Numbers for reducible cubic scrolls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Israel Vainsencher
2004-12-01
Full Text Available We show how to compute the number of reducible cubic scrolls of codimension 2 in (math blackboard symbol Pn incident to the appropriate number of linear spaces.Mostramos como calcular o número de rolos cúbicos redutíveis de codimensão 2 em (math blackboard symbol Pn incidentes a espaços lineares apropriados.
Inheritance and expression of reduced culm number character in rice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takamure, I.; Kinoshita, T.
1985-01-01
A mutant with a reduced culm number was found in M 2 population of AC-3 (a strain regenerated from A-5 Akamuro by another culture) after gamma-ray irradiation of dry seeds. In F2 population of the crossing between the mutant line, N-133 and the original strain, A-5, it was demonstrated that a single recessive gene, rcn is responsible for the reduced culm number type. A pleiotropic effect showing dwarfness was expressed although the seed fertility was unaffected. In the linkage analysis, it was found that rcn was linked with the genes belonging to the first linkage group such as wx (glutinous endosperm) and C (Chromogen for anthocyanin) in the order of wx-C-rcn. In addition, rcn was epistatic to the dwarf genes, d-2 (ebisu dwarf), d-3, d-4, d-5 (triplicate genes for bunketsu waito) and d-10 (toyohikari-bunwai). As for the relation with d-6 (ebisumochi dwarf), a non-parental dwarf type with a reduced culm number and shorter lower (below the second) internodes occurred as a double recessive genotype. The character expression of the mutant gene, rcn was remarkably affected. by the temperature conditlons during the growth period. Plant height and culm number of the mutant recovered to nearly normal when grown in a plastic house with the application of nitrogen. Since the plant height and culm number were retarded by the treatment with cold water (15°C), it was demonstrated that the gene expression was conditioned by the low temperature
Reducing the number of obstetrical beds by challenging traditions.
Salvig, Camilla Dalby; Storkholm, Marie Højriis; Salvig, Jannie Dalby; Uldbjerg, Niels
2018-05-19
The aim of this commentary is to describe changes in women care at an obstetric department that made it possible to reduce the number of beds from 40 to 29. Patient pathways were reviewed and revised using lean methodology. The mean length of stay was reduced from 70 to 59 hours and the mean numbers of hospitalizations per woman from 1.26 to 1.20. At the organizational level, we introduced a Family Department, home management of newborns, home monitoring of the women with cardiotocography and blood samples, and intrapartum Group B Streptococcus-PCR. Additionally, an After Birth Clinic and network meetings for vulnerable women were established. In patient pathway, we reduced the hospitalization indicated by preterm premature rupture of membranes, preeclampsia and observation after birth laceration. According to National Patient Satisfaction surveys, there was no decrease in women's satisfaction after reducing the number of beds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Fast IMRT by increasing the beam number and reducing the number of segments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bratengeier, Klaus; Gainey, Mark B; Flentje, Michael
2011-01-01
The purpose of this work is to develop fast deliverable step and shoot IMRT technique. A reduction in the number of segments should theoretically be possible, whilst simultaneously maintaining plan quality, provided that the reduction is accompanied by an increased number of gantry angles. A benefit of this method is that the segment shaping could be performed during gantry motion, thereby reducing the delivery time. The aim was to find classes of such solutions whose plan quality can compete with conventional IMRT. A planning study was performed. Step and shoot IMRT plans were created using direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO) as a reference. DMPO plans were compared to an IMRT variant having only one segment per angle ('2-Step Fast'). 2-Step Fast is based on a geometrical analysis of the topology of the planning target volume (PTV) and the organs at risk (OAR). A prostate/rectum case, spine metastasis/spinal cord, breast/lung and an artificial PTV/OAR combination of the ESTRO-Quasimodo phantom were used for the study. The composite objective value (COV), a quality score, and plan delivery time were compared. The delivery time for the DMPO reference plan and the 2-Step Fast IMRT technique was measured and calculated for two different linacs, a twelve year old Siemens Primus™ ('old' linac) and two Elekta Synergy™ 'S' linacs ('new' linacs). 2-Step Fast had comparable or better quality than the reference DMPO plan. The number of segments was smaller than for the reference plan, the number of gantry angles was between 23 and 34. For the modern linac the delivery time was always smaller than that for the reference plan. The calculated (measured) values showed a mean delivery time reduction of 21% (21%) for the new linac, and of 7% (3%) for the old linac compared to the respective DMPO reference plans. For the old linac, the data handling time per beam was the limiting factor for the treatment time reduction. 2-Step
Fast IMRT by increasing the beam number and reducing the number of segments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bratengeier Klaus
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The purpose of this work is to develop fast deliverable step and shoot IMRT technique. A reduction in the number of segments should theoretically be possible, whilst simultaneously maintaining plan quality, provided that the reduction is accompanied by an increased number of gantry angles. A benefit of this method is that the segment shaping could be performed during gantry motion, thereby reducing the delivery time. The aim was to find classes of such solutions whose plan quality can compete with conventional IMRT. Materials/Methods A planning study was performed. Step and shoot IMRT plans were created using direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO as a reference. DMPO plans were compared to an IMRT variant having only one segment per angle ("2-Step Fast". 2-Step Fast is based on a geometrical analysis of the topology of the planning target volume (PTV and the organs at risk (OAR. A prostate/rectum case, spine metastasis/spinal cord, breast/lung and an artificial PTV/OAR combination of the ESTRO-Quasimodo phantom were used for the study. The composite objective value (COV, a quality score, and plan delivery time were compared. The delivery time for the DMPO reference plan and the 2-Step Fast IMRT technique was measured and calculated for two different linacs, a twelve year old Siemens Primus™ ("old" linac and two Elekta Synergy™ "S" linacs ("new" linacs. Results 2-Step Fast had comparable or better quality than the reference DMPO plan. The number of segments was smaller than for the reference plan, the number of gantry angles was between 23 and 34. For the modern linac the delivery time was always smaller than that for the reference plan. The calculated (measured values showed a mean delivery time reduction of 21% (21% for the new linac, and of 7% (3% for the old linac compared to the respective DMPO reference plans. For the old linac, the data handling time per beam was the limiting factor for the treatment time
Reducing high Reynolds number hydroacoustic noise using superhydrophobic coating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elboth, Thomas; Reif, Bjørn Anders Pettersson; Andreassen, Øyvind; Martell, Michael B
2011-01-01
The objective of this study is to assess and quantify the effect of a superhydrophobic surface coating on turbulence-generated flow noise. The study utilizes results obtained from high Reynolds-number full-scale flow noise measurements taken on a commercial seismic streamer and results from low Reynolds-number direct numerical simulations. It is shown that it is possible to significantly reduce both the frictional drag and the levels of the turbulence generated flow noise even at very high Reynolds-numbers. For instance, frequencies below 10 Hz a reduction in the flow noise level of nearly 50% was measured. These results can be attributed to a reduced level of shear stress and change in the kinematic structure of the turbulence, both of which occur in the immediate vicinity of the superhydrophobic surface.
Reducing no-show behavior at a community mental health center
Dieren, Q van; Rijckmans, M.J.N.; Mathijssen, J.J.P.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.R.
2013-01-01
The objective of this study was to examine whether an easy to apply no-show policy can substantially reduce no-show behavior of 16–25-year-old clients undergoing individual outpatient treatment at a community mental health center. After introduction of the new no-show policy, the no-show percentage
Monte Carlo reactor calculation with substantially reduced number of cycles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, M. J.; Joo, H. G.; Lee, D.; Smith, K.
2012-01-01
A new Monte Carlo (MC) eigenvalue calculation scheme that substantially reduces the number of cycles is introduced with the aid of coarse mesh finite difference (CMFD) formulation. First, it is confirmed in terms of pin power errors that using extremely many particles resulting in short active cycles is beneficial even in the conventional MC scheme although wasted operations in inactive cycles cannot be reduced with more particles. A CMFD-assisted MC scheme is introduced as an effort to reduce the number of inactive cycles and the fast convergence behavior and reduced inter-cycle effect of the CMFD assisted MC calculation is investigated in detail. As a practical means of providing a good initial fission source distribution, an assembly based few-group condensation and homogenization scheme is introduced and it is shown that efficient MC eigenvalue calculations with fewer than 20 total cycles (including inactive cycles) are possible for large power reactor problems. (authors)
A Nurse Communication Manager reduces the number of non‑relevant contacts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wright, Nana Keir; Seested Nielsen, Nina; Lauersen, Jannie
2015-01-01
Objective The aim of this study was to reduce interruptions in nursing practice by exploring the effects on the number of nonrelevant contacts received by the nursing staff after implementation of a Nurse Communication Manager. Design The study was designed as a pre/post interventional study. All...... in the surgical department. Interventions During the daytime a Nurse Communication Manager handled all incoming contacts irrespective of whether they were in person or by telephone. When the Nurse Communication Manager was not available and during the evening, night and weekends, telephone contacts were managed...... by an electronic Call Centre guiding the call to the care teams. Main outcome measure(s) The main outcome measures were the number of non-relevant contacts aimed at the nursing staff. Results Results showed a significant reduction in non-relevant contacts to the nursing staff from a mean of 80 contacts per day (SD...
Reduced Numbers of Somatostatin Receptors in the Cerebral Cortex in Alzheimer's Disease
Flint Beal, M.; Mazurek, Michael F.; Tran, Vinh T.; Chattha, Geetinder; Bird, Edward D.; Martin, Joseph B.
1985-07-01
Somatostatin receptor concentrations were measured in patients with Alzheimer's disease and controls. In the frontal cortex (Brodmann areas 6, 9, and 10) and temporal cortex (Brodmann area 21), the concentrations of somatostatin in receptors in the patients were reduced to approximately 50 percent of control values. A 40 percent reduction was seen in the hippocampus, while no significant changes were found in the cingulate cortex, postcentral gyrus, temporal pole, and superior temporal gyrus. Scatchard analysis showed a reduction in receptor number rather than a change in affinity. Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity was significantly reduced in both the frontal and temporal cortex. Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity was linearly related to somatostatin-receptor binding in the cortices of Alzheimer's patients. These findings may reflect degeneration of postsynaptic neurons or cortical afferents in the patients' cerebral cortices. Alternatively, decreased somatostatinlike immunoreactivity in Alzheimer's disease might indicate increased release of somatostatin and down regulation of postsynaptic receptors.
Age-ordered shirt numbering reduces the selection bias associated with the relative age effect.
Mann, David L; van Ginneken, Pleun J M A
2017-04-01
When placed into age groups for junior sporting competition, the relative differences in age between children leads to a bias in who is evaluated as being talented. While the impact of this relative age effect (RAE) is clear, until now there has been no evidence to show how to reduce it. The aim of this study was to determine whether the selection bias associated with the RAE could be reduced. Talent scouts from an elite football club watched junior games and ranked players on the basis of their potential. Scouts were allocated to one of three groups provided with contrasting information about the age of the players: (1) no age information, (2) players' birthdates or (3) knowledge that the numbers on the playing shirts corresponded to the relative age of the players. Results revealed a significant selection bias for the scouts in the no-age information group, and that bias remained when scouts knew the players' dates-of-birth. Strikingly though, the selection bias was eliminated when scouts watched the games knowing the shirt numbers corresponded to the relative ages of the players. The selection bias associated with the RAE can be reduced if information about age is presented appropriately.
Telomere dysfunction reduces microglial numbers without fully inducing an aging phenotype
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khan, Asif Manzoor; Babcock, Alicia; Saeed, Hamid
2015-01-01
The susceptibility of the aging brain to neurodegenerative disease may in part be attributed to cellular aging of the microglial cells that survey it. We investigated the effect of cellular aging induced by telomere shortening on microglia by the use of mice lacking the telomerase RNA component...... (TERC) and design-based stereology. TERC knockout (KO) mice had a significantly reduced number of CD11b(+) microglia in the dentate gyrus. Because of an even greater reduction in dentate gyrus volume, microglial density was, however, increased. Microglia in TERC KO mice maintained a homogenous...... distribution and normal expression of CD45 and CD68 and the aging marker, ferritin, but were morphologically distinct from microglia in both adult and old wild-type mice. TERC KO mice also showed increased cellular apoptosis and impaired spatial learning. Our results suggest that individual microglia...
NASA Lewis Stirling SPRE testing and analysis with reduced number of cooler tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, W.A.; Cairelli, J.E.; Swec, D.M.; Doeberling, T.J.; Lakatos, T.F.; Madi, F.J.
1994-01-01
Free-piston Stirling power converters are a candidate for high capacity space power applications. The Space Power Research Engine (SPRE), a free-piston Stirling engine coupled with a linear alternator, is being tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of the Civil Space Technology Initiative. The SPRE is used as a test bed for evaluating converter modifications which have the potential to improve converter performance and for validating computer code predictions. Reducing the number of cooler tubes on the SPRE has been identified as a modification with the potential to significantly improve power and efficiency. This paper describes experimental tests designed to investigate the effects of reducing the number of cooler tubes on converter power, efficiency and dynamics. Presented are test results from the converter operating with a reduced number of cooler tubes and comparisons between this data and both baseline test data and computer code predictions
Perchlorate Exposure Reduces Primordial Germ Cell Number in Female Threespine Stickleback.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ann M Petersen
Full Text Available Perchlorate is a common aquatic contaminant that has long been known to affect thyroid function in vertebrates, including humans. More recently perchlorate has been shown to affect primordial sexual differentiation in the aquatic model fishes zebrafish and threespine stickleback, but the mechanism has been unclear. Stickleback exposed to perchlorate from fertilization have increased androgen levels in the embryo and disrupted reproductive morphologies as adults, suggesting that perchlorate could disrupt the earliest stages of primordial sexual differentiation when primordial germ cells (PGCs begin to form the gonad. Female stickleback have three to four times the number of PGCs as males during the first weeks of development. We hypothesized that perchlorate exposure affects primordial sexual differentiation by reducing the number of germ cells in the gonad during an important window of stickleback sex determination at 14-18 days post fertilization (dpf. We tested this hypothesis by quantifying the number of PGCs at 16 dpf in control and 100 mg/L perchlorate-treated male and female stickleback. Perchlorate exposure from the time of fertilization resulted in significantly reduced PGC number only in genotypic females, suggesting that the masculinizing effects of perchlorate observed in adult stickleback may result from early changes to the number of PGCs at a time critical for sex determination. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of a connection between an endocrine disruptor and reduction in PGC number prior to the first meiosis during sex determination. These findings suggest that a mode of action of perchlorate on adult reproductive phenotypes in vertebrates, including humans, such as altered fecundity and sex reversal or intersex gonads, may stem from early changes to germ cell development.
Penicillium oxalicum reduces the number of cysts and juveniles of potato cyst nematodes.
Martinez-Beringola, M L; Salto, T; Vázquez, G; Larena, I; Melgarejo, P; De Cal, A
2013-07-01
To test the biocontrol potential of Penicillium oxalicum, a biocontrol agent against fungal diseases and against the potato cyst nematodes (PCNs), Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis. We tested the effect of P. oxalicum on the nematode cysts under laboratory conditions or in soil microcosms. A reduction in the rate of G. pallida juveniles hatching by P. oxalicum was observed when root diffusates from the 'Monalisa' and the 'Désirée' potato cultivar were used (98·6 and 74·1% reduction, respectively). However, the rate of G. pallida juveniles hatching was not significantly reduced when root diffusates from the 'San Pedro' tomato cultivar were used. Penicillium oxalicum also significantly reduced the ability of the G. rostochiensis juveniles to hatch (30·9% reduction) when root diffusates of the 'Désirée' potato cultivars were used. Penicillium oxalicum treatment of the soil significantly reduced the number of G. pallida cysts that were recovered from the soil of each pot that contained the 'Désirée' potato cultivar. Our results show that P. oxalicum is a potential biocontrol inoculant for protecting potato crops against PCNs. Penicillium oxalicum has potential to be used in order to reduce PCNs. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
A digital TDC with a reduced number of delay line cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boujrad, A.; Bloyet, D.; Tripon, M.
2002-01-01
In nuclear physics experiments, a decision maker named as 'trigger' gives a bit pattern which allows the fired detectors identification. As the data acquisition dead time is greater than the time between physical events, timing information is essential. We add to the trigger function a Time to Digital Converter (TDC) in order to make a separation between events. The paper describes the architecture chosen for the TDC and illustrates the contribution of each element to the TDC performance. An eight-bit counter is used for the dynamic range of the TDC (in microsecond) associated to a delay line improving the resolution (in nanosecond). The study shows that exploiting the two system clock states (high and low) allows to reduce the number of delay line cells. The Differential Nonlinearity Measurements are given for different resolutions (1, 2 and 5 ns) and illustrate the clock period, the clock duty cycle and the delay line contributions to the TDC performances
Aberration compensation of an ultrasound imaging instrument with a reduced number of channels.
Jiang, Wei; Astheimer, Jeffrey P; Waag, Robert C
2012-10-01
Focusing and imaging qualities of an ultrasound imaging system that uses aberration correction were experimentally investigated as functions of the number of parallel channels. Front-end electronics that consolidate signals from multiple physical elements can be used to lower hardware and computational costs by reducing the number of parallel channels. However, the signals from sparse arrays of synthetic elements yield poorer aberration estimates. In this study, aberration estimates derived from synthetic arrays of varying element sizes are evaluated by comparing compensated receive focuses, compensated transmit focuses, and compensated b-scan images of a point target and a cyst phantom. An array of 80 x 80 physical elements with a pitch of 0.6 x 0.6 mm was used for all of the experiments and the aberration was produced by a phantom selected to mimic propagation through abdominal wall. The results show that aberration correction derived from synthetic arrays with pitches that have a diagonal length smaller than 70% of the correlation length of the aberration yield focuses and images of approximately the same quality. This connection between correlation length of the aberration and synthetic element size provides a guideline for determining the number of parallel channels that are required when designing imaging systems that employ aberration correction.
Reducing the Density and Number of Tobacco Retailers: Policy Solutions and Legal Issues.
Ackerman, Amy; Etow, Alexis; Bartel, Sara; Ribisl, Kurt M
2017-02-01
Because higher density of tobacco retailers is associated with greater tobacco use, U.S. communities seek ways to reduce the density and number of tobacco retailers. This approach can reduce the concentration of tobacco retailers in poorer communities, limit youth exposure to tobacco advertising, and prevent misleading associations between tobacco and health messaging. Communities can reduce the density and number of tobacco retailers by imposing minimum distance requirements between existing retailers, capping the number of retailers in a given geographic area, establishing a maximum number of retailers proportional to population size, and prohibiting sales at certain types of establishments, such as pharmacies, or within a certain distance of locations serving youth. Local governments use direct regulation, licensing, or zoning laws to enact these changes. We analyze each approach under U.S. constitutional law to assist communities in selecting and implementing one or more of these methods. There are few published legal opinions that address these strategies in the context of tobacco control. But potential constitutional challenges include violations of the Takings Clause of the Fifth Amendment, which protects property owners from onerous government regulations, and under the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection and Due Process Clauses, which protect business owners from arbitrary or unreasonable regulations that do not further a legitimate government interest. Because there is an evidentiary basis linking the density of tobacco retailers to smoking rates in a community, courts are likely to reject constitutional challenges to carefully crafted laws that reduce the number of tobacco retailers. Our review of the relevant constitutional issues confirms that local governments have the authority to utilize laws and policies to reduce the density and number of tobacco retailers in their communities, given existing public health data. The analysis guides policy
Cigarette smoking during early pregnancy reduces the number of embryonic germ and somatic cells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mamsen, Linn; Lutterodt, M C; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford
2010-01-01
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with negative reproductive consequences for male fetuses in adult life such as reduced testicular volume and sperm concentration. The present study evaluates the number of germ and somatic cells present in human embryonic first-trimeste......BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with negative reproductive consequences for male fetuses in adult life such as reduced testicular volume and sperm concentration. The present study evaluates the number of germ and somatic cells present in human embryonic first......-trimester gonads in relation to maternal smoking. METHODS: The study includes 24 human first-trimester testes, aged 37-68 days post-conception, obtained from women undergoing legal termination of pregnancy. A questionnaire was used to obtain information about smoking and drinking habits during pregnancy. Validated...... confounders such as alcohol and coffee consumption (P = 0.002). The number of germ cells in embryonic gonads, irrespective of gender, was also significantly reduced by 41% (95% CI 58-19%, P = 0.001) in exposed versus non-exposed embryonic gonads. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoke...
Malinova, Irina; Fettke, Joerg
2017-01-01
An Arabidopsis double knock-out mutant lacking cytosolic disproportionating enzyme 2 (DPE2) and the plastidial phosphorylase (PHS1) revealed a dwarf-growth phenotype, reduced starch content, an uneven distribution of starch within the plant rosette, and a reduced number of starch granules per chloroplast under standard growth conditions. In contrast, the wild type contained 5-7 starch granules per chloroplast. Mature and old leaves of the double mutant were essentially starch free and showed plastidial disintegration. Several analyses revealed that the number of starch granules per chloroplast was affected by the dark phase. So far, it was unclear if it was the dark phase per se or starch degradation in the dark that was connected to the observed decrease in the number of starch granules per chloroplast. Therefore, in the background of the double mutant dpe2/phs1, a triple mutant was generated lacking the initial starch degrading enzyme glucan, water dikinase (GWD). The triple mutant showed improved plant growth, a starch-excess phenotype, and a homogeneous starch distribution. Furthermore, the number of starch granules per chloroplast was increased and was similar to wild type. However, starch granule morphology was only slightly affected by the lack of GWD as in the triple mutant and, like in dpe2/phs1, more spherical starch granules were observed. The characterized triple mutant was discussed in the context of the generation of starch granules and the formation of starch granule morphology.
Reducing number entry errors: solving a widespread, serious problem.
Thimbleby, Harold; Cairns, Paul
2010-10-06
Number entry is ubiquitous: it is required in many fields including science, healthcare, education, government, mathematics and finance. People entering numbers are to be expected to make errors, but shockingly few systems make any effort to detect, block or otherwise manage errors. Worse, errors may be ignored but processed in arbitrary ways, with unintended results. A standard class of error (defined in the paper) is an 'out by 10 error', which is easily made by miskeying a decimal point or a zero. In safety-critical domains, such as drug delivery, out by 10 errors generally have adverse consequences. Here, we expose the extent of the problem of numeric errors in a very wide range of systems. An analysis of better error management is presented: under reasonable assumptions, we show that the probability of out by 10 errors can be halved by better user interface design. We provide a demonstration user interface to show that the approach is practical.To kill an error is as good a service as, and sometimes even better than, the establishing of a new truth or fact. (Charles Darwin 1879 [2008], p. 229).
Mohamed Labib Salem; Mohamed Ramadan El-Shanshory; Nabila Ibrahim El-Desouki; Said Hammad Abdou; Mohamed Attia Attia; Abdel-Aziz Awad Zidan; Shymaa Sobhy Mourad
2015-01-01
Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is considered as one of the most common cancer in pediatric malignancies. Among ALL, B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (B-ALL) represents 80% to 85% of the childhood ALL. Problem: Although anti B-ALL chemotherapy kill B-ALL, it associates with alteration in the numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, and thus impacts the overall immunity. Aim: To evaluate the impact of anti B-ALL on the numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in correlation to the n...
Lu, Bo; Lu, Haibin; Palta, Jatinder
2010-05-12
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) on registration accuracy and image qualities with a reduced number of planar projections used in volumetric imaging reconstruction. The ultimate goal is to evaluate the possibility of reducing the patient dose while maintaining registration accuracy under different projection-number schemes for various clinical sites. An Elekta Synergy Linear accelerator with an onboard CBCT system was used in this study. The quality of the Elekta XVI cone-beam three-dimensional volumetric images reconstructed with a decreasing number of projections was quantitatively evaluated by a Catphan phantom. Subsequently, we tested the registration accuracy of imaging data sets on three rigid anthropomorphic phantoms and three real patient sites under the reduced projection-number (as low as 1/6th) reconstruction of CBCT data with different rectilinear shifts and rota-tions. CBCT scan results of the Catphan phantom indicated the CBCT images got noisier when the number of projections was reduced, but their spatial resolution and uniformity were hardly affected. The maximum registration errors under the small amount transformation of the reference CT images were found to be within 0.7 mm translation and 0.3 masculine rotation. However, when the projection number was lower than one-fourth of the full set with a large amount of transformation of reference CT images, the registration could easily be trapped into local minima solutions for a nonrigid anatomy. We concluded, by using projection-number reduction strategy under conscientious care, imaging-guided localization procedure could achieve a lower patient dose without losing the registration accuracy for various clinical sites and situations. A faster scanning time is the main advantage compared to the mA decrease-based, dose-reduction method.
Current US military operations in deserts face persistent threats from sand flies that transmit human Leishmania. Methods to reduce the risk of human infection from leishmaniasis by reducing the number of sand fly vectors were investigated in Kenya. Bifenthrin treated and un-treated camouflage netti...
