify all children, diagnosed between 1987 and 1997 with optic atrophy, who were under 10 years old at diagnosis. The medical records of these children were reviewed retrospectively A total of 272 children were identified, Complications from premature birth were the most frequent aetiology of optic atrophy (n = 44, 16%); 68% of these premature infants having a history of intraventricular haemorrhage. Tumour was the second most common aetiology (n = 40, 15%). The most frequent tumour was pilocytic astrocytoma (50%), followed by craniopharyngioma (17%). Hydrocephalus, unrelated to tumour, was the third most common aetiology (n = 26, 10%). In 114 cases (42%), the cause of optic atrophy became manifest in the perinatal period and/or could be attributed to adverse events in utero. A cause was not determined in 4% of cases. In the last decade, prematurity and hydrocephalus appear to have become important causes of optic atrophy in childhood. This trend is probably the result of improved survival of infants with extremely low birth weight.

  17. MRI study of degenerative process in multiple system atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagishita, Toshiyuki; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Hirayama, Keizo

    1995-01-01

    The characteristic morphological changes of the brainstem and cerebellar regions of multiple system atrophy (MSA) were studied by MRI in varing subtypes, that is olivoponto cerebellar atrophy (OPCA: 23 cases), striatonigral degeneration (SND: 7 cases) and Shy-Drager's syndrome (SDS: 9 cases). OPCA was characterized by atrophy of the entire regions of the brainstem and the cerebellum. SND and SDS tended to show atrophy similar in type but lessin extent to OPCA. The common lesions in MSA were atrophy of the pontine base and cerebellum, and dilation of the fourth ventricle. Atrophy of the pontine base was more dominant in the inferior part than in the superior part, and cerebellar atrophy was more dominant in the superior part than in the inferior part, indicating that degeneration of the pontocerebellar pathway proceeds principally along fibers connecting the inferior part of the pons and the superior part of the cerebellum. Dilation of the fourth ventricle indicated atrophy of the middle cerebellar peduncle. In almost all the cases of OPCA and about a half the cases of SND and SDS, the pontine base and the middle cerebellar peduncle appeared as high signal intensity on T 2 weighted image and as low intensity on T 1 , suggesting degeneration and demyelination. In a few cases of OPCA, the dorsolateral part of the putamen were demonstrated as low signal intensity on T 2 weighted image. (author)

  18. Picture agnosia as a characteristic of posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Azusa; Midorikawa, Akira; Koyama, Shinichi; Futamura, Akinori; Hieda, Sotaro; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2012-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a degenerative disease characterized by progressive visual agnosia with posterior cerebral atrophy. We examine the role of the picture naming test and make a number of suggestions with regard to diagnosing PCA as atypical dementia. We investigated 3 cases of early-stage PCA with 7 control cases of Alzheimer disease (AD). The patients and controls underwent a naming test with real objects and colored photographs of familiar objects. We then compared rates of correct answers. Patients with early-stage PCA showed significant inability to recognize photographs compared to real objects (F = 196.284, p = 0.0000) as measured by analysis of variants. This difficulty was also significant to AD controls (F = 58.717, p = 0.0000). Picture agnosia is a characteristic symptom of early-stage PCA, and the picture naming test is useful for the diagnosis of PCA as atypical dementia at an early stage. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Cerebral atrophy as outcome measure in short-term phase 2 clinical trials in multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elskamp, I.J. van den; Boden, B.; Barkhof, F. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dattola, V. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Messina, Department of Neurosciences, Psychiatric and Anaesthesiological Sciences, Messina (Italy); Knol, D.L. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Filippi, M. [Scientific Institute and University Ospedale San Raffaele, Neuroimaging Research Unit, Milan (Italy); Kappos, L. [University Hospital, University of Basel, Department of Neurology, Basel (Switzerland); Fazekas, F. [Medical University of Graz, Department of Neurology, Graz (Austria); Wagner, K. [Bayer-Schering Pharma, Berlin (Germany); Pohl, C. [Bayer-Schering Pharma, Berlin (Germany); University Hospital Bonn, Department of Neurology, Bonn (Germany); Sandbrink, R. [Bayer-Schering Pharma, Berlin (Germany); Heinrich-Heine-University Dusseldorf, Department of Neurology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Polman, C.H. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Uitdehaag, B.M.J. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-10-15

    Cerebral atrophy is a compound measure of the neurodegenerative component of multiple sclerosis (MS) and a conceivable outcome measure for clinical trials monitoring the effect of neuroprotective agents. In this study, we evaluate the rate of cerebral atrophy in a 6-month period, investigate the predictive and explanatory value of other magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures in relation to cerebral atrophy, and determine sample sizes for future short-term clinical trials using cerebral atrophy as primary outcome measure. One hundred thirty-five relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients underwent six monthly MRI scans from which the percentage brain volume change (PBVC) and the number and volume of gadolinium (Gd)-enhancing lesions, T2 lesions, and persistent black holes (PBH) were determined. By means of multiple linear regression analysis, the relationship between focal MRI variables and PBVC was assessed. Sample size calculations were performed for all patients and subgroups selected for enhancement or a high T2 lesion load at baseline. A significant atrophy occurred over 6 months (PBVC = -0.33%, SE = 0.061, p < 0.0001). The number of baseline T2 lesions (p = 0.024), the on-study Gd-enhancing lesion volume (p = 0.044), and the number of on-study PBHs (p = 0.003) were associated with an increased rate of atrophy. For a 50% decrease in rate of atrophy, the sample size calculations showed that approximately 283 patients per arm are required in an unselected sampled population and 185 patients per arm are required in a selected population. Within a 6-month period, significant atrophy can be detected and on-study associations of PBVC and PBHs emphasizes axonal loss to be a driving mechanism. Application as primary outcome measure in short-term clinical trials with feasible sample size requires a potent drug to obtain sufficient power. (orig.)

  20. Consensus Definition for Atrophy Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration on OCT: Classification of Atrophy Report 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadda, Srinivas R; Guymer, Robyn; Holz, Frank G; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; Curcio, Christine A; Bird, Alan C; Blodi, Barbara A; Bottoni, Ferdinando; Chakravarthy, Usha; Chew, Emily Y; Csaky, Karl; Danis, Ronald P; Fleckenstein, Monika; Freund, K Bailey; Grunwald, Juan; Hoyng, Carel B; Jaffe, Glenn J; Liakopoulos, Sandra; Monés, Jordi M; Pauleikhoff, Daniel; Rosenfeld, Philip J; Sarraf, David; Spaide, Richard F; Tadayoni, Ramin; Tufail, Adnan; Wolf, Sebastian; Staurenghi, Giovanni

    2018-04-01

    To develop consensus terminology and criteria for defining atrophy based on OCT findings in the setting of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Consensus meeting. Panel of retina specialists, image reading center experts, retinal histologists, and optics engineers. As part of the Classification of Atrophy Meetings (CAM) program, an international group of experts surveyed the existing literature, performed a masked analysis of longitudinal multimodal imaging for a series of eyes with AMD, and reviewed the results of this analysis to define areas of agreement and disagreement. Through consensus discussions at 3 meetings over 12 months, a classification system based on OCT was proposed for atrophy secondary to AMD. Specific criteria were defined to establish the presence of atrophy. A consensus classification system for atrophy and OCT-based criteria to identify atrophy. OCT was proposed as the reference standard or base imaging method to diagnose and stage atrophy. Other methods, including fundus autofluorescence, near-infrared reflectance, and color imaging, provided complementary and confirmatory information. Recognizing that photoreceptor atrophy can occur without retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy and that atrophy can undergo an evolution of different stages, 4 terms and histologic candidates were proposed: complete RPE and outer retinal atrophy (cRORA), incomplete RPE and outer retinal atrophy, complete outer retinal atrophy, and incomplete outer retinal atrophy. Specific OCT criteria to diagnose cRORA were proposed: (1) a region of hypertransmission of at least 250 μm in diameter, (2) a zone of attenuation or disruption of the RPE of at least 250 μm in diameter, (3) evidence of overlying photoreceptor degeneration, and (4) absence of scrolled RPE or other signs of an RPE tear. A classification system and criteria for OCT-defined atrophy in the setting of AMD has been proposed based on an international consensus. This classification is a more complete

  1. Cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy correlated by xenon contrast CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Y.; Meyer, J.S.; Tanahashi, N.; Rogers, R.L.; Tachibana, H.; Kandula, P.; Dowell, R.E.; Mortel, K.F.

    1985-01-01

    Correlations between cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured during stable xenon contrast CT scanning and standard CT indices of brain atrophy were investigated in the patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type, multi-infarct dementia and idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Compared to age-matched normal volunteers, significant correlations were found in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease between cortical and subcortical gray matter blood flow and brain atrophy estimated by the ventricular body ratio, and mild to moderate brain atrophy were correlated with stepwise CBF reductions. However, in patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia, brain atrophy was not associated with stepwise CBF reductions. Overall correlations between brain atrophy and reduced CBF were weak. Mild degrees of brain atrophy are not always associated with reduced CBF

  2. Muscular atrophy in diabetic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H; Gadeberg, P C; Brock, B

    1997-01-01

    Diabetic patients with polyneuropathy develop motor dysfunction. To establish whether motor dysfunction is associated with muscular atrophy the ankle dorsal and plantar flexors of the non-dominant leg were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging in 8 patients with symptomatic neuropathy, in 8 non...... confirmed that the atrophy predominated distally. We conclude that muscular atrophy underlies motor weakness at the ankle in diabetic patients with polyneuropathy and that the atrophy is most pronounced in distal muscles of the lower leg indicating that a length dependent neuropathic process explains...

  3. MRI study of degenerative process in multiple system atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagishita, Toshiyuki; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Hirayama, Keizo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-02-01

    The characteristic morphological changes of the brainstem and cerebellar regions of multiple system atrophy (MSA) were studied by MRI in varing subtypes, that is olivoponto cerebellar atrophy (OPCA: 23 cases), striatonigral degeneration (SND: 7 cases) and Shy-Drager`s syndrome (SDS: 9 cases). OPCA was characterized by atrophy of the entire regions of the brainstem and the cerebellum. SND and SDS tended to show atrophy similar in type but lessin extent to OPCA. The common lesions in MSA were atrophy of the pontine base and cerebellum, and dilation of the fourth ventricle. Atrophy of the pontine base was more dominant in the inferior part than in the superior part, and cerebellar atrophy was more dominant in the superior part than in the inferior part, indicating that degeneration of the pontocerebellar pathway proceeds principally along fibers connecting the inferior part of the pons and the superior part of the cerebellum. Dilation of the fourth ventricle indicated atrophy of the middle cerebellar peduncle. In almost all the cases of OPCA and about a half the cases of SND and SDS, the pontine base and the middle cerebellar peduncle appeared as high signal intensity on T{sub 2} weighted image and as low intensity on T{sub 1}, suggesting degeneration and demyelination. In a few cases of OPCA, the dorsolateral part of the putamen were demonstrated as low signal intensity on T{sub 2} weighted image. (author).

  4. A case of dentato-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usui, Sadanari; Komiya, Tadatoshi

    1988-01-01

    A clinical case of dentato-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy (DRPLA) was reported. We established several aspects on the basis of MRI findings and a neuro-otological study. A 47-year-old woman had gait disturbance, involuntary movements, speech disturbance, and memory disturbance at the age of 42. She was admitted to the hospital because of worsening of the gait disturbance. Neurological examinations showed choreo-athetosis of the face, neck and upper extremities, mental disturbance, and scanning speech. However, she had neither ocular disturbance nor epilepsy or myoclonus. On the MRI-CT, an atrophy of midbrain and pontine tegmentum was observed. The neuro-otological study showed gaze nystagmus at the horizontal gaze, rebound nystagmus, hypometria of the saccade, saccadic pursuit, reduction of the optokinetic nystagmus, and increase in caloric nystagmus by means of visual input. A severe atrophy of the brainstem tegmentum and a mild atrophy of the cerebellar hemisphere and cerebral cortex are regarded as neuro-radiological features of DRPLA. Moreover, tegmental atrophy is related to ocular disturbance as a clinical feature. Various neuro-otological findings reveal many systems of ocular movements, i.e., a smooth pursuit system, a saccade system, and a vestibulo-ocular reflex system, involving flocculus. DRPLA can be clinically diagnosed by means of clinical features, MRI findings, and neuro-otological findings. A variety of neuro-otological abnormalities may indicate a progression of the ocular disturbance and a variety of lesions. (author)

  5. Spatiotemporal Propagation of the Cortical Atrophy: Population and Individual Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Koval

    2018-05-01

    patterns of the neurodegenerative spread, providing a way to estimate disease progression stages and predict the age at which the disease will be diagnosed. The model shows that, for instance, APOE carriers have a significantly higher pace of cortical atrophy but not earlier atrophy onset.

  6. Accelerating regional atrophy rates in the progression from normal aging to Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluimer, Jasper D. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Image Analysis Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Alzheimer Centre, PO Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Flier, Wiesje M. van der; Scheltens, Philip [VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Karas, Giorgos B.; Barkhof, Frederik [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Image Analysis Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schijndel, Ronald van [VU University Medical Centre, Image Analysis Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Informatics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Barnes, Josephine; Boyes, Richard G. [UCL, Institute of Neurology, Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Cover, Keith S. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Olabarriaga, Silvia D. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fox, Nick C. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); UCL, Institute of Neurology, Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Vrenken, Hugo [VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Image Analysis Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    We investigated progression of atrophy in vivo, in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We included 64 patients with AD, 44 with MCI and 34 controls with serial MRI examinations (interval 1.8 {+-} 0.7 years). A nonlinear registration algorithm (fluid) was used to calculate atrophy rates in six regions: frontal, medial temporal, temporal (extramedial), parietal, occipital lobes and insular cortex. In MCI, the highest atrophy rate was observed in the medial temporal lobe, comparable with AD. AD patients showed even higher atrophy rates in the extramedial temporal lobe. Additionally, atrophy rates in frontal, parietal and occipital lobes were increased. Cox proportional hazard models showed that all regional atrophy rates predicted conversion to AD. Hazard ratios varied between 2.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-6.2) for occipital atrophy and 15.8 (95% CI = 3.5-71.8) for medial temporal lobe atrophy. In conclusion, atrophy spreads through the brain with development of AD. MCI is marked by temporal lobe atrophy. In AD, atrophy rate in the extramedial temporal lobe was even higher. Moreover, atrophy rates also accelerated in parietal, frontal, insular and occipital lobes. Finally, in nondemented elderly, medial temporal lobe atrophy was most predictive of progression to AD, demonstrating the involvement of this region in the development of AD. (orig.)

  7. Performance of OCT segmentation procedures to assess morphology and extension in geographic atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütze, Christopher; Ahlers, Christian; Sacu, Stefan; Mylonas, Georgios; Sayegh, Ramzi; Golbaz, Isabelle; Matt, Gerlinde; Stock, Géraldine; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula

    2011-05-01

    Investigating segmentation procedures and morphological findings in time domain (TD) and current spectral domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) devices in patients with geographic atrophy (GA). Fifty eyes of 46 patients with GA secondary to AMD and 15 control eyes were examined in this prospective noninterventional comparative case series. All patients underwent Stratus (model 3000), Cirrus (Carl Zeiss Meditec), Spectralis (Spectralis HRA+OCT; Heidelberg Engineering) and 3D-OCT-1000 (Topcon). Automated segmentation analyses were compared. An overlay of scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) and three-dimensional retinal thickness (RT) maps were used to investigate whether areas of retinal thinning correspond to areas of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy. Geographic atrophy areas identified in SLO scans were significantly larger than areas of retinal thinning in RT maps. No convincing topographic correlation could be found between areas of retinal thinning and actual GA size as identified in SLO and fundus photography. Spectralis OCT showed significantly more mild and severe segmentation errors than 3D and Cirrus OCT. This study showed substantial limitations in identifying zones of GA reliably when using automatic segmentation procedures in current SD-OCT devices. This limitation should be addressed to visualize and document RPE loss realistically in a frequent disease like GA. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Acta Ophthalmol.

  8. Predictive modeling of neuroanatomic structures for brain atrophy detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xintao; Guo, Lei; Nie, Jingxin; Li, Kaiming; Liu, Tianming

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we present an approach of predictive modeling of neuroanatomic structures for the detection of brain atrophy based on cross-sectional MRI image. The underlying premise of applying predictive modeling for atrophy detection is that brain atrophy is defined as significant deviation of part of the anatomy from what the remaining normal anatomy predicts for that part. The steps of predictive modeling are as follows. The central cortical surface under consideration is reconstructed from brain tissue map and Regions of Interests (ROI) on it are predicted from other reliable anatomies. The vertex pair-wise distance between the predicted vertex and the true one within the abnormal region is expected to be larger than that of the vertex in normal brain region. Change of white matter/gray matter ratio within a spherical region is used to identify the direction of vertex displacement. In this way, the severity of brain atrophy can be defined quantitatively by the displacements of those vertices. The proposed predictive modeling method has been evaluated by using both simulated atrophies and MRI images of Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Inhibition of FoxO transcriptional activity prevents muscle fiber atrophy during cachexia and induces hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sarah A.; Sandesara, Pooja B.; Senf, Sarah M.; Judge, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    Cachexia is characterized by inexorable muscle wasting that significantly affects patient prognosis and increases mortality. Therefore, understanding the molecular basis of this muscle wasting is of significant importance. Recent work showed that components of the forkhead box O (FoxO) pathway are increased in skeletal muscle during cachexia. In the current study, we tested the physiological significance of FoxO activation in the progression of muscle atrophy associated with cachexia. FoxO-DNA binding dependent transcription was blocked in the muscles of mice through injection of a dominant negative (DN) FoxO expression plasmid prior to inoculation with Lewis lung carcinoma cells or the induction of sepsis. Expression of DN FoxO inhibited the increased mRNA levels of atrogin-1, MuRF1, cathepsin L, and/or Bnip3 and inhibited muscle fiber atrophy during cancer cachexia and sepsis. Interestingly, during control conditions, expression of DN FoxO decreased myostatin expression, increased MyoD expression and satellite cell proliferation, and induced fiber hypertrophy, which required de novo protein synthesis. Collectively, these data show that FoxO-DNA binding-dependent transcription is necessary for normal muscle fiber atrophy during cancer cachexia and sepsis, and further suggest that basal levels of FoxO play an important role during normal conditions to depress satellite cell activation and limit muscle growth.—Reed, S. A., Sandesara, P. B., Senf, S. F., Judge, A. R. Inhibition of FoxO transcriptional activity prevents muscle fiber atrophy during cachexia and induces hypertrophy. PMID:22102632

  10. Age-related brain atrophy and mental deterioration - a study with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, M.; Hatazawa, J.; Yamaura, H.; Matsuzawa, T.

    1981-01-01

    The relation of brain atrophy measured with computed tomography (CT) to mental deterioration on living people was studied. A newly improved technique for quantitative measurement of brain atrophy was developed. The pixels inside the head slices were divided into three parts; brain skull, and cerebrospinal fluid according to their CT number. The volume of brain, CSF, and cranial cavity were calculated by counting the number of pixels of each tissue. Results from 130 normal brains showed that the CSF volume was constant at about 16 ml through 20-39 years old. After 40 years the mean CSF volume increased drastically and reached 71 ml in the seventies. The volume of the brain was standardized for comparison between different-sized heads (brain volume index: BVI). The mean BVI decreased with statistical significance after 40 years of age. Mental function of these persons were evaluated using Hasegawa's dementia rating scale for the elderly. Progression of brain atrophy accompanied loss of mental activities (p<0.01). (author)

  11. [Histological changes of gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia after Helicobacter pylori eradication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yonggu; Jeon, Yong Cheol; Koo, Tai Yeon; Cho, Hyun Seok; Byun, Tae Jun; Kim, Tae Yeob; Lee, Hang Lak; Eun, Chang Soo; Lee, Oh Young; Han, Dong Soo; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Yoon, Byung Chul

    2007-11-01

    Long-term Helicobater pylori infection results in atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia, and increases the risk of gastric cancer. However, it is still controversial that eradication of H. pylori improves atrophy or metaplasia. Therefore, we investigated histological changes after the H. pylori eradication in patients with atrophy or metaplasia. One hundred seven patients who received successful eradication of H. pylori infection in Hanyang University, Guri Hospital from March 2001 to April 2006, were enrolled. Antral biopsy was taken before the eradication to confirm the H. pylori infection and grade of atrophy or metaplasia by updated Sydney System. After a certain period of time, antral biopsy was repeatedly taken to confirm the eradication and investigate histological changes of atrophy or metaplasia. Mean age of the patients was 55.3+/-11.3, and average follow-up period was 28.7+/-13.9 months. Endoscopic diagnosis included gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, non-ulcer antral gastritis. Atrophy was observed in 41 of 91 and their average score was 0.73+/-0.92. After the eradication of H. pylori, atrophy was improved (0.38+/-0.70, p=0.025). However, metaplasia which was observed in 49 of 107, did not significantly improve during the follow-up period. Newly developed atrophy (7 of 38) or metaplasia (18 of 49) was observed in patients who without atrophy or metaplasia initially. Their average scores were slightly lower than those of cases with pre-existing atrophy or metaplasia without statistical significance. After the eradication of H. pylori infection, atrophic gastritis may be improved, but change of intestinal metaplasia is milder and may take longer duration for improvement.

  12. Advanced brain aging: relationship with epidemiologic and genetic risk factors, and overlap with Alzheimer disease atrophy patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habes, M; Janowitz, D; Erus, G; Toledo, J B; Resnick, S M; Doshi, J; Van der Auwera, S; Wittfeld, K; Hegenscheid, K; Hosten, N; Biffar, R; Homuth, G; Völzke, H; Grabe, H J; Hoffmann, W; Davatzikos, C

    2016-04-05

    We systematically compared structural imaging patterns of advanced brain aging (ABA) in the general-population, herein defined as significant deviation from typical BA to those found in Alzheimer disease (AD). The hypothesis that ABA would show different patterns of structural change compared with those found in AD was tested via advanced pattern analysis methods. In particular, magnetic resonance images of 2705 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania (aged 20-90 years) were analyzed using an index that captures aging atrophy patterns (Spatial Pattern of Atrophy for Recognition of BA (SPARE-BA)), and an index previously shown to capture atrophy patterns found in clinical AD (Spatial Patterns of Abnormality for Recognition of Early Alzheimer's Disease (SPARE-AD)). We studied the association between these indices and risk factors, including an AD polygenic risk score. Finally, we compared the ABA-associated atrophy with typical AD-like patterns. We observed that SPARE-BA had significant association with: smoking (Prisk score was significantly associated with SPARE-AD but not with SPARE-BA. Our findings suggest that ABA is likely characterized by pathophysiologic mechanisms that are distinct from, or only partially overlapping with those of AD.

  13. Cisternography contribution in the cortical atrophy diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calegaro, J U.M. [Centro de Analises Clinicas e Medicina Nuclear, Londrina (Brazil); Balallai, N; Suzuki, K [Instituto de Neurologia e Neurocirurgia, Londrina (Brazil)

    1975-01-01

    A 37 years-old woman suffered a car accident. On admission to hospital she presented: torpor, the right pupil greater than the left, both reacting to light, and left hemiparesis with homologous Babinski reflex. She was submitted to carotid arteriogram an air-contrast study without significant findings. Eletroencephalographic examination showed diffuse parenquimatous involvement of left cerebral hemisphery. Scinticisternography demonstrated delayed reabsorption of the radioactive tracer in both frontal areas. A subsequent trepanation made the diagnosis of cortical atrophy in the areas mentioned above. This case shows aditional information concerning anatomic detail provided by isotope cisternography, that eventually can't be detected by air-contrast study.

  14. Cisternography contribution in the cortical atrophy diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calegaro, J.U.M.; Balallai, N.; Suzuki, K.

    1975-01-01

    A 37 years-old woman suffered a car accident. On admission to hospital she presented: torpor, the right pupil greater than the left, both reacting to light, and left hemiparesis with homologous Babinski reflex. She was submitted to carotid arteriogram an air-contrast study without significant findings. Eletroencephalographic examination showed diffuse parenquimatous involvement of left cerebral hemisphery. Scinticisternography demonstrated delayed reabsorption of the radioactive tracer in both frontal areas. A subsequent trepanation made the diagnosis of cortical atrophy in the areas mentioned above. This case shows aditional information concerning anatomic detail provided by isotope cisternography, that eventually can't be detected by air-contrast study [pt

  15. A novel method of quantifying brain atrophy associated with age-related hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jason Qian

    2017-01-01

    Audiometric evaluations and mini-mental state exams were obtained in 34 subjects over the age of 80 who have had brain MRIs in the past 6 years. CSF and parenchymal brain volumes (whole brain and by lobe were obtained through a novel, fully automated algorithm. Atrophy was calculated by taking the ratio of CSF to parenchyma. High frequency hearing loss was associated with disproportional temporal lobe atrophy relative to whole brain atrophy independent of age (r = 0.471, p = 0.005. Mental state was associated with frontoparietal atrophy but not to temporal lobe atrophy, which is consistent with known results. Our method demonstrates that hearing loss is associated with temporal lobe atrophy and generalized whole brain atrophy. Our algorithm is efficient, fully automated, and able to detect significant associations in a small cohort.

  16. MRI of the spinocerebellar degeneration (multiple system atrophy, Holmes type, and Menzel-Joseph type)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Eiichiro; Makino, Naoki.

    1991-01-01

    We have analyzed MRI in 33 patients with several forms of spinocerebellar degeneration; 17 with multiple system atrophy, 10 with Holmes type, and 6 with Menzel-Joseph type. The MRIs were obtained using a 1.5-T GEMR System. Patients with multiple system atrophy demonstrated: atrophy of the brain stem, particularly basis pontis; decreased signal intensity of the white matter of pons; atrophy of the white matter of cerebellum; atrophy and decreased signal intensity of the putamen, particularly along their lateral and posterior portions; and atrophy of the cerebrum. Patients with Holmes type showed: atrophy of the cerebellum; atrophy of the vermis more than hemispheres; and nuclei of the cerebellum with no decreased intensity on T 2 -weighted sequences. Patients with Menzel-Joseph type demonstrated moderate atrophy of the brain stem and mild atrophy of the white matter of cerebellum. MRI is a useful diagnostic tool in the management of the spinocerebellar degeneration. (author)

  17. Renal Atrophy Secondary to Chemoradiotherapy of Abdominal Malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Gary Y.; May, Kilian Salerno; Iyer, Renuka V.; Chandrasekhar, Rameela M.A.; Wilding, Gregory E.; McCloskey, Susan A.; Khushalani, Nikhil I.; Yendamuri, Saikrishna S.; Gibbs, John F.; Fakih, Marwan; Thomas, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To identify factors predictive of renal atrophy after chemoradiotherapy of gastrointestinal malignancies. Methods and Materials: Patients who received chemotherapy and abdominal radiotherapy (RT) between 2002 and 2008 were identified for this study evaluating change in kidney size and function after RT. Imaging and biochemical data were obtained before and after RT in 6-month intervals. Kidney size was defined by craniocaudal measurement on CT images. The primarily irradiated kidney (PK) was defined as the kidney that received the greater mean kidney dose. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to predict risk for renal atrophy. Results: Of 130 patients, median age was 64 years, and 51.5% were male. Most primary disease sites were pancreas and periampullary tumors (77.7%). Median follow-up was 9.4 months. Creatinine clearance declined 20.89%, and size of the PK decreased 4.67% 1 year after completion of chemoradiation. Compensatory hypertrophy of the non-PK was not seen. Percentage volumes of the PK receiving ≥10 Gy (V 10 ), 15 Gy (V 15 ), and 20 Gy (V 20 ) were significantly associated with renal atrophy 1 year after RT (p = 0.0030, 0.0029, and 0.0028, respectively). Areas under the ROC curves for V 10 , V 15 , and V 20 to predict >5% decrease in PK size were 0.760, 0.760, and 0.762, respectively. Conclusions: Significant detriments in PK size and renal function were seen after abdominal RT. The V 10 , V 15 , and V 20 were predictive of risk for PK atrophy 1 year after RT. Analyses suggest the association of lower-dose renal irradiation with subsequent development of renal atrophy.

  18. CT findings of brain atrophy after chemotherapy in acute leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jun; Park, Seog Hee; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University Medicine College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-10-15

    A study was performed to evaluate the atrophic changes of the central nerve system after chemotherapy in the patients with acute leukemia. The computed tomographic findings and medical records of 20 proven acute leukemia patients under 35 years-old who developed various CNS symptoms and signs during and/or after 2 courses of chemotherapy were reviewed. The results were as follows: 1. Age distribution was from 14 to 5 years (mean was 26 years). Male was 15. 2. Presenting clinical symptoms and signs were headache (16/20), nausea and vomiting (11/20) and loss of consciousness (5/20). 3. Brain atrophy was noted in 16 patients including cortical and subcortical atrophy 15 cases and subcortical atrophy 1 case. 4. Two cases of hemorrhage, one each of intracranial hematoma and chronic subdural hematoma were found in addition to brain atrophy. This showed that chemotherapeutic agents cause brain atrophy in a considerable number of the patients with symptomatic acute leukemia.

  19. Cerebellar atrophy in epileptic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taneva, N.

    1991-01-01

    52 patients with epileptic seizures of different form, frequency and duration who had received long term treatment with anticonvulsive drugs were examined on Siretom 2000, a brain scanner of II generation. 6 standard incisions were made in all patients in the area of cerebellum, side ventricules and high convexity. Additional scanning with an incision width of 5 mm was made when pathological changes were detected. There were found 3 cases of cerebellar atrophy, 3 - cerebral atrophy, 1 - combined atrophy and 4 - with other changes. It was difficult to establish any relation between the rerebellar atrophy and the type of anticonvulsant used because treatment had usually been complex. 1 fig., 1 tab., 4 refs

  20. Deficits in memory and visuospatial learning correlate with regional hippocampal atrophy in MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoni, Giulia; Rocca, Maria A; Pagani, Elisabetta; Riccitelli, Gianna C; Colombo, Bruno; Rodegher, Mariaemma; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus has a critical role in episodic memory and visuospatial learning and consolidation. We assessed the patterns of whole and regional hippocampal atrophy in a large group of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and their correlations with neuropsychological impairment. From 103 MS patients and 28 healthy controls (HC), brain dual-echo and high-resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired using a 3.0-Tesla scanner. All patients underwent a neuropsychological assessment of hippocampal-related cognitive functions, including Paired Associate Word Learning, Short Story, delayed recall of Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure and Paced Auditory Serial Attention tests. The hippocampi were manually segmented and volumes derived. Regional atrophy distribution was assessed using a radial mapping analysis. Correlations between hippocampal atrophy and clinical, neuropsychological and MRI metrics were also evaluated. Hippocampal volume was reduced in MS patients vs HC (p right and hippocampus). In MS patients, radial atrophy affected CA1 subfield and subiculum of posterior hippocampus, bilaterally. The dentate hilus (DG:H) of the right hippocampal head was also affected. Regional hippocampal atrophy correlated with brain T2 and T1 lesion volumes, while no correlation was found with disability. Damage to the CA1 and subiculum was significantly correlated to the performances at hippocampal-targeted neuropsychological tests. These results show that hippocampal subregions have a different vulnerability to MS-related damage, with a relative sparing of the head of the left hippocampus. The assessment of regional hippocampal atrophy may help explain deficits of specific cognitive functions in MS patients, including memory and visuospatial abilities.

  1. Atrophy progression in semantic dementia with asymmetric temporal involvement: a tensor-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambati, S M; Rankin, K P; Narvid, J; Seeley, W W; Dean, D; Rosen, H J; Miller, B L; Ashburner, J; Gorno-Tempini, M L

    2009-01-01

    We performed a longitudinal anatomical study to map the progression of gray matter atrophy in anatomically defined predominantly left (LTLV) and right (RTLV) temporal lobe variants of semantic dementia (SD). T1-weighted MRI scans were obtained at presentation and one-year follow-up from 13 LTLV, 6 RTLV, and 25 control subjects. Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) in SPM2 was applied to derive a voxel-wise estimation of regional tissue loss over time from the deformation field required to warp the follow-up scan to the presentation scan in each subject. When compared to controls, both LTLV and RTLV showed significant progression of gray matter atrophy not only within the temporal lobe most affected at presentation, but also in the controlateral temporal regions (p<0.05 FWE corrected). In LTLV, significant progression of volume loss also involved the ventromedial frontal and the left anterior insular regions. These results identified the anatomic substrates of the previously reported clinical evolution of LTLV and RTLV into a unique 'merged' clinical syndrome characterized by semantic and behavioral deficits and bilateral temporal atrophy.

  2. Liver atrophy after percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization occurs in two histological phases: Hepatocellular atrophy followed by apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwao, Yasuhito; Ojima, Hidenori; Kobayashi, Tatsushi; Kishi, Yoji; Nara, Satoshi; Esaki, Minoru; Shimada, Kazuaki; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Tanabe, Minoru; Kanai, Yae

    2017-11-18

    To clarify the histological changes associated with liver atrophy after percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization (PTPE) in pigs and humans. As a preliminary study, we performed pathological examinations of liver specimens from five pigs that had undergone PTPE in a time-dependent model of liver atrophy. In specimens from embolized lobes (EMB) and nonembolized lobes (controls), we measured the portal vein to central vein distance (PV-CV), the area and number of hepatocytes per lobule, and apoptotic activity using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay. Immunohistochemical reactivities were evaluated for light chain 3 (LC3) and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) as autophagy markers and for glutamine synthetase and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) as metabolic zonation markers. Samples from ten human livers taken 20-36 d after PTPE were similarly examined. PV-CVs and lobule areas did not differ between EMB and controls at day 0, but were lower in EMB than in controls at weeks 2, 4, and 6 ( P ≤ 0.001). Hepatocyte numbers were not significantly reduced in EMB at day 0 and week 2 but were reduced at weeks 4 and 6 ( P ≤ 0.05). Apoptotic activity was higher in EMB than in controls at day 0 and week 4. LC3 and LAMP2 staining peaked in EMB at week 2, with no significant difference between EMB and controls at weeks 4 and 6. Glutamine synthetase and CYP2E1 zonation in EMB at weeks 2, 4, and 6 were narrower than those in controls. Human results were consistent with those of porcine specimens. The mechanism of liver atrophy after PTPE has two histological phases: Hepatocellular atrophy is likely caused by autophagy in the first 2 wk and apoptosis thereafter.

  3. Deep gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis: a tensor based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Guozhi; Datta, Sushmita; He, Renjie; Nelson, Flavia; Wolinsky, Jerry S; Narayana, Ponnada A

    2009-07-15

    Tensor based morphometry (TBM) was applied to determine the atrophy of deep gray matter (DGM) structures in 88 relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. For group analysis of atrophy, an unbiased atlas was constructed from 20 normal brains. The MS brain images were co-registered with the unbiased atlas using a symmetric inverse consistent nonlinear registration. These studies demonstrate significant atrophy of thalamus, caudate nucleus, and putamen even at a modest clinical disability, as assessed by the expanded disability status score (EDSS). A significant correlation between atrophy and EDSS was observed for different DGM structures: (thalamus: r=-0.51, p=3.85 x 10(-7); caudate nucleus: r=-0.43, p=2.35 x 10(-5); putamen: r=-0.36, p=6.12 x 10(-6)). Atrophy of these structures also correlated with 1) T2 hyperintense lesion volumes (thalamus: r=-0.56, p=9.96 x 10(-9); caudate nucleus: r=-0.31, p=3.10 x 10(-3); putamen: r=-0.50, p=6.06 x 10(-7)), 2) T1 hypointense lesion volumes (thalamus: r=-0.61, p=2.29 x 10(-10); caudate nucleus: r=-0.35, p=9.51 x 10(-4); putamen: r=-0.43, p=3.51 x 10(-5)), and 3) normalized CSF volume (thalamus: r=-0.66, p=3.55 x 10(-12); caudate nucleus: r=-0.52, p=2.31 x 10(-7), and putamen: r=-0.66, r=2.13 x 10(-12)). More severe atrophy was observed mainly in thalamus at higher EDSS. These studies appear to suggest a link between the white matter damage and DGM atrophy in MS.

  4. Evaluation of hepatic atrophy after transcatheter arterial embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hwan Hoon; Lee, Mee Ran; Oh, Min Cheol; Park, Chul Min; Seol, Hae Young; Cha, In Ho

    1995-01-01

    Hepatic atrophy has been recognized as a complication of hepatic and biliary disease but we have often found it in follow up CT after transcatheter arterial embolization (TACE). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of hepatic atrophy after TACE. Of 53 patients who had TACE. We evaluated the relationship between the incidence of hepatic atrophy and the number of TACE, and also evaluated the average number of TACE in patients with hepatic atrophy. Of 20 patients who had received more than average number of TACE for development of hepatic atrophy (2 times with portal vein obstruction, 2.7 times without portal vein obstruction in this study), we evaluated the relationship between the lipiodol uptake pattern of tumor and the incidence of hepatic atrophy. There were 8 cases of hepatic atrophy (3 with portal vein obstruction, 5 without portal vein obstruction), average number for development of hepatic atrophy were 2.5 times. As the number of TACE were increased, the incidence of hepatic atrophy were also increased. Of 20 patients who received more than average number of TACE for development of hepatic atrophy, we noted 6 cases of hepatic atrophy in 11 patients with dense homogenous lipiodol uptake pattern of tumor and noted only 1 case of hepatic atrophy in 9 patient with inhomogenous lipiodol uptake pattern. Hepatic atrophy was one of the CT findings after TACE even without portal vein obstruction. Average number of TACE was 2.5 times and risk factors for development of hepatic atrophy were portal vein obstruction, increased number of TACE, and dense homogenous lipiodol uptake pattern of tumor

  5. Progression and prognosis in multiple system atrophy: an analysis of 230 Japanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hirohisa; Saito, Yufuko; Terao, Shinichi; Ando, Tetsuo; Kachi, Teruhiko; Mukai, Eiichiro; Aiba, Ikuko; Abe, Yuji; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Doyu, Manabu; Hirayama, Masaaki; Sobue, Gen

    2002-05-01

    We investigated the disease progression and survival in 230 Japanese patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA; 131 men, 99 women; 208 probable MSA, 22 definite; mean age at onset, 55.4 years). Cerebellar dysfunction (multiple system atrophy-cerebellar; MSA-C) predominated in 155 patients, and parkinsonism (multiple system atrophy-parkinsonian; MSA-P) in 75. The median time from initial symptom to combined motor and autonomic dysfunction was 2 years (range 1-10). Median intervals from onset to aid-requiring walking, confinement to a wheelchair, a bedridden state and death were 3, 5, 8 and 9 years, respectively. Patients manifesting combined motor and autonomic involvement within 3 years of onset had a significantly increased risk of not only developing advanced disease stage but also shorter survival (P bedridden state, P bedridden state (P = 0.03) and death (P bedridden state and survival were no worse. Gender was not associated with differences in worsening of function or survival. On MRI, a hyperintense rim at the lateral edge of the dorsolateral putamen was seen in 34.5% of cases, and a 'hot cross bun' sign in the pontine basis (PB) in 63.3%. These putaminal and pontine abnormalities became more prominent as MSA-P and MSA-C features advanced. The atrophy of the cerebellar vermis and PB showed a significant correlation particularly with the interval following the appearance of cerebellar symptoms in MSA-C (r = 0.71, P r = 0.76 and P < 0.01, respectively), but the relationship between atrophy and functional status was highly variable among the individuals, suggesting that other factors influenced the functional deterioration. Atrophy of the corpus callosum was seen in a subpopulation of MSA, suggesting hemispheric involvement in a subgroup of MSA patients. The present study suggested that many factors are involved in the progression of MSA but, most importantly, the interval from initial symptom to combined motor and autonomic dysfunction can predict functional

  6. Neurosyphilis with dementia and bilateral hippocampal atrophy on brain magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrabian, S.; Raycheva, M.; Traykova, M.; Stankova, T.; Penev, L.; Georgieva-Kozarova, G.; Grigorova, O.; Traykov, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Background: This article reports a rare case of active neurosyphilis in a 33-years-old man with mild to moderate dementia and marked hippocampal atrophy, mimicking early onset Alzheimer's disease. Few number of cases described bilateral hippocampal atrophy mimicking Alzheimer's disease in neurosyphilis. Case presentation: The clinical feature is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and behavioral changes for the last 18 months. Neuropsychological examination revealed mild to moderate dementia (MMSE=16) with impaired memory, attention and executive dysfunction. Pyramidal, extrapyramidal signs, dysarthria and impairment in coordination were documented. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed cortical atrophy with marked bilateral hippocampal atrophy. The diagnosis of active neurosyphilis was based on positive results of Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test - Treponema Pallidum. Hemagglutination reactions in blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples. In addition, cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed pleocytosis and elevated protein levels. High dose intravenous penicillin therapy was administered. During the follow up examination at 6 month, the clinical signs, and neuropsychological examinations, and cerebrospinal fluid samples showed improvement. Conclusion: This case underlines the importance of early diagnosis of neurosyphilis. The results suggest that neurosyphilis should be considered when magnetic resonance imaging results indicate mesiotemporal abnormalities and hippocampal atrophy. Neurosyphilis is a treatable condition and needs early aggressive antibiotic therapy

  7. Different atrophy-hypertrophy transcription pathways in muscles affected by severe and mild spinal muscular atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millino Caterina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with mutations of the survival motor neuron gene SMN and is characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy caused by degeneration of spinal motor neurons. SMN has a role in neurons but its deficiency may have a direct effect on muscle tissue. Methods We applied microarray and quantitative real-time PCR to study at transcriptional level the effects of a defective SMN gene in skeletal muscles affected by the two forms of SMA: the most severe type I and the mild type III. Results The two forms of SMA generated distinct expression signatures: the SMA III muscle transcriptome is close to that found under normal conditions, whereas in SMA I there is strong alteration of gene expression. Genes implicated in signal transduction were up-regulated in SMA III whereas those of energy metabolism and muscle contraction were consistently down-regulated in SMA I. The expression pattern of gene networks involved in atrophy signaling was completed by qRT-PCR, showing that specific pathways are involved, namely IGF/PI3K/Akt, TNF-α/p38 MAPK and Ras/ERK pathways. Conclusion Our study suggests a different picture of atrophy pathways in each of the two forms of SMA. In particular, p38 may be the regulator of protein synthesis in SMA I. The SMA III profile appears as the result of the concurrent presence of atrophic and hypertrophic fibers. This more favorable condition might be due to the over-expression of MTOR that, given its role in the activation of protein synthesis, could lead to compensatory hypertrophy in SMA III muscle fibers.

  8. Clinico-MRI study of hemispheric disorder in long-term follow-up cases of multiple system atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konagaya, Masaaki; Miwa, Shigeru; Matsuoka, Yukihiko; Konagaya, Yoko

    1998-01-01

    Twelve cases of multiple system atrophy (MSA) were studied for clinical and MRI findings of the cerebral hemispheric involvement. The subjects consisted of five olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) type and seven striatonigral degeneration (SND) type. The age at onset was 56.7±8.0 (M±SD) years, duration of illness at the first MRI study 3.2±1.1 years, duration of illness at the last study 8.1±2.2 years, and the following up duration 4.9±2.0 years. The grasping phenomenon was observed in 70% of the cases examined, snout reflex in 80%, slowness of verbal response in 88%, and decrease of spontaneous speech in 100%. Three cases finally fell into the state of mutism. Three out of ten cases were categorized as dementia by HDS-R (Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised) test. Besides the progression of the pontocerebellar atrophy and putaminal changes, MRI study revealed progressive frontal lobe atrophy in most cases. At six years after the onset, SND type showed significantly higher incidence of conspicuous frontal lobe atrophy and dilatation of the Sylvian fissure than OPCA type. Cerebral ventricular dilatation was common feature, and atrophy of the temporal and occipital lobes were observed in several cases. We indicated the possible involvement of the cerebral hemisphere, especially the frontal lobe, and higher nervous function in MSA. (author)

  9. Clinico-MRI study of hemispheric disorder in long-term follow-up cases of multiple system atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konagaya, Masaaki; Miwa, Shigeru; Matsuoka, Yukihiko [Suzuka National Hospital, Mie (Japan); Konagaya, Yoko

    1998-12-01

    Twelve cases of multiple system atrophy (MSA) were studied for clinical and MRI findings of the cerebral hemispheric involvement. The subjects consisted of five olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) type and seven striatonigral degeneration (SND) type. The age at onset was 56.7{+-}8.0 (M{+-}SD) years, duration of illness at the first MRI study 3.2{+-}1.1 years, duration of illness at the last study 8.1{+-}2.2 years, and the following up duration 4.9{+-}2.0 years. The grasping phenomenon was observed in 70% of the cases examined, snout reflex in 80%, slowness of verbal response in 88%, and decrease of spontaneous speech in 100%. Three cases finally fell into the state of mutism. Three out of ten cases were categorized as dementia by HDS-R (Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised) test. Besides the progression of the pontocerebellar atrophy and putaminal changes, MRI study revealed progressive frontal lobe atrophy in most cases. At six years after the onset, SND type showed significantly higher incidence of conspicuous frontal lobe atrophy and dilatation of the Sylvian fissure than OPCA type. Cerebral ventricular dilatation was common feature, and atrophy of the temporal and occipital lobes were observed in several cases. We indicated the possible involvement of the cerebral hemisphere, especially the frontal lobe, and higher nervous function in MSA. (author)

  10. Subacute brain atrophy induced by radiation therapy to the malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Akio; Matsutani, Masao; Takakura, Kintomo.

    1987-01-01

    In order to analyze brain atrophy after radiation therapy to the brain tumors, we calculated a CSF-cranial volume ratio on CT scan as an index of brain atrophy, and estimated dementia-score by Hasegawa's method in 91 post-irradiated patients with malignant brain tumors. Radiation-induced brain atrophy was observed in 51 out of 91 patients (56 %) and dementia in 23 out of 47 patients (49 %). These two conditions were closely related, and observed significantly more often in aged and whole-brain-irradiated patients. As radiation-induced brain atrophy accompanied by dementia appeared 2 - 3 months after the completion of radiation therapy, it should be regarded as a subacute brain injury caused by radiation therapy. (author)

  11. Three-Dimensional Culture Model of Skeletal Muscle Tissue with Atrophy Induced by Dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kazunori; Genma, Riho; Gotou, Yuuki; Nagasaka, Sumire; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-15

    Drug screening systems for muscle atrophy based on the contractile force of cultured skeletal muscle tissues are required for the development of preventive or therapeutic drugs for atrophy. This study aims to develop a muscle atrophy model by inducing atrophy in normal muscle tissues constructed on microdevices capable of measuring the contractile force and to verify if this model is suitable for drug screening using the contractile force as an index. Tissue engineered skeletal muscles containing striated myotubes were prepared on the microdevices for the study. The addition of 100 µM dexamethasone (Dex), which is used as a muscle atrophy inducer, for 24 h reduced the contractile force significantly. An increase in the expression of Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 in the tissues treated with Dex was established. A decrease in the number of striated myotubes was also observed in the tissues treated with Dex. Treatment with 8 ng/mL Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-I) for 24 h significantly increased the contractile force of the Dex-induced atrophic tissues. The same treatment, though, had no impact on the force of the normal tissues. Thus, it is envisaged that the atrophic skeletal muscle tissues induced by Dex can be used for drug screening against atrophy.

  12. Congenital contractural arachnodactyly with neurogenic muscular atrophy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scola Rosana Herminia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 3-1/2-year-old girl with hypotonia, multiple joint contractures, hip luxation, arachnodactyly, adducted thumbs, dolichostenomelia, and abnormal external ears suggesting the diagnosis of congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA. The serum muscle enzimes were normal and the needle electromyography showed active and chronic denervation. The muscle biopsy demonstrated active and chronic denervation compatible with spinal muscular atrophy. Analysis of exons 7 and 8 of survival motor neuron gene through polymerase chain reaction did not show deletions. Neurogenic muscular atrophy is a new abnormality associated with CCA, suggesting that CCA is clinically heterogeneous.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: optic atrophy type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nerve Atrophy Encyclopedia: Visual Acuity Test Health Topic: Color Blindness Health Topic: Optic Nerve Disorders Genetic and Rare ... Disease InfoSearch: Optic atrophy 1 Kids Health: What's Color Blindness? MalaCards: autosomal dominant optic atrophy, classic form Merck ...

  14. Reversal of muscle atrophy by Zhimu-Huangbai herb-pair via Akt/mTOR/FoxO3 signal pathway in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbao Zhang

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle atrophy is one of the serious complications of diabetes. Zhimu-Huangbai herb-pair (ZB is widely used in Chinese traditional medicine formulas for treating Xiaoke (known as diabetes and its complications. However, the effect of ZB on reversal of muscle atrophy and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this research, we investigated the effect and possible mechanisms of ZB on skeletal muscle atrophy in diabetic mice. Animal model of diabetic muscle atrophy was developed by high fat diet (HFD feeding plus streptozotocin (STZ injection. After oral adminstration of ZB for 6 weeks, the effects of ZB on reversal of muscle atrophy and the underlying mechanisms were evaluated by biochemical, histological and western blot methods. The skeletal muscle weight, strength, and cross-sectional area of diabetic mice were significantly increased by ZB treatment. Biochemical results showed that ZB treatment reduced the serum glucose level, and elevated the serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 and insulin levels significantly compared with untreated diabetic group. The western blot results showed that ZB activated the mTOR signal pathway, shown as increased phosphorylations (p- of Akt, mTOR, Raptor, S6K1 and reduced Foxo3 expression compared with the model group. ZB could reverse muscle atrophy in diabetic mice. This may be through activation of mTOR signaling pathway that promotes protein synthesis, and inactivation foxo3 protein that inhibits protein degradation. These findings suggested that ZB may be considered as a potential candidate drug in treatment of diabetic muscle atrophy.

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid volumetric MRI mapping as a simple measurement for evaluating brain atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vis, J.B. de; Zwanenburg, J.J.; Kleij, L.A. van der; Spijkerman, J.M.; Hendrikse, J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Biessels, G.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht (Netherlands); Petersen, E.T. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Hvidovre Hospital, Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre (Denmark)

    2016-05-15

    To assess whether volumetric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MRI can be used as a surrogate for brain atrophy assessment and to evaluate how the T{sub 2} of the CSF relates to brain atrophy. Twenty-eight subjects [mean age 64 (sd 2) years] were included; T{sub 1}-weighted and CSF MRI were performed. The first echo data of the CSF MRI sequence was used to obtain intracranial volume, CSF partial volume was measured voxel-wise to obtain CSF volume (V{sub CSF}) and the T{sub 2} of CSF (T{sub 2,CSF}) was calculated. The correlation between V{sub CSF} / T{sub 2,CSF} and brain atrophy scores [global cortical atrophy (GCA) and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA)] was evaluated. Relative total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular V{sub CSF} increased significantly with increased scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.83, 0.78 and 0.78 and R = 0.72, 0.62 and 0.86). Total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular T{sub 2} of the CSF increased significantly with higher scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.72, 0.70 and 0.49 and R = 0.60, 0.57 and 0.41). A fast, fully automated CSF MRI volumetric sequence is an alternative for qualitative atrophy scales. The T{sub 2} of the CSF is related to brain atrophy and could thus be a marker of neurodegenerative disease. (orig.)

  16. Fronto-striatal atrophy correlates of neuropsychiatric dysfunction in frontotemporal dementia (FTD and Alzheimer's disease (AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Seok Yi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Behavioural disturbances in frontotemporal dementia (FTD are thought to reflect mainly atrophy of cortical regions. Recent studies suggest that subcortical brain regions, in particular the striatum, are also significantly affected and this pathology might play a role in the generation of behavioural symptoms. Objective: To investigate prefrontal cortical and striatal atrophy contributions to behavioural symptoms in FTD. Methods: One hundred and eighty-two participants (87 FTD patients, 39 AD patients and 56 controls were included. Behavioural profiles were established using the Cambridge Behavioural Inventory Revised (CBI-R and Frontal System Behaviour Scale (FrSBe. Atrophy in prefrontal (VMPFC, DLPFC and striatal (caudate, putamen regions was established via a 5-point visual rating scale of the MRI scans. Behavioural scores were correlated with atrophy rating scores. Results: Behavioural and atrophy ratings demonstrated that patients were significantly impaired compared to controls, with bvFTD being most severely affected. Behavioural-anatomical correlations revealed that VMPFC atrophy was closely related to abnormal behaviour and motivation disturbances. Stereotypical behaviours were associated with both VMPFC and striatal atrophy. By contrast, disturbance of eating was found to be related to striatal atrophy only. Conclusion: Frontal and striatal atrophy contributed to the behavioural disturbances seen in FTD, with some behaviours related to frontal, striatal or combined fronto-striatal pathology. Consideration of striatal contributions to the generation of behavioural disturbances should be taken into account when assessing patients with potential FTD.

  17. Skeletal muscle atrophy in bioengineered skeletal muscle: a new model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter H U; Vandenburgh, Herman H

    2013-10-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy has been well characterized in various animal models, and while certain pathways that lead to disuse atrophy and its associated functional deficits have been well studied, available drugs to counteract these deficiencies are limited. An ex vivo tissue-engineered skeletal muscle offers a unique opportunity to study skeletal muscle physiology in a controlled in vitro setting. Primary mouse myoblasts isolated from adult muscle were tissue engineered into bioartificial muscles (BAMs) containing hundreds of aligned postmitotic muscle fibers expressing sarcomeric proteins. When electrically stimulated, BAMs generated measureable active forces within 2-3 days of formation. The maximum isometric tetanic force (Po) increased for ∼3 weeks to 2587±502 μN/BAM and was maintained at this level for greater than 80 days. When BAMs were reduced in length by 25% to 50%, muscle atrophy occurred in as little as 6 days. Length reduction resulted in significant decreases in Po (50.4%), mean myofiber cross-sectional area (21.7%), total protein synthesis rate (22.0%), and noncollagenous protein content (6.9%). No significant changes occurred in either the total metabolic activity or protein degradation rates. This study is the first in vitro demonstration that length reduction alone can induce skeletal muscle atrophy, and establishes a novel in vitro model for the study of skeletal muscle atrophy.

  18. Ataxia-telangiectasia: the pattern of cerebellar atrophy on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavani, F.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Gatti, R.; Bingham, P.; Berry, G.T.; Sullivan, K.

    2003-01-01

    We describe MRI of the brain in 19 patients with ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) and correlate the appearances with the degree of neurologic deficit. We examined 10 male and nine female patients; 17 were aged between 2 and 12 years (mean 8 years) but a woman and her brother were 35 and 38 years old, and had a variant of AT. Ataxia was the first recognized sign of the disease in every patient. We detected the following patterns of cerebellar atrophy: in the youngest patient, aged 2 years, the study was normal; in the five next youngest patients 3-7 years of age, the lateral cerebellum and superior vermis showed the earliest changes of atrophy; and all but one of the other patients had moderate to marked diffuse atrophy of vermis and cerebellar hemispheres. There were 12 patients aged 9 years and above; one, who was normal, was 9 years old. The five patients who at the time of examination were unable to walk all had diffuse atrophy involving both vermis and cerebellar hemispheres. (orig.)

  19. Differentiation of normal pressure hydrocephalus and cerebral atrophy by computed tomography and spinal infusion test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tans, J T.J. [Nijverheidsorganisatie TNO, The Hague (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurology and Research Unit TNO for Clinical Neurophysiology

    1979-01-01

    The diagnostic value of computed tomography (CT) and spinal infusion test (SIT) was investigated in 27 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) and 35 patients with cerebral atrophy. The most consistent CT finding of NPH was dilatation of the temporal horns, that of cerebral atrophy widening of the convexity sulci. However, 43% of patients with cerebral atrophy demonstrated no cortical atrophy. The SIT showed an excellent relation with isotope cisternography and continuous intracranial pressure recording. NPH and cerebral atrophy were correctly differentiated in 71% by CT and SIT. A normal SIT and a CT scan without the typical features of NPH exclude impairment of cerebrospinal fluid absorption. An abnormal SIT and a CT scan showing ventricular enlargement without dilatation of convexity sulci, require isotope cisternography and possibly intracranial pressure recording to determine the degree of the absorption deficit.

  20. Carbocalcitonin treatment in Sudeck's atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuti, R.; Vattimo, A.; Martini, G.; Turchetti, V.; Righi, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    The efficacy of new calcitonin, the amino analog of eel calcitonin (carboCT) on Sudeck's atrophy of the foot was investigated in 14 patients. CarboCT was administered at the dose of 40 Medical Research Council (MRC) units per day, and the duration of treatment was two to ten months. No adverse effects were noted. Bone pain and local edema decreased associated with improvement of motility. CarboCT induced a slight decrease in plasma calcium, plasma phosphate, and 24-hour urinary calcium excretion. An increase in cAMP/Cr ratio, an index of parathyroid function, was also observed (probably a manifestation of the hypocalcemic effect of calcitonin and secondary parathyroid stimulation). The whole body retention of 99mTc-MDP represents a valuable index of bone turnover, it decreased progressively and significantly on treatment. A dynamic study of local bone uptake of 99mTC-MDP was performed in eight patients. After carboCT therapy, statistically significant decreases in local blood flow, early uptake, and delayed uptake were appreciated in the involved foot. These findings lead to the conclusion that carboCT is effective in the treatment of Sudeck's atrophy

  1. Carbocalcitonin treatment in Sudeck's atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, R; Vattimo, A; Martini, G; Turchetti, V; Righi, G A

    1987-02-01

    The efficacy of new calcitonin, the amino analog of eel calcitonin (carboCT) on Sudeck's atrophy of the foot was investigated in 14 patients. CarboCT was administered at the dose of 40 Medical Research Council (MRC) units per day, and the duration of treatment was two to ten months. No adverse effects were noted. Bone pain and local edema decreased associated with improvement of motility. CarboCT induced a slight decrease in plasma calcium, plasma phosphate, and 24-hour urinary calcium excretion. An increase in cAMP/Cr ratio, an index of parathyroid function, was also observed (probably a manifestation of the hypocalcemic effect of calcitonin and secondary parathyroid stimulation). The whole body retention of 99mTc-MDP represents a valuable index of bone turnover, it decreased progressively and significantly on treatment. A dynamic study of local bone uptake of 99mTC-MDP was performed in eight patients. After carboCT therapy, statistically significant decreases in local blood flow, early uptake, and delayed uptake were appreciated in the involved foot. These findings lead to the conclusion that carboCT is effective in the treatment of Sudeck's atrophy.

  2. Measurement of brain atrophy of aging using x-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shumpei; Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1984-01-01

    We measured brain volume of 1,045 subjects with no brain damage using x-ray computed tomography and investigated brain atrophy of aging. Severity of brain atrophy was estimated by brain atrophy index (BAI): BAI (%)=100 (%)x(cerebrospinal fluid space volume/cranial cavity volume). Atrophy of the brain began with statistical significance in the forties in both sexes. In males 40-49 years of age the mean BAI was 1.0% greater (p<0.001) and the S.D. of BAI was 1.1% greater (p<0.001) than those in their thirties. In females of 40-49 years the mean BAI was 0.5% greater (p<0.001) than that in their thirties, but there was no statistical significance between the two S.D.'s of both decades. The BAI increased exponentially with the increasing age from thirties in both sexes. Correlation coefficients were 0.702 (p< 0.001, n=471) in males and 0.721 (p<0.001, n=480) in females. From the regression coefficients it was calculated that the BAI was doubled in 19.4 years in males and 17.4 years in females after thirties. (author)

  3. APPswe/PS1dE9 mice with cortical amyloid pathology show a reduced NAA/Cr ratio without apparent brain atrophy: A MRS and MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhla, Angela; Rühlmann, Claire; Lindner, Tobias; Polei, Stefan; Hadlich, Stefan; Krause, Bernd J; Vollmar, Brigitte; Teipel, Stefan J

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic animal models of Aβ pathology provide mechanistic insight into some aspects of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology related to Aβ accumulation. Quantitative neuroimaging is a possible aid to improve translation of mechanistic findings in transgenic models to human end phenotypes of brain morphology or function. Therefore, we combined MRI-based morphometry, MRS-based NAA-assessment and quantitative histology of neurons and amyloid plaque load in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model to determine the interrelationship between morphological changes, changes in neuron numbers and amyloid plaque load with reductions of NAA levels as marker of neuronal functional viability. The APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse showed an increase of Aβ plaques, loss of neurons and an impairment of NAA/Cr ratio, which however was not accompanied with brain atrophy. As brain atrophy is one main characteristic in human AD, conclusions from murine to human AD pathology should be drawn with caution.

  4. The inheritance of peripapillary atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Healey, Paul R.; Mitchell, Paul; Gilbert, Clare E.; Lee, Anne J.; Ge, Dongliang; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Timothy D.; Hammond, Christopher J.

    PURPOSE. To estimate the relative importance of genes and environment in peripapillary atrophy type beta (beta-PPA) in a classic twin study. METHODS. Female twin pairs (n = 506) aged 49 to 79 years were recruited from the St. Thomas' UK Adult Twin Registry. Peripapillary atrophy was identified from

  5. Altered myoplasmic Ca(2+) handling in rat fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibres during disuse atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Norbert; Andrianjafiniony, Tina; Dupré-Aucouturier, Sylvie; Pouvreau, Sandrine; Desplanches, Dominique; Jacquemond, Vincent

    2010-03-01

    Calcium-dependent signalling pathways are believed to play an important role in skeletal muscle atrophy, but whether intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis is affected in that situation remains obscure. We show here that there is a 20% atrophy of the fast-type flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle in rats hind limb unloaded (HU) for 2 weeks, with no change in fibre type distribution. In voltage-clamp experiments, the amplitude of the slow Ca(2+) current was found similar in fibres from control and HU animals. In fibres loaded with the Ca(2+) dye indo-1, the value for the rate of [Ca(2+)] decay after the end of 5-100-ms-long voltage-clamp depolarisations from -80 to +10 mV was found to be 30-50% lower in fibres from HU animals. This effect was consistent with a reduced contribution of both saturable and non-saturable components of myoplasmic Ca(2+) removal. However, there was no change in the relative amount of parvalbumin, and type 1 sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase was increased by a factor of three in the atrophied muscles. Confocal imaging of mitochondrial membrane potential showed that atrophied FDB fibres had significantly depolarized mitochondria as compared to control fibres. Depolarization of mitochondria in control fibres with carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone induced a slowing of the decay of [Ca(2+)] transients accompanied by an increase in resting [Ca(2+)] and a reduction of the peak amplitude of the transients. Overall results provide the first functional evidence for severely altered intracellular Ca(2+) removal capabilities in atrophied fast-type muscle fibres and highlight the possible contribution of reduced mitochondrial polarisation.

  6. Isolated atrophy of the abductor digiti quinti in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade Fernandes de Mello, Ricardo; Garcia Rondina, Ronaldo; Valim, Valeria; Santos Belisario, Stephano; Batista, Elton Francisco [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Department of Internal Medicine, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Burgomeister Lourenco, Rafael [HUCAM/UFES, Division of Medical Imaging, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Duque, Ruben Horst [HUCAM/UFES, Division of Rheumatology, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2017-12-15

    We aim to discuss the association of isolated atrophy of the abductor digiti quinti muscle in patients with rheumatoid arthritis as well as review the anatomy and imaging findings of this condition on MRI. A consecutive series of 55 patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis according to the 2010 ACR/EULAR classification criteria were recruited. MRI of the clinically dominant feet was performed using a 1.5-T scanner. The study population was predominantly female (94.5%), and the age range was 31-79 years (mean 57.5 ± 11). A total of 55 ankles were examined by MRI, and 20 patients (36.3%), all females, showed abductor digiti quinti denervation signs. Seven patients demonstrated severe fatty atrophy of the abductor digiti quinti, corresponding to Goutallier grade 4, 2 patients showed moderate fatty atrophy (Goutallier grade 3), and the remaining 11 patients showed less than 50% fatty atrophy, corresponding to a Goutallier grade 2. Substantial agreement was found for both intra- and interobserver agreement regarding the Goutallier grading system. Prevalence of signs of abductor digiti quinti denervation on MRI was high in the studied population, suggesting that rheumatoid arthritis may be associated with inferior calcaneal nerve compression. (orig.)

  7. Isolated atrophy of the abductor digiti quinti in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Fernandes de Mello, Ricardo; Garcia Rondina, Ronaldo; Valim, Valeria; Santos Belisario, Stephano; Batista, Elton Francisco; Burgomeister Lourenco, Rafael; Duque, Ruben Horst

    2017-01-01

    We aim to discuss the association of isolated atrophy of the abductor digiti quinti muscle in patients with rheumatoid arthritis as well as review the anatomy and imaging findings of this condition on MRI. A consecutive series of 55 patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis according to the 2010 ACR/EULAR classification criteria were recruited. MRI of the clinically dominant feet was performed using a 1.5-T scanner. The study population was predominantly female (94.5%), and the age range was 31-79 years (mean 57.5 ± 11). A total of 55 ankles were examined by MRI, and 20 patients (36.3%), all females, showed abductor digiti quinti denervation signs. Seven patients demonstrated severe fatty atrophy of the abductor digiti quinti, corresponding to Goutallier grade 4, 2 patients showed moderate fatty atrophy (Goutallier grade 3), and the remaining 11 patients showed less than 50% fatty atrophy, corresponding to a Goutallier grade 2. Substantial agreement was found for both intra- and interobserver agreement regarding the Goutallier grading system. Prevalence of signs of abductor digiti quinti denervation on MRI was high in the studied population, suggesting that rheumatoid arthritis may be associated with inferior calcaneal nerve compression. (orig.)

  8. Bilingualism as a contributor to cognitive reserve: evidence from brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Tom A; Ware, Jenna; Fischer, Corinne E; Craik, Fergus I M; Bialystok, Ellen

    2012-09-01

    Much of the research on delaying the onset of symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has focused on pharmacotherapy, but environmental factors have also been acknowledged to play a significant role. Bilingualism may be one factor contributing to 'cognitive reserve' (CR) and therefore to a delay in symptom onset. If bilingualism is protective, then the brains of bilinguals should show greater atrophy in relevant areas, since their enhanced CR enables them to function at a higher level than would be predicted from their level of disease. We analyzed a number of linear measurements of brain atrophy from the computed tomography (CT) scans of monolingual and bilingual patients diagnosed with probable AD who were matched on level of cognitive performance and years of education. Bilingual patients with AD exhibited substantially greater amounts of brain atrophy than monolingual patients in areas traditionally used to distinguish AD patients from healthy controls, specifically, the radial width of the temporal horn and the temporal horn ratio. Other measures of brain atrophy were comparable for the two groups. Bilingualism appears to contribute to increased CR, thereby delaying the onset of AD and requiring the presence of greater amounts of neuropathology before the disease is manifest. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  9. The diagnosis of thymoma and thymic atrophy in patients with myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sund, K.K.; Skeie, G.O.; Gilhus, N.E.; Aarli, J.A.; Varhaug, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have compared clinical, immunological and radiological data in 20 patients with myasthenia gravis and thymoma and in 21 patients with myasthenia gravis and thymic atrophy. The median age at onset was 54 years in the thymoma group and 63 years in the thymic atrophy group. The severity of the disease was similar in the two groups, and there was no significant difference in the concentration of acetylcholine receptor antibodies. CA antibodies were demonstrated in 17/20 thymoma patients and in 6/21 with thymic atrophy, while 19/20 thymoma patients had antibodies to titin, compared with 9/21 among those with thymic atrophy. The diagnosis and treatment of patients with myasthenia gravis is based upon an evaluation of clinical, immunological and radiological data. 28 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Studies on atrophy of the brain in chronic alcoholics examined by CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Keiichi; Kimura, Fumiharu; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Takenaka, Masazumi; Mozai, Toshiji

    1983-01-01

    A study of atrophy of the brain using CT scan was performed in 113 patients with chronic alcoholism who had history of alcohol abuse over 150 grams in average as amount of absolute ethanol for more than ten years. They had no focal cerebral lesions such as infarction, hemorrhage or tumor, nor clinical neurological deficits. Prominent enlagement of cortical sulci and lateral ventricles was found in chronic alcoholics when compared with age-matched controls. The most remarkable change among 6 indices in all age group was enlargement of cortical sulci. The ratio of lateral ventricle area to intracranical area was more significantly increased compared with the widening of the lateral ventricle determined as a distance between two tips of bilateral frontal horns or intercaudate distance. Forty-eight of 96 patients in whom EEG was examined, showed abnormalities such as dominant slow background activities and sporadic slow bursts, which were found more frequently (25/38, 66%) in patients over 50 years of age. No correlation was found between the occurrence of EEG abnormalities and cerebral atrophy or between the degree of cerebral atrophy and the severity of hepatic dysfunction. It is concluded from our study that atrophy of the brain in chronic alcoholics may be clearly estimated by CT planimetry of the ratio of lateral ventricle area to intracranial area. (J.P.N.)

  11. Studies on atrophy of the brain in chronic alcoholics examined by CT scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinoda, Keiichi; Kimura, Fumiharu; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Takenaka, Masazumi; Mozai, Toshiji (Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan))

    1983-09-01

    A study of atrophy of the brain using CT scan was performed in 113 patients with chronic alcoholism who had history of alcohol abuse over 150 grams in average as amount of absolute ethanol for more than ten years. They had no focal cerebral lesions such as infarction, hemorrhage or tumor, nor clinical neurological deficits. Prominent enlargement of cortical sulci and lateral ventricles was found in chronic alcoholics when compared with age-matched controls. The most remarkable change among 6 indices in all age group was enlargement of cortical sulci. The ratio of lateral ventricle area to intracranical area was more significantly increased compared with the widening of the lateral ventricle determined as a distance between two tips of bilateral frontal horns or intercaudate distance. Forty-eight of 96 patients in whom EEG was examined, showed abnormalities such as dominant slow background activities and sporadic slow bursts, which were found more frequently (25/38, 66%) in patients over 50 years of age. No correlation was found between the occurrence of EEG abnormalities and cerebral atrophy or between the degree of cerebral atrophy and the severity of hepatic dysfunction. It is concluded from our study that atrophy of the brain in chronic alcoholics may be clearly estimated by CT planimetry of the ratio of lateral ventricle area to intracranial area.

  12. Bilateral hippocampal atrophy in temporal lobe epilepsy: Effect of depressive symptoms and febrile seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegersh, Andrey; Avedissian, Christina; Shamim, Sadat; Dustin, Irene; Thompson, Paul M.; Theodore, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Purpose Neuroimaging studies suggest a history of febrile seizures, and depression, are associated with hippocampal volume reductions in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Methods We used radial atrophy mapping (RAM), a three-dimensional (3D) surface modeling tool, to measure hippocampal atrophy in 40 patients with unilateral TLE, with or without a history of febrile seizures and symptoms of depression. Multiple linear regression was used to single out the effects of covariates on local atrophy. Key Findings Subjects with a history of febrile seizures (n = 15) had atrophy in regions corresponding to the CA1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampus contralateral to seizure focus (CHC) compared to those without a history of febrile seizures (n = 25). Subjects with Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) score ≥14 (n = 11) had atrophy in the superoanterior portion of the CHC compared to subjects with BDI-II <14 (n = 29). Significance Contralateral hippocampal atrophy in TLE may be related to febrile seizures or depression. PMID:21269286

  13. Genetics Home Reference: spinal muscular atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficulty breathing. Children with this type often have joint deformities (contractures) that impair movement. In severe cases, ... Proximal spinal muscular atrophy Washington University, St. Louis: Neuromuscular Disease Center: Spinal Muscular Atrophy Patient Support and ...

  14. Preliminary study on computer automatic quantification of brain atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chuanfu; Zhou Kangyuan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the variability of normal brain volume with the sex and age, and put forward an objective standard for computer automatic quantification of brain atrophy. Methods: The cranial volume, brain volume and brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) of 487 cases of brain atrophy (310 males, 177 females) and 1901 cases of normal subjects (993 males, 908 females) were calculated with the newly developed algorithm of automatic quantification for brain atrophy. With the technique of polynomial curve fitting, the mathematical relationship of BPF with age in normal subjects was analyzed. Results: The cranial volume, brain volume and BPF of normal subjects were (1 271 322 ± 128 699) mm 3 , (1 211 725 ± 122 077) mm 3 and (95.3471 ± 2.3453)%, respectively, and those of atrophy subjects were (1 276 900 ± 125 180) mm 3 , (1 203 400 ± 117 760) mm 3 and BPF(91.8115 ± 2.3035)% respectively. The difference of BPF between the two groups was extremely significant (P 0.05). The expression P(x)=-0.0008x 2 + 0.0193x + 96.9999 could accurately describe the mathematical relationship between BPF and age in normal subject (lower limit of 95% CI y=-0.0008x 2 +0.0184x+95.1090). Conclusion: The lower limit of 95% confidence interval mathematical relationship between BPF and age could be used as an objective criteria for automatic quantification of brain atrophy with computer. (authors)

  15. Brain stem and cerebellar atrophy in chronic progressive neuro-Behçet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanoto, Masafumi; Hosoya, Takaaki; Toyoguchi, Yuuki; Oda, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Chronic progressive neuro-Behçet's disease (CPNBD) resembles multiple sclerosis (MS) on patient background and image findings, and therefore is difficult to diagnose. The purpose is to identify the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of CPNBD and to clarify the differences between the MRI findings of CPNBD and those of MS. Materials and methods: The subjects consist of a CPNBD group (n = 4; 1 male and 3 females; mean age, 51 y.o.), a MS group (n = 19; 3 males and 16 females; mean age, 45 y.o.) and a normal control group (n = 23; 10 males and 13 females; mean age, 45 y.o.). Brain stem atrophy, cerebellar atrophy, and leukoencephalopathy were retrospectively evaluated in each subjects. In middle sagittal brain MR images, the prepontine distance was measured as an indirect index of brain stem and cerebellar atrophy and the pontine and mesencephalic distance was measured as a direct index of brain stem atrophy. These indexes were statistically analyzed. Results: Brain stem atrophy, cerebellar atrophy, and leukoencephalopathy were seen in all CPNBD cases. Prepontine distance was significantly different between the CPNBD group and the MS group (p < 0.05), and between the CPNBD group and the normal control group (p < 0.001). Pontine and mesencephalic distance were significantly different between the CPNBD group and the MS group (p < 0.001, p < 0.01 respectively), and between the CPNBD group and the normal control group (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Chronic progressive neuro-Behçet's disease should be considered in patients with brain stem and cerebellar atrophy in addition to leukoencephalopathy similar to that seen in multiple sclerosis

  16. Combining the boundary shift integral and tensor-based morphometry for brain atrophy estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalkiewicz, Mateusz; Pai, Akshay; Leung, Kelvin K.; Sommer, Stefan; Darkner, Sune; Sørensen, Lauge; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads

    2016-03-01

    Brain atrophy from structural magnetic resonance images (MRIs) is widely used as an imaging surrogate marker for Alzheimers disease. Their utility has been limited due to the large degree of variance and subsequently high sample size estimates. The only consistent and reasonably powerful atrophy estimation methods has been the boundary shift integral (BSI). In this paper, we first propose a tensor-based morphometry (TBM) method to measure voxel-wise atrophy that we combine with BSI. The combined model decreases the sample size estimates significantly when compared to BSI and TBM alone.

  17. Reduced modulation of scanpaths in response to task demands in posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Timothy J; Pertzov, Yoni; Yong, Keir X X; Nicholas, Jennifer; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2015-02-01

    A difficulty in perceiving visual scenes is one of the most striking impairments experienced by patients with the clinico-radiological syndrome posterior cortical atrophy (PCA). However whilst a number of studies have investigated perception of relatively simple experimental stimuli in these individuals, little is known about multiple object and complex scene perception and the role of eye movements in posterior cortical atrophy. We embrace the distinction between high-level (top-down) and low-level (bottom-up) influences upon scanning eye movements when looking at scenes. This distinction was inspired by Yarbus (1967), who demonstrated how the location of our fixations is affected by task instructions and not only the stimulus' low level properties. We therefore examined how scanning patterns are influenced by task instructions and low-level visual properties in 7 patients with posterior cortical atrophy, 8 patients with typical Alzheimer's disease, and 19 healthy age-matched controls. Each participant viewed 10 scenes under four task conditions (encoding, recognition, search and description) whilst eye movements were recorded. The results reveal significant differences between groups in the impact of test instructions upon scanpaths. Across tasks without a search component, posterior cortical atrophy patients were significantly less consistent than typical Alzheimer's disease patients and controls in where they were looking. By contrast, when comparing search and non-search tasks, it was controls who exhibited lowest between-task similarity ratings, suggesting they were better able than posterior cortical atrophy or typical Alzheimer's disease patients to respond appropriately to high-level needs by looking at task-relevant regions of a scene. Posterior cortical atrophy patients had a significant tendency to fixate upon more low-level salient parts of the scenes than controls irrespective of the viewing task. The study provides a detailed characterisation of

  18. Progression of regional grey matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshaghi, Arman; Marinescu, Razvan V; Young, Alexandra L; Firth, Nicholas C; Prados, Ferran; Jorge Cardoso, M; Tur, Carmen; De Angelis, Floriana; Cawley, Niamh; Brownlee, Wallace J; De Stefano, Nicola; Laura Stromillo, M; Battaglini, Marco; Ruggieri, Serena; Gasperini, Claudio; Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A; Rovira, Alex; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Vrenken, Hugo; Wottschel, Viktor; Leurs, Cyra E; Uitdehaag, Bernard; Pirpamer, Lukas; Enzinger, Christian; Ourselin, Sebastien; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A; Chard, Declan; Thompson, Alan J; Barkhof, Frederik; Alexander, Daniel C; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2018-06-01

    See Stankoff and Louapre (doi:10.1093/brain/awy114) for a scientific commentary on this article.Grey matter atrophy is present from the earliest stages of multiple sclerosis, but its temporal ordering is poorly understood. We aimed to determine the sequence in which grey matter regions become atrophic in multiple sclerosis and its association with disability accumulation. In this longitudinal study, we included 1417 subjects: 253 with clinically isolated syndrome, 708 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, 128 with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis, 125 with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis, and 203 healthy control subjects from seven European centres. Subjects underwent repeated MRI (total number of scans 3604); the mean follow-up for patients was 2.41 years (standard deviation = 1.97). Disability was scored using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. We calculated the volume of brain grey matter regions and brainstem using an unbiased within-subject template and used an established data-driven event-based model to determine the sequence of occurrence of atrophy and its uncertainty. We assigned each subject to a specific event-based model stage, based on the number of their atrophic regions. Linear mixed-effects models were used to explore associations between the rate of increase in event-based model stages, and T2 lesion load, disease-modifying treatments, comorbidity, disease duration and disability accumulation. The first regions to become atrophic in patients with clinically isolated syndrome and relapse-onset multiple sclerosis were the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, followed by the middle cingulate cortex, brainstem and thalamus. A similar sequence of atrophy was detected in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis with the involvement of the thalamus, cuneus, precuneus, and pallidum, followed by the brainstem and posterior cingulate cortex. The cerebellum, caudate and putamen showed early atrophy in relapse-onset multiple

  19. Progression of regional grey matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinescu, Razvan V; Young, Alexandra L; Firth, Nicholas C; Jorge Cardoso, M; Tur, Carmen; De Angelis, Floriana; Cawley, Niamh; Brownlee, Wallace J; De Stefano, Nicola; Laura Stromillo, M; Battaglini, Marco; Ruggieri, Serena; Gasperini, Claudio; Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A; Rovira, Alex; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Vrenken, Hugo; Wottschel, Viktor; Leurs, Cyra E; Uitdehaag, Bernard; Pirpamer, Lukas; Enzinger, Christian; Ourselin, Sebastien; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A; Chard, Declan; Thompson, Alan J; Barkhof, Frederik; Alexander, Daniel C; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2018-01-01

    Abstract See Stankoff and Louapre (doi:10.1093/brain/awy114) for a scientific commentary on this article. Grey matter atrophy is present from the earliest stages of multiple sclerosis, but its temporal ordering is poorly understood. We aimed to determine the sequence in which grey matter regions become atrophic in multiple sclerosis and its association with disability accumulation. In this longitudinal study, we included 1417 subjects: 253 with clinically isolated syndrome, 708 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, 128 with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis, 125 with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis, and 203 healthy control subjects from seven European centres. Subjects underwent repeated MRI (total number of scans 3604); the mean follow-up for patients was 2.41 years (standard deviation = 1.97). Disability was scored using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. We calculated the volume of brain grey matter regions and brainstem using an unbiased within-subject template and used an established data-driven event-based model to determine the sequence of occurrence of atrophy and its uncertainty. We assigned each subject to a specific event-based model stage, based on the number of their atrophic regions. Linear mixed-effects models were used to explore associations between the rate of increase in event-based model stages, and T2 lesion load, disease-modifying treatments, comorbidity, disease duration and disability accumulation. The first regions to become atrophic in patients with clinically isolated syndrome and relapse-onset multiple sclerosis were the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, followed by the middle cingulate cortex, brainstem and thalamus. A similar sequence of atrophy was detected in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis with the involvement of the thalamus, cuneus, precuneus, and pallidum, followed by the brainstem and posterior cingulate cortex. The cerebellum, caudate and putamen showed early atrophy in relapse

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid volumetric MRI mapping as a simple measurement for evaluating brain atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vis, J B; Zwanenburg, J J; van der Kleij, L A

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess whether volumetric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MRI can be used as a surrogate for brain atrophy assessment and to evaluate how the T2 of the CSF relates to brain atrophy. METHODS: Twenty-eight subjects [mean age 64 (sd 2) years] were included; T1-weighted and CSF MRI were......) and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA)] was evaluated. RESULTS: Relative total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular VCSF increased significantly with increased scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.83, 0.78 and 0.78 and R = 0.72, 0.62 and 0.86). Total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular T2...... be a marker of neurodegenerative disease. KEY POINTS: • A 1:11 min CSF MRI volumetric sequence can evaluate brain atrophy. • CSF MRI provides accurate atrophy assessment without partial volume effects. • CSF MRI data can be processed quickly without user interaction. • The measured T 2 of the CSF is related...

  1. Muscle atrophy in patients wirh ckd results from fgf23/klotho-mediated supression of insulin/igf-i signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Kido

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscle atrophy is a significant consequence of chronic kidney disease (CKD that increases a patient’s risk of mortality and decrease their quality of life. In CKD patients, the circulation levels of FGF23 are significantly increased, but the exact pathological significance of the increase and relationship between FGF23 and muscle atrophy are not clear. Because of Klohto, acts as a co-receptor of FGF23 is detectable in limited tissues including in kidney and brain, but not in skeletal muscles. In contrast, recently reports indicated that the extracellular domain of klohto is cleavage for some reason on the cell surface and detected in the blood in animals. In this study, we attempted to identify the causative factors responsible for the shedding of Klotho, and whether both FGF23 and Klohto induced muscle atrophy via reduction of insulin/IGF-I signaling. We first investigated by treating kidney cells with various factors related in pathological factors in CKD. As a result, we found that advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs, an accumulated in patients with CKD and diabetes mellitus, increases shedding of Klohto in kidney cells. It is common knowledge that insulin/IGF-I signaling is necessary for normal skeletal growth. As a result, we showed that both FGF23 and Klohto inhibited differentiation of cultured skeletal muscle cells through down-regulation of insulin/IGF-I signaling. These observations suggested a divergent role of FGF23 and soluble klohto in the regulation of skeletal muscle differentiation and thereby muscle atrophy under pathological conditioned in CKD patients. Our results further imply that FGF23/Klohto may serve a new therapeutic target for CKD-induced muscle atrophy.

  2. New mouse model of skeletal muscle atrophy using spiral wire immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Akiko; Kono, Hajime; Jiao, Qibin; Akimoto, Takayuki; Miyamoto, Toshikazu; Sawada, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Kusakari, Yoichiro; Minamisawa, Susumu; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2016-10-01

    Disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is a serious concern; however, there is not an effective mouse model to elucidate the molecular mechanisms. We developed a noninvasive atrophy model in mice. After the ankle joints of mice were bandaged into a bilateral plantar flexed position, either bilateral or unilateral hindlimbs were immobilized by wrapping in bonsai steel wire. After 3, 5, or 10 days of immobilization of the hip, knee, and ankle, the weight of the soleus and plantaris muscles decreased significantly in both bilateral and unilateral immobilization. MAFbx/atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA was found to have significantly increased in both muscles, consistent with disuse-induced atrophy. Notably, the procedure did not result in either edema or necrosis in the fixed hindlimbs. This method allows repeated, direct access to the immobilized muscle, making it a useful procedure for concurrent application and assessment of various therapeutic interventions. Muscle Nerve 54: 788-791, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Prevalence and pattern of gluteus medius and minimus tendon pathology and muscle atrophy in older individuals using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Andrew S. [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Long, Suzanne S.; Zoga, Adam C.; Read, Paul J.; Deely, Diane M.; Parker, Laurence; Morrison, William B. [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate gluteus medius and minimus tendon pathology and muscle atrophy in older individuals using MRI. A retrospective MRI study of 185 individuals was performed. The inclusion criterion was age ≥50. Exclusion criteria were hip surgery, fracture, infection, tumor, or inadequate image quality. Greater trochanteric bursitis was graded none, mild, moderate, or severe. Gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and iliopsoas tendinopathy was graded normal, tendinosis, low-grade partial tear, high-grade partial tear, or full thickness tear. Gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, tensor fascia lata, and iliopsoas muscle atrophy was scored using a standard scale. Insertion site of tendinopathy and location of muscle atrophy were assessed. Descriptive and statistical analysis was performed. There was increasing greater trochanteric bursitis and gluteus medius and minimus tendinopathy and atrophy with advancing age with moderate to strong positive associations (p < 0.0001) for age and tendinopathy, age and atrophy, bursitis and tendinopathy, and tendinopathy and atrophy for the gluteus medius and minimus. There is a weak positive association (p < 0.0001) for age and tensor fascia lata atrophy, and no statistically significant association between age and tendinopathy or between age and atrophy for the iliopsoas. Fisher's exact tests were statistically significant (p < 0.0001) for insertion site of tendon pathology and location of muscle atrophy for the gluteus medius. Gluteus medius and minimus tendon pathology and muscle atrophy increase with advancing age with progression of tendinosis to low-grade tendon tears to high-grade tendon tears. There is an associated progression in atrophy of these muscles, which may be important in fall-related hip fractures. (orig.)

  4. Prevalence and pattern of gluteus medius and minimus tendon pathology and muscle atrophy in older individuals using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Andrew S.; Long, Suzanne S.; Zoga, Adam C.; Read, Paul J.; Deely, Diane M.; Parker, Laurence; Morrison, William B.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate gluteus medius and minimus tendon pathology and muscle atrophy in older individuals using MRI. A retrospective MRI study of 185 individuals was performed. The inclusion criterion was age ≥50. Exclusion criteria were hip surgery, fracture, infection, tumor, or inadequate image quality. Greater trochanteric bursitis was graded none, mild, moderate, or severe. Gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and iliopsoas tendinopathy was graded normal, tendinosis, low-grade partial tear, high-grade partial tear, or full thickness tear. Gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, tensor fascia lata, and iliopsoas muscle atrophy was scored using a standard scale. Insertion site of tendinopathy and location of muscle atrophy were assessed. Descriptive and statistical analysis was performed. There was increasing greater trochanteric bursitis and gluteus medius and minimus tendinopathy and atrophy with advancing age with moderate to strong positive associations (p < 0.0001) for age and tendinopathy, age and atrophy, bursitis and tendinopathy, and tendinopathy and atrophy for the gluteus medius and minimus. There is a weak positive association (p < 0.0001) for age and tensor fascia lata atrophy, and no statistically significant association between age and tendinopathy or between age and atrophy for the iliopsoas. Fisher's exact tests were statistically significant (p < 0.0001) for insertion site of tendon pathology and location of muscle atrophy for the gluteus medius. Gluteus medius and minimus tendon pathology and muscle atrophy increase with advancing age with progression of tendinosis to low-grade tendon tears to high-grade tendon tears. There is an associated progression in atrophy of these muscles, which may be important in fall-related hip fractures. (orig.)

  5. Age and sex-based distribution of lumbar multifidus muscle atrophy and coexistence of disc hernia: an MRI study of 2028 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekin, Elif Evrim; Kurtul Yıldız, Hülya; Mutlu, Harun

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the prevalence of lumbar multifidus muscle (LMM) atrophy in patients having mechanical low back pain with and without disc hernia. In total, 2028 lumbar magnetic resonance imaging scans of low back pain patients (age range, 18-88 years) were re-evaluated retrospectively. LMM atrophy was visually assessed in axial sections of L4-L5 and L5-S1 levels. LMM atrophy prevalence at both levels was significantly higher in subjects ≥40 years compared with younger adults (P hernia, LMM atrophy was significantly more frequent than normal muscle (n=559 vs. n=392; P disc hernia was 13%. Hernia was more frequent in patients with LMM atrophy compared with patients without atrophy (P disc hernia is found more frequently in individuals with LMM atrophy.

  6. Leiomodin-3-deficient mice display nemaline myopathy with fast-myofiber atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Tian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nemaline myopathy (NM is one of the most common forms of congenital myopathy, and affects either fast myofibers, slow myofibers, or both. However, an animal model for congenital myopathy with fast-myofiber-specific atrophy is not available. Furthermore, mutations in the leiomodin-3 (LMOD3 gene have recently been identified in a group of individuals with NM. However, it is not clear how loss of LMOD3 leads to NM. Here, we report a mouse mutant in which the piggyBac (PB transposon is inserted into the Lmod3 gene and disrupts its expression. Lmod3PB/PB mice show severe muscle weakness and postnatal growth retardation. Electron microscopy and immunofluorescence studies of the mutant skeletal muscles revealed the presence of nemaline bodies, a hallmark of NM, and disorganized sarcomeric structures. Interestingly, Lmod3 deficiency caused muscle atrophy specific to the fast fibers. Together, our results show that Lmod3 is required in the fast fibers for sarcomere integrity, and this study offers the first NM mouse model with muscle atrophy that is specific to fast fibers. This model could be a valuable resource for interrogating myopathy pathogenesis and developing therapeutics for NM as well as other pathophysiological conditions with preferential atrophy of fast fibers, including cancer cachexia and sarcopenia.

  7. Atrophy in the Thalamus But Not Cerebellum Is Specific for C9orf72 FTD and ALS Patients – An Atlas-Based Volumetric MRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Schönecker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The neuropathology of patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS due to a C9orf72 mutation is characterized by two distinct types of characteristic protein depositions containing either TDP-43 or so-called dipeptide repeat proteins that extend beyond frontal and temporal regions. Thalamus and cerebellum seem to be preferentially affected by the dipeptide repeat pathology unique to C9orf72 mutation carriers.Objective: This study aimed to determine if mutation carriers showed an enhanced degree of thalamic and cerebellar atrophy compared to sporadic patients or healthy controls.Methods: Atlas-based volumetry was performed in 13 affected C9orf72 FTD, ALS and FTD/ALS patients, 45 sporadic FTD and FTD/ALS patients and 19 healthy controls. Volumes and laterality indices showing significant differences between mutation carriers and sporadic patients were subjected to binary logistic regression to determine the best predictor of mutation carrier status.Results: Compared to sporadic patients, mutation carriers showed a significant volume reduction of the thalamus, which was most striking in the occipital, temporal and prefrontal subregion of the thalamus. Disease severity measured by mini mental status examination (MMSE and FTD modified Clinical Dementia Rating Scale Sum of Boxes (FTD-CDR-SOB significantly correlated with volume reduction in the aforementioned thalamic subregions. No significant atrophy of cerebellar regions could be detected. A logistic regression model using the volume of the prefrontal and the laterality index of the occipital subregion of the thalamus as predictor variables resulted in an area under the curve (AUC of 0.88 while a model using overall thalamic volume still resulted in an AUC of 0.82.Conclusion: Our data show that thalamic atrophy in C9orf72 mutation carriers goes beyond the expected atrophy in the prefrontal and temporal subregion and is in good agreement with the

  8. Spinal cord atrophy in anterior-posterior direction reflects impairment in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundell, H; Svolgaard, O; Dogonowski, A-M; Romme Christensen, J; Selleberg, F; Soelberg Sørensen, P; Blinkenberg, M; Siebner, H R; Garde, E

    2017-10-01

    To investigate how atrophy is distributed over the cross section of the upper cervical spinal cord and how this relates to functional impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS). We analysed the structural brain MRI scans of 54 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (n=22), primary progressive MS (n=9), secondary progressive MS (n=23) and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We measured the cross-sectional area (CSA), left-right width (LRW) and anterior-posterior width (APW) of the spinal cord at the segmental level C2. We tested for a nonparametric linear relationship between these atrophy measures and clinical impairments as reflected by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and Multiple Sclerosis Impairment Scale (MSIS). In patients with MS, CSA and APW but not LRW were reduced compared to healthy controls (P<.02) and showed significant correlations with EDSS, MSIS and specific MSIS subscores. In patients with MS, atrophy of the upper cervical cord is most evident in the antero-posterior direction. As APW of the cervical cord can be readily derived from standard structural MRI of the brain, APW constitutes a clinically useful neuroimaging marker of disease-related neurodegeneration in MS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Advancing functional dysconnectivity and atrophy in progressive supranuclear palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse A. Brown

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome (PSP-S results from neurodegeneration within a network of brainstem, subcortical, frontal and parietal cortical brain regions. It is unclear how network dysfunction progresses and relates to longitudinal atrophy and clinical decline. In this study, we evaluated patients with PSP-S (n = 12 and healthy control subjects (n = 20 at baseline and 6 months later. Subjects underwent structural MRI and task-free functional MRI (tf-fMRI scans and clinical evaluations at both time points. At baseline, voxel based morphometry (VBM revealed that patients with mild-to-moderate clinical symptoms showed structural atrophy in subcortex and brainstem, prefrontal cortex (PFC; supplementary motor area, paracingulate, dorsal and ventral medial PFC, and parietal cortex (precuneus. Tf-fMRI functional connectivity (FC was examined in a rostral midbrain tegmentum (rMT-anchored intrinsic connectivity network that is compromised in PSP-S. In healthy controls, this network contained a medial parietal module, a prefrontal-paralimbic module, and a subcortical-brainstem module. Baseline FC deficits in PSP-S were most severe in rMT network integrative hubs in the prefrontal-paralimbic and subcortical-brainstem modules. Longitudinally, patients with PSP-S had declining intermodular FC between the subcortical-brainstem and parietal modules, while progressive atrophy was observed in subcortical-brainstem regions (midbrain, pallidum and posterior frontal (perirolandic cortex. This suggested that later-stage subcortical-posterior cortical change may follow an earlier-stage subcortical-anterior cortical disease process. Clinically, patients with more severe baseline impairment showed greater subsequent prefrontal-parietal cortical FC declines and posterior frontal atrophy rates, while patients with more rapid longitudinal clinical decline showed coupled prefrontal-paralimbic FC decline. VBM and FC can augment disease monitoring in PSP

  10. Spinal Cord Gray Matter Atrophy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquin, M-Ê; El Mendili, M M; Gros, C; Dupont, S M; Cohen-Adad, J; Pradat, P-F

    2018-01-01

    There is an emerging need for biomarkers to better categorize clinical phenotypes and predict progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This study aimed to quantify cervical spinal gray matter atrophy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and investigate its association with clinical disability at baseline and after 1 year. Twenty-nine patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 22 healthy controls were scanned with 3T MR imaging. Standard functional scale was recorded at the time of MR imaging and after 1 year. MR imaging data were processed automatically to measure the spinal cord, gray matter, and white matter cross-sectional areas. A statistical analysis assessed the difference in cross-sectional areas between patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and controls, correlations between spinal cord and gray matter atrophy to clinical disability at baseline and at 1 year, and prediction of clinical disability at 1 year. Gray matter atrophy was more sensitive to discriminate patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from controls ( P = .004) compared with spinal cord atrophy ( P = .02). Gray matter and spinal cord cross-sectional areas showed good correlations with clinical scores at baseline ( R = 0.56 for gray matter and R = 0.55 for spinal cord; P amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  11. Thymus Atrophy and Double-Positive Escape Are Common Features in Infectious Diseases

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    Juliana de Meis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thymus is a primary lymphoid organ in which bone marrow-derived T-cell precursors undergo differentiation, leading to migration of positively selected thymocytes to the T-cell-dependent areas of secondary lymphoid organs. This organ can undergo atrophy, caused by several endogenous and exogenous factors such as ageing, hormone fluctuations, and infectious agents. This paper will focus on emerging data on the thymic atrophy caused by infectious agents. We present data on the dynamics of thymus lymphocytes during acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection, showing that the resulting thymus atrophy comprises the abnormal release of thymic-derived T cells and may have an impact on host immune response.

  12. Neonatal hypoxia, hippocampal atrophy, and memory impairment: evidence of a causal sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Janine M; Gadian, David G; Jentschke, Sebastian; Goldman, Allan; Munoz, Monica; Pitts, Georgia; Banks, Tina; Chong, W Kling; Hoskote, Aparna; Deanfield, John; Baldeweg, Torsten; de Haan, Michelle; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-06-01

    Neonates treated for acute respiratory failure experience episodes of hypoxia. The hippocampus, a structure essential for memory, is particularly vulnerable to such insults. Hence, some neonates undergoing treatment for acute respiratory failure might sustain bilateral hippocampal pathology early in life and memory problems later in childhood. We investigated this possibility in a cohort of 40 children who had been treated neonatally for acute respiratory failure but were free of overt neurological impairment. The cohort had mean hippocampal volumes (HVs) significantly below normal control values, memory scores significantly below the standard population means, and memory quotients significantly below those predicted by their full scale IQs. Brain white matter volume also fell below the volume of the controls, but brain gray matter volumes and scores on nonmnemonic neuropsychological tests were within the normal range. Stepwise linear regression models revealed that the cohort's HVs were predictive of degree of memory impairment, and gestational age at treatment was predictive of HVs: the younger the age, the greater the atrophy. We conclude that many neonates treated for acute respiratory failure sustain significant hippocampal atrophy as a result of the associated hypoxia and, consequently, show deficient memory later in life. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Clinical and MRI correlation in multiple system atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negoro, Kiyoshi; Morimatsu, Mitsunori (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-05-01

    By using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we studied 11 patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA): 5 olivo-pontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA), 2 Shy-Drager syndrome (SDS), and 4 striatonigral degeneration (SND). The diagnoses of OPCA, SDS and SND were clinically made. The MR images were performed on 1.5 tesla MRI unit (Siemens Asahi Medical, Magnetom H15), using a T[sub 2]-weighted spin echo (SE) sequence (TR: 2000-3000 ms, TE: 80-90 ms), a T[sub 1]-weighted SE sequence (TR: 550, TE: 15), and a proton density-weighted (PD) SE sequence (TR: 2000-3000, TE: 12-22). In the patients with OPCA, MRI revealed cerebellar and brainstem atrophy and degeneration of pontine transverse fibers more marked than in the patients with SDS and SND. T[sub 2]-weighted images showed low intensity in posterolateral putamina in one OPCA patient and all of SDS and SND patients. PD images demonstrated the abnormal slit-like high signals in posterolateral putamina in three SND. The degree of cerebellar ataxia was not well correlated with cerebellar and brainstem atrophy and degeneration of pontine transverse fibers. There was a positive correlation between the atrophy of cerebellum and brainstem and the duration of cerebellar ataxia. In most of the patients with Parkinsonism, MRI demonstrated abnormal low signals in putamina on T[sub 2]-weighted images. There were positive correlations between the abnormal low signals putamina and the duration and severity of Parkinsonism. Though abnormal low signals in lateral putamina may be seen in normal aging and other disorders on T[sub 2]-weighted images, it is useful to evaluate Parkinsonism in MSA. We believe that the abnormal slit-like high signals in posterolateral putamina in MSA may suggest loss of neurons and gliosis. (author).

  14. Progressive Hemifacial Atrophy with Morphea of Cheek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Auluck

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Scleroderma is a rare collagen disorder in which fibrosis of skin, subcutaneous tissues and muscles can occur with occasional involvement of bones. Localized scleroderma is a benign condition but can cause significant deformity when it affects the face. We report a case of localized scleroderma of the face causing progressive hemifacial atrophy.

  15. Chronic Depressive Symptomatology in Mild Cognitive Impairment Is Associated with Frontal Atrophy Rate which Hastens Conversion to Alzheimer Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacuiu, Simona; Insel, Philip S; Mueller, Susanne; Tosun, Duygu; Mattsson, Niklas; Jack, Clifford R; DeCarli, Charles; Petersen, Ronald; Aisen, Paul S; Weiner, Michael W; Mackin, R Scott

    2016-02-01

    Investigate the association of chronic depressive symptomatology (chrDS) with cortical atrophy rates and conversion to Alzheimer dementia (AD) over 3 years in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In a multicenter, clinic-based study, MCI elderly participants were selected from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative repository, based on availability of both serial structural magnetic resonance imaging and chrDS endorsed on three depression-related items from the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (chrDS N = 32 or no depressive symptoms N = 62) throughout follow-up. Clinical and laboratory investigations were performed every 6 months during the first 2 years and yearly thereafter (median follow-up: 3 years; interquartile range: 1.5-4.0 years). Cortical atrophy rates in 16 predefined frontotemporoparietal regions affected in major depression and AD and the rate of incident AD at follow-up. ChrDS in a single domain amnestic MCI sample were associated with accelerated cortical atrophy in the frontal lobe and anterior cingulate but not with atrophy rates in temporomedial or other AD-affected regions. During follow-up, 38 participants (42.7%) developed AD. Participants with chrDS had 60% shorter conversion time to AD than those without depressive symptoms. This association remained significant in survival models adjusted for temporomedial atrophy rates and showed the same trend in models adjusted for frontal cortical atrophy rate, which all increased the risk of AD. Our results suggest that chrDS associated with progressive atrophy of frontal regions may represent an additional risk factor for conversion to dementia in MCI as opposite to representing typical prodromal AD symptomatology. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Hemifacial atrophy treated with autologous fat transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhi Vijay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A 23-year-old male developed right hemifacial atrophy following marphea profunda. Facial asymmetry due to residual atrophy was treated with autologous fat harvested from buttocks with marked cosmetic improvement.

  17. Relation of measured brain glucose utilisation and cerebral atrophy in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlageter, N L; Horwitz, B; Creasey, H; Carson, R; Duara, R; Berg, G W; Rapoport, S I

    1987-06-01

    The effect of cerebral atrophy on measured cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (CMRglc), as determined with positron emission tomography (PET), was examined in 49 healthy males aged 21-83 years. Global CMRglc and regional CMRglc for 34 grey matter regions parallel to and from 30 to 80 mm above the inferior orbital meatal (IOM) line were measured under resting conditions, using [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose and an ECAT II positron emission tomograph. Using a GE 8800 CT/T scanner, slices parallel to and from 30 to 80 mm above the IOM line were analysed for CSF volume. Cerebral atrophy, indicated by increased CSF volume, was correlated significantly with global CMRglc, but accounted for no more than 13% of the variance in the CMRglc measurements. Methods for correcting for inter-subject variation in CSF volume were proposed. Global values for CMRglc, uncorrected or corrected for CSF volume, were found to be age invariant. These findings indicate that (a) cerebral atrophy has a small, but statistically significant effect on CMRglc as measured with PET; (b) CMRglc is age invariant in healthy males.

  18. Frontal lobe atrophy in motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, J A; Hudson, A J

    1994-08-01

    Neuronal degeneration in the precentral gyrus alone cannot account for the occurrence of spastic paresis in motor neuron diseases. To look for more extensive cortical atrophy we measured MRIs of the upper parts of the frontal and parietal lobes in 11 sporadic cases of classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), eight patients with primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) and an age- and sex-matched group of 49 neurologically normal people. None of the patients had overt dementia or other mental diseases. In PLS there is progressive spastic paresis but in contrast to ALS there is no lower motor neuron degeneration. The surface area of the precentral gyri and the amount of underlying white matter in PLS were consistently approximately 75% of the normal size. By contrast, there was some shrinkage of the precentral gyri in some of the ALS patients but the mean measurements for the group did not differ significantly from the controls. Anterior to the precentral sulci, the cortical surface area in PLS was approximately 85% of that of the controls, with correspondingly reduced white matter. In ALS the cortical surface areas of the anterior frontal lobes did not differ from those of the controls, but the amount of underlying white matter was reduced almost as much in ALS as it was in PLS. The measured changes in the frontal lobes suggest that in PLS there is simultaneous atrophy of the primary, premotor and supplementary motor areas of the cortex, with consequent degeneration of corticospinal and corticoreticular axons descending through the underlying white matter. These changes could account for the progressive upper motor neuron syndrome. In ALS, with no significant frontal cortical atrophy, the shrinkage of the white matter may be due to degeneration of axons projecting to the frontal cortex from elsewhere. Deprivation of afferents could explain the diminution of motor functions of the frontal lobes in ALS and also the changes in word fluency, judgement and attention that

  19. Progression of brain atrophy in the early stages of Parkinson's disease: a longitudinal tensor-based morphometry study in de novo patients without cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessa, Carlo; Lucetti, Claudio; Giannelli, Marco; Diciotti, Stefano; Poletti, Michele; Danti, Sabrina; Baldacci, Filippo; Vignali, Claudio; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Mascalchi, Mario; Toschi, Nicola

    2014-08-01

    The presence of brain atrophy and its progression in early Parkinson's disease (PD) are still a matter of debate, particularly in patients without cognitive impairment. The aim of this longitudinal study was to assess whether PD patients who remain cognitively intact develop progressive atrophic changes in the early stages of the disease. For this purpose, we employed high-resolution T1-weighted MR imaging to compare 22 drug-naïve de novo PD patients without cognitive impairment to 17 age-matched control subjects, both at baseline and at three-year follow-up. We used tensor-based morphometry to explore the presence of atrophic changes at baseline and to compute yearly atrophy rates, after which we performed voxel-wise group comparisons using threshold-free cluster enhancement. At baseline, we did not observe significant differences in regional atrophy in PD patients with respect to control subjects. In contrast, PD patients showed significantly higher yearly atrophy rates in the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulum, caudate nucleus, and thalamus when compared to control subjects. Our results indicate that even cognitively preserved PD patients show progressive cortical and subcortical atrophic changes in regions related to cognitive functions and that these changes are already detectable in the early stages of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The influences of silent cerebral infarction and hypertension on brain atrophy in normal adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhefeng, Quan; Bokura, Hirokazu; Iijima, Kenichi; Oguro, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Shuhei

    2008-01-01

    We studied the influences of silent brain infarction (SBI) and hypertension on brain atrophy and its longitudinal progression in healthy adults. MRI scans were performed on 109 neurologically normal adults (mean age, 58.6±5.8 years), with follow-up at an average of 4.9 years later. Patient histories of hypertension, smoking habits, and alcohol consumption were examined. We evaluated brain atrophy using the brain atrophy index (BAI; the ratio of the brain area to the intracranial area) and the ventricular atrophy index (VAI; the ratio of the ventricular area to the brain area) on MRI T1-weighted images at the levels of the basal ganglia and lateral ventricle in horizontal sections. There were no differences in age, sex, dyslipidemia, body mass index (BMI), smoking habit, and alcohol consumption between the normal group and the SBI or hypertension group. The BAI was significantly lower at entry for the SBI (+) group than for the SBI (-) group at both the basal ganglia and lateral ventricle levels (basal ganglia level, p=0.02; and lateral ventricle level, p=0.05). Moreover, the VAI was significantly higher at entry for the SBI (+) group than for the SBI (-) group at the lateral ventricle level (p=0.03). Furthermore, the BAI was significantly lower at entry for the hypertensive group than for the non-hypertensive group at the basal ganglia level (p=0.007). There were no significant differences in the annual variations of the BAI and VAI between the normal group and the SBI (+) or hypertensive group. The present results suggest that the SBI and hypertension are accelerating factors for brain atrophy and ventricular dilatation. (author)

  1. The influences of silent cerebral infarction and hypertension on brain atrophy in normal adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhefeng, Quan; Bokura, Hirokazu; Iijima, Kenichi; Oguro, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Shuhei [Shimane Univ., Faculty of Medicine, Izumo, Shimane (Japan)

    2008-03-15

    We studied the influences of silent brain infarction (SBI) and hypertension on brain atrophy and its longitudinal progression in healthy adults. MRI scans were performed on 109 neurologically normal adults (mean age, 58.6{+-}5.8 years), with follow-up at an average of 4.9 years later. Patient histories of hypertension, smoking habits, and alcohol consumption were examined. We evaluated brain atrophy using the brain atrophy index (BAI; the ratio of the brain area to the intracranial area) and the ventricular atrophy index (VAI; the ratio of the ventricular area to the brain area) on MRI T1-weighted images at the levels of the basal ganglia and lateral ventricle in horizontal sections. There were no differences in age, sex, dyslipidemia, body mass index (BMI), smoking habit, and alcohol consumption between the normal group and the SBI or hypertension group. The BAI was significantly lower at entry for the SBI (+) group than for the SBI (-) group at both the basal ganglia and lateral ventricle levels (basal ganglia level, p=0.02; and lateral ventricle level, p=0.05). Moreover, the VAI was significantly higher at entry for the SBI (+) group than for the SBI (-) group at the lateral ventricle level (p=0.03). Furthermore, the BAI was significantly lower at entry for the hypertensive group than for the non-hypertensive group at the basal ganglia level (p=0.007). There were no significant differences in the annual variations of the BAI and VAI between the normal group and the SBI (+) or hypertensive group. The present results suggest that the SBI and hypertension are accelerating factors for brain atrophy and ventricular dilatation. (author)

  2. [Duodenal villous atrophy associated with Mycophenolate mofetil: report of one case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Oscar; Villaseca, Miguel; Sierralta, Armando; Roa, Juan Carlos

    2010-05-01

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is an immunosupressor agent frequently used in patients after bone marrow or solid organ transplants. The most common adverse reactions of the drug are gastrointestinal, specially diarrhea and vomiting. We report a 53-year-old male, that received a heart transplant receiving immunosuppression with cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone. Six months after the transplant, the patient started with diarrhea, anorexia and weight loss. A duodenal biopsy showed villous atrophy. Celiac disease and the presence of parasites were discarded. Mycophenolate mofetil was discontinued and one week later, diarrhea subsided. Two months later the patient was asymptomatic and recovered weight. A new duodenal biopsy showed absence of villous atrophy.

  3. Aspiration pneumonia induces muscle atrophy in the respiratory, skeletal, and swallowing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Riyo; Okazaki, Tatsuma; Ebihara, Satoru; Kobayashi, Makoto; Tsukita, Yoko; Nihei, Mayumi; Sugiura, Hisatoshi; Niu, Kaijun; Ebihara, Takae; Ichinose, Masakazu

    2018-05-22

    activated autophagy in the TA and the tongue, whereas weak or little activation was detected in the diaphragm. The aspiration challenge resulted in a greater proportion of smaller myofibers than in controls in the diaphragm, TA, and tongue, suggesting muscle atrophy. CT scans clearly showed that aspiration pneumonia was followed by muscle atrophy in aged patients. Aspiration pneumonia induced muscle atrophy in the respiratory, skeletal, and swallowing systems in a preclinical animal model and in human patients. Diaphragmatic atrophy may weaken the force of cough to expectorate sputum or mis-swallowed contents. Skeletal muscle atrophy may cause secondary sarcopenia. The atrophy of swallowing muscles may weaken the swallowing function. Thus, muscle atrophy could become a new therapeutic target of aspiration pneumonia. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy in senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT). Comparing with multi-infarct dementia (MID), and aged control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, K; Kobayashi, S; Yamaguchi, S; Kitani, M; Tsunematsu, T

    1987-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between the reduction of cerebal blood flow and brain atrophy in SDAT, these were measured in 13 cases of senile dementia of Alzheimer type, and compared to 15 cases of multi-infarct Dementia, 39 cases of lacunar infarction without dementia (non-demented CVD group) and 69 cases of aged normal control. Brain atrophy was evaluated by two-dimensional method on CT film by digitizer and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by /sup 133/Xe inhalation method. The degree of brain atrophy in SDAT was almost similar of that of MID. But it was more severe than that of non-demented group. MID showed the lowest rCBF among these groups. SDAT showed significantly lower rCBF than that of aged control, but rCBF in SDAT was equal to that of lacunar stroke without dementia. Focal reduction of cerebral blood flow in bilateral fronto-parietal and left occipital regions were observed in SDAT. Verbal intelligence score (Hasegawa's score) correlated with rCBF and brain atrophy index in MID, and a tendency of correlation between rCBF and brain atrophy in MID was also observed. However, there was no correlation among those indices in SDAT. These findings suggest that the loss of brain substance dose not correspond to the reduction of rCBF in SDAT and simultaneous measurement of rCBF and brain atrophy was useful to differ SDAT from MID.

  5. Brain stem and cerebellar atrophy in chronic progressive neuro-Behçet's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanoto, Masafumi, E-mail: mkanoto@med.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, Iida-Nishi 2-2-2, 990-9585 Yamagata (Japan); Hosoya, Takaaki, E-mail: thosoya@med.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, Iida-Nishi 2-2-2, 990-9585 Yamagata (Japan); Toyoguchi, Yuuki, E-mail: c-elegans_0201g@mail.goo.ne.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, Iida-Nishi 2-2-2, 990-9585 Yamagata (Japan); Oda, Atsuko, E-mail: a.oda@med.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, Iida-Nishi 2-2-2, 990-9585 Yamagata (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: Chronic progressive neuro-Behçet's disease (CPNBD) resembles multiple sclerosis (MS) on patient background and image findings, and therefore is difficult to diagnose. The purpose is to identify the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of CPNBD and to clarify the differences between the MRI findings of CPNBD and those of MS. Materials and methods: The subjects consist of a CPNBD group (n = 4; 1 male and 3 females; mean age, 51 y.o.), a MS group (n = 19; 3 males and 16 females; mean age, 45 y.o.) and a normal control group (n = 23; 10 males and 13 females; mean age, 45 y.o.). Brain stem atrophy, cerebellar atrophy, and leukoencephalopathy were retrospectively evaluated in each subjects. In middle sagittal brain MR images, the prepontine distance was measured as an indirect index of brain stem and cerebellar atrophy and the pontine and mesencephalic distance was measured as a direct index of brain stem atrophy. These indexes were statistically analyzed. Results: Brain stem atrophy, cerebellar atrophy, and leukoencephalopathy were seen in all CPNBD cases. Prepontine distance was significantly different between the CPNBD group and the MS group (p < 0.05), and between the CPNBD group and the normal control group (p < 0.001). Pontine and mesencephalic distance were significantly different between the CPNBD group and the MS group (p < 0.001, p < 0.01 respectively), and between the CPNBD group and the normal control group (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Chronic progressive neuro-Behçet's disease should be considered in patients with brain stem and cerebellar atrophy in addition to leukoencephalopathy similar to that seen in multiple sclerosis.

  6. Precuneus atrophy in early-onset Alzheimer's disease: a morphometric structural MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karas, Giorgos; Scheltens, Philip; Jones, Bethany; Rombouts, Serge; Schijndel, Ronald van; Klein, Martin; Flier, Wiesje van der; Vrenken, Hugo; Barkhof, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) usually first presents in elderly patients, but may also develop at an earlier age. Patients with an early age at onset tend to present with complaints other than memory impairment, such as visuospatial problems or apraxia, which may reflect a different distribution of cortical involvement. In this study we set out to investigate whether age at onset in patients with AD determines the pattern of atrophy on cerebral MRI scans. We examined 55 patients with AD over a wide age range and analyzed their 3-D T1-weighted structural MRI scans in standard space using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Regression analysis was performed to estimate loss of grey matter as a function of age, corrected for mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores and sex. The VBM analyses identified multiple areas (including the temporal and parietal lobes), showing more atrophy with advancing age. By contrast, a younger age at onset was found to be associated with lower grey matter density in the precuneus. Regionalized volumetric analysis of this region confirmed the existence of disproportionate atrophy in the precuneus in patients with early-onset AD. Application of a multivariate model with precuneus grey matter density as input, showed that precuneal and hippocampal atrophy are independent from each other. Additionally, we found that a smaller precuneus is associated with impaired visuospatial functioning. Our findings support the notion that age at onset modulates the distribution of cortical involvement, and that disproportionate precuneus atrophy is more prominent in patients with a younger age of onset. (orig.)

  7. Albumin infusion after reperfusion prevents gut ischemia-reperfusion-induced gut-associated lymphoid tissue atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezawa, Fumie; Fukatsu, Kazuhiko; Moriya, Tomoyuki; Maeshima, Yoshinori; Okamoto, Koichi; Hara, Etsuko; Hiraide, Hoshio; Compher, Charlene W

    2006-01-01

    Our recent study clarified that gut ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) causes gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) mass atrophy, a possible mechanism for increased morbidity of infectious complications after severe surgical insults. Because albumin administration reportedly reduces hemorrhagic shock-induced lung injury, we hypothesized that albumin treatment prevents GALT atrophy due to gut I/R. Male mice (n = 37) were randomized to albumin, normal saline, and sham groups. All groups underwent jugular vein catheter insertion. The albumin and normal saline groups underwent 75-minute occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery. During gut ischemia, all mice received normal saline infusions at 1.0 mL/h. The albumin group was given 5% bovine serum albumin in normal saline at 1.0 mL/h for 60 minutes after reperfusion, whereas the normal saline group received 0.9% sodium chloride at 1.0 mL/h. The sham group underwent laparotomy only. Mice were killed on day 1 or 7, and the entire small intestine was harvested. GALT lymphocytes were isolated and counted. Their phenotypes (alphabetaTCR, gammadeltaTCR, CD4, CD8, B220) were determined by flow cytometry. On day 1, the gut I/R groups showed significantly lower total lymphocyte and B cell numbers in Peyer's patches and the lamina propria than the sham group. However, the albumin infusion partially but significantly restored these cell numbers. On day 7, there were no significant differences in any of the parameters measured among the 3 groups. Albumin infusion after a gut ischemic insult may maintain gut immunity by preventing GALT atrophy.

  8. Quantitative regional validation of the visual rating scale for posterior cortical atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Christiane; Benedictus, Marije R.; Koedam, Esther L.G.M.; Scheltens, Philip; Flier, Wiesje M. van der; Versteeg, Adriaan; Wattjes, Mike P.; Barkhof, Frederik; Vrenken, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Validate the four-point visual rating scale for posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) on magnetic resonance images (MRI) through quantitative grey matter (GM) volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to justify its use in clinical practice. Two hundred twenty-nine patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and 128 with subjective memory complaints underwent 3T MRI. PCA was rated according to the visual rating scale. GM volumes of six posterior structures and the total posterior region were extracted using IBASPM and compared among PCA groups. To determine which anatomical regions contributed most to the visual scores, we used binary logistic regression. VBM compared local GM density among groups. Patients were categorised according to their PCA scores: PCA-0 (n = 122), PCA-1 (n = 143), PCA-2 (n = 79), and PCA-3 (n = 13). All structures except the posterior cingulate differed significantly among groups. The inferior parietal gyrus volume discriminated the most between rating scale levels. VBM showed that PCA-1 had a lower GM volume than PCA-0 in the parietal region and other brain regions, whereas between PCA-1 and PCA-2/3 GM atrophy was mostly restricted to posterior regions. The visual PCA rating scale is quantitatively validated and reliably reflects GM atrophy in parietal regions, making it a valuable tool for the daily radiological assessment of dementia. (orig.)

  9. Quantitative regional validation of the visual rating scale for posterior cortical atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Christiane; Benedictus, Marije R.; Koedam, Esther L.G.M.; Scheltens, Philip [VU University Medical Center, Alzheimer Center and Department of Neurology, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Flier, Wiesje M. van der [VU University Medical Center, Alzheimer Center and Department of Neurology, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Versteeg, Adriaan; Wattjes, Mike P.; Barkhof, Frederik [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrenken, Hugo [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    Validate the four-point visual rating scale for posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) on magnetic resonance images (MRI) through quantitative grey matter (GM) volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to justify its use in clinical practice. Two hundred twenty-nine patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and 128 with subjective memory complaints underwent 3T MRI. PCA was rated according to the visual rating scale. GM volumes of six posterior structures and the total posterior region were extracted using IBASPM and compared among PCA groups. To determine which anatomical regions contributed most to the visual scores, we used binary logistic regression. VBM compared local GM density among groups. Patients were categorised according to their PCA scores: PCA-0 (n = 122), PCA-1 (n = 143), PCA-2 (n = 79), and PCA-3 (n = 13). All structures except the posterior cingulate differed significantly among groups. The inferior parietal gyrus volume discriminated the most between rating scale levels. VBM showed that PCA-1 had a lower GM volume than PCA-0 in the parietal region and other brain regions, whereas between PCA-1 and PCA-2/3 GM atrophy was mostly restricted to posterior regions. The visual PCA rating scale is quantitatively validated and reliably reflects GM atrophy in parietal regions, making it a valuable tool for the daily radiological assessment of dementia. (orig.)

  10. Progressive Diaphragm Atrophy in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glau, Christie L; Conlon, Thomas W; Himebauch, Adam S; Yehya, Nadir; Weiss, Scott L; Berg, Robert A; Nishisaki, Akira

    2018-02-05

    Diaphragm atrophy is associated with delayed weaning from mechanical ventilation and increased mortality in critically ill adults. We sought to test for the presence of diaphragm atrophy in children with acute respiratory failure. Prospective, observational study. Single-center tertiary noncardiac PICU in a children's hospital. Invasively ventilated children with acute respiratory failure. Diaphragm thickness at end-expiration and end-inspiration were serially measured by ultrasound in 56 patients (median age, 17 mo; interquartile range, 5.5-52), first within 36 hours of intubation and last preceding extubation. The median duration of mechanical ventilation was 140 hours (interquartile range, 83-201). At initial measurement, thickness at end-expiration was 2.0 mm (interquartile range, 1.8-2.5) and thickness at end-inspiration was 2.5 mm (interquartile range, 2-2.8). The change in thickness at end-expiration during mechanical ventilation between first and last measurement was -13.8% (interquartile range, -27.4% to 0%), with a -3.4% daily atrophy rate (interquartile range, -5.6 to 0%). Thickening fraction = ([thickness at end-inspiration - thickness at end-expiration]/thickness at end-inspiration) throughout the course of mechanical ventilation was linearly correlated with spontaneous breathing fraction (beta coefficient, 9.4; 95% CI, 4.2-14.7; p = 0.001). For children with a period of spontaneous breathing fraction less than 0.5 during mechanical ventilation, those with exposure to a continuous neuromuscular blockade infusion (n = 15) had a significantly larger decrease in thickness at end-expiration compared with children with low spontaneous breathing fraction who were not exposed to a neuromuscular blockade infusion (n = 18) (-16.4%, [interquartile range, -28.4% to -7.0%] vs -7.3%; [interquartile range, -10.9% to -0%]; p = 0.036). Diaphragm atrophy is present in children on mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure. Diaphragm contractility, measured as

  11. Soy Glycinin Contains a Functional Inhibitory Sequence against Muscle-Atrophy-Associated Ubiquitin Ligase Cbl-b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Abe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Unloading stress induces skeletal muscle atrophy. We have reported that Cbl-b ubiquitin ligase is a master regulator of unloading-associated muscle atrophy. The present study was designed to elucidate whether dietary soy glycinin protein prevents denervation-mediated muscle atrophy, based on the presence of inhibitory peptides against Cbl-b ubiquitin ligase in soy glycinin protein. Methods. Mice were fed either 20% casein diet, 20% soy protein isolate diet, 10% glycinin diet containing 10% casein, or 20% glycinin diet. One week later, the right sciatic nerve was cut. The wet weight, cross sectional area (CSA, IGF-1 signaling, and atrogene expression in hindlimb muscles were examined at 1, 3, 3.5, or 4 days after denervation. Results. 20% soy glycinin diet significantly prevented denervation-induced decreases in muscle wet weight and myofiber CSA. Furthermore, dietary soy protein inhibited denervation-induced ubiquitination and degradation of IRS-1 in tibialis anterior muscle. Dietary soy glycinin partially suppressed the denervation-mediated expression of atrogenes, such as MAFbx/atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, through the protection of IGF-1 signaling estimated by phosphorylation of Akt-1. Conclusions. Soy glycinin contains a functional inhibitory sequence against muscle-atrophy-associated ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b. Dietary soy glycinin protein significantly prevented muscle atrophy after denervation in mice.