High Resolution Ultrasound Imaging Using Adaptive Beamforming with Reduced Number of Active Elements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2009-01-01
is proposed. By reducing the number of active sensor elements, an increased resolution can be obtained with the MV beamformer. This observation is directly opposite the well-known relation between the spatial extent of the aperture and the achievable resolution. The investigations are based on Field II...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Requist, Ryan; Pankratov, Oleg
2011-01-01
We prove that if the two-body terms in the equation of motion for the one-body reduced density matrix are approximated by ground-state functionals, the eigenvalues of the one-body reduced density matrix (occupation numbers) remain constant in time. This deficiency is related to the inability of such an approximation to account for relative phases in the two-body reduced density matrix. We derive an exact differential equation giving the functional dependence of these phases in an interacting Landau-Zener model and study their behavior in short- and long-time regimes. The phases undergo resonances whenever the occupation numbers approach the boundaries of the interval [0,1]. In the long-time regime, the occupation numbers display correlation-induced oscillations and the memory dependence of the functionals assumes a simple form.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabi Shefer
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Muscle regeneration depends on satellite cells, myogenic stem cells that reside on the myofiber surface. Reduced numbers and/or decreased myogenic aptitude of these cells may impede proper maintenance and contribute to the age-associated decline in muscle mass and repair capacity. Endurance exercise was shown to improve muscle performance; however, the direct impact on satellite cells in aging was not yet thoroughly determined. Here, we focused on characterizing the effect of moderate-intensity endurance exercise on satellite cell, as possible means to attenuate adverse effects of aging. Young and old rats of both genders underwent 13 weeks of treadmill-running or remained sedentary.Gastrocnemius muscles were assessed for the effect of age, gender and exercise on satellite-cell numbers and myogenic capacity. Satellite cells were identified in freshly isolated myofibers based on Pax7 immunostaining (i.e., ex-vivo. The capacity of individual myofiber-associated cells to produce myogenic progeny was determined in clonal assays (in-vitro. We show an age-associated decrease in satellite-cell numbers and in the percent of myogenic clones in old sedentary rats. Upon exercise, there was an increase in myofibers that contain higher numbers of satellite cells in both young and old rats, and an increase in the percent of myogenic clones derived from old rats. Changes at the satellite cell level in old rats were accompanied with positive effects on the lean-to-fat Gast muscle composition and on spontaneous locomotion levels. The significance of these data is that they suggest that the endurance exercise-mediated boost in both satellite numbers and myogenic properties may improve myofiber maintenance in aging.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lev Shapira
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Although many viral particles can enter a single cell, the number of viral genomes per cell that establish infection is limited. However, mechanisms underlying this restriction were not explored in depth. For herpesviruses, one of the possible mechanisms suggested is chromatinization and silencing of the incoming genomes. To test this hypothesis, we followed infection with three herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 fluorescence-expressing recombinants in the presence or absence of histone deacetylases inhibitors (HDACi’s. Unexpectedly, a lower number of viral genomes initiated expression in the presence of these inhibitors. This phenomenon was observed using several HDACi: Trichostatin A (TSA, Suberohydroxamic Acid (SBX, Valporic Acid (VPA and Suberoylanilide Hydoxamic Acid (SAHA. We found that HDACi presence did not change the progeny outcome from the infected cells but did alter the kinetic of the gene expression from the viral genomes. Different cell types (HFF, Vero and U2OS, which vary in their capability to activate intrinsic and innate immunity, show a cell specific basal average number of viral genomes establishing infection. Importantly, in all cell types, treatment with TSA reduced the number of viral genomes. ND10 nuclear bodies are known to interact with the incoming herpes genomes and repress viral replication. The viral immediate early protein, ICP0, is known to disassemble the ND10 bodies and to induce degradation of some of the host proteins in these domains. HDACi treated cells expressed higher levels of some of the host ND10 proteins (PML and ATRX, which may explain the lower number of viral genomes initiating expression per cell. Corroborating this hypothesis, infection with three HSV-1 recombinants carrying a deletion in the gene coding for ICP0, show a reduction in the number of genomes being expressed in U2OS cells. We suggest that alterations in the levels of host proteins involved in intrinsic antiviral defense may result in
Kayes, Timothy D; Braley-Mullen, Helen
2013-01-01
IFN-γ(-/-) NOD.H-2h4 mice develop a spontaneous autoimmune thyroid disease, thyroid epithelial cell hyperplasia and proliferation (TEC H/P) when given NaI in their water for 7+ mo. TEC H/P can be transferred to IFN-γ(-/-) SCID mice by splenocytes from mice with severe (4-5+) disease, and transfer of TEC H/P is improved when splenocytes are cultured prior to transfer. Older (9+ mo) IFN-γ(-/-) NOD.H-2h4 mice have elevated numbers of FoxP3(+) T reg cells, up to 2-fold greater than younger (2 mo) mice. During culture, the number of T reg decreases and this allows the improved transfer of TEC H/P. Co-culture with IL-2 prior to transfer prevents the decrease of T reg and improves their in vitro suppressive ability resulting in reduced TEC H/P in recipient mice. Therefore, culturing splenocytes improves transfer of TEC H/P by reducing the number of T reg and IL-2 inhibits transfer by preserving T reg number and function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maintaining the Feasibility of Hard Real–Time Systems with a Reduced Number of Priority Levels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qureshi Muhammad Bilal
2015-12-01
Full Text Available When there is a mismatch between the cardinality of a periodic task set and the priority levels supported by the underlying hardware systems, multiple tasks are grouped into one class so as to maintain a specific level of confidence in their accuracy. However, such a transformation is achieved at the expense of the loss of schedulability of the original task set. We further investigate the aforementioned problem and report the following contributions: (i a novel technique for mapping unlimited priority tasks into a reduced number of classes that do not violate the schedulability of the original task set and (ii an efficient feasibility test that eliminates insufficient points during the feasibility analysis. The theoretical correctness of both contributions is checked through formal verifications. Moreover, the experimental results reveal the superiority of our work over the existing feasibility tests by reducing the number of scheduling points that are needed otherwise.
Calabrese, Carlo; Praticò, Chiara; Calafiore, Andrea; Coscia, Maurizio; Gentilini, Lorenzo; Poggioli, Gilberto; Gionchetti, Paolo; Campieri, Massimo; Rizzello, Fernando
2013-09-14
To evaluate if 3 mo oral supplementation with Eviendep® was able to reduce the number of duodenal polyps in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). Eleven FAP patients with IPAA and duodenal polyps were enrolled. They underwent upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy at the baseline and after 3 mo of treatment. Each patient received 5 mg Eviendep twice a day, at breakfast and dinner time, for 3 mo. Two endoscopists evaluated in a blinded manner the number and size of duodenal polyps. Upper GI endoscopies with biopsies were performed at the baseline (T0) with the assessment of the Spigelman score. Polyps > 10 mm were removed during endoscopy and at the end of the procedure a new Spigelman score was determined (T1). The procedure was repeated 3 mo after the baseline (T2). Four photograms were examined for each patient, at T1 and T2. The examined area was divided into 3 segments: duodenal bulb, second and third portion duodenum. Biopsy specimens were taken from all polyps > 10 mm and from all suspicious ones, defined by the presence of a central depression, irregular surface, or irregular vascular pattern. Histology was classified according to the updated Vienna criteria. At baseline the mean number of duodenal detected polyps was 27.7 and mean sizes were 15.8 mm; the mean Spigelman score was 7.1. After polypectomy the mean number of duodenal detected polyps was 25.7 and mean sizes were 7.6 mm; the mean Spigelman score was 6.4. After 3 mo of Eviendep bid, all patients showed a reduction of number and size of duodenal polyps. The mean number of duodenal polyps was 8 (P = 0.021) and mean size was 4.4 mm; the mean Spigelman score was 6.6. Interrater agreement was measured. Lesions > 1 cm found a very good degree of concordance (kappa 0.851) and a good concordance was as well encountered for smaller lesions (kappa 0.641). Our study demonstrated that short-term (90 d) supplementation with Eviendep® in FAP patients with IPAA
Csabai, Dávid; Wiborg, Ove; Czéh, Boldizsár
2018-01-01
Stressful experiences can induce structural changes in neurons of the limbic system. These cellular changes contribute to the development of stress-induced psychopathologies like depressive disorders. In the prefrontal cortex of chronically stressed animals, reduced dendritic length and spine loss have been reported. This loss of dendritic material should consequently result in synapse loss as well, because of the reduced dendritic surface. But so far, no one studied synapse numbers in the prefrontal cortex of chronically stressed animals. Here, we examined synaptic contacts in rats subjected to an animal model for depression, where animals are exposed to a chronic stress protocol. Our hypothesis was that long term stress should reduce the number of axo-spinous synapses in the medial prefrontal cortex. Adult male rats were exposed to daily stress for 9 weeks and afterward we did a post mortem quantitative electron microscopic analysis to quantify the number and morphology of synapses in the infralimbic cortex. We analyzed asymmetric (Type I) and symmetric (Type II) synapses in all cortical layers in control and stressed rats. We also quantified axon numbers and measured the volume of the infralimbic cortex. In our systematic unbiased analysis, we examined 21,000 axon terminals in total. We found the following numbers in the infralimbic cortex of control rats: 1.15 × 109 asymmetric synapses, 1.06 × 108 symmetric synapses and 1.00 × 108 myelinated axons. The density of asymmetric synapses was 5.5/μm3 and the density of symmetric synapses was 0.5/μm3. Average synapse membrane length was 207 nm and the average axon terminal membrane length was 489 nm. Stress reduced the number of synapses and myelinated axons in the deeper cortical layers, while synapse membrane lengths were increased. These stress-induced ultrastructural changes indicate that neurons of the infralimbic cortex have reduced cortical network connectivity. Such reduced network connectivity is likely
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dávid Csabai
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Stressful experiences can induce structural changes in neurons of the limbic system. These cellular changes contribute to the development of stress-induced psychopathologies like depressive disorders. In the prefrontal cortex of chronically stressed animals, reduced dendritic length and spine loss have been reported. This loss of dendritic material should consequently result in synapse loss as well, because of the reduced dendritic surface. But so far, no one studied synapse numbers in the prefrontal cortex of chronically stressed animals. Here, we examined synaptic contacts in rats subjected to an animal model for depression, where animals are exposed to a chronic stress protocol. Our hypothesis was that long term stress should reduce the number of axo-spinous synapses in the medial prefrontal cortex. Adult male rats were exposed to daily stress for 9 weeks and afterward we did a post mortem quantitative electron microscopic analysis to quantify the number and morphology of synapses in the infralimbic cortex. We analyzed asymmetric (Type I and symmetric (Type II synapses in all cortical layers in control and stressed rats. We also quantified axon numbers and measured the volume of the infralimbic cortex. In our systematic unbiased analysis, we examined 21,000 axon terminals in total. We found the following numbers in the infralimbic cortex of control rats: 1.15 × 109 asymmetric synapses, 1.06 × 108 symmetric synapses and 1.00 × 108 myelinated axons. The density of asymmetric synapses was 5.5/μm3 and the density of symmetric synapses was 0.5/μm3. Average synapse membrane length was 207 nm and the average axon terminal membrane length was 489 nm. Stress reduced the number of synapses and myelinated axons in the deeper cortical layers, while synapse membrane lengths were increased. These stress-induced ultrastructural changes indicate that neurons of the infralimbic cortex have reduced cortical network connectivity. Such reduced network
Davies, Danielle S; Ma, Jolande; Jegathees, Thuvarahan; Goldsbury, Claire
2017-11-01
Changes in microglia function are involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) for which ageing is the major risk factor. We evaluated microglial cell process morphologies and their gray matter coverage (arborized area) during ageing and in the presence and absence of AD pathology in autopsied human neocortex. Microglial cell processes were reduced in length, showed less branching and reduced arborized area with aging (case range 52-98 years). This occurred during normal ageing and without microglia dystrophy or changes in cell density. There was a larger reduction in process length and arborized area in AD compared to aged-matched control microglia. In AD cases, on average, 49%-64% of microglia had discontinuous and/or punctate Iba1 labeled processes instead of continuous Iba1 distribution. Up to 16% of aged-matched control microglia displayed discontinuous or punctate features. There was no change in the density of microglial cell bodies in gray matter during ageing or AD. This demonstrates that human microglia show progressive cell process retraction without cell loss during ageing. Additional changes in microglia occur with AD including Iba1 protein puncta and discontinuity. We suggest that reduced microglial arborized area may be an aging-related correlate of AD in humans. These variations in microglial cells during ageing and in AD could reflect changes in neural-glial interactions which are emerging as key to mechanisms involved in ageing and neurodegenerative disease. © 2016 International Society of Neuropathology.
Mass-reduced quantum numbers: application to the isotopic lithium hydrides (X1B+)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, K.C.; Stwalley, W.C.
1977-01-01
The massed-reduced quantum number (MRQN) method of combining isotopic data is applied to the lithium hydride X 1 Σ + ground state. The ΔG(eta) = μ/sup 1 / 2 / ΔG(v), B(eta) = μB(v) and D(eta) = μ 2 D(v) isotopically-combined functions are obtained. An isotopically-combined Rydberg-Klein Rees (ICRKR) potential is constructed using the G(eta) and B(eta) functions. Evidence for breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is presented and examined. The Dunham, Simons-Parr-Finlan, and Thakkar methods of potential expansion are also applied to lithium hydride and compared to the RKR Potential
Reduced beta band connectivity during number estimation in autism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katrin A. Bangel
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that disruption of integrative processes in sensation and perception may play a critical role in cognitive and behavioural atypicalities characteristic of ASD. In line with this, ASD is associated with altered structural and functional brain connectivity and atypical patterns of inter-regional communication which have been proposed to contribute to cognitive difficulties prevalent in this group. The present MEG study used atlas-guided source space analysis of inter-regional phase synchronization in ASD participants, as well as matched typically developing controls, during a dot number estimation task. This task included stimuli with globally integrated forms (animal shapes as well as randomly-shaped stimuli which lacked a coherent global pattern. Early task-dependent increases in inter-regional phase synchrony in theta, alpha and beta frequency bands were observed. Reduced long-range beta-band phase synchronization was found in participants with ASD at 70–145 ms during presentation of globally coherent dot patterns. This early reduction in task-dependent inter-regional connectivity encompassed numerous areas including occipital, parietal, temporal, and frontal lobe regions. These results provide the first evidence for inter-regional phase synchronization during numerosity estimation, as well as its alteration in ASD, and suggest that problems with communication among brain areas may contribute to difficulties with integrative processes relevant to extraction of meaningful ‘Gestalt’ features in this population.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Skrzecz Iwona
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Small banded pine weevil Pissodes castaneus is one of the most dangerous pests of Pinus sylvestris plantations and thickets. The lack of effective and environmentally safe methods of limiting the number of the pest justified to undertake the studies aimed at the laboratory and field evaluation of biological activity of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana used to reduce the numbers of small banded pine weevil.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Young, Eric
1997-01-01
.... This thesis examines one of Commander Naval Surface Reserve Force's initiatives for reducing the current number of Operating Budget holder's Comptroller Departments without sacrificing efficiency...
Bahi, Amine; Tolle, Virginie; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Brunel, Luc; Martinez, Jean; Tomasetto, Catherine-Laure; Karam, Sherif M
2013-05-01
Recent work suggests that stomach-derived hormone ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonism may reduce motivational aspects of ethanol intake. In the current study we hypothesized that the endogenous GHS-R1A agonist ghrelin modulates alcohol reward mechanisms. For this purpose ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation and voluntary ethanol consumption in a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm were examined under conditions where ghrelin and its receptor were blocked, either using ghrelin knockout (KO) mice or the specific ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonist "JMV2959". We showed that ghrelin KO mice displayed lower ethanol-induced CPP than their wild-type (WT) littermates. Consistently, when injected during CPP-acquisition, JMV2959 reduced CPP-expression in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation was lower in ghrelin KO mice. Moreover, GHS-R1A blockade, using JMV2959, reduced alcohol-stimulated locomotion only in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. When alcohol consumption and preference were assessed using the two-bottle choice test, both genetic deletion of ghrelin and pharmacological antagonism of the GHS-R1A (JMV2959) reduced voluntary alcohol consumption and preference. Finally, JMV2959-induced reduction of alcohol intake was only observed in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. Taken together, these results suggest that ghrelin neurotransmission is necessary for the stimulatory effect of ethanol to occur, whereas lack of ghrelin leads to changes that reduce the voluntary intake as well as conditioned reward by ethanol. Our findings reveal a major, novel role for ghrelin in mediating ethanol behavior, and add to growing evidence that ghrelin is a key mediator of the effects of multiple abused drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dhumale, Pratibha; Menon, Sindhu; Chiang, Joanna; Püschel, Andreas W
2018-01-01
The neurons that form the mammalian neocortex originate from progenitor cells in the ventricular (VZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ). Newborn neurons are multipolar but become bipolar during their migration from the germinal layers to the cortical plate (CP) by forming a leading process and an axon that extends in the intermediate zone (IZ). Once they settle in the CP, neurons assume a highly polarized morphology with a single axon and multiple dendrites. The AMPK-related kinases SadA and SadB are intrinsic factors that are essential for axon formation during neuronal development downstream of Lkb1. The knockout of both genes encoding Sad kinases (Sada and Sadb) results not only in a loss of axons but also a decrease in the size of the cortical plate. The defect in axon formation has been linked to a function of Sad kinases in the regulation of microtubule binding proteins. However, the causes for the reduced size of the cortical plate in the Sada-/-;Sadb-/- knockout remain to be analyzed in detail. Here we show that neuronal cell death is increased and the number of neural progenitors is decreased in the Sada-/-;Sadb-/- CP. The reduced number of progenitors is a non-cell autonomous defect since they do not express Sad kinases. These defects are restricted to the neocortex while the hippocampus remains unaffected.
Croy, Ilona; Bojanowski, Viola; Hummel, Thomas
2013-02-01
Olfactory function influences social behavior. For instance, olfaction seems to play a key role in mate choice and helps detecting emotions in other people. In a previous study, we showed that people who were born without a sense of smell exhibit enhanced social insecurity. Based on the comments to this article we decided to have a closer look to whether the absence of the sense of smell affects men and women differently. Under this focus questionnaire data of 32 patients, diagnosed with isolated congenital anosmia (10 men, 22 women) and 36 age-matched healthy controls (15 men, 21 women) was reanalyzed. In result, men and women without a sense of smell reported enhanced social insecurity, but with different consequences: Men who were born without a sense of smell exhibit a strongly reduced number of sexual relationships and women are affected such that they feel less secure about their partner. This emphasizes the importance of the sense of smell for intimate relationships. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
[How to reduce the number of cesarean sections?].
Guzmán Sánchez, A; González Moreno, J; González Guzmán, M; Villa Villagran, F
1997-07-01
The cesarean section (C) frequency has increased dramatically as high as 62%. This situation has been producing a real preoccupation in all the world as well as in México. Documented bibliography about this subject, is unquestionable. We feel that at this time there is a lack of punctuals strategies in order to reduce the high frequency of C. Our communication analyzes this problem in relation to antecedents, evolution and integrated general strategies in order to reduce the C rates. Special analysis and comments involve amnioinfusion, trials for vaginal deliveries in case of previous cesarean section, prostaglandins, and external version. With these actions, at the Antiguo Hospital Civil de Guadalajara we have achieved 10.8% of C. rates, without any increase in fetomaternal morbility and/or mortality.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhixiang, Z.
1983-01-01
The least squares fit has been performed using chi-squared distribution function for all available evaluated data for s-wave reduced neutron width of several nuclei. The number of degrees of freedom and average value have been obtained. The missing levels of weak s-wave resonances and extra p-wave levels have been taken into account, if any. For 75 As and 103 Rh, s-wave population has been separated by Bayes' theorem before making fit. The results thus obtained are consistent with Porter-Thomas distribution, i.e., chi-squared distribution with γ=1, as one would expect. It has not been found in this work that the number of degrees of freedom for the distribution of s-wave reduced neutron width might be greater than one as reported by H.C.Sharma et al. (1976) at the international conference on interactions of neutrons with nuclei. (Auth.)
Fonseca, Pilar; Moreno, Renata; Rojo, Fernando
2013-01-01
The Crc protein of Pseudomonas inhibits the expression of genes involved in the transport and assimilation of a number of non-preferred carbon sources when preferred substrates are available, thus coordinating carbon metabolism. Crc acts by binding to target mRNAs, inhibiting their translation. In Pseudomonas putida, the amount of free Crc available is controlled by two sRNAs, CrcY and CrcZ, which bind to and sequester Crc. The levels of these sRNAs vary according to metabolic conditions. Pseudomonas putida grows optimally at 30°C, but can also thrive at 10°C. The present work shows that when cells grow exponentially at 10°C, the repressive effect of Crc on many genes is significantly reduced compared with that seen at 30°C. Total Crc levels were similar at both temperatures, but those of CrcZ and CrcY were significantly higher at 10°C. Therefore, Crc-mediated repression may, at least in part, be reduced at 10°C because the fraction of Crc protein sequestered by CrcZ and CrcY is larger, reducing the amount of free Crc available to bind its targets. This may help P. putida to face cold stress. The results reported might help understanding the behaviour of this bacterium in bioremediation or rhizoremediation strategies at low temperatures. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Study Shows Aspirin Reduces Colorectal Cancer in Those at High Risk
Findings from the first large clinical trial of its kind indicate that taking high doses of aspirin daily for at least 2 years substantially reduces the risk of colorectal cancer among people at increased risk of the disease.
Velasco, J Marquez; Giamini, S A; Kelaidis, N; Tsipas, P; Tsoutsou, D; Kordas, G; Raptis, Y S; Boukos, N; Dimoulas, A
2015-10-09
Controlling the number of layers of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition is crucial for large scale graphene application. We propose here an etching process of graphene which can be applied immediately after growth to control the number of layers. We use nickel (Ni) foil at high temperature (T = 900 °C) to produce multilayer-AB-stacked-graphene (MLG). The etching process is based on annealing the samples in a hydrogen/argon atmosphere at a relatively low temperature (T = 450 °C) inside the growth chamber. The extent of etching is mainly controlled by the annealing process duration. Using Raman spectroscopy we demonstrate that the number of layers was reduced, changing from MLG to few-layer-AB-stacked-graphene and in some cases to randomly oriented few layer graphene near the substrate. Furthermore, our method offers the significant advantage that it does not introduce defects in the samples, maintaining their original high quality. This fact and the low temperature our method uses make it a good candidate for controlling the layer number of already grown graphene in processes with a low thermal budget.
Draeger, Tracie; Moore, Graham
2017-09-01
Exposure of wheat to high temperatures during male meiosis prevents normal meiotic progression and reduces grain number. We define a temperature-sensitive period and link heat tolerance to chromosome 5D. This study assesses the effects of heat on meiotic progression and grain number in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. Chinese Spring), defines a heat-sensitive stage and evaluates the role of chromosome 5D in heat tolerance. Plants were exposed to high temperatures (30 or 35 °C) in a controlled environment room for 20-h periods during meiosis and the premeiotic interphase just prior to meiosis. Examination of pollen mother cells (PMCs) from immature anthers immediately before and after heat treatment enabled precise identification of the developmental phases being exposed to heat. A temperature-sensitive period was defined, lasting from premeiotic interphase to late leptotene, during which heat can prevent PMCs from progressing through meiosis. PMCs exposed to 35 °C were less likely to progress than those exposed to 30 °C. Grain number per spike was reduced at 30 °C, and reduced even further at 35 °C. Chinese Spring nullisomic 5D-tetrasomic 5B (N5DT5B) plants, which lack chromosome 5D, were more susceptible to heat during premeiosis-leptotene than Chinese Spring plants with the normal (euploid) chromosome complement. The proportion of plants with PMCs progressing through meiosis after heat treatment was lower for N5DT5B plants than for euploids, but the difference was not significant. However, following exposure to 30 °C, in euploid plants grain number was reduced (though not significantly), whereas in N5DT5B plants the reduction was highly significant. After exposure to 35 °C, the reduction in grain number was highly significant for both genotypes. Implications of these findings for the breeding of thermotolerant wheat are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, Nariya; Lim, Ji He; Moon, Woo Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-04-15
To evaluate the negative predictive value (NPV) of ultrasound (US) elastography for non-palpable Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 3 lesions on ultrasonography and to determine whether US elastography is helpful in reducing the number of BI-RADS category 3 lesions on ultrasonography. Two hundred seventy-six consecutive, non-palpable BI-RADS category 3 lesions in 256 women who underwent US elastography and US-guided core biopsy, and who had at least 12 months of follow-up data, comprised our study group. The BI-RADS final assessment category and elasticity score were prospectively and independently classified. The rate of malignancy and NPV according to the elasticity score were analysed. We also investigated whether there was a subset of BI-RADS category 3 lesions that were of benign histology but negative on elastography. Of the 276 non-palpable BI-RADS category 3 lesions, three lesions (1.0%) were finally confirmed as ductal carcinomas in situ. No cancers were found in the remaining 273 lesions with benign biopsy histology at a mean follow-up of 39.4 months (range, 12 to 72 months). The NPV of a negative elasticity score (elasticity score of 1) was 99.3% (165 of 166). If BI-RADS category 3 lesions showing a negative elasticity score were downgraded to BI-RADS category 2, 60.4% (165 of 273) of them with benign histology could have been safely followed without biopsy with an increased malignancy rate from 1% (3 of 276) to 1.8% (2 of 110), which is not significantly higher (P=0.626). US elastography has the potential to reduce the number of BI-RADS category 3 lesions on ultrasonography.
van Heesch, M.M.J.; Bonsel, G.J.; Dumoulin, J.C.M.; Evers, J.L.H.; van der Hoeven, M.A.H.B.; Severens, J.L.; Dykgraaf, R.H.M.; van der Veen, F.; Tonch, N.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; van Zonneveld, P.; van Goudoever, J.B.; Tamminga, P.; Steiner, K.; Koopman-Esseboom, C.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Snellen, D.; Dirksen, C.D.
2010-01-01
Background: Pregnancies induced by in vitro fertilisation (IVF) often result in twin gestations, which are associated with both maternal and perinatal complications. An effective way to reduce the number of IVF twin pregnancies is to decrease the number of embryos transferred from two to one. The
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strohmeier, H.
1988-01-01
The study described here provided evidence to prove that considerable quantities of ethylene oxide, ethylene chlorhydrin and ethylene glycol are retained, when a drug is fumigated with ethylene oxide under standard fumigation conditions in order to reduce the germ number. Ethylene oxide bound by adsorption may be eliminated from the drug by repeated aeration. If an aqueous-ethanolic percolate is prepared from a drug showing very high levels of ethylene chlorhydrin and then carefully distilled at 40 C using only little pressure, a dry extract can be obtained that contains no such residue. (orig.) [de
Christgen, Beate; Yang, Ying; Ahammad, S Z; Li, Bing; Rodriquez, D Catalina; Zhang, Tong; Graham, David W
2015-02-17
Effective domestic wastewater treatment is among our primary defenses against the dissemination of infectious waterborne disease. However, reducing the amount of energy used in treatment processes has become essential for the future. One low-energy treatment option is anaerobic-aerobic sequence (AAS) bioreactors, which use an anaerobic pretreatment step (e.g., anaerobic hybrid reactors) to reduce carbon levels, followed by some form of aerobic treatment. Although AAS is common in warm climates, it is not known how its compares to other treatment options relative to disease transmission, including its influence on antibiotic resistance (AR) in treated effluents. Here, we used metagenomic approaches to contrast the fate of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARG) in anaerobic, aerobic, and AAS bioreactors treating domestic wastewater. Five reactor configurations were monitored for 6 months, and treatment performance, energy use, and ARG abundance and diversity were compared in influents and effluents. AAS and aerobic reactors were superior to anaerobic units in reducing ARG-like sequence abundances, with effluent ARG levels of 29, 34, and 74 ppm (198 ppm influent), respectively. AAS and aerobic systems especially reduced aminoglycoside, tetracycline, and β-lactam ARG levels relative to anaerobic units, although 63 persistent ARG subtypes were detected in effluents from all systems (of 234 assessed). Sulfonamide and chloramphenicol ARG levels were largely unaffected by treatment, whereas a broad shift from target-specific ARGs to ARGs associated with multi-drug resistance was seen across influents and effluents. AAS reactors show promise for future applications because they can reduce more ARGs for less energy (32% less energy here), but all three treatment options have limitations and need further study.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aguila-Camacho, Norelys; Duarte-Mermoud, Manuel A.; Delgado-Aguilera, Efredy
2016-01-01
This paper analyzes the synchronization of two fractional Lorenz systems in two cases: the first one considering fractional Lorenz systems with unknown parameters, and the second one considering known upper bounds on some of the fractional Lorenz systems parameters. The proposed control strategies use a reduced number of control signals and control parameters, employing mild assumptions. The stability of the synchronization errors is analytically demonstrated in all cases, and the convergence to zero of the synchronization errors is analytically proved in the case when the upper bounds on some system parameters are assumed to be known. Simulation studies are presented, which allows verifying the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies.