  12. Efficacy of rasagiline in patients with the parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poewe, Werner; Seppi, Klaus; Fitzer-Attas, Cheryl J; Wenning, Gregor K; Gilman, Sid; Low, Phillip A; Giladi, Nir; Barone, Paolo; Sampaio, Cristina; Eyal, Eli; Rascol, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    hypotension (n=8 [10%]). In this population of patients with the parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy, treatment with rasagiline 1 mg per day did not show a significant benefit as assessed by UMSARS. The study confirms the sensitivity of clinical outcomes for multiple system atrophy to detect clinically significant decline, even in individuals with early disease. Teva Pharmaceutical Industries and H Lundbeck A/S. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel in vitro platform to investigate myotube atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Oelkrug, Christopher; Horn, Katharina; Makert, Gustavo R.; Schubert, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The electrical current exclusion (ECE) principle provides an alternative to common methods of cell diameter measurement and especially in atrophy and cancer associated cachexia research. C2C12 myoblasts were differentiated into myotubes and treated with 100 μM dexamethasone to induce atrophy in vitro. Subsequently, they were incubated for 24 h with media containing different concentrations of curcumin and/or branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in order to counteract atrophy. After treatment wi...

  14. Analysis of intimal extent and predictors of renal atrophy in patients with aortic dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Wen-Hui; Huang, Yu-Chieh; Wan, Yung-Liang [Dept. of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Coll. of Medicine, Chang Gung Univ., Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)], e-mail: ylw0518@adm.cgmh.org.tw; Weng, Hsu-Huei [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chia-Yi, Coll. of Medicine, Chang Gung Univ., Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Ko, Sheung-Fat [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kaohsiung, Coll. of Medicine, Chang Gung Univ., Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chu, Jaw-Ji; Lin, Pyng-Jing [Dept. of Cardiac Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Coll. of Medicine, Chang Gung Univ., Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-09-15

    Background: The intimal flap of aortic dissection may extend to the abdominal branches and probably lead to malperfusion syndrome. Renal malperfusion and renal atrophy are significantly related to patient outcomes. Purpose: To study the extent of the intimal flap and predisposing factors for renal atrophy in patients with aortic dissection. Material and Methods: From January 2001 to June 2008, 176 (137 men, aged 21-86 years, mean 51.9 years) of 225 subjects with aortic dissection and computed tomography (CT) met the inclusion criteria for this study. Of these 176 patients, 35 (19.9%) developed unilateral renal atrophy. A review of the CT was conducted to classify aortic branch vessel perfusion into three types: type 1, in which the branch vessels are perfused exclusively from the true lumen; type 2, in which the branches are perfused from both the true and false lumens; and type 3, in which the branches are perfused exclusively from the false lumen. Variables including age, gender, type of aortic dissection, type of perfusion of the abdominal branches, and the presence of thrombi in the false lumen were analyzed to determine whether these factors were related to the left or right side and global or focal renal atrophy. Results: Of 880 abdominal branches in 176 patients, 622 (70.7%) were classed as perfusion type 1, 50 (5.7%) as type 2, and 208 (23.6%) as type 3. Type 3 perfusion was most commonly observed in the left renal artery, at a frequency of 31.7% (66/208). Partial thrombosis in the false lumen above the level of the renal arteries was seen in 68.8% of patients; such thrombi and type 3 perfusion of the renal artery were significantly related to renal atrophy. The laterality (left or right) and extent (global or focal) of renal atrophy were not related to age, gender, type of aortic dissection, or perfusion type. Conclusion: Type 3 perfusion is most frequent in the left renal artery, and such perfusion and partial thrombi in the false lumen above the renal

  15. Analysis of intimal extent and predictors of renal atrophy in patients with aortic dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Wen-Hui; Huang, Yu-Chieh; Wan, Yung-Liang; Weng, Hsu-Huei; Ko, Sheung-Fat; Chu, Jaw-Ji; Lin, Pyng-Jing

    2012-01-01

    Background: The intimal flap of aortic dissection may extend to the abdominal branches and probably lead to malperfusion syndrome. Renal malperfusion and renal atrophy are significantly related to patient outcomes. Purpose: To study the extent of the intimal flap and predisposing factors for renal atrophy in patients with aortic dissection. Material and Methods: From January 2001 to June 2008, 176 (137 men, aged 21-86 years, mean 51.9 years) of 225 subjects with aortic dissection and computed tomography (CT) met the inclusion criteria for this study. Of these 176 patients, 35 (19.9%) developed unilateral renal atrophy. A review of the CT was conducted to classify aortic branch vessel perfusion into three types: type 1, in which the branch vessels are perfused exclusively from the true lumen; type 2, in which the branches are perfused from both the true and false lumens; and type 3, in which the branches are perfused exclusively from the false lumen. Variables including age, gender, type of aortic dissection, type of perfusion of the abdominal branches, and the presence of thrombi in the false lumen were analyzed to determine whether these factors were related to the left or right side and global or focal renal atrophy. Results: Of 880 abdominal branches in 176 patients, 622 (70.7%) were classed as perfusion type 1, 50 (5.7%) as type 2, and 208 (23.6%) as type 3. Type 3 perfusion was most commonly observed in the left renal artery, at a frequency of 31.7% (66/208). Partial thrombosis in the false lumen above the level of the renal arteries was seen in 68.8% of patients; such thrombi and type 3 perfusion of the renal artery were significantly related to renal atrophy. The laterality (left or right) and extent (global or focal) of renal atrophy were not related to age, gender, type of aortic dissection, or perfusion type. Conclusion: Type 3 perfusion is most frequent in the left renal artery, and such perfusion and partial thrombi in the false lumen above the renal

  16. Comparison of the Hyaluronic Acid Vaginal Cream and Conjugated Estrogen Used in Treatment of Vaginal Atrophy of Menopause Women: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

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    Azam Jokar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vaginal atrophy is a common complication in menopause which does not improve with time and, if untreated, can affect the quality of life for women. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the vaginal cream of hyaluronic acid and conjugated estrogen (Premarin in treatment of vaginal atrophy. Methods: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial on 56 menopausal women with symptoms of vaginal atrophy; they were randomly allocated to two groups (recipient conjugated estrogen and hyaluronic acid. The severity of each sign of atrophy was evaluated by visual analog signals (VAS and on the basis of a four point scale. Also to recognize the cellular maturation with pap smear and the maturation degree were calculated according to the formula and scores 0-100. As to the vaginal PH, we used PH marker band, the rate of which was divided into 4 degrees. Data were analyzed using SPSS, version 20, and P≤0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The results of this study showed that the symptoms of vaginal atrophy compared with the baseline level were relieved significantly in both groups. Dryness, itching, maturation index, PH and composite score of the vaginal symptoms were relieved significantly in both groups (P<0.001. Dyspareunia in Premarin (P<0.05 and hyaluronic acid (P<0.001 decreased compared with pre-treatment. Urinary incontinence only showed improvement in the hyaluronic acid group (P<0.05. Improvement in urinary incontinence, dryness, maturation index (P<0.05 and composite score of vaginal symptoms (P<0.001 in the hyaluronic acid group was better than those in the Premarin group. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, hyaluronic acid and conjugated estrogen improved the symptoms of vaginal atrophy. But hyaluronic acid was more effective and this drug is suggested for those who do not want to or cannot take local hormone treatment.

  17. Molecular events underlying skeletal muscle atrophy and the development of effective countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, F. W.; Criswell, D. S.

    1997-01-01

    Skeletal muscle adapts to loading; atrophying when exposed to unloading on Earth or in spaceflight. Significant atrophy (decreases in muscle fiber cross-section of 11-24%) in humans has been noted after only 5 days in space. Since muscle strength is determined both by muscle cross-section and synchronization of motor unit recruitment, a loss in muscle size weakens astronauts, which would increase risks to their safety if an emergency required maximal muscle force. Numerous countermeasures have been tested to prevent atrophy. Resistant exercise together with growth hormone and IGF-I are effective countermeasures to unloading as most atrophy is prevented in animal models. The loss of muscle protein is due to an early decrease in protein synthesis rate and a later increase in protein degradation. The initial decrease in protein synthesis is a result of decreased protein translation, caused by a prolongation in the elongation rate. A decrease in HSP70 by a sight increase in ATP may be the factors prolonging elongation rate. Increases in the activities of proteolytic enzymes and in ubiquitin contribute to the increased protein degradation rate in unloaded muscle. Numerous mRNA concentrations have been shown to be altered in unloaded muscles. Decreases in mRNAs for contractile proteins usually occur after the initial fall in protein synthesis rates. Much additional research is needed to determine the mechanism by which muscle senses the absence of gravity with an adaptive atrophy. The development of effective countermeasures to unloading atrophy will require more research.

  18. Antral atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and pre-neoplastic markers in Mexican children with Helicobacter pylori-positive and negative gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Luévano-González, Arturo; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Zhu, Hongtu; Yuan, Ying; Xiang, Qun; Yan, Benjamin; Stoll, Kathryn Anne; Cross, Janet V.; Iczkowski, Kenneth A.; Mackinnon, Alexander Craig

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation and infection are major risk factors for gastric carcinogenesis in adults. As chronic gastritis is common in Mexican children, diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori and other causes of gastritis are critical for the identification of children who would benefit from closer surveillance. Antral biopsies from 82 Mexican children (mean age 8.3±4.8y) with chronic gastritis (36 H. pylori +, 46 H. pylori -) were examined for gastritis activity, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and immunohistochemical expression of gastric carcinogenesis biomarkers CDX2, ephrin type-B receptor 4, matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), p53, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. Atrophy was diagnosed in 7/82 (9%) and intestinal metaplasia in 5/82 (6%) by routine histology, while 6 (7%) additional children (3 H. pylori +) exhibited aberrant CDX2 expression without intestinal metaplasia. Significant positive correlations were seen between EphB4, MMP3, and MIF (p<0.0001). Atrophy and follicular pathology were more frequent in H. pylori + biopsies (p<0.0001), while intestinal metaplasia and CDX2 expression showed no significant correlation with H. pylori status. Antral biopsies demonstrating atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and/or aberrant CDX2 expression were seen in 21.95 % (18/82) of the children, potentially identifying those who would benefit from closer surveillance and preventive dietary strategies. Biomarkers CDX2, EphB4, MMP3, and MIF may be useful in the work-up of pediatric gastritis. PMID:24656654

  19. Carbocalcitonin treatment in Sudeck's atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuti, R.; Vattimo, A.; Martini, G.; Turchetti, V.; Righi, G.A.

    1987-02-01

    The efficacy of new calcitonin, the amino analog of eel calcitonin (carboCT) on Sudeck's atrophy of the foot was investigated in 14 patients. CarboCT was administered at the dose of 40 Medical Research Council (MRC) units per day, and the duration of treatment was two to ten months. No adverse effects were noted. Bone pain and local edema decreased associated with improvement of motility. CarboCT induced a slight decrease in plasma calcium, plasma phosphate, and 24-hour urinary calcium excretion. An increase in cAMP/Cr ratio, an index of parathyroid function, was also observed (probably a manifestation of the hypocalcemic effect of calcitonin and secondary parathyroid stimulation). The whole body retention of 99mTc-MDP represents a valuable index of bone turnover, it decreased progressively and significantly on treatment. A dynamic study of local bone uptake of 99mTC-MDP was performed in eight patients. After carboCT therapy, statistically significant decreases in local blood flow, early uptake, and delayed uptake were appreciated in the involved foot. These findings lead to the conclusion that carboCT is effective in the treatment of Sudeck's atrophy.

  20. Comparison of the Hyaluronic Acid Vaginal Cream and Conjugated Estrogen Used in Treatment of Vaginal Atrophy of Menopause Women: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokar, Azam; Davari, Tayebe; Asadi, Nasrin; Ahmadi, Fateme; Foruhari, Sedighe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vaginal atrophy is a common complication in menopause which does not improve with time and, if untreated, can affect the quality of life for women. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the vaginal cream of hyaluronic acid and conjugated estrogen (Premarin) in treatment of vaginal atrophy. Methods: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial on 56 menopausal women with symptoms of vaginal atrophy; they were randomly allocated to two groups (recipient conjugated estrogen and hyaluronic acid). The severity of each sign of atrophy was evaluated by visual analog signals (VAS) and on the basis of a four point scale. Also to recognize the cellular maturation with pap smear and the maturation degree were calculated according to the formula and scores 0-100. As to the vaginal PH, we used PH marker band, the rate of which was divided into 4 degrees. Data were analyzed using SPSS, version 20, and P≤0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The results of this study showed that the symptoms of vaginal atrophy compared with the baseline level were relieved significantly in both groups. Dryness, itching, maturation index, PH and composite score of the vaginal symptoms were relieved significantly in both groups (Phyaluronic acid (Phyaluronic acid group (Phyaluronic acid group was better than those in the Premarin group. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, hyaluronic acid and conjugated estrogen improved the symptoms of vaginal atrophy. But hyaluronic acid was more effective and this drug is suggested for those who do not want to or cannot take local hormone treatment. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2013022712644N1 PMID:26793732

  1. Characterization of disuse skeletal muscle atrophy and the efficacy of a novel muscle atrophy countermeasure during spaceflight and simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Andrea Marie

    Humans are an integral part of the engineered systems that will enable return to the Moon and eventually travel to Mars. Major advancements in countermeasure development addressing deleterious effects of microgravity and reduced gravity on the musculoskeletal system need to be made to ensure mission safety and success. The primary objectives of this dissertation are to advance the knowledge and understanding of skeletal muscle atrophy, and support development of novel countermeasures for disuse atrophy to enable healthy long-duration human spaceflight. Models simulating microgravity and actual spaceflight were used to examine the musculoskeletal adaptations during periods of unloading. Myostatin inhibition, a novel anti-atrophy drug therapy, and exercise were examined as a means of preventing and recovering from disuse atrophy. A combination of assays was used to quantify adaptation responses to unloading and examine efficacy of the countermeasures. Body and muscle masses were collected to analyze systemic changes due to treatments. Hindlimb strength and individual muscle forces were measured to demonstrate functional adaptations to treatments. Muscle fiber morphology and myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression was examined to identify adaptations at the cellular level. Protein synthesis signals insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), Akt, and p70s6 kinase; and the degradation signals Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 were examined to identify adaptations at the molecular level that ultimately lead to muscle hypertrophy and atrophy. A time course study provided a thorough characterization of the adaptation of skeletal muscle during unloading in C57BL/6 mice, and baseline data for comparison to and evaluation of subsequent studies. Time points defining the on-set and endpoints of disuse muscle atrophy were identified to enable characterization of rapid vs. long-term responses of skeletal muscle to hindlimb suspension. Unloading-induced atrophy primarily resulted from increased protein

  2. Effect of long-term proton pump inhibitor administration on gastric mucosal atrophy: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Wu, Cong; Li, Ling; Wang, Zhaoming; Xie, Haibin; He, Xiaozhou; Feng, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used for the treatment of acid-related gastrointestinal diseases. Recently, some studies have reported that PPIs can alter the gastric mucosal architecture; however, the relationship remains controversial. This meta-analysis study was designed to quantify the association between long-term PPI administration and gastric atrophy. Materials and Methods: A PubMed search was conducted to identify studies using the keywords proton pump inhibitors or PPI and gastric atrophy or atrophic gastritis; the timeframe of publication searched was up to May 2016. Heterogeneity among studies was tested with the Q test; odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. P values were calculated by I2 tests and regarded as statistically significant when <0.05. Results: We identified 13 studies that included 1465 patients under long-term PPI therapy and 1603 controls, with a total gastric atrophy rate of 14.50%. There was a higher presence of gastric atrophy (15.84%; statistically significant) in PPI group compared to the control group (13.29%) (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.00–2.41). Conclusions: The pooled data suggest that long-term PPI use is associated with increased rates of gastric atrophy. Large-scale multicenter studies should be conducted to further investigate the relationship between acid suppressants and precancerous diseases. PMID:28721975

  3. Acquired alopecia, mental retardation, short stature, microcephaly, and optic atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, R. C.; Renckens-Wennen, E. G.

    1990-01-01

    We report on a female patient who had acquired total alopecia, short stature, microcephaly, optic atrophy, severe myopia, and mental retardation. A survey of published reports failed to show an identical patient, despite various similar cases

  4. Atrophy of gray and white matters in the brain during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shumpei; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Ito, Hisao.

    1984-01-01

    We studied atrophy of gray and white matter during aging in 57 males and 44 females with no neurological disturbances using x-ray computed tomography. The ages ranged from 12 to 80 years. Brain atrophy was expressed as brain volume index: 100% x [(brain volume/cranial cavity volume) in individual subjects]/[(brain volume/cranial cavity volume) in normal subjects of 20-39 years]. Atrophy of gray and white matter volume was expressed as gray and white matter volume indices: 100% x (apparent gray or white matter volume index in individual subjects)/(apparent gray or white matter volume index in normal subjects whose brain volume index was greater than 98%), where apparent gray and white matter volume indices were expressed as 100% x [(gray or white matter volume/cranial cavity volume) in individual subjects]/[(gray or white matter volume/cranial cavity volume) in normal subjects of 20-39 years]. Both the gray and white matter volume indices changed proportionally to the brain volume index (p<0.001). As the brain atrophy advanced, the gray matter volume index decreased more than the white matter volume index (P<0.001). Decrease in the gray and white matter volume indices was statistically significant only in seventies (P<0.002 for gray matter, P<0.05 for white matter). (author)

  5. Protein synthesis and degradation during starvation-induced cardiac atrophy in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarel, A.M.; Parmacek, M.S.; Magid, N.M.; Decker, R.S.; Lesch, M.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the relative importance of protein degradation in the development of starvation-induced cardiac atrophy, in vivo fractional synthetic rates of total cardiac protein, myosin heavy chain, actin, light chain 1, and light chain 2 were measured in fed and fasted rabbits by continuous infusion of [ 3 H] leucine. In addition, the rate of left ventricular protein accumulation and loss were assessed in weight-matched control and fasted rabbits. Rates of total cardiac protein degradation were then estimated as the difference between rates of synthesis and growth. Fasting produced left ventricular atrophy by decreasing the rate of left ventricular protein synthesis (34.8 +/- 1.4, 27.3 +/- 3.0, and 19.3 +/- 1.2 mg/day of left ventricular protein synthesized for 0-, 3-, and 7-day fasted rabbits, respectively). Inhibition of contractile protein synthesis was evident by significant reductions in the fractional synthetic rates of all myofibrillar protein subunits. Although fractional rates of protein degradation increased significantly within 7 days of fasting, actual amounts of left ventricular protein degraded per day were unaffected. Thus, prolonged fasting profoundly inhibits the synthesis of new cardiac protein, including the major protein constituents of the myofibril. Both this inhibition in new protein synthesis as well as a smaller but significant reduction in the average half-lives of cardiac proteins are responsible for atrophy of the heart in response to fasting

  6. Hyaluronate fragments reverse skin atrophy by a CD44-dependent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürkan Kaya

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Skin atrophy is a common manifestation of aging and is frequently accompanied by ulceration and delayed wound healing. With an increasingly aging patient population, management of skin atrophy is becoming a major challenge in the clinic, particularly in light of the fact that there are no effective therapeutic options at present. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Atrophic skin displays a decreased hyaluronate (HA content and expression of the major cell-surface hyaluronate receptor, CD44. In an effort to develop a therapeutic strategy for skin atrophy, we addressed the effect of topical administration of defined-size HA fragments (HAF on skin trophicity. Treatment of primary keratinocyte cultures with intermediate-size HAF (HAFi; 50,000-400,000 Da but not with small-size HAF (HAFs; 400,000 Da induced wild-type (wt but not CD44-deficient (CD44-/- keratinocyte proliferation. Topical application of HAFi caused marked epidermal hyperplasia in wt but not in CD44-/- mice, and significant skin thickening in patients with age- or corticosteroid-related skin atrophy. The effect of HAFi on keratinocyte proliferation was abrogated by antibodies against heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF and its receptor, erbB1, which form a complex with a particular isoform of CD44 (CD44v3, and by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations provide a novel CD44-dependent mechanism for HA oligosaccharide-induced keratinocyte proliferation and suggest that topical HAFi application may provide an attractive therapeutic option in human skin atrophy.

  7. A Possible Link between Gastric Mucosal Atrophy and Gastric Cancer after Helicobacter pylori Eradication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomitsu Tahara

    Full Text Available The effect of H. pylori eradication in gastric cancer prevention can be attributed to the improvement of atrophic gastritis, which is a known risk of gastric cancer. However, gastric cancer has also been diagnosed after long-term H. pylori eradication. This study aimed to clarify the association between gastric atrophy and gastric cancer after H. pylori eradication, including its clinicopathological features.A total of 55 consecutive patients with 64 early gastric cancers (EGCs diagnosed after H. pylori eradication were enrolled. The degree of endoscopic atrophy and the histological degrees of mononuclear cell infiltration, atrophy, and metaplasia in the corpus and adjacent mucosa of the EGCs were determined and scored.The majority of EGCs (63/64 were located within the endoscopically assessed atrophic mucosa or along the atrophic border. The adjacent mucosa of the EGCs presented significantly higher degrees of all histological parameters than in the corpus (mononuclear cell infiltration, 0.86+/-0.09 vs. 0.51+/-0.11, P = 0.016; atrophy, 1.77+/-0.13 vs. 0.65+/-0.14, P<0.0001; metaplasia, 1.68+/-0.13 vs. 0.48+/-0.1, P<0.0001. The degree of endoscopic atrophy improved in the patients with longer post-H. pylori eradication periods; however, this trend was not observed for the histological parameters, and high degrees of atrophy and metaplasia were observed in the adjacent mucosa of the EGCs compared with the corpus during all periods (all P<0.05. The histological degrees of atrophy and metaplasia in the adjacent mucosa were particularly higher in the patients who underwent eradication due to gastric ulcers.Severe gastric atrophy remained in the adjacent mucosa of the EGCs after H. pylori eradication, which may be linked to gastric carcinogenesis.

  8. Effect of Electroacupuncture on the Expression of Glycyl-tRNA Synthetase and Ultrastructure Changes in Atrophied Rat Peroneus Longus Muscle Induced by Sciatic Nerve Injection Injury

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    Meng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS is one of the key enzymes involved in protein synthesis. Its mutations have been reported to cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease which demonstrates muscular atrophy in distal extremities, particularly manifested in peroneus muscles. In this situation, the dysfunctions of mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR affect energy supply and excitation-contraction coupling of muscle fibers, therefore resulting in muscular atrophy. Although the treatment of muscular atrophy is a global urgent problem, it can be improved by electroacupuncture (EA treatment. To investigate the mechanism underlying EA treatment improving muscular atrophy, we focused on the perspective of protein synthesis by establishing a penicillin injection-induced sciatic nerve injury model. In our model, injured rats without treatment showed decreased sciatic functional index (SFI, decreased peroneus longus muscle weight and muscle fiber cross-sectional area, aggregated mitochondria with vacuoles appearing, swollen SR, and downregulated mRNA and protein expression levels of GlyRS and myosin heavy chain IIb (MHC-IIb. The injured rats with EA treatment showed significant recovery. These results indicated that EA stimulation can alleviate peroneus longus muscular atrophy induced by iatrogenic sciatic nerve injury through promoting the recovery of GlyRS and muscle ultrastructure and increasing muscle protein synthesis.

  9. Age-related decline in cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shumpei; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Yamada, Kenji

    1987-01-01

    Using computed tomography, the authors studied brain atrophy during aging in 536 men and 529 women with no neurologic disturbances. They measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space volume and cranial cavity volume above the level of the tentorium cerebelli and calculated a brain atrophy index. CFS space volume strated to increase significantly in the group aged from 45 to 54 years, while the BAI started to increase significantly in the group aged from 35 to 44 years in both men and women. The BAI increased exponentially with the increasing age after 25 years, continuing to increase until 75 years or more in both men and women: log BAI = -0.260 + 0.0150 x age, r = 0.707, n = 493, p < 0.001 in men; log BAI = -0.434 + 0.0162 x age, r = 0.757, n = 504, p < 0.001 in women. Using the xenon-133 inhalation method, the authors studied age-related decline in regional cerebral blood flow (regional initial slope index; rISI) in 197 men and 238 women with no neurologic disturbances, ranging in age from 19 to 88 years. The rISI values in women declined almost linearly with the advancing age from the 50s to the 80s except the 70s. The rISI values in men declined with the advancing age from the 40s to the 60s, but remained unchanged thereafter until the 80s, suggesting the existence of a threshold of rISI values. We estimated the rISI values (probable threshold of brain atrophy), the frequency under which is equivalent to the volume of brain tissues atrophying in a decade, and obtained constant values as about 32 for men and about 37 for women in the 50s, 60s and 70s. If the frequency of rISI values in the brain is distributed according to a Gaussian function and mean of rISI values decreases linearly to the increasing age, then brain tissues having rISI values below the thresholds degenerate almost exponentially with the increasing age, leading to the exponential atrophy of the brain. (J.P.N.)

  10. REHABILITATION OF SEVERELY ATROPHIED UPPER JAW WITH INTRAOSSAL DENTAL IMPLANTS - clinical case

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Chenchev; Radka Cholakova; Cvetan Cvetanov; Ir. Mitarcheva

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to show the difficulty in prosthetization of a clinical case with a pronounced atrophy of the upper jaw and the various types and nature of restrictions imposed by the requirements of the patient. Methods: The clinical analysis, surgical protocol and prosthetic solution are presented in the treatment of 72 year-old woman with a pronounced atrophy of the upper jaw. OPG, standard CT of the upper jaw was used in the planning and a special surgical t...

  11. Association between baseline peri-infarct magnetic resonance spectroscopy and regional white matter atrophy after stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassi, Nawaf; Campbell, Bruce C.V.; Davis, Stephen M.; Bivard, Andrew; Moffat, Bradford A.; Steward, Christopher; Desmond, Patricia M.; Churilov, Leonid; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Parsons, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral atrophy after stroke is associated with poor functional outcome. The prediction and prevention of post-stroke brain atrophy could therefore represent a target for neurorestorative therapies. We investigated the associations between peri-infarct metabolite concentrations measured by quantitative MRS and brain volume change in the infarct hemisphere after stroke. Twenty patients with ischemic stroke were enrolled. Patients underwent 3T-MRI within 1 week of onset, and at 1 and 3 months. At the baseline scan, an MRS voxel was placed manually in the peri-infarct area and another in the corresponding contralateral region. Volumetric analysis of T1 images was performed using two automated processing packages. Changes in gray and white matter volume were assessed as percentage change between 1 and 3 months. Mean concentrations (institutional units) of N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA) (6.1 vs 7.0, p = 0.039), total creatine (Cr+PCr) (5.4 vs 5.8, p = 0.043), and inositol (4.5 vs 5.0, p = 0.014), were significantly lower in the peri-infarct region compared with the contralateral hemisphere. There was a significant correlation between baseline peri-infarct NAA and white matter volume change in the infarct hemisphere between 1 and 3 months, with lower NAA being associated with subsequent white matter atrophy (Spearman's rho = 0.66, p = 0.010). The baseline concentration of Cr+PCr was also significantly correlated with white matter atrophy in the infarct hemisphere (Spearman's rho = 0.59, p = 0.027). Both of these associations were significant after adjustment for the false discovery rate and were validated using the secondary volumetric method. MRS may be useful in the prediction of white matter atrophy post-stroke and in the testing of novel neurorestorative therapies. (orig.)

  12. Association between baseline peri-infarct magnetic resonance spectroscopy and regional white matter atrophy after stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yassi, Nawaf; Campbell, Bruce C.V.; Davis, Stephen M.; Bivard, Andrew [Melbourne Brain Centre rate at The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Moffat, Bradford A.; Steward, Christopher; Desmond, Patricia M. [The University of Melbourne, Department of Radiology, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville (Australia); Churilov, Leonid; Donnan, Geoffrey A. [The University of Melbourne, Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Parkville (Australia); Parsons, Mark W. [University of Newcastle and Hunter Medical Research Institute, Priority Research Centre for Translational Neuroscience and Mental Health, Newcastle (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    Cerebral atrophy after stroke is associated with poor functional outcome. The prediction and prevention of post-stroke brain atrophy could therefore represent a target for neurorestorative therapies. We investigated the associations between peri-infarct metabolite concentrations measured by quantitative MRS and brain volume change in the infarct hemisphere after stroke. Twenty patients with ischemic stroke were enrolled. Patients underwent 3T-MRI within 1 week of onset, and at 1 and 3 months. At the baseline scan, an MRS voxel was placed manually in the peri-infarct area and another in the corresponding contralateral region. Volumetric analysis of T1 images was performed using two automated processing packages. Changes in gray and white matter volume were assessed as percentage change between 1 and 3 months. Mean concentrations (institutional units) of N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA) (6.1 vs 7.0, p = 0.039), total creatine (Cr+PCr) (5.4 vs 5.8, p = 0.043), and inositol (4.5 vs 5.0, p = 0.014), were significantly lower in the peri-infarct region compared with the contralateral hemisphere. There was a significant correlation between baseline peri-infarct NAA and white matter volume change in the infarct hemisphere between 1 and 3 months, with lower NAA being associated with subsequent white matter atrophy (Spearman's rho = 0.66, p = 0.010). The baseline concentration of Cr+PCr was also significantly correlated with white matter atrophy in the infarct hemisphere (Spearman's rho = 0.59, p = 0.027). Both of these associations were significant after adjustment for the false discovery rate and were validated using the secondary volumetric method. MRS may be useful in the prediction of white matter atrophy post-stroke and in the testing of novel neurorestorative therapies. (orig.)

  13. Schisandrae Fructus Supplementation Ameliorates Sciatic Neurectomy-Induced Muscle Atrophy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Wan Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the possible beneficial skeletal muscle preserving effects of ethanol extract of Schisandrae Fructus (EESF on sciatic neurectomy- (NTX- induced hindlimb muscle atrophy in mice. Here, calf muscle atrophy was induced by unilateral right sciatic NTX. In order to investigate whether administration of EESF prevents or improves sciatic NTX-induced muscle atrophy, EESF was administered orally. Our results indicated that EESF dose-dependently diminished the decreases in markers of muscle mass and activity levels, and the increases in markers of muscle damage and fibrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, cytokines, and apoptotic events in the gastrocnemius muscle bundles are induced by NTX. Additionally, destruction of gastrocnemius antioxidant defense systems after NTX was dose-dependently protected by treatment with EESF. EESF also upregulated muscle-specific mRNAs involved in muscle protein synthesis but downregulated those involved in protein degradation. The overall effects of 500 mg/kg EESF were similar to those of 50 mg/kg oxymetholone, but it showed more favorable antioxidant effects. The present results suggested that EESF exerts a favorable ameliorating effect on muscle atrophy induced by NTX, through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects related to muscle fiber protective effects and via an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation.

  14. Biomechanical implications of skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy: a musculoskeletal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Vigotsky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Muscle hypertrophy and atrophy occur frequently as a result of mechanical loading or unloading, with implications for clinical, general, and athletic populations. The effects of muscle hypertrophy and atrophy on force production and joint moments have been previously described. However, there is a paucity of research showing how hypertrophy and atrophy may affect moment arm (MA lengths. The purpose of this model was to describe the mathematical relationship between the anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA of a muscle and its MA length. In the model, the ACSAs of the biceps brachii and brachialis were altered to hypertrophy up to twice their original size and to atrophy to one-half of their original size. The change in MA length was found to be proportional to the arcsine of the square root of the change in ACSA. This change in MA length may be a small but important contributor to strength, especially in sports that require large joint moments at slow joint angular velocities, such as powerlifting. The paradoxical implications of the increase in MA are discussed, as physiological factors influencing muscle contraction velocity appear to favor a smaller MA length for high velocity movements but a larger muscle MA length for low velocity, high force movements.

  15. Schisandrae Fructus Supplementation Ameliorates Sciatic Neurectomy-Induced Muscle Atrophy in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Wan; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Kim, Ki Young; Kim, Sung Goo; Han, Min Ho; Kim, Gi-Young; Hwang, Hye Jin; Kim, Byung Woo; Kim, Cheol Min

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the possible beneficial skeletal muscle preserving effects of ethanol extract of Schisandrae Fructus (EESF) on sciatic neurectomy- (NTX-) induced hindlimb muscle atrophy in mice. Here, calf muscle atrophy was induced by unilateral right sciatic NTX. In order to investigate whether administration of EESF prevents or improves sciatic NTX-induced muscle atrophy, EESF was administered orally. Our results indicated that EESF dose-dependently diminished the decreases in markers of muscle mass and activity levels, and the increases in markers of muscle damage and fibrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, cytokines, and apoptotic events in the gastrocnemius muscle bundles are induced by NTX. Additionally, destruction of gastrocnemius antioxidant defense systems after NTX was dose-dependently protected by treatment with EESF. EESF also upregulated muscle-specific mRNAs involved in muscle protein synthesis but downregulated those involved in protein degradation. The overall effects of 500 mg/kg EESF were similar to those of 50 mg/kg oxymetholone, but it showed more favorable antioxidant effects. The present results suggested that EESF exerts a favorable ameliorating effect on muscle atrophy induced by NTX, through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects related to muscle fiber protective effects and via an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation. PMID:26064425

  16. Association between anti-endomysial antibody and total intestinal villous atrophy in children with coeliac disease.

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    Ozgenc F

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence to suggest that detection of anti-gliadin antibody (AGA and anti-endomysial antibody (EmA can serve as sensitive markers of the degree of histological abnormalities in patients with coeliac disease. AIM: To evaluate the association between the presence of AGA and EmA and villous atrophy in intestinal biopsies of children with suspected coeliac disease. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Intestinal samples of 46 children with failure to thrive, chronic diarrhoea, malabsorption and short stature with either AGA and/or EmA positivity were evaluated, retrospectively. The diagnosis of coeliac disease was based on ESPGHAN criteria. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Patients with total villous atrophy who fulfilled the ESPGHAN criteria for the diagnosis of coeliac disease were diagnosed to have coeliac disease. Nine patients without villous atrophy were taken as negative controls for this study. AGA-IgA was measured both by immunoflourescence (IF and ELISA and EmA-IgA by IF while patients were on normal diet. Relationship between autoantibody positivity and intestinal total villous atrophy was evaluated. RESULTS: Overall positivity for AGA IgA was 85% (39/46 by IF+ELISA and EmA positivity was 85% (39/46 by IF within the study group. Histological examination revealed total villous atrophy with lymphocyte infiltration and crypt hyperplasia in 37 (80% patients. AGA IgA was positive in 14 (38% and 31 (84% of these children by ELISA and IF, respectively. EmA positivity was detected in 35/37 (95% cases with atrophy and 4/9 (44% without atrophy (p=0.002. Thirty out of 37 (81% patients with villous atrophy had both AGA IgA (IF and EmA positivity (p=0.186. All of the sixteen patients that had both positive AGA IgA (ELISA+IF and EmA had total villous atrophy (p=0.037. CONCLUSION: A significant association between total villous atrophy and EmA positivity has been documented in this study.

  17. Deformation-Based Atrophy Estimation for Alzheimer’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) - the most common form of dementia, is a term used for accelerated memory loss and cognitive abilities enough to severely hamper day-to-day activities. One of the most globally accepted markers for AD is atrophy, in mainly the brain parenchyma. The goal of the PhD project...... and a new way to estimate atrophy from a deformation field. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed solution but applying it on the publicly available Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging data (ADNI) initiative and compare to existing state-of-art atrophy estimation methods....

  18. Orphan disease: Cherubism, optic atrophy, and short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevanandham, Balaji; Ramachandran, Rajoo; Dhanapal, Vignesh; Subramanian, Ilanchezhian; Sai, Venkata

    2018-01-01

    A 12-year-old female presented with complaints of progressive visual impairment in both her eyes. On clinical examination, she was short for her age and her ophthalmoscopic examination revealed bilateral optic atrophy. Computed tomography of the patient revealed multiple expansile lytic lesions of mandible suggesting cherubism. The optic atrophy was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging, which additionally revealed bilateral retrocerebellar arachnoid cysts. This association of cherubism with optic atrophy and short stature was grouped as orphan disease by National Institutes of Health and only one case was reported in the literature so far.

  19. Botulinum Toxin and Muscle Atrophy: A Wanted or Unwanted Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Paul D; Couto, Rafael A; Isakov, Raymond; Yoo, Donald B; Azizzadeh, Babak; Guyuron, Bahman; Zins, James E

    2016-04-01

    While the facial rejuvenating effect of botulinum toxin type A is well known and widespread, its use in body and facial contouring is less common. We first describe its use for deliberate muscle volume reduction, and then document instances of unanticipated and undesirable muscle atrophy. Finally, we investigate the potential long-term adverse effects of botulinum toxin-induced muscle atrophy. Although the use of botulinum toxin type A in the cosmetic patient has been extensively studied, there are several questions yet to be addressed. Does prolonged botulinum toxin treatment increase its duration of action? What is the mechanism of muscle atrophy and what is the cause of its reversibility once treatment has stopped? We proceed to examine how prolonged chemodenervation with botulinum toxin can increase its duration of effect and potentially contribute to muscle atrophy. Instances of inadvertent botulinum toxin-induced atrophy are also described. These include the "hourglass deformity" secondary to botulinum toxin type A treatment for migraine headaches, and a patient with atrophy of multiple facial muscles from injections for hemifacial spasm. Numerous reports demonstrate that muscle atrophy after botulinum toxin type A treatment occurs and is both reversible and temporary, with current literature supporting the notion that repeated chemodenervation with botulinum toxin likely responsible for both therapeutic and incidental temporary muscle atrophy. Furthermore, duration of response may be increased with subsequent treatments, thus minimizing frequency of reinjection. Practitioners should be aware of the temporary and reversible effect of botulinum toxin-induced muscle atrophy and be prepared to reassure patients on this matter. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. MRT measurements of the CSF spaces in HIV associated cerebral atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handwerker, M.; Krahe, T.; Klinker, H.; Schindler, R.

    1992-01-01

    The CSF volume of 45 patients with HIV infection was measured at various clinical stages and the results compared with 24 normals. 60% of all patients showed increased CSF spaces as an indication of cerebral atrophy. Serial measurements were particularly valuable during the early stages of atrophy since there is marked variation in the normal CSF volume. Conventional measurements, with the exception of the width of the third ventricle, were much less sensitive than these quantitative measurements. Classification of HIF infection according to the clinical stage was useful since CSF volume and volume increase correlated with the stage of HIV infection. (orig.) [de

  1. Clinicopathological correlation of parapapillary atrophy in monkeys with experimental glaucoma and temporary central retinal artery occlusion

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    Jost B Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological correlation of parapapillary atrophy. Materials and Methods: The study included 16 eyes of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta - 4 eyes with experimental glaucoma, 11 eyes after experimental temporary occlusion of the central retinal artery, and 1 normal eye. On histological sections, we measured zones with different histological characteristics.On fundus photographs, alpha zone and beta zone of parapapillary atrophy were measured and correlated with the histological data. Results: The size of the clinical alpha zone of parapapillary atrophy was significantly correlated with the size of the histological region with irregularities of the retinal pigment epithelium (P = 0.05; correlation coefficient r = 0.49 and with the size of the histological region with a decreased density of retinal photoreceptors (P = 0.01; r = 0.60. The size of clinical beta zone of parapapillary atrophy significantly correlated with the size of the histological region with complete loss of the retinal pigment epithelium (P <0.001; r = 0.91, with the size of the histological zone with a complete loss of photoreceptors (P <0.001; r = 0.81, and with the size of the histological zone with a closed choriocapillaris (P <0.001; r = 0.89. Conclusions: The clinically seen alpha zone of parapapillary atrophy correlates with histological parapapillary irregularities of the retinal pigment epithelium and decreased density of retinal photoreceptors. The clinically seen beta zone of parapapillary atrophy correlates with histological complete loss of the retinal pigment epithelium and of the photoreceptors, and a closure of the choriocapillaris.

  2. N-myristoylated ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b inhibitor prevents on glucocorticoid-induced atrophy in mouse skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Arisa; Abe, Tomoki; Nakao, Reiko; Yamamoto, Yoriko; Kitahata, Kanako; Takagi, Marina; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Ohno, Ayako; Teshima-Kondo, Shigetada; Taesik, Gwag; Choi, Inho; Kawamura, Tomoyuki; Nemoto, Hisao; Mukai, Rie; Terao, Junji; Nikawa, Takeshi

    2015-03-15

    A DGpYMP peptide mimetic of tyrosine(608)-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), named Cblin, was previously shown to significantly inhibit Cbl-b-mediated IRS-1 ubiquitination. In the present study, we developed N-myristoylated Cblin and investigated whether it was effective in preventing glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy. Using HEK293 cells overexpressing Cbl-b, IRS-1 and ubiquitin, we showed that the 50% inhibitory concentrations of Cbl-b-mediated IRS-1 ubiquitination by N-myristoylated Cblin and Cblin were 30 and 120 μM, respectively. Regarding the DEX-induced atrophy of C2C12 myotubes, N-myristoylated Cblin was more effective than Cblin for inhibiting the DEX-induced decreases in C2C12 myotube diameter and IRS-1 degradation. The inhibitory efficacy of N-myristoylated Cblin on IRS-1 ubiquitination in C2C12 myotubes was approximately fourfold larger than that of Cblin. Furthermore, N-myristoylation increased the incorporation of Cblin into HEK293 cells approximately 10-folds. Finally, we demonstrated that N-myristoylated Cblin prevented the wet weight loss, IRS-1 degradation, and MAFbx/atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 expression in gastrocnemius muscle of DEX-treated mice approximately fourfold more effectively than Cblin. Taken together, these results suggest that N-myristoylated Cblin prevents DEX-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in vitro and in vivo, and that N-myristoylated Cblin more effectively prevents muscle atrophy than unmodified Cblin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Retina in Multiple System Atrophy: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Carlos E. Mendoza-Santiesteban

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMultiple system atrophy (MSA is a rare, adult-onset, rapidly progressive fatal synucleinopathy that primarily affects oligodendroglial cells in the brain. Patients with MSA only rarely have visual complaints, but recent studies of the retina using optical coherence tomography (OCT showed atrophy of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL and to a lesser extent the macular ganglion cell layer (GCL complex.MethodsWe performed a literature review and meta-analysis according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines for studies published before January 2017, identified through PubMed and Google Scholar databases, which reported OCT-related outcomes in patients with MSA and controls. A random-effects model was constructed.ResultsThe meta-analysis search strategy yielded 15 articles of which 7 met the inclusion criteria. The pooled difference in the average thickness of the RNFL was −5.48 μm (95% CI, −6.23 to −4.73; p < 0.0001, indicating significant thinning in patients with MSA. The pooled results showed significant thinning in all the specific RNFL quadrants, except in the temporal RNFL quadrant, where the thickness in MSA and controls was similar [pooled difference of 1.11 µm (95% CI, −4.03 to 6.26; p = 0.67]. This pattern of retinal damage suggests that MSA patients have preferential loss of retinal ganglion cells projecting to the magnocellular pathway (M-cells, which are mainly located in the peripheral retina and are not essential for visual acuity. Visual acuity, on the other hand, relies mostly on macular ganglion cells projecting to the parvocellular pathway (P-cells through the temporal portion of the RNFL, which are relatively spared in MSA patients.ConclusionThe retinal damage in patients with MSA differs from that observed in patients with Parkinson disease (PD. Patients with MSA have more relative preservation of temporal sector of the RNFL and less

  4. Mandibular atrophy and metabolic bone loss. Endocrinology, radiology and histomorphometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, L. L.; Bras, J.; Borgmeyer-Hoelen, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    In 11 edentulous patients with a severe atrophy of the mandible and submitted for ridge augmentation, endocrinological, radiological and histomorphometrical studies were carried out. The results showed that metabolic bone loss, histologically in nearly all patients characterized as a disturbance in

  5. Serum folate and the severity of atrophy of the neocortex in Alzheimer disease: findings from the Nun study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, D A; Tully, C L; Smith, C D; Riley, K P; Markesbery, W R

    2000-04-01

    Previous studies suggested that low concentrations of folate in the blood are related to poor cognitive function, dementia, and Alzheimer disease-related neurodegeneration of the brain. Our aim was to determine whether serum folate is inversely associated with the severity of atrophy of the neocortex. Nutrients, lipoproteins, and nutritional markers were measured in the blood of 30 participants in the Nun Study from one convent who later died when they were 78-101 y old (mean: 91 y). At autopsy, several neuropathologic indicators of Alzheimer disease were determined, including the degree of atrophy of 3 lobes of the neocortex (frontal, temporal, and parietal) and the number of neocortical Alzheimer disease lesions (ie, senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles) as assessed by a neuropathologist. The correlation between serum folate and the severity of atrophy of the neocortex was -0.40 (P = 0.03). Among a subset of 15 participants with significant numbers of Alzheimer disease lesions in the neocortex, the correlation between folate and atrophy was -0.80 (P = 0.0006). Atrophy may be specific to low folate because none of the 18 other nutrients, lipoproteins, or nutritional markers measured in the blood had significant negative correlations with atrophy. Among elderly Catholic sisters who lived in one convent, ate from the same kitchen, and were highly comparable for a wide range of environmental and lifestyle factors, low serum folate was strongly associated with atrophy of the cerebral cortex. Definitive evidence for this relation and its temporal sequence awaits the findings of other studies.

  6. Progression of brain atrophy in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2: a longitudinal tensor-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascalchi, Mario; Diciotti, Stefano; Giannelli, Marco; Ginestroni, Andrea; Soricelli, Andrea; Nicolai, Emanuele; Aiello, Marco; Tessa, Carlo; Galli, Lucia; Dotti, Maria Teresa; Piacentini, Silvia; Salvatore, Elena; Toschi, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is the second most frequent autosomal dominant inherited ataxia worldwide. We investigated the capability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to track in vivo progression of brain atrophy in SCA2 by examining twice 10 SCA2 patients (mean interval 3.6 years) and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean interval 3.3 years) on the same 1.5 T MRI scanner. We used T1-weighted images and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to investigate volume changes and the Inherited Ataxia Clinical Rating Scale to assess the clinical deficit. With respect to controls, SCA2 patients showed significant higher atrophy rates in the midbrain, including substantia nigra, basis pontis, middle cerebellar peduncles and posterior medulla corresponding to the gracilis and cuneatus tracts and nuclei, cerebellar white matter (WM) and cortical gray matter (GM) in the inferior portions of the cerebellar hemisphers. No differences in WM or GM volume loss were observed in the supratentorial compartment. TBM findings did not correlate with modifications of the neurological deficit. In conclusion, MRI volumetry using TBM is capable of demonstrating the progression of pontocerebellar atrophy in SCA2, supporting a possible role of MRI as biomarker in future trials.

  7. Progression of brain atrophy in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2: a longitudinal tensor-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mascalchi

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2 is the second most frequent autosomal dominant inherited ataxia worldwide. We investigated the capability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to track in vivo progression of brain atrophy in SCA2 by examining twice 10 SCA2 patients (mean interval 3.6 years and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean interval 3.3 years on the same 1.5 T MRI scanner. We used T1-weighted images and tensor-based morphometry (TBM to investigate volume changes and the Inherited Ataxia Clinical Rating Scale to assess the clinical deficit. With respect to controls, SCA2 patients showed significant higher atrophy rates in the midbrain, including substantia nigra, basis pontis, middle cerebellar peduncles and posterior medulla corresponding to the gracilis and cuneatus tracts and nuclei, cerebellar white matter (WM and cortical gray matter (GM in the inferior portions of the cerebellar hemisphers. No differences in WM or GM volume loss were observed in the supratentorial compartment. TBM findings did not correlate with modifications of the neurological deficit. In conclusion, MRI volumetry using TBM is capable of demonstrating the progression of pontocerebellar atrophy in SCA2, supporting a possible role of MRI as biomarker in future trials.

  8. Impairment of visuospatial/visuoconstructional skills in multiple sclerosis patients: the correlation with regional lesion load and subcortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasescu, R; Cerezo Garcia, M; Aladro Benito, Y

    2016-04-01

    About 20% to 26% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) show alterations in visuospatial/visuoconstructive (VS-VC) skills even though temporo-parieto-occipital impairment is a frequent finding in magnetic resonance imaging. No studies have specifically analysed the relationship between these functions and lesion volume (LV) in these specific brain areas. To evaluate the relationship between VS-VC impairment and magnetic resonance imaging temporo-parieto-occipital LV with subcortical atrophy in patients with MS. Of 100 MS patients undergoing a routine neuropsychological evaluation, 21 were selected because they displayed VS-VC impairments in the following tests: Incomplete picture, Block design (WAIS-III), and Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test. We also selected 13 MS patients without cognitive impairment (control group). Regional LV was measured in FLAIR and T1-weighted images using a semiautomated method; subcortical atrophy was measured by bicaudate ratio and third ventricle width. Partial correlations (controlling for age and years of school) and linear regression analysis were employed to analyse correlations between magnetic resonance imaging parameters and cognitive performance. All measures of LV and brain atrophy were significantly higher in patients with cognitive impairment. Regional LV, bicaudate ratio, and third ventricle width are significantly and inversely correlated with cognitive performance; the strongest correlation was between third ventricle width and VC performance (Block design: P=.001; Rey-Osterrieth complex figure: P<.000). In the multivariate analysis, third ventricle width only had a significant effect on performance of VC tasks (Block design: P=.000; Rey-Osterrieth complex figure: P=.000), and regional FLAIR VL was linked to the VS task (Incomplete picture; P=.002). Measures of subcortical atrophy explain the variations in performance on visuocostructive tasks, and regional FLAIR VL measures are linked to VS tasks. Copyright © 2015

  9. Orphan disease: Cherubism, optic atrophy, and short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Jeevanandham

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year-old female presented with complaints of progressive visual impairment in both her eyes. On clinical examination, she was short for her age and her ophthalmoscopic examination revealed bilateral optic atrophy. Computed tomography of the patient revealed multiple expansile lytic lesions of mandible suggesting cherubism. The optic atrophy was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging, which additionally revealed bilateral retrocerebellar arachnoid cysts. This association of cherubism with optic atrophy and short stature was grouped as orphan disease by National Institutes of Health and only one case was reported in the literature so far.

  10. Polymorphisms of the DNA methyltransferase 1 associated with reduced risks of Helicobacter pylori infection and increased risks of gastric atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jiang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: DNA methyltransferase-1(DNMT1 is an important enzyme in determining genomic methylation patterns in mammalian cells. We investigated the associations between SNPs in the DNMT1 gene and risks of developing H. pylori seropositivity, gastric atrophy and gastric cancer in the Chinese population. METHODS: The study consisted of 447 patients with gastric cancer; 111 patients with gastric atrophy; and 961 healthy controls. Five SNPs, rs10420321, rs16999593, rs8101866, rs8111085 and rs2288349 of the DNMT1 gene were genotyped. Anti-H.pylori IgG was detected by ELISA. Gastric atrophy was screened by the level of serum pepsinogen Ι and II and then confirmed by endoscopy and histopatholgical examinations. RESULTS: The age- and sex-adjusted OR of H. pylori seropositivity was 0.67 (95%CI: 0.51-0.87 for rs8111085 TC/CC genotypes, significantly lower than the TT genotype in healthy controls. The adjusted OR of H.pylori seropositivity was 0.68 (95%CI: 0.52-0.89 for rs10420321 AG/GG genotypes. In addition, patients carrying rs2228349 AA genotype have a significantly increased risk for H.pylori seropositivity (OR=1.67; 95%CI: 1.02-2.75. Further haplotype analyses also showed that the ATTTG and ATCTA are significantly associated with increased risks in H.pylori infection compared to the GTCCG haplotype (OR=1.38, 95%CI: 1.08-1.77; OR=1.40, 95% CI: 1.09-1.80. The adjusted ORs of gastric atrophy were 1.66 (95%CI: 1.06-2.61 for rs10420321 GG genotype, and 1.67 (95%CI 1.06-2.63, P=0.03 for rs8111085 CC genotype, but no association was found between SNPs in the DNMT1 gene and risk of developing gastric cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with rs10420321 GG and rs8111085 CC genotype of the DNMT1 gene were associated with reduced risks for H.pylori infection. On the other hand, higher risks of gastric atrophy were found in the carriers with these two genotypes compared to other genotypes. Our results suggested that SNPs of DNMT1 could be used as genotypic

  11. CT findings of leg muscles in the hemiplegics due to cerebrovascular accidents. Correlation to disuse atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odajima, Natsu; Ishiai, Sumio; Okiyama, Ryouichi; Furukawa, Tetsuo; Tsukagoshi, Hiroshi

    1987-09-01

    Muscle wastings in hemiplegics due to cerebrovascular accidents were studied with CT scanning in the mid-portion of the thigh and largest-diameter section of the calf bilaterally. Muscle size and average CT density of muscle were measured. The 80 patients were classified into one of the following three stages of disability, i.e. stage 1, severely disabled (wheel-chair-bound but capable of self care (20 patients)); stage 2, moderately disabled (poorly ambulatory (41 patients)); and stage 3, mildly disabled (well ambulatory (19 patients)). Muscle cross-sectional area and CT density in both legs of non-ambulatory patients were smaller and lower than those of other groups. The atrophic change was marked in the affected side, but it was also noticeable in the non-affected side. Gracilis muscle was relatively well spared in all 3 stages. These CT findings of hemiplegics were similar to those of disuse atropy in patients with knee or hip joint lesions. Atrophy was seen first in the quadriceps in thigh and flexor muscle group in calf. These findings were similar to the systemic myogenic or neurogenic atrophies. Although gracilis and sartorius muscles were spared in these systemic deseases, only gracilis muscle was spared in hemiplegics and in patients with disuse atrophy. The ratios of the size of quadriceps, adductor group and sartorius muscle of thigh in affected side to that of non-affected side were smaller in more severely disabled group. Those of the other muscles showed no differences among each stages. In stage 3, there was significant negative correlation between the ratio of quadriceps muscle and periods from the attack. There was no relationship between the severity of the muscle atrophy and parietal lobe lesion. The atrophy is considered to be the result of disuse from immobilization.

  12. Curcumin ameliorates skeletal muscle atrophy in type 1 diabetic mice by inhibiting protein ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Taisuke; Takada, Shingo; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    What is the central question of this study? We sought to examine whether curcumin could ameliorate skeletal muscle atrophy in diabetic mice by inhibiting protein ubiquitination, inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that curcumin ameliorated skeletal muscle atrophy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by inhibiting protein ubiquitination without affecting protein synthesis. This favourable effect of curcumin was possibly due to the inhibition of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. Curcumin may be beneficial for the treatment of muscle atrophy in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Skeletal muscle atrophy develops in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), especially in type 1 DM, which is associated with chronic inflammation. Curcumin, the active ingredient of turmeric, has various biological actions, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We hypothesized that curcumin could ameliorate skeletal muscle atrophy in mice with streptozotocin-induced type 1 DM. C57BL/6 J mice were injected with streptozotocin (200 mg kg(-1) i.p.; DM group) or vehicle (control group). Each group of mice was randomly subdivided into two groups of 10 mice each and fed a diet with or without curcumin (1500 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) for 2 weeks. There were significant decreases in body weight, skeletal muscle weight and cellular cross-sectional area of the skeletal muscle in DM mice compared with control mice, and these changes were significantly attenuated in DM+Curcumin mice without affecting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Ubiquitination of protein was increased in skeletal muscle from DM mice and decreased in DM+Curcumin mice. Gene expressions of muscle-specific ubiquitin E3 ligase atrogin-1/MAFbx and MuRF1 were increased in DM and inhibited in DM+Curcumin mice. Moreover, nuclear factor-κB activation, concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β and oxidative

  13. Protective Effects of Clenbuterol against Dexamethasone-Induced Masseter Muscle Atrophy and Myosin Heavy Chain Transition.

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    Daisuke Umeki

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid has a direct catabolic effect on skeletal muscle, leading to muscle atrophy, but no effective pharmacotherapy is available. We reported that clenbuterol (CB induced masseter muscle hypertrophy and slow-to-fast myosin heavy chain (MHC isoform transition through direct muscle β2-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Thus, we hypothesized that CB would antagonize glucocorticoid (dexamethasone; DEX-induced muscle atrophy and fast-to-slow MHC isoform transition.We examined the effect of CB on DEX-induced masseter muscle atrophy by measuring masseter muscle weight, fiber diameter, cross-sectional area, and myosin heavy chain (MHC composition. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, we used immunoblotting to study the effects of CB on muscle hypertrophic signaling (insulin growth factor 1 (IGF1 expression, Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway, and calcineurin pathway and atrophic signaling (Akt/Forkhead box-O (FOXO pathway and myostatin expression in masseter muscle of rats treated with DEX and/or CB.Masseter muscle weight in the DEX-treated group was significantly lower than that in the Control group, as expected, but co-treatment with CB suppressed the DEX-induced masseter muscle atrophy, concomitantly with inhibition of fast-to-slow MHC isoforms transition. Activation of the Akt/mTOR pathway in masseter muscle of the DEX-treated group was significantly inhibited compared to that of the Control group, and CB suppressed this inhibition. DEX also suppressed expression of IGF1 (positive regulator of muscle growth, and CB attenuated this inhibition. Myostatin protein expression was unchanged. CB had no effect on activation of the Akt/FOXO pathway. These results indicate that CB antagonizes DEX-induced muscle atrophy and fast-to-slow MHC isoform transition via modulation of Akt/mTOR activity and IGF1 expression. CB might be a useful pharmacological agent for treatment of glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy.

  14. Additional corpus biopsy enhances the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in a background of gastritis with atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The best sites for biopsy-based tests to evaluate H. pylori infection in gastritis with atrophy are not well known. This study aimed to evaluate the site and sensitivity of biopsy-based tests in terms of degree of gastritis with atrophy. Methods One hundred and sixty-four (164) uninvestigated dyspepsia patients were enrolled. Biopsy-based tests (i.e., culture, histology Giemsa stain and rapid urease test) and non-invasive tests (anti-H. pylori IgG) were performed. The gold standard of H. pylori infection was defined according to previous criteria. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive rate and negative predictive rate of biopsy-based tests at the gastric antrum and body were calculated in terms of degree of gastritis with atrophy. Results The prevalence rate of H. pylori infection in the 164 patients was 63.4%. Gastritis with atrophy was significantly higher at the antrum than at the body (76% vs. 31%; pgastritis with atrophy increased regardless of biopsy site (for normal, mild, moderate, and severe gastritis with atrophy, the sensitivity of histology Giemsa stain was 100%, 100%, 88%, and 66%, respectively, and 100%, 97%, 91%, and 66%, respectively, for rapid urease test). In moderate to severe antrum or body gastritis with atrophy, additional corpus biopsy resulted in increased sensitivity to 16.67% compare to single antrum biopsy. Conclusions In moderate to severe gastritis with atrophy, biopsy-based test should include the corpus for avoiding false negative results. PMID:23272897

  15. The pathogenesis and treatment of cardiac atrophy in cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kate T

    2016-02-15

    Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass associated with significant functional impairment. In addition to a loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, many patients with cancer cachexia also experience cardiac atrophy, remodeling, and dysfunction, which in the field of cancer cachexia is described as cardiac cachexia. The cardiac alterations may be due to underlying heart disease, the cancer itself, or problems initiated by the cancer treatment and, unfortunately, remains largely underappreciated by clinicians and basic scientists. Despite recent major advances in the treatment of cancer, little progress has been made in the treatment of cardiac cachexia in cancer, and much of this is due to lack of information regarding the mechanisms. This review focuses on the cardiac atrophy associated with cancer cachexia, describing some of the known mechanisms and discussing the current and future therapeutic strategies to treat this condition. Above all else, improved awareness of the condition and an increased focus on identification of mechanisms and therapeutic targets will facilitate the eventual development of an effective treatment for cardiac atrophy in cancer cachexia. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Brain atrophy in the visual cortex and thalamus induced by severe stress in animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Takanobu; Oishi, Naoya; Ikoma, Kazuya; Nishimura, Isao; Sakai, Yuki; Matsuda, Kenichi; Yamada, Shunji; Tanaka, Masaki; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Narumoto, Jin; Fukui, Kenji

    2017-10-06

    Psychological stress induces many diseases including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the causal relationship between stress and brain atrophy has not been clarified. Applying single-prolonged stress (SPS) to explore the global effect of severe stress, we performed brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition and Voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Significant atrophy was detected in the bilateral thalamus and right visual cortex. Fluorescent immunohistochemistry for Iba-1 as the marker of activated microglia indicates regional microglial activation as stress-reaction in these atrophic areas. These data certify the impact of severe psychological stress on the atrophy of the visual cortex and the thalamus. Unexpectedly, these results are similar to chronic neuropathic pain rather than PTSD clinical research. We believe that some sensitisation mechanism from severe stress-induced atrophy in the visual cortex and thalamus, and the functional defect of the visual system may be a potential therapeutic target for stress-related diseases.

  17. A case of hepatic atrophy by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumoto, Takumi; Ku, Yonson; Saitoh, Yoichi

    1994-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman was treated with 60 Co irradiation (total dose 6000 rads) focused on the right side porta hepatis under the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma in 1975. Seventeen years after the treatment, she was admitted to our institution because of dull pain at right hypochondriac region. Adominal CT demonstrated an extreme hepatic atrophy and tumor mass in the right lobe of the liver. In November, 1991 right trisegmentectomy was performed under the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Laparotomy revealed the extreme atrophy of the right lobe and associated hypertrophy of the left lobe of the liver. In this case radiation hepatitis occurred after irradiation to the liver and it was followed by the extreme hepatic atrophy as a long term effect of high dose irradiation on the liver. (author)

  18. Elevation of oleate-activated phospholipase D activity during thymic atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngkyun; Song, Soo-Mee; Park, Heung Soon; Kim, Sungyeol; Koh, Eun-Hee; Choi, Myung Sun; Choi, Myung-Un

    2002-01-01

    Various phospholipases are thought to be associated with the in vitro apoptosis of thymocytes. In the present study, the in vivo phospholipase D (PLD) activity of rat thymus was studied after whole-body X-irradiation or injection of dexamethasone (DEX). Using exogenous [14C]dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (PC) as the substrate, an elevation of oleate-activated PLD activity was observed during thymic atrophy. The activity increases were sevenfold at 48 hr after 5-Gy irradiation and fourfold at 72 hr after injection of 5 mg/kg DEX. The elevation of PLD activity appeared to parallel extensive thymus shrinkage. An increased level of thymic phosphatidic acid (PA), the presumed physiological product of PLD action on PC, was also detected. By comparing the acyl chains of PA with those of other phospholipids, PA appeared to originate from PC. To assess the role of PLD during thymic atrophy, thymocytes and stromal cells were isolated. Although thymocytes themselves exhibited significant PLD activation, the major elevation in PLD activity (greater than fourfold) was found in isolated stromal cells. PLD was also activated during in vitro phagocytosis of apoptotic thymocytes by the macrophage-like cell line P388D1. This in vitro phagocytosis was significantly inhibited by PLD action blockers, such as 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and 1-butanol. These observations strongly suggest that the alteration of oleate-activated PLD activity is part of an in vivo event in the progression of thymic atrophy, including phagocytic clearance of apoptotic thymocytes. PMID:12460188

  19. Biochemical adaptations of antigravity muscle fibers to disuse atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Studies are presented in four parts of this report. The four parts include; (1) studies to gain information on the molecular basis of atrophy by antigravity muscle; (2) studies on the work capacity of antigravity muscles during atrophy and during recovery from atrophy; (3) studies on recovery of degenerated antigravity fibers after removal of hind-limb casts; and (4) studies on the atrophy and recovery of bone. The philosophy of these studies was to identify the time sequence of events in the soleus muscle of the rat following immobilization of the hind limbs, so that the length of the soleus muscle within the fixed limb is less than its resting length. In two separate studies, no decline in the weight of the soleus muscle could be detected during the first 72 hours of limb immobilization.

  20. Muscles in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy show profound defects in neuromuscular development even in the absence of failure in neuromuscular transmission or loss of motor neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young il; Mikesh, Michelle; Smith, Ian; Rimer, Mendell; Thompson, Wesley

    2011-01-01

    A mouse model of the devastating human disease "spinal muscular atrophy" (SMA) was used to investigate the severe muscle weakness and spasticity that precedes the death of these animals near the end of the 2nd postnatal week. Counts of motor units to the soleus muscle as well as of axons in the soleus muscle nerve showed no loss of motor neurons. Similarly, neither immunostaining of neuromuscular junctions nor the measurement of the tension generated by nerve stimulation gave evidence of any ...

  1. The correlation between histological gastritis staging- 'OLGA/OLGIM' and serum pepsinogen test in assessment of gastric atrophy/intestinal metaplasia in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoteng; Lu, Bin; Meng, Lina; Fan, Yihong; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Meng

    2017-08-01

     pmol/L combined with PG-positive was apparently higher in corpus atrophy group, compared with other two groups (25 versus 11.3 versus 8.1%) (p = .023). Logistic regression modeling showed there exist significant connections between OLGA/OLGIM stages and serum pepsinogen test in patient stratification for gastric mucosal atrophy assessment (p gastritis stage and could provide important information in assessment of atrophy/intestinal metaplasia.

  2. Radiation Dose–Dependent Hippocampal Atrophy Detected With Longitudinal Volumetric Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, Tyler M.; Karunamuni, Roshan [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Bartsch, Hauke [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Kaifi, Samar [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Krishnan, Anitha Priya [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Dalia, Yoseph; Burkeen, Jeffrey; Murzin, Vyacheslav; Moiseenko, Vitali [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Kuperman, Joshua; White, Nathan S. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Brewer, James B. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Farid, Nikdokht [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); McDonald, Carrie R. [Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A., E-mail: jhattangadi@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: After radiation therapy (RT) to the brain, patients often experience memory impairment, which may be partially mediated by damage to the hippocampus. Hippocampal sparing in RT planning is the subject of recent and ongoing clinical trials. Calculating appropriate hippocampal dose constraints would be improved by efficient in vivo measurements of hippocampal damage. In this study we sought to determine whether brain RT was associated with dose-dependent hippocampal atrophy. Methods and Materials: Hippocampal volume was measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 52 patients who underwent fractionated, partial brain RT for primary brain tumors. Study patients had high-resolution, 3-dimensional volumetric MRI before and 1 year after RT. Images were processed using software with clearance from the US Food and Drug Administration and Conformité Européene marking for automated measurement of hippocampal volume. Automated results were inspected visually for accuracy. Tumor and surgical changes were censored. Mean hippocampal dose was tested for correlation with hippocampal atrophy 1 year after RT. Average hippocampal volume change was also calculated for hippocampi receiving high (>40 Gy) or low (<10 Gy) mean RT dose. A multivariate analysis was conducted with linear mixed-effects modeling to evaluate other potential predictors of hippocampal volume change, including patient (random effect), age, hemisphere, sex, seizure history, and baseline volume. Statistical significance was evaluated at α = 0.05. Results: Mean hippocampal dose was significantly correlated with hippocampal volume loss (r=−0.24, P=.03). Mean hippocampal volume was significantly reduced 1 year after high-dose RT (mean −6%, P=.009) but not after low-dose RT. In multivariate analysis, both RT dose and patient age were significant predictors of hippocampal atrophy (P<.01). Conclusions: The hippocampus demonstrates radiation dose–dependent atrophy after treatment for brain

  3. Degree of neutrophil, atrophy, and metaplasia intestinal were associate with malondialdehyde level in gastritis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, G. A.; Sari, D. K.; Sungkar, T.

    2018-03-01

    The main pathogenesis of gastritis is inflammation that closely related to free radicals. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a free radical biomarker and is found to increase in gastritis patients. However, these studies are generally performed on experimental animals as well as MDA examination in gastric mucosa. This study aim was to determine the association of degrees of gastritis (degree of lymphocyte infiltration, neutrophil activity, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia) with plasma MDA level. A cross-sectional study of 80 consecutive gastritis patients who came to an endoscopic unit of Adam Malik General Hospital in Medan, Indonesia, from May–September 2017. Assessed for severity of chronic inflammatory, neutrophil activity, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia refers to Updated Sydney System. Plasma MDA levels were examined using an HPLC MDA kit. Univariate analysis, bivariate (chi-square and Fisher exact test), and multivariate (binary logistic regression test) were programmed with SPSS version 22. There was no significant association between degree of lymphocyte infiltration with MDA level. There were significant associations between degree of neutrophil activity, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia with MDA level (p=0.039, 0.003, 0.021; respectively). The moderate+severe degree of neutrophil activity, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia were associated with high level of MDA.

  4. "THE RELATION OF HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA TO COGNITIVE FUNCTION AND BRAIN ATROPHY IN PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghaffarpour

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment may be a common even at the onset of multiple sclerosis (MS. In this case-control study, we tried to find out the probable relationship between homocysteine levels and cerebral atrophy or cognitive impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis. One hundred fifty six patients who had MS according to McDonald diagnostic criteria were included in this study. Patients’ age, gender, and educational level, MS duration and clinical type, disability, cognitive function state based on minimental state examination (MMSE, presence of hyperhomocysteinemia, and brain atrophy were evaluated. There was no statistically significant relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and cognitive status. Total homocysteine levels had a significant correlation with MMSE score only in those patients with elementary level of education. Also total homocysteine levels and overall cerebral atrophy did not indicate significant relationship according to those independent variables mentioned above except in the patients with EDSS less than 6. When intercaudate ratio > 0.10 was applied as a criterion for cerebral atrophy, we found that hyperhomocysteinemia related significantly to intercaudate ratio > 0.10 in females, aged between 21 and 30 years, MS duration ≤ 5 years, primary progressive MS and relapsing-remitting MS clinical types, EDSS ≤ 3 and elementary level of education. We suggest applying MMSE only for the first step of cognitive function survey. In the next steps, much more exact test must be used (e.g. MSNQ. Also we can not suggest measuring plasma homocysteine level as criterion for monitoring the cognitive function in patients with MS.

  5. One-Dimensional-Ratio Measures of Atrophy Progression in Multiple Sclerosis as Evaluated by Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martola, J.; Wiberg Kristoffersen, M.; Aspelin, P.; Stawiarz, L.; Fredrikson, S.; Hillert, J.; Bergstroem, J.; Flodmark, O.

    2009-01-01

    Background: For decades, normalized one-dimensional (1D) measures have been used in the evaluation of brain atrophy. In multiple sclerosis (MS), the use of normalized linear measures over longitudinal follow-up remains insufficiently documented. Purpose: To evaluate the association between different regional atrophy measures and disability in MS patients over four decades in a longitudinal cross-sectional study. Material and Methods: 37 consecutively selected MS patients were included. At baseline, patients had a range of disease duration (1-33 years) and age (24-65 years). Each patient was followed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for a mean of 9.25 years (range 7.3-10 years). Four 1D measures were applied at three time points on axial 5-mm T1-weighted images. Three clinical MS subgroups were represented: relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), secondary progressive MS (SPMS), and primary progressive MS (PPMS). Results: There were significant changes in all 1D ratios during follow-up. The Evans ratio (ER) and the bifrontal ratio (BFR) were associated with the development of disability. Changes of ER and BFR reflected more aggressive disease progression, as expressed by MS severity score (MSSS). Conclusion: All four normalized ratios showed uniform atrophy progression, suggesting a consistent rate of atrophy over long-term disease duration independent of MS course. Disability status correlated with 1D measures, suggesting that serial evaluation of Evans and bifrontal ratios might contribute to the radiological evaluation of MS patients

  6. Effect of Oenothera odorata Root Extract on Microgravity and Disuse-Induced Muscle Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Hyeon; Seo, Dong-Hyun; Park, Ji-Hyung; Kabayama, Kazuya; Opitz, Joerg; Lee, Kwang Ho; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Tack-Joong

    2015-01-01

    Muscle atrophy, a reduction of muscle mass, strength, and volume, results from reduced muscle use and plays a key role in various muscular diseases. In the microgravity environment of space especially, muscle atrophy is induced by muscle inactivity. Exposure to microgravity induces muscle atrophy through several biological effects, including associations with reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study used 3D-clinostat to investigate muscle atrophy caused by oxidative stress in vitro, and sciatic denervation was used to investigate muscle atrophy in vivo. We assessed the effect of Oenothera odorata root extract (EVP) on muscle atrophy. EVP helped recover cell viability in C2C12 myoblasts exposed to microgravity for 24 h and delayed muscle atrophy in sciatic denervated mice. However, the expressions of HSP70, SOD1, and ceramide in microgravity-exposed C2C12 myoblasts and in sciatic denervated mice were either decreased or completely inhibited. These results suggested that EVP can be expected to have a positive effect on muscle atrophy by disuse and microgravity. In addition, EVP helped characterize the antioxidant function in muscle atrophy.

  7. Evolution of Cerebral Atrophy in a Patient with Super Refractory Status Epilepticus Treated with Barbiturate Coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Newey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Status epilepticus is associated with neuronal breakdown. Radiological sequelae of status epilepticus include diffusion weighted abnormalities and T2/FLAIR cortical hyperintensities corresponding to the epileptogenic cortex. However, progressive generalized cerebral atrophy from status epilepticus is underrecognized and may be related to neuronal death. We present here a case of diffuse cerebral atrophy that developed during the course of super refractory status epilepticus management despite prolonged barbiturate coma. Methods. Case report and review of the literature. Case. A 19-year-old male with a prior history of epilepsy presented with focal clonic seizures. His seizures were refractory to multiple anticonvulsants and eventually required pentobarbital coma for 62 days and midazolam coma for 33 days. Serial brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed development of cerebral atrophy at 31 days after admission to our facility and progression of the atrophy at 136 days after admission. Conclusion. This case highlights the development and progression of generalized cerebral atrophy in super refractory status epilepticus. The cerebral atrophy was noticeable at 31 days after admission at our facility which emphasizes the urgency of definitive treatment in patients who present with super refractory status epilepticus. Further research into direct effects of therapeutic coma is warranted.

  8. Motor features in posterior cortical atrophy and their imaging correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Natalie S; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Lehmann, Manja; Keihaninejad, Shiva; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Leung, Kelvin K; Fox, Nick C; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2014-12-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by impaired higher visual processing skills; however, motor features more commonly associated with corticobasal syndrome may also occur. We investigated the frequency and clinical characteristics of motor features in 44 PCA patients and, with 30 controls, conducted voxel-based morphometry, cortical thickness, and subcortical volumetric analyses of their magnetic resonance imaging. Prominent limb rigidity was used to define a PCA-motor subgroup. A total of 30% (13) had PCA-motor; all demonstrating asymmetrical left upper limb rigidity. Limb apraxia was more frequent and asymmetrical in PCA-motor, as was myoclonus. Tremor and alien limb phenomena only occurred in this subgroup. The subgroups did not differ in neuropsychological test performance or apolipoprotein E4 allele frequency. Greater asymmetry of atrophy occurred in PCA-motor, particularly involving right frontoparietal and peri-rolandic cortices, putamen, and thalamus. The 9 patients (including 4 PCA-motor) with pathology or cerebrospinal fluid all showed evidence of Alzheimer's disease. Our data suggest that PCA patients with motor features have greater atrophy of contralateral sensorimotor areas but are still likely to have underlying Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Motor features in posterior cortical atrophy and their imaging correlates☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Natalie S.; Shakespeare, Timothy J.; Lehmann, Manja; Keihaninejad, Shiva; Nicholas, Jennifer M.; Leung, Kelvin K.; Fox, Nick C.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2014-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by impaired higher visual processing skills; however, motor features more commonly associated with corticobasal syndrome may also occur. We investigated the frequency and clinical characteristics of motor features in 44 PCA patients and, with 30 controls, conducted voxel-based morphometry, cortical thickness, and subcortical volumetric analyses of their magnetic resonance imaging. Prominent limb rigidity was used to define a PCA-motor subgroup. A total of 30% (13) had PCA-motor; all demonstrating asymmetrical left upper limb rigidity. Limb apraxia was more frequent and asymmetrical in PCA-motor, as was myoclonus. Tremor and alien limb phenomena only occurred in this subgroup. The subgroups did not differ in neuropsychological test performance or apolipoprotein E4 allele frequency. Greater asymmetry of atrophy occurred in PCA-motor, particularly involving right frontoparietal and peri-rolandic cortices, putamen, and thalamus. The 9 patients (including 4 PCA-motor) with pathology or cerebrospinal fluid all showed evidence of Alzheimer's disease. Our data suggest that PCA patients with motor features have greater atrophy of contralateral sensorimotor areas but are still likely to have underlying Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25086839

  10. Feasibility of the Medial Temporal lobe Atrophy index (MTAi and derived methods for measuring atrophy of the medial temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco eConejo Bayón

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the Medial Temporal-lobe Atrophy index (MTAi, 2D-Medial Temporal Atrophy (2D-MTA, yearly rate of MTA (yrRMTA and yearly rate of relative MTA (yrRMTA are simple protocols for measuring the relative extent of atrophy in the MTL in relation to the global brain atrophy. Albeit preliminary studies showed interest of these methods in the diagnosis of AD, FTLD and correlation with cognitive impairment in PD, formal feasibility and validity studies remained pending. As a first step, we aimed to assess the feasibility. Mainly, we aimed to assess the reproducibility of measuring the areas needed to compute these indices. We also aimed to assess the efforts needed to start using these methods correctly. Methods: a series of 290 1.5T-MRI studies from 230 subjects ranging 65-85 years old who had been studied for cognitive impairment were used in this study. Six inexperienced tracers (IT plus one experienced tracer (ET traced the three areas needed to compute the indices. Finally, tracers underwent a short survey on their experience learning to compute the MTAi and experience of usage, including items relative to training time needed to understand and apply the MTAi, time to perform a study after training and overall satisfaction. Results: learning to trace the areas needed to compute the MTAi and derived methods is quick and easy. Results indicate very good intrarater ICC for the MTAi, good intrarater ICC for the 2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRMTA and also good interrater ICC for the MTAi, 2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRMTA.Conclusion: our data support that MTAi and derived methods (2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRTMA have good to very good intrarater and interrater reproducibility and may be easily implemented in clinical practice even if new users have no experience tracing the area of regions of interest.

  11. Correlation between Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography and Fundus Autofluorescence at the margins of Geographic Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Manpreet; Kozak, Igor; Cheng, Lingyun; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe G.; Yuson, Ritchie; Nigam, Nitin; Oster, Stephen F.; Mojana, Francesca; Freeman, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose We studied the appearance of margins of Geographic atrophy in high- resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and correlate those changes with fundus autofluorescence imaging. Design Retrospective observational case study. Methods Patients with geographic atrophy secondary to dry age related macular degeneration (ARMD) were assessed by means of Spectral Domain OCT (Spectralis HRA/OCT; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany or OTI, Inc, Toronto, Canada) as well as Autofluoresence Imaging (HRA or Spectralis Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany): The outer retinal layer alterations were analyzed in the junctional zone between normal retina and atrophic retina, and correlated with corresponding fundus autofluorescence. Results 23 eyes of 16 patients aged between 62 years to 96 years were examined. There was a significant association between OCT findings and the fundus autofluorescence findings(r=0.67, pautofluorescence; Smooth margins on OCT correspond significantly to normal fundus autofluorescence. (Kappa-0.7348, pautofluorescence; secondary to increased lipofuscin may together serve as determinants of progression of geographic atrophy. PMID:19541290

  12. Reviewing the options for local estrogen treatment of vaginal atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindahl SH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sarah H Lindahl Sutter East Bay Medical Foundation, SEBMF – Diablo Division, Castro Valley, CA, USA Background: Vaginal atrophy is a chronic condition with symptoms that include vaginal dryness, pain during sex, itching, irritation, burning, and discharge, as well as various urinary problems. Up to 45% of postmenopausal women may be affected, but it often remains underreported and undertreated. This article aims to review the current recommendations for treatment of vaginal atrophy, and current data on the effectiveness and safety of local vaginal estrogen therapies. Methods: Literature regarding vaginal atrophy (2007–2012 was retrieved from PubMed and summarized, with emphasis on data related to the treatment of vaginal atrophy with local vaginal estrogen therapy. Results: Published data support the effectiveness and endometrial safety of low-dose local estrogen therapies. These results further support the general recommendation by the North American Menopause Society that a progestogen is not needed for endometrial protection in patients using low-dose local vaginal estrogen. Benefits of long-term therapy for vaginal atrophy include sustained relief of symptoms as well as physiological improvements (eg, decreased vaginal pH and increased blood flow, epithelial thickness, secretions. Conclusion: Currently available local vaginal estrogen therapies are well tolerated and effective in relieving symptoms of vaginal atrophy. Recent data support the endometrial safety of low-dose regimens for up to 1 year. Keywords: menopause, estrogen, local estrogen therapy, vaginal atrophy

  13. Atrophy-specific MRI brain template for Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonov, Vladimir; Coupe, Pierrick; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed

    Background Rapid brain loss is characteristic for the patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) [1]. Increase of the lateral ventricular volume is strongly correlated with the progression of the disease. High variability in the degree of atrophy for subjects with AD....... Alzheimer's and Dementia, 2010. 6(4, Supplement 1). [3] Fonov, V, et al. NeuroImage, 2011. 54(1).......Background Rapid brain loss is characteristic for the patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) [1]. Increase of the lateral ventricular volume is strongly correlated with the progression of the disease. High variability in the degree of atrophy for subjects with AD...... of the brain and the contrast between different tissue types for the given level of atrophy. Figure 1 shows images through 6 example values of increasing RLVV. Conclusions The proposed method and resulting template will be useful tools for the development of robust automatic image processing methods targeted...

  14. An unusual organ involvement in a case of Werner Syndrome: thyroid atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Altay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Werner Syndrome (WS is a premature aging disease that begins in adolescence or early adulthood and results in the appearance of old age by 30-40 years of age. Some endocrinological abnormalities were manifested in this rare disease, such as hypogonadism, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia. In this article, we present a nineteen years-old female patient who had been diagnosed as WS two years ago because of type 2 diabetes mellitus, osteopenia, hyperlipidemia, cataract, gray hair, and skin atrophy. Subclinical hypothyroidism was detected at her laboratory tests. Thyroid ultrasonography (USG showed thyroid atrophy. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of both lobes confirmed this diagnose and excluded some infiltrative diseases such as amyloidosis. It should be kept in mind that thyroid atrophy could be seen in WS and, therefore, detailed thyroid examination including thyroid USG and close follow up should be performed in all patients with WS. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(2.000: 144-146

  15. Inhibition of apoptosis blocks human motor neuron cell death in a stem cell model of spinal muscular atrophy.

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    Dhruv Sareen

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a genetic disorder caused by a deletion of the survival motor neuron 1 gene leading to motor neuron loss, muscle atrophy, paralysis, and death. We show here that induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC lines generated from two Type I SMA subjects-one produced with lentiviral constructs and the second using a virus-free plasmid-based approach-recapitulate the disease phenotype and generate significantly fewer motor neurons at later developmental time periods in culture compared to two separate control subject iPSC lines. During motor neuron development, both SMA lines showed an increase in Fas ligand-mediated apoptosis and increased caspase-8 and-3 activation. Importantly, this could be mitigated by addition of either a Fas blocking antibody or a caspase-3 inhibitor. Together, these data further validate this human stem cell model of SMA, suggesting that specific inhibitors of apoptotic pathways may be beneficial for patients.

  16. Denervation atrophy is independent from Akt and mTOR activation and is not rescued by myostatin inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. MacDonald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to compare two acquired muscle atrophies and the use of myostatin inhibition for their treatment. Myostatin naturally inhibits skeletal muscle growth by binding to ActRIIB, a receptor on the cell surface of myofibers. Because blocking myostatin in an adult wild-type mouse induces profound muscle hypertrophy, we applied a soluble ActRIIB receptor to models of disuse (limb immobilization and denervation (sciatic nerve resection atrophy. We found that treatment of immobilized mice with ActRIIB prevented the loss of muscle mass observed in placebo-treated mice. Our results suggest that this protection from disuse atrophy is regulated by serum and glucocorticoid-induced kinase (SGK rather than by Akt. Denervation atrophy, however, was not protected by ActRIIB treatment, yet resulted in an upregulation of the pro-growth factors Akt, SGK and components of the mTOR pathway. We then treated the denervated mice with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and found that, despite a reduction in mTOR activation, there is no alteration of the atrophy phenotype. Additionally, rapamycin prevented the denervation-induced upregulation of the mTORC2 substrates Akt and SGK. Thus, our studies show that denervation atrophy is not only independent from Akt, SGK and mTOR activation but also has a different underlying pathophysiological mechanism than disuse atrophy.

  17. Effect of Oenothera odorata Root Extract on Microgravity and Disuse-Induced Muscle Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hyeon Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle atrophy, a reduction of muscle mass, strength, and volume, results from reduced muscle use and plays a key role in various muscular diseases. In the microgravity environment of space especially, muscle atrophy is induced by muscle inactivity. Exposure to microgravity induces muscle atrophy through several biological effects, including associations with reactive oxygen species (ROS. This study used 3D-clinostat to investigate muscle atrophy caused by oxidative stress in vitro, and sciatic denervation was used to investigate muscle atrophy in vivo. We assessed the effect of Oenothera odorata root extract (EVP on muscle atrophy. EVP helped recover cell viability in C2C12 myoblasts exposed to microgravity for 24 h and delayed muscle atrophy in sciatic denervated mice. However, the expressions of HSP70, SOD1, and ceramide in microgravity-exposed C2C12 myoblasts and in sciatic denervated mice were either decreased or completely inhibited. These results suggested that EVP can be expected to have a positive effect on muscle atrophy by disuse and microgravity. In addition, EVP helped characterize the antioxidant function in muscle atrophy.

  18. Additional corpus biopsy enhances the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in a background of gastritis with atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Hung-Chieh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The best sites for biopsy-based tests to evaluate H. pylori infection in gastritis with atrophy are not well known. This study aimed to evaluate the site and sensitivity of biopsy-based tests in terms of degree of gastritis with atrophy. Methods One hundred and sixty-four (164 uninvestigated dyspepsia patients were enrolled. Biopsy-based tests (i.e., culture, histology Giemsa stain and rapid urease test and non-invasive tests (anti-H. pylori IgG were performed. The gold standard of H. pylori infection was defined according to previous criteria. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive rate and negative predictive rate of biopsy-based tests at the gastric antrum and body were calculated in terms of degree of gastritis with atrophy. Results The prevalence rate of H. pylori infection in the 164 patients was 63.4%. Gastritis with atrophy was significantly higher at the antrum than at the body (76% vs. 31%; p Conclusions In moderate to severe gastritis with atrophy, biopsy-based test should include the corpus for avoiding false negative results.

  19. Spinal Muscular Atrophy FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as ALS (Lou Gehrig’s Disease), cystic fibrosis and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Approximately 1 in 50 Americans, or about 6 ... Pediatric Neuromuscular Clinical Research Network ( PNCR ) and the Muscular ... is the SMN2 gene? Muscle weakness and atrophy in SMA results from the ...

  20. Motor Deficits and Cerebellar Atrophy in Elovl5 Knock Out Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxha, Eriola; Gabriele, Rebecca M C; Balbo, Ilaria; Ravera, Francesco; Masante, Linda; Zambelli, Vanessa; Albergo, Cristian; Mitro, Nico; Caruso, Donatella; Di Gregorio, Eleonora; Brusco, Alfredo; Borroni, Barbara; Tempia, Filippo

    2017-01-01

    Spino-Cerebellar-Ataxia type 38 (SCA38) is caused by missense mutations in the very long chain fatty acid elongase 5 gene, ELOVL5 . The main clinical findings in this disease are ataxia, hyposmia and cerebellar atrophy. Mice in which Elovl5 has been knocked out represent a model of the loss of function hypothesis of SCA38. In agreement with this hypothesis, Elovl5 knock out mice reproduced the main symptoms of patients, motor deficits at the beam balance test and hyposmia. The cerebellar cortex of Elovl5 knock out mice showed a reduction of thickness of the molecular layer, already detectable at 6 months of age, confirmed at 12 and 18 months. The total perimeter length of the Purkinje cell (PC) layer was also reduced in Elovl5 knock out mice. Since Elovl5 transcripts are expressed by PCs, whose dendrites are a major component of the molecular layer, we hypothesized that an alteration of their dendrites might be responsible for the reduced thickness of this layer. Reconstruction of the dendritic tree of biocytin-filled PCs, followed by Sholl analysis, showed that the distribution of distal dendrites was significantly reduced in Elovl5 knock out mice. Dendritic spine density was conserved. These results suggest that Elovl5 knock out mice recapitulate SCA38 symptoms and that their cerebellar atrophy is due, at least in part, to a reduced extension of PC dendritic arborization.

  1. Imaging Flow Cytometry Analysis to Identify Differences of Survival Motor Neuron Protein Expression in Patients With Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Reiko; Arakawa, Masayuki; Kaneko, Kaori; Otsuki, Noriko; Aoki, Ryoko; Saito, Kayoko

    2016-08-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the deficient expression of survival motor neuron protein in motor neurons. A major goal of disease-modifying therapy is to increase survival motor neuron expression. Changes in survival motor neuron protein expression can be monitored via peripheral blood cells in patients; therefore we tested the sensitivity and utility of imaging flow cytometry for this purpose. After the immortalization of peripheral blood lymphocytes from a human healthy control subject and two patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 with two and three copies of SMN2 gene, respectively, we used imaging flow cytometry analysis to identify significant differences in survival motor neuron expression. A bright detail intensity analysis was used to investigate differences in the cellular localization of survival motor neuron protein. Survival motor neuron expression was significantly decreased in cells derived from patients with spinal muscular atrophy relative to those derived from a healthy control subject. Moreover, survival motor neuron expression correlated with the clinical severity of spinal muscular atrophy according to SMN2 copy number. The cellular accumulation of survival motor neuron protein was also significantly decreased in cells derived from patients with spinal muscular atrophy relative to those derived from a healthy control subject. The benefits of imaging flow cytometry for peripheral blood analysis include its capacities for analyzing heterogeneous cell populations; visualizing cell morphology; and evaluating the accumulation, localization, and expression of a target protein. Imaging flow cytometry analysis should be implemented in future studies to optimize its application as a tool for spinal muscular atrophy clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mapping of the bovine spinal muscular atrophy locus to Chromosome 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medugorac, Ivica; Kemter, Juliane; Russ, Ingolf; Pietrowski, Detlef; Nüske, Stefan; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Schmahl, Wolfgang; Förster, Martin

    2003-06-01

    A hereditary form of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) caused by an autosomal recessive gene has been reported for American Brown-Swiss cattle and in advanced backcrosses between American Brown-Swiss and many European brown cattle breeds. Bovine SMA (bovSMA) bears remarkable resemblance to the human SMA (SMA1). Affected homozygous calves also show progressive symmetric weakness and neurogenic atrophy of proximal muscles. The condition is characterized by severe muscle atrophy, quadriparesis, and sternal recumbency as result of neurogenic atrophy. We report on the localization of the gene causing bovSMA within a genomic interval between the microsatellite marker URB031 and the telomeric end of bovine Chromosome (Chr) 24 (BTA24). Linkage analysis of a complex pedigree of German Braunvieh cattle revealed a recombination fraction of 0.06 and a three-point lod score of 11.82. The results of linkage and haplotyping analysis enable a marker-assisted selection against bovSMA based on four microsatellite markers most telomeric on BTA24 to a moderate accuracy of 89-94%. So far, this region is not orthologous to any human chromosome segments responsible for twelve distinct disease phenotypes of autosomal neuropathies. Our results indicate the apoptosis-inhibiting protein BCL2 as the most promising positional candidate gene causing bovSMA. Our findings offer an attractive animal model for a better understanding of human forms of SMA and for a probable anti-apoptotic synergy of SMN-BCL2 aggregates in mammals.

  3. Gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina with hyper-ornithinemia responsive to vitamin B6: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javadzadeh Alireza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gyrate atrophy of the retina and choroid is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disease, characterized by progressive chorioretinal atrophy that results in progressive deterioration of peripheral and night vision and leading to blindness. Case presentation This report presents a case of a 28-year-old man consulting for a progressive fall of visual acuity with hemeralopia. Eye fundoscopy showed regions of confluent rounded chorioretinal atrophy. The visual field and retinal angiography were altered. A high level of plasma ornithine (629 nmol/mL was detected and a diagnosis of gyrate atrophy of the retina and choroid was made. The patient was treated with high dose Pyridoxine supplement (300 mg/d for 6 months and the ornithine level of his serum was successfully reduced. Conclusion The exact mechanism of chorioretinal atrophy in hyper-ornithinemia is not known and a small percentage of the affected people respond to Vitamin B6 supplementation.

  4. Computed tomography of skeletal muscles in childhood spinal progressive muscular atrophies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Yumi; Osawa, Makiko; Sumida, Sawako; Shishikura, Keiko; Suzuki, Haruko; Fukuyama, Yukio; Kohno, Atsushi

    1992-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) scanning of skeletal muscles was performed in patients with type 1 and type 2 spinal progressive muscular atrophy (SPMA) and Kugelberg-Welander disease (K-W) to delineate the characteristic CT features of each category. Marked muscular atrophy was observed in type 1 SPMA, and both muscular atrophy and intramuscular low density areas in type 2 SPMA, changes being more pronounced in older patients. In contrast, in K-W, muscular atrophy was slight, and intramuscular low density areas constituted the most prominent findings. These observations indicate that SPMA and K-W are each characterized by distinct CT findings. (author)

  5. Localized atrophy of the thalamus and slowed cognitive processing speed in MS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsland, Niels; Zivadinov, Robert; Dwyer, Michael G; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Benedict, Ralph Hb

    2016-09-01

    Deep gray matter (DGM) atrophy is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), but no studies have investigated surface-based structure changes over time with respect to healthy controls (HCs). Moreover, the relationship between cognition and the spatio-temporal evolution of DGM atrophy is poorly understood. To explore DGM structural differences between MS and HCs over time in relation to neuropsychological (NP) outcomes. The participants were 44 relapsing-remitting and 20 secondary progressive MS patients and 22 HCs. All were scanned using 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and 3-year follow-up. NP examination emphasized consensus standard tests of processing speed and memory. We performed both volumetric and shape analysis of DGM structures and assessed their relationships with cognition. Compared to HCs, MS patients presented with significantly smaller DGM volumes. For the thalamus and caudate, differences in shape were mostly localized along the lateral ventricles. NP outcomes were related to both volume and shape of the DGM structures. Over 3 years, decreased cognitive processing speed was related to localized atrophy on the anterior and superior surface of the left thalamus. These findings highlight the role of atrophy in the anterior nucleus of the thalamus and its relation to cognitive decline in MS. © The Author(s), 2015.

  6. Hippocampal atrophy and developmental regression as first sign of linear scleroderma "en coup de sabre".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhelst, Helene E; Beele, Hilde; Joos, Rik; Vanneuville, Benedicte; Van Coster, Rudy N

    2008-11-01

    An 8-year-old girl with linear scleroderma "en coup de sabre" is reported who, at preschool age, presented with intractable simple partial seizures more than 1 year before skin lesions were first noticed. MRI revealed hippocampal atrophy, controlaterally to the seizures and ipsilaterally to the skin lesions. In the following months, a mental and motor regression was noticed. Cerebral CT scan showed multiple foci of calcifications in the affected hemisphere. In previously reported patients the skin lesions preceded the neurological signs. To the best of our knowledge, hippocampal atrophy was not earlier reported as presenting symptom of linear scleroderma. Linear scleroderma should be included in the differential diagnosis in patients with unilateral hippocampal atrophy even when the typical skin lesions are not present.

  7. Muscle atrophy reversed by growth factor activation of satellite cells in a mouse muscle atrophy model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Hauerslev

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies comprise a large group of inherited disorders that lead to progressive muscle wasting. We wanted to investigate if targeting satellite cells can enhance muscle regeneration and thus increase muscle mass. We treated mice with hepatocyte growth factor and leukemia inhibitory factor under three conditions: normoxia, hypoxia and during myostatin deficiency. We found that hepatocyte growth factor treatment led to activation of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K protein synthesis pathway, up-regulation of the myognic transcription factors MyoD and myogenin, and subsequently the negative growth control factor, myostatin and atrophy markers MAFbx and MuRF1. Hypoxia-induced atrophy was partially restored by hepatocyte growth factor combined with leukemia inhibitory factor treatment. Dividing satellite cells were three-fold increased in the treatment group compared to control. Finally, we demonstrated that myostatin regulates satellite cell activation and myogenesis in vivo following treatment, consistent with previous findings in vitro. Our results suggest, not only a novel in vivo pharmacological treatment directed specifically at activating the satellite cells, but also a myostatin dependent mechanism that may contribute to the progressive muscle wasting seen in severely affected patients with muscular dystrophy and significant on-going regeneration. This treatment could potentially be applied to many conditions that feature muscle wasting to increase muscle bulk and strength.

  8. Petri net-based prediction of therapeutic targets that recover abnormally phosphorylated proteins in muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jinmyung; Kwon, Mijin; Bae, Sunghwa; Yim, Soorin; Lee, Doheon

    2018-03-05

    Muscle atrophy, an involuntary loss of muscle mass, is involved in various diseases and sometimes leads to mortality. However, therapeutics for muscle atrophy thus far have had limited effects. Here, we present a new approach for therapeutic target prediction using Petri net simulation of the status of phosphorylation, with a reasonable assumption that the recovery of abnormally phosphorylated proteins can be a treatment for muscle atrophy. The Petri net model was employed to simulate phosphorylation status in three states, i.e. reference, atrophic and each gene-inhibited state based on the myocyte-specific phosphorylation network. Here, we newly devised a phosphorylation specific Petri net that involves two types of transitions (phosphorylation or de-phosphorylation) and two types of places (activation with or without phosphorylation). Before predicting therapeutic targets, the simulation results in reference and atrophic states were validated by Western blotting experiments detecting five marker proteins, i.e. RELA, SMAD2, SMAD3, FOXO1 and FOXO3. Finally, we determined 37 potential therapeutic targets whose inhibition recovers the phosphorylation status from an atrophic state as indicated by the five validated marker proteins. In the evaluation, we confirmed that the 37 potential targets were enriched for muscle atrophy-related terms such as actin and muscle contraction processes, and they were also significantly overlapping with the genes associated with muscle atrophy reported in the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (p-value net. We generated a list of the potential therapeutic targets whose inhibition recovers abnormally phosphorylated proteins in an atrophic state. They were evaluated by various approaches, such as Western blotting, GO terms, literature, known muscle atrophy-related genes and shortest path analysis. We expect the new proposed strategy to provide an understanding of phosphorylation status in muscle atrophy and to provide assistance towards

  9. Can endurance exercise preconditioning prevention disuse muscle atrophy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Wiggs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that exercise training can provide a level of protection against disuse muscle atrophy. Endurance exercise training imposes oxidative, metabolic, and heat stress on skeletal muscle which activates a variety of cellular signaling pathways that ultimately leads to the increased expression of proteins that have been demonstrated to protect muscle from inactivity –induced atrophy. This review will highlight the effect of exercise-induced oxidative stress on endogenous enzymatic antioxidant capacity (i.e., superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, the role of oxidative and metabolic stress on PGC1-α, and finally highlight the effect heat stress and HSP70 induction. Finally, this review will discuss the supporting scientific evidence that these proteins can attenuate muscle atrophy through exercise preconditioning.

  10. Longitudinal association between hippocampus atrophy and episodic-memory decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbach, Tetiana; Pudas, Sara; Lundquist, Anders; Orädd, Greger; Josefsson, Maria; Salami, Alireza; de Luna, Xavier; Nyberg, Lars

    2017-03-01

    There is marked variability in both onset and rate of episodic-memory decline in aging. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have revealed that the extent of age-related brain changes varies markedly across individuals. Past studies of whether regional atrophy accounts for episodic-memory decline in aging have yielded inconclusive findings. Here we related 15-year changes in episodic memory to 4-year changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter volume and in white-matter connectivity and lesions. In addition, changes in word fluency, fluid IQ (Block Design), and processing speed were estimated and related to structural brain changes. Significant negative change over time was observed for all cognitive and brain measures. A robust brain-cognition change-change association was observed for episodic-memory decline and atrophy in the hippocampus. This association was significant for older (65-80 years) but not middle-aged (55-60 years) participants and not sensitive to the assumption of ignorable attrition. Thus, these longitudinal findings highlight medial-temporal lobe system integrity as particularly crucial for maintaining episodic-memory functioning in older age. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evoked Potentials and Memory/Cognition Tests Validate Brain Atrophy as Measured by 3T MRI (NeuroQuant in Cognitively Impaired Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R Braverman

    Full Text Available To our knowledge, this is the largest study evaluating relationships between 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and P300 and memory/cognitive tests in the literature. The 3T MRI using NeuroQuant has an increased resolution 15 times that of 1.5T MRI. Utilizing NeuroQuant 3T MRI as a diagnostic tool in primary care, subjects (N=169; 19-90 years displayed increased areas of anatomical atrophy: 34.62% hippocampal atrophy (N=54, 57.14% central atrophy (N=88, and 44.52% temporal atrophy (N=69. A majority of these patients exhibited overlap in measured areas of atrophy and were cognitively impaired. These results positively correlated with decreased P300 values and WMS-III (WMS-III scores differentially across various brain loci. Delayed latency (p=0.0740 was marginally associated with temporal atrophy; reduced fractional anisotropy (FA in frontal lobes correlated with aging, delayed P300 latency, and decreased visual and working memory (p=0.0115. Aging and delayed P300 latency correlated with lower FA. The correlation between working memory and reduced FA in frontal lobes is marginally significant (p=0.0787. In the centrum semiovale (CS, reduced FA correlated with visual memory (p=0.0622. Lower demyelination correlated with higher P300 amplitude (p=0.0002. Compared to males, females have higher demyelination (p=0.0064. Along these lines, the higher the P300 amplitude, the lower the bilateral atrophy (p=0.0165. Hippocampal atrophy correlated with increased auditory memory and gender, especially in males (p=0.0087. In considering temporal lobe atrophy correlations: delayed P300 latency and high temporal atrophy (p=0.0740; high auditory memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0417; and high working memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0166. Central atrophy correlated with aging and immediate memory (p=0.0294: the higher the immediate memory, the lower the central atrophy. Generally, the validation of brain atrophy by P300 and WMS-III could lead to cost

  12. Evoked Potentials and Memory/Cognition Tests Validate Brain Atrophy as Measured by 3T MRI (NeuroQuant) in Cognitively Impaired Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Eric R; Blum, Kenneth; Hussman, Karl L; Han, David; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Marin, Gabriela; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Smayda, Richard; Gold, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the largest study evaluating relationships between 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and P300 and memory/cognitive tests in the literature. The 3T MRI using NeuroQuant has an increased resolution 15 times that of 1.5T MRI. Utilizing NeuroQuant 3T MRI as a diagnostic tool in primary care, subjects (N=169; 19-90 years) displayed increased areas of anatomical atrophy: 34.62% hippocampal atrophy (N=54), 57.14% central atrophy (N=88), and 44.52% temporal atrophy (N=69). A majority of these patients exhibited overlap in measured areas of atrophy and were cognitively impaired. These results positively correlated with decreased P300 values and WMS-III (WMS-III) scores differentially across various brain loci. Delayed latency (p=0.0740) was marginally associated with temporal atrophy; reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in frontal lobes correlated with aging, delayed P300 latency, and decreased visual and working memory (p=0.0115). Aging and delayed P300 latency correlated with lower FA. The correlation between working memory and reduced FA in frontal lobes is marginally significant (p=0.0787). In the centrum semiovale (CS), reduced FA correlated with visual memory (p=0.0622). Lower demyelination correlated with higher P300 amplitude (p=0.0002). Compared to males, females have higher demyelination (p=0.0064). Along these lines, the higher the P300 amplitude, the lower the bilateral atrophy (p=0.0165). Hippocampal atrophy correlated with increased auditory memory and gender, especially in males (p=0.0087). In considering temporal lobe atrophy correlations: delayed P300 latency and high temporal atrophy (p=0.0740); high auditory memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0417); and high working memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0166). Central atrophy correlated with aging and immediate memory (p=0.0294): the higher the immediate memory, the lower the central atrophy. Generally, the validation of brain atrophy by P300 and WMS-III could lead to cost

  13. Healthy brain connectivity predicts atrophy progression in non-fluent variant of primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Vilaplana, Eduard; Brown, Jesse A; Hubbard, H Isabel; Binney, Richard J; Attygalle, Suneth; Santos-Santos, Miguel A; Miller, Zachary A; Pakvasa, Mikhail; Henry, Maya L; Rosen, Howard J; Henry, Roland G; Rabinovici, Gil D; Miller, Bruce L; Seeley, William W; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2016-10-01

    longitudinal grey matter changes in the non-fluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia. Graph theoretical analysis of the speech/language network showed that regions with shorter functional paths to the epicentre exhibited greater longitudinal atrophy. The network contained three modules, including a left inferior frontal gyrus/supplementary motor area, which was most strongly connected with the epicentre. The aslant tract was the white matter pathway connecting these two regions and showed the most significant correlation between fractional anisotropy and white matter longitudinal atrophy changes. This study showed that the pattern of longitudinal atrophy progression in the non-fluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia relates to the strength of connectivity in pre-determined functional and structural large-scale speech production networks. These findings support the hypothesis that the spread of neurodegeneration occurs by following specific anatomical and functional neuronal network architectures. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Benefits of Laser Therapy in Postmenopausal Vaginal Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brînzan, Daniela; Pǎiuşan, Lucian; Daşcǎu, Voicu; Furǎu, Gheorghe

    2011-08-01

    Maybe the worst aspect of menopause is the decline of the quality of the sexual life. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the beneficial effects of laser therapy in comparison with topical application of estrogen preparations, for the treatment of vaginal atrophy and sexual dysfunctions induced by menopause. A total of 50 menopausal patients were examined during a one year period. The methods used for objectifying vaginal atrophy and sexual dysfunctions were history taking, local clinical exam and PAP smear. From this group, 40 patients had vaginal atrophy with sexual dysfunctions. They have been treated differently, being included in four groups: patients treated with local estrogens, patients treated with intravaginal laser therapy, patients treated with both laser therapy and estrogens, patients treated with estrogens and placebo laser therapy. Therapeutic benefit, improvement of vaginal atrophy and quality of sexual life, were objectified by anamnesis (questionnaire), local and general clinical examination and PAP smear. The best results have been obtained, by far, in the 3rd group, followed by the women treated only with laser. In conclusion, we can say that laser therapy is the best way for solving the sexual inconveniences of menopause.

  15. A clinical case of dentato-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy (DRPLA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsube, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Shotai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro; Shimada, Yasuo.

    1987-01-01

    Dentato-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy (DRPLA) has been described as an atypical type of spino-cerebellar degeneration by J.K. Smith (1958). Choreo-athetoid movement characterizes the DRPLA. We here report a case of DRPLA that was suspected from clinical symptoms and CT brain examinations. Case report: A 36-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of involuntary movements of the extremities in July, 1978. He had epileptic seizures since the age of 25. Since then, his intelligence had gradually been getting worse. At the same time, dysarthria (slow and slurred speech) also appeared. The neurological examination on admission revealed choreo-athetoid movements, with ataxia of the extremities, trancal ataxia, ataxic speech, moderate dementia, and a disturbance of the smooth-pursuit eye movements. He could not maintain his eye position in a steady gaze, but nystagmus was absent. A brain CT scan revealed a marked atrophy of the upper brain stem and cerebellar peduncle. The cerebral atrophy was mild, and caudate nuclei were spared. The electroencephalograph showed a slow, diffuse, high-voltage wave, with an associated spike and waves. The cerebrospinal fluid examination was normal. An electrophysiological examination revealed no myoclonus in the extremities. These clinical findings suggested that this case is a pseudo-Huntington form of DRPLA. (author)

  16. An MRI study on the relations between muscle atrophy, shoulder function and glenohumeral deformity in shoulders of children with obstetric brachial plexus injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Doorn-Loogman Mirjam H

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A substantial number of children with an obstetric brachial plexus lesion (OBPL will develop internal rotation adduction contractures of the shoulder, posterior humeral head subluxations and glenohumeral deformities. Their active shoulder function is generally limited and a recent study showed that their shoulder muscles were atrophic. This study focuses on the role of shoulder muscles in glenohumeral deformation and function. Methods This is a prospective study on 24 children with unilateral OBPL, who had internal rotation contractures of the shoulder (mean age 3.3 years, range 14.7 months to 7.3 years. Using MR imaging from both shoulders the following parameters were assessed: glenoid form, glenoscapular angle, subluxation of the humeral head, thickness and segmental volume of the subscapularis, infraspinatus and deltoid muscles. Shoulder function was assessed measuring passive external rotation of the shoulder and using the Mallet score for active function. Statistical tests used are t-tests, Spearman's rho, Pearsons r and logistic regression. Results The affected shoulders showed significantly reduced muscle sizes, increased glenoid retroversion and posterior subluxation. Mean muscle size compared to the normal side was: subscapularis 51%, infraspinatus 61% and deltoid 76%. Glenoid form was related to infraspinatus muscle atrophy. Subluxation was related to both infraspinatus and subscapularis atrophy. There was no relation between atrophy of muscles and passive external rotation. Muscle atrophy was not related to the Mallet score or its dimensions. Conclusion Muscle atrophy was more severe in the subscapularis muscle than in infraspinatus and deltoid. As the muscle ratios are not related to passive external rotation nor to active function of the shoulder, there must be other muscle properties influencing shoulder function.

  17. Cognitive Impairments in Multiple System Atrophy of the Cerebellar Type

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    Hyun J. Hong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose We investigated the cognitive profiles in a large sample of patients with multiple system atrophy-cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C and compared directly them in patients with clinical diagnosis of probable MSA-C without dementia and control subjects with intact cognition. Methods We prospectively enrolled 26 patients with clinical diagnosis of probable MSA-C. All patients underwent a standardized neuropsychological test of the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery. Results The score of Korean version of the Mini- Mental State Examination was significantly lower in patients with MSA-C (27.2 ± 2.5 than in control subjects (28.9 ± 1.0, p = 0.003. Patients with MSA-C showed a significantly worse performance in visuospatial function, 3 words recall, verbal immediate, delayed and recognition memory, visual delayed memory, phonemic and sementic Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and ideomotor praxis (p < 0.05. Conclusions Patients with MSA-C show more severe and more widespread cognitive dysfunctions than controls. Our results also indicate that cognitive dysfunction in patients with MCA-C is suggestive of disruption of the cerebellocortical circuits.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myoclonic epilepsy Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... boxes. Description Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (SMA-PME) is a neurological condition that causes ...

  19. Early Detection of Atrophy of Foot Muscles in Chinese Patients of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by High-Frequency Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of high-frequency ultrasonography in detecting atrophy of foot muscles in Chinese patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Chinese patients of T2DM with (n=56 or without (n=50 diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN and the control subjects (n=50 were enrolled. The nondominant foot of all subjects was examined with high-frequency ultrasonography. The transverse diameter, thickness, and cross-sectional area of the extensor digitorum brevis muscle (EDB and the thickness of the muscles of the first interstitium (MILs were measured. The results showed that the ultrasonographic transverse diameter, thickness, and cross-sectional area of EDB and the thickness of MILs in patients of T2DM with DPN were significantly smaller than those in patients of T2DM without DPN (all P<0.01 and those in the control subjects (all P<0.01. The transverse diameter and cross-sectional area of the EDB and thickness of MILs in patients of T2DM without DPN were significantly smaller than those of the control subjects (all P<0.01. In conclusion, the atrophy of foot muscle in Chinese T2DM patients can be detected by high-frequency ultrasonography. Notably, ultrasonography may detect early atrophy of foot muscles in patients without DPN.

  20. Extracellular polysaccharides purified from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001 (Polycan) inhibit dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyung-Rae; Park, Dong-Chan; Jung, Go-Woon

    2018-01-01

    The present study assessed the beneficial skeletal muscle-preserving effects of extracellular polysaccharides from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001 (Polycan) (EAP) on dexamethasone (DEXA)-induced catabolic muscle atrophy in mice. To investigate whether EAP prevented catabolic DEXA-induced muscle atrophy, and to examine its mechanisms of action, EAP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was administered orally, once a day for 24 days. EAP treatment was initiated 2 weeks prior to DEXA treatment (1 mg/kg, once a day for 10 days) in mice. Body weight alterations, serum biochemistry, calf thickness, calf muscle strength, gastrocnemius muscle thickness and weight, gastrocnemius muscle antioxidant defense parameters, gastrocnemius muscle mRNA expression, histology and histomorphometry were subsequently assessed. After 24 days, DEXA control mice exhibited muscle atrophy according to all criteria indices. However, these muscle atrophy symptoms were significantly inhibited by oral treatment with all three doses of EAP. Regarding possible mechanisms of action, EAP exhibited favorable ameliorating effects on DEXA-induced catabolic muscle atrophy via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects; these effects were mediated by modulation of the expression of genes involved in muscle protein synthesis (AKT serine/threonine kinase 1, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, adenosine A1 receptor and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4) and degradation (atrogin-1, muscle RING-finger protein-1, myostatin and sirtuin 1). Therefore, these results indicated that EAP may be helpful in improving muscle atrophies of various etiologies. EAP at 400 mg/kg exhibited favorable muscle protective effects against DEXA-induced catabolic muscle atrophy, comparable with the effects of oxymetholone (50 mg/kg), which has been used to treat various muscle disorders. PMID:29138805

  1. Extent of hippocampal atrophy predicts degree of deficit in recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patai, Eva Zita; Gadian, David G; Cooper, Janine M; Dzieciol, Anna M; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-10-13

    Which specific memory functions are dependent on the hippocampus is still debated. The availability of a large cohort of patients who had sustained relatively selective hippocampal damage early in life enabled us to determine which type of mnemonic deficit showed a correlation with extent of hippocampal injury. We assessed our patient cohort on a test that provides measures of recognition and recall that are equated for difficulty and found that the patients' performance on the recall tests correlated significantly with their hippocampal volumes, whereas their performance on the equally difficult recognition tests did not and, indeed, was largely unaffected regardless of extent of hippocampal atrophy. The results provide new evidence in favor of the view that the hippocampus is essential for recall but not for recognition.

  2. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of muscle atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bonaldo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a plastic organ that is maintained by multiple pathways regulating cell and protein turnover. During muscle atrophy, proteolytic systems are activated, and contractile proteins and organelles are removed, resulting in the shrinkage of muscle fibers. Excessive loss of muscle mass is associated with poor prognosis in several diseases, including myopathies and muscular dystrophies, as well as in systemic disorders such as cancer, diabetes, sepsis and heart failure. Muscle loss also occurs during aging. In this paper, we review the key mechanisms that regulate the turnover of contractile proteins and organelles in muscle tissue, and discuss how impairments in these mechanisms can contribute to muscle atrophy. We also discuss how protein synthesis and degradation are coordinately regulated by signaling pathways that are influenced by mechanical stress, physical activity, and the availability of nutrients and growth factors. Understanding how these pathways regulate muscle mass will provide new therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of muscle atrophy in metabolic and neuromuscular diseases.

  3. Brain atrophy and neuropsychological outcome after treatment of ruptured anterior cerebral artery aneurysms: a voxel-based morphometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendel, Paula; Koskenkorva, Paeivi; Vanninen, Ritva; Koivisto, Timo; Aeikiae, Marja; Niskanen, Eini; Koenoenen, Mervi; Haenninen, Tuomo

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive impairment after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is frequently detected. Here, we describe the pattern of cerebral (gray matter) atrophy and its clinical relevance after treatment of aSAH caused by a ruptured anterior cerebral artery (ACA) aneurysm. Thirty-seven aSAH patients with ACA aneurysm (17 surgical, 20 endovascular treatment) and a good or moderate clinical outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale V or IV) and 30 controls underwent brain MRI. Voxel-based morphometric analysis was applied to compare the patients and controls. Patients also underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment. The comparisons between controls and either all patients (n=37) or the subgroup of surgically treated patients (n=17) revealed bilateral cortical atrophy in the frontal lobes, mainly in the basal areas. The brainstem, bilateral thalamic and hypothalamic areas, and ipsilateral caudate nucleus were also involved. Small areas of atrophy were detected in temporal lobes. The hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus showed atrophy ipsilateral to the surgical approach. In the subgroup of endovascularly treated patients (n = 15), small areas of atrophy were detected in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and in the thalamic region. Twenty patients (54%) showed cognitive deficits in neuropsychological assessment. Group analysis after aSAH and treatment of the ruptured ACA aneurysm revealed gray matter atrophy, principally involving the frontobasal cortical areas and hippocampus ipsilateral to the surgical approach. Areas of reduced gray matter were more pronounced after surgical than endovascular treatment. Together with possible focal cortical infarctions and brain retraction deficits in individual patients, this finding may explain the neuropsychological disturbances commonly detected after treatment of ruptured ACA aneurysms. (orig.)

  4. Brain atrophy and neuropsychological outcome after treatment of ruptured anterior cerebral artery aneurysms: a voxel-based morphometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendel, Paula; Koskenkorva, Paeivi; Vanninen, Ritva [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Koivisto, Timo; Aeikiae, Marja [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Neurosurgery, Kuopio (Finland); Niskanen, Eini [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Neurology, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Physics, Kuopio (Finland); Koenoenen, Mervi [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio (Finland); Haenninen, Tuomo [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Neurology, Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-11-15

    Cognitive impairment after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is frequently detected. Here, we describe the pattern of cerebral (gray matter) atrophy and its clinical relevance after treatment of aSAH caused by a ruptured anterior cerebral artery (ACA) aneurysm. Thirty-seven aSAH patients with ACA aneurysm (17 surgical, 20 endovascular treatment) and a good or moderate clinical outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale V or IV) and 30 controls underwent brain MRI. Voxel-based morphometric analysis was applied to compare the patients and controls. Patients also underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment. The comparisons between controls and either all patients (n=37) or the subgroup of surgically treated patients (n=17) revealed bilateral cortical atrophy in the frontal lobes, mainly in the basal areas. The brainstem, bilateral thalamic and hypothalamic areas, and ipsilateral caudate nucleus were also involved. Small areas of atrophy were detected in temporal lobes. The hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus showed atrophy ipsilateral to the surgical approach. In the subgroup of endovascularly treated patients (n = 15), small areas of atrophy were detected in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and in the thalamic region. Twenty patients (54%) showed cognitive deficits in neuropsychological assessment. Group analysis after aSAH and treatment of the ruptured ACA aneurysm revealed gray matter atrophy, principally involving the frontobasal cortical areas and hippocampus ipsilateral to the surgical approach. Areas of reduced gray matter were more pronounced after surgical than endovascular treatment. Together with possible focal cortical infarctions and brain retraction deficits in individual patients, this finding may explain the neuropsychological disturbances commonly detected after treatment of ruptured ACA aneurysms. (orig.)

  5. Crossed cerebellar atrophy in cases with cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagishita, Toshiyuki; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Hirayama, Keizo; Iwabuchi, Sadamu.

    1989-01-01

    Crossed cerebellar atrophy (CCA) was investigated by X-ray CT to establish the incidence, mechanism, and the relation to cerebral lesions in 130 cases of unilateral supratentorial cerebrovascular diseases. The 130 cases consisted of 83 males and 47 females with cerebral infarction (65 cases) and cerebral hemorrhage (65 cases). The patients' average age was 57.6 years. Crossed cerebellar atrophy was demonstrated in 8 cases (6.2%), 6 of whom had massive cerebral infarction in the middle cerebral artery area (9.2% of the 65 cases of cerebral infarction. The six cases of CCA caused by cerebral infarction had lesions in the frontal and temporal lobes. Two had a cerebral hemorrhage in the putamen and in the thalamus, respectively, accounting for 3.1% of the 65 cases of cerebral hemorrhage. Of the 2 cases, one had putaminal hemorrhage, and the other had thalamic hemorrhage. Cerebrovascular stroke had occured in these patients with CCA more than 2 months previously. In 5 of the 8 cases of CCA, atrophy was present in the basis pedunculi and the basis pontis on the side of the cerebral lesion. However, neither dilation nor deformity of the fourth ventricle was present in any of the patients, suggesting that none of the CCA patients had atrophy of the dentate nucleus. The CCA patients had massive cerebral lesion in the frontal and temporal lobes or atrophy of the basis pedunculi and basis pontis, suggesting the presence of the transsynaptic degeneration of the cortico-ponto-cerebellar pathway. In the case of the thalamic hemorrhage, who had not hemorrhagic lesion in the frontal and temporal lobes, atrophy of the basis peduncli and basis pontis was not observed. Though dilation or deformity of the fourth ventricle is not observed in this case, presence of the degeneration of the dentate-rubro-thalamic pathway cannot be denied. CCA seems to be caused by both the transsynaptic degeneration of the cortico-ponto-cerebellar pathway and the dentate-rubro-thalamic pathway. (J.P.N.)

  6. Living with illness and self-transcendence: the lived experience of patients with spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsin-Mei; Tseng, Ying-Hua; Hsin, Yu-Mei; Chou, Fan-Hao; Lin, Wei-Ting

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the lived experiences of patients afflicted with spinal muscular atrophy. Existing research studies on spinal muscular atrophy address the physical and psychological effects and complications of the disease; they also provide suggestions for how to improve the current management of this disease. However, information is limited on the disease process and the lived experience of spinal muscular atrophy patients. A phenomenological approach was conducted. Through 18 in-depth interviews recorded by a pen voice recorder, this study collected data obtained from a purposive sample of nine patients from the, 'Taiwan spinal muscular atrophy Families,' between November 2010-August 2011. The audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and data were analysed using Colaizzi's steps. Four themes and eight subthemes were identified: a loss of control (loss of muscular strength and independence), breaking limitations (assistive device use and mobility design), transcending limitations (independence/autonomy and social development) and living with hope (cherishing life and self-control). The results showed that the lived experiences of the spinal muscular atrophy patients involved living with illness, transcending the self and pursuing the meaning of life. Facing a life-threatening illness, these patients made self-adjustments in their lifestyles and exerted themselves to positively cope with hardships and maintain dignity and self-control. These findings could serve as evidence-based practice resources for healthcare professionals in helping individuals and their family members gain an in-depth understanding of spinal muscular atrophy's progression and life course and assist individuals in improving self-integrity to with hope. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Progressive cerebral atrophy in neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warabi, Yoko; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Isozaki, Eiji

    2015-12-01

    We report two cases of neuromyelitis optica patients with progressive cerebral atrophy. The patients exhibited characteristic clinical features, including elderly onset, secondary progressive tetraparesis and cognitive impairment, abnormally elevated CSF protein and myelin basic protein levels, and extremely highly elevated serum anti-AQP-4 antibody titer. Because neuromyelitis optica pathology cannot switch from an inflammatory phase to the degenerative phase until the terminal phase, neuromyelitis optica rarely appears as a secondary progressive clinical course caused by axonal degeneration. However, severe intrathecal inflammation and massive destruction of neuroglia could cause a secondary progressive clinical course associated with cerebral atrophy in neuromyelitis optica patients. © The Author(s), 2015.