Lavoie, Suzie
2016-04-21
Glutathione (GSH) deficits have been observed in several mental or degenerative illness, and so has the metabolic syndrome. The impact of a decreased glucose metabolism on the GSH system is well-known, but the effect of decreased GSH levels on the energy metabolism is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensitivity to insulin in the mouse knockout (KO) for the modulatory subunit of the glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLM), the rate-limiting enzyme of GSH synthesis. Compared to wildtype (WT) mice, GCLM-KO mice presented with reduced basal plasma glucose and insulin levels. During an insulin tolerance test, GCLM-KO mice showed a normal fall in glycemia, indicating normal insulin secretion. However, during the recovery phase, plasma glucose levels remained lower for longer in KO mice despite normal plasma glucagon levels. This is consistent with a normal counterregulatory hormonal response but impaired mobilization of glucose from endogenous stores. Following a resident-intruder stress, during which stress hormones mobilize glucose from hepatic glycogen stores, KO mice showed a lower hyperglycemic level despite higher plasma cortisol levels when compared to WT mice. The lower hepatic glycogen levels observed in GCLM-KO mice could explain the impaired glycogen mobilization following induced hypoglycemia. Altogether, our results indicate that reduced liver glycogen availability, as observed in GCLM-KO mice, could be at the origin of their lower basal and challenged glycemia. Further studies will be necessary to understand how a GSH deficit, typically observed in GCLM-KO mice, leads to a deficit in liver glycogen storage.
Lavoie, Suzie; Steullet, Pascal; Kulak, Anita; Preitner, Frederic; Do, Kim Q.; Magistretti, Pierre J.
2016-01-01
Glutathione (GSH) deficits have been observed in several mental or degenerative illness, and so has the metabolic syndrome. The impact of a decreased glucose metabolism on the GSH system is well-known, but the effect of decreased GSH levels on the energy metabolism is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensitivity to insulin in the mouse knockout (KO) for the modulatory subunit of the glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLM), the rate-limiting enzyme of GSH synthesis. Compared to wildtype (WT) mice, GCLM-KO mice presented with reduced basal plasma glucose and insulin levels. During an insulin tolerance test, GCLM-KO mice showed a normal fall in glycemia, indicating normal insulin secretion. However, during the recovery phase, plasma glucose levels remained lower for longer in KO mice despite normal plasma glucagon levels. This is consistent with a normal counterregulatory hormonal response but impaired mobilization of glucose from endogenous stores. Following a resident-intruder stress, during which stress hormones mobilize glucose from hepatic glycogen stores, KO mice showed a lower hyperglycemic level despite higher plasma cortisol levels when compared to WT mice. The lower hepatic glycogen levels observed in GCLM-KO mice could explain the impaired glycogen mobilization following induced hypoglycemia. Altogether, our results indicate that reduced liver glycogen availability, as observed in GCLM-KO mice, could be at the origin of their lower basal and challenged glycemia. Further studies will be necessary to understand how a GSH deficit, typically observed in GCLM-KO mice, leads to a deficit in liver glycogen storage.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Goretti P Fonseca
2010-07-01
Full Text Available The AIDS epidemic in Brazil remains concentrated in populations with high vulnerability to HIV infection, and the development of an HIV vaccine could make an important contribution to prevention. This study modeled the HIV epidemic and estimated the potential impact of an HIV vaccine on the number of new infections, deaths due to AIDS and the number of people receiving ARV treatment, under various scenarios.The historical HIV prevalence was modeled using Spectrum and projections were made from 2010 to 2050 to study the impact of an HIV vaccine with 40% to 70% efficacy, and 80% coverage of adult population, specific groups such as MSM, IDU, commercial sex workers and their partners, and 15 year olds. The possibility of disinhibition after vaccination, neglecting medium- and high-risk groups, and a disease-modifying vaccine were also considered. The number of new infections and deaths were reduced by 73% and 30%, respectively, by 2050, when 80% of adult population aged 15-49 was vaccinated with a 40% efficacy vaccine. Vaccinating medium- and high-risk groups reduced new infections by 52% and deaths by 21%. A vaccine with 70% efficacy produced a great decline in new infections and deaths. Neglecting medium- and high-risk population groups as well as disinhibition of vaccinated population reduced the impact or even increased the number of new infections. Disease-modifying vaccine also contributed to reducing AIDS deaths, the need for ART and new HIV infections.Even in a country with a concentrated epidemic and high levels of ARV coverage, such as Brazil, moderate efficacy vaccines as part of a comprehensive package of treatment and prevention could have a major impact on preventing new HIV infections and AIDS deaths, as well as reducing the number of people on ARV. Targeted vaccination strategies may be highly effective and cost-beneficial.
Random number generation and creativity.
Bains, William
2008-01-01
A previous paper suggested that humans can generate genuinely random numbers. I tested this hypothesis by repeating the experiment with a larger number of highly numerate subjects, asking them to call out a sequence of digits selected from 0 through 9. The resulting sequences were substantially non-random, with an excess of sequential pairs of numbers and a deficit of repeats of the same number, in line with previous literature. However, the previous literature suggests that humans generate random numbers with substantial conscious effort, and distractions which reduce that effort reduce the randomness of the numbers. I reduced my subjects' concentration by asking them to call out in another language, and with alcohol - neither affected the randomness of their responses. This suggests that the ability to generate random numbers is a 'basic' function of the human mind, even if those numbers are not mathematically 'random'. I hypothesise that there is a 'creativity' mechanism, while not truly random, provides novelty as part of the mind's defence against closed programming loops, and that testing for the effects seen here in people more or less familiar with numbers or with spontaneous creativity could identify more features of this process. It is possible that training to perform better at simple random generation tasks could help to increase creativity, through training people to reduce the conscious mind's suppression of the 'spontaneous', creative response to new questions.
Relativistic theory of surficial Love numbers
Landry, Philippe; Poisson, Eric
2014-06-01
A relativistic theory of surficial Love numbers, which characterize the surface deformation of a body subjected to tidal forces, was initiated by Damour and Nagar. We revisit this effort in order to extend it, clarify some of its aspects, and simplify its computational implementation. First, we refine the definition of surficial Love numbers proposed by Damour and Nagar and formulate it directly in terms of the deformed curvature of the body's surface, a meaningful geometrical quantity. Second, we develop a unified theory of surficial Love numbers that applies equally well to material bodies and black holes. Third, we derive a compactness-dependent relation between the surficial and (electric-type) gravitational Love numbers of a perfect-fluid body and show that it reduces to the familiar Newtonian relation when the compactness is small. And fourth, we simplify the tasks associated with the practical computation of the surficial and gravitational Love numbers for a material body.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheney, M.C. [PS Enterprises, Inc., Glastonbury, CT (United States)
1997-12-31
The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.
Khan, Dur Muhammad; Ullah, Aziz; Randhawa, Fawad Ahmad; Iqtadar, Somia; Butt, Nasir Farooq; Waheed, Khadija
2017-01-01
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic incompletely reversible poor airflow and air trapping and usually this debilitating disorder limits the outside activities of the patients depriving them of sunlight which is a rich source of Vitamin D. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation in reducing number of acute exacerbation in COPD patients. This randomized control trial was conducted at East Medical Ward Mayo Hospital Lahore from January to December 2015 as exacerbations of COPD are season dependent. Diagnosis was confirmed by performing Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs). Basic demographical information was obtained and baseline PFTs of the patient was done. Only Group A patients was treated with oral vitamin D intake of 2000 IU daily for 6 months. Vitamin D level was measured at 0, 2, 4, and 6 months and exacerbation of COPD, FEV1 and FVC was measured weekly. Both the groups were given standard treatment for exacerbation of COPD. Spirometry was repeated at each visit. Blood samples were collected every 2 months for vitamin D. Supplementation was stopped if vitamin D level exceeded 100ng/ml. The mean age of the patients was 46.28±8.83 years, the male to female ratio was 1.8:1. The mean 25(OH) level at baseline was 24.08±2.58 and at 6th month was 29.60±8.74. The mean FVC at baseline was 77.83±5.49 and at 6th month was 91.34±5.52. The exacerbation at baseline was present in all 120(100%) patients and at 6th month was reduced to 4(3.3%). Vitamin D supplementation has significant effect in reducing number of acute exacerbation in COPD patients when it is given for prolonged period.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Scott J. Sherman
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Ketamine is an FDA-approved drug with a known safety profile. Low-dose subanesthetic intravenous ketamine infusion treatment has led to long-term reduction of treatment-resistant depression and of chronic pain states. We report on low-dose subanesthetic intravenous ketamine infusion treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD patients by 5 case studies and show a long-lasting therapeutic benefit to reduce L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID, improve on time, and reduce depression. Based on the literature we hypothesize that low-dose ketamine may act as a ‘chemical deep brain stimulation', by desynchronizing hypersynchronous oscillatory brain activity, including in the basal ganglia and the motor cortex. The presented PD case reports indicate tolerability, safety and long-term beneficial effects of low-dose ketamine infusion that should be further investigated in a properly controlled prospective clinical trial for treatment of LID, as well as the prevalent nonmotor features pain and depression in PD patients.
How to reduce the number of accidents
2012-01-01
Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents. The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. HSE Unit
Natural Selection Reduced Diversity on Human Y Chromosomes
Wilson Sayres, Melissa A.; Lohmueller, Kirk E.; Nielsen, Rasmus
2014-01-01
The human Y chromosome exhibits surprisingly low levels of genetic diversity. This could result from neutral processes if the effective population size of males is reduced relative to females due to a higher variance in the number of offspring from males than from females. Alternatively, selection acting on new mutations, and affecting linked neutral sites, could reduce variability on the Y chromosome. Here, using genome-wide analyses of X, Y, autosomal and mitochondrial DNA, in combination with extensive population genetic simulations, we show that low observed Y chromosome variability is not consistent with a purely neutral model. Instead, we show that models of purifying selection are consistent with observed Y diversity. Further, the number of sites estimated to be under purifying selection greatly exceeds the number of Y-linked coding sites, suggesting the importance of the highly repetitive ampliconic regions. While we show that purifying selection removing deleterious mutations can explain the low diversity on the Y chromosome, we cannot exclude the possibility that positive selection acting on beneficial mutations could have also reduced diversity in linked neutral regions, and may have contributed to lowering human Y chromosome diversity. Because the functional significance of the ampliconic regions is poorly understood, our findings should motivate future research in this area. PMID:24415951
Yu, Emma P K; Reinhold, Johannes; Yu, Haixiang; Starks, Lakshi; Uryga, Anna K; Foote, Kirsty; Finigan, Alison; Figg, Nichola; Pung, Yuh-Fen; Logan, Angela; Murphy, Michael P; Bennett, Martin
2017-12-01
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is present in murine and human atherosclerotic plaques. However, whether endogenous levels of mtDNA damage are sufficient to cause mitochondrial dysfunction and whether decreasing mtDNA damage and improving mitochondrial respiration affects plaque burden or composition are unclear. We examined mitochondrial respiration in human atherosclerotic plaques and whether augmenting mitochondrial respiration affects atherogenesis. Human atherosclerotic plaques showed marked mitochondrial dysfunction, manifested as reduced mtDNA copy number and oxygen consumption rate in fibrous cap and core regions. Vascular smooth muscle cells derived from plaques showed impaired mitochondrial respiration, reduced complex I expression, and increased mitophagy, which was induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE -/- ) mice showed decreased mtDNA integrity and mitochondrial respiration, associated with increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. To determine whether alleviating mtDNA damage and increasing mitochondrial respiration affects atherogenesis, we studied ApoE -/- mice overexpressing the mitochondrial helicase Twinkle (Tw + /ApoE -/- ). Tw + /ApoE -/- mice showed increased mtDNA integrity, copy number, respiratory complex abundance, and respiration. Tw + /ApoE -/- mice had decreased necrotic core and increased fibrous cap areas, and Tw + /ApoE -/- bone marrow transplantation also reduced core areas. Twinkle increased vascular smooth muscle cell mtDNA integrity and respiration. Twinkle also promoted vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and protected both vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophages from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Endogenous mtDNA damage in mouse and human atherosclerosis is associated with significantly reduced mitochondrial respiration. Reducing mtDNA damage and increasing mitochondrial respiration decrease necrotic core and increase fibrous cap areas independently of changes in
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fernando Lanas
2012-02-01
Full Text Available A recent systematic review of Cochrane collaboration about the effect of reducing dietary salt concluded that “there is still insufficient power to exclude clinically important effects of reduced dietary salt on mortality or cardiovascular morbidity in normotensive or hypertensive populations”. This conclusion has generated an important debate, because the estimation that salt reduction can prevent 24% of strokes and 18% of myocardial infarctions has decided the health authorities of several nations to implement salt consumption reduction programs. The review of ecological studies and clinical trials allow to conclude that a reduction in salt consumption reduces blood pressure and methodological well conducted cohort studies has shown that cardiovascular events risk decreases progressively with lower levels of blood pressure. Combining this two finding we can assume that population should benefice from a decrease on salt consumption although there are no studies that shown a reduction in cardiovascular events in population with high sodium intake when dietary salt is reduced.
The Mental Number Line in Dyscalculia: Impaired Number Sense or Access from Symbolic Numbers?
Lafay, Anne; St-Pierre, Marie-Catherine; Macoir, Joël
2017-01-01
Numbers may be manipulated and represented mentally over a compressible number line oriented from left to right. According to numerous studies, one of the primary reasons for dyscalculia is related to improper understanding of the mental number line. Children with dyscalculia usually show difficulty when they have to place Arabic numbers on a…
Elbing, Brian R.; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David R.; Ceccio, Steven L.
2013-08-01
The current study explores the influence of polymer drag reduction on the near-wall velocity distribution in a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) and its dependence on Reynolds number. Recent moderate Reynolds number direct numerical simulation and experimental studies presented in White et al. [Phys. Fluids 24, 021701 (2012)], 10.1063/1.3681862 have challenged the classical representation of the logarithmic dependence of the velocity profile for drag-reduced flows, especially at drag reduction levels above 40%. In the present study, high Reynolds number data from a drag reduced TBL is presented and compared to the observations of White et al. [Phys. Fluids 24, 021701 (2012)], 10.1063/1.3681862. Data presented here were acquired in the TBL flow on a 12.9-m-long flat plate at speeds to 20.3 m s-1, achieving momentum thickness based Reynolds number to 1.5 × 105, which is an order of magnitude greater than that available in the literature. Polyethylene oxide solutions with an average molecular weight of 3.9 × 106 g mol-1 were injected into the flow at various concentrations and volumetric fluxes to achieve a particular level of drag reduction. The resulting mean near-wall velocity profiles show distinctly different behavior depending on whether they fall in the low drag reduction (LDR) or the high drag reduction (HDR) regimes, which are nominally divided at 40% drag reduction. In the LDR regime, the classical view that the logarithmic slope remains constant at the Newtonian value and the intercept constant increases with increasing drag reduction appears to be valid. However, in the HDR regime the behavior is no longer universal. The intercept constant continues to increase linearly in proportion to the drag reduction level until a Reynolds-number-dependent threshold is achieved, at which point the intercept constant rapidly decreases to that predicted by the ultimate profile. The rapid decrease in the intercept constant is due to the corresponding increase in the
[Intel random number generator-based true random number generator].
Huang, Feng; Shen, Hong
2004-09-01
To establish a true random number generator on the basis of certain Intel chips. The random numbers were acquired by programming using Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 via register reading from the random number generator (RNG) unit of an Intel 815 chipset-based computer with Intel Security Driver (ISD). We tested the generator with 500 random numbers in NIST FIPS 140-1 and X(2) R-Squared test, and the result showed that the random number it generated satisfied the demand of independence and uniform distribution. We also compared the random numbers generated by Intel RNG-based true random number generator and those from the random number table statistically, by using the same amount of 7500 random numbers in the same value domain, which showed that the SD, SE and CV of Intel RNG-based random number generator were less than those of the random number table. The result of u test of two CVs revealed no significant difference between the two methods. Intel RNG-based random number generator can produce high-quality random numbers with good independence and uniform distribution, and solves some problems with random number table in acquisition of the random numbers.
A strategy for reducing numbers? Response.
Banerji, D
1991-12-01
The article on human entrapment in India by Maurice King is just another example of the dogmatic, simplistic and reckless way in which the white scholars of the North formulate their ideas. It is these people who are responsible for the opium wars, programs against Jews, and carpet bombing, defoliation, and massacres in Vietnam. King's idea os using UNICEF and the WHO to kill the non white children of the South is just another example of this kind of racist brutality. It is based only upon the written opinions of other white scholars. In 1991 King produced no data about human entrapment in India. King ignores the writing of non whites like Ashish Bose who presided over the International Population Conference in 1989. Other mistakes that King makes include a failure to understand the applications of immunization (EPI) and oral rehydration programs (ORT). The EPI was implemented without ever taking baseline data, so that its effectiveness is impossible to determine with any accuracy. And nowhere in the world has ORT worked as well as UNICEF claimed it would. Further proof that King advocates genocide is his labeling of the insecticide-impregnated bednets as a dangerous technology in increasing entrapment. King fails to acknowledge the overwhelming influence of white consultants on the policies and planning strategies of family planning programs in India. Their list of failures includes: the clinic and extension approach, popularization of the IUD, mass communication, target orientation, sterilization camps, and giving primacy to generalists administrators. They should be held accountable for the 406 million people added to the base population between 1961-91 It should also be noted that India had the ability absorb this large number people while still maintaining a democratic structure, gather a substantial buffer stock of food grains, consistently increasing its per capita income while decreasing its infant mortality and crude death rates, increase its life
Sanikhani, Mohsen; Mibus, Heiko; Stummann, Bjarne M; Serek, Margrethe
2008-04-01
Transgenic Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. with reduced ethylene sensitivity in flowers was obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation using the plasmid pBEO210 containing the mutant ethylene receptor gene etr1-1 from Arabidopsis thaliana under the control of the flower-specific fbp1-promoter from Petunia. Three ethylene-resistent T0 lines, 300, 324 and 331, were selected and analyzed for postharvest-performance and morphological characteristics. Line 324 was found to be infertile and only slightly less ethylene-sensitive than control-plants, but lines 300 and 331 had significantly increased ethylene-resistance and were fertile. These two lines were analyzed for copy-number of the etr1-1 gene by Southern blotting and were crossed with the ethylene-sensitive cultivar 'Celine' to create T1 progeny. Line 300 contains two T-DNA copies per nucleus, one of which is rearranged, and these are unlinked according to segregation data from the crossing to 'Celine' and PCR-analysis of progeny plants. For control plants all flowers were closed after 2 days at 2 microl l(-1 )ethylene, but for line 300 only 33% were closed after 10 days. Line 331 contains three T-DNA copies per nucleus and is more sensitive to ethylene than line 300. In the line 300 the etr1-1 gene was found by RT-PCR to be expressed in petals and stamens but not in carpels and sepals. Both lines 300 and 331, and their progeny, appear morphologically and physiologically identical to control plants except for the higher ethylene resistance. Line 300 and its progeny with only one T-DNA copy have very low ethylene sensitivity and may be useful in future breeding.
Maity, H.; Biswas, A.; Bhattacharjee, A. K.; Pal, A.
In this paper, we have proposed the design of quantum cost (QC) optimized 4-bit reversible universal shift register (RUSR) using reduced number of reversible logic gates. The proposed design is very useful in quantum computing due to its low QC, less no. of reversible logic gate and less delay. The QC, no. of gates, garbage outputs (GOs) are respectively 64, 8 and 16 for proposed work. The improvement of proposed work is also presented. The QC is 5.88% to 70.9% improved, no. of gate is 60% to 83.33% improved with compared to latest reported result.
Reduced number and morphofunctional change of alveolar macrophages in MafB gene-targeted mice.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michiko Sato-Nishiwaki
Full Text Available Alveolar macrophages (AMs play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We previously demonstrated that the transcription factor, MafB, increased in the AMs of mice exposed to cigarette smoke, and in those of human patients with COPD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of MafB in AMs using newly established transgenic (TG mice that specifically express dominant negative (DN MafB in macrophages under the control of macrophage scavenger receptor (MSR enhancer-promoter. We performed cell differential analyses in bronchoalveolar lavage cells, morphological analyses with electron microscopy, and flow cytometry-based analyses of surface markers and a phagocytic capacity assay in macrophages. AM number in the TG mice was significantly decreased compared with wild-type (WT mice. Morphologically, the high electron density area in the nucleus increased, the shape of pseudopods on the AMs was altered, and actin filament was less localized in the pseudopods of AMs of TG mice, compared with WT mice. The expression of surface markers, F4/80 and CD11b, on peritoneal macrophages in TG mice was reduced compared with WT mice, while those on AMs remained unchanged. Phagocytic capacity was decreased in AMs from TG mice, compared with WT mice. In conclusion, MafB regulates the phenotype of macrophages with respect to the number of alveolar macrophages, the nuclear compartment, cellular shape, surface marker expression, and phagocytic function. MSR-DN MafB TG mice may present a useful model to clarify the precise role of MafB in macrophages.
In vivo stem cell transplantation using reduced cell numbers.
Tsutsui, Takeo W
2015-01-01
Dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) characterization is essential for regeneration of a dentin/pulp like complex in vivo. This is especially important for identifying the potential of DPSCs to function as stem cells. Previously reported DPSC transplantation methods have used with huge numbers of cells, along with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP), gelatin and fibrin, and collagen scaffolds. This protocol describe a transplantation protocol that uses fewer cells and a temperature-responsive cell culture dish.
Variational coupling between q-number and c-number dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amaral, C.M. do; Joffily, S.
1984-01-01
The time-dependent quantum variational principle is generalized for the case of hamiltonian operators having real parameters and their time derivates. The obtained variational system is formed by a Schroedinger equation coupled to a Lagrange equation system, where the lagrangian is the average value of the parametrized hamiltonian operator. The consequent dynamics of the variational principle, describes the interaction between a q-number sub-dynamics with a c-number sub-dynamics. In the ((h/2π)) 0 -order W.K.B. approximation, the variational system reduces to a Hamilton-Jacobi-like equation, coupled to a Lagrange equation family. The formal features of the obtained variational system are appropriated for the description of, adiabatics and non-adiabatics, time-dependent q-number c-number interactions. (L.C.) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jong, Pim A. de; Tiddens, Harm A.W.M.; Nakano, Yasutaka; Lequin, Maarten H.
2006-01-01
Reducing the dose for each CT scan is important for children with cystic fibrosis (CF). To determine whether the number of CT images and therefore the dose per CT scan could be reduced without any significant loss of information in children with CF. A cohort of children with CF was followed with biennial surveillance CT scans, obtained in inspiration after a voluntary breath-hold as 1-mm thick images at 10-mm intervals from lung apex to base. A random set of 20 baseline CT scans and 10 follow-up CT scans were blinded. Sets of every image (10-mm intervals), every second image (20-mm intervals), every third image (30-mm intervals) and a selection of three and five images were scored randomly using a published CT scoring system by one experienced observer. The 20 subjects were 10 years of age with a range of 3.7-17.6 years at baseline. Fewer CT images resulted in a significantly lower (less abnormal) CT score and the number of patients positive for abnormalities decreased subsequently. At intervals greater than 20 mm no significant change in CT score over 2 years could be detected, while the CT scores at 10-mm (P=0.02) and 20-mm (P=0.02) intervals worsened significantly. A reduction in the number of inspiratory CT images by increasing the interval between images to greater than 10 mm is not a valid option for radiation dose reduction in children with CF. (orig.)
Lu, Ye-qiang; Chen, Qiu-fang; Sun, Zai; Cai, Zhi-liang; Yang, Wen-jun
2014-09-01
Ultrafine particle (UFP) number concentrations obtained from three different vehicles were measured using fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS) and automobile exhaust gas analyzer. UFP number concentration and size distribution were studied at different idle driving speeds. The results showed that at a low idle speed of 800 rmin-1 , the emission particle number concentration was the lowest and showed a increasing trend with the increase of idle speed. The majority of exhaust particles were in Nuclear mode and Aitken mode. The peak sizes were dominated by 10 nm and 50 nm. Particle number concentration showed a significantly sharp increase during the vehicle acceleration process, and was then kept stable when the speed was stable. In the range of 0. 4 m axial distance from the end of the exhaust pipe, the particle number concentration decayed rapidly after dilution, but it was not obvious in the range of 0. 4-1 m. The number concentration was larger than the background concentration. Concentration of exhaust emissions such as CO, HC and NO showed a reducing trend with the increase of idle speed,which was in contrast to the emission trend of particle number concentration.
Geier, Charles F; Sweitzer, Maggie M; Denlinger, Rachel; Sparacino, Gina; Donny, Eric C
2014-08-30
Chronic smoking may result in reduced sensitivity to non-drug rewards (e.g., money), a phenomenon particularly salient during abstinence. During a quit attempt, this effect may contribute to biased decision-making (smoking>alternative reinforcers) and relapse. Although relevant for quitting, characterization of reduced reward function in abstinent smokers remains limited. Moreover, how attenuated reward function affects other brain systems supporting decision-making has not been established. Here, we use a rewarded antisaccade (rAS) task to characterize non-drug reward processing and its influence on inhibitory control, key elements underlying decision-making, in abstinent smokers vs. non-smokers. Abstinent (12-hours) adult daily smokers (N=23) and non-smokers (N=11) underwent fMRI while performing the rAS. Behavioral performances improved on reward vs. neutral trials. Smokers showed attenuated activation in ventral striatum during the reward cue and in superior precentral sulcus and posterior parietal cortex during response preparation, but greater responses during the saccade response in posterior cingulate and parietal cortices. Smokers' attenuated anticipatory responses suggest reduced motivation from monetary reward, while heightened activation during the saccade response suggests that additional circuitry may be engaged later to enhance inhibitory task performance. Overall, this preliminary study highlights group differences in decision-making components and the utility of the rAS to characterize these effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Salas, Antonio; Amigo, Jorge
2010-05-03
The high levels of variation characterising the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule are due ultimately to its high average mutation rate; moreover, mtDNA variation is deeply structured in different populations and ethnic groups. There is growing interest in selecting a reduced number of mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs) that account for the maximum level of discrimination power in a given population. Applications of the selected mtSNP panel range from anthropologic and medical studies to forensic genetic casework. This study proposes a new simulation-based method that explores the ability of different mtSNP panels to yield the maximum levels of discrimination power. The method explores subsets of mtSNPs of different sizes randomly chosen from a preselected panel of mtSNPs based on frequency. More than 2,000 complete genomes representing three main continental human population groups (Africa, Europe, and Asia) and two admixed populations ("African-Americans" and "Hispanics") were collected from GenBank and the literature, and were used as training sets. Haplotype diversity was measured for each combination of mtSNP and compared with existing mtSNP panels available in the literature. The data indicates that only a reduced number of mtSNPs ranging from six to 22 are needed to account for 95% of the maximum haplotype diversity of a given population sample. However, only a small proportion of the best mtSNPs are shared between populations, indicating that there is not a perfect set of "universal" mtSNPs suitable for all population contexts. The discrimination power provided by these mtSNPs is much higher than the power of the mtSNP panels proposed in the literature to date. Some mtSNP combinations also yield high diversity values in admixed populations. The proposed computational approach for exploring combinations of mtSNPs that optimise the discrimination power of a given set of mtSNPs is more efficient than previous empirical approaches. In contrast to
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peifeng Xu
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Dual rotor permanent magnet (DRPM wind power generator using ferrite magnets has the advantages of low cost, high efficiency, and high torque density. How to further improve the performance and reduce the cost of the machine by proper choice of pole number and slot number is an important problem to be solved when performing preliminarily design a DRPM wind generator. This paper presents a comprehensive performance comparison of a DRPM wind generator using ferrite magnets with different slot and pole number combinations. The main winding factors are calculated by means of the star of slots. Under the same machine volume and ferrite consumption, the flux linkage, back-electromotive force (EMF, cogging torque, output torque, torque pulsation, and losses are investigated and compared using finite element analysis (FEA. The results show that the slot and pole number combinations have an important impact on the generator properties.