  8. Reversal of muscle atrophy by Zhimu and Huangbai herb pair via activation of IGF-1/Akt and autophagy signal in cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Pengwei; Zhang, Jinbao; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Mixia; Song, Lili; Lu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Fengqi; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yanjun; Wei, Hongjun; Li, Hongyan

    2016-03-01

    Muscle atrophy is the prominent clinical feature of cancer-induced cachexia. Zhimu and Huangbai herb pair (ZBHP) has been used since ancient China times and have been phytochemically investigated for constituents that might cause anti-cancer, diabetes, and their complication. In this study, the effects and mechanisms of ZBHP on reversal of muscle atrophy were explored. C57BL/6 mice implanted with colon-26 adenocarcinoma were chosen to develop cancer cachexia for evaluating the effects of ZBHP on reversal of muscle atrophy. The body weight, survival time, inflammatory cytokines, and pathological changes of muscle were monitored. In addition, IGF-1/Akt and autophagy pathway members were analyzed to interpret the mechanism of drug response. The function and morphology of skeletal muscle in cachexia model were significantly disturbed, and the survival time was shortened. Consistently, inflammatory cytokines and muscle atrophy-related atrogin-1, MuRF1, and FOXO3 were significantly increased, and IGF-1/Akt and autophagy signal pathways were depressed. Treatment with ZBHP significantly alleviated tumor-free body weight reduction and cachexia-induced changes in cytokines and prolonged survival. ZBHP treatment not only inhibited the muscle atrophy-related genes but also activated the IGF-1/Akt and autophagy signal pathways to facilitate the protein synthesis. The results revealed that ZBHP treatment could inhibit the muscle atrophy induced by cancer cachexia and prolong the survival time, and ZBHP may be of value as a pharmacological alternative in treatment of cancer cachexia.

  9. A case of multiple system atrophy-parkinsonian type with stuttering- and palilalia-like dysfluencies and putaminal atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yoshikazu; Umezaki, Toshiro; Uehara, Taira; Yamaguchi, Hiroo; Yamashita, Koji; Hiwatashi, Akio; Sawatsubashi, Motohiro; Adachi, Kazuo; Yamaguchi, Yumi; Murakami, Daisuke; Kira, Jun-Ichi; Nakagawa, Takashi

    2017-11-14

    Both developmental and acquired stuttering are related to the function of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop, which includes the putamen. Here, we present a case of stuttering- and palilalia-like dysfluencies that manifested as an early symptom of multiple system atrophy-parkinsonian type (MSA-P) and bilateral atrophy of the putamen. The patient was a 72-year-old man with no history of developmental stuttering who presented with a stutter for consultation with our otorhinolaryngology department. The patient was diagnosed with MSA-P based on parkinsonism, autonomic dysfunction, and bilateral putaminal atrophy revealed by T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment with levodopa improved both the motor functional deficits related to MSA-P and stuttering-like dysfluencies while reading; however, the palilalia-like dysfluencies were much less responsive to levodopa therapy. The patient died of aspiration pneumonia two years after his first consultation at our hospital. In conclusion, adult-onset stuttering- and palilalia-like dysfluencies warrant careful examination of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop, and especially the putamen, using neuroimaging techniques. Acquired stuttering may be related to deficits in dopaminergic function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanisms of cisplatin-induced muscle atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Hiroyasu; Sagara, Atsunobu; Arakawa, Kazuhiko; Sugiyama, Ryoto; Hirosaki, Akiko; Takase, Kazuhide; Jo, Ara; Sato, Ken; Chiba, Yoshihiko; Yamazaki, Mitsuaki; Matoba, Motohiro; Narita, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue is the most common side effect of chemotherapy. However, the mechanisms of “muscle fatigue” induced by anti-cancer drugs are not fully understood. We therefore investigated the muscle-atrophic effect of cisplatin, a platinum-based anti-cancer drug, in mice. C57BL/6J mice were treated with cisplatin (3 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 4 consecutive days. On Day 5, hindlimb and quadriceps muscles were isolated from mice. The loss of body weight and food intake under the administration of cisplatin was the same as those in a dietary restriction (DR) group. Under the present conditions, the administration of cisplatin significantly decreased not only the muscle mass of the hindlimb and quadriceps but also the myofiber diameter, compared to those in the DR group. The mRNA expression levels of muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx), muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF1) and forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) were significantly and further increased by cisplatin treated group, compared to DR. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of myostatin and p21 were significantly upregulated by the administration of cisplatin, compared to DR. On the other hand, the phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO3a, which leads to the blockade of the upregulation of MuRF1 and MAFbx, was significantly and dramatically decreased by cisplatin. These findings suggest that the administration of cisplatin increases atrophic gene expression, and may lead to an imbalance between protein synthesis and protein degradation pathways, which would lead to muscle atrophy. This phenomenon could, at least in part, explain the mechanism of cisplatin-induced muscle fatigue. - Highlights: • Cisplatin decreased mass and myofiber diameter in quadriceps muscle. • The mRNA of MAFbx, MuRF1 and FOXO3 were increased by the cisplatin. • The mRNA of myostatin and p21 were upregulated by cisplatin. • The phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO3a was decreased by cisplatin

  11. Mechanisms of cisplatin-induced muscle atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Hiroyasu, E-mail: sakai@hoshi.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Division of Pharmacy Professional Development and Research, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Sagara, Atsunobu; Arakawa, Kazuhiko; Sugiyama, Ryoto; Hirosaki, Akiko; Takase, Kazuhide; Jo, Ara [Department of Pharmacology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Sato, Ken [Department of Pharmacology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Division of Pharmacy Professional Development and Research, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Chiba, Yoshihiko [Department of Biology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Yamazaki, Mitsuaki [Department of Anesthesiology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama-shi, Toyama 9300194 (Japan); Matoba, Motohiro [Department of Palliative Medicine and Psychooncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 1040045 (Japan); Narita, Minoru, E-mail: narita@hoshi.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    Fatigue is the most common side effect of chemotherapy. However, the mechanisms of “muscle fatigue” induced by anti-cancer drugs are not fully understood. We therefore investigated the muscle-atrophic effect of cisplatin, a platinum-based anti-cancer drug, in mice. C57BL/6J mice were treated with cisplatin (3 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 4 consecutive days. On Day 5, hindlimb and quadriceps muscles were isolated from mice. The loss of body weight and food intake under the administration of cisplatin was the same as those in a dietary restriction (DR) group. Under the present conditions, the administration of cisplatin significantly decreased not only the muscle mass of the hindlimb and quadriceps but also the myofiber diameter, compared to those in the DR group. The mRNA expression levels of muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx), muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF1) and forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) were significantly and further increased by cisplatin treated group, compared to DR. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of myostatin and p21 were significantly upregulated by the administration of cisplatin, compared to DR. On the other hand, the phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO3a, which leads to the blockade of the upregulation of MuRF1 and MAFbx, was significantly and dramatically decreased by cisplatin. These findings suggest that the administration of cisplatin increases atrophic gene expression, and may lead to an imbalance between protein synthesis and protein degradation pathways, which would lead to muscle atrophy. This phenomenon could, at least in part, explain the mechanism of cisplatin-induced muscle fatigue. - Highlights: • Cisplatin decreased mass and myofiber diameter in quadriceps muscle. • The mRNA of MAFbx, MuRF1 and FOXO3 were increased by the cisplatin. • The mRNA of myostatin and p21 were upregulated by cisplatin. • The phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO3a was decreased by cisplatin.

  12. Orphan disease: Cherubism, optic atrophy, and short stature

    OpenAIRE

    Balaji Jeevanandham; Rajoo Ramachandran; Vignesh Dhanapal; Ilanchezhian Subramanian; Venkata Sai

    2018-01-01

    A 12-year-old female presented with complaints of progressive visual impairment in both her eyes. On clinical examination, she was short for her age and her ophthalmoscopic examination revealed bilateral optic atrophy. Computed tomography of the patient revealed multiple expansile lytic lesions of mandible suggesting cherubism. The optic atrophy was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging, which additionally revealed bilateral retrocerebellar arachnoid cysts. This association of cherubism wit...

  13. REHABILITATION OF SEVERELY ATROPHIED UPPER JAW WITH INTRAOSSAL DENTAL IMPLANTS - clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Chenchev

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to show the difficulty in prosthetization of a clinical case with a pronounced atrophy of the upper jaw and the various types and nature of restrictions imposed by the requirements of the patient. Methods: The clinical analysis, surgical protocol and prosthetic solution are presented in the treatment of 72 year-old woman with a pronounced atrophy of the upper jaw. OPG, standard CT of the upper jaw was used in the planning and a special surgical template was fabricated, helping us to find intraoperatively the exact locations of implants. The preliminary analysis of the number, height and diameter of intraossal implants helped us to find the exact prosthetic solution in this clinical case. The preparation of the implant bed was done by conical osteotomy in order to expand and condense the existing bone, which allowed us to use endoossal implants with a possible maximum size in a very limited maxillary volume and the reluctance of the patient to use other methods and surgical techniques. Conical threaded and self-tapping intraossal implants were used, placed according to a classic two-stage methodology with a flap and a long-term functional loading after a period of four months.Results and Conclusion: The applied surgical and prosthetic solution allowed us to achieve a good functional and aesthetic rehabilitation in this case of severe atrophy of the upper jaw, following a number of restrictions imposed on us by the reluctance of the patient to use other surgical solutions. This shows that in the case of severe atrophy of the upper jaw, a good clinical result can be achieved. For this reason, the use of CT,a well-planned surgical template, sufficient preparation ,the maximum use of available bone volume and the choice of a good prosthetic solution is very important.

  14. Interactive segmentation for geographic atrophy in retinal fundus images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Noah; Smith, R Theodore; Laine, Andrew F

    2008-10-01

    Fundus auto-fluorescence (FAF) imaging is a non-invasive technique for in vivo ophthalmoscopic inspection of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common cause of blindness in developed countries. Geographic atrophy (GA) is an advanced form of AMD and accounts for 12-21% of severe visual loss in this disorder [3]. Automatic quantification of GA is important for determining disease progression and facilitating clinical diagnosis of AMD. The problem of automatic segmentation of pathological images still remains an unsolved problem. In this paper we leverage the watershed transform and generalized non-linear gradient operators for interactive segmentation and present an intuitive and simple approach for geographic atrophy segmentation. We compare our approach with the state of the art random walker [5] algorithm for interactive segmentation using ROC statistics. Quantitative evaluation experiments on 100 FAF images show a mean sensitivity/specificity of 98.3/97.7% for our approach and a mean sensitivity/specificity of 88.2/96.6% for the random walker algorithm.

  15. Focal CA3 hippocampal subfield atrophy following LGI1 VGKC-complex antibody limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas D; Chong, Trevor T-J; Aimola Davies, Anne M; Ng, Tammy W C; Johnson, Michael R; Irani, Sarosh R; Vincent, Angela; Husain, Masud; Jacob, Saiju; Maddison, Paul; Kennard, Christopher; Gowland, Penny A; Rosenthal, Clive R

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has linked chronic voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody-mediated limbic encephalitis with generalized hippocampal atrophy. However, autoantibodies bind to specific rodent hippocampal subfields. Here, human hippocampal subfield (subiculum, cornu ammonis 1-3, and dentate gyrus) targets of immunomodulation-treated LGI1 VGKC-complex antibody-mediated limbic encephalitis were investigated using in vivo ultra-high resolution (0.39 × 0.39 × 1.0 mm3) 7.0 T magnetic resonance imaging [n = 18 patients, 17 patients (94%) positive for LGI1 antibody and one patient negative for LGI1/CASPR2 but positive for VGKC-complex antibodies, mean age: 64.0 ± 2.55 years, median 4 years post-limbic encephalitis onset; n = 18 controls]. First, hippocampal subfield quantitative morphometry indicated significant volume loss confined to bilateral CA3 [F(1,34) = 16.87, P 3 months from symptom onset) were associated with CA3 atrophy. Third, whole-brain voxel-by-voxel morphometry revealed no significant grey matter loss. Fourth, CA3 subfield atrophy was associated with severe episodic but not semantic amnesia for postmorbid autobiographical events that was predicted by variability in CA3 volume. The results raise important questions about the links with histopathology, the impact of the observed focal atrophy on other CA3-mediated reconstructive and episodic mechanisms, and the role of potential antibody-mediated pathogenicity as part of the pathophysiology cascade in humans. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  16. Brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis: therapeutic, cognitive and clinical impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Rojas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Multiple sclerosis (MS was always considered as a white matter inflammatory disease. Today, there is an important body of evidence that supports the hypothesis that gray matter involvement and the neurodegenerative mechanism are at least partially independent from inflammation. Gray matter atrophy develops faster than white matter atrophy, and predominates in the initial stages of the disease. The neurodegenerative mechanism creates permanent damage and correlates with physical and cognitive disability. In this review we describe the current available evidence regarding brain atrophy and its consequence in MS patients.

  17. Practical one-dimensional measurements of age-related brain atrophy are validated by 3-dimensional values and clinical outcomes: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunham, C. Michael; Cook, Albert J. II; Paparodis, Alaina M.; Huang, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related brain atrophy has been represented by simple 1-dimensional (1-D) measurements on computed tomography (CT) for several decades and, more recently, with 3-dimensional (3-D) analysis, using brain volume (BV) and cerebrospinal fluid volume (CSFV). We aimed to show that simple 1-D measurements would be associated with 3-D values of age-related atrophy and that they would be related to post-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Patients ≥60 years with head trauma were classified with central atrophy (lateral ventricular body width >30 mm) and/or cortical atrophy (sulcus width ≥2.5 mm). Composite atrophy was the presence of central or cortical atrophy. BV and CSFV were computed using a Siemens Syngo workstation (VE60A). Of 177 patients, traits were age 78.3 ± 10, ICH 32.2 %, central atrophy 39.5 %, cortical atrophy 31.1 %, composite atrophy 49.2 %, BV 1,156 ± 198 mL, and CSFV 102.5 ± 63 mL. CSFV was greater with central atrophy (134.4 mL), than without (81.7 mL, p < 0.001). BV was lower with cortical atrophy (1,034 mL), than without (1,211 mL; p < 0.001). BV was lower with composite atrophy (1,103 mL), than without (1,208 mL; p < 0.001). CSFV was greater with composite atrophy (129.1 mL), than without (76.8 mL, p < 0.001). CSFV÷BV was greater with composite atrophy (12.3 %), than without (6.7 %, p < 0.001). Age was greater with composite atrophy (80.4 years), than without (76.3, p = 0.006). Age had an inverse correlation with BV (p < 0.001) and a direct correlation with CSFV (p = 0.0002) and CSFV÷BV (p < 0.001). ICH was greater with composite atrophy (49.4 %), than without (15.6 %; p < 0.001; odds ratio = 5.3). BV was lower with ICH (1,089 mL), than without (1,188 mL; p = 0.002). CSFV÷BV was greater with ICH (11.1 %), than without (8.7 %, p = 0.02). ICH was independently associated with central atrophy (p = 0.001) and cortical atrophy (p = 0.003). Simple 1-D measurements of age-related brain atrophy are associated with 3-D values. Clinical

  18. The effect of exercise hypertrophy and disuse atrophy on muscle contractile properties: a mechanomyographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Christian; Tosovic, Danijel; Seidl, Laura; Mark Brown, J

    2016-12-01

    To determine whether mechanomyographic (MMG) determined contractile properties of the biceps brachii change during exercise-induced hypertrophy and subsequent disuse atrophy. Healthy subjects (mean ± SD, 23.7 ± 2.6 years, BMI 21.8 ± 2.4, n = 19) performed unilateral biceps curls (9 sets × 12 repetitions, 5 sessions per week) for 8 weeks (hypertrophic phase) before ceasing exercise (atrophic phase) for the following 8 weeks (non-dominant limb; treatment, dominant limb; control). MMG measures of muscle contractile properties (contraction time; T c , maximum displacement; D max , contraction velocity; V c ), electromyographic (EMG) measures of muscle fatigue (median power frequency; MPF), strength measures (maximum voluntary contraction; MVC) and measures of muscle thickness (ultrasound) were obtained. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA showed significant differences (P muscle thickness was greater than control, reflecting gross hypertrophy. MMG variables Dmax (weeks 2, 7) and Vc (weeks 7, 8) declined. During the atrophic phase, MVC (weeks 9-12) and muscle thickness (weeks 9, 10) initially remained high before declining to control levels, reflecting gross atrophy. MMG variables D max (weeks 9, 14) and V c (weeks 9, 14, 15) also declined during the atrophic phase. No change in T c was found throughout the hypertrophic or atrophic phases. MMG detects changes in contractile properties during stages of exercise-induced hypertrophy and disuse atrophy suggesting its applicability as a clinical tool in musculoskeletal rehabilitation.

  19. Detection of brain atrophy due to ACTH or corticosteroid therapy with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Isamu; Takei, Tadao; Oota, Hideomi; Maekawa, Kihei.

    1981-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or corticosteroids seemed to cause brain atrophy in intants. We studied the atrophy which was caused by these drugs with computed tomography (CT). 1) Nine cases of infantile spasms examined before, during and after ACTH therepy with CT. Brain atrophy on CT was observed immediately after the completion of ACTH therapy. The brain atrophy receded slightly after several months. It was more marked in younger patients, in cases treated by hight doses of ACTH and in cases where brain atrophy had already been obserbed before ACTH therapy. 2) Twenty cases of infantile spasms or Lennox Gastaut syndrome were examined after ACTH therapy with CT. Brain atrophy was observed in twelve cases. Main features of brain atrophy were the enlargement of sylvian fissure and the widening of subarachnoid space at the frontal or temporal region. Mental retardation was observed in eighteen cases. 3) Two cases of nephrotic syndrome were treated with pulse therapy of prednisolone. CT was carried out before and after treatment. Atrophy of cerebrum was observed in these cases. 4) A case of infantile spasms treated with anticonvulsants without ACTH was studied by electroencephalography (EEG) and CT. The abnormal pattern of EEG was markedly corrected, while brain atrophy on CT was not observed after the therapy. Because of these observations the use of ACTH has to be reconsidered. ACTH should be the drug of second choice for the therapy of infantile spasms and should be used in case other anticonvulsants have no effect. ACTH should be used at lower dosages and for shorter periods of time. (author)

  20. Detection of brain atrophy due to ACTH or corticosteroid therapy with computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamai, I.; Takei, T. (National Sagamihara Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan)); Oota, H.; Maekawa, K.

    1981-07-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or corticosteroids seemed to cause brain atrophy in infants. We studied the atrophy which was caused by these drugs with computed tomography (CT). 1) Nine cases of infantile spasms examined before, during and after ACTH therapy with CT. Brain atrophy on CT was observed immediately after the completion of ACTH therapy. The brain atrophy receded slightly after several months. It was more marked in younger patients, in cases treated by high doses of ACTH and in cases where brain atrophy had already been observed before ACTH therapy. 2) Twenty cases of infantile spasms or Lennox Gastaut syndrome were examined after ACTH therapy with CT. Brain atrophy was observed in twelve cases. Main features of brain atrophy were the enlargement of sylvian fissure and the widening of subarachnoid space at the frontal or temporal region. Mental retardation was observed in eighteen cases. 3) Two cases of nephrotic syndrome were treated with pulse therapy of prednisolone. CT was carried out before and after treatment. Atrophy of cerebrum was observed in these cases. 4) A case of infantile spasms treated with anticonvulsants without ACTH was studied by electroencephalography (EEG) and CT. The abnormal pattern of EEG was markedly corrected, while brain atrophy on CT was not observed after the therapy. Because of these observations the use of ACTH has to be reconsidered. ACTH should be the drug of second choice for the therapy of infantile spasms and should be used in case other anticonvulsants have no effect. ACTH should be used at lower dosages and for shorter periods of time.

  1. Choroidal Round Hyporeflectivities in Geographic Atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Corbelli

    Full Text Available In geographic atrophy (GA, choroidal vessels typically appear on structural optical coherence tomography (OCT as hyperreflective round areas with highly reflective borders. We observed that some GA eyes show choroidal round hyporeflectivities with highly reflective borders beneath the atrophy, and futher investigated the charcteristcs by comparing structural OCT, indocyanine green angiography (ICGA and OCT angiography (OCT-A.Round hyporeflectivities were individuated from a pool of patients with GA secondary to non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration consecutively presenting between October 2015 and March 2016 at the Medical Retina & Imaging Unit of the University Vita-Salute San Raffaele. Patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including ICGA, structural OCT and OCT-A. The correspondence between choroidal round hyporeflectivities beneath GA on structural OCT and ICGA and OCT-A imaging were analyzed.Fifty eyes of 26 consecutive patients (17 females and 9 males; mean age 76.8±6.2 years with GA were included. Twenty-nine round hyporeflectivities have been found by OCT in choroidal layers in 21 eyes of 21 patients (42.0%; estimated prevalence of 57.7%. All 29 round hyporeflectivities showed constantly a hyperreflective border and a backscattering on structural OCT, and appeared as hypofluorescent in late phase ICGA and as dark foci with non detectable flow in the choroidal segmentation of OCT-A. Interestingly, the GA area was greater in eyes with compared to eyes without round hyporeflectivities (9.30±5.74 and 5.57±4.48mm2, respectively; p = 0.01.Our results suggest that most round hyporeflectivities beneath GA may represent non-perfused or hypo-perfused choroidal vessels with non-detectable flow.

  2. Choroidal Round Hyporeflectivities in Geographic Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbelli, Eleonora; Sacconi, Riccardo; De Vitis, Luigi Antonio; Carnevali, Adriano; Rabiolo, Alessandro; Querques, Lea; Bandello, Francesco; Querques, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    In geographic atrophy (GA), choroidal vessels typically appear on structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) as hyperreflective round areas with highly reflective borders. We observed that some GA eyes show choroidal round hyporeflectivities with highly reflective borders beneath the atrophy, and futher investigated the charcteristcs by comparing structural OCT, indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and OCT angiography (OCT-A). Round hyporeflectivities were individuated from a pool of patients with GA secondary to non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration consecutively presenting between October 2015 and March 2016 at the Medical Retina & Imaging Unit of the University Vita-Salute San Raffaele. Patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including ICGA, structural OCT and OCT-A. The correspondence between choroidal round hyporeflectivities beneath GA on structural OCT and ICGA and OCT-A imaging were analyzed. Fifty eyes of 26 consecutive patients (17 females and 9 males; mean age 76.8±6.2 years) with GA were included. Twenty-nine round hyporeflectivities have been found by OCT in choroidal layers in 21 eyes of 21 patients (42.0%; estimated prevalence of 57.7%). All 29 round hyporeflectivities showed constantly a hyperreflective border and a backscattering on structural OCT, and appeared as hypofluorescent in late phase ICGA and as dark foci with non detectable flow in the choroidal segmentation of OCT-A. Interestingly, the GA area was greater in eyes with compared to eyes without round hyporeflectivities (9.30±5.74 and 5.57±4.48mm2, respectively; p = 0.01). Our results suggest that most round hyporeflectivities beneath GA may represent non-perfused or hypo-perfused choroidal vessels with non-detectable flow.

  3. Evaluating anorexia-related brain atrophy using MP2RAGE-based morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boto, Jose; Loevblad, Karl-Olof; Vargas, Maria Isabel; Gkinis, Georgios; Ortiz, Nadia; Roche, Alexis; Kober, Tobias; Marechal, Benedicte; University Hospital; Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; Lazeyras, Francois

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate brain atrophy in anorexic patients by automated cerebral segmentation with the magnetization-prepared 2 rapid acquisition gradient echo (MP2RAGE) MRI sequence. Twenty patients (female; mean age, 27.9 years), presenting consecutively for brain MRI between August 2014-December 2016 with clinical suspicion of anorexia nervosa and BMI<18.5 kg/m 2 were included. Controls were ten healthy females (mean age, 26.5 years). Automated brain morphometry was performed based on MP2RAGE. Means of morphometric results in the two groups were compared and correlation with BMI was analysed. Significantly lower volumes of total brain, grey matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebellum and insula were found in anorexic patients. Anorexics had higher volumes of CSF, ventricles, lateral ventricles and third ventricle. When adjusted means for weight and height were compared, the volume of WM and cerebellum were not significantly different. However, volume of WM was significantly affected by weight and positively correlated with BMI. Significant positive correlations were found between BMI and volumes of total brain, GM, cortical GM and WM. BMI was negatively correlated with volumes of CSF and third ventricle. Brain atrophy was demonstrated in anorexic patients with MP2RAGE-based automated segmentation, which seems to reliably estimate brain volume. (orig.)

  4. Evaluating anorexia-related brain atrophy using MP2RAGE-based morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boto, Jose; Loevblad, Karl-Olof; Vargas, Maria Isabel [Geneva University Hospital (Switzerland). Div. of Neuroradiology and Faculty of Medicine of Geneva; Gkinis, Georgios; Ortiz, Nadia [Geneva University Hospital (Switzerland). Dept. of Mental Health and Psychiatry; Roche, Alexis; Kober, Tobias; Marechal, Benedicte [Siemens Healthcare HC CEMEA SUI DI BM PI, Lausanne (Switzerland). Siemens ACIT, Advanced Clinical Imaging Technology; University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne (Switzerland). Dept. of Radiology; Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). LTS5; Lazeyras, Francois [Geneva University Hospital (Switzerland). Div. of Radiology and Faculty of Medicine of Geneva

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate brain atrophy in anorexic patients by automated cerebral segmentation with the magnetization-prepared 2 rapid acquisition gradient echo (MP2RAGE) MRI sequence. Twenty patients (female; mean age, 27.9 years), presenting consecutively for brain MRI between August 2014-December 2016 with clinical suspicion of anorexia nervosa and BMI<18.5 kg/m{sup 2} were included. Controls were ten healthy females (mean age, 26.5 years). Automated brain morphometry was performed based on MP2RAGE. Means of morphometric results in the two groups were compared and correlation with BMI was analysed. Significantly lower volumes of total brain, grey matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebellum and insula were found in anorexic patients. Anorexics had higher volumes of CSF, ventricles, lateral ventricles and third ventricle. When adjusted means for weight and height were compared, the volume of WM and cerebellum were not significantly different. However, volume of WM was significantly affected by weight and positively correlated with BMI. Significant positive correlations were found between BMI and volumes of total brain, GM, cortical GM and WM. BMI was negatively correlated with volumes of CSF and third ventricle. Brain atrophy was demonstrated in anorexic patients with MP2RAGE-based automated segmentation, which seems to reliably estimate brain volume. (orig.)

  5. Dominant optic atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenaers Guy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definition of the disease Dominant Optic Atrophy (DOA is a neuro-ophthalmic condition characterized by a bilateral degeneration of the optic nerves, causing insidious visual loss, typically starting during the first decade of life. The disease affects primary the retinal ganglion cells (RGC and their axons forming the optic nerve, which transfer the visual information from the photoreceptors to the lateral geniculus in the brain. Epidemiology The prevalence of the disease varies from 1/10000 in Denmark due to a founder effect, to 1/30000 in the rest of the world. Clinical description DOA patients usually suffer of moderate visual loss, associated with central or paracentral visual field deficits and color vision defects. The severity of the disease is highly variable, the visual acuity ranging from normal to legal blindness. The ophthalmic examination discloses on fundoscopy isolated optic disc pallor or atrophy, related to the RGC death. About 20% of DOA patients harbour extraocular multi-systemic features, including neurosensory hearing loss, or less commonly chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, myopathy, peripheral neuropathy, multiple sclerosis-like illness, spastic paraplegia or cataracts. Aetiology Two genes (OPA1, OPA3 encoding inner mitochondrial membrane proteins and three loci (OPA4, OPA5, OPA8 are currently known for DOA. Additional loci and genes (OPA2, OPA6 and OPA7 are responsible for X-linked or recessive optic atrophy. All OPA genes yet identified encode mitochondrial proteins embedded in the inner membrane and ubiquitously expressed, as are the proteins mutated in the Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy. OPA1 mutations affect mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism, control of apoptosis, calcium clearance and maintenance of mitochondrial genome integrity. OPA3 mutations only affect the energy metabolism and the control of apoptosis. Diagnosis Patients are usually diagnosed during their early childhood, because of

  6. The yearly rate of Relative Thalamic Atrophy (yrRTA: a simple 2D/3D method for estimating deep gray matter atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis

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    Manuel eMenéndez-González

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite a strong correlation to outcome, the measurement of gray matter (GM atrophy is not being used in daily clinical practice as a prognostic factor and monitor the effect of treatments in Multiple Sclerosis (MS. This is mainly because the volumetric methods available to date are sophisticated and difficult to implement for routine use in most hospitals. In addition, the meaning of raw results from volumetric studies on regions of interest are not always easy to understand. Thus, there is a huge need of a methodology suitable to be applied in daily clinical practice in order to estimate GM atrophy in a convenient and comprehensive way. Given the thalamus is the brain structure found to be more consistently implied in MS both in terms of extent of atrophy and in terms of prognostic value, we propose a solution based in this structure. In particular, we propose to compare the extent of thalamus atrophy (TA with the extent of unspecific, global brain atrophy, represented by ventricular enlargement. We name this ratio the yearly rate of Relative Thalamic Atrophy (yrRTA. In this report we aim to describe the concept of yrRTA and the guidelines for computing it under 2D and 3D approaches and explain the rationale behind this method. We have also conducted a very short crossectional retrospective study to proof the concept of yrRTA. However, we do not seek to describe here the validity of this parameter since these researches are being conducted currently and results will be addressed in future publications.

  7. The yearly rate of Relative Thalamic Atrophy (yrRTA): a simple 2D/3D method for estimating deep gray matter atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-González, Manuel; Salas-Pacheco, José M; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Despite a strong correlation to outcome, the measurement of gray matter (GM) atrophy is not being used in daily clinical practice as a prognostic factor and monitor the effect of treatments in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). This is mainly because the volumetric methods available to date are sophisticated and difficult to implement for routine use in most hospitals. In addition, the meanings of raw results from volumetric studies on regions of interest are not always easy to understand. Thus, there is a huge need of a methodology suitable to be applied in daily clinical practice in order to estimate GM atrophy in a convenient and comprehensive way. Given the thalamus is the brain structure found to be more consistently implied in MS both in terms of extent of atrophy and in terms of prognostic value, we propose a solution based in this structure. In particular, we propose to compare the extent of thalamus atrophy with the extent of unspecific, global brain atrophy, represented by ventricular enlargement. We name this ratio the "yearly rate of Relative Thalamic Atrophy" (yrRTA). In this report we aim to describe the concept of yrRTA and the guidelines for computing it under 2D and 3D approaches and explain the rationale behind this method. We have also conducted a very short crossectional retrospective study to proof the concept of yrRTA. However, we do not seek to describe here the validity of this parameter since these researches are being conducted currently and results will be addressed in future publications.

  8. Corpus callosum atrophy in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian Steen; Garde, Ellen; Skimminge, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have found atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unclear whether callosal atrophy is already present in the early stages of AD, and to what extent it may be associated with other structural changes in the brain......, such as age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) and progression of the disease....

  9. Use of various free flaps in progressive hemifacial atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Rongmin; Heo, Chanyeong; Kim, Baek-kyu

    2011-11-01

    Romberg disease is an uncommon condition manifested by progressive hemifacial atrophy of the skin, soft tissue, and bone. Facial asymmetry with soft tissue deficiency in Romberg disease causes a significant disability affecting the social life and can bring about many psychological problems. The aim of surgical treatment is cosmetic amelioration of the defect. Several conventional reconstructive procedures have been used for correcting facial asymmetry. They include fat injections, dermal fat grafts, filler injections, cartilage and bone grafts, and pedicled and free flaps. We report our experiences with 11 patients involving 11 free flaps with a minimum 1-year follow-up. All patients were classified as having moderate to severe atrophy. The average age at disease onset was 4.5 years; the average duration of atrophy was 5.2 years. No patients were operated on with a quiescent interval of less than 1 year. The average age at operation was 20.1 years, ranging from 10 to 55 years. Reconstruction was performed using 4 groin dermofat free flaps, 4 latissimus dorsi muscle free flaps, and 3 other perforator flaps. To achieve the finest symmetrical and aesthetic results, several ancillary procedures were performed in 4 patients. These procedures included Le Fort I leveling osteotomy, sagittal split ramus osteotomy, reduction malarplasty and angle plasty, rib and calvarial bone graft, correction of alopecia, and additional fat graft. All patients were satisfied with the results. We believe that a free flap transfer is the requisite treatment modality for severe degree of facial asymmetry in Romberg disease.

  10. Brain atrophy at onset and physical disability in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Rojas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate if brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS patients during the disease onset predicts long term disability. METHODS: MS patients with follow-up time of at least 7 years from disease onset and with baseline and second magnetic resonance 12 months later were included to measure brain atrophy. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS was categorized in three groups, EDSS=0, EDSS=1 and 2.5 and EDSS>2.5, and used as disability measure. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were included. Mean atrophy during the first year in patients that reached an EDSS≥3 was -0.76±0.45 %, in patients with an EDSS between 1 and 2.5 was -0.59±0.56, while in patients with an EDSS of 0 it was -0.38±0.42 (p=0.003. DISCUSSION: Brain atrophy rates during the first year of disease were predictive of disease progression in our population.

  11. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and medial temporal lobe atrophy: the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korf, E S C; van Straaten, E C W; de Leeuw, F-E

    2007-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS: Based on recent findings on the association between vascular risk factors and hippocampal atrophy, we hypothesized that hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) in subjects without disability, independent of the severity of white...... matter hyperintensities. METHODS: In the Leukoaraiosis And DISability in the elderly (LADIS) study, we investigated the relationships between DM, hypertension, blood pressure and MTA in 582 subjects, stratified by white matter hyperintensity severity, using multinomial logistic regression. MTA...... was visually scored for the left and right medial temporal lobe (score 0-4), and meaned. RESULTS: Mean age was 73.5 years (sd 5.1), 54% was female. Of the subjects, 15% had DM, and 70% had a history of hypertension. The likelihood of having MTA score 3 was significantly higher in subjects with DM (OR 2.9; 95...

  12. Cortical thickness, surface area and volume measures in Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy.

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    Amanda Worker

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, Multiple System Atrophy (MSA and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP are neurodegenerative diseases that can be difficult to distinguish clinically. The objective of the current study was to use surface-based analysis techniques to assess cortical thickness, surface area and grey matter volume to identify unique morphological patterns of cortical atrophy in PD, MSA and PSP and to relate these patterns of change to disease duration and clinical features.High resolution 3D T1-weighted MRI volumes were acquired from 14 PD patients, 18 MSA, 14 PSP and 19 healthy control participants. Cortical thickness, surface area and volume analyses were carried out using the automated surface-based analysis package FreeSurfer (version 5.1.0. Measures of disease severity and duration were assessed for correlation with cortical morphometric changes in each clinical group.Results show that in PSP, widespread cortical thinning and volume loss occurs within the frontal lobe, particularly the superior frontal gyrus. In addition, PSP patients also displayed increased surface area in the pericalcarine. In comparison, PD and MSA did not display significant changes in cortical morphology.These results demonstrate that patients with clinically established PSP exhibit distinct patterns of cortical atrophy, particularly affecting the frontal lobe. These results could be used in the future to develop a useful clinical application of MRI to distinguish PSP patients from PD and MSA patients.

  13. Frequent seizures are associated with a network of gray matter atrophy in temporal lobe epilepsy with or without hippocampal sclerosis.

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    Ana C Coan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE with hippocampal sclerosis (HS have diffuse subtle gray matter (GM atrophy detectable by MRI quantification analyses. However, it is not clear whether the etiology and seizure frequency are associated with this atrophy. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence of GM atrophy and the influence of seizure frequency in patients with TLE and either normal MRI (TLE-NL or MRI signs of HS (TLE-HS. METHODS: We evaluated a group of 172 consecutive patients with unilateral TLE-HS or TLE-NL as defined by hippocampal volumetry and signal quantification (122 TLE-HS and 50 TLE-NL plus a group of 82 healthy individuals. Voxel-based morphometry was performed with VBM8/SPM8 in 3T MRIs. Patients with up to three complex partial seizures and no generalized tonic-clonic seizures in the previous year were considered to have infrequent seizures. Those who did not fulfill these criteria were considered to have frequent seizures. RESULTS: Patients with TLE-HS had more pronounced GM atrophy, including the ipsilateral mesial temporal structures, temporal lobe, bilateral thalami and pre/post-central gyri. Patients with TLE-NL had more subtle GM atrophy, including the ipsilateral orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral thalami and pre/post-central gyri. Both TLE-HS and TLE-NL showed increased GM volume in the contralateral pons. TLE-HS patients with frequent seizures had more pronounced GM atrophy in extra-temporal regions than TLE-HS with infrequent seizures. Patients with TLE-NL and infrequent seizures had no detectable GM atrophy. In both TLE-HS and TLE-NL, the duration of epilepsy correlated with GM atrophy in extra-hippocampal regions. CONCLUSION: Although a diffuse network GM atrophy occurs in both TLE-HS and TLE-NL, this is strikingly more evident in TLE-HS and in patients with frequent seizures. These findings suggest that neocortical atrophy in TLE is related to the ongoing seizures and epilepsy duration, while thalamic

  14. Artificial urinary sphincter revision for urethral atrophy: comparing single cuff downsizing and tandem cuff placement

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    Brian J. Linder

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To compare outcomes for single urethral cuff downsizing versus tandem cuff placement during artificial urinary sphincter (AUS revision for urethral atrophy. Materials and Methods We identified 1778 AUS surgeries performed at our institution from 1990-2014. Of these, 406 were first AUS revisions, including 69 revisions for urethral atrophy. Multiple clinical and surgical variables were evaluated for potential association with device outcomes following revision, including surgical revision strategy (downsizing a single urethral cuff versus placing tandem urethral cuffs. Results Of the 69 revision surgeries for urethral atrophy at our institution, 56 (82% were tandem cuff placements, 12 (18% were single cuff downsizings and one was relocation of a single cuff. When comparing tandem cuff placements and single cuff downsizings, the cohorts were similar with regard to age (p=0.98, body-mass index (p=0.95, prior pelvic radiation exposure (p=0.73 and length of follow-up (p=0.12. Notably, there was no difference in 3-year overall device survival compared between single cuff and tandem cuff revisions (60% versus 76%, p=0.94. Likewise, no significant difference was identified for tandem cuff placement (ref. single cuff when evaluating the risk of any tertiary surgery (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.32-4.12, p=0.94 or urethral erosion/device infection following revision (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.20-5.22, p=0.77. Conclusions There was no significant difference in overall device survival in patients undergoing single cuff downsizing or tandem cuff placement during AUS revision for urethral atrophy.

  15. Effect of tamoxifen on fatty degeneration and atrophy of rotator cuff muscles in chronic rotator cuff tear: An animal model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Edward; Zhang, Yue; Pruznak, Anne; Kim, H Mike

    2015-12-01

    Fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles is an irreversible change resulting from chronic rotator cuff tear and is associated with poor clinical outcomes following rotator cuff repair. We evaluated the effect of Tamoxifen, a competitive estrogen receptor inhibitor, on fatty degeneration using a mouse model for chronic rotator cuff tear. Sixteen adult mice were divided into two diet groups (Tamoxifen vs. Regular) and subjected to surgical creation of a large rotator cuff tear and suprascapular nerve transection in their left shoulder with the right shoulder serving as a control. The rotator cuff muscles were harvested at 16 weeks and subjected to histology and RT-PCR for adipogenic and myogenic markers. Histology showed substantially decreased atrophy and endomysial inflammation in Tamoxifen group, but no significant differences in the amount of intramuscular adipocytes and lipid droplets compared to the Regular group. With RT-PCR, the operated shoulders showed significant upregulation of myogenin and PPAR-γ, and downregulation of myostatin compared to the nonsurgical shoulder. No significant differences of gene expression were found between the two diet groups. Our study demonstrated that tamoxifen diet leads to decreased muscle atrophy and inflammatory changes following chronic rotator cuff tear, but has no apparent effect on adipogenesis. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. αA crystallin may protect against geographic atrophy-meta-analysis of cataract vs. cataract surgery for geographic atrophy and experimental studies.

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    Peng Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cataract and geographic atrophy (GA, also called advanced "dry" age-related macular degeneration are the two major causes of visual impairment in the developed world. The association between cataract surgery and the development of GA was controversial in previous studies. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a meta-analysis by pooling the current evidence in literature and found that cataract is associated with an increased risk of geographic atrophy with a summary odds ratio (OR of 3.75 (95% CI: 95% CI: 1.84-7.62. However, cataract surgery is not associated with the risk of geographic atrophy (polled OR=3.23, 95% CI: 0.63-16.47. Further experiments were performed to analyze how the αA-crystallin, the major component of the lens, influences the development of GA in a mouse model. We found that theαA-crystallin mRNA and protein expression increased after oxidative stress induced by NaIO(3 in immunohistochemistry of retinal section and western blot of posterior eyecups. Both functional and histopathological evidence confirmed that GA is more severe in αA-crystallin knockout mice compared to wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, αA-crystallin may protect against geographic atrophy. This study provides a better understanding of the relationship between cataract, cataract surgery, and GA.

  17. The association of cognitive impairment with gray matter atrophy and cortical lesion load in clinically isolated syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diker, Sevda; Has, Arzu Ceylan; Kurne, Aslı; Göçmen, Rahşan; Oğuz, Kader Karlı; Karabudak, Rana

    2016-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis can impair cognition from the early stages and has been shown to be associated with gray matter damage in addition to white matter pathology. To investigate the profile of cognitive impairment in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), and the contribution of cortical inflammation, cortical and deep gray matter atrophy, and white matter lesions to cognitive decline. Thirty patients with clinically isolated syndrome and twenty demographically- matched healthy controls underwent neuropsychologic assessment through the Rao Brief Repeatable Battery, and brain magnetic resonance imaging with double inversion recovery using a 3T scanner. Patients with clinically isolated syndrome performed significantly worse than healthy controls on tests that evaluated verbal memory, visuospatial learning and memory, and verbal fluency. Significant deep gray matter atrophy was found in the patients but cortical volume was not lower than the controls. Visual memory tests correlated with the volume of the hippocampus, cerebral white matter and deep gray matter structures and with cerebellar cortical atrophy. Cortical or white matter lesion load did not affect cognitive test results. In our patients with CIS, it was shown that cognitive impairment was mainly related to cerebral white matter, cerebellar cortical and deep gray matter atrophy, but not with cortical inflammation, at least in the early stage of disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical Study White Matter Atrophy in Patients with Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Voxel-Based Morphometry Analysis of T1- and T2-Weighted MR Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, B.; Yasuda, C.L.; Cendes, F.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis is highly refractory to clinical treatment. MRI voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of T1-weighted images has revealed a widespread pattern of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) atrophy in MTLE. Few studies have investigated the role of T2-weighted images in revealing WM atrophy using VBM. Objectives. To compare the results of WM atrophy between T1- and T2-weighted images through VBM. Methods. We selected 28 patients with left and 27 with right MTLE and 60 normal controls. We analyzed T1- and T2- weighted images with SPM8, using VBM/DARTEL algorithm to extract maps of GM and WM. The second level of SPM was used to investigate areas of WM atrophy among groups. Results. Both acquisitions showed bilateral widespread WM atrophy. T1-weighted images showed higher sensibility to detect areas of WM atrophy in both groups of MTLE. T2-weighted images also showed areas of WM atrophy in a more restricted pattern, but still bilateral and with a large area of superposition with T1-weighted images. Conclusions. In MTLE, T1-weighted images are more sensitive to detect subtle WM abnormalities using VBM, compared to T2 images, although both present a good superposition of statistical maps. 1. Introduction The mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is highly refractory to pharmacological treatment [1], and it is the main group of epilepsy referred to the tertiary care hospitals for surgical treatment [2]. MTLE shows a good surgical prognosis, with satisfactory seizures control in 60-80% of the patients [3]. In approximately 65%

  19. Atomoxetine Prevents Dexamethasone-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesinkey, Sean R.; Korrapati, Midhun C.; Rasbach, Kyle A.; Beeson, Craig C.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy remains a clinical problem in numerous pathologic conditions. β2-Adrenergic receptor agonists, such as formoterol, can induce mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) to prevent such atrophy. Additionally, atomoxetine, an FDA-approved norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, was positive in a cellular assay for MB. We used a mouse model of dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle atrophy to investigate the potential role of atomoxetine and formoterol to prevent muscle mass loss. Mice were administered dexamethasone once daily in the presence or absence of formoterol (0.3 mg/kg), atomoxetine (0.1 mg/kg), or sterile saline. Animals were euthanized at 8, 16, and 24 hours or 8 days later. Gastrocnemius muscle weights, changes in mRNA and protein expression of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 α (PGC-1α) isoforms, ATP synthase β, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 β subcomplex, 8, ND1, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), myostatin, muscle Ring-finger protein-1 (muscle atrophy), phosphorylated forkhead box protein O 3a (p-FoxO3a), Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and ribosomal protein S6 (rp-S6; muscle hypertrophy) in naive and muscle-atrophied mice were measured. Atomoxetine increased p-mTOR 24 hours after treatment in naïve mice, but did not change any other biomarkers. Formoterol robustly activated the PGC-1α-4-IGF1–Akt-mTOR-rp-S6 pathway and increased p-FoxO3a as early as 8 hours and repressed myostatin at 16 hours. In contrast to what was observed with acute treatment, chronic treatment (7 days) with atomoxetine increased p-Akt and p-FoxO3a, and sustained PGC-1α expression and skeletal muscle mass in dexamethasone-treated mice, in a manner comparable to formoterol. In conclusion, chronic treatment with a low dose of atomoxetine prevented dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle wasting and supports a potential role in preventing muscle atrophy. PMID:25292181

  20. Does successful rotator cuff repair improve muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff? A retrospective magnetic resonance imaging study performed shortly after surgery as a reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Noritaka; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Shitara, Hitoshi; Ichinose, Tsuyoshi; Shimoyama, Daisuke; Sasaki, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Kakuta, Yohei; Osawa, Toshihisa; Takagishi, Kenji

    2017-06-01

    Muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration in the rotator cuff muscles are often observed in patients with chronic rotator cuff tears. The recovery from these conditions has not been clarified. Ninety-four patients were included in this study. The improvement in muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration in successfully repaired rotator cuff tears was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging at 1 year and 2 years after surgery and was compared with muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration observed on magnetic resonance imaging at 2 weeks after surgery to discount any changes due to the medial retraction of the torn tendon. The patients' muscle strength was evaluated in abduction and external rotation. Muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration of the supraspinatus were significantly improved at 2 years after surgery in comparison to 2 weeks after surgery. The subjects' abduction and external rotation strength was also significantly improved at 2 years after surgery in comparison to the preoperative values. Patients whose occupation ratio was improved had a better abduction range of motion, stronger abduction strength, and higher Constant score. Patients whose fatty infiltration was improved had a better range of motion in flexion and abduction, whereas the improvements of muscle strength and the Constant score were similar in the group that showed an improvement of fatty infiltration and the group that did not. Muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration can improve after rotator cuff repair. The strengths of abduction and external rotation were also improved at 2 years after surgery. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A case of burn encephalopathy with reversible brain atrophy on brain computed tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Hisaaki; Suzuki, Koh-ichirou; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Kido, Kun-ichi; Sato, Masaharu; Fujii, Chiho; Kohama, Akitsugu

    1985-01-01

    We present an interesting case of burn encephalopathy. The patient is a three-year-old girl with second to third degree and 30 % scald burn. She developed central nervous symptom on the second day with high fever and systemic convulsions and was transferred to our clinic on the third day from a local hospital. Her level of consciousness was 30 to 100 (3-3-9 formula) and she developed extra-pyramidal involuntary movement; these neurological signs persisted untill 66th day when she spoke for the first time since admission. Her EEG showed diffuse brain dysfunction and CT showed marked brain atrophy. She began to improve after around 50 days systematically as well as neurologically and was discharged after four months. EEG, CT findings and neurological signs were normal 1.5 years later. We could not find a case of reversible brain atrophy in the reports on burn encephalopathy or other neurological disorders except for the cases of long-term steroid administration on autoimmune diseases or ACTH therapy on infantile spasm. In our case, the reversible brain atrophy might be caused by the rise of endogenous steroid under burn stress, or transient malfunction of cerebro-spinal fluid absorption, or some other causes. (author)

  2. Dyke–Davidoff–Masson syndrome with crossed cerebellar atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay M. Khaladkar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dyke–Davidoff–Masson syndrome is a rare condition with classical, clinical and radiological changes – mental retardation, hemiparesis, facial asymmetry, seizures and cerebral hemiatrophy with calvarial changes. Contralateral cerebellar atrophy is rare and occurs if insult occurs after 1 month of age. We report a case of a 6-year-old female child presenting with right-sided hemiparesis, convulsions and left cerebral hemiatrophy with an old infarct in left middle cerebral artery (MCA territory, ipsilateral calvarial thickening and right (crossed cerebellar atrophy.

  3. CT features of olivopontocerebellar atrophy in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.D.; Gururaj, A.K.; Jeans, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Between 1990 and 1992, 14 children were seen in whom a clinical diagnosis of olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) had been made. The majority of patients presented with cerebellar ataxia and hypotonia. Five children had a family history of a similar illness in first-degree relatives. All cases had undergone clinical and neurologic examinations, routine laboratory tests and cranial CT. CT features were graded to quantitative the degree of atrophy in each cerebellar hemisphere, vermis and brain stem. All patients had varying degrees of atrophic changes of cerebellum, brain stem and cerebrum. These CT features appear to be distinctive enough to enable the diagnosis of OPCA to be made. (orig.)

  4. Loss of integrity and atrophy in cingulate structural covariance networks in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Schipper, Laura J; van der Grond, Jeroen; Marinus, Johan; Henselmans, Johanna M L; van Hilten, Jacobus J

    2017-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), the relation between cortical brain atrophy on MRI and clinical progression is not straightforward. Determination of changes in structural covariance networks - patterns of covariance in grey matter density - has shown to be a valuable technique to detect subtle grey matter variations. We evaluated how structural network integrity in PD is related to clinical data. 3 Tesla MRI was performed in 159 PD patients. We used nine standardized structural covariance networks identified in 370 healthy subjects as a template in the analysis of the PD data. Clinical assessment comprised motor features (Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale; MDS-UPDRS motor scale) and predominantly non-dopaminergic features (SEverity of Non-dopaminergic Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease; SENS-PD scale: postural instability and gait difficulty, psychotic symptoms, excessive daytime sleepiness, autonomic dysfunction, cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms). Voxel-based analyses were performed within networks significantly associated with PD. The anterior and posterior cingulate network showed decreased integrity, associated with the SENS-PD score, p = 0.001 (β = - 0.265, η p 2  = 0.070) and p = 0.001 (β = - 0.264, η p 2  = 0.074), respectively. Of the components of the SENS-PD score, cognitive impairment and excessive daytime sleepiness were associated with atrophy within both networks. We identified loss of integrity and atrophy in the anterior and posterior cingulate networks in PD patients. Abnormalities of both networks were associated with predominantly non-dopaminergic features, specifically cognition and excessive daytime sleepiness. Our findings suggest that (components of) the cingulate networks display a specific vulnerability to the pathobiology of PD and may operate as interfaces between networks involved in cognition and alertness.

  5. Relation between reflux of bile acids into the stomach and gastric mucosal atrophy, intestinal metaplasia in biopsy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Tsukui, Taku

    2012-05-01

    During endoscopic examinations we collected fluid in the stomach that included reflux fluid from the duodenum, and assessed the effect of quantitatively determined bile acids on glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia using biopsy specimens. A total of 294 outpatients were enrolled in this study. Total bile acid concentration was measured by an enzyme immunoassay. Glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia scores were graded according to the Updated Sydney System. An effect of refluxed bile acids on atrophy and intestinal metaplasia was shown in the high-concentration reflux group in comparison with the control group. However, when the odds ratios (ORs) were calculated according to whether Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection was present, no significant associations were shown between reflux bile acids and atrophy in either the H. pylori-positive cases or -negative cases. The same was true for intestinal metaplasia in the H. pylori-positive cases, whereas intestinal metaplasia was more pronounced in the high-concentration reflux group in the H. pylori-negative cases (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.1-5.6). We could not clarify the effect of the reflux of bile acids into the stomach in the progression of atrophy. High-concentration bile acids had an effect on the progression of intestinal metaplasia in the H. pylori-negative cases.

  6. Atrophy rates in asymptomatic amyloidosis: implications for Alzheimer prevention trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Abigail Andrews

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in designing therapeutic studies of individuals at risk of Alzheimer disease (AD to prevent the onset of symptoms. Cortical β-amyloid plaques, the first stage of AD pathology, can be detected in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET, and several studies have shown that ~1/3 of healthy elderly have significant β-amyloid deposition. Here we assessed whether asymptomatic amyloid-PET-positive controls have increased rates of brain atrophy, which could be harnessed as an outcome measure for AD prevention trials. We assessed 66 control subjects (age = 73.5±7.3 yrs; MMSE = 29±1.3 from the Australian Imaging Biomarkers & Lifestyle study who had a baseline Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB PET scan and two 3T MRI scans ~18-months apart. We calculated PET standard uptake value ratios (SUVR, and classified individuals as amyloid-positive/negative. Baseline and 18-month MRI scans were registered, and brain, hippocampal, and ventricular volumes and annualized volume changes calculated. Increasing baseline PiB-PET measures of β-amyloid load correlated with hippocampal atrophy rate independent of age (p = 0.014. Twenty-two (1/3 were PiB-positive (SUVR>1.40, the remaining 44 PiB-negative (SUVR≤1.31. Compared to PiB-negatives, PiB-positive individuals were older (76.8±7.5 vs. 71.7±7.5, p<0.05 and more were APOE4 positive (63.6% vs. 19.2%, p<0.01 but there were no differences in baseline brain, ventricle or hippocampal volumes, either with or without correction for total intracranial volume, once age and gender were accounted for. The PiB-positive group had greater total hippocampal loss (0.06±0.08 vs. 0.02±0.05 ml/yr, p = 0.02, independent of age and gender, with non-significantly higher rates of whole brain (7.1±9.4 vs. 4.7±5.5 ml/yr and ventricular (2.0±3.0 vs. 1.1±1.0 ml/yr change. Based on the observed effect size, recruiting 384 (95%CI 195-1080 amyloid-positive subjects/arm will provide 80% power to detect 25

  7. A survey of the therapeutic effects of Vitamin E suppositories on vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aazam Parnan Emamverdikhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menopause is associated with various complications such as depression, sleep disorders, and genitourinary atrophy. Vaginal atrophy occurs due to the loss of steroid hormones, and its major symptoms include vaginal dryness, itching, dyspareunia, and bleeding after intercourse. According to the literature, vitamin E plays a key role in estrogen stability. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of vitamin E suppositories and conjugated estrogen vaginal cream on vaginal atrophy. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 52 postmenopausal women, who were referred to a gynecology clinic in 2013, were recruited and randomly divided into two groups (26 cases per group. One group received 100 IU of vitamin E suppositories (n = 26, whereas the other group applied 0.5 g of conjugated estrogen cream for 12 weeks. Vaginal maturation value (VMV was compared between the two groups before and after the intervention. VMV ≤ 55 was regarded as a cut-off point for vaginal atrophy. Treatment success was defined as a 10-unit increase in VMV, compared to the baseline value. Data were analyzed by Friedman test and Mann-Whitney test. P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean VMV in the vitamin E group before the treatment and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment was 43.78 ± 13.75, 69.07 ± 22.75, 77.86 ± 21.79, and 80.59 ± 19.23, respectively. The corresponding values in the estrogen cream group were 42.86 ± 14.40, 86.98 ± 12.58, 92.65 ± 15, and 91.57 ± 14.10, respectively. VMV significantly improved in both the treatment groups after the intervention, compared to the preintervention period (P < 0.001. Treatment success was reported in both groups, although estrogen cream (100% appeared to be more effective after 4 weeks of treatment, compared to vitamin E suppositories (76.9% (P = 0.01. Conclusions: Based on the findings, use of vitamin E suppositories could improve the laboratory criteria

  8. Haptoglobin is required to prevent oxidative stress and muscle atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bertaggia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress (OS plays a major role on tissue function. Several catabolic or stress conditions exacerbate OS, inducing organ deterioration. Haptoglobin (Hp is a circulating acute phase protein, produced by liver and adipose tissue, and has an important anti-oxidant function. Hp is induced in pro-oxidative conditions such as systemic inflammation or obesity. The role of systemic factors that modulate oxidative stress inside muscle cells is still poorly investigated. RESULTS: We used Hp knockout mice (Hp-/- to determine the role of this protein and therefore, of systemic OS in maintenance of muscle mass and function. Absence of Hp caused muscle atrophy and weakness due to activation of an atrophy program. When animals were stressed by acute exercise or by high fat diet (HFD, OS, muscle atrophy and force drop were exacerbated in Hp-/-. Depending from the stress condition, autophagy-lysosome and ubiquitin-proteasome systems were differently induced. CONCLUSIONS: Hp is required to prevent OS and the activation of pathways leading to muscle atrophy and weakness in normal condition and upon metabolic challenges.

  9. Dominant inherited distal spinal muscular atrophy with atrophic and hypertrophic calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, R J; Sie, O G; van Weerden, T W

    The clinical, electrophysiological, radiological and morphological data of 3 members of a family with autosomal dominant distal spinal muscular atrophy (DSMA) are reported. One patient has the clinical picture of peroneal muscular atrophy with atrophic calves. His father and sister suffer from

  10. Dynamic changes in the mouse skeletal muscle proteome during denervation-induced atrophy

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    Franziska Lang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Loss of neuronal stimulation enhances protein breakdown and reduces protein synthesis, causing rapid loss of muscle mass. To elucidate the pathophysiological adaptations that occur in atrophying muscles, we used stable isotope labelling and mass spectrometry to quantify protein expression changes accurately during denervation-induced atrophy after sciatic nerve section in the mouse gastrocnemius muscle. Additionally, mice were fed a stable isotope labelling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC diet containing 13C6-lysine for 4, 7 or 11 days to calculate relative levels of protein synthesis in denervated and control muscles. Ubiquitin remnant peptides (K-ε-GG were profiled by immunoaffinity enrichment to identify potential substrates of the ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway. Of the 4279 skeletal muscle proteins quantified, 850 were differentially expressed significantly within 2 weeks after denervation compared with control muscles. Moreover, pulse labelling identified Lys6 incorporation in 4786 proteins, of which 43 had differential Lys6 incorporation between control and denervated muscle. Enrichment of diglycine remnants identified 2100 endogenous ubiquitination sites and revealed a metabolic and myofibrillar protein diglycine signature, including myosin heavy chains, myomesins and titin, during denervation. Comparative analysis of these proteomic data sets with known atrogenes using a random forest approach identified 92 proteins subject to atrogene-like regulation that have not previously been associated directly with denervation-induced atrophy. Comparison of protein synthesis and proteomic data indicated that upregulation of specific proteins in response to denervation is mainly achieved by protein stabilization. This study provides the first integrated analysis of protein expression, synthesis and ubiquitin signatures during muscular atrophy in a living animal.

  11. Prevention of pectus excavatum for children with spinal muscular atrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, John R; Bianchi, Carlo

    2003-10-01

    To demonstrate the elimination of pectus excavatum and promotion of more normal lung growth and chest wall development by the use of high-span positive inspiratory pressure plus positive end-expiratory pressure (PIP+PEEP), patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 with paradoxical breathing were placed on high-span PIP+PEEP when sleeping from the point of diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy. Although the appearance of pectus excavatum is ubiquitous in untreated infants with spinal muscular atrophy type 1, after institution of high-span PIP+PEEP, pectus resolves and lungs and chest walls grow more normally. High-span PIP+PEEP is indicated for all infants diagnosed with spinal muscular atrophy who demonstrate paradoxical breathing for the purpose of promoting more normal lung and chest development.

  12. Effects of flaxseed and Hypericum perforatum on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers in menopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfarpour, Masumeh; Sadeghi, Ramin; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Khadivzadeh, Talat; Khorsand, Imaneh; Afiat, Maliheh; Esmaeilizadeh, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed at evaluation of the efficacy of Hypericum perforatum and flaxseed on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers in menopausal women. We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (RCT) to explore trials that assessed the effectiveness of H. perforatum and flaxseed on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers. In this regard, the following terms were used "menopause AND H. perforatum OR flaxseed OR Linum usitatissimum. Only randomized controlled trials were included in the study. Nine RCTs were included in this systematic review. Based on the literature, flaxseed showed beneficial effect on hot flash frequency and intensity, which was not statistically significant. According to two trials, flaxseed showed estrogenic effects; however, no conclusion regarding cancer promoting or protecting effects can be made. The evidence of the efficacy of the flaxseed on alleviating vaginal atrophy was also limited due to inconsistent findings in this regard. One trial declared that Vitex agnus-castus and H. perforatum showed comparable decrease in the frequency of hot flashes. The results of our systematic review suggest beneficial effect on vasomotor symptom with both of flaxseed and H. perforatum. Consistent conclusion regarding estrogen-dependent cancers and maturation value is limited due to small number of trials related to flaxseed. Further trials are still needed to confirm the results of our systematic review.

  13. Recommendations for the management of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturdee, D W; Panay, N; Ulrich, Lian

    2010-01-01

    for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) over recent years that has suggested an increased risk of breast cancer, heart disease and stroke. But, regardless of whether these scares are justified, local treatment of vaginal atrophy is not associated with these possible risks of systemic HRT. Other reasons...... dryness can be helped by simple lubricants but the best and most logical treatment for urogenital atrophy is to use local estrogen. This is safe, effective and with few contraindications. It is hoped that these guidelines and recommendations, produced to coincide with World Menopause Day 2010, will help...