Low maternal nutrition during pregnancy reduces the number of Sertoli cells in the newborn lamb.
Alejandro, Bielli; Pérez, Raquel; Pedrana, Graciela; Milton, John T B; Lopez, Alvaro; Blackberry, Margaret A; Duncombe, Gregory; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Martin, Graeme B
2002-01-01
The nutritional status of females during pregnancy can play a critical role in the postnatal growth and development of the offspring, often leading to permanent changes ('fetal programming'). The Sertoli cells are a strong candidate for fetal programming of future performance because the number of Sertoli cells is highly correlated with adult testicular size and the maximum rate of sperm production. For Merino ewes, we imposed different levels of metabolizable energy (ME) intake (LowME: 70% of requirements for maintenance of ewe body mass and normal growth of conceptus (n = 13); HighME: 110% of those requirements (n = 12)) from Week 10 of pregnancy until parturition and then tested for effects on testicular histology in newborn males. Pregnant ewes were weighed weekly and lambs were weighed at birth and 2 days later. Blood was sampled at the same times. LowME ewes did not gain weight, whereas HighME ewes gained 17% over their pretreatment weight. Birthweights were higher in HighME lambs than in LowME lambs. Paired testes tended to be heavier in the HighME group than in the LowME group (P=0.08). The diameter of the testicular cords did not differ. The absolute volume of testicular cords (0.36 +/- 0.02 v. 0.30 +/- 0.02 mL for HighME v. LowME, respectively; P=0.03) and the number of Sertoli cells (43.0 +/- 2.5 v. 34.5 +/- 2.0 x 10(8) for HighME v. LowME, respectively; P=0.018) per testis were both greater in the HighME than in the LowME group. Plasma follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations were not significantly affected at birth or 2 days later. We conclude that undernutrition during pregnancy can reduce testicular development in the newborn. Depending on the ability of the Sertoli cell population to recover between birth and puberty, this may limit the ultimate number of Sertoli cells and, hence, the future capacity for sperm production and fertility.
Schaadt, Gesa; van der Meer, Elke; Pannekamp, Ann; Oberecker, Regine; Männel, Claudia
2018-01-17
During information processing, individuals benefit from bimodally presented input, as has been demonstrated for speech perception (i.e., printed letters and speech sounds) or the perception of emotional expressions (i.e., facial expression and voice tuning). While typically developing individuals show this bimodal benefit, school children with dyslexia do not. Currently, it is unknown whether the bimodal processing deficit in dyslexia also occurs for visual-auditory speech processing that is independent of reading and spelling acquisition (i.e., no letter-sound knowledge is required). Here, we tested school children with and without spelling problems on their bimodal perception of video-recorded mouth movements pronouncing syllables. We analyzed the event-related potential Mismatch Response (MMR) to visual-auditory speech information and compared this response to the MMR to monomodal speech information (i.e., auditory-only, visual-only). We found a reduced MMR with later onset to visual-auditory speech information in children with spelling problems compared to children without spelling problems. Moreover, when comparing bimodal and monomodal speech perception, we found that children without spelling problems showed significantly larger responses in the visual-auditory experiment compared to the visual-only response, whereas children with spelling problems did not. Our results suggest that children with dyslexia exhibit general difficulties in bimodal speech perception independently of letter-speech sound knowledge, as apparent in altered bimodal speech perception and lacking benefit from bimodal information. This general deficit in children with dyslexia may underlie the previously reported reduced bimodal benefit for letter-speech sound combinations and similar findings in emotion perception. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
de Vries, Rob B M; Buma, Pieter; Leenaars, Marlies; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Gordijn, Bert
2012-12-01
The use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research is an important underexposed ethical issue. Several ethical questions may be raised about this use of animals. This article focuses on the possibilities of reducing the number of animals used. Given that there is considerable debate about the adequacy of the current animal models in tissue engineering research, we investigate whether it is possible to reduce the number of laboratory animals by selecting and using only those models that have greatest predictive value for future clinical application of the tissue engineered product. The field of articular cartilage tissue engineering is used as a case study. Based on a study of the scientific literature and interviews with leading experts in the field, an overview is provided of the animal models used and the advantages and disadvantages of each model, particularly in terms of extrapolation to the human situation. Starting from this overview, it is shown that, by skipping the small models and using only one large preclinical model, it is indeed possible to restrict the number of animal models, thereby reducing the number of laboratory animals used. Moreover, it is argued that the selection of animal models should become more evidence based and that researchers should seize more opportunities to choose or create characteristics in the animal models that increase their predictive value.
Using REDUCE in high energy physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grozin, A.G.
1997-01-01
This book describes the use of the symbolic manipulation language REDUCE in particle physics. There are several general purpose mathematics packages available to physicists, including Mathematica, Maple, and REDUCE. Each has advantages and disadvantages, but REDUCE has been found to be both powerful and convenient in solving a wide range of problems. This book introduces the reader to REDUCE and demonstrates its utility as a mathematical tool in physics. The first chapter of the book describes the REDUCE system, including some library packages. The following chapters show the use of REDUCE in examples from classical mechanics, hydrodynamics, general relativity, and quantum mechanics. The rest of the book systematically presents the Standard Model of particle physics (QED, weak interactions, QCD). A large number of scattering and decay processes are calculated with REDUCE. All example programs from the book can be downloaded via Internet. The emphasis throughout is on learning through worked examples. This will be an essential introduction and reference for high energy and theoretical physicists. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Memon, A.A.
2013-01-01
This paper presents a gate driver circuit for the switching devices used in the asymmetrical converter for a switched reluctance machine with reduced number of isolated dc/dc converters. Isolation required in the gate driver circuit of switching devices is indispensable. For the purpose of isolation different arrangements may be used such as pulse transformers. The dc/dc converter for isolation and powering the gate drive circuits is suitable, cheaper in cost and simple to implement. It is also significant that required number of isolation converters is much less than the switches used in converter. In addition, a simple logic circuit has been presented for producing the gate signals at correct phase sequence which is compared with the gated signals directly obtained from the encoder of an existing machine. (author)
Sengupta, Mita E; Keraita, Bernard; Olsen, Annette; Boateng, Osei K; Thamsborg, Stig M; Pálsdóttir, Guðný R; Dalsgaard, Anders
2012-07-01
Water from wastewater-polluted streams and dug-outs is the most commonly used water source for irrigation in urban farming in Ghana, but helminth parasite eggs in the water represent health risks when used for crop production. Conventional water treatment is expensive, requires advanced technology and often breaks down in less developed countries so low cost interventions are needed. Field and laboratory based trials were carried out in order to investigate the effect of the natural coagulant Moringa oleifera (MO) seed extracts in reducing helminh eggs and turbidity in irrigation water, turbid water, wastewater and tap water. In medium to high turbid water MO extracts were effective in reducing the number of helminth eggs by 94-99.5% to 1-2 eggs per litre and the turbidity to 7-11 NTU which is an 85-96% reduction. MO is readily available in many tropical countries and can be used by farmers to treat high turbid water for irrigation, however, additional improvements of water quality, e.g. by sand filtration, is suggested to meet the guideline value of ≤ 1 helminth egg per litre and a turbidity of ≤ 2 NTU as recommended by the World Health Organization and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for water intended for irrigation. A positive correlation was established between reduction in turbidity and helminth eggs in irrigation water, turbid water and wastewater treated with MO. This indicates that helminth eggs attach to suspended particles and/or flocs facilitated by MO in the water, and that turbidity and helminth eggs are reduced with the settling flocs. However, more experiments with water samples containing naturally occurring helminth eggs are needed to establish whether turbidity can be used as a proxy for helminth eggs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Estimation of periodic solutions number of first-order differential equations
Ivanov, Gennady; Alferov, Gennady; Gorovenko, Polina; Sharlay, Artem
2018-05-01
The paper deals with first-order differential equations under the assumption that the right-hand side is a periodic function of time and continuous in the set of arguments. Pliss V.A. obtained the first results for a particular class of equations and showed that a number of theorems can not be continued. In this paper, it was possible to reduce the restrictions on the degree of smoothness of the right-hand side of the equation and obtain upper and lower bounds on the number of possible periodic solutions.
Nitrate and sulfate reducers-retrievable number of bacteria and their activities in Indian waters
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
LokaBharathi, P.A.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.
Culturable heterotrophic, nitrate reducing and sulfate reducing bacteria (HB, NRB and SRB) were enumerated from 25, 50, 100 and 200 m depths at 15 stations and their potential activities viz. Nitrate reducing (NRA) and Sulfate reducing (SRA) were...
Photon number projection using non-number-resolving detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rohde, Peter P; Webb, James G; Huntington, Elanor H; Ralph, Timothy C
2007-01-01
Number-resolving photo-detection is necessary for many quantum optics experiments, especially in the application of entangled state preparation. Several schemes have been proposed for approximating number-resolving photo-detection using non-number-resolving detectors. Such techniques include multi-port detection and time-division multiplexing. We provide a detailed analysis and comparison of different number-resolving detection schemes, with a view to creating a useful reference for experimentalists. We show that the ideal architecture for projective measurements is a function of the detector's dark count and efficiency parameters. We also describe a process for selecting an appropriate topology given actual experimental component parameters
Schwieger, Jana; Esser, Karl-Heinz; Lenarz, Thomas; Scheper, Verena
2016-08-01
Sensorineural deafness is mainly caused by damage to hair cells and degeneration of the spiral ganglion neurons (SGN). Cochlear implants can functionally replace lost hair cells and stimulate the SGN electrically. The benefit from cochlear implantation depends on the number and excitability of these neurons. To identify potential therapies for SGN protection, in vitro tests are carried out on spiral ganglion cells (SGC). A glial cell-reduced and neuron-enhanced culture of neonatal rat SGC under mitotic inhibition (cytarabine (AraC)) for up to seven days is presented. Serum containing and neurotrophin-enriched cultures with and without AraC-addition were analyzed after 4 and 7 days. The total number of cells was significantly reduced, while the proportion of neurons was greatly increased by AraC-treatment. Cell type-specific labeling demonstrated that nearly all fibroblasts and most of the glial cells were removed. Neither the neuronal survival, nor the neurite outgrowth or soma diameter were negatively affected. Additionally neurites remain partly free of surrounding non-neuronal cells. Recent culture conditions allow only for short-term cultivation of neonatal SGC and lack information on the influence of non-neuronal cells on SGN and of direct contact of neurites with test-materials. AraC-addition reduces the number of non-neuronal cells and increases the ratio of SGN in culture, without negative impact on neuronal viability. This treatment allows longer-term cultivation of SGC and provides deeper insight into SGN-glial cell interaction and the attachment of neurites on test-material surfaces. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
On the number of polynomial solutions of Bernoulli and Abel polynomial differential equations
Cima, A.; Gasull, A.; Mañosas, F.
2017-12-01
In this paper we determine the maximum number of polynomial solutions of Bernoulli differential equations and of some integrable polynomial Abel differential equations. As far as we know, the tools used to prove our results have not been utilized before for studying this type of questions. We show that the addressed problems can be reduced to know the number of polynomial solutions of a related polynomial equation of arbitrary degree. Then we approach to these equations either applying several tools developed to study extended Fermat problems for polynomial equations, or reducing the question to the computation of the genus of some associated planar algebraic curves.
Modeling the number of car theft using Poisson regression
Zulkifli, Malina; Ling, Agnes Beh Yen; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Ismail, Noriszura
2016-10-01
Regression analysis is the most popular statistical methods used to express the relationship between the variables of response with the covariates. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the factors that influence the number of car theft using Poisson regression model. This paper will focus on the number of car thefts that occurred in districts in Peninsular Malaysia. There are two groups of factor that have been considered, namely district descriptive factors and socio and demographic factors. The result of the study showed that Bumiputera composition, Chinese composition, Other ethnic composition, foreign migration, number of residence with the age between 25 to 64, number of employed person and number of unemployed person are the most influence factors that affect the car theft cases. These information are very useful for the law enforcement department, insurance company and car owners in order to reduce and limiting the car theft cases in Peninsular Malaysia.
Optimization model using Markowitz model approach for reducing the number of dengue cases in Bandung
Yong, Benny; Chin, Liem
2017-05-01
Dengue fever is one of the most serious diseases and this disease can cause death. Currently, Indonesia is a country with the highest cases of dengue disease in Southeast Asia. Bandung is one of the cities in Indonesia that is vulnerable to dengue disease. The sub-districts in Bandung had different levels of relative risk of dengue disease. Dengue disease is transmitted to people by the bite of an Aedesaegypti mosquito that is infected with a dengue virus. Prevention of dengue disease is by controlling the vector mosquito. It can be done by various methods, one of the methods is fogging. The efforts made by the Health Department of Bandung through fogging had constraints in terms of limited funds. This problem causes Health Department selective in fogging, which is only done for certain locations. As a result, many sub-districts are not handled properly by the Health Department because of the unequal distribution of activities to prevent the spread of dengue disease. Thus, it needs the proper allocation of funds to each sub-district in Bandung for preventing dengue transmission optimally. In this research, the optimization model using Markowitz model approach will be applied to determine the allocation of funds should be given to each sub-district in Bandung. Some constraints will be added to this model and the numerical solution will be solved with generalized reduced gradient method using Solver software. The expected result of this research is the proportion of funds given to each sub-district in Bandung correspond to the level of risk of dengue disease in each sub-district in Bandung so that the number of dengue cases in this city can be reduced significantly.
A reduced estimate of the number of kilometre-sized near-Earth asteroids.
Rabinowitz, D; Helin, E; Lawrence, K; Pravdo, S
2000-01-13
Near-Earth asteroids are small (diameters Earth (they come within 1.3 AU of the Sun). Most have a chance of approximately 0.5% of colliding with the Earth in the next million years. The total number of such bodies with diameters > 1 km has been estimated to be in the range 1,000-2,000, which translates to an approximately 1% chance of a catastrophic collision with the Earth in the next millennium. These numbers are, however, poorly constrained because of the limitations of previous searches using photographic plates. (One kilometre is below the size of a body whose impact on the Earth would produce global effects.) Here we report an analysis of our survey for near-Earth asteroids that uses improved detection technologies. We find that the total number of asteroids with diameters > 1 km is about half the earlier estimates. At the current rate of discovery of near-Earth asteroids, 90% will probably have been detected within the next 20 years.
Drescher, Michael J; Fried, Jeremy; Brass, Ryan; Medoro, Amanda; Murphy, Timothy; Delgado, João
2017-10-01
Computerized decision support decreases the number of computed tomography pulmonary angiograms (CTPA) for pulmonary embolism (PE) ordered in emergency departments, but it is not always well accepted by emergency physicians. We studied a department-endorsed, evidence-based clinical protocol that included the PE rule-out criteria (PERC) rule, multi-modal education using principles of knowledge translation (KT), and clinical decision support embedded in our order entry system, to decrease the number of unnecessary CTPA ordered. We performed a historically controlled observational before-after study for one year pre- and post-implementation of a departmentally-endorsed protocol. We included patients > 18 in whom providers suspected PE and who did not have a contraindication to CTPA. Providers entered clinical information into a diagnostic pathway via computerized order entry. Prior to protocol implementation, we provided education to ordering providers. The primary outcome measure was the number of CTPA ordered per 1,000 visits one year before vs. after implementation. CTPA declined from 1,033 scans for 98,028 annual visits (10.53 per 1,000 patient visits (95% CI [9.9-11.2]) to 892 scans for 101,172 annual visits (8.81 per 1,000 patient visits (95% CI [8.3-9.4]) pPatient characteristics were similar for both periods. Knowledge translation clinical decision support using the PERC rule significantly reduced the number of CTPA ordered.
Time dependent patient no-show predictive modelling development.
Huang, Yu-Li; Hanauer, David A
2016-05-09
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop evident-based predictive no-show models considering patients' each past appointment status, a time-dependent component, as an independent predictor to improve predictability. Design/methodology/approach - A ten-year retrospective data set was extracted from a pediatric clinic. It consisted of 7,291 distinct patients who had at least two visits along with their appointment characteristics, patient demographics, and insurance information. Logistic regression was adopted to develop no-show models using two-thirds of the data for training and the remaining data for validation. The no-show threshold was then determined based on minimizing the misclassification of show/no-show assignments. There were a total of 26 predictive model developed based on the number of available past appointments. Simulation was employed to test the effective of each model on costs of patient wait time, physician idle time, and overtime. Findings - The results demonstrated the misclassification rate and the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic gradually improved as more appointment history was included until around the 20th predictive model. The overbooking method with no-show predictive models suggested incorporating up to the 16th model and outperformed other overbooking methods by as much as 9.4 per cent in the cost per patient while allowing two additional patients in a clinic day. Research limitations/implications - The challenge now is to actually implement the no-show predictive model systematically to further demonstrate its robustness and simplicity in various scheduling systems. Originality/value - This paper provides examples of how to build the no-show predictive models with time-dependent components to improve the overbooking policy. Accurately identifying scheduled patients' show/no-show status allows clinics to proactively schedule patients to reduce the negative impact of patient no-shows.
Increasing the octane number of gasoline using functionalized carbon nanotubes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kish, Sara Safari [Faculty of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, Alimorad, E-mail: rashidiam@ripi.ir [Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), West Blvd. Azadi Sport Complex, Tehran 14665-1998 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghabozorg, Hamid Reza [Catalysis Research Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradi, Leila [Faculty of Chemistry, Kashan University, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2010-03-15
The octane number is one of the characteristics of spark-ignition fuels such as gasoline. Octane number of fuels can be improved by addition of oxygenates such as ethanol, MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether), TBF (tertiary butyl formate) and TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) as well as their blends with gasoline that reduce the cost impact of fuels. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are as useful additives for increasing the octane number. Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing amide groups have a high reactivity and can react with many chemicals. These compounds can be solubilized in gasoline to increase the octane number. In this study, using octadecylamine and dodecylamine, CNTs were amidated and the amino-functionalized carbon nanotubes were added to gasoline. Research octane number analysis showed that these additives increase octane number of the desired samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal gravimetry analyses (TGA) were used for characterization of the prepared functionalized carbon nanotubes.
Increasing the octane number of gasoline using functionalized carbon nanotubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kish, Sara Safari; Rashidi, Alimorad; Aghabozorg, Hamid Reza; Moradi, Leila
2010-01-01
The octane number is one of the characteristics of spark-ignition fuels such as gasoline. Octane number of fuels can be improved by addition of oxygenates such as ethanol, MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether), TBF (tertiary butyl formate) and TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) as well as their blends with gasoline that reduce the cost impact of fuels. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are as useful additives for increasing the octane number. Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing amide groups have a high reactivity and can react with many chemicals. These compounds can be solubilized in gasoline to increase the octane number. In this study, using octadecylamine and dodecylamine, CNTs were amidated and the amino-functionalized carbon nanotubes were added to gasoline. Research octane number analysis showed that these additives increase octane number of the desired samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal gravimetry analyses (TGA) were used for characterization of the prepared functionalized carbon nanotubes.
Foucard, Tony; Yman, Ingrid Malmheden; Nordvall, Lennart
The results from the Swedish system for reporting severe and fatal reactions caused by food for the period 1993-96 were published in Lakartidningen in 1997. We now report the results for the period 1997-2003. The number of fatal cases has decreased from 1.75 to 0.86 per year and the number of life-threatening cases from 3 to I per year. The most gratifying result was the large decrease in severe reactions caused by soy, from 3 deaths and 6 life-threatening cases during the first 4-year period to just one life-threatening case during the following 7-year period. This reduction is probably largely due to an increased awareness of identified risk persons, but also to a reduced use of soy protein. The ongoing study illustrates the usefulness of a national system for reporting severe and fatal reactions caused by food.
Piper, Frida I; Fajardo, Alex; Hoch, Günter
2017-08-01
Since growth is more sensitive to drought than photosynthesis, trees inhabiting dry regions are expected to exhibit higher carbohydrate storage and less growth than their conspecifics from more humid regions. However, the same pattern can be the result of different genotypes inhabiting contrasting humidity conditions. To test if reduced growth and high carbohydrate storage are environmentally driven by drought, we examined the growth and non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations in single-provenance stands of mature trees of Pinus contorta Douglas and Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson planted at contrasting humidity conditions (900 versus 300 mm of annual precipitation) in Patagonia, Chile. Individual tree growth was measured for each species and at each location as mean basal area increment of the last 10 years (BAI10), annual shoot elongation for the period 2011-14, and needle length for 2013 and 2014 cohorts. Additionally, needle, branch, stem sapwood and roots were collected from each sampled tree to determine soluble sugars, starch and total NSC concentrations. The two species showed lower mean BAI10 and 2013 needle length in the dry site; P. ponderosa also had lower annual shoot extension for 2011 and 2014, and lower 2014 needle length, in the dry than in the mesic site. By contrast, NSC concentrations of all woody tissues for both species were either similar or higher in the dry site when compared with the mesic site. Patterns of starch and sugars were substantially different: starch concentrations were similar between sites except for roots of P. ponderosa, which were higher in the dry site, while sugar concentrations of all woody tissues in both species were higher in the dry site. Overall, our study provides evidence that reduced growth along with carbon (C) accumulation is an environmentally driven response to drought. Furthermore, the significant accumulation of low-molecular weight sugars in the dry site is compatible with a prioritized C
Hart, Trevor A; Noor, Syed W; Adam, Barry D; Vernon, Julia R G; Brennan, David J; Gardner, Sandra; Husbands, Winston; Myers, Ted
2017-10-01
Syndemics research shows the additive effect of psychosocial problems on high-risk sexual behavior among gay and bisexual men (GBM). Psychosocial strengths may predict less engagement in high-risk sexual behavior. In a study of 470 ethnically diverse HIV-negative GBM, regression models were computed using number of syndemic psychosocial problems, number of psychosocial strengths, and serodiscordant condomless anal sex (CAS). The number of syndemic psychosocial problems correlated with serodiscordant CAS (RR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.18-1.92; p = 0.001). When adding the number of psychosocial strengths to the model, the effect of syndemic psychosocial problems became non-significant, but the number of strengths-based factors remained significant (RR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.53-0.86; p = 0.002). Psychosocial strengths may operate additively in the same way as syndemic psychosocial problems, but in the opposite direction. Consistent with theories of resilience, psychosocial strengths may be an important set of variables predicting sexual risk behavior that is largely missing from the current HIV behavioral literature.
Rossi-Izquierdo, Marcos; Ernst, Arne; Soto-Varela, Andrés; Santos-Pérez, Sofía; Faraldo-García, Ana; Sesar-Ignacio, Angel; Basta, Dietmar
2013-02-01
The aim of this study was to assess effectiveness of balance training with a vibrotactile neurofeedback system in improving overall stability in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Ten patients diagnosed with idiopathic PD were included. Individualization of the rehabilitation program started with a body sway analysis of stance and gait tasks (Standard Balance Deficit Test, SBDT) by using the diagnostic tool of the applied device (Vertiguard(®)-RT). Those tasks with the poorest outcome as related to age- and gender-related controls were included in the training program (not more than six tasks). Improvement of postural stability was assessed by performing SBDT, Sensory Organization Test (SOT) of Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP), Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), activity-specific balance confidence scale and recording the number of falls over the past three months. Furthermore, scores of SOT and DHI of 10 PD patients previously trained in an earlier study (by using CDP) were compared with results of those in the present study. After neurofeedback training (NFT), there was a statistically significant improvement in body sway (calculated over all training tasks), number of falls, and scores of SOT, DHI and ABC. In comparison with CDP-training, a statistically significant higher increase of SOT score was observed for patients after NFT with the Vertiguard-RT device compared to CDP training. Our results showed that a free-field vibrotactile NFT with Vertiguard(®)-RT device can improve balance in PD patients in everyday life conditions very effectively, which might led in turn to a reduction of falls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Penetrative convection at high Rayleigh numbers
Toppaladoddi, Srikanth; Wettlaufer, John S.
2018-04-01
We study penetrative convection of a fluid confined between two horizontal plates, the temperatures of which are such that a temperature of maximum density lies between them. The range of Rayleigh numbers studied is Ra=[0.01 ,4 ]106,108 and the Prandtl numbers are Pr=1 and 11.6. An evolution equation for the growth of the convecting region is obtained through an integral energy balance. We identify a new nondimensional parameter, Λ , which is the ratio of temperature difference between the stable and unstable regions of the flow; larger values of Λ denote increased stability of the upper stable layer. We study the effects of Λ on the flow field using well-resolved lattice Boltzmann simulations and show that the characteristics of the flow depend sensitively upon it. For the range Λ = , we find that for a fixed Ra the Nusselt number, Nu, increases with decreasing Λ . We also investigate the effects of Λ on the vertical variation of convective heat flux and the Brunt-Väisälä frequency. Our results clearly indicate that in the limit Λ →0 the problem reduces to that of the classical Rayleigh-Bénard convection.
Photocatalytic fabrics based on reduced graphene oxide and TiO{sub 2} coatings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Molina, J., E-mail: jamopue@doctor.upv.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Textil y Papelera, EPS de Alcoy, Universitat Politècnica de València, Plaza Ferrándiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy (Spain); Department of Textile Engineering, University of Minho, Azurém Campus, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Fernandes, F., E-mail: b6073@fisica.uminho.pt [Department Physics, University of Minho, Azurém Campus, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Fernández, J., E-mail: jaferse1@posgrado.upv.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Textil y Papelera, EPS de Alcoy, Universitat Politècnica de València, Plaza Ferrándiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy (Spain); Pastor, M., E-mail: marianapastor88@gmail.com [Department Physics, University of Minho, Azurém Campus, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Correia, A., E-mail: anacamcorreia@gmail.com [Department Physics, University of Minho, Azurém Campus, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Souto, A.P., E-mail: souto@det.uminho.pt [Department of Textile Engineering, University of Minho, Azurém Campus, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Carneiro, J.O., E-mail: carneiro@fisica.uminho.pt [Department Physics, University of Minho, Azurém Campus, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); and others
2015-09-15
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Photocatalytic fabrics were produced with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and TiO{sub 2}. • Charge transfer resistance decreased with the increasing number of RGO layers. • Scanning electrochemical microscopy showed the photoresponse obtained. • Photocatalytic properties were tested with Rhodamine B solutions. • Photocatalytic efficiency increased with the number of RGO layers. - Abstract: The purpose of this work is to obtain photocatalytic fabrics based on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and TiO{sub 2} coatings on polyester fabrics. The influence of the applied number of RGO coatings on properties such as light absorption, conductivity, electroactivity and photocatalytic properties of the fabrics was established. An improvement of these properties with the number of RGO coatings applied was obtained. FESEM, EDX, XPS and FTIR-ATR showed the incorporation of the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the fabrics. FTIR-ATR showed the formation of a bidentate carboxylic ligand with titanium atoms. The photocatalytic properties of the fabrics were tested with Rhodamine B dye solutions. Photocatalytic efficiency increased with the number of RGO coatings, due to the increased light absorption, and better electrical properties. The charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}) and its time constant (τ) decreased, indicating a better electron transfer which helps to increase the lifetime of the pair electron/hole.
Experimental Evaluation of Multi-Round Matrix Multiplication on MapReduce
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ceccarello, Matteo; Silvestri, Francesco
2015-01-01
required by reduce functions. Then, we present an extensive study of this library on an in-house cluster and on Amazon Web Services aiming at showing its performance and at comparing monolithic and multi-round approaches. The experiments show that, even without a low level optimization, it is possible...... not be the best approach in cloud systems. Indeed, multi-round algorithms may exploit some features of cloud platforms by suitably setting the round number according to the execution context. In this paper we carry out an experimental study of multi-round MapReduce algorithms aiming at investigating...... the performance of the multi-round approach. We use matrix multiplication as a case study. We first propose a scalable Hadoop library, named M3, for matrix multiplication in the dense and sparse cases which allows to tradeoff round number with the amount of data shuffled in each round and the amount of memory...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Winter
2013-08-01
Full Text Available We report on studies of an inorganic electrolyte: LiAlCl4 in liquid sulfur dioxide. Concentrated solutions show a very high conductivity when compared with typical electrolytes for lithium ion batteries that are based on organic solvents. Our investigations include conductivity measurements and measurements of transference numbers via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and by a classical direct method, Hittorf’s method. For the use of Hittorf’s method, it is necessary to measure the concentration of the electrolyte in a selected cell compartment before and after electrochemical polarization very precisely. This task was finally performed by potentiometric titration after hydrolysis of the salt. The Haven ratio was determined to estimate the association behavior of this very concentrated electrolyte solution. The measured unusually high transference number of the lithium cation of the studied most concentrated solution, a molten solvate LiAlCl4 × 1.6SO2, makes this electrolyte a promising alternative for lithium ion cells with high power ability.
Reducing elevator energy use: A comparison of posted feedback and reduced elevator convenience
Houten, Ron Van; Nau, Paul A.; Merrigan, Michael
1981-01-01
The effects of two different procedures for reducing elevator energy use were assessed using a multiple-baseline design. In the first procedure, feedback about the amount of energy consumed by the elevators each week was posted on each elevator door. Later, signs advocating the use of stairs to save energy and improve health were posted next to the feedback signs. In the second procedure, the time required to travel between floors was increased by adding a delay to the elevator door closing mechanisms. Results indicated that neither feedback alone nor feedback plus educational signs reduced the amount of energy consumed by the elevators. However, use of the door delay reduced consumption by one-third in all elevators. A second experiment replicated the effect of the door delay on energy consumption and, in addition, demonstrated that the door delay also produced a reduction in the number of persons using the elevator. The second experiment also showed that, following an initial period during which a full delay was in effect, a gradual reduction of the delay interval resulted in continued energy conservation. Reduced convenience as a general strategy for energy conservation is discussed. PMID:16795648
Vaghjiani, Vijesh; Cain, Jason E; Lee, William; Vaithilingam, Vijayaganapathy; Tuch, Bernard E; St John, Justin C
2017-10-15
Mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) copy number is tightly regulated during pluripotency and differentiation. There is increased demand of cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during differentiation for energy-intensive cell types such as hepatocytes and neurons to meet the cell's functional requirements. During hepatocyte differentiation, mtDNA copy number should be synchronously increased to generate sufficient ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. Unlike bone marrow mesenchymal cells, mtDNA copy number failed to increase by 28 days of differentiation of human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC) into hepatocyte-like cells (HLC) despite their expression of some end-stage hepatic markers. This was due to higher levels of DNA methylation at exon 2 of POLGA, the mtDNA-specific replication factor. Treatment with a DNA demethylation agent, 5-azacytidine, resulted in increased mtDNA copy number, reduced DNA methylation at exon 2 of POLGA, and reduced hepatic gene expression. Depletion of mtDNA followed by subsequent differentiation did not increase mtDNA copy number, but reduced DNA methylation at exon 2 of POLGA and increased expression of hepatic and pluripotency genes. We encapsulated hAEC in barium alginate microcapsules and subsequently differentiated them into HLC. Encapsulation resulted in no net increase of mtDNA copy number but a significant reduction in DNA methylation of POLGA. RNAseq analysis showed that differentiated HLC express hepatocyte-specific genes but also increased expression of inflammatory interferon genes. Differentiation in encapsulated cells showed suppression of inflammatory genes as well as increased expression of genes associated with hepatocyte function pathways and networks. This study demonstrates that an increase in classical hepatic gene expression can be achieved in HLC through encapsulation, although they fail to effectively regulate mtDNA copy number.
New topological structures of Skyrme theory: baryon number and monopole number
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, Y.M. [Chinese Academy of Science, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kimm, Kyoungtae [Seoul National University, Faculty of Liberal Education, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J.H. [Konkuk University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Pengming [Chinese Academy of Science, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China)
2017-02-15
Based on the observation that the skyrmion in Skyrme theory can be viewed as a dressed monopole, we show that the skyrmions have two independent topology, the baryon topology π{sub 3}(S{sup 3}) and the monopole topology π{sub 2}(S{sup 2}). With this we propose to classify the skyrmions by two topological numbers (m, n), the monopole number m and the shell (radial) number n. In this scheme the popular (non spherically symmetric) skyrmions are classified as the (m, 1) skyrmions but the spherically symmetric skyrmions are classified as the (1, n) skyrmions, and the baryon number B is given by B = mn. Moreover, we show that the vacuum of the Skyrme theory has the structure of the vacuum of the Sine-Gordon theory and QCD combined together, which can also be classified by two topological numbers (p, q). This puts the Skyrme theory in a totally new perspective. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Levin, Bruce R; McCall, Ingrid C.; Perrot, Veronique
2017-01-01
We postulate that the inhibition of growth and low rates of mortality of bacteria exposed to ribosome-binding antibiotics deemed bacteriostatic can be attributed almost uniquely to these drugs reducing the number of ribosomes contributing to protein synthesis, i.e., the number of effective......-targeting bacteriostatic antibiotics, the time before these bacteria start to grow again when the drugs are removed, referred to as the post-antibiotic effect (PAE), is markedly greater for constructs with fewer rrn operons than for those with more rrn operons. We interpret the results of these other experiments reported...... here as support for the hypothesis that the reduction in the effective number of ribosomes due to binding to these structures provides a sufficient explanation for the action of bacteriostatic antibiotics that target these structures....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Espinoza G, J. G.; Martinez B, M. R.; Leon P, A. A.; Hernandez P, C. F.; Castaneda M, V. H.; Solis S, L. O.; Castaneda M, R.; Ortiz R, J. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Mendez, R.; Gallego, E.; De Sousa L, M. A.
2016-10-01
For neutron spectrometry and neutron dosimetry, the Bonner spheres spectrometric system has been the most widely used system, however, the number, size and weight of the spheres composing the system, as well as the need to use a reconstruction code and the long periods of time used to carry out the measurements are some of the disadvantages of this system. For the reconstruction of the spectra, different techniques such as artificial neural networks of reverse propagation have been used. The objective of this work was to reduce the number of Bonner spheres and to use counting speeds in a reverse propagation neural network, optimized by means of the robust design methodology, to reconstruct the neutron spectra. For the design of the neural network we used the neutron spectra of the IAEA and the response matrix of the Bonner spheres with "6LiI(Eu) detector. The performance of the network was compared; using 7 Bonner spheres against other cases where only 2 and one sphere are used. The network topologies were trained 36 times for each case keeping constant the objective error (1E(-3)), the training algorithm was trains cg and the robust design methodology to determine the best network architectures. With these, the best and worst results were compared. The results obtained using 7 spheres were similar to those with the 5-in sphere, however is still in an information analysis stage. (Author)
Mezadri, T J; Batista, G M; Portes, A C; Marino-Neto, J; Lino-de-Oliveira, C
2011-02-15
The forced swim test (FST) is a pre-clinical test to short and long term treatment with antidepressant drugs (ADT), which requires between-subject designs. Herein a modified protocol of the FST using within-subject design (repeated rat-FST) was evaluated. Male Wistar rats were submitted to 15 min of swimming (Day 1: pretest) followed by three subsequent 5 min-swimming tests one week apart (Day 2: test, Day 7: retest 1, Day 14: retest 2). To determine the temporal and factorial characteristics of the variables scored in the repeated rat-FST, the protocol was carried out in untreated animals (E1). To validate the method, daily injections of Fluoxetine (FLX, 2.5mg/kg, i.p.) or saline were given over a 2-week period (E2). Tests and retests have been videotaped for further register of the latency, frequency and duration of behaviors. Over retesting the latency to immobility decreased whereas duration of immobility tended to increase. Factorial analysis revealed that the test, the retest 1 as well as the retest 2 have variables suitable to detection of antidepressant-like effects of ADT. Compared to saline, FLX chronically administrated reduced duration of immobility whereas increased duration of swimming in retest 2. The data suggest that repeated rat-FST detected the gradual increase in the efficacy of low doses of FLX over time. Therefore, repeated rat-FST seemed suitable to detect short and long term effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or other ADT, thus reducing the number of animals used in the screenings of this type of compounds. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael J. Drescher
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Computerized decision support decreases the number of computed tomography pulmonary angiograms (CTPA for pulmonary embolism (PE ordered in emergency departments, but it is not always well accepted by emergency physicians. We studied a department-endorsed, evidence-based clinical protocol that included the PE rule-out criteria (PERC rule, multi-modal education using principles of knowledge translation (KT, and clinical decision support embedded in our order entry system, to decrease the number of unnecessary CTPA ordered. Methods: We performed a historically controlled observational before-after study for one year pre- and post-implementation of a departmentally-endorsed protocol. We included patients > 18 in whom providers suspected PE and who did not have a contraindication to CTPA. Providers entered clinical information into a diagnostic pathway via computerized order entry. Prior to protocol implementation, we provided education to ordering providers. The primary outcome measure was the number of CTPA ordered per 1,000 visits one year before vs. after implementation. Results: CTPA declined from 1,033 scans for 98,028 annual visits (10.53 per 1,000 patient visits (95% CI [9.9–11.2] to 892 scans for 101,172 annual visits (8.81 per 1,000 patient visits (95% CI [8.3–9.4] p<0.001. The absolute reduction in PACT ordered was 1.72 per 1,000 visits (a 16% reduction. Patient characteristics were similar for both periods. Conclusion: Knowledge translation clinical decision support using the PERC rule significantly reduced the number of CTPA ordered.
Burkhart, Jerry
2009-01-01
Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…
One-particle reducibility in effective scattering theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vereshagin, V.
2016-01-01
To construct the reasonable renormalization scheme suitable for the effective theories one needs to resolve the “problem of couplings” because the number of free parameters in a theory should be finite. Otherwise the theory would loose its predictive power. In the case of effective theory already the first step on this way shows the necessity to solve the above-mentioned problem for the 1-loop 2-leg function traditionally called self energy. In contrast to the customary renormalizable models the corresponding Feynman graph demonstrates divergencies that require introducing of an infinite number of prescriptions. In the recent paper [1] it has been shown that the way out of this difficulty requires the revision of the notion of one-particle reducibility. The point is that in effective scattering theory one can introduce two different notions: the graphic reducibility and the analytic one. Below we explain the main ideas of the paper [1] and recall some notions and definitions introduced earlier in [2] and [3
Mohamaddoust, Reza; Haghighat, Abolfazl Toroghi; Sharif, Mohamad Javad Motahari; Capanni, Niccolo
2011-01-01
Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are currently being applied to energy conservation applications such as light control. We propose a design for such a system called a lighting automatic control system (LACS). The LACS system contains a centralized or distributed architecture determined by application requirements and space usage. The system optimizes the calculations and communications for lighting intensity, incorporates user illumination requirements according to their activities and performs adjustments based on external lighting effects in external sensor and external sensor-less architectures. Methods are proposed for reducing the number of sensors required and increasing the lifetime of those used, for considerably reduced energy consumption. Additionally we suggest methods for improving uniformity of illuminance distribution on a workplane's surface, which improves user satisfaction. Finally simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of our design.
An emergentist perspective on the origin of number sense.
Zorzi, Marco; Testolin, Alberto
2017-02-19
The finding that human infants and many other animal species are sensitive to numerical quantity has been widely interpreted as evidence for evolved, biologically determined numerical capacities across unrelated species, thereby supporting a 'nativist' stance on the origin of number sense. Here, we tackle this issue within the 'emergentist' perspective provided by artificial neural network models, and we build on computer simulations to discuss two different approaches to think about the innateness of number sense. The first, illustrated by artificial life simulations, shows that numerical abilities can be supported by domain-specific representations emerging from evolutionary pressure. The second assumes that numerical representations need not be genetically pre-determined but can emerge from the interplay between innate architectural constraints and domain-general learning mechanisms, instantiated in deep learning simulations. We show that deep neural networks endowed with basic visuospatial processing exhibit a remarkable performance in numerosity discrimination before any experience-dependent learning, whereas unsupervised sensory experience with visual sets leads to subsequent improvement of number acuity and reduces the influence of continuous visual cues. The emergent neuronal code for numbers in the model includes both numerosity-sensitive (summation coding) and numerosity-selective response profiles, closely mirroring those found in monkey intraparietal neurons. We conclude that a form of innatism based on architectural and learning biases is a fruitful approach to understanding the origin and development of number sense.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The origins of numerical abilities'. © 2017 The Authors.
Tactile motion adaptation reduces perceived speed but shows no evidence of direction sensitivity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sarah McIntyre
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: While the directionality of tactile motion processing has been studied extensively, tactile speed processing and its relationship to direction is little-researched and poorly understood. We investigated this relationship in humans using the 'tactile speed aftereffect' (tSAE, in which the speed of motion appears slower following prolonged exposure to a moving surface. METHOD: We used psychophysical methods to test whether the tSAE is direction sensitive. After adapting to a ridged moving surface with one hand, participants compared the speed of test stimuli on the adapted and unadapted hands. We varied the direction of the adapting stimulus relative to the test stimulus. RESULTS: Perceived speed of the surface moving at 81 mms(-1 was reduced by about 30% regardless of the direction of the adapting stimulus (when adapted in the same direction, Mean reduction = 23 mms(-1, SD = 11; with opposite direction, Mean reduction = 26 mms(-1, SD = 9. In addition to a large reduction in perceived speed due to adaptation, we also report that this effect is not direction sensitive. CONCLUSIONS: Tactile motion is susceptible to speed adaptation. This result complements previous reports of reliable direction aftereffects when using a dynamic test stimulus as together they describe how perception of a moving stimulus in touch depends on the immediate history of stimulation. Given that the tSAE is not direction sensitive, we argue that peripheral adaptation does not explain it, because primary afferents are direction sensitive with friction-creating stimuli like ours (thus motion in their preferred direction should result in greater adaptation, and if perceived speed were critically dependent on these afferents' response intensity, the tSAE should be direction sensitive. The adaptation that reduces perceived speed therefore seems to be of central origin.
Hernández Velázquez, J D; Barroso-Flores, J; Gama Goicochea, A
2016-11-23
Two of the most commonly encountered friction-reducing agents used in plastic sheet production are the amides known as erucamide and behenamide, which despite being almost identical chemically, lead to markedly different values of the friction coefficient. To understand the origin of this contrasting behavior, in this work we model brushes made of these two types of linear-chain molecules using quantum mechanical numerical simulations under the density functional theory at the B97D/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. Four chains of erucamide and behenamide were linked to a 2 × 10 zigzag graphene sheet and optimized both in vacuum and in continuous solvent using the SMD implicit solvation model. We find that erucamide chains tend to remain closer together through π-π stacking interactions arising from the double bonds located at C13-C14, a feature behenamide lacks, and thus a more spread configuration is obtained with the latter. It is argued that this arrangement of the erucamide chains is responsible for the lower friction coefficient of erucamide brushes, compared with behenamide brushes, which is a macroscopic consequence of cooperative quantum mechanical interactions. While only quantum level interactions are modeled here, we show that behenamide chains are more spread out in the brush than erucamide chains as a consequence of those interactions. The spread-out configuration allows more solvent particles to penetrate the brush, leading in turn to more friction, in agreement with macroscopic measurements and mesoscale simulations of the friction coefficient reported in the literature.
Primary visual cortex volume and total neuron number are reduced in schizophrenia
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton; Pierri, Joseph H.; Wu, Qiang
2007-01-01
A number of studies that assessed the visual system in subjects with schizophrenia found impairments in early visual processing. Furthermore, functional imaging studies suggested changes in primary visual cortex activity in subjects with schizophrenia. Interestingly, postmortem studies of subject...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Spencer
Full Text Available Adipose tissue in insulin resistant subjects contains inflammatory cells and extracellular matrix components. This study examined adipose pathology of insulin resistant subjects who were treated with pioglitazone or fish oil.Adipose biopsies were examined from nine insulin resistant subjects before/after treatment with pioglitazone 45 mg/day for 12 weeks and also from 19 subjects who were treated with fish oil (1,860 mg EPA, 1,500 mg DHA daily. These studies were performed in a clinical research center setting.Pioglitazone treatment increased the cross-sectional area of adipocytes by 18% (p = 0.01, and also increased capillary density without affecting larger vessels. Pioglitazone treatment decreased total adipose macrophage number by 26%, with a 56% decrease in M1 macrophages and an increase in M2 macrophages. Mast cells were more abundant in obese versus lean subjects, and were decreased from 24 to 13 cells/mm(2 (p = 0.02 in patients treated with pioglitazone, but not in subjects treated with FO. Although there were no changes in total collagen protein, pioglitazone increased the amount of elastin protein in adipose by 6-fold.The PPARγ agonist pioglitazone increased adipocyte size yet improved other features of adipose, increasing capillary number and reducing mast cells and inflammatory macrophages. The increase in elastin may better permit adipocyte expansion without triggering cell necrosis and an inflammatory reaction.
Sobieraj, Jeffery C; Kim, Airee; Fannon, McKenzie J; Mandyam, Chitra D
2016-01-01
Exercise (physical activity) has been proposed as a treatment for drug addiction. In rodents, voluntary wheel running reduces cocaine and nicotine seeking during extinction, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking triggered by drug-cues. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of chronic wheel running during withdrawal and protracted abstinence on extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats, and to determine a potential neurobiological correlate underlying the effects. Rats were given extended access to methamphetamine (0.05 mg/kg, 6 h/day) for 22 sessions. Rats were withdrawn and were given access to running wheels (wheel runners) or no wheels (sedentary) for 3 weeks after which they experienced extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking. Extended access to methamphetamine self-administration produced escalation in methamphetamine intake. Methamphetamine experience reduced running output, and conversely, access to wheel running during withdrawal reduced responding during extinction and, context- and cue-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking. Immunohistochemical analysis of brain tissue demonstrated that wheel running during withdrawal did not regulate markers of methamphetamine neurotoxicity (neurogenesis, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, vesicular monoamine transporter-2) and cellular activation (c-Fos) in brain regions involved in relapse to drug seeking. However, reduced methamphetamine seeking was associated with running-induced reduction (and normalization) of the number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in the periaqueductal gray (PAG). The present study provides evidence that dopamine neurons of the PAG region show adaptive biochemical changes during methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats and wheel running abolishes these effects. Given that the PAG dopamine neurons project onto the structures of the extended amygdala, the present findings also
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille Yde; Johansen, Louise Kruse; Raida, Zindy
2009-01-01
C deficiency and neuronal damage in newborn guinea pigs. DESIGN: Thirty 6- to 7-d-old guinea pigs were randomly assigned to 2 groups to receive either a vitamin C-sufficient diet or the same diet containing a low concentration of vitamin C (but adequate to prevent scurvy) for 2 mo. Spatial memory...... was assessed by the Morris Water Maze, and hippocampal neuron numbers were quantified by stereologic techniques. RESULTS: The results showed a reduction in spatial memory (P ... a lower total number of neurons in hippocampal subdivisions (dentate gyrus, cornu ammonis 1, and cornu ammonis 2-3) than did the normal controls (P impaired neuronal development and a functional decrease...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leon P, A. A.; Martinez B, M. R.; Hernandez P, C. F.; Espinoza G, J. G.; Castaneda M, V. H.; Solis S, L. O.; Castaneda M, R.; Ortiz R, J. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Mendez V, R.; Gallego, E.; De Sousa L, M. A.
2016-10-01
The neutron spectrometry is an experimental process for determining the energy distribution called the Spectrum. Among the methods available for neutron spectrometry, one can mention the Bonner Sphere Spectrometric System as one of the most used, consisting of a detector placed in the center of a set of polyethylene spheres whose diameters range from 2 to 18 inches, however has some disadvantages such as the long periods of time to perform the measurements, the weight and the spheres number that vary according to the system. From this, alternative methods such as artificial neural networks are proposed. For this project neural networks of reverse propagation were used with the methodology of robust design of artificial neural networks, with the aid of a computational tool that maximizes the performance, making the time used for the training s of the network is the smallest possible and thus gets the orthogonal fixes quickly to determine the best network topology. The counting rates of a spectrometric system with 7 spheres, 2 spheres and one sphere of 5 and 8 inches were used. This methodology seeks to reduce the work used as in the spectrometric system formed by a greater number of spheres, since to enter less data in the counting rates to obtain the spectra with 60 energy levels saves time and space, because at having a smaller number of spheres its portability is easier to move from one place to another, for this we performed several experiments with different errors until we reached the optimal error so that the topology of the network was appropriate and find the best design parameters. A statistical software JMP was also used to obtain the best topologies and thus to retrain obtaining its best and worst spectra, in order to determine if the reduction is possible. (Author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Korsby, Trine Mygind
2017-01-01
Taking a point of departure in negotiations for access to a phone number for a brothel abroad, the article demonstrates how a group of pimps in Eastern Romania attempt to extend their local business into the rest of the EU. The article shows how the phone number works as a micro-infrastructure in......Taking a point of departure in negotiations for access to a phone number for a brothel abroad, the article demonstrates how a group of pimps in Eastern Romania attempt to extend their local business into the rest of the EU. The article shows how the phone number works as a micro...... in turn cultivate and maximize uncertainty about themselves in others. When making the move to go abroad into unknown terrains, accessing the infrastructure generated by the phone number can provide certainty and consolidate one’s position within criminal networks abroad. However, at the same time......, mishandling the phone number can be dangerous and in that sense produce new doubts and uncertainties....
Mohamaddoust, Reza; Haghighat, Abolfazl Toroghi; Sharif, Mohamad Javad Motahari; Capanni, Niccolo
2011-01-01
Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are currently being applied to energy conservation applications such as light control. We propose a design for such a system called a Lighting Automatic Control System (LACS). The LACS system contains a centralized or distributed architecture determined by application requirements and space usage. The system optimizes the calculations and communications for lighting intensity, incorporates user illumination requirements according to their activities and performs adjustments based on external lighting effects in external sensor and external sensor-less architectures. Methods are proposed for reducing the number of sensors required and increasing the lifetime of those used, for considerably reduced energy consumption. Additionally we suggest methods for improving uniformity of illuminance distribution on a workplane’s surface, which improves user satisfaction. Finally simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of our design. PMID:22164114
Current U.S. military operations in deserts face persistent threats from sand flies that transmit human Leishmania. In this study we investigated the efficacy of artificial barriers treated with residual insecticide to potentially reduce the risk of human infection from leishmaniasis by reducing the...
Sulfate-reducing bacteria in rice field soil and on rice roots.
Wind, T; Stubner, S; Conrad, R
1999-05-01
Rice plants that were grown in flooded rice soil microcosms were examined for their ability to exhibit sulfate reducing activity. Washed excised rice roots showed sulfate reduction potential when incubated in anaerobic medium indicating the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Rice plants, that were incubated in a double-chamber (phylloshpere and rhizosphere separated), showed potential sulfate reduction rates in the anoxic rhizosphere compartment. These rates decreased when oxygen was allowed to penetrate through the aerenchyma system of the plants into the anoxic root compartment, indicating that sulfate reducers on the roots were partially inhibited by oxygen or that sulfate was regenerated by oxidation of reduced S-compounds. The potential activity of sulfate reducers on rice roots was consistent with MPN enumerations showing that H2-utilizing sulfate-reducing bacteria were present in high numbers on the rhizoplane (4.1 x 10(7) g-1 root fresh weight) and in the adjacent rhizosperic soil (2.5 x 10(7) g-1 soil dry weight). Acetate-oxidizing sulfate reducers, on the other hand, showed highest numbers in the unplanted bulk soil (1.9 x 10(6) g-1 soil dry weight). Two sulfate reducing bacteria were isolated from the highest dilutions of the MPN series and were characterized physiologically and phylogenetically. Strain F1-7b which was isolated from the rhizoplane with H2 as electron donor was related to subgroup II of the family Desulfovibrionaceae. Strain EZ-2C2, isolated from the rhizoplane on acetate, grouped together with Desulforhabdus sp. and Syntrophobacter wolinii. Other strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria originated from bulk soil of rice soil microcosms and were isolated using different electron donors. From these isolates, strains R-AcA1, R-IbutA1, R-PimA1 and R-AcetonA170 were Gram-positive bacteria which were affiliated with the genus Desulfotomaculum. The other isolates were members of subgroup II of the Desulfovibrionaceae (R-SucA1 and R-LacA1), were
Diamond, Harold G; Cheung, Man Ping
2016-01-01
"Generalized numbers" is a multiplicative structure introduced by A. Beurling to study how independent prime number theory is from the additivity of the natural numbers. The results and techniques of this theory apply to other systems having the character of prime numbers and integers; for example, it is used in the study of the prime number theorem (PNT) for ideals of algebraic number fields. Using both analytic and elementary methods, this book presents many old and new theorems, including several of the authors' results, and many examples of extremal behavior of g-number systems. Also, the authors give detailed accounts of the L^2 PNT theorem of J. P. Kahane and of the example created with H. L. Montgomery, showing that additive structure is needed for proving the Riemann hypothesis. Other interesting topics discussed are propositions "equivalent" to the PNT, the role of multiplicative convolution and Chebyshev's prime number formula for g-numbers, and how Beurling theory provides an interpretation of the ...