  14. Cerebellar atrophy related to chronic exposure to toluene: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Pereira Damasceno

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year-old woman presented slowly progressing ataxia and neurasthenic symptoms after 14-year occupational exposure to low concentration toluene vapour. Examination disclosed only cerebellar signs. Cognitive functions were normal except moderate visuo-spatial and constructive deficit CT imaging showed severe pancerebellar atrophy without pathological signs in other brain structures. Two years after she was removed from workplace, CT imaging and ataxia showed no worsening, while visuo-constructive function improved. The authors warn against possible neurotoxic risk associated with this kind of exposure.

  15. Progressive Muscle Atrophy and Weakness After Treatment by Mantle Field Radiotherapy in Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeuwen-Segarceanu, Elena M. van; Dorresteijn, Lucille D.A.; Pillen, Sigrid; Biesma, Douwe H.; Vogels, Oscar J.M.; Alfen, Nens van

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the damage to the muscles and propose a pathophysiologic mechanism for muscle atrophy and weakness after mantle field radiotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors. Methods and Materials: We examined 12 patients treated by mantle field radiotherapy between 1969 and 1998. Besides evaluation of their symptoms, the following tests were performed: dynamometry; ultrasound of the sternocleidomastoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles; and needle electromyography of the neck, deltoid, and ultrasonographically affected arm muscles. Results: Ten patients (83%) experienced neck complaints, mostly pain and muscle weakness. On clinical examination, neck flexors were more often affected than neck extensors. On ultrasound, the sternocleidomastoid was severely atrophic in 8 patients, but abnormal echo intensity was seen in only 3 patients. Electromyography of the neck muscles showed mostly myogenic changes, whereas the deltoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles seemed to have mostly neurogenic damage. Conclusions: Many patients previously treated by mantle field radiotherapy develop severe atrophy and weakness of the neck muscles. Neck muscles within the radiation field show mostly myogenic damage, and muscles outside the mantle field show mostly neurogenic damage. The discrepancy between echo intensity and atrophy suggests that muscle damage is most likely caused by an extrinsic factor such as progressive microvascular fibrosis. This is also presumed to cause damage to nerves within the radiated field, resulting in neurogenic damage of the deltoid and arm muscles.

  16. β–Hydroxy β–Methylbutyrate Improves Dexamethasone-Induced Muscle Atrophy by Modulating the Muscle Degradation Pathway in SD Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeon Ja; Park, Min Hi; Jang, Eun Ji; Park, Chan Hum; Yoon, Changshin; Kim, Nam Deuk; Kim, Mi Kyung; Chung, Hae Young

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy results from various conditions including high levels of glucocorticoids, and β–hydroxy β–methylbutyrate (HMB; a metabolite of leucine) is a potent therapeutical supplement used to treat various muscle disorders. Recent studies have demonstrated that HMB inhibits dexamethasone-induced atrophy in cultured myotubes, but its effect on dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy has not been determined in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HMB on dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in rats. Treatment with dexamethasone weakened grip strengths and increased muscle damage as determined by increased serum creatine kinase levels and by histological analysis. Dexamethasone treatment also reduced both soleus and gastrocnemius muscle masses. However, HMB supplementation significantly prevented reductions in grip strengths, reduced muscle damage, and prevented muscle mass and protein concentration decrease in soleus muscle. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that dexamethasone markedly increased levels of MuRF1 protein, which causes the ubiquitination and degradation of MyHC. Indeed, dexamethasone treatment decreased MyHC protein expression and increased the ubiquitinated-MyHC to MyHC ratio. However, HMB supplementation caused the down-regulations of MuRF1 protein and of ubiquitinated-MyHC. Furthermore, additional experiments provided evidence that HMB supplementation inhibited the nuclear translocation of FOXO1 induced by dexamethasone, and showed increased MyoD expression in the nuclear fractions of soleus muscles. These findings suggest that HMB supplementation attenuates dexamethasone-induced muscle wasting by regulating FOXO1 transcription factor and subsequent MuRF1 expression. Accordingly, our results suggest that HMB supplementation could be used to prevent steroid myopathy. PMID:25032690

  17. Aging affects the transcriptional regulation of human skeletal muscle disuse atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, Charlotte Arneboe; Frandsen, Ulrik; Jensen, Line

    2012-01-01

    Important insights concerning the molecular basis of skeletal muscle disuse-atrophy and aging related muscle loss have been obtained in cell culture and animal models, but these regulatory signaling pathways have not previously been studied in aging human muscle. In the present study, muscle...... atrophy was induced by immobilization in healthy old and young individuals to study the time-course and transcriptional factors underlying human skeletal muscle atrophy. The results reveal that irrespectively of age, mRNA expression levels of MuRF-1 and Atrogin-1 increased in the very initial phase (2......-4 days) of human disuse-muscle atrophy along with a marked reduction in PGC-1α and PGC-1β (1-4 days) and a ∼10% decrease in myofiber size (4 days). Further, an age-specific decrease in Akt and S6 phosphorylation was observed in young muscle within the first days (1-4 days) of immobilization. In contrast...

  18. The molecular mechanisms of OPA1-mediated optic atrophy in Drosophila model and prospects for antioxidant treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Yarosh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in optic atrophy 1 (OPA1, a nuclear gene encoding a mitochondrial protein, is the most common cause for autosomal dominant optic atrophy (DOA. The condition is characterized by gradual loss of vision, color vision defects, and temporal optic pallor. To understand the molecular mechanism by which OPA1 mutations cause optic atrophy and to facilitate the development of an effective therapeutic agent for optic atrophies, we analyzed phenotypes in the developing and adult Drosophila eyes produced by mutant dOpa1 (CG8479, a Drosophila ortholog of human OPA1. Heterozygous mutation of dOpa1 by a P-element or transposon insertions causes no discernable eye phenotype, whereas the homozygous mutation results in embryonic lethality. Using powerful Drosophila genetic techniques, we created eye-specific somatic clones. The somatic homozygous mutation of dOpa1 in the eyes caused rough (mispatterning and glossy (decreased lens and pigment deposition eye phenotypes in adult flies; this phenotype was reversible by precise excision of the inserted P-element. Furthermore, we show the rough eye phenotype is caused by the loss of hexagonal lattice cells in developing eyes, suggesting an increase in lattice cell apoptosis. In adult flies, the dOpa1 mutation caused an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS production as well as mitochondrial fragmentation associated with loss and damage of the cone and pigment cells. We show that superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1, Vitamin E, and genetically overexpressed human SOD1 (hSOD1 is able to reverse the glossy eye phenotype of dOPA1 mutant large clones, further suggesting that ROS play an important role in cone and pigment cell death. Our results show dOpa1 mutations cause cell loss by two distinct pathogenic pathways. This study provides novel insights into the pathogenesis of optic atrophy and demonstrates the promise of antioxidants as therapeutic agents for this condition.

  19. Direct optical activation of skeletal muscle fibres efficiently controls muscle contraction and attenuates denervation atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magown, Philippe; Shettar, Basavaraj; Zhang, Ying; Rafuse, Victor F

    2015-10-13

    Neural prostheses can restore meaningful function to paralysed muscles by electrically stimulating innervating motor axons, but fail when muscles are completely denervated, as seen in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or after a peripheral nerve or spinal cord injury. Here we show that channelrhodopsin-2 is expressed within the sarcolemma and T-tubules of skeletal muscle fibres in transgenic mice. This expression pattern allows for optical control of muscle contraction with comparable forces to nerve stimulation. Force can be controlled by varying light pulse intensity, duration or frequency. Light-stimulated muscle fibres depolarize proportionally to light intensity and duration. Denervated triceps surae muscles transcutaneously stimulated optically on a daily basis for 10 days show a significant attenuation in atrophy resulting in significantly greater contractile forces compared with chronically denervated muscles. Together, this study shows that channelrhodopsin-2/H134R can be used to restore function to permanently denervated muscles and reduce pathophysiological changes associated with denervation pathologies.

  20. Application effect of hyperbaric oxygen in the patients with optic atrophy and influence for the hemodynamic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the application effect of hyperbaric oxygen in the patients with optic atrophy and influence degree for the hemodynamic parameters.METHODS: Fifty patients with optic atrophy in our hospital from January 2012 to January 2014 were objected, they were randomly divided into control group(conventional optic atrophy treatment groupand observation group(conventional treatment and hyperbaric oxygen treatment group, each group was 25 cases. Statistical analysis of two group before and after treatment eyesight, vision acuity, visual field defect and ophthalmic artery, central retinal artery blood flow parameters were undergone.RESULTS: The sight, visual field sensitivity and field vision defect of observation group were all better than those of control group at first, second and third course after the treatment, arteriae ophthalmica and arteriae centralis retinae EDV and PSV were all higher than those of control group, PI and RI were all lower than those of control group were all significant differences(PCONCLUSION: The application effect of hyperbaric oxygen in the patients with optic atrophy is better, and the influence of treatment method for the ocular hemodynamic parameters are more active.

  1. The relationship between tear severity, fatty infiltration, and muscle atrophy in the supraspinatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Jeffrey J; Lansdown, Drew A; Cheung, Sunny; Feeley, Brian T; Ma, C Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy have been described as interrelated characteristic changes that occur within the muscles of the rotator cuff after cuff tears, and both are independently associated with poor outcomes after surgical repair. We hypothesize that fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy are two distinct processes independently associated with supraspinatus tears. A retrospective review of 377 patients who underwent shoulder magnetic resonance imaging at one institution was performed. Multivariate analysis was performed based on parameters including age, sex, rotator cuff tear severity, fatty infiltration grade, and muscle atrophy. A total of 116 patients (30.8%) had full-thickness tears of the supraspinatus, 153 (40.6%) had partial thickness tears, and 108 (28.7%) had no evidence of tear. With increasing tear severity, the prevalence of substantial fatty infiltration (grade ≥2) increased: 6.5% of patients with no tears vs 41.4% for complete tears (P tear severity: 36.1% of no tears vs 77.6% of complete tears (P muscle atrophy when taking into account sex, age, and tear severity. Fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy are independently associated processes. Fatty infiltration is also related to increasing age, muscle tear severity, and sex, whereas muscle atrophy is related to increasing age but not tear severity. In patients without rotator cuff tears, fatty infiltration and atrophy prevalence increased independently with increasing age. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Effect of gravitation loading and retabolil on development of atrophy in muscles and bones of rats due to suspension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaplanskiI, A S; Il'ina-Kakueva, E I; Durnova, G N; Alekseev, E A; Loginov, V I

    1999-01-01

    In a 3-wk experiment with tail-suspended rats histological and histomorphometric methods were used to determine the effects of graded gravitational loading (GGL) and anabolic steroid retabolil (nortestosterone decanoate) on the course of atrophy in soleus m. (SM), gastrocnemius m. (GM), tibia and humerus, and functioning of somatotrophic hormones (STH) of the pituitary and thyrocytes of the thyroid. Suspension was found to produce atrophy in SM and, to a less degree, in GM, partial transformation of SM slow fibers into the fast ones, suppression of the tibial longitudinal growth, demineralization of the tibial and humeral spongious metaphyses; besides, functional activities of STH-cells and thyrocytes were inhibited. Graded gravitational loading of rats by intermittence of suspension for 2 hrs slowed down atrophy in both muscles and osteopenia in tibia, stimulated the synthetic and secretory functions of STH-cells without any marked effect on thyrocytes or humeral osteopenia. GGL failed to influence the slow-to-fast transformation of SM fibers. Two injections of retabolil at the total dose of 3 mg/kg of the body mass somewhat interfered with the SM atrophy and humoral osteopenia, and were favorable to the synthetic but not secretory activity of STH-cells. Neither SM and tibial atrophies nor thyroid activity of the gland were improved. The prophylactic action of GGL upon the SM and humeral atrophies was significantly higher when combined with retabolil, whereas GM and tibia were not noticeably cured by retabolil. Inhibition of the SM atrophy and humeral osteopenia in rats treated with GGL and retabolil concurred with elevated activities of STH-cells and thyrocytes indirectly suggesting their more intensive production of the growth hormone and thyroid hormones, respectively.

  3. The diagnosis of thymoma and thymic atrophy in patients with myasthenia gravis; Dignostikk av tymom og thymusatrofi hos pasienter med myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sund, K.K.; Skeie, G.O.; Gilhus, N.E.; Aarli, J.A.; Varhaug, J.E. [Haukeland Sykehus, Bergen (Norway)

    1997-11-01

    The authors have compared clinical, immunological and radiological data in 20 patients with myasthenia gravis and thymoma and in 21 patients with myasthenia gravis and thymic atrophy. The median age at onset was 54 years in the thymoma group and 63 years in the thymic atrophy group. The severity of the disease was similar in the two groups, and there was no significant difference in the concentration of acetylcholine receptor antibodies. CA antibodies were demonstrated in 17/20 thymoma patients and in 6/21 with thymic atrophy, while 19/20 thymoma patients had antibodies to titin, compared with 9/21 among those with thymic atrophy. The diagnosis and treatment of patients with myasthenia gravis is based upon an evaluation of clinical, immunological and radiological data. 28 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Inhibition of interleukin-6 decreases atrogene expression and ameliorates tail suspension-induced skeletal muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakabe, Mitsutaka; Ota, Hidetaka; Iijima, Katsuya; Eto, Masato; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Akishita, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    Background Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an inflammatory cytokine. Whether systemic IL-6 affects atrogene expression and disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is unclear. Methods Tail-suspended mice were used as a disuse-induced muscle atrophy model. We administered anti-mouse IL-6 receptor antibody, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and vitamin D to the mice and examined the effects on atrogene expression and muscle atrophy. Results Serum IL-6 levels were elevated in the mice. Inhibition of IL-6 receptor suppressed muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1) expression and prevented muscle atrophy. HMB and vitamin D inhibited the serum IL-6 surge, downregulated the expression of MuRF1 and atrogin-1 in the soleus muscle, and ameliorated atrophy in the mice. Conclusion Systemic IL-6 affects MuRF1 expression and disuse-induced muscle atrophy. PMID:29351340

  5. Inhibition of interleukin-6 decreases atrogene expression and ameliorates tail suspension-induced skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsutaka Yakabe

    Full Text Available Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is an inflammatory cytokine. Whether systemic IL-6 affects atrogene expression and disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is unclear.Tail-suspended mice were used as a disuse-induced muscle atrophy model. We administered anti-mouse IL-6 receptor antibody, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB and vitamin D to the mice and examined the effects on atrogene expression and muscle atrophy.Serum IL-6 levels were elevated in the mice. Inhibition of IL-6 receptor suppressed muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1 expression and prevented muscle atrophy. HMB and vitamin D inhibited the serum IL-6 surge, downregulated the expression of MuRF1 and atrogin-1 in the soleus muscle, and ameliorated atrophy in the mice.Systemic IL-6 affects MuRF1 expression and disuse-induced muscle atrophy.

  6. Clinical study on eating disorders. Brain atrophy revealed by cranial computed tomography scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiwaki, Shinichi

    1988-06-01

    Cranial computed tomography (CT) scans were reviewed in 34 patients with anorexia nervosa (Group I) and 22 with bulimia (Group II) to elucidate the cause and pathological significance of morphological brain alterations. The findings were compared with those from 47 normal women. The incidence of brain atrophy was significantly higher in Group I (17/34, 50%) and Group II (11/22, 50%) than the control group (3/47, 6%). In Group I, there was a significant increase in the left septum-caudate distance, the maximum width of interhemispheric fissure, the width of the both-side Sylvian fissures adjacent to the skull, and the maximum width of the third ventricle. A significant increase in the maximum width of interhemispheric fissure and the width of the left-side Sylvian fissure adjacent to the skull were noted as well in Group II. Ventricular brain ratios were significantly higher in Groups I and II than the control group (6.76 and 7.29 vs 4.55). Brain atrophy did not correlate with age, body weight, malnutrition, eating behavior, depression, thyroid function, EEG findings, or intelligence scale. In Group I, serum cortisol levels after the administration of dexamethasone were correlated with ventricular brain ratio. (Namekawa, K) 51 refs.

  7. Brain atrophy and lesion load predict long term disability in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popescu, Veronica; Agosta, Federica; Hulst, Hanneke E

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether brain atrophy and lesion volumes predict subsequent 10 year clinical evolution in multiple sclerosis (MS).......To determine whether brain atrophy and lesion volumes predict subsequent 10 year clinical evolution in multiple sclerosis (MS)....

  8. Progressive atrophy of retinal pigment epithelium after trypan-blue-assisted ILM peeling for macular hole surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of progressive atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE after trypan-blue-assisted peeling of internal limiting membrane (ILM for macular hole surgery. A 68-year-old Caucasian female underwent a 20-g pars plana vitrectomy for a chronic stage-3 macular hole. The ILM was stained with 0.06% trypan blue (VisionBlue™, DORC Netherlands for 2 min after fluid air exchange. Dye was reapplied for another 2 min due to poor staining. The ILM was completely removed around the macular hole with forceps. RPE atrophy was noticed at the edge of the hole 1 month after surgery. It progressively increased in intensity and enlarged over 2 years. Her final visual acuity was counting fingers, significantly worse compared to her presenting visual acuity of 20/200. Progressive atrophy of RPE in our patient was most likely due to the toxicity of trypan blue. Reapplication of the dye may increase the likelihood of toxicity.

  9. Exercise training reverses skeletal muscle atrophy in an experimental model of VCP disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angèle Nalbandian

    Full Text Available The therapeutic effects of exercise resistance and endurance training in the alleviation of muscle hypertrophy/atrophy should be considered in the management of patients with advanced neuromuscular diseases. Patients with progressive neuromuscular diseases often experience muscle weakness, which negatively impact independence and quality of life levels. Mutations in the valosin containing protein (VCP gene lead to Inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget's disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD and more recently affect 2% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS-diagnosed cases.The present investigation was undertaken to examine the effects of uphill and downhill exercise training on muscle histopathology and the autophagy cascade in an experimental VCP mouse model carrying the R155H mutation. Progressive uphill exercise in VCP(R155H/+ mice revealed significant improvement in muscle strength and performance by grip strength and Rotarod analyses when compared to the sedentary mice. In contrast, mice exercised to run downhill did not show any significant improvement. Histologically, the uphill exercised VCP(R155H/+ mice displayed an improvement in muscle atrophy, and decreased expression levels of ubiquitin, P62/SQSTM1, LC3I/II, and TDP-43 autophagy markers, suggesting an alleviation of disease-induced myopathy phenotypes. There was also an improvement in the Paget-like phenotype.Collectively, our data highlights that uphill exercise training in VCP(R155H/+ mice did not have any detrimental value to the function of muscle, and may offer effective therapeutic options for patients with VCP-associated diseases.

  10. Short-term muscle atrophy caused by botulinum toxin-A local injection impairs fracture healing in the rat femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yongqiang; Ma, Yongcheng; Wang, Xuepeng; Jin, Fangchun; Ge, Shengfang

    2012-04-01

    Damaged bone is sensitive to mechanical stimulation throughout the remodeling phase of bone healing. Muscle damage and muscular atrophy associated with open fractures and subsequent fixation are not beneficial to maintaining optimum conditions for mechanical stability. The aim of this study was to investigate whether local muscle atrophy and dysfunction affect fracture healing in a rat femur fracture model. We combined the rat model of a short period atrophy of the quadriceps with femur fracture. Forty-four-month-old male Wistar rats were adopted for this study. Two units of botulinum toxin-A (BXTA) were administered locally into the right side of the quadriceps of each rat, while the same dose of saline was injected into the contralateral quadriceps. After BXTA had been fully absorbed by the quadriceps, osteotomy was performed in both femurs with intramedullary fixation. Gross observation and weighing of muscle tissue, X-ray analysis, callus histology, and bone biomechanical testing were performed at different time points up to 8 weeks post-surgery. Local injection of BXTA led to a significant decrease in the volume and weight of the quadriceps compared to the control side. At the eighth week, the left side femurs of the saline-injected quadriceps almost reached bony union, and fibrous calluses were completely calcified into woven bone. However, a gap was still visible in the BXTA-treated side on X-ray images. As showed by bone histology, there were no mature osseous calluses or woven bone on the BXTA-treated side, but a resorption pattern was evident. Biomechanical testing indicated that the femurs of the BXTA-treated side exhibited inferior mechanical properties compared with the control side. The inferior outcome following BXTA injection, compared with saline injection, in terms of callus resistance may be the consequence of unexpected load and mechanical unsteadiness caused by muscle atrophy and dysfunction. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  11. Global gray matter changes in posterior cortical atrophy: A serial imaging study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, M.; Barnes, J.; Ridgway, G.R.; Ryan, N.S.; Warrington, E.K.; Crutch, S.J.; Fox, N.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative condition predominantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Cross-sectional imaging studies have shown different atrophy patterns in PCA patients compared with typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (tAD) patients,

  12. A decision tree for differentiating multiple system atrophy from Parkinson's disease using 3-T MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Shalini Rajandran; Tan, Li Kuo; Mohd Ramli, Norlisah; Lim, Shen Yang; Rahmat, Kartini; Mohd Nor, Hazman

    2013-06-01

    To develop a decision tree based on standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging to differentiate multiple system atrophy (MSA) from Parkinson's disease (PD). 3-T brain MRI and DTI (diffusion tensor imaging) were performed on 26 PD and 13 MSA patients. Regions of interest (ROIs) were the putamen, substantia nigra, pons, middle cerebellar peduncles (MCP) and cerebellum. Linear, volumetry and DTI (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity) were measured. A three-node decision tree was formulated, with design goals being 100 % specificity at node 1, 100 % sensitivity at node 2 and highest combined sensitivity and specificity at node 3. Nine parameters (mean width, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of MCP; anteroposterior diameter of pons; cerebellar FA and volume; pons and mean putamen volume; mean FA substantia nigra compacta-rostral) showed statistically significant (P decision tree. Threshold values were 14.6 mm, 21.8 mm and 0.55, respectively. Overall performance of the decision tree was 92 % sensitivity, 96 % specificity, 92 % PPV and 96 % NPV. Twelve out of 13 MSA patients were accurately classified. Formation of the decision tree using these parameters was both descriptive and predictive in differentiating between MSA and PD. • Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy can be distinguished on MR imaging. • Combined conventional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging improves the accuracy of diagnosis. • A decision tree is descriptive and predictive in differentiating between clinical entities. • A decision tree can reliably differentiate Parkinson's disease from multiple system atrophy.

  13. Consideration of the method of image diagnosis with respect to frontal lobe atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K.; Sugawara, K.; Narita, Y.; Namura, I.

    1996-12-01

    Proposes a segmentation method for a quantitative image diagnosis as a means of realizing an objective diagnosis of the frontal lobe atrophy. From the data obtained on the grade of membership, the fractal dimensions of the cerebral tissue [cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), gray matter, and white matter] and the contours are estimated. The mutual relationship between the degree of atrophy and the fractal dimension has been analyzed based on the estimated fractal dimensions. Using a sample of 42 male and female cases, ranging In age from 50's to 70's, it has been concluded that the frontal lobe atrophy can be quantified by regarding it as an expansion of CSF region on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Furthermore, when the process of frontal lobe atrophy is separated into early and advanced stages, the volumetric change of CSF and white matter in frontal lobe displays meaningful differences between the two stages, demonstrating that the fractal dimension of CSF rises with the progress of atrophy. Moreover, an interpolation method for three-dimensional (3-D) shape reconstruction of the region of diagnostic interest is proposed and 3-D shape visualization, with respect to the degree and form of atrophy, is performed on the basis of the estimated fractal dimension of the segmented cerebral tissue.

  14. The relationship between inflammatory activity and brain atrophy in natalizumab treated patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magraner, M.; Coret, F.; Casanova, B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the evolution of brain atrophy and its relationship with inflammatory activity in RRMS patients treated with natalizumab. Methods: Eighteen RRMS patients were prospectively followed up for 18 months after starting natalizumab therapy. Patients were monitored monthly and assessed for signs of relapses, adverse events or disability increase. MRI scans were performed before starting natalizumab and every six months. Cross-sectional T2 lesion volume (T2LV) and the normalized brain volume (NBV) at baseline and 18 months MRI scans were calculated using the Steronauta ® and SIENAx softwares, respectively. Longitudinal Percentage of Brain Volume Change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA. Linkage between inflammatory activity and brain atrophy was studied. Results: Natalizumab reduced ARR by 67% and cumulative CEL by 87.5%. T2 lesion volume decreased from 1000 mm 3 , to 960 mm 3 (p = 0.006) and NBV decreased from 1.55 × 10 5 mm 3 to 1.42 × 10 5 mm 3 (p = 0.025). Global PBVC from baseline to 18 months was −2.5%, predominantly during the first six months (0–6 months PBVC −1.7%; 6–12 months PBVC −0.74%; 12–18 months PBVC −0.50%). The number of relapses before treatment was correlated to the PBVC during the first semester (Pearson's coefficient −0.520, p = 0.003), while the number of basal CEL or baseline T2LV did not correlate with brain atrophy rate. During follow-up, nine patients had clinical or radiological inflammatory activity. Their PBVC was significantly higher in the first semester (−2.3% to −1.1%, p = 0.002). Conclusions: Natalizumab reduced relapse rate and CEL in MRI. Brain atrophy predominated in the first semester and was related to previous inflammatory activity.

  15. The relationship between inflammatory activity and brain atrophy in natalizumab treated patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magraner, M., E-mail: majomagbe@ono.com [Multiple Sclerosis Unit, Neurology Service, Hospital Universitari i Politecnic La Fe, Bulevar Sur s/n, 46026 Valencia (Spain); Coret, F., E-mail: coret_fra@gva.es [Multiple Sclerosis Unit, Neurology Service, Hospital Clinic de Valencia, Avda Blasco Ibanez 17, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Casanova, B., E-mail: Casanova_bon@gva.es [Multiple Sclerosis Unit, Neurology Service, Hospital Universitari i Politecnic La Fe, Bulevar Sur s/n, 46026 Valencia (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    Objective: To assess the evolution of brain atrophy and its relationship with inflammatory activity in RRMS patients treated with natalizumab. Methods: Eighteen RRMS patients were prospectively followed up for 18 months after starting natalizumab therapy. Patients were monitored monthly and assessed for signs of relapses, adverse events or disability increase. MRI scans were performed before starting natalizumab and every six months. Cross-sectional T2 lesion volume (T2LV) and the normalized brain volume (NBV) at baseline and 18 months MRI scans were calculated using the Steronauta{sup Registered-Sign} and SIENAx softwares, respectively. Longitudinal Percentage of Brain Volume Change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA. Linkage between inflammatory activity and brain atrophy was studied. Results: Natalizumab reduced ARR by 67% and cumulative CEL by 87.5%. T2 lesion volume decreased from 1000 mm{sup 3}, to 960 mm{sup 3} (p = 0.006) and NBV decreased from 1.55 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} mm{sup 3} to 1.42 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} mm{sup 3} (p = 0.025). Global PBVC from baseline to 18 months was -2.5%, predominantly during the first six months (0-6 months PBVC -1.7%; 6-12 months PBVC -0.74%; 12-18 months PBVC -0.50%). The number of relapses before treatment was correlated to the PBVC during the first semester (Pearson's coefficient -0.520, p = 0.003), while the number of basal CEL or baseline T2LV did not correlate with brain atrophy rate. During follow-up, nine patients had clinical or radiological inflammatory activity. Their PBVC was significantly higher in the first semester (-2.3% to -1.1%, p = 0.002). Conclusions: Natalizumab reduced relapse rate and CEL in MRI. Brain atrophy predominated in the first semester and was related to previous inflammatory activity.

  16. Food strategies of renal atrophy based on Avicenna and conventional medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Mahjour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Kidneys have an important role in the body. Any damage to kidney role can damage many organs of the body. Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM or Iranian traditional medicine (ITM is an ancient temperamental medicine with many literatures about kidney diseases and Avicenna (980–1025 AD describes kidney diseases in details. This is a review study by searching of the most important clinical and pharmaceutical TPM textbooks such as The Canon of Medicine by Avicenna and scientific data banks using keywords such as “Hozal-e-Kolye”, renal atrophy, tubular atrophy, kidney, chronic kidney disease, and end stage renal disease. This paper found that “Hozal-e-Kolye” in TPM texts is the same tubular atrophy in conventional medicine due to some similar symptoms between them. Lifestyle modification and use of proposed foodstuffs can be considered as a complementary medicine in addition to conventional treatments to manage these patients. TPM scholars prescribed some foodstuffs such as camel milk, sheep's milk and Ficus carica for this disease as a complementary management. This study aimed to explain HK (the same tubular atrophy considering their similar symptoms and introduce some foodstuffs. It seems using of foodstuffs affecting tubular atrophy based on TPM literatures can has a role as a supplemental method in company with conventional medicine management.

  17. Treatment of erectile dysfunction with sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in parkinsonism due to Parkinson's disease or multiple system atrophy with observations on orthostatic hypotension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, I; Brady, C; Swinn, M; Mathias, C; Fowler, C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess the efficacy and safety of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in men with erectile dysfunction and parkinsonism due either to Parkinson's disease or multiple system atrophy.
METHODS—Twenty four patients with erectile disease were recruited, 12 with Parkinson's disease and 12 with multiple system atrophy, into a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, crossover study of sildenafil citrate. The starting dose was 50 mg active or placebo medication with the opportunity for dose adjustment depending on efficacy and tolerability. The international index of erectile function questionnaire (IIEF) was used to assess treatment efficacy and a quality of life questionnaire to assess the effect of treatment on sex life and whole life. Criteria for entry included a definite neurological diagnosis and a standing systolic blood pressure of 90-180 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure of 50-110 mm Hg, on treatment if necessary. Blood pressure was taken at randomisation (visit 2) and crossover (visit 5) lying, sitting, and standing, before and 1 hour after taking the study medication in hospital.
RESULTS—Sidenafil citrate was efficacious in men with parkinsonism with a significant improvement, as demonstrated in questionnaire responses, in ability to achieve and maintain an erection and improvement in quality of sex life. In Parkinson's disease there was minimal change in blood pressure between active and placebo medication. In multiple system atrophy, six patients were studied before recruitment was stopped because three men showed a severe drop in blood pressure 1 hour after taking the active medication. Two were already known to have orthostatic hypotension and were receiving treatment with ephedrine and midodrine but the third had asymptomatic hypotension. However, the blood pressures in all three had been within the inclusion criterion for the study protocol. Despite a significant postural fall in blood pressure after sildenafil, all patients with

  18. Autophagy-associated atrophy and metabolic remodeling of the mouse diaphragm after short-term intermittent hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Giordano

    Full Text Available Short-term intermittent hypoxia (IH is common in patients with acute respiratory disorders. Although prolonged exposure to hypoxia induces atrophy and increased fatigability of skeletal muscle, the response to short-term IH is less well known. We hypothesized that the diaphragm and limb muscles would adapt differently to short-term IH given that hypoxia stimulates ventilation and triggers a superimposed exercise stimulus in the diaphragm.We determined the structural, metabolic, and contractile properties of the mouse diaphragm after 4 days of IH (8 hours per day, 30 episodes per hour to a FiO2 nadir=6%, and compared responses in the diaphragm to a commonly studied reference limb muscle, the tibialis anterior. Outcome measures included muscle fiber size, assays of muscle proteolysis (calpain, ubiquitin-proteasome, and autophagy pathways, markers of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function, quantification of intramyocellular lipid and lipid metabolism genes, type I myosin heavy chain (MyHC expression, and in vitro contractile properties.After 4 days of IH, the diaphragm alone demonstrated significant atrophy (30% decrease of myofiber size together with increased LC3B-II protein (2.4-fold and mRNA markers of the autophagy pathway (LC3B, Gabarapl1, Bnip3, whereas active calpain and E3 ubiquitin ligases (MuRF1, atrogin-1 were unaffected in both muscles. Succinate dehydrogenase activity was significantly reduced by IH in both muscles. However, only the diaphragm exhibited increased intramyocellular lipid droplets (2.5-fold after IH, along with upregulation of genes linked to activated lipid metabolism. In addition, although the diaphragm showed evidence for acute fatigue immediately following IH, it underwent an adaptive fiber type switch toward slow type I MyHC-expressing fibers, associated with greater intrinsic endurance of the muscle during repetitive stimulation in vitro.Short-term IH induces preferential atrophy in the mouse diaphragm

  19. Pattern Differences of Small Hand Muscle Atrophy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Mimic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jia; Liu, Ming-Sheng; Guan, Yu-Zhou; Du, Hua; Li, Ben-Hong; Cui, Bo; Ding, Qing-Yun; Cui, Li-Ying

    2016-04-05

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and some mimic disorders, such as distal-type cervical spondylotic amyotrophy (CSA), Hirayama disease (HD), and spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) may present with intrinsic hand muscle atrophy. This study aimed to investigate different patterns of small hand muscle involvement in ALS and some mimic disorders. We compared the abductor digiti minimi/abductor pollicis brevis (ADM/APB) compound muscle action potential (CMAP) ratios between 200 ALS patients, 95 patients with distal-type CSA, 88 HD patients, 43 SBMA patients, and 150 normal controls. The ADM/APB CMAP amplitude ratio was significantly higher in the ALS patients (P mimic disorders presumably reflect distinct pathophysiological mechanisms underlying different disorders, and may aid in distinguishing between ALS and mimic disorders.

  20. Cortical and Subcortical Grey and White Matter Atrophy in Myotonic Dystrophies Type 1 and 2 Is Associated with Cognitive Impairment, Depression and Daytime Sleepiness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Schneider-Gold

    Full Text Available Central nervous system involvement is one important clinical aspect of myotonic dystrophy type 1 and 2 (DM1 and DM2. We assessed CNS involvement DM1 and DM2 by 3T MRI and correlated clinical and neuocognitive symptoms with brain volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM.12 patients with juvenile or classical DM1 and 16 adult DM2 patients underwent 3T MRI, a thorough neurological and neuropsychological examination and scoring of depression and daytime sleepiness. Volumes of brain, ventricles, cerebellum, brainstem, cervical cord, lesion load and VBM results of the patient groups were compared to 33 matched healthy subjects.Clinical symptoms were depression (more pronounced in DM2, excessive daytime sleepiness (more pronounced in DM1, reduced attention and flexibility of thinking, and deficits of short-term memory and visuo-spatial abilities in both patient groups. Both groups showed ventricular enlargement and supratentorial GM and WM atrophy, with prevalence for more GM atrophy and involvement of the motor system in DM1 and more WM reduction and affection of limbic structures in DM2. White matter was reduced in DM1 in the splenium of the corpus callosum and in left-hemispheric WM adjacent to the pre- and post-central gyrus. In DM2, the bilateral cingulate gyrus and subgyral medio-frontal and primary somato-sensory WM was affected. Significant structural-functional correlations of morphological MRI findings (global volumetry and VBM with clinical findings were found for reduced flexibility of thinking and atrophy of the left secondary visual cortex in DM1 and of distinct subcortical brain structures in DM2. In DM2, depression was associated with brainstem atrophy, Daytime sleepiness correlated with volume decrease in the middle cerebellar peduncles, pons/midbrain and the right medio-frontal cortex.GM and WM atrophy was significant in DM1 and DM2. Specific functional-structural associations related morphological changes to cognitive impairment

  1. Hypoxic ischemia encephalopathy leading to external hydrocephalus and the cerebral atrophy: mechanism and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhenglin; Mo Xiaorong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: It is a study of the mechanism and differential diagnosis of the infant external hydrocephalus and cerebral atrophy. Methods: In total 84 cases of neonatal hypoxic ischemia encephalopathy followed by infant external hydrocephalus were investigated, among which 26 patients gradually were found having developed cerebral atrophy in follow up. Results: Characteristic dilation of the frontal-parietal subarachnoid space and the adjacent cistern was noted on the CT images of the external hydrocephalus. CT revealed the enlarged ventricle besides the dilated subarachnoid space in the cases of cerebral atrophy, while these two entities were indistinguishable on CT in the early stage. Conclusion: Clinical manifestations make a major differential diagnosis of the external hydrocephalus and cerebral atrophy: tic and mild delayed development of locomotion over major presentation of external hydrocephalus, while cerebral atrophy is featured by remarkable dysnoesia and severe delayed development of locomotion. In addition, hemiplegia and increased muscular tension are presented in a few cases of cerebral atrophy

  2. Increased cerebrospinal fluid albumin and immunoglobulin A fractions forecast cortical atrophy and longitudinal functional deterioration in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroth, Julia; Ciolac, Dumitru; Fleischer, Vinzenz; Koirala, Nabin; Krämer, Julia; Muthuraman, Muthuraman; Luessi, Felix; Bittner, Stefan; Gonzalez-Escamilla, Gabriel; Zipp, Frauke; Meuth, Sven G; Groppa, Sergiu

    2017-12-01

    Currently, no unequivocal predictors of disease evolution exist in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Cortical atrophy measurements are, however, closely associated with cumulative disability. Here, we aim to forecast longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-driven cortical atrophy and clinical disability from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers. We analyzed CSF fractions of albumin and immunoglobulins (Ig) A, G, and M and their CSF to serum quotients. Widespread atrophy was highly associated with increased baseline CSF concentrations and quotients of albumin and IgA. Patients with increased CSF IgA and CSF IgM showed higher functional disability at follow-up. CSF markers of blood-brain barrier integrity and specific immune response forecast emerging gray matter pathology and disease progression in MS.

  3. Effects of flaxseed and Hypericum perforatum on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers in menopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfarpour, Masumeh; Sadeghi, Ramin; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Khadivzadeh, Talat; khorsand, Imaneh; Afiat, Maliheh; Esmaeilizadeh, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed at evaluation of the efficacy of Hypericum perforatum and flaxseed on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers in menopausal women Materials and Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (RCT) to explore trials that assessed the effectiveness of H. perforatum and flaxseed on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers. In this regard, the following terms were used “menopause AND H. perforatum OR flaxseed OR Linum usitatissimum. Only randomized controlled trials were included in the study. Results: Nine RCTs were included in this systematic review. Based on the literature, flaxseed showed beneficial effect on hot flash frequency and intensity, which was not statistically significant. According to two trials, flaxseed showed estrogenic effects; however, no conclusion regarding cancer promoting or protecting effects can be made. The evidence of the efficacy of the flaxseed on alleviating vaginal atrophy was also limited due to inconsistent findings in this regard. One trial declared that Vitex agnus-castus and H. perforatum showed comparable decrease in the frequency of hot flashes. Conclusion: The results of our systematic review suggest beneficial effect on vasomotor symptom with both of flaxseed and H. perforatum. Consistent conclusion regarding estrogen-dependent cancers and maturation value is limited due to small number of trials related to flaxseed. Further trials are still needed to confirm the results of our systematic review. PMID:27462550

  4. Atrophy and magnetization transfer ratio of the corpus callosum in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imon, Yukari; Hanyu, Haruo; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Takasaki, Masaru; Abe, Kimihiko

    1998-01-01

    We compared atrophy and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) in the corpus callosum in patients with Alzheimer's disease and age-matched normal subjects. Fifteen patients with Alzheimer's disease and fourteen normal subjects received MRI. The corpus callosum was divided into three parts (anterior, middle, and posterior portions) on midsagittal slice, and their areas on T2-weighted reversed images and MTR on magnetization transfer contrast images in each portion were measured. The area and MTR decreased significantly in the posterior portion in patients with Alzheimer's disease. In the anterior portion, MTR decreased significantly, but although the area showed no significant change. In the middle portion, the area and MTR showed no significant change. MTR and the area was correlated in each portion in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The score of Hasegawa dementia scale-revised (HDS-R) and the area of the middle, posterior and total of corpus callosum were significantly related. The score of HDS-R and MTR in the anterior portion of corpus callosum were significantly related. The present study revealed decreases in MTR in the anterior portion of the corpus callosum of patients with Alzheimer's disease although the area showed no significant change, and this change suggests the increase in free water and/or the decrease in bound water in tissues, probably due to demyelination and axonal degeneration. (author)

  5. Effects of age and inactivity due to prolonged bed rest on atrophy of trunk muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezoe, Tome; Mori, Natsuko; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of age and inactivity due to being chronically bedridden on atrophy of trunk muscles. The subjects comprised 33 young women (young group) and 41 elderly women who resided in nursing homes or chronic care institutions. The elderly subjects were divided into two groups: independent elderly group who were able to perform activities of daily living involving walking independently (n = 28) and dependent elderly group who were chronically bedridden (n = 13). The thickness of the following six trunk muscles was measured by B-mode ultrasound: the rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis, thoracic erector spinae (longissimus) and lumbar multifidus muscles. All muscles except for the transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus muscles were significantly thinner in the independent elderly group compared with those in the young group. The thicknesses of all muscles in the dependent elderly group was significantly smaller than that in the young group, whereas there were no differences between the dependent elderly and independent elderly groups in the muscle thicknesses of the rectus abdominis and internal oblique muscles. In conclusion, our results suggest that: (1) age-related atrophy compared with young women was less in the deep antigravity trunk muscles than the superficial muscles in the independent elderly women; (2) atrophy associated with chronic bed rest was more marked in the antigravity muscles, such as the back and transversus abdominis.

  6. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrick, Mark W.; Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong; He, Hong-Zhi; Shiver, Austin; Qi, Rui-Qun; Zhou, Li; Isales, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. → We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. → Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. → Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient-related hormones such as leptin

  7. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrick, Mark W., E-mail: mhamrick@mail.mcg.edu [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); He, Hong-Zhi [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Shiver, Austin [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Qi, Rui-Qun [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Zhou, Li [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Isales, Carlos M. [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); others, and

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. {yields} We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. {yields} Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. {yields} Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient

  8. Porencephaly in dogs and cats: relationships between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and hippocampal atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Ai; Hanazono, Kiwamu; Miyoshi, Kenjirou; Nakade, Tetsuya

    2015-07-01

    Porencephaly is the congenital cerebral defect and a rare malformation and described few MRI reports in veterinary medicine. MRI features of porencephaly are recognized the coexistence with the unilateral/bilateral hippocampal atrophy, caused by the seizure symptoms in human medicine. We studied 2 dogs and 1 cat with congenital porencephaly to characterize the clinical signs and MRI, and to discuss the associated MRI with hippocampal atrophy. The main clinical sign was the seizure symptoms, and all had hippocampal atrophy at the lesion side or the larger defect side. There is association between hippocampal atrophy or the cyst volume and the severe of clinical signs, and it is suggested that porencephaly coexists with hippocampal atrophy as well as humans in this study.

  9. Comparison with hippocampal atrophy and hypoperfusion in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, YA; Kim, SH; Chung, SK; Juh, RH; Sohn, HS; Suh, TS; Choe, BY

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Hypoperfusion and hippocampal atropy of the medial temporal lobe are peculiarity of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The manual ROI (region of interest) technique for hippocampal volume estimation is specific and sensitive for the detection of hippocampal atrophy. In patients with AD reported a significant correlation between hippocampal volume and hypoperfusion. This study investigated correlations between atrophy distinct medial temporal lobe structure and hypoperfusion in hippocampal volumetry. Methods: The hippocampi were individually outlined on Tl-weighted volumetry MRI and calculated with MATLAB in 12 patients with AD. All volume measurements were performed by a segmentation technique with a combination of tracing and thresholding. The volume of a given structure in each slice was obtained by automatically counting the number of pixels within the segmented regions and multiplying the number by a voxel size. In order to permit direct regional comparisons, both of each patient's Tc- 99m ECD SPECT was then registered to the patient's MRI. Delineation continued anteriorly in each contiguous slice reaching the head of the hippocampus, which was distinguished from the overlying amygdala by the presence of the alveus or uncal recess. The right hippocampus (RH) was measured first, followed by the left hippocampus (LH). The accuracy of registration was investigated in a validation study with developed brain phantom. Results:The mean total intracranial volume of the AD was significantly smaller volume (1492.9 cm 3 ) and hypo perfused than those in normal subjects. The mean hippocampal volumes were 2.01 cm 3 and l.99 cm 3 for the RH and LH. The correlations between volume and hypoperfusion in the affected hippocampi were found to be significant; especially the medial temporal lobe is markedly hypo perfused. Conclusion: Volumetry is the most sensitive tool for the detection of hippocampal abnormality in AD, and significant correlation between asymmetry in

  10. Effects of edaravone on muscle atrophy and locomotor function in patients with ischemic stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naritomi, Hiroaki; Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Metoki, Norifumi; Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Higashi, Yasuto; Yamamoto, Yasumasa; Yuasa, Hiroyuki; Oe, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kortaro; Saito, Kozue; Terayama, Yasuo; Oda, Tadafumi; Tanahashi, Norio; Kondo, Hisao

    2010-01-01

    Stroke patients with severe leg paralysis are often bedridden in the acute and subacute phase, which increases the risk of disuse muscle atrophy in the chronic phase. The evidence to date indicates that oxidative stress plays an important role in the mechanism of disuse muscle atrophy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if long-term radical scavenger treatment with edaravone following an acute stroke prevents the progression of disuse muscle atrophy and improves leg locomotor function in the chronic phase. This randomized controlled pilot study was conducted at 19 acute stroke and rehabilitation centers across Japan. Forty-seven ischemic stroke patients with at least leg motor weakness admitted within 24 hours of onset were randomly assigned to receive continuous intravenous infusions of edaravone 30 mg twice daily for 3 days (short-term group) or 10-14 days (long-term group). The primary endpoints of the study included the degree of leg disuse muscle atrophy, as measured by the percentage change from baseline in femoral muscle circumference 15 cm above the knee, and the improvement in leg locomotor function, as assessed by the maximum walking speed over 10 m, 3 months after the onset of stroke. Three-month follow-up was completed by a total of 41 patients (21 in the short-term group and 20 in the long-term group). On admission, there was no significant difference in the severity of stroke or the grade of leg paresis between the two treatment groups. The grade of disuse muscle atrophy and incidence of gait impairment 3 weeks after stroke onset were also similar between the short- and long-term groups. However, disuse muscle atrophy of the paretic and non-paretic legs was significantly less severe in the long-term versus the short-term treatment group (3.6 ± 5.9% and 1.5 ± 6.0% vs 8.3 ± 5.2% and 5.7 ± 6.4%; p < 0.01 and p < 0.05) 3 months after stroke onset. Additionally, the maximum walking speed over a distance of 10 m

  11. Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: current orthopedic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haaker G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gerrit Haaker, Albert Fujak Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a hereditary neuromuscular disease of lower motor neurons that is caused by a defective "survival motor neuron" (SMN protein that is mainly associated with proximal progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Although SMA involves a wide range of disease severity and a high mortality and morbidity rate, recent advances in multidisciplinary supportive care have enhanced quality of life and life expectancy. Active research for possible treatment options has become possible since the disease-causing gene defect was identified in 1995. Nevertheless, a causal therapy is not available at present, and therapeutic management of SMA remains challenging; the prolonged survival is increasing, especially orthopedic, respiratory and nutritive problems. This review focuses on orthopedic management of the disease, with discussion of key aspects that include scoliosis, muscular contractures, hip joint disorders, fractures, technical devices, and a comparative approach of conservative and surgical treatment. Also emphasized are associated complications including respiratory involvement, perioperative care and anesthesia, nutrition problems, and rehabilitation. The SMA disease course can be greatly improved with adequate therapy with established orthopedic procedures in a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. Keywords: spinal muscular atrophy, scoliosis, contractures, fractures, lung function, treatment, rehabilitation, surgery, ventilation, nutrition, perioperative management

  12. Smad3 induces atrogin-1, inhibits mTOR and protein synthesis, and promotes muscle atrophy in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Craig A; McNally, Rachel M; Hoffmann, F Michael; Hornberger, Troy A

    2013-11-01

    Myostatin, a member of the TGF superfamily, is sufficient to induce skeletal muscle atrophy. Myostatin-induced atrophy is associated with increases in E3-ligase atrogin-1 expression and protein degradation and decreases in Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and protein synthesis. Myostatin signaling activates the transcription factor Smad3 (Small Mothers Against Decapentaplegic), which has been shown to be necessary for myostatin-induced atrogin-1 expression and atrophy; however, it is not known whether Smad3 is sufficient to induce these events or whether Smad3 simply plays a permissive role. Thus, the aim of this study was to address these questions with an in vivo model. To accomplish this goal, in vivo transfection of plasmid DNA was used to create transient transgenic mouse skeletal muscles, and our results show for the first time that Smad3 expression is sufficient to stimulate atrogin-1 promoter activity, inhibit Akt/mTOR signaling and protein synthesis, and induce muscle fiber atrophy. Moreover, we propose that Akt/mTOR signaling is inhibited by a Smad3-induced decrease in microRNA-29 (miR-29) expression and a subsequent increase in the translation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) mRNA. Smad3 is also sufficient to inhibit peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC1α) promoter activity and to increase FoxO (Forkhead Box Protein, Subclass O)-mediated signaling and the promoter activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1). Combined, this study provides the first evidence that Smad3 is sufficient to regulate many of the events associated with myostatin-induced atrophy and therefore suggests that Smad3 signaling may be a viable target for therapies aimed at preventing myostatin-induced muscle atrophy.

  13. Parry-Romberg syndrome (progressive hemifacial atrophy) with spasmodic dysphonia--a rare association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugundhan, K; Selvakumar, C J; Gunasekaran, K; Thiruvarutchelvan, K; Sivakumar, S; Anguraj, M; Arun, S

    2014-04-01

    Parry-Romberg syndrome is a rare clinical entity characterised by progressive hemifacial atrophy with appearance of 'saber'. Various neurological and otorhinolaryngological disorders are associated with this syndrome. The association of Parry -Romberg syndrome with Spasmodic dysphonia has rarely been reported. A 37 year old female presented with progressive atrophy of tissues of left side of face for 10 years and change in voice for 1 year. On examination, wasting and atrophy of tissues including tongue was noted on left side of the face. ENT examination revealed adductor spasmodic dysphonia. We report the rare association of Parry -Romberg syndrome with spasmodic dysphonia.

  14. Notch Signaling Mediates Skeletal Muscle Atrophy in Cancer Cachexia Caused by Osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Mu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle atrophy in cancer cachexia is mediated by the interaction between muscle stem cells and various tumor factors. Although Notch signaling has been known as a key regulator of both cancer development and muscle stem cell activity, the potential involvement of Notch signaling in cancer cachexia and concomitant muscle atrophy has yet to be elucidated. The murine K7M2 osteosarcoma cell line was used to generate an orthotopic model of sarcoma-associated cachexia, and the role of Notch signaling was evaluated. Skeletal muscle atrophy was observed in the sarcoma-bearing mice, and Notch signaling was highly active in both tumor tissues and the atrophic skeletal muscles. Systemic inhibition of Notch signaling reduced muscle atrophy. In vitro coculture of osteosarcoma cells with muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs isolated from normal mice resulted in decreased myogenic potential of MDSCs, while the application of Notch inhibitor was able to rescue this repressed myogenic potential. We further observed that Notch-activating factors reside in the exosomes of osteosarcoma cells, which activate Notch signaling in MDSCs and subsequently repress myogenesis. Our results revealed that signaling between tumor and muscle via the Notch pathway may play an important role in mediating the skeletal muscle atrophy seen in cancer cachexia.

  15. Taurine Rescues Cisplatin-Induced Muscle Atrophy In Vitro: A Morphological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Stacchiotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin (CisPt is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug whose side effects include muscle weakness and cachexia. Here we analysed CisPt-induced atrophy in C2C12 myotubes by a multidisciplinary morphological approach, focusing on the onset and progression of autophagy, a protective cellular process that, when excessively activated, may trigger protein hypercatabolism and atrophy in skeletal muscle. To visualize autophagy we used confocal and transmission electron microscopy at different times of treatment and doses of CisPt. Moreover we evaluated the effects of taurine, a cytoprotective beta-amino acid able to counteract oxidative stress, apoptosis, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in different tissues and organs. Our microscopic results indicate that autophagy occurs very early in 50 μM CisPt challenged myotubes (4 h–8 h before overt atrophy but it persists even at 24 h, when several autophagic vesicles, damaged mitochondria, and sarcoplasmic blebbings engulf the sarcoplasm. Differently, 25 mM taurine pretreatment rescues the majority of myotubes size upon 50 μM CisPt at 24 h. Taurine appears to counteract atrophy by restoring regular microtubular apparatus and mitochondria and reducing the overload and the localization of autophagolysosomes. Such a promising taurine action in preventing atrophy needs further molecular and biochemical studies to best define its impact on muscle homeostasis and the maintenance of an adequate skeletal mass in vivo.

  16. Patchy Chorioretinal Atrophy Changes at the Posterior Pole After Ranibizumab for Myopic Choroidal Neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parravano, Mariacristina; Scarinci, Fabio; Gilardi, Marta; Querques, Lea; Varano, Monica; Oddone, Francesco; Bandello, Francesco; Querques, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the potential role of ranibizumab treatment on the development or enlargement of chorioretinal atrophy (CRA) at the posterior pole in eyes with myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV). This observational case series included patients having high myopia spherical equivalent refractive error ≥ -6.00 diopters, axial length (AxL) ≥ 26.0 mm in both eyes, and mCNV treated with ranibizumab 0.5 mg in one eye, who were retrospectively enrolled. Areas of CRA in treated and fellow eyes were measured on fundus autofluorescence images at baseline, 12, and 24 months. The CRA hypoautofluorescent lesions were divided in two groups: perilesional atrophy, corresponding to area around the mCNV, and patchy extralesional atrophy, corresponding to CRA between the temporal vascular arcades. Thirty-six eyes of 18 patients were included. The mean perilesional CRA size significantly increased from baseline to 12 months (3.5 ± 10.6 mm2, P = 0.02) and 24 months (4.4 ± 11.7 mm2, P = 0.038) in the treated eye. In treated and not treated eyes, patchy extralesional CRA at the posterior pole increased significantly from baseline to 12 and 24 months follow-up. None of the fellow eyes developed mCNV. No significant relationship was found between the number of injections, AxL, age, and perilesional and patchy extralesional CRA in the treated and not treated eyes (P > 0.05). In eyes with pathologic myopia and mCNV, intravitreal injections of ranibizumab should not be considered as a contributing risk factor worsening the natural course of CRA, even though the risk of the perilesional CRA enlargement should be taken into account.

  17. LONG-TERM EVOLUTION OF DOME-SHAPED MACULA: Increased Macular Bulge is Associated With Extended Macular Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudier, Guillaume; Gaudric, Alain; Gualino, Vincent; Massin, Pascale; Nardin, Mathieu; Tadayoni, Ramin; Speeg-Schatz, Claude; Gaucher, David

    2016-05-01

    Dome-shaped macula (DSM) may cause impaired vision. This study analyzed the long-term evolution of DSM, most particularly macular changes: serous retinal detachment, retinal pigment epithelium atrophy, and DSM bulge increase. Twenty-nine eyes presenting with DSM were retrospectively studied. Clinical data, color photographs, fluorescein angiographs, and optical coherence tomography examinations were reviewed. Patients were followed up from 6 months to 111 months (mean, 37.89 months). The height of the macular bulge, the size of retinal pigment epithelium macular atrophy, and serous retinal detachment progression were studied. Other macular changes were noted. Mean vision remained stable. Dome-shaped macula height increased significantly from 338.9 μm to 364.3 μm (P = 0.007). Serous retinal detachment was present initially in 15 of 29 eyes; it increased in 4 cases and resolved spontaneously in 7. Macular retinal pigment epithelium atrophy correlated with the bulge height (P = 0.015), and it enlarged during follow-up (1.12 vs. 1.34, P = 0.04). Other macular anomalies were present initially or appeared during follow-up: macular pucker, choroidal neovascularization (CNV), subretinal pigmentary clumps, and flat irregular pigmented epithelium detachment. A few treatments were proven in serous retinal detachment cases but were ineffective in restoring vision. In DSM, vision may be stable for years while macular changes progress: the macular bulge increases as does retinal pigment epithelium atrophy.

  18. Assessment of vaginal atrophy: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, M. A.; Limpens, J.; Roovers, J. P. W. R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an evidence-based definition of vaginal atrophy (VA) and present an overview of subjective and objective measurements of VA applicable in clinical practice and research. A systematic literature search was performed in MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify studies

  19. Differential response of skeletal muscles to mTORC1 signaling during atrophy and hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle mass is determined by the balance between protein synthesis and degradation. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a master regulator of protein translation and has been implicated in the control of muscle mass. Inactivation of mTORC1 by skeletal muscle-specific deletion of its obligatory component raptor results in smaller muscles and a lethal dystrophy. Moreover, raptor-deficient muscles are less oxidative through changes in the expression PGC-1α, a critical determinant of mitochondrial biogenesis. These results suggest that activation of mTORC1 might be beneficial to skeletal muscle by providing resistance to muscle atrophy and increasing oxidative function. Here, we tested this hypothesis by deletion of the mTORC1 inhibitor tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) in muscle fibers. Method Skeletal muscles of mice with an acute or a permanent deletion of raptor or TSC1 were examined using histological, biochemical and molecular biological methods. Response of the muscles to changes in mechanical load and nerve input was investigated by ablation of synergistic muscles or by denervation . Results Genetic deletion or knockdown of raptor, causing inactivation of mTORC1, was sufficient to prevent muscle growth and enhance muscle atrophy. Conversely, short-term activation of mTORC1 by knockdown of TSC induced muscle fiber hypertrophy and atrophy-resistance upon denervation, in both fast tibialis anterior (TA) and slow soleus muscles. Surprisingly, however, sustained activation of mTORC1 by genetic deletion of Tsc1 caused muscle atrophy in all but soleus muscles. In contrast, oxidative capacity was increased in all muscles examined. Consistently, TSC1-deficient soleus muscle was atrophy-resistant whereas TA underwent normal atrophy upon denervation. Moreover, upon overloading, plantaris muscle did not display enhanced hypertrophy compared to controls. Biochemical analysis indicated that the atrophy response of muscles was based on the

  20. The improvement of movement and speech during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Valérie Cochen; Debs, Rachel; Oudiette, Delphine; Leu, Smaranda; Radji, Fatai; Tiberge, Michel; Yu, Huan; Bayard, Sophie; Roze, Emmanuel; Vidailhet, Marie; Dauvilliers, Yves; Rascol, Olivier; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2011-03-01

    Multiple system atrophy is an atypical parkinsonism characterized by severe motor disabilities that are poorly levodopa responsive. Most patients develop rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Because parkinsonism is absent during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease, we studied the movements of patients with multiple system atrophy during rapid eye movement sleep. Forty-nine non-demented patients with multiple system atrophy and 49 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease were interviewed along with their 98 bed partners using a structured questionnaire. They rated the quality of movements, vocal and facial expressions during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder as better than, equal to or worse than the same activities in an awake state. Sleep and movements were monitored using video-polysomnography in 22/49 patients with multiple system atrophy and in 19/49 patients with Parkinson's disease. These recordings were analysed for the presence of parkinsonism and cerebellar syndrome during rapid eye movement sleep movements. Clinical rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder was observed in 43/49 (88%) patients with multiple system atrophy. Reports from the 31/43 bed partners who were able to evaluate movements during sleep indicate that 81% of the patients showed some form of improvement during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. These included improved movement (73% of patients: faster, 67%; stronger, 52%; and smoother, 26%), improved speech (59% of patients: louder, 55%; more intelligible, 17%; and better articulated, 36%) and normalized facial expression (50% of patients). The rate of improvement was higher in Parkinson's disease than in multiple system atrophy, but no further difference was observed between the two forms of multiple system atrophy (predominant parkinsonism versus cerebellar syndrome). Video-monitored movements during rapid eye movement sleep in patients with multiple system

  1. A recurrent deletion mutation in OPA1 causes autosomal dominant optic atrophy in a Chinese family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Shi, Wei; Song, Liming; Zhang, Xiao; Cheng, Lulu; Wang, Yanfang; Ge, Xianglian; Li, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Min, Qingjie; Jin, Zi-Bing; Qu, Jia; Gu, Feng

    2014-11-01

    Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) is the most frequent form of hereditary optic neuropathy and occurs due to the degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells. To identify the genetic defect in a family with putative ADOA, we performed capture next generation sequencing (CNGS) to screen known retinal disease genes. However, six exons failed to be sequenced by CNGS in optic atrophy 1 gene (OPA1). Sequencing of those exons identified a 4 bp deletion mutation (c.2983-1_2985del) in OPA1. Furthermore, we sequenced the transcripts of OPA1 from the patient skin fibroblasts and found there is six-nucleotide deletion (c.2984-c.2989, AGAAAG). Quantitative-PCR and Western blotting showed that OPA1 mRNA and its protein expression have no obvious difference between patient skin fibroblast and control. The analysis of protein structure by molecular modeling suggests that the mutation may change the structure of OPA1 by formation of an alpha helix protruding into an existing pocket. Taken together, we identified an OPA1 mutation in a family with ADOA by filling the missing CNGS data. We also showed that this mutation affects the structural intactness of OPA1. It provides molecular insights for clinical genetic diagnosis and treatment of optic atrophy.