Rational-number comparison across notation: Fractions, decimals, and whole numbers.
Hurst, Michelle; Cordes, Sara
2016-02-01
Although fractions, decimals, and whole numbers can be used to represent the same rational-number values, it is unclear whether adults conceive of these rational-number magnitudes as lying along the same ordered mental continuum. In the current study, we investigated whether adults' processing of rational-number magnitudes in fraction, decimal, and whole-number notation show systematic ratio-dependent responding characteristic of an integrated mental continuum. Both reaction time (RT) and eye-tracking data from a number-magnitude comparison task revealed ratio-dependent performance when adults compared the relative magnitudes of rational numbers, both within the same notation (e.g., fractions vs. fractions) and across different notations (e.g., fractions vs. decimals), pointing to an integrated mental continuum for rational numbers across notation types. In addition, eye-tracking analyses provided evidence of an implicit whole-number bias when we compared values in fraction notation, and individual differences in this whole-number bias were related to the individual's performance on a fraction arithmetic task. Implications of our results for both cognitive development research and math education are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Should Utility-Reducing Media Advertising be Taxed?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kind, Hans Jarle; Köthenbürger, Marko; Schjelderup, Guttorm
2009-01-01
Empirical evidence suggests that people dislike ads in media products like TV programs. In such situations standard economic theory prescribes that the advertising volume can be optimally reduced by levying a tax on ads. However, making use of recent advances in the theory of Industrial Organizat......Empirical evidence suggests that people dislike ads in media products like TV programs. In such situations standard economic theory prescribes that the advertising volume can be optimally reduced by levying a tax on ads. However, making use of recent advances in the theory of Industrial...... Organization and two-sided markets we show that taxing ads may be counterproductive. In particular, we identify a number of situations in which ad-adverse consumers are negatively affected by the tax, and we even show that the tax may lead to higher ad volumes. This unorthodox reaction to a tax may arise when...
Vries, R.B.M. de; Buma, P.; Leenaars, M.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.; Gordijn, B.
2012-01-01
The use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research is an important underexposed ethical issue. Several ethical questions may be raised about this use of animals. This article focuses on the possibilities of reducing the number of animals used. Given that there is considerable debate about
Schooling reduces energy consumption in swimming male European eels, Anguilla anguilla L.
Burgerhout, E.; Tudorache, C.; Brittijn, S.A.; Palstra, A.P.; Dirks, R.P.; Thillart, G.E.E.J.M.
2013-01-01
During migration, swimming in schools provides fish with a number of behavioural and ecological advantages, including increased food supply and reduced predation risk. Previous work shows that carangiform and tunniform swimming result in energetic advantages for individuals using a diamond swimming
Increased mast cell numbers in a calcaneal tendon overuse model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pingel, Jessica; Wienecke, Jacob; Kongsgaard Madsen, Mads
2013-01-01
Tendinopathy is often discovered late because the initial development of tendon pathology is asymptomatic. The aim of this study was to examine the potential role of mast cell involvement in early tendinopathy using a high-intensity uphill running (HIUR) exercise model. Twenty-four male Wistar rats...... = 0.03; 2.75 ± 0.54 vs 1.17 ± 0.53, was increased in the runners. The Bonar score (P = 0.05), and the number of mast cells (P = 0.02) were significantly higher in the runners compared to the controls. Furthermore, SHGM showed focal collagen disorganization in the runners, and reduced collagen density...... (P = 0.03). IL-3 mRNA levels were correlated with mast cell number in sedentary animals. The qPCR analysis showed no significant differences between the groups in the other analyzed targets. The current study demonstrates that 7-week HIUR causes structural changes in the calcaneal tendon, and further...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Joon Hyung; Cho, Jae Ho; Ahn, Jay Hong; Chang, Jay Chun
2001-01-01
To establish the criteria which can safely reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies by comparing the transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) findings, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and prostate specific antigen density (PSAD) in the decision of criteria for the prostatic biopsy using TRUS. Two hundred and twenty patients underwent TRUS- guided prostate biopsy due to elevated PSA and/or focal nodule on TRUS were included. Sixty five (27.5%) patients were confirmed as prostate cancer, and remained 155 (70.5%) patients were reported as benign diseases including benign prostate hyperplasia. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of TRUS, PSA and PSAD were evaluated and the single criterion or the combination of the criteria which can safely reduce the unnecessary biopsies without missing prostatic cancer were investigated. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of TRUS, PSA (cut-off value, 4 ng/ml) and PSAD (cut-off level, 0.2 ng/ml/cm 3 ) were 78.5%/95.4%/95.4%/27.8%/51.6%/64/5%, 42.7%/64.5%/73.6%, respectively. PSAD cut-off level 0.2 ng/ml/cm 3 was the most excellent single criterion for the decision of prostatic biopsy and the number of unnecessary biopsies was 100 cases. But 3 cases of prostatic cancer which the PSAD level was below 0.2 ng/ml/cm 3 were included and in all these 3 cases, a focal nodule was detected on TRUS. Therefore, we applied these two criteria at once and the biopsies of 30 cases (13.6%) are unnecessary. With the single criterion, we could not obtain the satisfactory results but by the combinations of criteria (TRUS and PSAD), 30 (13.6%) cases are unnecessary biopsies without missing cancer. We think that the short term follow-up may be a substitute for the immediate when nodular lesion is suspicious on TRUS and serum PSAD level is below 0.2 ng/ml/cm 3 .
Dynamic Virtual Credit Card Numbers
Molloy, Ian; Li, Jiangtao; Li, Ninghui
Theft of stored credit card information is an increasing threat to e-commerce. We propose a dynamic virtual credit card number scheme that reduces the damage caused by stolen credit card numbers. A user can use an existing credit card account to generate multiple virtual credit card numbers that are either usable for a single transaction or are tied with a particular merchant. We call the scheme dynamic because the virtual credit card numbers can be generated without online contact with the credit card issuers. These numbers can be processed without changing any of the infrastructure currently in place; the only changes will be at the end points, namely, the card users and the card issuers. We analyze the security requirements for dynamic virtual credit card numbers, discuss the design space, propose a scheme using HMAC, and prove its security under the assumption the underlying function is a PRF.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Sang Woo; Jun, Sang Bae
2005-01-01
The effects of Reynolds number on the non-nulling calibration of a typical cone-type five-hole probe have been investigated for the representative Reynolds numbers in turbomachinery. The pitch and yaw angles are changed from -35 degrees to 35 degrees with an angle interval of 5 degrees at six probe Reynolds numbers in range between 6.60x10 3 and 3.17x10 4 . The result shows that not only each calibration coefficient itself but also its Reynolds number dependency is affected significantly by the pitch and yaw angles. The Reynolds-number effects on the pitch-and yaw-angle coefficients are noticeable when the absolute values of the pitch and yaw angles are smaller than 20 degrees. The static-pressure coefficient is sensitive to the Reynolds number nearly all over the pitch-and yaw-angle range. The Reynolds-number effect on the total-pressure coefficient is found remarkable when the absolute values of the pitch and yaw angles are larger than 20 degrees. Through a typical non-nulling reduction procedure, actual reduced values of the pitch and yaw angles, static and total pressures, and velocity magnitude at each Reynolds number are obtained by employing the calibration coefficients at the highest Reynolds number (Re=3.17x10 4 ) as input reference calibration data. As a result, it is found that each reduced value has its own unique trend depending on the pitch and yaw angles. Its general tendency is related closely to the variation of the corresponding calibration coefficient with the Reynolds number. Among the reduced values, the reduced total pressure suffers the most considerable deviation from the measured one and its dependency upon the pitch and yaw angles is most noticeable. In this study, the root-mean-square data as well as the upper and lower bounds of the reduced values are reported as a function of the Reynolds number. These data would be very useful in the estimation of the Reynolds-number effects on the non-nulling calibration
Cohn, Harvey
1980-01-01
""A very stimulating book ... in a class by itself."" - American Mathematical MonthlyAdvanced students, mathematicians and number theorists will welcome this stimulating treatment of advanced number theory, which approaches the complex topic of algebraic number theory from a historical standpoint, taking pains to show the reader how concepts, definitions and theories have evolved during the last two centuries. Moreover, the book abounds with numerical examples and more concrete, specific theorems than are found in most contemporary treatments of the subject.The book is divided into three parts
A new pseudorandom number generator based on a complex number chaotic equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Yang; Tong Xiao-Jun
2012-01-01
In recent years, various chaotic equation based pseudorandom number generators have been proposed. However, the chaotic equations are all defined in the real number field. In this paper, an equation is proposed and proved to be chaotic in the imaginary axis. And a pseudorandom number generator is constructed based on the chaotic equation. The alteration of the definitional domain of the chaotic equation from the real number field to the complex one provides a new approach to the construction of chaotic equations, and a new method to generate pseudorandom number sequences accordingly. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the sequences generated by the proposed pseudorandom number generator possess many good properties
Ramsey numbers and adiabatic quantum computing.
Gaitan, Frank; Clark, Lane
2012-01-06
The graph-theoretic Ramsey numbers are notoriously difficult to calculate. In fact, for the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m,n) with m, n≥3, only nine are currently known. We present a quantum algorithm for the computation of the Ramsey numbers R(m,n). We show how the computation of R(m,n) can be mapped to a combinatorial optimization problem whose solution can be found using adiabatic quantum evolution. We numerically simulate this adiabatic quantum algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and R(2,s) for 5≤s≤7. We then discuss the algorithm's experimental implementation, and close by showing that Ramsey number computation belongs to the quantum complexity class quantum Merlin Arthur.
Ross, Donna Cohen
This testimony of Donna Cohen Ross describes the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities' work to reduce the number of uninsured children. The Center specializes in programs and policies affecting low- and moderate-income families, including issues related to health coverage for the uninsured. It works with many groups on strategies to identify…
Al-Mulla, Hawaa M N; Turrell, Lauren; Smith, Nicola M; Payne, Luke; Baliji, Surendranath; Züst, Roland; Thiel, Volker; Baker, Susan C; Siddell, Stuart G; Neuman, Benjamin W
2014-04-01
Positive-stranded viruses synthesize their RNA in membrane-bound organelles, but it is not clear how this benefits the virus or the host. For coronaviruses, these organelles take the form of double-membrane vesicles (DMVs) interconnected by a convoluted membrane network. We used electron microscopy to identify murine coronaviruses with mutations in nsp3 and nsp14 that replicated normally while producing only half the normal amount of DMVs under low-temperature growth conditions. Viruses with mutations in nsp5 and nsp16 produced small DMVs but also replicated normally. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) confirmed that the most strongly affected of these, the nsp3 mutant, produced more viral RNA than wild-type virus. Competitive growth assays were carried out in both continuous and primary cells to better understand the contribution of DMVs to viral fitness. Surprisingly, several viruses that produced fewer or smaller DMVs showed a higher fitness than wild-type virus at the reduced temperature, suggesting that larger and more numerous DMVs do not necessarily confer a competitive advantage in primary or continuous cell culture. For the first time, this directly demonstrates that replication and organelle formation may be, at least in part, studied separately during infection with positive-stranded RNA virus. IMPORTANCE The viruses that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), poliomyelitis, and hepatitis C all replicate in double-membrane vesicles (DMVs). The big question about DMVs is why they exist in the first place. In this study, we looked at thousands of infected cells and identified two coronavirus mutants that made half as many organelles as normal and two others that made typical numbers but smaller organelles. Despite differences in DMV size and number, all four mutants replicated as efficiently as wild-type virus. To better understand the relative importance of replicative organelles, we carried out competitive fitness experiments. None
Rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection at low Prandtl number
Aguirre Guzman, Andres; Ostilla-Monico, Rodolfo; Clercx, Herman; Kunnen, Rudie
2017-11-01
Most geo- and astrophysical convective flows are too remote or too complex for direct measurements of the physical quantities involved, and thus a reduced framework with the main physical constituents is beneficial. This approach is given by the problem of rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RRBC). For large-scale systems, the governing parameters of RRBC take extreme values, leading to the geostrophic turbulent regime. We perform Direct Numerical Simulations to investigate the transition to this regime at low Prandtl number (Pr). In low- Pr fluids, thermal diffusivity dominates over momentum diffusivity; we use Pr = 0.1 , relevant to liquid metals. In particular, we study the convective heat transfer (Nusselt number Nu) as a function of rotation (assessed by the Ekman number Ek). The strength of the buoyant forcing (Rayleigh number Ra) is Ra = 1 ×1010 to ensure turbulent convection. Varying Ek , we observe a change of the power-law scaling Nu Ekβ that suggests a transition to geostrophic turbulence, which is likely to occur at Ek = 9 ×10-7 . The thermal boundary layer thickness, however, may suggest a transition at lower Ekman numbers, indicating that perhaps not all statistical quantities show a transitional behaviour at the same Ek .
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Anette Maria; Olsen, Karsten S
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND: Many patients are diagnosed with postoperative urine retention in the recovery room and treated with in-out catheterisation (IOC). OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that the use of IOC could be reduced by mobilising patients to the toilet to pass urine instead of offering a bedpan or urinal...... ward mobilisation were 85 (37 to 139) min in Group I and 180 (118 to 245) min in Group C (P strategy decreased the number of IOCs, duration of stay in the recovery...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Staton Carolyn A
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have suggested that the VEGF receptor neuropilin-1 (NRP-1 is expressed in a singly dispersed subpopulation of cells in the normal colonic epithelium, but that expression becomes dysregulated during colorectal carcinogenesis, with higher levels in tumour suggestive of a poor prognosis. We noted that the spatial distribution and morphology if NRP-1 expressing cells resembles that of enteroendocrine cells (EEC which are altered in response to disease state including cancer and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. We have shown that NRP-1 is down-regulated by butyrate in colon cancer cell lines in vitro and we hypothesized that butyrate produced in the lumen would have an analogous effect on the colon mucosa in vivo. Therefore we sought to investigate whether NRP-1 is expressed in EEC and how NRP-1 and EEC respond to butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFA - principally acetate and propionate. Additionally we sought to assess whether there is a field effect around adenomas. Methodology Biopsies were collected at the mid-sigmoid, at the adenoma and at the contralateral wall (field of 28 subjects during endoscopy. Samples were fixed for IHC and stained for either NRP-1 or for chromogranin A (CgA, a marker of EEC. Stool sampling was undertaken to assess individuals' butyrate, acetate and propionate levels. Result NRP-1 expression was inversely related to SCFA concentration at the colon landmark (mid-sigmoid, but expression was lower and not related to SCFA concentration at the field. Likewise CgA+ cell number was also inversely related to SCFA at the landmark, but was lower and unresponsive at the field. Crypt cellularity was unaltered by field effect. A colocalisation analysis showed only a small subset of NRP-1 localised with CgA. Adenomas showed extensive, weaker staining for NRP-1 which contrastingly correlated positively with butyrate level. Field effects cause this relationship to be lost. Adenoma tissue
Campylobacter numbers increase on broiler carcasses during defeathering due to leakage of gut contents through the vent. We tested several processing modifications designed to interfere with the transfer of Campylobacter from gut contents to carcass surface. Numbers of Campylobacter detected on br...
Analysis of some methods for reduced rank Gaussian process regression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Quinonero-Candela, J.; Rasmussen, Carl Edward
2005-01-01
While there is strong motivation for using Gaussian Processes (GPs) due to their excellent performance in regression and classification problems, their computational complexity makes them impractical when the size of the training set exceeds a few thousand cases. This has motivated the recent...... proliferation of a number of cost-effective approximations to GPs, both for classification and for regression. In this paper we analyze one popular approximation to GPs for regression: the reduced rank approximation. While generally GPs are equivalent to infinite linear models, we show that Reduced Rank...... Gaussian Processes (RRGPs) are equivalent to finite sparse linear models. We also introduce the concept of degenerate GPs and show that they correspond to inappropriate priors. We show how to modify the RRGP to prevent it from being degenerate at test time. Training RRGPs consists both in learning...
Low Mach and Peclet number limit for a model of stellar tachocline and upper radiative zones
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Donatella Donatelli
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We study a hydrodynamical model describing the motion of internal stellar layers based on compressible Navier-Stokes-Fourier-Poisson system. We suppose that the medium is electrically charged, we include energy exchanges through radiative transfer and we assume that the system is rotating. We analyze the singular limit of this system when the Mach number, the Alfven number, the Peclet number and the Froude number approache zero in a certain way and prove convergence to a 3D incompressible MHD system with a stationary linear transport equation for transport of radiation intensity. Finally, we show that the energy equation reduces to a steady equation for the temperature corrector.
Improved atom number with a dual color magneto—optical trap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao Qiang; Luo Xin-Yu; Gao Kui-Yi; Wang Xiao-Rui; Wang Ru-Quan; Chen Dong-Min
2012-01-01
We demonstrate a novel dual color magneto—optical trap (MOT), which uses two sets of overlapping laser beams to cool and trap 87 Rb atoms. The volume of cold cloud in the dual color MOT is strongly dependent on the frequency difference of the laser beams and can be significantly larger than that in the normal MOT with single frequency MOT beams. Our experiment shows that the dual color MOT has the same loading rate as the normal MOT, but much longer loading time, leading to threefold increase in the number of trapped atoms. This indicates that the larger number is caused by reduced light induced loss. The dual color MOT is very useful in experiments where both high vacuum level and large atom number are required, such as single chamber quantum memory and Bose—Einstein condensation (BEC) experiments. Compared to the popular dark spontaneous-force optical trap (dark SPOT) technique, our approach is technically simpler and more suitable to low power laser systems. (rapid communication)
Control of wing-tip vortex using winglets at low Reynolds number
Cho, Seunghyun; Choi, Haecheon
2014-11-01
Winglets are considered as one of the effective devices for reducing induced drag, and thus many studies have been conducted, but mainly at high Reynolds numbers (Re ~106 ~107) for commercial airplanes. However, small-size unmanned air vehicles (UAV), operating at low Reynolds numbers (Re PIV measurements are conducted at several cross-flow planes for a few different angles of attack (α) . At high angles of attack (7° ~13°) , the winglets with the cant angle of 70° increase the aerodynamic performance, whereas at low angles of attack (2° ~6°) , the wing-tip extension (cant angle of 0°) shows better performances. The velocity fields measured from PIV indicate that, with the winglet, the wing-tip vortex moves away from the wing surface at α =12° , and the downwash motion in the wake behind the trailing edge is decreased, reducing the magnitude of the induced drag. A concept of changing the cant angle during flight is also suggested at this talk. Supported by 2011-0028032.
Appropriate food policies and investments could reduce child malnutrition by 43% in 2020.
Rosegrant, Mark W; Meijer, Siet
2002-11-01
This report describes past trends in global child malnutrition and assesses future prospects for reducing child malnutrition. Most developing countries have significantly reduced the proportion of malnourished children during the past three decades. However, because of population growth, the absolute number of malnourished children has fallen much less sharply. Moreover, the number of malnourished children has increased in Sub-Saharan Africa. A global food supply-and-demand model is used to project child malnutrition to 2020 under alternative assumptions on policies and investments that influence food security outcomes in education, clean water, agricultural research, irrigation and rural infrastructure. The baseline "best-estimate" projection shows that the number of malnourished children will continue to decline slowly but that child malnutrition will continue to increase in Sub-Saharan Africa. The optimistic scenario shows that better policy and more rapid economic and agricultural growth can lead to substantial food security improvements, but the pessimistic scenario shows that significantly worse outcomes are also possible with relatively small declines in policy and investment efforts relative to the baseline. A concerted effort to eliminate childhood malnutrition would require policy reform and significant increases in public investment to produce long-term gains in income growth, agricultural productivity and social indicators.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Forberg Jakob L
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-hospital electrocardiogram (ECG transmission to an expert for interpretation and triage reduces time to acute percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI in patients with ST elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI. In order to detect all STEMI patients, the ECG should be transmitted in all cases of suspected acute cardiac ischemia. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of an artificial neural network (ANN to safely reduce the number of ECGs transmitted by identifying patients without STEMI and patients not needing acute PCI. Methods Five hundred and sixty ambulance ECGs transmitted to the coronary care unit (CCU in routine care were prospectively collected. The ECG interpretation by the ANN was compared with the diagnosis (STEMI or not and the need for an acute PCI (or not as determined from the Swedish coronary angiography and angioplasty register. The CCU physician's real time ECG interpretation (STEMI or not and triage decision (acute PCI or not were registered for comparison. Results The ANN sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for STEMI was 95%, 68%, 18% and 99%, respectively, and for a need of acute PCI it was 97%, 68%, 17% and 100%. The area under the ANN's receiver operating characteristics curve for STEMI detection was 0.93 (95% CI 0.89-0.96 and for predicting the need of acute PCI 0.94 (95% CI 0.90-0.97. If ECGs where the ANN did not identify a STEMI or a need of acute PCI were theoretically to be withheld from transmission, the number of ECGs sent to the CCU could have been reduced by 64% without missing any case with STEMI or a need of immediate PCI. Conclusions Our ANN had an excellent ability to predict STEMI and the need of acute PCI in ambulance ECGs, and has a potential to safely reduce the number of ECG transmitted to the CCU by almost two thirds.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Hermann
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs by overexpression of the transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-Myc holds great promise for the development of personalized cell replacement therapies. In an attempt to minimize the risk of chromosomal disruption and to simplify reprogramming, several studies demonstrated that a reduced set of reprogramming factors is sufficient to generate iPSC. We recently showed that a reduction of reprogramming factors in murine cells not only reduces reprogramming efficiency but also may worsen subsequent differentiation. To prove whether this is also true for human cells, we compared the efficiency of neuronal differentiation of iPSC generated from fetal human neural stem cells with either one (OCT4; hiPSC1F-NSC or two (OCT4, KLF4; hiPSC2F-NSC reprogramming factors with iPSC produced from human fibroblasts using three (hiPSC3F-FIB or four reprogramming factors (hiPSC4F-FIB. After four weeks of coculture with PA6 stromal cells, neuronal differentiation of hiPSC1F-NSC and hiPSC2F-NSC was as efficient as iPSC3F-FIB or iPSC4F-FIB. We conclude that a reduction of reprogramming factors in human cells does reduce reprogramming efficiency but does not alter subsequent differentiation into neural lineages. This is of importance for the development of future application of iPSC in cell replacement therapies.
Nonkes, Lourens J. P.; van de Vondervoort, Ilse I. G. M.; de Leeuw, Mark J. C.; Wijlaars, Linda P.; Maes, Joseph H. R.; Homberg, Judith R.
2012-01-01
Behavioral flexibility is a cognitive process depending on prefrontal areas allowing adaptive responses to environmental changes. Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT[superscript -/-]) rodents show improved reversal learning in addition to orbitofrontal cortex changes. Another form of behavioral flexibility, extradimensional strategy set-shifting…
Pseudo Random Coins Show More Heads Than Tails
Bauke, Heiko; Mertens, Stephan
2003-01-01
Tossing a coin is the most elementary Monte Carlo experiment. In a computer the coin is replaced by a pseudo random number generator. It can be shown analytically and by exact enumerations that popular random number generators are not capable of imitating a fair coin: pseudo random coins show more heads than tails. This bias explains the empirically observed failure of some random number generators in random walk experiments. It can be traced down to the special role of the value zero in the ...
Caspeta, Luis; Nielsen, Jens
2015-07-21
A major challenge for the production of ethanol from biomass-derived feedstocks is to develop yeasts that can sustain growth under the variety of inhibitory conditions present in the production process, e.g., high osmolality, high ethanol titers, and/or elevated temperatures (≥ 40 °C). Using adaptive laboratory evolution, we previously isolated seven Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with improved growth at 40 °C. Here, we show that genetic adaptations to high temperature caused a growth trade-off at ancestral temperatures, reduced cellular functions, and improved tolerance of other stresses. Thermotolerant yeast strains showed horizontal displacement of their thermal reaction norms to higher temperatures. Hence, their optimal and maximum growth temperatures increased by about 3 °C, whereas they showed a growth trade-off at temperatures below 34 °C. Computational analysis of the physical properties of proteins showed that the lethal temperature for yeast is around 49 °C, as a large fraction of the yeast proteins denature above this temperature. Our analysis also indicated that the number of functions involved in controlling the growth rate decreased in the thermotolerant strains compared with the number in the ancestral strain. The latter is an advantageous attribute for acquiring thermotolerance and correlates with the reduction of yeast functions associated with loss of respiration capacity. This trait caused glycerol overproduction that was associated with the growth trade-off at ancestral temperatures. In combination with altered sterol composition of cellular membranes, glycerol overproduction was also associated with yeast osmotolerance and improved tolerance of high concentrations of glucose and ethanol. Our study shows that thermal adaptation of yeast is suitable for improving yeast resistance to inhibitory conditions found in industrial ethanol production processes. Yeast thermotolerance can significantly reduce the production costs of biomass
Reducing condition number by appropriate current decomposition on a multiplet of several wires
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Lysko, AA
2011-07-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses a numerical investigation in connection with the dependency of the condition number of the impedance matrix on the decomposition of current on a junction with several attached wires (multiplet). It is shown that the condition...
BDNF-Deficient Mice Show Reduced Psychosis-Related Behaviors Following Chronic Methamphetamine.
Manning, Elizabeth E; Halberstadt, Adam L; van den Buuse, Maarten
2016-04-01
One of the most devastating consequences of methamphetamine abuse is increased risk of psychosis. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor has been implicated in both psychosis and neuronal responses to methamphetamine. We therefore examined persistent psychosis-like behavioral effects of methamphetamine in brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice. Mice were chronically treated with methamphetamine from 6 to 9 weeks of age, and locomotor hyperactivity to an acute D-amphetamine challenge was tested in photocell cages after a 2-week withdrawal period. Methamphetamine-treated wild-type mice, but not brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice, showed locomotor sensitization to acute 3mg/kg D-amphetamine. Qualitative analysis of exploration revealed tolerance to D-amphetamine effects on entropy in methamphetamine-treated brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice, but not wild-type mice. Chronic methamphetamine exposure induces contrasting profiles of behavioral changes in wild-type and brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice, with attenuation of behaviors relevant to psychosis in methamphetamine-treated brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice. This suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor signalling changes may contribute to development of psychosis in methamphetamine users. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.
Lipid reducing activity and toxicity profiles of a library of polyphenol derivatives.
Urbatzka, Ralph; Freitas, Sara; Palmeira, Andreia; Almeida, Tiago; Moreira, João; Azevedo, Carlos; Afonso, Carlos; Correia-da-Silva, Marta; Sousa, Emilia; Pinto, Madalena; Vasconcelos, Vitor
2018-05-10
Obesity is an increasing epidemic worldwide and novel treatments are urgently needed. Polyphenols are natural compounds derived from plants, which are known in particular for their antioxidant properties. However, some polyphenols were described to possess anti-obesity activities in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we aimed to screen a library of 85 polyphenol derivatives for their lipid reducing activity and toxicity. Compounds were analyzed at 5 μM with the zebrafish Nile red fluorescence fat metabolism assay and for general toxicity in vivo. To improve the safety profile, compounds were screened at 50 μM in murine preadipocytes in vitro for cytotoxicity. Obtained activity data were used to create a 2D-QSAR (quantitative structure activity relationship) model. 38 polyphenols showed strong lipid reducing activity. Toxicity analysis revealed that 18 of them did not show any toxicity in vitro or in vivo. QSAR analysis revealed the importance of the number of rings, fractional partial positively charged surface area, relative positive charge, relative number of oxygen atoms, and partial negative surface area for lipid-reducing activity. The five most potent compounds with EC 50 values in the nanomolar range for lipid reducing activity and without any toxic effects are strong candidates for future research and development into anti-obesity drugs. Molecular profiling for fasn, sirt1, mtp and ppary revealed one compound that reduced significantly fasn mRNA expression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Reducing stillbirths in Ethiopia: Results of an intervention programme.
Lindtjørn, Bernt; Mitike, Demissew; Zidda, Zillo; Yaya, Yaliso
2018-01-01
Previous studies from South Ethiopia have shown that interventions that focus on intrapartum care substantially reduce maternal mortality and there is a need to operationalize health packages that could reduce stillbirths. The aim of this paper is to evaluate if a programme that aimed to improve maternal health, and mainly focusing on strengthening intrapartum care, also would reduce the number of stillbirths, and to estimate if there are other indicators that explains high stillbirth rates. Our study used a "continuum of care" approach and focussed on providing essential antenatal and obstetric services in communities through health extension workers, at antenatal and health facility services. In this follow up study, which includes the same 38.312 births registered by community health workers, shows that interventions focusing on improved intrapartum care can also reduce stillbirths (by 46%; from 14.5 to 7.8 per 1000 births). Other risk factors for stillbirths are mainly related to complications during delivery and illnesses during pregnancy. We show that focusing on Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric Care and antenatal services reduces stillbirths. However, the study also underlines that illnesses during pregnancy and complications during delivery still represent the main risk factors for stillbirths. This indicates that obstetric care need still to be strengthened, should include the continuum of care from home to the health facility, make care accessible to all, and reduce delays.
Forecasting the Number of Soil Samples Required to Reduce Remediation Cost Uncertainty
Demougeot-Renard, Hélène; de Fouquet, Chantal; Renard, Philippe
2008-01-01
Sampling scheme design is an important step in the management of polluted sites. It largely controls the accuracy of remediation cost estimates. In practice, however, sampling is seldom designed to comply with a given level of remediation cost uncertainty. In this paper, we present a new technique that allows one to estimate of the number of samples that should be taken at a given stage of investigation to reach a forecasted level of accuracy. The uncertainty is expressed both in terms of vol...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gregers, Jannie; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Dalhoff, Kim
2010-01-01
with chromosome 21 copy number in the leukemic clone. A total of 500 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated according to the common Nordic treatment protocols were included, and we found that the RFC AA variant was associated with a 50% better chance of staying in remission compared with GG or GA......The reduced folate carrier (RFC) is involved in the transport of methotrexate (MTX) across the cell membrane. The RFC gene (SLC19A1) is located on chromosome 21, and we hypothesized that the RFC80 G>A polymorphism would affect outcome and toxicity in childhood leukemia and that this could interact...... variants (P = .046). Increased copy numbers of chromosome 21 appear to improve outcome also in children with GA or GG variant. In a subset of 182 children receiving 608 high-dose MTX courses, we observed higher degree of bone marrow toxicity in patients with the RFC AA variant compared with GA/GG variants...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Smolík, Filip; Bláhová, Veronika
2017-01-01
Roč. 37, č. 1 (2017), s. 42-57 ISSN 0142-7237 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-26779S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : comprehension * grammatical agreement * grammatical number * morphology * picture-pointing task * picture-pointing task Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2016
Vortex Shedding from Tapered Cylinders at high Reynolds Numbers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansson, Jens; Andersen, Michael Styrk; Christensen, Silas Sverre
2015-01-01
percent for strakes of circular cross section. The present paper argues that this height can be reduced for structures where the critical wind velocity for vortex shedding is in the Supercritical Reynolds number regime. The present investigations are aimed for suppressing VIV on offshore wind turbine......^5 (Supercritical). Results indicate that circular strakes with a diameter corresponding to 3 percent of the structures mean diameter can be used to efficiently reduce VIV in the Supercritical Reynolds number regime....
High-Reynolds Number Circulation Control Testing in the National Transonic Facility
Milholen, William E., II; Jones, Gregory S.; Chan, David T.; Goodliff, Scott L.
2012-01-01
A new capability to test active flow control concepts and propulsion simulations at high Reynolds numbers in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center is being developed. The first active flow control experiment was completed using the new FAST-MAC semi-span model to study Reynolds number scaling effects for several circulation control concepts. Testing was conducted over a wide range of Mach numbers, up to chord Reynolds numbers of 30 million. The model was equipped with four onboard flow control valves allowing independent control of the circulation control plenums, which were directed over a 15% chord simple-hinged flap. Preliminary analysis of the uncorrected lift data showed that the circulation control increased the low-speed maximum lift coefficient by 33%. At transonic speeds, the circulation control was capable of positively altering the shockwave pattern on the upper wing surface and reducing flow separation. Furthermore, application of the technique to only the outboard portion of the wing demonstrated the feasibility of a pneumatic based roll control capability.
Grammatical typology and frequency analysis: number availability and number use
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dunstan Brown
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The Smith-Stark hierarchy, a version of the Animacy Hierarchy, offers a typology of the cross-linguistic availability of number. The hierarchy predicts that the availability of number is not arbitrary. For any language, if the expression of plural is available to a noun, it is available to any noun of a semantic category further to the left of the hierarchy. In this article we move one step further by showing that the structure of the hierarchy can be observed in a statistical model of number use in Russian. We also investigate three co-variates: plural preference, pluralia tantum and irregularity effects; these account for an item's behaviour being different than that solely expected from its animacy position.
The effect of the cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fukuda, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Shotai; Koide, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Okada, Kazunori; Shimote, Koichi; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro (Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan))
1989-06-01
The effects of the cranial size and the computed tomography (CT) numbers of the cranial bone on that of the brain were studied in 70 subjects, aged from 30 to 94 years. The subjects had no histories of cerebrovascular accidents and showed no abnormalities in the central nervous system upon physical examinations and a CT scan. We measured the average attenuation values (CT numbers) of each elliptical region (165 pixels, 0.39 cm{sup 2}) at the bilateral thalamus and at twelve areas of the deep white matter. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effects of age, cranial size, and cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers. The effect of the cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers was statistically significant. The brain CT numbers increased with the increase in the cranial bone CT numbers. There was, however, no significant correlation between brain CT numbers and cranial size. In measuring the brain CT numbers, it is desirable that consideration be given to the cranial bone CT numbers. (author).
Fatal crashes involving large numbers of vehicles and weather.
Wang, Ying; Liang, Liming; Evans, Leonard
2017-12-01
Adverse weather has been recognized as a significant threat to traffic safety. However, relationships between fatal crashes involving large numbers of vehicles and weather are rarely studied according to the low occurrence of crashes involving large numbers of vehicles. By using all 1,513,792 fatal crashes in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data, 1975-2014, we successfully described these relationships. We found: (a) fatal crashes involving more than 35 vehicles are most likely to occur in snow or fog; (b) fatal crashes in rain are three times as likely to involve 10 or more vehicles as fatal crashes in good weather; (c) fatal crashes in snow [or fog] are 24 times [35 times] as likely to involve 10 or more vehicles as fatal crashes in good weather. If the example had used 20 vehicles, the risk ratios would be 6 for rain, 158 for snow, and 171 for fog. To reduce the risk of involvement in fatal crashes with large numbers of vehicles, drivers should slow down more than they currently do under adverse weather conditions. Driver deaths per fatal crash increase slowly with increasing numbers of involved vehicles when it is snowing or raining, but more steeply when clear or foggy. We conclude that in order to reduce risk of involvement in crashes involving large numbers of vehicles, drivers must reduce speed in fog, and in snow or rain, reduce speed by even more than they already do. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Palačić, Darko
2017-06-01
This article contains the results of research into the impact of implementation of the requirements mentioned in Standard No. OHSAS 18001:2007 to reduce the number of injuries at work and the financial costs incurred in this way. The study was conducted on a determined sample by a written questionnaire survey method in the Republic of Croatia. The objective of the empirical research is to determine the impact of implementation of the requirements of Standard No. OHSAS 18001:2007 to reduce the number of injuries at work and financial costs in Croatia in business organizations that implement these requirements. To provide a broader picture, the research included the collection and analysis of data on the impact of the Standard No. OHSAS 18001:2007 on accidents and fatalities at work. Research findings are based on the analysis of performed statistical data where correlation and regression analysis has been applied.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aryo B. Feldman
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Improvements to leaf photosynthetic rates of crops can be achieved by targeted manipulation of individual component processes, such as the activity and properties of RuBisCO or photoprotection. This study shows that simple forward genetic screens of mutant populations can also be used to rapidly generate photosynthesis variants that are useful for breeding. Increasing leaf vein density (concentration of vascular tissue per unit leaf area has important implications for plant hydraulic properties and assimilate transport. It was an important step to improving photosynthetic rates in the evolution of both C3 and C4 species and is a foundation or prerequisite trait for C4 engineering in crops like rice (Oryza sativa. A previous high throughput screen identified five mutant rice lines (cv. IR64 with increased vein densities and associated narrower leaf widths (Feldman et al., 2014. Here, these high vein density rice variants were analyzed for properties related to photosynthesis. Two lines were identified as having significantly reduced mesophyll to bundle sheath cell number ratios. All five lines had 20% higher light saturated photosynthetic capacity per unit leaf area, higher maximum carboxylation rates, dark respiration rates and electron transport capacities. This was associated with no significant differences in leaf thickness, stomatal conductance or CO2 compensation point between mutants and the wild-type. The enhanced photosynthetic rate in these lines may be a result of increased RuBisCO and electron transport component amount and/or activity and/or enhanced transport of photoassimilates. We conclude that high vein density (associated with altered mesophyll cell length and number is a trait that may confer increased photosynthetic efficiency without increased transpiration.
Priftis, Konstantinos; Pitteri, Marco; Meneghello, Francesca; Umiltà, Carlo; Zorzi, Marco
2012-01-01
Behavioral, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging data support the idea that numbers are represented along a mental number line (MNL), an analogical, visuospatial representation of number magnitude. The MNL is left-to-right oriented in Western cultures, with small numbers on the left and larger numbers on the right. Left neglect patients are impaired in the mental bisection of numerical intervals, with a bias toward larger numbers that are relatively to the right on the MNL. In the present study we investigated the effects of optokinetic stimulation (OKS) – a technique inducing visuospatial attention shifts by means of activation of the optokinetic nystagmus – on number interval bisection. One patient with left neglect following right-hemisphere stroke (BG) and four control patients with right-hemisphere damage, but without neglect, performed the number interval bisection task in three conditions of OKS: static, leftward, and rightward. In the static condition, BG misbisected to the right of the true midpoint. BG misbisected to the left following leftward OKS, and again to the right of the midpoint following rightward OKS. Moreover, the variability of BG’s performance was smaller following both leftward and rightward OKS, suggesting that the attentional bias induced by OKS reduced the “indifference zone” that is thought to underlie the length effect reported in bisection tasks. We argue that shifts of visuospatial attention, induced by OKS, may affect number interval bisection, thereby revealing an interaction between the processing of the perceptual space and the processing of the number space. PMID:22363280
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maglietti, Felipe; Tellado, Matias; Olaiz, Nahuel; Michinski, Sebastian; Marshall, Guillermo
2016-01-01
Electrochemotherapy (ECT), a medical treatment widely used in human patients for tumor treatment, increases bleomycin toxicity by 1000 fold in the treated area with an objective response rate of around 80%. Despite its high response rate, there are still 20% of cases in which the patients are not responding. This could be ascribed to the fact that bleomycin, when administered systemically, is not reaching the whole tumor mass properly because of the characteristics of tumor vascularization, in which case local administration could cover areas that are unreachable by systemic administration. We propose combined bleomycin administration, both systemic and local, using companion animals as models. We selected 22 canine patients which failed to achieve a complete response after an ECT treatment session. Eleven underwent another standard ECT session (control group), while 11 received a combined local and systemic administration of bleomycin in the second treatment session. According to the WHO criteria, the response rates in the combined administration group were: complete response (CR) 54% (6), partial response (PR) 36% (4), stable disease (SD) 10% (1). In the control group, these were: CR 0% (0), PR 19% (2), SD 63% (7), progressive disease (PD) 18% (2). In the combined group 91% objective responses (CR+PR) were obtained. In the control group 19% objective responses were obtained. The difference in the response rate between the treatment groups was significant (p < 0.01). Combined local and systemic bleomycin administration was effective in previously to ECT non responding canine patients. The results indicate that this approach could be useful and effective in specific population of patients and reduce the number of treatment sessions needed to obtain an objective response
Reduced humic acid nanosheets and its uses as nanofiller
Duraia, El-shazly M.; Henderson, B.; Beall, Gary W.
2015-10-01
Leonardite is highly oxidized form of lignite coal and contains a number of carboxyl groups around the edges of a graphene-like core. A novel approach has been developed to synthesize graphene oxide-like nanosheets in large scale utilizing leonardite as a starting material. Humic acid extracted from leonardite has been reduced by performing a high pressure catalytic hydrogenation. The reaction was carried out inside a high pressure stirred reactor at 150 °C and 750 psi (~5.2×106 Pa). Morphology of the as-synthesized samples showed porous platy particles and EDAX analysis indicates the carbon and oxygen atomic ratios as 96:4-97:3%. The as-synthesized material has been used as nanofiller in polyurethane. The reduced humic acid-polyurethane nanocomposite showed over 250% increase of Young's modulus. This new approach provides a low cost and scalable source for graphene oxide-like nanosheets in nanocomposite applications.
Number-unconstrained quantum sensing
Mitchell, Morgan W.
2017-12-01
Quantum sensing is commonly described as a constrained optimization problem: maximize the information gained about an unknown quantity using a limited number of particles. Important sensors including gravitational wave interferometers and some atomic sensors do not appear to fit this description, because there is no external constraint on particle number. Here, we develop the theory of particle-number-unconstrained quantum sensing, and describe how optimal particle numbers emerge from the competition of particle-environment and particle-particle interactions. We apply the theory to optical probing of an atomic medium modeled as a resonant, saturable absorber, and observe the emergence of well-defined finite optima without external constraints. The results contradict some expectations from number-constrained quantum sensing and show that probing with squeezed beams can give a large sensitivity advantage over classical strategies when each is optimized for particle number.
Of colored numbers and numbered colors: interactive processes in grapheme-color synesthesia.
Gebuis, Titia; Nijboer, Tanja C W; van der Smagt, Maarten J
2009-01-01
Grapheme-color synesthetes experience a specific color when they see a grapheme but they do not report to perceive a grapheme when a color is presented. In this study, we investigate whether color can still evoke number-processes even when a vivid number experience is absent. We used color-number and number-color priming, both revealing faster responses in congruent compared to incongruent conditions. Interestingly, the congruency effect was of similar magnitude for both conditions, and a numerical distance effect was present only in the color-number priming task. In addition, a priming task in which synesthetes had to judge the parity of a colored number revealed faster responses in parity congruent than in parity incongruent trials. These combined results demonstrate that synesthesia is indeed bi-directional and of similar strength in both directions. Furthermore, they illustrate the precise nature of these interactions and show that the direction of these interactions is determined by task demands, not by the more vividly experienced aspect of the stimulus.
Reduced Stress Tensor and Dissipation and the Transport of Lamb Vector
Wu, Jie-Zhi; Zhou, Ye; Wu, Jian-Ming
1996-01-01
We develop a methodology to ensure that the stress tensor, regardless of its number of independent components, can be reduced to an exactly equivalent one which has the same number of independent components as the surface force. It is applicable to the momentum balance if the shear viscosity is constant. A direct application of this method to the energy balance also leads to a reduction of the dissipation rate of kinetic energy. Following this procedure, significant saving in analysis and computation may be achieved. For turbulent flows, this strategy immediately implies that a given Reynolds stress model can always be replaced by a reduced one before putting it into computation. Furthermore, we show how the modeling of Reynolds stress tensor can be reduced to that of the mean turbulent Lamb vector alone, which is much simpler. As a first step of this alternative modeling development, we derive the governing equations for the Lamb vector and its square. These equations form a basis of new second-order closure schemes and, we believe, should be favorably compared to that of traditional Reynolds stress transport equation.
Unbiased All-Optical Random-Number Generator
Steinle, Tobias; Greiner, Johannes N.; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Giessen, Harald; Gerhardt, Ilja
2017-10-01
The generation of random bits is of enormous importance in modern information science. Cryptographic security is based on random numbers which require a physical process for their generation. This is commonly performed by hardware random-number generators. These often exhibit a number of problems, namely experimental bias, memory in the system, and other technical subtleties, which reduce the reliability in the entropy estimation. Further, the generated outcome has to be postprocessed to "iron out" such spurious effects. Here, we present a purely optical randomness generator, based on the bistable output of an optical parametric oscillator. Detector noise plays no role and postprocessing is reduced to a minimum. Upon entering the bistable regime, initially the resulting output phase depends on vacuum fluctuations. Later, the phase is rigidly locked and can be well determined versus a pulse train, which is derived from the pump laser. This delivers an ambiguity-free output, which is reliably detected and associated with a binary outcome. The resulting random bit stream resembles a perfect coin toss and passes all relevant randomness measures. The random nature of the generated binary outcome is furthermore confirmed by an analysis of resulting conditional entropies.
Distribution function of faint galaxy numbers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fesenko, L.M.
1981-01-01
The Lick observatory counts of galaxies are considered. The distribution of number of galaxies in elementary regions (ER) of 1 degx1 deg is investigated. Each field of 6 degx6 deg was treated separately At b>40 deg the probab+lity to observe of n galaxies in ER is an exponential decreasing function of n, if unequality n> were fulfilled. The mean apparent multiplicity of a galaxy (2.8+-0.9) was derived. The galaxy number distribution was simple model for the number of various systems of galaxies. The supperclustering of galaxies was not introduced. Based on that model the approximate expression for galaxy number distribution was considered and was compared with observed distributions. The agreement between these distributions become better with reducing of the interstellar absorption of light
A hierarchical approach to reducing communication in parallel graph algorithms
Harshvardhan,
2015-01-01
Large-scale graph computing has become critical due to the ever-increasing size of data. However, distributed graph computations are limited in their scalability and performance due to the heavy communication inherent in such computations. This is exacerbated in scale-free networks, such as social and web graphs, which contain hub vertices that have large degrees and therefore send a large number of messages over the network. Furthermore, many graph algorithms and computations send the same data to each of the neighbors of a vertex. Our proposed approach recognizes this, and reduces communication performed by the algorithm without change to user-code, through a hierarchical machine model imposed upon the input graph. The hierarchical model takes advantage of locale information of the neighboring vertices to reduce communication, both in message volume and total number of bytes sent. It is also able to better exploit the machine hierarchy to further reduce the communication costs, by aggregating traffic between different levels of the machine hierarchy. Results of an implementation in the STAPL GL shows improved scalability and performance over the traditional level-synchronous approach, with 2.5 × - 8× improvement for a variety of graph algorithms at 12, 000+ cores.
Professor Stewart's incredible numbers
Stewart, Ian
2015-01-01
Ian Stewart explores the astonishing properties of numbers from 1 to10 to zero and infinity, including one figure that, if you wrote it out, would span the universe. He looks at every kind of number you can think of - real, imaginary, rational, irrational, positive and negative - along with several you might have thought you couldn't think of. He explains the insights of the ancient mathematicians, shows how numbers have evolved through the ages, and reveals the way numerical theory enables everyday life. Under Professor Stewart's guidance you will discover the mathematics of codes,
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shetty, Krushitha [Department of Nanotechnology, PG Center, Bangalore Region, VIAT, VTU, Muddenahalli, Chikkaballapur 562101 (India); Dr. D. Premachandrasagar Centre for Advanced Materials, DSCE, Bangalore 560078 (India); Lokesh, S.V. [Department of Nanotechnology, PG Center, Bangalore Region, VIAT, VTU, Muddenahalli, Chikkaballapur 562101 (India); Rangappa, Dinesh, E-mail: dineshrangappa@gmail.com [Department of Nanotechnology, PG Center, Bangalore Region, VIAT, VTU, Muddenahalli, Chikkaballapur 562101 (India); Nagaswarupa, H.P., E-mail: nagaswarupa77@gmail.com [Research Center, Department of Science, East West Institute of Technology, Bangalore 560091 (India); Nagabhushana, H., E-mail: bhushanvlc@gmail.com [Prof. CNR Rao Centre for Advanced Materials, Tumkur University, Tumkur 572103 (India); Anantharaju, K.S., E-mail: iamananthkurupalya@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Shavige Malleshwara Hills, Kumaraswamy Layout, Bangalore 560078 (India); Dr. D. Premachandrasagar Centre for Advanced Materials, DSCE, Bangalore 560078 (India); Prashantha, S.C. [Research Center, Department of Science, East West Institute of Technology, Bangalore 560091 (India); Vidya, Y.S. [Department of Physics, Lal Bahadur Shastri Government First Grade College, Bangalore, 560032 (India); Sharma, S.C. [Dr. D. Premachandrasagar Centre for Advanced Materials, DSCE, Bangalore 560078 (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore-560078 (India)
2017-02-15
Here, a green route has been reported to convert Graphene Oxide (GO) to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using clove extract. A modest and eco-accommodating sol-gel strategy has been employed to prepare MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–RGO nanocomposite samples. The samples were analyzed by Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–Visible Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microcopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Photoluminescence (PL) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). PXRD result revealed that the prepared samples were cubic spinel in nature. SEM results uncovered flake like surface morphology of the prepared nanomaterial. Better PL emission signature was observed when excited at 329 nm. PL studies demonstrated that the present samples were potential for the fabrication of white component of white light emitting diodes (WLEDs). Further, MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–RGO nanocomposite showed enhanced photocatalytic movement (PCM) and photostability under Sunlight in the decomposition of Malachite Green (MG) compared to MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. This can be attributed to the interaction of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} surface with RGO sheets which results in PL quenching, demonstrates that the recombination of photo-induced electrons and holes in MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–RGO nanocomposite is more effectively inhibited. A possible mechanism for the enhanced properties of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–RGO nanocomposite was discussed. Moreover, MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–RGO photocatalyst also showed easy magnetic separation with high reusability. These results unveil that the synthesized sample can be used in display applications and also as a potential photocatalyst. - Graphical abstract: Green mediated reduced graphene oxide with MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} for display applications and also as a potential photocatalyst. - Highlights: • Synthesized GO was reduced to RGO by green route using clove extract. • Mg
Tanburn, Richard; Okada, Emile; Dattani, Nike
2015-01-01
Adiabatic quantum computing has recently been used to factor 56153 [Dattani & Bryans, arXiv:1411.6758] at room temperature, which is orders of magnitude larger than any number attempted yet using Shor's algorithm (circuit-based quantum computation). However, this number is still vastly smaller than RSA-768 which is the largest number factored thus far on a classical computer. We address a major issue arising in the scaling of adiabatic quantum factorization to much larger numbers. Namely, the...
Vortex network community based reduced-order force model
Gopalakrishnan Meena, Muralikrishnan; Nair, Aditya; Taira, Kunihiko
2017-11-01
We characterize the vortical wake interactions by utilizing network theory and cluster-based approaches, and develop a data-inspired unsteady force model. In the present work, the vortical interaction network is defined by nodes representing vortical elements and the edges quantified by induced velocity measures amongst the vortices. The full vorticity field is reduced to a finite number of vortical clusters based on network community detection algorithm, which serves as a basis for a skeleton network that captures the essence of the wake dynamics. We use this reduced representation of the wake to develop a data-inspired reduced-order force model that can predict unsteady fluid forces on the body. The overall formulation is demonstrated for laminar flows around canonical bluff body wake and stalled flow over an airfoil. We also show the robustness of the present network-based model against noisy data, which motivates applications towards turbulent flows and experimental measurements. Supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant 1632003).
Limitations and possibilities of low cell number ChIP-seq
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gilfillan Gregor D
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq offers high resolution, genome-wide analysis of DNA-protein interactions. However, current standard methods require abundant starting material in the range of 1–20 million cells per immunoprecipitation, and remain a bottleneck to the acquisition of biologically relevant epigenetic data. Using a ChIP-seq protocol optimised for low cell numbers (down to 100,000 cells / IP, we examined the performance of the ChIP-seq technique on a series of decreasing cell numbers. Results We present an enhanced native ChIP-seq method tailored to low cell numbers that represents a 200-fold reduction in input requirements over existing protocols. The protocol was tested over a range of starting cell numbers covering three orders of magnitude, enabling determination of the lower limit of the technique. At low input cell numbers, increased levels of unmapped and duplicate reads reduce the number of unique reads generated, and can drive up sequencing costs and affect sensitivity if ChIP is attempted from too few cells. Conclusions The optimised method presented here considerably reduces the input requirements for performing native ChIP-seq. It extends the applicability of the technique to isolated primary cells and rare cell populations (e.g. biobank samples, stem cells, and in many cases will alleviate the need for cell culture and any associated alteration of epigenetic marks. However, this study highlights a challenge inherent to ChIP-seq from low cell numbers: as cell input numbers fall, levels of unmapped sequence reads and PCR-generated duplicate reads rise. We discuss a number of solutions to overcome the effects of reducing cell number that may aid further improvements to ChIP performance.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holm, Jacob Bak; Mazaud-Guittot, Severine; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Niels Banhos
2016-01-01
in shortening of the anogenital distance in adult offspring, suggesting that fetal hormone signaling had been disturbed. Female offspring of paracetamol-exposed mothers had ovaries with diminished follicle reserve and reduced fertility. Fetal gonads of exposed animals had also reduced gonocyte numbers......, suggesting that the reduced follicle count in adults could be due to early disruption of germ cell development. However, ex vivo cultures of ovaries from 12.5 days post coitum fetuses showed no decrease in proliferation or expression following exposure to paracetamol. This suggests that the effect...... of paracetamol occurs prior to this developmental stage. Accordingly, using embryonic stem cells as a proxy for primordial germ cells we show that paracetamol is an inhibitor of cellular proliferation, but without cytotoxic effects. Collectively, our data show that intrauterine exposure to paracetamol at levels...