  2. Hippocampal atrophy in people with memory deficits: results from the population-based IPREA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Luca; van Lew, Baldur; Reiber, Johan H C; Gandin, Claudia; Galluzzo, Lucia; Scafato, Emanuele; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Milles, Julien; Pievani, Michela

    2014-07-01

    Clinical studies have shown that hippocampal atrophy is present before dementia in people with memory deficits and can predict dementia development. The question remains whether this association holds in the general population. This is of interest for the possible use of hippocampal atrophy to screen population for preventive interventions. The aim of this study was to assess hippocampal volume and shape abnormalities in elderly adults with memory deficits in a cross-sectional population-based study. We included individuals participating in the Italian Project on the Epidemiology of Alzheimer Disease (IPREA) study: 75 cognitively normal individuals (HC), 31 individuals with memory deficits (MEM), and 31 individuals with memory deficits not otherwise specified (MEMnos). Hippocampal volumes and shape were extracted through manual tracing and the growing and adaptive meshes (GAMEs) shape-modeling algorithm. We investigated between-group differences in hippocampal volume and shape, and correlations with memory deficits. In MEM participants, hippocampal volumes were significantly smaller than in HC and were mildly associated with worse memory scores. Memory-associated shape changes mapped to the anterior hippocampus. Shape-based analysis detected no significant difference between MEM and HC, while MEMnos showed shape changes in the posterior hippocampus compared with HC and MEM groups. These findings support the discriminant validity of hippocampal volumetry as a biomarker of memory impairment in the general population. The detection of shape changes in MEMnos but not in MEM participants suggests that shape-based biomarkers might lack sensitivity to detect Alzheimer's-like pathology in the general population.

  3. Reversible brain atrophy and cognitive impairment in an adolescent Japanese patient with primary adrenal Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Nobumasa; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Akiko; Kaneko, Masanori; Ishizawa, Masahiro; Furukawa, Kazuo; Abe, Takahiro; Matsubayashi, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Takaho; Hanyu, Osamu; Shimohata, Takayoshi; Sone, Hirohito

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous Cushing's syndrome is an endocrine disease resulting from chronic exposure to excessive glucocorticoids produced in the adrenal cortex. Although the ultimate outcome remains uncertain, functional and morphological brain changes are not uncommon in patients with this syndrome, and generally persist even after resolution of hypercortisolemia. We present an adolescent patient with Cushing's syndrome who exhibited cognitive impairment with brain atrophy. A 19-year-old Japanese male visited a local hospital following 5 days of behavioral abnormalities, such as money wasting or nighttime wandering. He had hypertension and a 1-year history of a rounded face. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed apparently diffuse brain atrophy. Because of high random plasma cortisol levels (28.7 μg/dL) at 10 AM, he was referred to our hospital in August 2011. Endocrinological testing showed adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent hypercortisolemia, and abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a 2.7 cm tumor in the left adrenal gland. The patient underwent left adrenalectomy in September 2011, and the diagnosis of cortisol-secreting adenoma was confirmed histologically. His hypertension and Cushingoid features regressed. Behavioral abnormalities were no longer observed, and he was classified as cured of his cognitive disturbance caused by Cushing's syndrome in February 2012. MRI performed 8 months after surgery revealed reversal of brain atrophy, and his subsequent course has been uneventful. In summary, the young age at onset and the short duration of Cushing's syndrome probably contributed to the rapid recovery of both cognitive dysfunction and brain atrophy in our patient. Cushing's syndrome should be considered as a possible etiological factor in patients with cognitive impairment and brain atrophy that is atypical for their age.

  4. Visual MRI grading system to evaluate atrophy of the supeaspinatus muscle

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    Lim, Hyun Kyoung; Hong, Sung Hwan; Yoo, Hye Jin; Choi, Ja Young; Kim, Sae Hoon; Choi, Jung Ah; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    To investigate the interobserver reproducibility and diagnostic feasibility of a visual grading system for assessing atrophy of the supraspinatus muscle on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three independent radiologists retrospectively evaluated the occupying ratio of the supraspinatus muscle in the supraspinatus fossa on 192 shoulder MRI examinations in 188 patients using a 3-point visual grading system (1, ≥ 60%; 2, 30-59%; 3, < 30%) on oblique sagittal T1-weighted images. The inter-reader agreement and the agreement with the reference standard (3-point grades according to absolute occupying ratio values quantitatively measured by directly contouring the muscles on MRI) were analyzed using weighted kappa. The visual grading was applied by a single reader to a group of 100 consecutive patients who had undergone rotator cuff repair to retrospectively determine the association between the visual grades at preoperative state and postsurgical occurrences of retear. The inter-reader weighted kappa value for the visual grading was 0.74 when averaged across three reader pairs (0.70-0.77 for individual reader pairs). The weighted kappa value between the visual grading and the reference standard ranged from 0.75 to 0.83. There was a significant difference in retear rates of the rotator cuff between the 3 visual grades of supraspinatus muscle atrophy on MRI in univariable analysis (p < 0.001), but not in multivariable analysis (p = 0.026). The 3-point visual grading system may be a feasible method to assess the severity of supraspinatus muscle atrophy on MRI and assist in the clinical management of patients with rotator cuff tear.

  5. Visual MRI grading system to evaluate atrophy of the supeaspinatus muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyun Kyoung; Hong, Sung Hwan; Yoo, Hye Jin; Choi, Ja Young; Kim, Sae Hoon; Choi, Jung Ah; Kang, Heung Sik

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the interobserver reproducibility and diagnostic feasibility of a visual grading system for assessing atrophy of the supraspinatus muscle on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three independent radiologists retrospectively evaluated the occupying ratio of the supraspinatus muscle in the supraspinatus fossa on 192 shoulder MRI examinations in 188 patients using a 3-point visual grading system (1, ≥ 60%; 2, 30-59%; 3, < 30%) on oblique sagittal T1-weighted images. The inter-reader agreement and the agreement with the reference standard (3-point grades according to absolute occupying ratio values quantitatively measured by directly contouring the muscles on MRI) were analyzed using weighted kappa. The visual grading was applied by a single reader to a group of 100 consecutive patients who had undergone rotator cuff repair to retrospectively determine the association between the visual grades at preoperative state and postsurgical occurrences of retear. The inter-reader weighted kappa value for the visual grading was 0.74 when averaged across three reader pairs (0.70-0.77 for individual reader pairs). The weighted kappa value between the visual grading and the reference standard ranged from 0.75 to 0.83. There was a significant difference in retear rates of the rotator cuff between the 3 visual grades of supraspinatus muscle atrophy on MRI in univariable analysis (p < 0.001), but not in multivariable analysis (p = 0.026). The 3-point visual grading system may be a feasible method to assess the severity of supraspinatus muscle atrophy on MRI and assist in the clinical management of patients with rotator cuff tear.

  6. Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Andrew P

    2018-01-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an adult-onset degenerative disorder of the neuromuscular system resulting in slowly progressive weakness and atrophy of the proximal limb and bulbar muscles. The disease is caused by the expansion of a CAG/glutamine tract in the amino-terminus of the androgen receptor. That SBMA exclusively affects males reflects the fact that critical pathogenic events are hormone-dependent. These include translocation of the polyglutamine androgen receptor from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and unfolding of the mutant protein. Studies of the pathology of SBMA subjects have revealed nuclear aggregates of the mutant androgen receptor, loss of lower motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord, and both neurogenic and myopathic changes in skeletal muscle. Mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis include toxicity in both lower motor neurons and skeletal muscle, where effects on transcription, intracellular transport, and mitochondrial function have been documented. Therapies to treat SBMA patients remain largely supportive, although experimental approaches targeting androgen action or promoting degradation of the mutant androgen receptor protein or the encoding RNA are under active study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Intellectual enrichment lessens the effect of brain atrophy on learning and memory in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumowski, James F; Wylie, Glenn R; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; DeLuca, John

    2010-06-15

    Learning and memory impairments are prevalent among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS); however, such deficits are only weakly associated with MS disease severity (brain atrophy). The cognitive reserve hypothesis states that greater lifetime intellectual enrichment lessens the negative impact of brain disease on cognition, thereby helping to explain the incomplete relationship between brain disease and cognitive status in neurologic populations. The literature on cognitive reserve has focused mainly on Alzheimer disease. The current research examines whether greater intellectual enrichment lessens the negative effect of brain atrophy on learning and memory in patients with MS. Forty-four persons with MS completed neuropsychological measures of verbal learning and memory, and a vocabulary-based estimate of lifetime intellectual enrichment. Brain atrophy was estimated with third ventricle width measured from 3-T magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo MRIs. Hierarchical regression was used to predict learning and memory with brain atrophy, intellectual enrichment, and the interaction between brain atrophy and intellectual enrichment. Brain atrophy predicted worse learning and memory, and intellectual enrichment predicted better learning; however, these effects were moderated by interactions between brain atrophy and intellectual enrichment. Specifically, higher intellectual enrichment lessened the negative impact of brain atrophy on both learning and memory. These findings help to explain the incomplete relationship between multiple sclerosis disease severity and cognition, as the effect of disease on cognition is attenuated among patients with higher intellectual enrichment. As such, intellectual enrichment is supported as a protective factor against disease-related cognitive impairment in persons with multiple sclerosis.

  8. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by allopurinol prevents skeletal muscle atrophy: role of p38 MAPKinase and E3 ubiquitin ligases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Derbre

    Full Text Available Alterations in muscle play an important role in common diseases and conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are generated during hindlimb unloading due, at least in part, to the activation of xanthine oxidase (XO. The major aim of this study was to determine the mechanism by which XO activation causes unloading-induced muscle atrophy in rats, and its possible prevention by allopurinol, a well-known inhibitor of this enzyme. For this purpose we studied one of the main redox sensitive signalling cascades involved in skeletal muscle atrophy i.e. p38 MAPKinase, and the expression of two well known muscle specific E3 ubiquitin ligases involved in proteolysis, the Muscle atrophy F-Box (MAFbx; also known as atrogin-1 and Muscle RING (Really Interesting New Gene Finger-1 (MuRF-1. We found that hindlimb unloading induced a significant increase in XO activity and in the protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes CuZnSOD and Catalase in skeletal muscle. The most relevant new fact reported in this paper is that inhibition of XO with allopurinol, a drug widely used in clinical practice, prevents soleus muscle atrophy by ~20% after hindlimb unloading. This was associated with the inhibition of the p38 MAPK-MAFbx pathway. Our data suggest that XO was involved in the loss of muscle mass via the activation of the p38MAPK-MAFbx pathway in unloaded muscle atrophy. Thus, allopurinol may have clinical benefits to combat skeletal muscle atrophy in bedridden, astronauts, sarcopenic, and cachexic patients.

  9. A meta-analysis on progressive atrophy in intractable temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caciagli, Lorenzo; Bernasconi, Andrea; Wiebe, Samuel; Koepp, Matthias J.; Bernasconi, Neda

    2017-01-01

    Objective: It remains unclear whether drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is associated with cumulative brain damage, with no expert consensus and no quantitative syntheses of the available evidence. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of MRI studies on progressive atrophy, searching PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE databases for cross-sectional and longitudinal quantitative MRI studies on drug-resistant TLE. Results: We screened 2,976 records and assessed eligibility of 248 full-text articles. Forty-two articles met the inclusion criteria for quantitative evaluation. We observed a predominance of cross-sectional studies, use of different clinical indices of progression, and high heterogeneity in age-control procedures. Meta-analysis of 18/1 cross-sectional/longitudinal studies on hippocampal atrophy (n = 979 patients) yielded a pooled effect size of r = −0.42 for ipsilateral atrophy related to epilepsy duration (95% confidence interval [CI] −0.51 to −0.32; p 80% of articles reported duration-related progression in extratemporal cortical and subcortical regions. Detailed analysis of study design features yielded low to moderate levels of evidence for progressive atrophy across studies, mainly due to dominance of cross-sectional over longitudinal investigations, use of diverse measures of seizure estimates, and absence of consistent age control procedures. Conclusions: While the neuroimaging literature is overall suggestive of progressive atrophy in drug-resistant TLE, published studies have employed rather weak designs to directly demonstrate it. Longitudinal multicohort studies are needed to unequivocally differentiate aging from disease progression. PMID:28687722

  10. Disease-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powers, Scott K.; Lynch, Gordon S.; Murphy, Kate T.; Reid, Michael B.; Zijdewind, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Numerous health problems including acute critical illness, cancer, diseases associated with chronic inflammation, and neurological disorders often result in skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue. Disease-related muscle atrophy and fatigue is an important clinical problem because acquired skeletal

  11. Interleukin-17A Promotes Parietal Cell Atrophy by Inducing ApoptosisSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Bockerstett

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Atrophic gastritis caused by chronic inflammation in the gastric mucosa leads to the loss of gastric glandular cells, including acid-secreting parietal cells. Parietal cell atrophy in a setting of chronic inflammation induces spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia, a critical step in gastric carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms by which inflammation causes parietal cell atrophy and spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia are not well defined. We investigated the role of interleukin-17A (IL-17A in causing parietal cell atrophy. Methods: A mouse model of autoimmune atrophic gastritis was used to examine IL-17A production during early and late stages of disease. Organoids derived from corpus glands were used to determine the direct effects of IL-17A on gastric epithelial cells. Immunofluorescent staining was used to examine IL-17A receptors and the direct effect of signaling on parietal cells. Mice were infected with an IL-17A-producing adenovirus to determine the effects of IL-17A on parietal cells in vivo. Finally, IL-17A neutralizing antibodies were administered to mice with active atrophic gastritis to evaluate the effects on parietal cell atrophy and metaplasia. Results: Increased IL-17A correlated with disease severity in mice with chronic atrophic gastritis. IL-17A caused caspase-dependent gastric organoid degeneration, which could not be rescued with a necroptosis inhibitor. Parietal cells expressed IL-17A receptors and IL-17A treatment induced apoptosis in parietal cells. Overexpressing IL-17A in vivo induced caspase-3 activation and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling staining in parietal cells. Finally, IL-17A neutralizing antibody decreased parietal cell atrophy and metaplasia in mice with chronic atrophic gastritis. Conclusions: These data identify IL-17A as a cytokine that promotes parietal cell apoptosis during atrophic gastritis, a

  12. Shining a light on posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Schott, Jonathan M; Rabinovici, Gil D; Boeve, Bradley F; Cappa, Stefano F; Dickerson, Bradford C; Dubois, Bruno; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; Lehmann, Manja; Mendez, Mario F; Pijnenburg, Yolande; Ryan, Natalie S; Scheltens, Philip; Shakespeare, Tim; Tang-Wai, David F; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Bain, Lisa; Carrillo, Maria C; Fox, Nick C

    2013-07-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a clinicoradiologic syndrome characterized by progressive decline in visual processing skills, relatively intact memory and language in the early stages, and atrophy of posterior brain regions. Misdiagnosis of PCA is common, owing not only to its relative rarity and unusual and variable presentation, but also because patients frequently first seek the opinion of an ophthalmologist, who may note normal eye examinations by their usual tests but may not appreciate cortical brain dysfunction. Seeking to raise awareness of the disease, stimulate research, and promote collaboration, a multidisciplinary group of PCA research clinicians formed an international working party, which had its first face-to-face meeting on July 13, 2012 in Vancouver, Canada, prior to the Alzheimer's Association International Conference. Copyright © 2013 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Five-year retrospective changes in hippocampal atrophy and cognitive screening test performances in very mild Alzheimer's disease: the Tajiri Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Meguro, K.; Shimada, M.; Ishizaki, J.; Yamadori, A.; Sekita, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe, especially the hippocampus, is important for normal cognitive function, especially for memory, and is the region with the earliest and most extensive pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the atrophic changes of the hippocampus over a 5-year period and its relation to cognitive screening test performances in normal elderly subjects, those with very mild AD, and patients with AD. Fifty-seven elderly subjects without a moderate or greater degree of cerebrovascular disease as shown by MRI were randomly selected from the town of Tajiri. Thirty-three subjects with a clinical dementia rating (CDR) of 0 (normal), 18 CDR-0.5 (very mild AD) subjects, and six CDR-1 and 2 (AD) subjects underwent MRI and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) twice during the period. Retrospective changes in the hippocampal width and the MMSE scores were evaluated. There were significant CDR group effects for the changes in the mean bilateral hippocampal widths and the MMSE scores. Normal subjects did not show cognitive decline, although there was a slight tendency for hippocampal atrophy. A significant and meaningful Spearman's correlation was noted between left hippocampal atrophy and the MMSE scores over the 5-year period for the CDR-0.5 group. These CDR-0.5 subjects met the MCI (mild cognitive impairment) criteria as proposed by the consensus paper. Findings suggested that normal elderly subjects maintain a high level of cognitive functions for at least 5 years, although hippocampal atrophy might occur. Atrophic change of the left hippocampus might be a good marker of the very early stage of AD. (orig.)

  14. Atrophy of sacrospinal muscle groups in patients with chronic, diffusely radiating lumbar back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laasonen, E.M.

    1984-01-01

    After surgery necessitated by lumbar back pain syndromes, radiolucency verified by CT may appear in the sacrospinal muscle group on the operate side. This radiolucency represents muscular atrophy and is in its most severe form a result of the replacement of muscle tissue with adipose tissue. Such muscular atrophy appeared in the present series in 31 out of all 156 patients (19.9%) and in 29 out of 94 patients operated on because of radiating lumbar back pain (30.9%). The radiological appearance, extent, and HU values of this muscular atrophy are presented in detail. Only weak correlations with the multitude of clinical symptoms and signs were found in this retrospective study. The effects of irreversible muscular atrophy on the indications for surgery and physiotherapy are discussed.

  15. Myopathic EMG findings and type II muscle fiber atrophy in patients with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Clarissa; Christiansen, Ingelise; Vissing, John

    2013-01-01

    Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a rare condition, which may mimic myopathy. A few reports have described that EMG in LEMS may show changes compatible with myopathy, and muscle biopsies have been described with type II as well as type I atrophy. The EMG results were, however, based on ...... on qualitative EMG examination and the histopathological methods were not always clear. The objective of this study was to investigate if the previous EMG findings could be confirmed with quantitative EMG (QEMG) and to describe muscle histology in LEMS.......Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a rare condition, which may mimic myopathy. A few reports have described that EMG in LEMS may show changes compatible with myopathy, and muscle biopsies have been described with type II as well as type I atrophy. The EMG results were, however, based...

  16. Effect of early implementation of electrical muscle stimulation to prevent muscle atrophy and weakness in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Arai, Ryuzo; Tamaki, Akira; Nakamura, Takashi; Moritani, Toshio

    2011-08-01

    Following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, restricted weight bearing and immobilization results in thigh and calf muscle atrophy and weakness. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) on prevention of muscle atrophy in patients during the early rehabilitation stage after ACL reconstruction. Twenty patients with acute ACL tears were divided into two groups randomly. The control group (CON group) participated in only the usual rehabilitation program. In addition to this protocol, the electrical muscle stimulation group (EMS group) received EMS training using the wave form of 20 Hz exponential pulse from the 2nd post-operative day to 4 weeks after the surgery. Muscle thickness of vastus lateralis and calf increased significantly 4 weeks after surgery in the EMS group, while it decreased significantly in the CON group. The decline of knee extension strength was significantly less in the EMS group than in the CON group at 4 weeks after the surgery, and the EMS group showed greater recovery of knee extension strength at 3 months after surgery. EMS implemented during the early rehabilitation stage is effective in maintaining and increasing muscle thickness and strength in the operated limb. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy: study of the Wolfram syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Gómez, Bernardette; Reza-Albarrán, Alfredo Adolfo

    2017-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WS), also known by the acronym DIDMOAD, is a rare and progresive hereditary disease of autosomal recessive inheritance which minimum ascertainment diagnostic criteria are the occurrence together of diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy before 15 years of age. To describe the clinical, biochemical and molecular profile of WS in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico. We reviewed patients records who fulfill the minimum ascertainment diagnostic criteria of WS presenting between January 1987 and May 2015 in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico. Five patients fulfill the inclusion criteria (three male and two female). Diabetes mellitus was the first manifestation of the syndrome in all of them, with a mean age at diagnosis of 5.8 ± 2.71 years, while the WS diagnosis was established at a mean age of 15.8 ± 8.37 years. All the patients had optic atrophy and two of them presented with the complete DIDMOAD spectrum. We found new associations with autoimmune hepatitis and testicular cancer. This study shows the variability of clinical presentation of WS, as well as two new associations. Copyright: © 2017 SecretarÍa de Salud

  18. Comparison of grey matter atrophy between patients with neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis: A voxel-based morphometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yunyun; Liu Yaou; Liang Peipeng; Jia Xiuqin; Yu Chunshui; Qin Wen; Sun Hui; Liao Zhangyuan; Ye Jing; Li Kuncheng

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have established regional grey matter (GM) loss in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, whether there is any regional GM atrophy in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and the difference between NMO and MS is unclear. The present study addresses this issue by voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and T1-weighted three-dimensional MRI were obtained from 26 NMO patients, 26 relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS) patients, and 26 normal controls. An analysis of covariance model assessed with cluster size inference was used to compare GM volume among three groups. The correlations of GM volume changes with disease duration, expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and brain T2 lesion volume (LV) were analyzed. Results: GM atrophy was found in NMO patients in several regions of frontal, temporal, parietal lobes and insula (uncorrected, p < 0.001). While extensive GM atrophy was found in RRMS patients, including most cortical regions and the deep grey matter (corrected for multiple comparisons, p < 0.01). Compared with NMO, those with RRMS had significant GM loss in bilateral thalami, caudate, left parahippocampal gyrus, right hippocampus and insula (corrected, p < 0.01). In RRMS group, regional GM loss in right caudate and bilateral thalami were strongly correlated with brain T2LV. Conclusions: Our study found the difference of GM atrophy between NMO and RRMS patients mainly in deep grey matter. The correlational results suggested axonal degeneration from lesions on T2WI may be a key pathogenesis of atrophy in deep grey matter in RRMS.

  19. Regulatory circuitry of TWEAK-Fn14 system and PGC-1α in skeletal muscle atrophy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindi, Sajedah M; Mishra, Vivek; Bhatnagar, Shephali; Tajrishi, Marjan M; Ogura, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Burkly, Linda C; Zheng, Timothy S; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-03-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting attributed to inactivity has significant adverse functional consequences. Accumulating evidence suggests that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK)-Fn14 system are key regulators of skeletal muscle mass in various catabolic states. While the activation of TWEAK-Fn14 signaling causes muscle wasting, PGC-1α preserves muscle mass in several conditions, including functional denervation and aging. However, it remains unknown whether there is any regulatory interaction between PGC-1α and TWEAK-Fn14 system during muscle atrophy. Here we demonstrate that TWEAK significantly reduces the levels of PGC-1α and mitochondrial content (∼50%) in skeletal muscle. Levels of PGC-1α are significantly increased in skeletal muscle of TWEAK-knockout (KO) and Fn14-KO mice compared to wild-type mice on denervation. Transgenic (Tg) overexpression of PGC-1α inhibited progressive muscle wasting in TWEAK-Tg mice. PGC-1α inhibited the TWEAK-induced activation of NF-κB (∼50%) and dramatically reduced (∼90%) the expression of atrogenes such as MAFbx and MuRF1. Intriguingly, muscle-specific overexpression of PGC-1α also prevented the inducible expression of Fn14 in denervated skeletal muscle. Collectively, our study demonstrates that TWEAK induces muscle atrophy through repressing the levels of PGC-1α. Overexpression of PGC-1α not only blocks the TWEAK-induced atrophy program but also diminishes the expression of Fn14 in denervated skeletal muscle.

  20. Effect of aerobic training in patients with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy disease)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Andersen, G; Thøgersen, F

    2009-01-01

    ) or any of the other variables examined before and after training, and the patients with SBMA did not feel improvements in ADL. CONCLUSIONS: Frequent, moderate-intensity aerobic conditioning is of little beneficial effect in patients with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). High levels of plasma......OBJECTIVE: We examined the effect of aerobic exercise in patients with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). SBMA is caused by a defect androgen receptor. This defect causes motor neuron death, but considering the important function of androgens in muscle, it is possible that muscle damage...... measurements, lung function, plasma proteins, and hormones were evaluated before and after training. Evaluation of improvements in activities of daily living (ADL) was conducted after training. RESULTS: W(max) increased by 18%, and CS activity increased by 35%. There was no significant change in Vo(2max...

  1. Cardiac atrophy after bed rest and spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhonen, M. A.; Franco, F.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Peshock, R. M.; Weatherall, P. T.; Levine, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac muscle adapts well to changes in loading conditions. For example, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may be induced physiologically (via exercise training) or pathologically (via hypertension or valvular heart disease). If hypertension is treated, LV hypertrophy regresses, suggesting a sensitivity to LV work. However, whether physical inactivity in nonathletic populations causes adaptive changes in LV mass or even frank atrophy is not clear. We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n = 5) and 12 (n = 3) wk of horizontal bed rest. LV and right ventricular (RV) mass and end-diastolic volume were measured using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2, 6, and 12 wk of bed rest; five healthy men were also studied before and after at least 6 wk of routine daily activities as controls. In addition, four astronauts were exposed to the complete elimination of hydrostatic gradients during a spaceflight of 10 days. During bed rest, LV mass decreased by 8.0 +/- 2.2% (P = 0.005) after 6 wk with an additional atrophy of 7.6 +/- 2.3% in the subjects who remained in bed for 12 wk; there was no change in LV mass for the control subjects (153.0 +/- 12.2 vs. 153.4 +/- 12.1 g, P = 0.81). Mean wall thickness decreased (4 +/- 2.5%, P = 0.01) after 6 wk of bed rest associated with the decrease in LV mass, suggesting a physiological remodeling with respect to altered load. LV end-diastolic volume decreased by 14 +/- 1.7% (P = 0.002) after 2 wk of bed rest and changed minimally thereafter. After 6 wk of bed rest, RV free wall mass decreased by 10 +/- 2.7% (P = 0.06) and RV end-diastolic volume by 16 +/- 7.9% (P = 0.06). After spaceflight, LV mass decreased by 12 +/- 6.9% (P = 0.07). In conclusion, cardiac atrophy occurs during prolonged (6 wk) horizontal bed rest and may also occur after short-term spaceflight. We suggest that cardiac atrophy is due to a physiological adaptation to reduced myocardial load and work in real or simulated microgravity and demonstrates the plasticity

  2. Atrophy of sacrospinal muscle groups in patients with chronic, diffusely radiating lumbar back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laasonen, E.M.

    1984-01-01

    After surgery necessitated by lumbar back pain syndromes, radiolucency verified by CT may appear in the sacrospinal muscle group on the operate side. This radiolucency represents muscular atrophy and is in its most severe form a result of the replacement of muscle tissue with adipose tissue. Such muscular atrophy appeared in the present series in 31 out of all 156 patients (19.9%) and in 29 out of 94 patients operated on because of radiating lumbar back pain (30.9%). The radiological appearance, extent, and HU values of this muscular atrophy are presented in detail. Only weak correlations with the multitude of clinical symptoms and signs were found in this retrospective study. The effects of irreversible muscular atrophy on the indications for surgery and physiotherapy are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Improved longitudinal gray and white matter atrophy assessment via application of a 4-dimensional hidden Markov random field model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Michael G; Bergsland, Niels; Zivadinov, Robert

    2014-04-15

    SIENA and similar techniques have demonstrated the utility of performing "direct" measurements as opposed to post-hoc comparison of cross-sectional data for the measurement of whole brain (WB) atrophy over time. However, gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) atrophy are now widely recognized as important components of neurological disease progression, and are being actively evaluated as secondary endpoints in clinical trials. Direct measures of GM/WM change with advantages similar to SIENA have been lacking. We created a robust and easily-implemented method for direct longitudinal analysis of GM/WM atrophy, SIENAX multi-time-point (SIENAX-MTP). We built on the basic halfway-registration and mask composition components of SIENA to improve the raw output of FMRIB's FAST tissue segmentation tool. In addition, we created LFAST, a modified version of FAST incorporating a 4th dimension in its hidden Markov random field model in order to directly represent time. The method was validated by scan-rescan, simulation, comparison with SIENA, and two clinical effect size comparisons. All validation approaches demonstrated improved longitudinal precision with the proposed SIENAX-MTP method compared to SIENAX. For GM, simulation showed better correlation with experimental volume changes (r=0.992 vs. 0.941), scan-rescan showed lower standard deviations (3.8% vs. 8.4%), correlation with SIENA was more robust (r=0.70 vs. 0.53), and effect sizes were improved by up to 68%. Statistical power estimates indicated a potential drop of 55% in the number of subjects required to detect the same treatment effect with SIENAX-MTP vs. SIENAX. The proposed direct GM/WM method significantly improves on the standard SIENAX technique by trading a small amount of bias for a large reduction in variance, and may provide more precise data and additional statistical power in longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A patient with posterior cortical atrophy possesses a novel mutation in the presenilin 1 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia J Sitek

    Full Text Available Posterior cortical atrophy is a dementia syndrome with symptoms of cortical visual dysfunction, associated with amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles predominantly affecting visual association cortex. Most patients diagnosed with posterior cortical atrophy will finally develop a typical Alzheimer's disease. However, there are a variety of neuropathological processes, which could lead towards a clinical presentation of posterior cortical atrophy. Mutations in the presenilin 1 gene, affecting the function of γ-secretase, are the most common genetic cause of familial, early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Here we present a patient with a clinical diagnosis of posterior cortical atrophy who harbors a novel Presenilin 1 mutation (I211M. In silico analysis predicts that the mutation could influence the interaction between presenilin 1 and presenilin1 enhancer-2 protein, a protein partner within the γ-secretase complex. These findings along with published literature support the inclusion of posterior cortical atrophy on the Alzheimer's disease spectrum.

  5. A Patient with Posterior Cortical Atrophy Possesses a Novel Mutation in the Presenilin 1 Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Emilia J.; Narożańska, Ewa; Pepłońska, Beata; Filipek, Sławomir; Barczak, Anna; Styczyńska, Maria; Mlynarczyk, Krzysztof; Brockhuis, Bogna; Portelius, Erik; Religa, Dorota; Barcikowska, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy is a dementia syndrome with symptoms of cortical visual dysfunction, associated with amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles predominantly affecting visual association cortex. Most patients diagnosed with posterior cortical atrophy will finally develop a typical Alzheimer's disease. However, there are a variety of neuropathological processes, which could lead towards a clinical presentation of posterior cortical atrophy. Mutations in the presenilin 1 gene, affecting the function of γ-secretase, are the most common genetic cause of familial, early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Here we present a patient with a clinical diagnosis of posterior cortical atrophy who harbors a novel Presenilin 1 mutation (I211M). In silico analysis predicts that the mutation could influence the interaction between presenilin 1 and presenilin1 enhancer-2 protein, a protein partner within the γ-secretase complex. These findings along with published literature support the inclusion of posterior cortical atrophy on the Alzheimer's disease spectrum. PMID:23593396

  6. Combined application of neutrophin-3 gene and neural stem cells is ameliorative to delay of denervated skeletal muscular atrophy after tibial nerve transection in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sen; Xu, Jianguang; Hu, Shaonan; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Changqing; Wang, Yang; Gu, Yudong

    2011-01-01

    Examination of the therapeutic efficacy of neural stem cells (NSCs) has recently become the focus of much investigation. In this study we present an insight of the effects of combined application with neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and NSCs that derived from rat embryo spinal cord on delaying denervated skeletal muscular atrophy after tibial nerve was severed. NT-3 gene was amplified by PCR and subcloned into lentiviral vector pWPXL-MOD to construct a lentiviral expression vector pWPXL-MOD-NT-3. A positive clone expressing NT-3 (named NSCs-NT-3) was obtained and used for differentiation in vitro and transplantation. Sixty adult rats, whose tibial nerves were sectioned, were divided into two groups: one grafted with NSCs-NT-3 (experimental group, n = 30) and the other with NSCs transfected by pWPXL-MOD (control group, n = 30). The cell survival and differentiation, NT-3 gene expression, and effect of delaying denervated skeletal muscular atrophy were examined through immunohistostaining, RT-PCR, Western blot, electrophysiological analysis, and mean cross-sectional area (CSA) of gastrocnemius, respectively. The results show that the NT-3 gene, which is comprised of 777 bp, was cloned and significantly different expression were detected between NSCs and NSCs-NT-3 in vitro. Quantitative analysis of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunopositive cells revealed a significant increase in experimental group compared to the control group 4 weeks after implantation (p ChAT immunopositive cells were detected near the engrafted region only in experimental group. Furthermore, the effect in delaying denervated skeletal muscular atrophy is indicated in the EMG examination and mean CSA of gastrocnemius. These findings suggest that the neural stem cells expressing NT-3 endogenously would be a better graft candidate for the delay of denervated skeletal muscular atrophy.

  7. p53 and ATF4 mediate distinct and additive pathways to skeletal muscle atrophy during limb immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Daniel K.; Ebert, Scott M.; Bongers, Kale S.; Dyle, Michael C.; Bullard, Steven A.; Dierdorff, Jason M.; Kunkel, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Immobilization causes skeletal muscle atrophy via complex signaling pathways that are not well understood. To better understand these pathways, we investigated the roles of p53 and ATF4, two transcription factors that mediate adaptations to a variety of cellular stresses. Using mouse models, we demonstrate that 3 days of muscle immobilization induces muscle atrophy and increases expression of p53 and ATF4. Furthermore, muscle fibers lacking p53 or ATF4 are partially resistant to immobilization-induced muscle atrophy, and forced expression of p53 or ATF4 induces muscle fiber atrophy in the absence of immobilization. Importantly, however, p53 and ATF4 do not require each other to promote atrophy, and coexpression of p53 and ATF4 induces more atrophy than either transcription factor alone. Moreover, muscle fibers lacking both p53 and ATF4 are more resistant to immobilization-induced atrophy than fibers lacking only p53 or ATF4. Interestingly, the independent and additive nature of the p53 and ATF4 pathways allows for combinatorial control of at least one downstream effector, p21. Using genome-wide mRNA expression arrays, we identified p21 mRNA as a skeletal muscle transcript that is highly induced in immobilized muscle via the combined actions of p53 and ATF4. Additionally, in mouse muscle, p21 induces atrophy in a manner that does not require immobilization, p53 or ATF4, and p21 is required for atrophy induced by immobilization, p53, and ATF4. Collectively, these results identify p53 and ATF4 as essential and complementary mediators of immobilization-induced muscle atrophy and discover p21 as a critical downstream effector of the p53 and ATF4 pathways. PMID:24895282

  8. Machine Learning-based Individual Assessment of Cortical Atrophy Pattern in Alzheimer's Disease Spectrum: Development of the Classifier and Longitudinal Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin San; Kim, Changsoo; Shin, Jeong-Hyeon; Cho, Hanna; Shin, Dae-Seock; Kim, Nakyoung; Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Yeshin; Lockhart, Samuel N; Na, Duk L; Seo, Sang Won; Seong, Joon-Kyung

    2018-03-07

    To develop a new method for measuring Alzheimer's disease (AD)-specific similarity of cortical atrophy patterns at the individual-level, we employed an individual-level machine learning algorithm. A total of 869 cognitively normal (CN) individuals and 473 patients with probable AD dementia who underwent high-resolution 3T brain MRI were included. We propose a machine learning-based method for measuring the similarity of an individual subject's cortical atrophy pattern with that of a representative AD patient cohort. In addition, we validated this similarity measure in two longitudinal cohorts consisting of 79 patients with amnestic-mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and 27 patients with probable AD dementia. Surface-based morphometry classifier for discriminating AD from CN showed sensitivity and specificity values of 87.1% and 93.3%, respectively. In the longitudinal validation study, aMCI-converts had higher atrophy similarity at both baseline (p < 0.001) and first year visits (p < 0.001) relative to non-converters. Similarly, AD patients with faster decline had higher atrophy similarity than slower decliners at baseline (p = 0.042), first year (p = 0.028), and third year visits (p = 0.027). The AD-specific atrophy similarity measure is a novel approach for the prediction of dementia risk and for the evaluation of AD trajectories on an individual subject level.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging in multiple system atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aotsuka, Akiyo; Shinotoh, Hitoshi; Hirayama, Keizo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Ikehira, Hiroo; Hashimoto, Takahiro

    1992-08-01

    We studied 18 patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) by high field strength MRI: 6 striatonigral degeneration (SND), 4 Shy-Drager syndrome (SDS), and 8 olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy (OPCA). We also studied 30 Parkinson's disease (PD) and 10 age-matched controls. The diagnosis of SND, SDS, and OPCA were based on criteria after Hirayama et al (1985). Bradykinesia, rigidity, and tremor were assessed with the summed scores of the signs used as the extrapyramidal scores. The mean extrapyramidal scores were not significantly different in patients with SND, SDS, OPCA, and PD. MRI studies were performed on 1.5 tesla MRI unit, using a T[sub 2]-weighted spin echo pulse sequence (TR2500 ms/TE40 ms). The width of the pars compacta signal in all subjects was measured by the method of Duguid et al (1986). Intensity profiles were made on a straight line perpendicular to the pars compacta through the center of the red nucleus on an image of the midbrain. We measured the width of the valley at half-height between the peaks of an index of the width of the pars compacta signal. The mean widths of the pars compacta signal were: 2.8[+-]0.4 mm (SND), 2.8[+-]0.7 mm (SDS), 3.6[+-]0.6 mm (OPCA), 2.7[+-]0.3 mm (PD), and 4.3[+-]0.6 mm (control). The mean widths of the pars compacta signal in PD, SND, and SDS were significantly narrower than that in the control group (p<0.05), while the OPCA group was not significantly narrower. The results may indicate that the time course of nigral involvement is milder in OPCA than in SND and SDS. The extrapyramidal signs in OPCA may be attributed mainly to the degeneration of the putamen rather than to that of the substantia nigra. Abnormal hypointensity in the posterolateral putamen was found in only one SND patient and in two OPCA patients, even though this finding has been frequently observed in MSA. Since no PD patients exhibited this finding, it may of some value in differentiating MSA from PD. (author).

  10. Prominent fatigue in spinal muscular atrophy and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy: evidence of activity-dependent conduction block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noto, Yu-ichi; Misawa, Sonoko; Mori, Masahiro; Kawaguchi, Naoki; Kanai, Kazuaki; Shibuya, Kazumoto; Isose, Sagiri; Nasu, Saiko; Sekiguchi, Yukari; Beppu, Minako; Ohmori, Shigeki; Nakagawa, Masanori; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2013-09-01

    To clarify whether patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) or spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) suffer disabling muscle fatigue, and whether activity-dependent conduction block (ADCB) contributes to their fatigue. ADCB is usually caused by reduced safety factor for impulse transmission in demyelinating diseases, whereas markedly increased axonal branching associated with collateral sprouting may reduce the safety factor in chronic lower motor neuron disorders. We assessed the fatigue severity scale (FSS) in 22 patients with SMA/SBMA, and in 100 disease controls (multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), and axonal neuropathy). We then performed stimulated-single fibre electromyography (s-SFEMG) in the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) muscle of 21 SMA/SBMA patients, 6 CIDP patients, and 10 normal subjects. The FSS score was the highest in SMA/SBMA patients [4.9 ± 1.1 (mean ± SD)], with 81% of them complaining of disabling fatigue, compared with normal controls (3.5 ± 1.0), whereas patients with multiple sclerosis (4.3 ± 1.6), myasthenia gravis (4.0 ± 1.6) or CIDP (4.3 ± 1.4) also showed higher FSS score. When 2000 stimuli were delivered at 20 Hz in s-SFEMG, conduction block of single motor axons developed in 46% of patients with SMA/SBMA, and 40% of CIDP patients, but in none of the normal controls. SMA/SBMA patients frequently suffer from disabling fatigue presumably caused by ADCB induced by voluntary activity. ADCB could be the mechanism for muscle fatigue in chronic lower motor neuron diseases. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CT findings of cervical spondylosis associated with muscle atrophy in the upper extremity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torigoe, Yasuyuki [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-11-01

    The shape, site and size of osteophytes in cervical spondylosis associated with muscle atrophy were studied by CT to know their relation with pathogenesis. Subjects were: muscle atrophy group (30 cases, 59.5-year-old in a mean, operation was performed on 26), spondylosis group (20, 60.0 year-old) and normal group (10, 60.2-year-old). Their cervical vertebral regions were subjected to the scout roentgenography, CT and myelography. Osteophytes were measured on the x-ray film copied from CT-monitoring image. In the muscle atrophy group, about the shape around vertebral foramen, the occipitofrontal diameter of vertebral canal was found larger than in spondylosis group. Osteophytes were often localized at the outer position of paramedian site, of which constriction was rather smaller. The shape of the vertebral arch was keen. Clinically, the muscle atrophy group was considered to be of myelosis under such conditions as having less affective lesion on spinal cord. (H.O.)

  12. A cross-sectional MRI study of brain regional atrophy and clinical characteristics of temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Applying a cross-sectional design, we set out to further characterize the significance of extrahippocampal brain atrophy in a large sample of \\'sporadic\\' mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE+HS). By evaluating the influence of epilepsy chronicity on structural atrophy, this work represents an important step towards the characterization of MRI-based volumetric measurements as genetic endophenotypes for this condition. METHODS: Using an automated brain segmentation technique, MRI-based volume measurements of several brain regions were compared between 75 patients with \\'sporadic\\' MTLE+HS and 50 healthy controls. Applying linear regression models, we examined the relationship between structural atrophy and important clinical features of MTLE+HS, including disease duration, lifetime number of partial and generalized seizures, and history of initial precipitating insults (IPIs). RESULTS: Significant volume loss was detected in ipsilateral hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and cerebral white matter (WM). In addition, contralateral hippocampal and bilateral cerebellar grey matter (GM) volume loss was observed in left MTLE+HS patients. Hippocampal, amygdalar, and cerebral WM volume loss correlated with duration of epilepsy. This correlation was stronger in patients with prior IPIs history. Further, cerebral WM, cerebellar GM, and contralateral hippocampal volume loss correlated with lifetime number of generalized seizures. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that multiple brain regions beyond the hippocampus are involved in the pathogenesis of MTLE+HS. IPIs are an important factor influencing the rate of regional atrophy but our results also support a role for processes related to epilepsy chronicity. The consequence of epilepsy chronicity on candidate brain regions has important implications on their application as genetic endophenotypes.

  13. Calculation of brain atrophy using computed tomography and a new atrophy measurement tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Zahid, Abdullah; Mikheev, Artem; Yang, Andrew Il; Samadani, Uzma; Rusinek, Henry

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To determine if brain atrophy can be calculated by performing volumetric analysis on conventional computed tomography (CT) scans in spite of relatively low contrast for this modality. Materials & Method: CTs for 73 patients from the local Veteran Affairs database were selected. Exclusion criteria: AD, NPH, tumor, and alcohol abuse. Protocol: conventional clinical acquisition (Toshiba; helical, 120 kVp, X-ray tube current 300mA, slice thickness 3-5mm). Locally developed, automatic algorithm was used to segment intracranial cavity (ICC) using (a) white matter seed (b) constrained growth, limited by inner skull layer and (c) topological connectivity. ICC was further segmented into CSF and brain parenchyma using a threshold of 16 Hu. Results: Age distribution: 25-95yrs; (Mean 67+/-17.5yrs.). Significant correlation was found between age and CSF/ICC(r=0.695, pautomated software and conventional CT. Compared to MRI, CT is more widely available, cheaper, and less affected by head motion due to ~100 times shorter scan time. Work is in progress to improve the precision of the measurements, possibly leading to assessment of longitudinal changes within the patient.

  14. Cube propagation for focal brain atrophy estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru; Sørensen, Lauge; Darkner, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Precise and robust whole brain, ventricle, and hippocampal atrophy measurements are important as they serve as biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease. They are used as secondary outcomes in drug trials, and they correlate with the cognitive scores. When two successive scans are non-linearly aligned...

  15. Eccentric exercise training as a countermeasure to non-weight-bearing soleus muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Christopher R.; Ryan, Mirelle J.; Booth, Frank W.

    1992-01-01

    This investigation tested whether eccentric resistance training could prevent soleus muscle atrophy during non-weight bearing. Adult female rats were randomly assigned to either weight bearing +/- intramuscular electrodes or non-weight bearing +/- intramuscular electrodes groups. Electrically stimulated maximal eccentric contractions were performed on anesthetized animals at 48-h intervals during the 10-day experiment. Non-weight bearing significantly reduced soleus muscle wet weight (28-31 percent) and noncollagenous protein content (30-31 percent) compared with controls. Eccentric exercise training during non-weight bearing attenuated but did not prevent the loss of soleus muscle wet weight and noncollagenous protein by 77 and 44 percent, respectively. The potential of eccentric exercise training as an effective and highly efficient counter-measure to non-weight-bearing atrophy is demonstrated in the 44 percent attenuation of soleus muscle noncollagenous protein loss by eccentric exercise during only 0.035 percent of the total non-weight-bearing time period.

  16. Analysis of MRI in chronic alcoholics with brain atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Sook; Kim, Myung Soon; Whang, Kum

    1997-01-01

    To quantitatively evaluate by MRI brain atrophy and abnormal parenchymal signal intensity on T2-weighted spin echo image in alcoholics. MRI of 24 alcoholic patients were retrospectively evaluated to measure brain atrophy (cerebral sulcal width, bifrontal horn distance, third ventricular width, fourth ventricular width, ambient cistern width, cerebellopontine angle cistern width, number of cerebellar sulci, and number of vermian sulci) and abnormal high signal lesions of brain parenchyma on T2-weighted spin echo image, and were compared with age matched controls (n=29). The alcoholics and controls were divided into two age groups, younger (30-49 years) and older (50-72 years), and statistical analysis was then performed. Axial and sagittal T1- and T2-weighted spin echo images were obtained using a 0.5 Tesla superconductive system. Statistical significant parameters in the supratentorial region were cerebral sulcal width, distance between lateral ends of frontal horns of both lateral ventricles, and third ventricular width (p < 0.05), and in the infratentorial region were fourth ventricular width, ambient cistern width, cerebellopontine angle cistern width, number of cerebellar sulci, and number of vermian sulci (p < 0.05). In the younger age group, statistical significant parameters were cerebral sulcal width, third ventricular width, ambient cistern width, cerebellopontine angle cistern width, number of cerebellar sulci, and number of vermian sulci (p < 0.05) and in the older group were cerebral sulcal width, bifrontal horn distance, third ventricular width, fourth ventricular width, number of cerebellar sulci, and number of vermian sulci (p < 0.05). Abnormal high signal intensity on T2-weighted spin echo images were seen in 46% of alcoholics (11/24) and in 13% of controls (3/29). High signal lesions in the older group were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Atrophic brain changes and periventricular high signal foci on T2-weighted spin echo image are

  17. Contribution of brain atrophy on CT and aging to intelligence level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Makoto

    1984-01-01

    Decrased intellectual functions due to senility have been much discussed in connection with aging or brain atophy alternatively. But this change should be analysed under multifactorial basis. Furthermore, variations between individuals should be taken into account in dealing with an advanced age group. In these regards, the author performed multivariate analysis on intellectual changes, aging and brain arophy demonstrated on brain CT. Clonological study was also performed to reveal the individual variations. The objects were consisted of 72 people, including the patients of more than 65 years of age who were hospitalized to a geriatrics hospital because of senile dementia, and, as a control group residents in a home for the aged nearby the hospital. Average age was 75.4 years old. Intellectual level was measured through Hasegawa's dementia rating scale. Ventricular enlargement was measured on brain CT to determine the severity of brain atrophy. These two factors and age were processed with multivariate analysis. And clonological study was made to the deviation of intellectual level vs. the change of ventricular enlargement. As the result, firstly, this simple analysing model was able to reveal some aspcts of the deteriolating phenomena of intellectual leve through double factorial basis, i.e. brain atrophy on CT and age. Secondly, the group showing greater changes in the brain atrophy on CT, which included one case with rapid deteriolation in dementia scale of more than 10 points, was distributed mainly around full marks or zero point in dementia scale. This result postulates that the range of the dementia scale should be expanded upwrds as well as downwards for the better explanation of the relation between intellectual deteriolation and above mentioned two factors. (author)

  18. Intellectual impairment and brain MRI findings in myotonic dystrophy. With a special reference to hippocampal atrophy and white matter lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Etsuko; Takahashi, Satoshi; Yonezawa, Hisashi

    1995-01-01

    We performed a correlative study between intellectual impairment, CTG repeat expansion and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities, including hippocampal atrophy, white matter lesions and ventricular dilatation in 15 patients with myotonic dystrophy (MD). They included 4 males and 11 females aged from 20 to 66 years, averaging 43 years of age and 15 years of duration of illness. Nine patients had intellectual impairment (WAIS-R<80). Negative correlations were found between full scale IQ (FSIQ), duration of illness (p<0.05) and CTG repeat expansion (p<0.05). Compared with normal controls, the patients with MD showed a significant reduction in size of the hippocampal head (p<0.01), which was positively correlated to FSIQ, verbal IQ and performance IQ levels (p<0.05). Ten patients had white matter lesions. Severer white matter lesions tended to be recognized in patients with longer duration of illness and with decreased FSIQ level. These results suggest that hippocampal atrophy and white matter lesions are related to intellectual impairment in patients with MD. (author)

  19. Association of Progressive Cerebellar Atrophy With Long-term Outcome in Patients With Anti-N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Takahiro; Kaneko, Juntaro; Tominaga, Naomi; Someko, Hidehiro; Nakamura, Masaaki; Ishima, Daisuke; Kitamura, Eiji; Masuda, Ray; Oguni, Eiichi; Yanagisawa, Toshiyuki; Kanazawa, Naomi; Dalmau, Josep; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi

    2016-06-01

    Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an immune-mediated disorder that occurs with IgG antibodies against the GluN1 subunit of NMDAR. Some patients develop reversible diffuse cerebral atrophy (DCA), but the long-term clinical significance of progressive brain and cerebellar atrophy is unknown. To report the long-term clinical implications of DCA and cerebellar atrophy in anti-NMDAR encephalitis. A retrospective observational study and long-term imaging investigation was conducted in the Department of Neurology at Kitasato University. Fifteen patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis admitted to Kitasato University Hospital between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2014, were included; data analysis was conducted between July 15, 2015, and January 18, 2016. Neurologic examination, immunotherapy, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were performed. Long-term MRI changes in association with disease severity, serious complications (eg, pulmonary embolism, septic shock, and rhabdomyolysis), treatment, and outcome. The clinical outcome of 15 patients (median age, 21 years, [range, 14-46 years]; 10 [67%] female) was evaluated after a median follow-up of 68 months (range, 10-179 months). Thirteen patients (87%) received first-line immunotherapy (intravenous high-dose methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasma exchange alone or combined), and 4 individuals (27%) also received cyclophosphamide; 2 patients (13%) did not receive immunotherapy. In 5 patients (33%), ovarian teratoma was found and removed. Serious complications developed in 4 patients (27%). Follow-up MRI revealed DCA in 5 patients (33%) that, in 2 individuals (13%), was associated with progressive cerebellar atrophy. Long-term outcome was good in 13 patients (87%) and poor in the other 2 individuals (13%). Although cerebellar atrophy was associated with poor long-term outcome (2 of 2 vs 0 of 13 patients; P = .01), other features, such as DCA without cerebellar atrophy

  20. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, M E; Roth, L S V; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2015-04-01

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h(2) ) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs' social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  1. Regional patterns of grey matter atrophy and magnetisation transfer ratio abnormalities in multiple sclerosis clinical subgroups: a voxel-based analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Shahrukh; Muhlert, Nils; Samson, Rebecca S; Sethi, Varun; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Miller, David H; Chard, Declan T

    2015-04-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), demyelination and neuro-axonal loss occur in the brain grey matter (GM). We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of GM magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) and volume to assess the regional localisation of reduced MTR (reflecting demyelination) and atrophy (reflecting neuro-axonal loss) in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), secondary progressive MS (SPMS) and primary progressive MS (PPMS). A total of 98 people with MS (51 RRMS, 28 SPMS, 19 PPMS) and 29 controls had T1-weighted volumetric and magnetisation transfer scans. SPM8 was used to undertake voxel-based analysis (VBA) of GM tissue volumes and MTR. MS subgroups were compared with controls, adjusting for age and gender. A voxel-by-voxel basis correlation analysis between MTR and volume within each subject group was performed, using biological parametric mapping. MTR reduction was more extensive than atrophy. RRMS and SPMS patients showed proportionately more atrophy in the deep GM. SPMS and PPMS patients showed proportionately greater cortical MTR reduction. RRMS patients demonstrated the most correlation of MTR reduction and atrophy in deep GM. In SPMS and PPMS patients, there was less extensive correlation. These results suggest that in the deep GM of RRMS patients, demyelination and neuro-axonal loss may be linked, while in SPMS and PPMS patients, neuro-axonal loss and demyelination may occur mostly independently. © The Author(s), 2014.

  2. Atrophy and structural covariance of the cholinergic basal forebrain in primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teipel, Stefan; Raiser, Theresa; Riedl, Lina; Riederer, Isabelle; Schroeter, Matthias L; Bisenius, Sandrine; Schneider, Anja; Kornhuber, Johannes; Fliessbach, Klaus; Spottke, Annika; Grothe, Michel J; Prudlo, Johannes; Kassubek, Jan; Ludolph, Albert; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Straub, Sarah; Otto, Markus; Danek, Adrian

    2016-10-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by profound destruction of cortical language areas. Anatomical studies suggest an involvement of cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) in PPA syndromes, particularly in the area of the nucleus subputaminalis (NSP). Here we aimed to determine the pattern of atrophy and structural covariance as a proxy of structural connectivity of BF nuclei in PPA variants. We studied 62 prospectively recruited cases with the clinical diagnosis of PPA and 31 healthy older control participants from the cohort study of the German consortium for frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). We determined cortical and BF atrophy based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Patterns of structural covariance of BF with cortical regions were determined using voxel-based partial least square analysis. We found significant atrophy of total BF and BF subregions in PPA patients compared with controls [F(1, 82) = 20.2, p covariance analysis in healthy controls revealed associations of the BF nuclei, particularly the NSP, with left hemispheric predominant prefrontal, lateral temporal, and parietal cortical areas, including Broca's speech area (p covariance of the BF nuclei mostly with right but not with left hemispheric cortical areas (p covariance of the BF with left hemispheric cortical areas in healthy aging towards right hemispheric cortical areas in PPA, possibly reflecting a consequence of the profound and early destruction of cortical language areas in PPA. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Education amplifies brain atrophy effect on cognitive decline: implications for cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Dan; Gavett, Brandon; Fletcher, Evan; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; DeCarli, Charles; Reed, Bruce

    2018-08-01

    Level of education is often regarded as a proxy for cognitive reserve in older adults. This implies that brain degeneration has a smaller effect on cognitive decline in those with more education, but this has not been directly tested in previous research. We examined how education, quantitative magnetic resonance imaging-based measurement of brain degeneration, and their interaction affect cognitive decline in diverse older adults spanning the spectrum from normal cognition to dementia. Gray matter atrophy was strongly related to cognitive decline. While education was not related to cognitive decline, brain atrophy had a stronger effect on cognitive decline in those with more education. Importantly, high education was associated with slower decline in individuals with lesser atrophy but with faster decline in those with greater atrophy. This moderation effect was observed in Hispanics (who had high heterogeneity of education) but not in African-Americans or Caucasians. These results suggest that education is an indicator of cognitive reserve in individuals with low levels of brain degeneration, but the protective effect of higher education is rapidly depleted as brain degeneration progresses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Normalized regional brain atrophy measurements in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivadinov, Robert; Locatelli, Laura; Stival, Barbara; Bratina, Alessio; Nasuelli, Davide; Zorzon, Marino; Grop, Attilio; Brnabic-Razmilic, Ozana

    2003-01-01

    There is still a controversy regarding the best regional brain atrophy measurements in multiple sclerosis (MS) studies. The aim of this study was to establish whether, in a cross-sectional study, the normalized measurements of regional brain atrophy correlate better with the MRI-defined regional brain lesions than the absolute measurements of regional brain atrophy. We assessed 45 patients with clinically definite relapsing-remitting (RR) MS (median disease duration 12 years), and measured T1-lesion load (LL) and T2-LL of frontal lobes and pons, using a reproducible semi-automated technique. The regional brain parenchymal volume (RBPV) of frontal lobes and pons was obtained by use of a computerized interactive program, which incorporates semi-automated and automated segmentation processes. A normalized measurement, the regional brain parenchymal fraction (RBPF), was calculated as the ratio of RBPV to the total volume of the parenchyma and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the frontal lobes and in the region of the pons. The total regional brain volume fraction (TRBVF) was obtained after we had corrected for the total volume of the parenchyma and the CSF in the frontal lobes and in the region of the pons for the total intracranial volume. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) for RBPF of the pons was 1% for intra-observer reproducibility and 1.4% for inter-observer reproducibility. Generally, the normalized measurements of regional brain atrophy correlated with regional brain volumes and disability better than did the absolute measurements. RBPF and TRBVF correlated with T2-LL of the pons (r=-0.37, P=0.011, and r= -0.40, P=0.0005 respectively) and with T1-LL of the pons (r=-0.27, P=0.046, and r=-0.31, P=0.04, respectively), whereas RBPV did not (r=-0.18, P = NS). T1-LL of the frontal lobes was related to RBPF (r=-0.32, P=0.033) and TRBVF (r=-0.29, P=0.05), but not to RBPV (R=-0.27, P= NS). There was only a trend of correlation between T2-LL of the frontal lobes and

  5. Relations between VSRAD-based parahippocampal atrophy and results of neuropsychological tests in patients with Alzheimer's disease and in those with mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Satoru

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the utility of VSRAD (Voxel-based Specific Regional analysis system for Alzheimer's Disease) for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) or AD-related studies, correlations between VSRAD-based parahippocampal atrophy and results of neuropsychological tests were investigated. Subjects comprised 18 and 12 patients with probable AD and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to a cerebral degeneration near AD, respectively. Neuropsychological tests consisted of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS)-J cog., Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised (HDS-R), Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale-Revised or -IIIrd (WAIS-R/-III) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R). Subjects received these tests within one month before or after cranial MRI scans, and correlations between Z-scores of VSRAD reflecting the parahippocampal atrophy and results of these neuropsychological tests were statistically examined. The Z-scores had a significant positive correlation with scores of ADAS (p=.0129) and an inverse correlation with scores of ''Information'' as a subtest of WAIS-R/-III (p=.0294). Further, the Z-scores showed a tendency to weak, inverse correlations with the scores of HDS-R, ''Similarity'' as a subtest of WAIS-R/-III and ''Visual Reproduction II'' as a subtest of WMS-R (p=.0532, .0635, and .0609, respectively). Usefulness of VSRAD for the diagnosis of AD was indicated by the significant correlations hoted with ADAS and HDS-R, and it was further suggested that parahippocampal atrophy was related to semantic and visual memory impairments of AD, judging from the correlations with subtests of WAIS-R/-III and WMS-R. (author)

  6. Exposure to microgravity for 30 days onboard Bion M1 caused muscle atrophy and impaired regeneration in murine femoral Quadriceps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radugina, E. A.; Almeida, E. A. C.; Blaber, E.; Poplinskaya, V. A.; Markitantova, Y. V.; Grigoryan, E. N.

    2018-02-01

    Mechanical unloading in microgravity during spaceflight is known to cause muscular atrophy, changes in muscle fiber composition, gene expression, and reduction in regenerative muscle growth. Although some limited data exists for long-term effects of microgravity in human muscle, these processes have mostly been studied in rodents for short periods of time. Here we report on how long-term (30-day long) mechanical unloading in microgravity affects murine muscles of the femoral Quadriceps group. To conduct these studies we used muscle tissue from 6 microgravity mice, in comparison to habitat (7), and vivarium (14) ground control mice from the NASA Biospecimen Sharing Program conducted in collaboration with the Institute for Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, during the Russian Bion M1 biosatellite mission in 2013. Muscle histomorphology from microgravity specimens showed signs of extensive atrophy and regenerative hypoplasia relative to ground controls. Specifically, we observed a two-fold decrease in the number of myonuclei, compared to vivarium and ground controls, and central location of myonuclei, low density of myofibers in the tissue, and of myofibrils within a fiber, as well as fragmentation and swelling of myofibers. Despite obvious atrophy, muscle regeneration nevertheless appeared to have continued after 30 days in microgravity as evidenced by thin and short newly formed myofibers. Many of them, however, showed evidence of apoptotic cells and myofibril degradation, suggesting that long-term unloading in microgravity may affect late stages of myofiber differentiation. Ground asynchronous and vivarium control animals demonstrated normal, well-developed tissue structure with sufficient blood and nerve supply and evidence of regenerative formation of new myofibers free of apoptotic nuclei. Regenerative activity of satellite cells in muscles was observed both in microgravity and ground control groups, using Pax7 and Myogenin

  7. Clinico-epidemiologic characteristics of spinal muscular atrophy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    Deletion;. Chromosome 5;. Mutations. Abstract Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by progressive hypotonia and muscular weakness because of progressive degeneration of alpha motor neuron from anterior horn cells in the spinal cord. It is inherited by an autosomal recessive pattern. The precise frequency of ...

  8. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreesen, JCFM; Bras, M; de Die-Smulders, C; Dumoulin, JCM; Cobben, JM; Evers, JLH; Smeets, HJM; Geraedts, JPM

    After Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common severe neuromuscular disease in childhood. Since 1995, homozygous deletions in exon 7 of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene have been described in >90-95% of SMA patients. However, the presence of a highly

  9. Quantitative analysis of structural variations in corpus callosum in adults with multiple system atrophy (MSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Debanjali; Sinha, Neelam; Saini, Jitender

    2017-03-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, non-curable, progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects nervous system and movement, poses a considerable diagnostic challenge to medical researchers. Corpus callosum (CC) being the largest white matter structure in brain, enabling inter-hemispheric communication, quantification of callosal atrophy may provide vital information at the earliest possible stages. The main objective is to identify the differences in CC structure for this disease, based on quantitative analysis on the pattern of callosal atrophy. We report results of quantification of structural changes in regional anatomical thickness, area and length of CC between patient-groups with MSA with respect to healthy controls. The method utilizes isolating and parcellating the mid-sagittal CC into 100 segments along the length - measuring the width of each segment. It also measures areas within geometrically defined five callosal compartments of the well-known Witelson, and Hofer-Frahma schemes. For quantification, statistical tests are performed on these different callosal measurements. From the statistical analysis, it is concluded that compared to healthy controls, width is reduced drastically throughout CC for MSA group and as well as changes in area and length are also significant for MSA. The study is further extended to check if any significant difference in thickness is found between the two variations of MSA, Parkinsonian MSA and Cerebellar MSA group, using the same methodology. However area and length of this two sub-MSA group, no substantial difference is obtained. The study is performed on twenty subjects for each control and MSA group, who had T1-weighted MRI.

  10. Potential effect of skull thickening on the associations between cognition and brain atrophy in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aribisala, Benjamin Segun; Royle, Natalie A; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; Murray, Catherine; Penke, Lars; Gow, Alan; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Starr, John M; Bastin, Mark; Deary, Ian; Wardlaw, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    intracranial volume (ICV) is commonly used as a marker of premorbid brain size in neuroimaging studies as it is thought to remain fixed throughout adulthood. However, inner skull table thickening would encroach on ICV and could mask actual brain atrophy. we investigated the effect that thickening might have on the associations between brain atrophy and cognition. the sample comprised 57 non-demented older adults who underwent structural brain MRI at mean age 72.7 ± 0.7 years and were assessed on cognitive ability at mean age 11 and 73 years. Principal component analysis was used to derive factors of general cognitive ability (g), information processing speed and memory from the recorded cognitive ability data. The total brain tissue volume and ICV with (estimated original ICV) and without (current ICV) adjusting for the effects of inner table skull thickening were measured. General linear modelling was used to test for associations. all cognitive ability variables were significantly (P skull thickening (g: η(2) = 0.177, speed: η(2) = 0.264 and memory: η(2) = 0.132). After accounting for skull thickening, only speed was significantly associated with percentage total brain volume in ICV (η(2) = 0.085, P = 0.034), not g or memory. not accounting for skull thickening when computing ICV can distort the association between brain atrophy and cognitive ability in old age. Larger samples are required to determine the true effect. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Autofluorescence Lifetimes in Geographic Atrophy in Patients With Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysli, Chantal; Wolf, Sebastian; Zinkernagel, Martin S

    2016-05-01

    To investigate fluorescence lifetime characteristics in patients with geographic atrophy (GA) in eyes with age-related macular degeneration and to correlate the measurements with clinical data and optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings. Patients with GA were imaged with a fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscope. Retinal autofluorescence lifetimes were measured in a short and a long spectral channel (498-560 nm and 560-720 nm). Mean retinal fluorescence lifetimes were analyzed within GA and the surrounding retina, and data were correlated with best corrected visual acuity and OCT measurements. Fluorescence lifetime maps of 41 eyes of 41 patients (80 ± 7 years) with GA were analyzed. Mean lifetimes within areas of atrophy were prolonged by 624 ± 276 ps (+152%) in the short spectral channel and 418 ± 186 ps (+83%) in the long spectral channel compared to the surrounding tissue. Autofluorescence lifetime abnormalities in GA occurred with particular patterns, similar to those seen in fundus autofluorescence intensity images. Within the fovea short mean autofluorescence lifetimes were observed, presumably representing macular pigment. Short lifetimes were preserved even in the absence of foveal sparing but were decreased in patients with advanced retinal atrophy in OCT. Short lifetimes in the fovea correlated with better best corrected visual acuity in both spectral channels. This study established that autofluorescence lifetime changes in GA present with explicit patterns. We hypothesize that the short lifetimes seen within the atrophy may be used to estimate damage induced by atrophy and to monitor disease progression in the context of natural history or interventional therapeutic studies.

  12. Cortical volumes and atrophy rates in FTD-3 CHMP2B mutation carriers and related non-carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon F; Østergaard, Lasse R; Rodell, Anders B

    2008-01-01

    with a mean interval of 16 months and surface based cortical segmentation we measured cortical thickness and volume, and quantified atrophy rates. Cortical thickness and atrophy rates were averaged within major lobes and focal effects were determined by parametric statistical maps. The volumetric atrophy...... in the frontal and occipital lobes, and in the left temporal lobe. Results indicated that cortical thickness has a higher sensitivity for detecting small changes than whole-brain volumetric measures. Comparing mutation carriers with non-carriers revealed increased atrophy rates in mutation carriers bilaterally...

  13. [Clinical feature of chronic compressive optic neuropathy without optic atrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Libin; Shi, Jitong; Liu, Wendong; Kang, Jun; Wang, Ningli

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the clinical feature of the chronic compressive optic neuropathy without optic atrophy. Retrospective cases series study. The clinical data of 25 patients (37 eyes) with chronic compressive optic neuropathy without optic atrophy, treated in Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, from October, 2005 to March, 2014, were collected. Those patients had been showing visual symptoms for 6 months or longer, but missed diagnosed or misdiagnosed as other eye diseases due to their normal or slightly changed fundi. The collected data including visual acuities, visual fields, neuroimaging and/or pathologic diagnosis were analyzed. Among the 25 patients, there were 5 males and 20 females, and their ages range from 9 to 74 years [average (47.5 ± 13.4) years]. All patients suffered progressive impaired vision in single eye or both eyes, without exophthalmos or abnormal eye movements. Except one patient had a headache, other patients did not show systemic symptoms. The corrected visual acuities were between HM to 1.0, and their appearances of optic discs and colors of fundi were normal. After neuroimaging and/or pathological examination, it was proven that 14 patients suffered tuberculum sellae meningiomas, 5 patients with hypophysoma, 3 patient with optic nerve sheath meningioma in orbital apex, 1 patient with cavernous hemangioma, 1 patient with vascular malformation in orbital apex and 1 patient with optic nerve glioma. Among the 19 patients whose suffered occupied lesions of saddle area, 14 patients underwent visual field examinations, and only 4 patients showed classic visual field defects caused by optic chiasmal lesions. Occult progressive visual loss was the most important clinical feature of the disease.

  14. Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate (PDTC Attenuates Cancer Cachexia by Affecting Muscle Atrophy and Fat Lipolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Miao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cachexia is a kind of whole body metabolic disorder syndrome accompanied with severe wasting of muscle and adipose tissue. NF-κB signaling plays an important role during skeletal muscle atrophy and fat lipolysis. As an inhibitor of NF-κB signaling, Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC was reported to relieve cancer cachexia; however, its mechanism remains largely unknown. In our study, we showed that PDTC attenuated cancer cachexia symptom in C26 tumor bearing mice models in vivo without influencing tumor volume. What’s more, PDTC inhibited muscle atrophy and lipolysis in cells models in vitro induced by TNFα and C26 tumor medium. PDTC suppressed atrophy of myotubes differentiated from C2C12 by reducing MyoD and upregulating MuRF1, and preserving the expression of perilipin as well as blocking the activation of HSL in 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes. Meaningfully, we observed that PDTC also inhibited p38 MAPK signaling besides the NF-κB signaling in cancer cachexia in vitro models. In addition, PDTC also influenced the protein synthesis of skeletal muscle by activating AKT signaling and regulated fat energy metabolism by inhibiting AMPK signaling. Therefore, PDTC primarily influenced different pathways in different tissues. The study not only established a simple and reliable screening drugs model of cancer cachexia in vitro but also provided new theoretical basis for future treatment of cancer cachexia.

  15. Rapidly worsening bulbar symptoms in a patient with spinobulbar muscular atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Diaz-Abad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available X-linked spinobulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy’s disease affects muscles and motor neurons, manifesting as weakness and wasting of bulbar, facial, and proximal limb muscles due to loss of anterior horn cells in the brain and spinal cord. We present the case of a patient with X-linked spinobulbar muscular atrophy with rapidly worsening bulbar symptoms caused by laryngopharyngeal irritation associated with a viral upper respiratory tract infection, seasonal allergies and laryngopharyngeal reflux, who dramatically improved with multimodality therapy.

  16. Skeletal muscle mass recovery from atrophy in IL-6 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, T A; White, J P; Davis, J M; Wilson, L B; Lowe, L L; Sato, S; Carson, J A

    2011-08-01

    Skeletal muscle interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression is induced by continuous contraction, overload-induced hypertrophy and during muscle regeneration. The loss of IL-6 can alter skeletal muscle's growth and extracellular matrix remodelling response to overload-induced hypertrophy. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene expression and related signalling through Akt/mTOR is a critical regulator of muscle mass. The significance of IL-6 expression during the recovery from muscle atrophy is unclear. This study's purpose was to determine the effect of IL-6 loss on mouse gastrocnemius (GAS) muscle mass during recovery from hindlimb suspension (HS)-induced atrophy. Female C57BL/6 [wild type (WT)] and IL-6 knockout (IL-6 KO) mice at 10 weeks of age were assigned to control, HS or HS followed by normal cage ambulation groups. GAS muscle atrophy was induced by 10 days of HS. HS induced a 20% loss of GAS mass in both WT and IL-6 KO mice. HS+7 days of recovery restored WT GAS mass to cage-control values. GAS mass from IL-6 KO mice did not return to cage-control values until HS+14 days of recovery. Both IGF-1 mRNA expression and Akt/mTOR signalling were increased in WT muscle after 1 day of recovery. In IL-6 KO muscle, IGF-1 mRNA expression was decreased and Akt/mTOR signalling was not induced after 1 day of recovery. MyoD and myogenin mRNA expression were both induced in WT muscle after 1 day of recovery, but not in IL-6 KO muscle.   Muscle IL-6 expression appears important for the initial growth response during the recovery from disuse. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Physiologica © 2011 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  17. Diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, optic atrophy, and deafness: A case of Wolfram (DIDMOAD) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Nasrollah; Bashardoust, Bahman; Zakeri, Anahita; Salehifar, Azita; Tavosi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    To report a case of Wolfram syndrome (WS) characterized by diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, progressive optic atrophy, and deafness. A 19-year-old female patient, a known case of diabetes mellitus type I from six years before, presented with progressive vision loss since four years earlier. On fundoscopic examination, she had bilateral optic atrophy without diabetic retinopathy. The patient also had diabetes insipidus, neurosensory deafness, and neurogenic bladder. WS should be considered a differential diagnosis in patients with diabetes mellitus who present with optic atrophy, and it is necessary to perform a hearing test as well as collecting 24-h urine output.

  18. Five-year retrospective changes in hippocampal atrophy and cognitive screening test performances in very mild Alzheimer's disease: the Tajiri Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Meguro, K.; Shimada, M.; Ishizaki, J.; Yamadori, A. [Division of Neuropsychology, Department of Disability Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Sekita, Y. [Tohoku University Graduate School of Economics, Sendai (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe, especially the hippocampus, is important for normal cognitive function, especially for memory, and is the region with the earliest and most extensive pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the atrophic changes of the hippocampus over a 5-year period and its relation to cognitive screening test performances in normal elderly subjects, those with very mild AD, and patients with AD. Fifty-seven elderly subjects without a moderate or greater degree of cerebrovascular disease as shown by MRI were randomly selected from the town of Tajiri. Thirty-three subjects with a clinical dementia rating (CDR) of 0 (normal), 18 CDR-0.5 (very mild AD) subjects, and six CDR-1 and 2 (AD) subjects underwent MRI and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) twice during the period. Retrospective changes in the hippocampal width and the MMSE scores were evaluated. There were significant CDR group effects for the changes in the mean bilateral hippocampal widths and the MMSE scores. Normal subjects did not show cognitive decline, although there was a slight tendency for hippocampal atrophy. A significant and meaningful Spearman's correlation was noted between left hippocampal atrophy and the MMSE scores over the 5-year period for the CDR-0.5 group. These CDR-0.5 subjects met the MCI (mild cognitive impairment) criteria as proposed by the consensus paper. Findings suggested that normal elderly subjects maintain a high level of cognitive functions for at least 5 years, although hippocampal atrophy might occur. Atrophic change of the left hippocampus might be a good marker of the very early stage of AD. (orig.)

  19. Patterns of brain atrophy associated with episodic memory and semantic fluency decline in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Amandine; Bernard, Charlotte; Dilharreguy, Bixente; Helmer, Catherine; Le Goff, Melanie; Chanraud, Sandra; Dartigues, Jean-François; Allard, Michèle; Amieva, Hélène; Catheline, Gwénaëlle

    2017-03-09

    The cerebral substratum of age-related cognitive decline was evaluated in an elderly-cohort followed for 12 years (n=306). Participants, free of dementia, received neuropsychological assessments every two years and an MRI exam at baseline and four years later. Cognitive decline was evaluated on two broadly used tests to detect dementia: the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT), a verbal episodic memory task, and the Isaacs Set Test (IST), a semantic fluency task. Using voxel-based approach, the relationship between cognitive decline with 1/ baseline grey matter volumes and 2/ grey matter volume loss between the two scans was explored. Baseline volumes analysis revealed that FCSRT and IST declines were both associated with lower volumes of the medial temporal region. Volumes loss analysis confirmed that both declines are related to medial temporal lobe atrophy and revealed that FCSRT decline was specifically associated with atrophy of the posterior cingulate cortex whereas IST decline was specifically related to temporal pole atrophy. These results suggest that cognitive decline across aging is firstly related to structural modifications of the medial temporal lobe, followed by an atrophy in the posterior midline structures for episodic memory and an atrophy of the temporal pole for semantic fluency.

  20. The Risk of Vocal Fold Atrophy after Serial Corticosteroid Injections of the Vocal Fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lucy L; Giraldez-Rodriguez, Laureano A; Johns, Michael M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the risk of vocal fold atrophy in patients who receive serial subepithelial steroid injections for vocal fold scar. This study is a retrospective case report of two patients who underwent a series of weekly subepithelial infusions of 10 mg/mL dexamethasone for benign vocal fold lesion. Shortly after the procedures, both patients developed a weak and breathy voice. The first patient was a 53-year-old man with radiation-induced vocal fold stiffness. Six injections were performed unilaterally, and 1 week later, he developed unilateral vocal fold atrophy with new glottal insufficiency. The second patient was a 67-year-old woman with severe vocal fold inflammation related to laryngitis and calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophagean dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia (CREST) syndrome. Five injections were performed bilaterally, and 1 week later, she developed bilateral vocal fold atrophy with a large midline glottal gap during phonation. In both cases, the steroid-induced vocal atrophy resolved spontaneously after 4 months. Serial subepithelial steroid infusions of the vocal folds, although safe in the majority of patients, carry the risk of causing temporary vocal fold atrophy when given at short intervals. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship between brain atrophy estimated by a longitudinal computed tomography study and blood pressure control in patients with essential hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamano, Shigeru; Sawai, Fuyuki; Yamamoto, Yuta [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)] [and others

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between blood pressure control and the progression of brain atrophy in the elderly, patients with essential hypertension and brain atrophy were longitudinally evaluated using computerized tomography (CT). The study evaluated 48 patients with essential hypertension aged 46-78 years, and 30 sex- and age-matched normotensive control subjects. The extent of brain atrophy as determined by caudate head index (CHI), the inverse cella media index (iCMI), and Evans` ratio (ER) was estimated twice at an interval of 5-9 years (mean, 6.9 years). The mean annual increases in CHI ({Delta}CHI), iCMI ({Delta}iCMI), and ER ({Delta}ER) were evaluated. Mean blood volume in the common carotid artery (BF) and the decrease in BF per year ({Delta}BF) were also determined. The {Delta}CHI, {Delta}iCMI, and {Delta}ER increased with age in the hypertensive subjects as well as the control group across all age groups evaluated. The {Delta}CHI, {Delta}iCMI, and {Delta}ER were significantly greater in the patients with essential hypertension in their 50s as compared with the controls. In patients with essential hypertension aged 65 years or older, the {Delta}CHI, {Delta}iCMI, and {Delta}ER were significantly lower in the group in whom the blood pressure was controlled within the range of borderline hypertension than the groups in which it was controlled in the range of normal or mild hypertension. In the younger patients under the age of 65 with essential hypertension, blood pressure control did not affect the {Delta}CHI, {Delta}iCMI, and {Delta}ER. The {Delta}CHI, {Delta}iCMI, and {Delta}ER were significantly correlated with {Delta}BF in both groups. These findings indicate that control of systolic blood pressure within the range of borderline hypertension may delay the progression of brain atrophy in elderly patients with essential hypertension. (author)

  2. Relationship between brain atrophy estimated by a longitudinal computed tomography study and blood pressure control in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, Shigeru; Sawai, Fuyuki; Yamamoto, Yuta

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between blood pressure control and the progression of brain atrophy in the elderly, patients with essential hypertension and brain atrophy were longitudinally evaluated using computerized tomography (CT). The study evaluated 48 patients with essential hypertension aged 46-78 years, and 30 sex- and age-matched normotensive control subjects. The extent of brain atrophy as determined by caudate head index (CHI), the inverse cella media index (iCMI), and Evans' ratio (ER) was estimated twice at an interval of 5-9 years (mean, 6.9 years). The mean annual increases in CHI (ΔCHI), iCMI (ΔiCMI), and ER (ΔER) were evaluated. Mean blood volume in the common carotid artery (BF) and the decrease in BF per year (ΔBF) were also determined. The ΔCHI, ΔiCMI, and ΔER increased with age in the hypertensive subjects as well as the control group across all age groups evaluated. The ΔCHI, ΔiCMI, and ΔER were significantly greater in the patients with essential hypertension in their 50s as compared with the controls. In patients with essential hypertension aged 65 years or older, the ΔCHI, ΔiCMI, and ΔER were significantly lower in the group in whom the blood pressure was controlled within the range of borderline hypertension than the groups in which it was controlled in the range of normal or mild hypertension. In the younger patients under the age of 65 with essential hypertension, blood pressure control did not affect the ΔCHI, ΔiCMI, and ΔER. The ΔCHI, ΔiCMI, and ΔER were significantly correlated with ΔBF in both groups. These findings indicate that control of systolic blood pressure within the range of borderline hypertension may delay the progression of brain atrophy in elderly patients with essential hypertension. (author)

  3. Correlation of volumetric and fractal measurements of brain atrophy with neuropsychological tests in patients with dementive disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecka, A.; Sasiadek, M.; Filarski, J.

    2008-01-01

    Brain atrophy is one of the features of the dementive diseases, but also of other neurodegenerative disorders as well as physiological brain aging. The aim of the study was to define the relationship between the brain atrophy measurements and the degree of the severity of dementive process based on the neuropsychological tests (MMSE and Clock Drawing Test). In 68 patients with diagnosed impairment of cognitive functions due to dementia, neuropsychological tests (MMSE and Clock Drawing Test) and CT studies were performed. On the basis of CT images we evaluated cortical and subcortical atrophy with 3 methods; visual, semiautomatic (volumetric) and automatic method based on fractal geometry calculations; the latter was characterized by very short time of measurements. The correlation between neuropsychological tests and brain atrophy measurements has been assessed using Pearson's correlation test. No statistical correlation was found between the results of neuropsychological tests and measurements of the brain atrophy (both cortical and subcortical) using all three methods mentioned above. Single measurement of the generalized cortical and subcortical atrophy is not correlated with the results of neuropsychological tests. In our opinion, these measurements might be valuable in follow-up of the dementive process to compare progression of the atrophic changes with the changes of the neuropsychological tests results, especially using very quick automatic method, supplemented by local atrophy measurements. (authors)

  4. Optometry-based general population survey of pupil ruff atrophy and ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Ghee S; Stevenson, Peter J; Sargent, Geoff; Grimmer, Peter; Corbett, Patricia; Jourdain, Erin; Wells, Anthony P

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate and describe the pupil ruff changes and relationship to intraocular pressure, pseudoexfoliation syndrome and glaucoma status in an optometric population in New Zealand. Prospective cross-sectional survey of an optometric population. Six hundred and twenty subjects over 50 years old routinely attending the participating optometry practices. Exclusion criteria included previous intraocular surgery, ophthalmic laser, uveitis, angle closure and secondary glaucoma. Multicentre study involving 11 optometry practices in the Wellington region, New Zealand. The pupillary ruff and associated gonioscopy findings of study participants were graded based on the previously published Pupil Ruff Atrophy grading system. Parameters evaluated include pupillary ruff absence and abnormality, pseudoexfoliation material and trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Correlations between intereye Pupil Ruff Atrophy grading differences and inter-eye intraocular pressure and cup:disc ratio differences. Six hundred and twenty subjects were included, with a mean age of 62.2 ± 9.1 years and mean intraocular pressure of 14.8 ± 3.4 mmHg. Four hundred and fourteen (66.8%) had bilateral pupil ruff changes and 12 (1.5%) had pseudoexfoliation. Inter-eye intraocular pressure asymmetry was significantly correlated with amount of missing pupillary ruff (r = 0.111; P = 0.022) and trabecular meshwork pigmentation (r = 0.147; P = 0.002). Inter-eye cup:disc ratio asymmetry was not correlated with any of the Pupil Ruff Atrophy grading parameters. Asymmetry of pupillary ruff absence and trabecular meshwork pigmentation was correlated with intraocular pressure asymmetry (but not with cup:disc ratio asymmetry) in a general optometric population setting in New Zealand. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  5. Fractional CO2 laser treatment for vulvovaginal atrophy symptoms and vaginal rejuvenation in perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo C

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available César Arroyo HM Montepríncipe University Hospital Laser Unit, Madrid, Spain Background: This study investigated a novel fractional carbon dioxide (CO2 laser for treatment of symptoms associated with vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA in perimenopausal women.Methods: The study included 21 perimenopausal women (mean age 45±7 years treated three times by CO2 laser resurfacing and coagulation of the vaginal canal tissue and mucosal tissue of the introitus. Vaginal health index (VHI scores were computed by the investigator at baseline and follow-ups. Subjects reported on sexual function, satisfaction, and improvement with treatment. A visual analog scale was used to measure discomfort with treatment.Results: Vaginal health and subject assessment of vaginal symptoms improved with successive treatments. At 12 weeks following the third treatment, 82% of the patients showed a statistically significant improvement in VHI (P<0.05. Additionally, 81% of subjects reported improvement in sexual gratification, 94% reported improvement in vaginal rejuvenation, and 100% reported satisfaction with treatment. VHI improvement remained significant at 6–8 months after treatments (P<0.01. Most patients (97% reported no to mild discomfort with treatment. Responses were mild and transient following treatment, with itching being the most commonly reported (20% side effect.Conclusion: In this study, fractional CO2 laser treatment was associated with improvement of vaginal health and amelioration of symptoms of VVA, resulting in improved sexual function in perimenopausal women. Treatment time was quick, and there was minimal discomfort associated with treatment. Investigation of clinical outcome in a larger study population is warranted. Keywords: genitourinary syndrome of menopause, vaginal rejuvenation, stress urinary incontinence, collagen remodeling, sexual dysfunction, vulvovaginal atrophy

  6. Reversible brain atrophy and cognitive impairment in an adolescent Japanese patient with primary adrenal Cushing’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohara N

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nobumasa Ohara,1 Hiroshi Suzuki,1 Akiko Suzuki,1 Masanori Kaneko,1 Masahiro Ishizawa,1 Kazuo Furukawa,1 Takahiro Abe,1 Yasuhiro Matsubayashi,1 Takaho Yamada,1 Osamu Hanyu,1 Takayoshi Shimohata,2 Hirohito Sone1 1Department of Hematology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan; 2Department of Neurology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan Abstract: Endogenous Cushing’s syndrome is an endocrine disease resulting from chronic exposure to excessive glucocorticoids produced in the adrenal cortex. Although the ultimate outcome remains uncertain, functional and morphological brain changes are not uncommon in patients with this syndrome, and generally persist even after resolution of hypercortisolemia. We present an adolescent patient with Cushing’s syndrome who exhibited cognitive impairment with brain atrophy. A 19-year-old Japanese male visited a local hospital following 5 days of behavioral abnormalities, such as money wasting or nighttime wandering. He had hypertension and a 1-year history of a rounded face. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed apparently diffuse brain atrophy. Because of high random plasma cortisol levels (28.7 µg/dL at 10 AM, he was referred to our hospital in August 2011. Endocrinological testing showed adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent hypercortisolemia, and abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a 2.7 cm tumor in the left adrenal gland. The patient underwent left adrenalectomy in September 2011, and the diagnosis of cortisol-secreting adenoma was confirmed histologically. His hypertension and Cushingoid features regressed. Behavioral abnormalities were no longer observed, and he was classified as cured of his cognitive disturbance caused by Cushing’s syndrome in February 2012. MRI performed 8 months after surgery revealed reversal of brain atrophy, and his subsequent course has been uneventful. In summary, the young age at onset and the

  7. Default mode network links to visual hallucinations: A comparison between Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciotti, Raffaella; Delli Pizzi, Stefano; Perfetti, Bernardo; Tartaro, Armando; Bonanni, Laura; Thomas, Astrid; Weis, Luca; Biundo, Roberta; Antonini, Angelo; Onofrj, Marco

    2015-08-01

    Studying default mode network activity or connectivity in different parkinsonisms, with or without visual hallucinations, could highlight its roles in clinical phenotypes' expression. Multiple system atrophy is the archetype of parkinsonism without visual hallucinations, variably appearing instead in Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to evaluate default mode network functions in multiple system atrophy in comparison with PD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging evaluated default mode network activity and connectivity in 15 multiple system atrophy patients, 15 healthy controls, 15 early PD patients matched for disease duration, 30 severe PD patients (15 with and 15 without visual hallucinations), matched with multiple system atrophy for disease severity. Cortical thickness and neuropsychological evaluations were also performed. Multiple system atrophy had reduced default mode network activity compared with controls and PD with hallucinations, and no differences with PD (early or severe) without hallucinations. In PD with visual hallucinations, activity and connectivity was preserved compared with controls and higher than in other groups. In early PD, connectivity was lower than in controls but higher than in multiple system atrophy and severe PD without hallucinations. Cortical thickness was reduced in severe PD, with and without hallucinations, and correlated only with disease duration. Higher anxiety scores were found in patients without hallucinations. Default mode network activity and connectivity was higher in PD with visual hallucinations and reduced in multiple system atrophy and PD without visual hallucinations. Cortical thickness comparisons suggest that functional, rather than structural, changes underlie the activity and connectivity differences. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  8. Klinefelter′s syndrome associated with progressive muscular atrophy simulating Kennedy′s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Enrique Jiménez Caballero

    2012-01-01

    Kennedy's disease, an X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, is characterized by loss of lower motor neurons. Mild sensory deficits, gynecomastia and infertility may be observed. Klinefelter's syndrome is a variation of sex chromosome disorder characterized by hypogonadism, gynecomastia and azoospermia, and the most frequent karyotype is XXY. A 55-year-old man who presented with slowly progressive and diffuse neurogenic muscle atrophy without bulbar or sensory symptoms. He also had Klin...

  9. Little effects of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I on testicular atrophy induced by hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casares Amelia

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I supplementation restores testicular atrophy associated with advanced liver cirrhosis that is a condition of IGF-I deficiency. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of IGF-I in rats with ischemia-induced testicular atrophy (AT without liver disease and consequently with normal serum level of IGF-I. Methods Testicular atrophy was induced by epinephrine (1, 2 mg/Kg intra-scrotal injection five times per week during 11 weeks. Then, rats with testicular atrophy (AT were divided into two groups (n = 10 each: untreated rats (AT receiving saline sc, and AT+IGF, which were treated with IGF-I (2 μg.100 g b.w.-1.day-1, sc. for 28d. Healthy controls (CO, n = 10 were studied in parallel. Animals were sacrificed on day 29th. Hypophyso-gonadal axis, IGF-I and IGFBPs levels, testicular morphometry and histopathology, immuno-histochemical studies and antioxidant enzyme activity phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx were assessed. Results Compared to controls, AT rats displayed a reduction in testicular size and weight, with histological testicular atrophy, decreased cellular proliferation and transferrin expression, and all of these alterations were slightly improved by IGF-I at low doses. IGF-I therapy increased signifincantly steroidogenesis and PHGPx activity (p Conclusion In testicular atrophy by hypoxia, condition without IGF-I deficiency, IGF-treatment induces only partial effects. These findings suggest that IGF-I therapy appears as an appropriate treatment in hypogonadism only when this is associated to conditions of IGF-I deficiency (such as Laron Syndrom or liver cirrhosis.

  10. Reversibility of Supraspinatus Muscle Atrophy in Tendon-Bone Healing After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Bok; Ryu, Ho Young; Hong, Jin Ho; Ko, Young Hoo; Yoo, Jae Chul

    2016-04-01

    To date, there are few reports of the definite reversibility of rotator cuff muscle atrophy after repair. To evaluate the reversibility of rotator cuff muscle atrophy after successful arthroscopic repair. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Included in this study were 47 patients (mean age, 61.2 ± 7.3 years; range, 49-73 years) who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) preoperatively and at 6-month and last follow-up. Patients who had confirmed rotator cuff healing (grades 1-3 according to the Sugaya classification) on both series of postoperative MRI were enrolled in the study. The mean time from the onset of symptoms to surgery was 24.7 ± 25.6 months (range, 3-120 months). The minimum follow-up was 2 years, and the mean follow-up duration was 41.8 ± 14.4 months. Serial changes in the supraspinatus muscle area on the most matching MRI scans (sagittal-oblique view) were evaluated. The area was measured by 2 independent observers. Both independent observers reported no significant difference in the area of the supraspinatus muscle between the preoperative time point and 6-month follow-up (observer 1: P = .135; observer 2: P = .189). However, there was a significant difference between the 6-month and last follow-up (mean, 41.8 months; observers 1 and 2: P .999) or from 6-month to final follow-up (P = .077). After successful arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, there was a slight (11.3%-13.9%) increase in muscle volume from preoperatively to final follow-up, as seen on serial MRI. Fatty infiltration according to the Goutallier grade was not reversed (P = .077). Some reversibility of supraspinatus muscle atrophy may exist in tendon-bone healing after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair; further follow-up is needed to better elucidate this result. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Cerebellar atrophy is frequently associated with non-paraneoplastic sensory neuronopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Damasceno

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Sensory neuronopathies (SN are peripheral nervous system disorders associated with degeneration of dorsal root ganglion neurons. Despite the evidence of a defective proprioceptive sensory input in SN,the prominent gait and truncal ataxia raises the question of a concomitant involvement of the cerebellum. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cerebellar atrophy in SN. METHOD: We analyzed MRI-based volumetry of anterior lobe (paleocerebellum and total cerebellum in patients with non-paraneoplastic chronic SN and compared to age- and gender-matched controls. RESULTS: Cerebellum and anterior lobe MRI volumetry were performed in 20 patients and nine controls. Mean anterior lobe and cerebellar volume were not statistically different. Three patients (15%, however, had an abnormal anterior lobe and cerebellar volume index (values outside 2.5 standard deviations. One of them also had a specific atrophy of the anterior lobe. All these patients had infectious or dysimmune associated SN. CONCLUSION: Cerebellar atrophy is infrequently associated with SN, but can be found in some patients with SN related to infectious or immune mediated conditions. It can be more prominent in the anterior lobe and may contribute to the ataxia seen in these patients.

  12. Cancer cachexia-induced muscle atrophy: evidence for alterations in microRNAs important for muscle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David E; Brown, Jacob L; Rosa-Caldwell, Megan E; Blackwell, Thomas A; Perry, Richard A; Brown, Lemuel A; Khatri, Bhuwan; Seo, Dongwon; Bottje, Walter G; Washington, Tyrone A; Wiggs, Michael P; Kong, Byung-Whi; Greene, Nicholas P

    2017-05-01

    Muscle atrophy is a hallmark of cancer cachexia resulting in impaired function and quality of life and cachexia is the immediate cause of death for 20-40% of cancer patients. Multiple microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as being involved in muscle development and atrophy; however, less is known specifically on miRNAs in cancer cachexia. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the miRNA profile of skeletal muscle atrophy induced by cancer cachexia to uncover potential miRNAs involved with this catabolic condition. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LLC) were injected into C57BL/6J mice at 8 wk of age. LLC animals were allowed to develop tumors for 4 wk to induce cachexia. Tibialis anterior muscles were extracted and processed to isolate small RNAs, which were used for miRNA sequencing. Sequencing results were assembled with mature miRNAs, and functions of miRNAs were analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. LLC animals developed tumors that contributed to significantly smaller tibialis anterior muscles (18.5%) and muscle cross-sectional area (40%) compared with PBS. We found 371 miRNAs to be present in the muscle above background levels. Of these, nine miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed. Significantly altered groups of miRNAs were categorized into primary functionalities including cancer, cell-to-cell signaling, and cellular development among others. Gene network analysis predicted specific alterations of factors contributing to muscle size including Akt, FOXO3, and others. These results create a foundation for future research into the sufficiency of targeting these genes to attenuate muscle loss in cancer cachexia. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Differential Atrophy of Hippocampal Subfields: A Comparative Study of Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Elijah; Su, Li; Williams, Guy B; Watson, Rosie; Firbank, Michael; Blamire, Andrew; O'Brien, John

    2016-02-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is characterized by relative preservation of the medial temporal lobe compared with Alzheimer disease (AD). The differential involvement of the hippocampal subfields in both diseases has not been clearly established, however. We aim to investigate hippocampal subfield differences in vivo in a clinical cohort of DLB and AD subjects. 104 participants (35 DLBs, 36 ADs, and 35 healthy comparison [HC] subjects) underwent clinical assessment and 3T T1-weighted imaging. A Bayesian model implemented in Freesurfer was used to automatically segment the hippocampus and its subfields. We also examined associations between hippocampal subfields and tests of memory function. Both the AD and DLB groups demonstrated significant atrophy of the total hippocampus relative to HC but the DLB group was characterized by preservation of the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1), fimbria, and fissure. In contrast, all the hippocampal subfields except the fissure were significantly atrophied in AD compared with both DLB and HC groups. Among DLB subjects, CA1 was correlated with the Recent Memory score of the CAMCOG and Delayed Recall subscores of the HVLT. DLB is characterized by milder hippocampal atrophy that was accompanied by preservation of the CA1. The CA1 was also associated with memory function in DLB. Our findings highlight the promising role of hippocampal subfield volumetry, particularly that of the CA1, as a biomarker for the distinction between AD and DLB. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Laterality Influences Brain Atrophy in Parkinson's Disease - a Voxel-based Morphometry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Arci Santos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several neuroimaging studies revealed widespread neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease but only few considered the asymmetrical clinical presentation. Objective: To investigate gray matter (GM atrophy in Parkinson Disease considering the side of motor symptom onset. Methods: Sixty patients (57.87± 10.27 years diagnosed according to the Brain Bank criteria, 26 with right-sided disease onset (RDO and 34 with left-sided disease onset (LDO, were compared to 80 healthy controls (HC (57.1± 9.47 years. T1-weighted images were acquired on a 3T scanner. VBM8 (SPM8/Dartel on Matlab R2012b platform processed and analyzed the images. Statistics included a two-sample test (FWE p<0.05 with extent threshold of 20 voxels. In a secondary analysis, we used MRIcro software to flip the images right/left of 25 patients, which had a RDO, so that all images had the contralateral side of disease onset at the right hemisphere. Thirty-five HC images were flipped, as the hemispheres are not completely equivalent. Results: Compared to HC, GM atrophy in LDO was identified in the insula, putamen, anterior cingulate, frontotemporal cortex and right caudate. For the RDO group, anterior cingulate, insula, frontotemporal and occipital cortex. VBM of total brain-flipped images showed GM loss mainly in the left putamen, left olfactory cortex, amygdala, parahipocampal gyrus and in the rectus gyrus, insula, frontotemporal cortex, cuneus, precuneus and calcarine fissure bilaterally. (p<0.05 FWE corrected. Conclusions: The study revealed widespread GM atrophy in PD, predominantly in the left hemisphere. Future investigations should also consider handedness and side of onset to better characterize cerebral involvement and its progression in PD.

  15. Impaired axonal Na+ current by hindlimb unloading: implication for disuse neuromuscular atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimeglkham eBanzrai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the excitability changes in peripheral motor axons caused by hindlimb unloading, which is a model of disuse neuromuscular atrophy. Hindlimb unloading was performed in normal 6-week-old male mice by fixing the proximal tail by a clip connected to the top of the animal’s cage for 3 weeks. Axonal excitability studies were performed by stimulating the sciatic nerve at the ankle and recording the compound muscle action potential from the foot. The amplitudes of the motor responses of the unloading group were 51% of the control amplitudes (2.2 ± 1.3 mV [HLU] vs. 4.3 ± 1.2 mV [Control], P = 0.03. Multiple axonal excitability analysis showed that the unloading group had a smaller strength-duration time constant (SDTC and late subexcitability (recovery cycle than the controls (0.075 ± 0.01 [HLU] vs. 0.12 ± 0.01 [Control], P < 0.01; 5.4 ± 1.0 [HLU] vs. 10.0 ± 1.3 % [Control], P = 0.01, respectively. Three weeks after releasing from HLU, the SDTC became comparable to the control range. Using a modeling study, the observed differences in the waveforms could be explained by reduced persistent Na+ currents along with parameters related to current leakage. Quantification of RNA of a SCA1A gene coding a voltage-gated Na+ channel tended to be decreased in the sciatic nerve in HLU. The present study suggested that axonal ion currents are altered in vivo by hindlimb unloading. It is still undetermined whether the dysfunctional axonal ion currents have any pathogenicity on neuromuscular atrophy or are the results of neural plasticity by atrophy.

  16. EVALUATION OF PATCHY ATROPHY SECONDARY TO HIGH MYOPIA BY SEMIAUTOMATED SOFTWARE FOR FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miere, Alexandra; Capuano, Vittorio; Serra, Rita; Jung, Camille; Souied, Eric; Querques, Giuseppe

    2017-05-31

    To evaluate the progression of patchy atrophy in high myopia using semiautomated software for fundus autofluorescence (FAF) analysis. The medical records and multimodal imaging of 21 consecutive highly myopic patients with macular chorioretinal patchy atrophy (PA) were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent repeated fundus autofluorescence and spectral domain optical coherence tomography over at least 12 months. Color fundus photography was also performed in a subset of patients. Total atrophy area was measured on FAF images using Region Finder semiautomated software embedded in Spectralis (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) at baseline and during follow-up visits. Region Finder was compared with manually measured PA on FAF images. Twenty-two eyes of 21 patients (14 women, 7 men; mean age 62.8 + 13.0 years, range 32-84 years) were included. Mean PA area using Region Finder was 2.77 ± 2.91 SD mm at baseline, 3.12 ± 2.68 mm at Month 6, 3.43 ± 2.68 mm at Month 12, and 3.73 ± 2.74 mm at Month 18 (overall P autofluorescence analysis by Region Finder semiautomated software provides accurate measurements of lesion area and allows us to quantify the progression of PA in high myopia. In our series, PA enlarged significantly over at least 12 months, and its progression seemed to be related to the lesion size at baseline.

  17. Little effects of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I on testicular atrophy induced by hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Caballero, Fernando; Castilla-Cortázar, Inma; Garcia-Fernandez, Maria; Puche, Juan Enrique; Diaz-Sanchez, Matias; Casares, Amelia Diaz; Aliaga-Montilla, M Aurelia; Rodriguez-Borrajo, Coronación; Gonzalez-Barón, Salvador

    2006-01-01

    Background Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) supplementation restores testicular atrophy associated with advanced liver cirrhosis that is a condition of IGF-I deficiency. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of IGF-I in rats with ischemia-induced testicular atrophy (AT) without liver disease and consequently with normal serum level of IGF-I. Methods Testicular atrophy was induced by epinephrine (1, 2 mg/Kg intra-scrotal injection five times per week) during 11 weeks. Then, rats with testicular atrophy (AT) were divided into two groups (n = 10 each): untreated rats (AT) receiving saline sc, and AT+IGF, which were treated with IGF-I (2 μg.100 g b.w.-1.day-1, sc.) for 28d. Healthy controls (CO, n = 10) were studied in parallel. Animals were sacrificed on day 29th. Hypophyso-gonadal axis, IGF-I and IGFBPs levels, testicular morphometry and histopathology, immuno-histochemical studies and antioxidant enzyme activity phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) were assessed. Results Compared to controls, AT rats displayed a reduction in testicular size and weight, with histological testicular atrophy, decreased cellular proliferation and transferrin expression, and all of these alterations were slightly improved by IGF-I at low doses. IGF-I therapy increased signifincantly steroidogenesis and PHGPx activity (p Laron Syndrom or liver cirrhosis). PMID:16504030

  18. Cerebellar and cerebral atrophy in trichothiodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye-Kyung; Sargent, Michael A.; Poskitt, Kenneth J. [British Columbia Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Prendiville, Julie S. [British Columbia Children' s Hospital, Division of Paediatric Dermatology, Department of Paediatrics, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2005-10-01

    Trichothiodystrophy is a rare neuroectodermal disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance that is characterized by brittle hair, nail dysplasia, ichthyosis, mental retardation, and gonadal failure. We describe a female patient whose cranial MRI revealed almost total lack of myelination in the supratentorial white matter, which is similar to the previously described cases. In addition, there was progressive cerebellar and cerebral atrophy, which has not been well documented in association with trichothiodystrophy. (orig.)

  19. What do we really know about the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in muscle atrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagoe, R. T.; Goldberg, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    Studies of many different rodent models of muscle wasting have indicated that accelerated proteolysis via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is the principal cause of muscle atrophy induced by fasting, cancer cachexia, metabolic acidosis, denervation, disuse, diabetes, sepsis, burns, hyperthyroidism and excess glucocorticoids. However, our understanding about how muscle proteins are degraded, and how the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is activated in muscle under these conditions, is still very limited. The identities of the important ubiquitin-protein ligases in skeletal muscle, and the ways in which they recognize substrates are still largely unknown. Recent in-vitro studies have suggested that one set of ubquitination enzymes, E2(14K) and E3(alpha), which are responsible for the 'N-end rule' system of ubiquitination, plays an important role in muscle, especially in catabolic states. However, their functional significance in degrading different muscle proteins is still unclear. This review focuses on the many gaps in our understanding of the functioning of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in muscle atrophy, and highlights the strengths and limitations of the different experimental approaches used in such studies.

  20. Gyrate atrophy of choroid and retina with myopia, cataract and systemic proximal myopathy: A rare case report from rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Bangal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGyrate atrophy is a rare metabolic disease with autosomal recessive inheritance pattern characterised by hyperornithinemia and typical ocular findings. This report presents a 17-year-old intellectually challenged girl consulting for a progressive fall of visual acuity with night blindness. Fundus examination showed patches of chorioretinal atrophy with typical scalloped borders and peri vascular pigmentation in the equatorial region. Fundus fluroscein angiography revealed characteristic staining pattern. Other ocular associations included myopia and posterior sub capsular cataract. Progressive systemic proximal myopathy was one of the associated features. Dietary supplementation of vitamin B6 was advised.

  1. Muscle atrophy as a consequence of rotator cuff tears: should we compare the muscles of the rotator cuff with those of the deltoid?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashry, Reem; Schweitzer, Mark E.; Cunningham, Patricia; Cohen, Jodi; Babb, James; Cantos, Andrew [Hospital for Joint Diseases, NYU Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2007-09-15

    The quantitative assessment of muscle atrophy has a degree of importance in prognosticating rotator cuff treatment. However, it has been conjectured that muscle fat increases with aging. Therefore, we thought that the quantitative assessment of the supraspinatous would be better if made in comparison with a standard of reference such as the deltoid. Consequently, we performed a two-part study, first evaluating supraspinatous changes compared with the deltoid in ''normals'' with aging, and second, determining if in patients with cuff tears the supraspinatous fat exceeds that of the deltoid. In part 1, we studied 50 patients stratified by decade. In the first sitting, two blinded independent observers quantitatively graded the deltoid (with the supraspinatous obscured) and in the second sitting the same two observers quantitatively graded the supraspinatous (with the deltoid obscured). In part 2 of the study, we evaluated patients with moderate rotator cuff tears (>2 cm) and performed the same blinded, two-sitting, quantitative assessment (with the comparison muscle obscured). We found that muscle atrophy increases with age in patients without tears (0.011/0.028 U/year), although to a greater degree in the deltoid (p = 0.032). Also, in similarly aged patients, quantitative scores of the deltoid closely matched those of the supraspinatous (p = 0.071). Notably, however, in patients with large tears, the supraspinatous showed significant changes disproportionate to those of the deltoid, regardless of patient age (p = 0.044). In the presence of a normal rotator cuff, fatty infiltration increases with age. Age-related changes occur more frequently in the deltoid, verifying this muscle's potential as a standard of reference. With cuff tears, supraspinatous atrophy was disproportionate to that of the deltoid. Therefore, systematic assessment of supraspinatous muscle atrophy may be more reliable using the deltoid as a control for comparison than

  2. Muscle atrophy as a consequence of rotator cuff tears: should we compare the muscles of the rotator cuff with those of the deltoid?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, Reem; Schweitzer, Mark E.; Cunningham, Patricia; Cohen, Jodi; Babb, James; Cantos, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative assessment of muscle atrophy has a degree of importance in prognosticating rotator cuff treatment. However, it has been conjectured that muscle fat increases with aging. Therefore, we thought that the quantitative assessment of the supraspinatous would be better if made in comparison with a standard of reference such as the deltoid. Consequently, we performed a two-part study, first evaluating supraspinatous changes compared with the deltoid in ''normals'' with aging, and second, determining if in patients with cuff tears the supraspinatous fat exceeds that of the deltoid. In part 1, we studied 50 patients stratified by decade. In the first sitting, two blinded independent observers quantitatively graded the deltoid (with the supraspinatous obscured) and in the second sitting the same two observers quantitatively graded the supraspinatous (with the deltoid obscured). In part 2 of the study, we evaluated patients with moderate rotator cuff tears (>2 cm) and performed the same blinded, two-sitting, quantitative assessment (with the comparison muscle obscured). We found that muscle atrophy increases with age in patients without tears (0.011/0.028 U/year), although to a greater degree in the deltoid (p 0.032). Also, in similarly aged patients, quantitative scores of the deltoid closely matched those of the supraspinatous (p = 0.071). Notably, however, in patients with large tears, the supraspinatous showed significant changes disproportionate to those of the deltoid, regardless of patient age (p = 0.044). In the presence of a normal rotator cuff, fatty infiltration increases with age. Age-related changes occur more frequently in the deltoid, verifying this muscle's potential as a standard of reference. With cuff tears, supraspinatous atrophy was disproportionate to that of the deltoid. Therefore, systematic assessment of supraspinatous muscle atrophy may be more reliable using the deltoid as a control for comparison than assessing it in isolation

  3. Is radiological evaluation as good as computer-based volumetry to assess hippocampal atrophy in Alzheimer's disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutet, Claire; Drier, Aurelie; Dormont, Didier; Lehericy, Stephane; Chupin, Marie; Colliot, Olivier; Sarazin, Marie; Mutlu, Gurkan; Pellot, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    Hippocampus volumetry is a useful surrogate marker for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our purpose was to compare visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy made by radiologists with automatic hippocampal volume and to compare their performances for the classification of AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and cognitively normal (CN). We studied 30 CN, 30 MCI and 30 AD subjects. Six radiologists with two levels of expertise performed two readings of medial temporal lobe atrophy. Medial temporal lobe atrophy was evaluated on coronal three-dimensional T1-weighted images using Scheltens scale and compared with hippocampal volume obtained using a fully automatic segmentation method (Spearman's rank coefficient). Visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy was correlated with hippocampal volume (p < 0.01). Classification performances between MCI converter and CN was better using volumetry than visual assessment of non-expert readers whereas classification of AD and CN did not differ between visual assessment and volumetry except for the first reading of one non-expert (p = 0.03). Visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy by radiologists was well correlated with hippocampal volume. Radiological assessment is as good as computer-based volumetry for the classification of AD, MCI non-converter and CN and less good for the classification of MCI converter versus CN. Use of Scheltens scale for assessing hippocampal atrophy in AD seems thus justified in clinical routine. (orig.)

  4. Statistical analysis of CT brain scans in the evaluation of cerebral atrophy and hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberthur, J.; Baddeley, H.; Jayasinghe, L.; Walsh, P.

    1983-01-01

    All the subjects with a visual CT diagnosis of atrophy or hydrocephalus showed variations from the normal in excess of two standard deviations so the standard deviation analysis method can be regarded as being as sensitive as the visual interpretation. However, three patients in the control group were also indicted although their results were only in the borderline range. Limitations of the study are discussed

  5. The intestinotrophic peptide, glp-2, counteracts intestinal atrophy in mice induced by the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor, gefitinib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare, Kristine Juul; Hartmann, Bolette; Kissow, Hannelouise

    2007-01-01

    of the segments of the gastrointestinal tract were determined, and histologic sections were analyzed by morphometric methods. RESULTS: A significant atrophy of the small-intestinal wall was observed after treatment with gefitinib because both intestinal weight and morphometrically estimated villus height...

  6. Accuracy and cut-off values of pepsinogens I, II and gastrin 17 for diagnosis of gastric fundic atrophy: influence of gastritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Nasrollahzadeh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To establish optimal cutoff values for serologic diagnosis of fundic atrophy in a high-risk area for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric cancer with high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori in Northern Iran, we performed an endoscopy-room-based validation study. METHODS: We measured serum pepsinogens I (PGI and II (PGII, gastrin 17 (G-17, and antibodies against whole H. pylori, or cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA antigen among 309 consecutive patients in two major endoscopy clinics in northeastern Iran. Updated Sydney System was used as histology gold standard. Areas under curves (AUCs, optimal cutoff and predictive values were calculated for serum biomarkers against the histology. RESULTS: 309 persons were recruited (mean age: 63.5 years old, 59.5% female. 84.5% were H. pylori positive and 77.5% were CagA positive. 21 fundic atrophy and 101 nonatrophic pangastritis were diagnosed. The best cutoff values in fundic atrophy assessment were calculated at PGI40 pmol/l was 81% sensitive and 73.3% specific for diagnosing fundic atrophy. At cutoff concentration of 11.8 µg/l, PGII showed 84.2% sensitivity and 45.4% specificity to distinguish nonatrophic pangastritis. Exclusion of nonatrophic pangastritis enhanced diagnostic ability of PGI/PGII ratio (from AUC = 0.66 to 0.90 but did not affect AUC of PGI. After restricting study samples to those with PGII<11.8, the sensitivity of using PGI<56 to define fundic atrophy increased to 83.3% (95%CI 51.6-97.9 and its specificity decreased to 88.8% (95%CI 80.8-94.3. CONCLUSIONS: Among endoscopy clinic patients, PGII is a sensitive marker for extension of nonatrophic gastritis toward the corpus. PGI is a stable biomarker in assessment of fundic atrophy and has similar accuracy to PGI/PGII ratio among populations with prevalent nonatrophic pangastritis.

  7. Diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET and 11C-PIB PET on early stage posterior cortical atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai LIU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background  Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA is a kind of progressive neurodegenerative disease with cortical visual impairment as the first symptom. Because of rare clinical incidence, early onset age, special clinical symptoms and unobvious MRI abnormality, the definitive diagnosis of PCA is difficult. This study used 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG PET and 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (11C-PIB PET for PCA patients with unobvious MRI abnormality, so as to discuss the value of PET in the early diagnosis of PCA.  Methods  Five patients diagnosed as PCA in our hospital between April 2012 and March 2015 were enrolled in this study. Cognitive function was measured by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, Activities of Daily Living (ADL and Clock Drawing Test (CDT. Brain MRI, 18F-FDG PET and 11C-PIB PET were performed to analyze glucose metabolism and perfusion of posterior cortex.  Results Neuropsychological tests revealed that the ability of writing, calculating, visuospatial and executive function of all these patients were impaired. Color vision tests showed abnormal results. MRI showed that the posterior atrophy (PA scores were 0-2 (average 1 on the left side and 0-1 (average 0.80 on the right side. The medial temporal atrophy (MTA scores were 1-3 (average 1.80 on the left side and 1-4 (average 2 on the right side. The ventricular enlargement (VE scores were 1-2 (average 1.80 on the left side and 1-2 (average 1.60 on the right side. 18F-FDG PET showed glucose metabolism decreased obviously on bilateral temporo-parieto-occipital cortex, precuneus and cingulate gyrus, and slightly on frontal lobes and subcortical structure. 11C-PIB PET showed radioactive 11C-PIB deposition on bilateral frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortex, and the outline of cerebellar cortex was clear.  Conclusions  For PCA patients whose parietal and occipital cortical atrophy is not obvious on MRI, 18F-FDG PET

  8. Apolipoprotein E genotype is associated with temporal and hippocampal atrophy rates in healthy elderly adults: a tensor-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Po H; Thompson, Paul M; Leow, Alex; Lee, Grace J; Lee, Agatha; Yanovsky, Igor; Parikshak, Neelroop; Khoo, Theresa; Wu, Stephanie; Geschwind, Daniel; Bartzokis, George

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 genotype is a strong risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Conversely, the presence of the ε2 allele has been shown to mitigate cognitive decline. Tensor-based morphometry (TBM), a novel computational approach for visualizing longitudinal progression of brain atrophy, was used to determine whether cognitively intact elderly participants with the ε4 allele demonstrate greater volume reduction than those with the ε2 allele. Healthy "younger elderly" volunteers, aged 55-75, were recruited from the community and hospital staff. They were evaluated with a baseline and follow-up MRI scan (mean scan interval = 4.72 years, s.d. = 0.55) and completed ApoE genotyping. Twenty-seven participants were included in the study of which 16 had the ε4 allele (all heterozygous ε3ε4 genotype) and 11 had the ε2ε3 genotype. The two groups did not differ significantly on any demographic characteristics and all subjects were cognitively "normal" at both baseline and follow-up time points. TBM was used to create 3D maps of local brain tissue atrophy rates for individual participants; these spatially detailed 3D maps were compared between the two ApoE groups. Regional analyses were performed and the ε4 group demonstrated significantly greater annual atrophy rates in the temporal lobes (p = 0.048) and hippocampus (p = 0.016); greater volume loss was observed in the right hippocampus than the left. TBM appears to be useful in tracking longitudinal progression of brain atrophy in cognitively asymptomatic adults. Possession of the ε4 allele is associated with greater temporal and hippocampal volume reduction well before the onset of cognitive deficits.

  9. The Risk Factors of Symptomatic Communicating Hydrocephalus After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Unilateral Vestibular Schwannoma: The Implication of Brain Atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Gyu; Chung, Hyun-Tai; Paek, Sun Ha; Park, Chul-Kee; Kim, Chae-Yong; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Yong Hwy; Song, Sang Woo; Kim, In Kyung; Jung, Hee-Won

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the effect of brain atrophy on the development of symptomatic communicating hydrocephalus (SCHCP) after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS). Methods and Materials: A total of 444 patients with VS were treated with SRS as a primary treatment. One hundred eighty-one patients (40.8%) were male, and the mean age of the patients was 53 ± 13 years (range, 11–81 years). The mean follow-up duration was 56.8 ± 35.8 months (range, 12–160 months). The mean tumor volume was 2.78 ± 3.33 cm 3 (range, 0.03–23.30 cm 3 ). The cross-sectional area of the lateral ventricles (CALV), defined as the combined area of the lateral ventricles at the level of the mammillary body, was measured on coronal T1-weighted magnetic resonance images as an indicator of brain atrophy. Results: At distant follow-up, a total of 25 (5.6%) patients had SCHCP. The median time to symptom development was 7 months (range, 1–48 months). The mean CALV was 334.0 ± 194.0 mm 2 (range, 44.70–1170 mm 2 ). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.988 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.976–0.994; p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the CALV had a significant relationship with the development of SCHCP (p < 0.001; odds ration [OR] = 1.005; 95% CI, 1.002–1.007). Tumor volume and female sex also had a significant association (p < 0.001; OR = 1.246; 95% CI, 1.103–1.409; p < 0.009; OR = 7.256; 95% CI, 1.656–31.797, respectively). However, age failed to show any relationship with the development of SCHCP (p = 0.364). Conclusion: Brain atrophy may be related to de novo SCHCP after SRS, especially in female patients with a large VS. Follow-up surveillance should be individualized, considering the risk factors involved for each patient, for prompt diagnosis of SCHCP.

  10. The Risk Factors of Symptomatic Communicating Hydrocephalus After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Unilateral Vestibular Schwannoma: The Implication of Brain Atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jung Ho [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Gyu, E-mail: gknife@plaza.snu.ac.kr [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hyun-Tai; Paek, Sun Ha; Park, Chul-Kee [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chae-Yong [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Seung-Sik [Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong-Hoon [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Hoon [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Yong Hwy; Song, Sang Woo; Kim, In Kyung; Jung, Hee-Won [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To identify the effect of brain atrophy on the development of symptomatic communicating hydrocephalus (SCHCP) after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS). Methods and Materials: A total of 444 patients with VS were treated with SRS as a primary treatment. One hundred eighty-one patients (40.8%) were male, and the mean age of the patients was 53 {+-} 13 years (range, 11-81 years). The mean follow-up duration was 56.8 {+-} 35.8 months (range, 12-160 months). The mean tumor volume was 2.78 {+-} 3.33 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.03-23.30 cm{sup 3}). The cross-sectional area of the lateral ventricles (CALV), defined as the combined area of the lateral ventricles at the level of the mammillary body, was measured on coronal T1-weighted magnetic resonance images as an indicator of brain atrophy. Results: At distant follow-up, a total of 25 (5.6%) patients had SCHCP. The median time to symptom development was 7 months (range, 1-48 months). The mean CALV was 334.0 {+-} 194.0 mm{sup 2} (range, 44.70-1170 mm{sup 2}). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.988 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.976-0.994; p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the CALV had a significant relationship with the development of SCHCP (p < 0.001; odds ration [OR] = 1.005; 95% CI, 1.002-1.007). Tumor volume and female sex also had a significant association (p < 0.001; OR = 1.246; 95% CI, 1.103-1.409; p < 0.009; OR = 7.256; 95% CI, 1.656-31.797, respectively). However, age failed to show any relationship with the development of SCHCP (p = 0.364). Conclusion: Brain atrophy may be related to de novo SCHCP after SRS, especially in female patients with a large VS. Follow-up surveillance should be individualized, considering the risk factors involved for each patient, for prompt diagnosis of SCHCP.

  11. Development of a functional food or drug against unloading-mediated muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikawa, Takeshi; Nakao, Reiko; Kagawa, Sachiko; Yamada, Chiharu; Abe, Manami; Tamura, Seiko; Kohno, Shohei; Sukeno, Akiko; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Okumura, Yuushi; Ishidoh, Kazumi

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is a primary regulator of muscle protein turnover, providing a mechanism for selective degradation of regulatory and structural proteins. This pathway is constitutively active in muscle fibers and mediates both intracellular signaling events and normal muscle protein turnover. However, conditions of decreased muscle use, so called unloading, remarkably stimulate activity of this pathway, resulting in loss of muscle protein. In fact, we previously reported that expression of several ubiquitin ligase genes, such as MuRF-1, Cbl-b, and Siah-1A, which are rate-limiting enzymes of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway, are significantly up-regulated in rat skeletal muscle during spaceflight. Moreover, we found that Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of IRS-1, an important intermediates of IGF-1 signal transduction, contributes to muscle atrophy during unloading. Therefore, we hypothesized that inhibition of Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of IRS-1 leads to prevention of muscle atrophy during unloading. In this study, we aimed to evaluate oligopeptide as an inhibitor against ubiquitination of IRS-1 by Cbl-b. We synthesized various oligopeptides that may competitively inhibit the binding of Cbl-b to IRS-1 on the basis of their structures and screened inhibitory effects of these synthesized oligopeptides on Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination of IRS-1 using in vitro ubiquitination systems. We found that two synthetic oligopeptides with specific amino acid sequences effectively inhibited interaction with Cbl-b and IRS-1, resulting in decreased ubiquitination and degradation of IRS-1 (Patent pending). In contrast, we also found inhibitory activity against Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination of IRS-1 in soy protein-derived oligopeptides, whereas their inhibitory effects were weaker than those of synthetic oligopeptides. Our results suggest that specific oligopeptides may be available as a functional food against the muscle

  12. Axonal loss occurs early in dominant optic atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milea, Dan; Sander, Birgit; Wegener, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study set out to investigate retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in relation to age in healthy subjects and patients with OPA1 autosomal dominant optic atrophy (DOA). Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional investigation of RNFL...

  13. Computer tomography investigation of epilepsy the brain atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taneva, N.

    1997-01-01

    The problem of brain atrophy in patients with epilepsy is often discussed in literature. The aim of the study is to present the results of computer tomography measurements of ventricular size and sulci of brain of 90 patients with various electro-clinical forms of epilepsy, including males and females at the age of 15 to 70 years. Computer tomography measurements were performed having in mind 6 parameters (frontal horn index, FHI; Huckman's number, HZ; cella media index,CMI; width of the third and the fourth ventricles; sulci). The results were compared to the CT measurements of a control group of 40 healthy males and females in the same age range.The obtained data indicate high percentage of subcortical atrophy among patients with epilepsy. Ventricular dilatation was found to be in light extent occurring most early in the frontal brain regions (frontal horns and lateral ventricles)., furthermore observed in the young age. (author)

  14. Schisandrae fructus enhances myogenic differentiation and inhibits atrophy through protein synthesis in human myotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim CH

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cy Hyun Kim,1,2,* Jin-Hong Shin,1,3,* Sung Jun Hwang,1,2 Yung Hyun Choi,4 Dae-Seong Kim,1,3 Cheol Min Kim2,51Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, 2Center for Anti-Aging Industry, Pusan National University, Busan, 3Department of Neurology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, 4Department of Biochemistry, Dong-eui University College of Korean Medicine, Busan, 5Department of Biomedical Informatics, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan, Republic of Korea*These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Schisandrae fructus (SF has recently been reported to increase skeletal muscle mass and inhibit atrophy in mice. We investigated the effect of SF extract on human myotube differentiation and its acting pathway. Various concentrations (0.1–10 µg/mL of SF extract were applied on human skeletal muscle cells in vitro. Myotube area and fusion index were measured to quantify myotube differentiation. The maximum effect was observed at 0.5 µg/mL of SF extract, enhancing differentiation up to 1.4-fold in fusion index and 1.6-fold in myotube area at 8 days after induction of differentiation compared to control. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 and 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase, which initiate translation as downstream of mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, was upregulated in early