Signalling changes to individuals who show resistance to change can reduce challenging behaviour.
Bull, Leah E; Oliver, Chris; Woodcock, Kate A
2017-03-01
Several neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with resistance to change and challenging behaviours - including temper outbursts - that ensue following changes to routines, plans or expectations (here, collectively: expectations). Here, a change signalling intervention was tested for proof of concept and potential practical effectiveness. Twelve individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome participated in researcher- and caregiver-led pairing of a distinctive visual-verbal signal with subsequent changes to expectations. Specific expectations for a planned subset of five participants were systematically observed in minimally manipulated natural environments. Nine caregivers completed a temper outburst diary during a four week baseline period and a two week signalling evaluation period. Participants demonstrated consistently less temper outburst behaviour in the systematic observations when changes imposed to expectations were signalled, compared to when changes were not signalled. Four of the nine participants whose caregivers completed the behaviour diary demonstrated reliable reductions in temper outbursts between baseline and signalling evaluation. An active control group for the present initial evaluation of the signalling strategy using evidence from caregiver behaviour diaries was outside the scope of the present pilot study. Thus, findings cannot support the clinical efficacy of the present signalling approach. Proof of concept evidence that reliable pairing of a distinctive cue with a subsequent change to expectation can reduce associated challenging behaviour is provided. Data provide additional support for the importance of specific practical steps in further evaluations of the change signalling approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Optimal Number of Questionnaire Response Categories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Paul Jones
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Two multi-instrument investigations in a university clinic/lab provided an opportunity to explore the impact of reducing the number of response alternatives in a scale measuring vocational personality traits. In a simulation study, a standard computer-based administration provided a numeric scale for each item ranging from 0 to 10. The tests were then rescored to simulate the effect of only three choices. For the follow-up study, two versions of the scale were created, one with two response options and the other with six response options, and were randomly assigned to participants. Typical relationships were evident between the vocational personality traits and scores on standard measures of core personality traits with negligible impact from reducing the number of response alternatives. Neither the ability of the participants nor the self-reported distress had a measurable impact on the utility of the results with the reduction in response alternatives.
Female employment reduces fertility in rural Senegal.
Van den Broeck, Goedele; Maertens, Miet
2015-01-01
Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities.
Reduced-Order Structure-Preserving Model for Parallel-Connected Three-Phase Grid-Tied Inverters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, Brian B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Purba, Victor [University of Minnesota; Jafarpour, Saber [University of California Santa-Barbara; Bullo, Francesco [University of California Santa-Barbara; Dhople, Sairaj V. [University of Minnesota
2017-08-21
Next-generation power networks will contain large numbers of grid-connected inverters satisfying a significant fraction of system load. Since each inverter model has a relatively large number of dynamic states, it is impractical to analyze complex system models where the full dynamics of each inverter are retained. To address this challenge, we derive a reduced-order structure-preserving model for parallel-connected grid-tied three-phase inverters. Here, each inverter in the system is assumed to have a full-bridge topology, LCL filter at the point of common coupling, and the control architecture for each inverter includes a current controller, a power controller, and a phase-locked loop for grid synchronization. We outline a structure-preserving reduced-order inverter model with lumped parameters for the setting where the parallel inverters are each designed such that the filter components and controller gains scale linearly with the power rating. By structure preserving, we mean that the reduced-order three-phase inverter model is also composed of an LCL filter, a power controller, current controller, and PLL. We show that the system of parallel inverters can be modeled exactly as one aggregated inverter unit and this equivalent model has the same number of dynamical states as any individual inverter in the system. Numerical simulations validate the reduced-order model.
Do Vehicle Recalls Reduce the Number of Accidents? The Case of the U.S. Car Market
Bae, Yong-Kyun; Benitez-Silva, Hugo
2011-01-01
The number of automobile recalls in the U.S. has increased sharply in the last two decades, and the numbers of units involved are often counted in the millions. In 2010 alone, over 20 million vehicles were recalled in the United States, and the massive recalls of full model lines by Toyota have brought this issue to the front pages around the…
AirShow 1.0 CFD Software Users' Guide
Mohler, Stanley R., Jr.
2005-01-01
AirShow is visualization post-processing software for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Upon reading binary PLOT3D grid and solution files into AirShow, the engineer can quickly see how hundreds of complex 3-D structured blocks are arranged and numbered. Additionally, chosen grid planes can be displayed and colored according to various aerodynamic flow quantities such as Mach number and pressure. The user may interactively rotate and translate the graphical objects using the mouse. The software source code was written in cross-platform Java, C++, and OpenGL, and runs on Unix, Linux, and Windows. The graphical user interface (GUI) was written using Java Swing. Java also provides multiple synchronized threads. The Java Native Interface (JNI) provides a bridge between the Java code and the C++ code where the PLOT3D files are read, the OpenGL graphics are rendered, and numerical calculations are performed. AirShow is easy to learn and simple to use. The source code is available for free from the NASA Technology Transfer and Partnership Office.
Zero-energy modes, charge conjugation, and fermion number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Yajnik, U.A.
1986-01-01
States with a half-integer fermion number occur when a fermionic field coupled to a soliton possesses a zero mode. This paper spells out the circumstances under which one can retain an integer fermion number as also a charge-conjugation-invariant ground state. It is necessary to make the representation reducible but it is kept irreducible by introducing an additional operator
Iwaniec, Henryk
2004-01-01
Analytic Number Theory distinguishes itself by the variety of tools it uses to establish results, many of which belong to the mainstream of arithmetic. One of the main attractions of analytic number theory is the vast diversity of concepts and methods it includes. The main goal of the book is to show the scope of the theory, both in classical and modern directions, and to exhibit its wealth and prospects, its beautiful theorems and powerful techniques. The book is written with graduate students in mind, and the authors tried to balance between clarity, completeness, and generality. The exercis
A medical admission unit reduces duration of hospital stay and number of readmissions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vork, Jan C; Brabrand, Mikkel; Folkestad, Lars
2011-01-01
Political initiatives promoting a more efficient emergency admission process have triggered a reorganisation of the Danish health system with a view to creating fewer and larger admission units counting more experienced physicians. At our hospital, a medical admission unit (MAU) was established. ...... present the effect of this on the length of hospital stay, mortality rates and the number of readmissions for the last year with the previous structure and the first year of the new MAU structure....
Analysis of amplitude-phase disturbances of Wolf's numbers rhythmic structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vojchishin, K.S.
1978-01-01
Statistical analysis of Wolf's number rhythmic structure has been carried out. Wolf's number time series is considered as a stochastic signal with irregular disturbances of rhythmic structure appearing because of random variability of single cycle parameters. A method and an algorythm for transforming the signal, to reduce all quasi-eleven-year cycles of mean-monthly Wolf's numbers to a signal mean duration, to find out and to eliminate rhythmic phase disturbances, are proposed. An estimate of the accuracy of the procedure is given. The results of calculations (on the mean duration range of cycles) of estimates of their mathematical expectation, dispersion and correlation function depending on time and its shift are given. The conclusion that Wolf's number time series may be treated as a sequence of stochastic cycles with randomly varying amplitude, duration and phase is grounded. A possibility for reducing the forecast of smoothed mean-monthly Wolf's numbers for one or more cycles ahead to the forecast of only three abovementioned parameters is pointed out
Ossola, Giovanni; Sokal, Alan D
2004-08-01
We show that linear congruential pseudo-random-number generators can cause systematic errors in Monte Carlo simulations using the Swendsen-Wang algorithm, if the lattice size is a multiple of a very large power of 2 and one random number is used per bond. These systematic errors arise from correlations within a single bond-update half-sweep. The errors can be eliminated (or at least radically reduced) by updating the bonds in a random order or in an aperiodic manner. It also helps to use a generator of large modulus (e.g., 60 or more bits).
Benedek, Judit; Papp, Gábor; Kalmár, János
2018-04-01
Beyond rectangular prism polyhedron, as a discrete volume element, can also be used to model the density distribution inside 3D geological structures. The calculation of the closed formulae given for the gravitational potential and its higher-order derivatives, however, needs twice more runtime than that of the rectangular prism computations. Although the more detailed the better principle is generally accepted it is basically true only for errorless data. As soon as errors are present any forward gravitational calculation from the model is only a possible realization of the true force field on the significance level determined by the errors. So if one really considers the reliability of input data used in the calculations then sometimes the "less" can be equivalent to the "more" in statistical sense. As a consequence the processing time of the related complex formulae can be significantly reduced by the optimization of the number of volume elements based on the accuracy estimates of the input data. New algorithms are proposed to minimize the number of model elements defined both in local and in global coordinate systems. Common gravity field modelling programs generate optimized models for every computation points ( dynamic approach), whereas the static approach provides only one optimized model for all. Based on the static approach two different algorithms were developed. The grid-based algorithm starts with the maximum resolution polyhedral model defined by 3-3 points of each grid cell and generates a new polyhedral surface defined by points selected from the grid. The other algorithm is more general; it works also for irregularly distributed data (scattered points) connected by triangulation. Beyond the description of the optimization schemes some applications of these algorithms in regional and local gravity field modelling are presented too. The efficiency of the static approaches may provide even more than 90% reduction in computation time in favourable
Determining the k in k-means with MapReduce
Debatty , Thibault; Michiardi , Pietro; Mees , Wim; Thonnard , Olivier
2014-01-01
International audience; In this paper we propose a MapReduce implementation of G-means, a variant of k-means that is able to automatically determine k, the number of clusters. We show that our implementation scales to very large datasets and very large values of k, as the computation cost is proportional to nk. Other techniques that run a clustering algorithm with different values of k and choose the value of k that provides the " best " results have a computation cost that is proportional to...
The Curve Number Concept as a Driver for Delineating Hydrological Response Units
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eleni Savvidou
2018-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new methodology for delineating Hydrological Response Units (HRUs, based on the Curve Number (CN concept, is presented. Initially, a semi-automatic procedure in a GIS environment is used to produce basin maps of distributed CN values as the product of the three classified layers, soil permeability, land use/land cover characteristics and drainage capacity. The map of CN values is used in the context of model parameterization, in order to identify the essential number and spatial extent of HRUs and, consequently, the number of control variables of the calibration problem. The new approach aims at reducing the subjectivity introduced by the definition of HRUs and providing parsimonious modelling schemes. In particular, the CN-based parameterization (1 allows the user to assign as many parameters as can be supported by the available hydrological information, (2 associates the model parameters with anticipated basin responses, as quantified in terms of CN classes across HRUs, and (3 reduces the effort for model calibration, simultaneously ensuring good predictive capacity. The advantages of the proposed approach are demonstrated in the hydrological simulation of the Nedontas River Basin, Greece, where parameterizations of different complexities are employed in a recently improved version of the HYDROGEIOS model. A modelling experiment with a varying number of HRUs, where the parameter estimation problem was handled through automatic optimization, showed that the parameterization with three HRUs, i.e., equal to the number of flow records, ensured the optimal performance. Similarly, tests with alternative HRU configurations confirmed that the optimal scores, both in calibration and validation, were achieved by the CN-based approach, also resulting in parameters values across the HRUs that were in agreement with their physical interpretation.
Andersson, Malte
2004-01-01
Sexual selection in the form of sperm competition is a major explanation for small size of male gametes. Can sexual selection in polyandrous species with reversed sex roles also lead to reduced female gamete size? Comparative studies show that egg size in birds tends to decrease as a lineage evolves social polyandry. Here, a quantitative genetic model predicts that female scrambles over mates lead to evolution of reduced female gamete size. Increased female mating success drives the evolution of smaller eggs, which take less time to produce, until balanced by lowered offspring survival. Mean egg size is usually reduced and polyandry increased by increasing sex ratio (male bias) and maximum possible number of mates. Polyandry also increases with the asynchrony (variance) in female breeding start. Opportunity for sexual selection increases with the maximum number of mates but decreases with increasing sex ratio. It is well known that parental investment can affect sexual selection. The model suggests that the influence is mutual: owing to a coevolutionary feedback loop, sexual selection in females also shapes initial parental investment by reducing egg size. Feedback between sexual selection and parental investment may be common.
Reduced satellite cell number in situ in muscular contractures from children with cerebral palsy.
Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Dykstra, Peter B; Lyubasyuk, Vera; McKay, Bryon R; Chambers, Henry G; Lieber, Richard L
2015-07-01
Satellite cells (SC) are quiescent adult muscle stem cells critical for postnatal development. Children with cerebral palsy have impaired muscular growth and develop contractures. While flow cytometry previously demonstrated a reduced SC population, extracellular matrix abnormalities may influence the cell isolation methods used, systematically isolating fewer cells from CP muscle and creating a biased result. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to use immunohistochemistry on serial muscle sections to quantify SC in situ. Serial cross-sections from human gracilis muscle biopsies (n = 11) were labeled with fluorescent antibodies for Pax7 (SC transcriptional marker), laminin (basal lamina), and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (nuclei). Fluorescence microscopy under high magnification was used to identify SC based on labeling and location. Mean SC/100 myofibers was reduced by ∼70% (p muscle growth and apparent decreased responsiveness of CP muscle to exercise. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dalrymple, Annette; Ordoñez, Patricia; Thorne, David; Walker, David; Camacho, Oscar M; Büttner, Ansgar; Dillon, Debbie; Meredith, Clive
2016-06-01
Many laboratories are working to develop in vitro models that will replace in vivo tests, but occasionally there remains a regulatory expectation of some in vivo testing. Historically, cigarettes have been tested in vivo for 90 days. Recently, methods to reduce and refine animal use have been explored. This study investigated the potential of reducing animal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure to 3 or 6 weeks, and the feasibility of separate lung lobes for histopathology or the Comet assay. Rats were exposed to sham air or CS (1 or 2 h) for 3 or 6 weeks. Respiratory tissues were processed for histopathological evaluation, and Alveolar type II cells (AEC II) isolated for the Comet assay. Blood was collected for Pig-a and micronucleus quantification. Histopathological analyses demonstrated exposure effects, which were generally dependent on CS dose (1 or 2 h, 5 days/week). Comet analysis identified that DNA damage increased in AEC II following 3 or 6 weeks CS exposure, and the level at 6 weeks was higher than 3 weeks. Pig-a mutation or micronucleus levels were not increased. In conclusion, this study showed that 3 weeks of CS exposure was sufficient to observe respiratory tract pathology and DNA damage in isolated AEC II. Differences between the 3 and 6 week data imply that DNA damage in the lung is cumulative. Reducing exposure time, plus analyzing separate lung lobes for DNA damage or histopathology, supports a strategy to reduce and refine animal use in tobacco product testing and is aligned to the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement).
Nielsen number of a covering map
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Jezierski Jerzy
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a finite regular covering over a compact polyhedron and a map admitting a lift . We show some formulae expressing the Nielsen number as a linear combination of the Nielsen numbers of its lifts.
An Evolutionary Formulation of the Crossing Number Problem
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Che Sheng Gan
2009-01-01
Full Text Available A graph drawing algorithm is presented which results in complete graphs having minimum crossings equal to that of Guy's conjecture. It is then generalized and formulated in an evolutionary algorithm (EA to perform constrained search for the crossing numbers. The main objective of this work is to present a suitable two-dimensional scheme which can greatly reduce the complexity of finding crossing numbers by using computer. Program performance criteria are presented and discussed. It is shown that the EA implementation provides good confirmation of the predicted crossing numbers.
Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Sleep Duration Discordant Monozygotic Twins.
Wrede, Joanna E; Mengel-From, Jonas; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V; Bamshad, Michael; Noonan, Carolyn; Christiansen, Lene; Christensen, Kaare; Watson, Nathaniel F
2015-10-01
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number is an important component of mitochondrial function and varies with age, disease, and environmental factors. We aimed to determine whether mtDNA copy number varies with habitual differences in sleep duration within pairs of monozygotic twins. Academic clinical research center. 15 sleep duration discordant monozygotic twin pairs (30 twins, 80% female; mean age 42.1 years [SD 15.0]). Sleep duration was phenotyped with wrist actigraphy. Each twin pair included a "normal" (7-9 h/24) and "short" (sleeping twin. Fasting peripheral blood leukocyte DNA was assessed for mtDNA copy number via the n-fold difference between qPCR measured mtDNA and nuclear DNA creating an mtDNA measure without absolute units. We used generalized estimating equation linear regression models accounting for the correlated data structure to assess within-pair effects of sleep duration on mtDNA copy number. Mean within-pair sleep duration difference per 24 hours was 94.3 minutes (SD 62.6 min). We found reduced sleep duration (β = 0.06; 95% CI 0.004, 0.12; P sleep efficiency (β = 0.51; 95% CI 0.06, 0.95; P sleep duration was associated with a decrease in mtDNA copy number of 0.06. Likewise, a 1% decrease in actigraphy-defined sleep efficiency was associated with a decrease in mtDNA copy number of 0.51. Reduced sleep duration and sleep efficiency were associated with reduced mitochondrial DNA copy number in sleep duration discordant monozygotic twins offering a potential mechanism whereby short sleep impairs health and longevity through mitochondrial stress. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Schmale, Julia; Henning, Silvia; Decesari, Stefano; Henzing, Bas; Keskinen, Helmi; Sellegri, Karine; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Brito, Joel; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Kristensson, Adam; Kalivitis, Nikos; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Carbone, Samara; Jefferson, Anne; Park, Minsu; Schlag, Patrick; Iwamoto, Yoko; Aalto, Pasi; Äijälä, Mikko; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Ehn, Mikael; Frank, Göran; Fröhlich, Roman; Frumau, Arnoud; Herrmann, Erik; Herrmann, Hartmut; Holzinger, Rupert; Kos, Gerard; Kulmala, Markku; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Nenes, Athanasios; O'Dowd, Colin; Petäjä, Tuukka; Picard, David; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöschl, Ulrich; Poulain, Laurent; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry; Swietlicki, Erik; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Artaxo, Paulo; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Ogren, John; Matsuki, Atsushi; Yum, Seong Soo; Stratmann, Frank; Baltensperger, Urs; Gysel, Martin
2018-02-01
Aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) constitute the single largest uncertainty in anthropogenic radiative forcing. To reduce the uncertainties and gain more confidence in the simulation of ACI, models need to be evaluated against observations, in particular against measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Here we present a data set - ready to be used for model validation - of long-term observations of CCN number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites on 3 continents. Studied environments include coastal background, rural background, alpine sites, remote forests and an urban surrounding. Expectedly, CCN characteristics are highly variable across site categories. However, they also vary within them, most strongly in the coastal background group, where CCN number concentrations can vary by up to a factor of 30 within one season. In terms of particle activation behaviour, most continental stations exhibit very similar activation ratios (relative to particles > 20 nm) across the range of 0.1 to 1.0 % supersaturation. At the coastal sites the transition from particles being CCN inactive to becoming CCN active occurs over a wider range of the supersaturation spectrum. Several stations show strong seasonal cycles of CCN number concentrations and particle number size distributions, e.g. at Barrow (Arctic haze in spring), at the alpine stations (stronger influence of polluted boundary layer air masses in summer), the rain forest (wet and dry season) or Finokalia (wildfire influence in autumn). The rural background and urban sites exhibit relatively little variability throughout the year, while short-term variability can be high especially at the urban site. The average hygroscopicity parameter, κ, calculated from the chemical composition of submicron particles was highest at the coastal site of Mace Head (0.6) and lowest at the rain forest station ATTO (0.2-0.3). We performed closure studies based on κ-Köhler theory
BKP and projective Hurwitz numbers
Natanzon, Sergey M.; Orlov, Aleksandr Yu.
2017-06-01
We consider d-fold branched coverings of the projective plane RP^2 and show that the hypergeometric tau function of the BKP hierarchy of Kac and van de Leur is the generating function for weighted sums of the related Hurwitz numbers. In particular, we get the RP^2 analogues of the CP^1 generating functions proposed by Okounkov and by Goulden and Jackson. Other examples are Hurwitz numbers weighted by the Hall-Littlewood and by the Macdonald polynomials. We also consider integrals of tau functions which generate Hurwitz numbers related to base surfaces with arbitrary Euler characteristics sc {e}, in particular projective Hurwitz numbers sc {e}=1.
Sánchez González, María Pilar; Escribano Sotos, Francisco; Tejada Ponce, Ángel
2018-02-21
This study has two aims. The first is to determine how various factors impact on the number of fatalities, serious injuries and slight injuries adjusted for the level of traffic on interurban roads in Spain. The second is to establish the number of victims per million vehicle-kilometres (veh-km) travelled on interurban roads in each province resulting from the effect of its specific characteristics. To this end, we developed six fixed effect panel data models with panel corrected standard errors for the 1999-2015 period. Our results show that while the proportion of high capacity roads, the unemployment rate and the motorization rate contribute to a reduction in the number of fatalities, serious injuries and slight injuries adjusted for level of traffic, the penalty-points licence system is effective in reducing the number of fatalities and serious injuries but not the number of slight injuries. Furthermore, the specific conditions in Ávila, Toledo, Madrid, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, the Balearic Islands, Lleida and all the provinces on the Mediterranean coast cause a higher number of victims per million veh-km travelled than in the remaining provinces. Thus, greater public investment and more socially responsible behaviour are essential tools for reducing the number of traffic accident victims on Spanish interurban roads. Moreover, the provincial institutions emerge as key agents in improving road safety, due to their greater knowledge of the specific conditions and factors affecting each province. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Neocortical glial cell numbers in human brains
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pelvig, D.P.; Pakkenberg, H.; Stark, A.K.
2008-01-01
Stereological cell counting was applied to post-mortem neocortices of human brains from 31 normal individuals, age 18-93 years, 18 females (average age 65 years, range 18-93) and 13 males (average age 57 years, range 19-87). The cells were differentiated in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia...... while the total astrocyte number is constant through life; finally males have a 28% higher number of neocortical glial cells and a 19% higher neocortical neuron number than females. The overall total number of neocortical neurons and glial cells was 49.3 billion in females and 65.2 billion in males...... and neurons and counting were done in each of the four lobes. The study showed that the different subpopulations of glial cells behave differently as a function of age; the number of oligodendrocytes showed a significant 27% decrease over adult life and a strong correlation to the total number of neurons...
Female employment reduces fertility in rural Senegal.
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Goedele Van den Broeck
Full Text Available Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities.
Determining the number of kanbans for dynamic production systems: An integrated methodology
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Özlem Uzun Araz
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Just-in-time (JIT is a management philosophy that reduces the inventory levels and eliminates manufacturing wastes by producing only the right quantity at the right time. A kanban system is one of the key elements of JIT philosophy. Kanbans are used to authorize production and to control movement of materials in JIT systems. In Kanban systems, the efficiency of the manufacturing system depends on several factors such as number of kanbans, container size etc. Hence, determining the number of kanbans is a critical decision in Kanban systems. The aim of this study is to develop a methodology that can be used in order to determine the number of kanbans in a dynamic production environment. In this methodology, the changes in system state is monitored in real time manner, and the number of the kanbans are dynamically re-arranged. The proposed methodology integrates simulation, neural networks and Mamdani type fuzzy inference system. The methodology is modelled in simulation environment and applied on a hypothetic production system. We also performed several comparisons for different control policies to show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
Reducing Earth Topography Resolution for SMAP Mission Ground Tracks Using K-Means Clustering
Rizvi, Farheen
2013-01-01
The K-means clustering algorithm is used to reduce Earth topography resolution for the SMAP mission ground tracks. As SMAP propagates in orbit, knowledge of the radar antenna footprints on Earth is required for the antenna misalignment calibration. Each antenna footprint contains a latitude and longitude location pair on the Earth surface. There are 400 pairs in one data set for the calibration model. It is computationally expensive to calculate corresponding Earth elevation for these data pairs. Thus, the antenna footprint resolution is reduced. Similar topographical data pairs are grouped together with the K-means clustering algorithm. The resolution is reduced to the mean of each topographical cluster called the cluster centroid. The corresponding Earth elevation for each cluster centroid is assigned to the entire group. Results show that 400 data points are reduced to 60 while still maintaining algorithm performance and computational efficiency. In this work, sensitivity analysis is also performed to show a trade-off between algorithm performance versus computational efficiency as the number of cluster centroids and algorithm iterations are increased.
Irrecoverable pressure loss coefficients for two out-of-plane piping elbows at high Reynolds number
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coffield, R.D.; Hammond, R.B.; McKeown, P.T.
1999-02-08
Pressure drops of multiple piping elbows were experimentally determined for high Reynolds number flows. The testing described has been performed in order to reduce uncertainties in the currently used methods for predicting irrecoverable pressure losses and also to provide a qualification database for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer codes. The earlier high Reynolds number correlations had been based on extrapolations over several orders of magnitude in Reynolds number from where the original database existed. Recent single elbow test data shows about a factor of two lower elbow pressure loss coefficient (at 40x 106 Reynolds number) than those from current correlations. This single piping elbow data has been extended in this study to a multiple elbow configuration of two elbows that are 90o out-of-plane relative to each other. The effects of separation distance and Reynolds number have been correlated and presented in a form that can be used for design application. Contrary to earlier extrapolations from low Reynolds numbers (Re c 1.0x 106), a strong Reynolds number dependence was found to exist. The combination of the high Reynolds number single elbow data with the multiple elbow interaction effects measured in this study shows that earlier design correlations are conservative by significant margins at high Reynolds numbers. Qualification of CFD predictions with this new high Reynolds number database will help guide the need for additional high Reynolds number testing of other piping configurations. The study also included velocity measurements at several positions downstream of the first and second test elbows using an ultrasonic flowmeter. Reasonable agreement after the first test elbow was found relative to flow fields that are known to exist from low Reynolds number visual tests and also from CFD predictions. This data should help to qualify CFD predictions of the three-dimensional flow stream downstream of the second test elbow.
Anorexia Reduces GFAP+ Cell Density in the Rat Hippocampus.
Reyes-Haro, Daniel; Labrada-Moncada, Francisco Emmanuel; Varman, Durairaj Ragu; Krüger, Janina; Morales, Teresa; Miledi, Ricardo; Martínez-Torres, Ataúlfo
2016-01-01
Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder observed primarily in young women. The neurobiology of the disorder is unknown but recently magnetic resonance imaging showed a volume reduction of the hippocampus in anorexic patients. Dehydration-induced anorexia (DIA) is a murine model that mimics core features of this disorder, including severe weight loss due to voluntary reduction in food intake. The energy supply to the brain is mediated by astrocytes, but whether their density is compromised by anorexia is unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate GFAP+ cell density in the main regions of the hippocampus (CA1, CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus) in the DIA model. Our results showed that GFAP+ cell density was significantly reduced (~20%) in all regions of the hippocampus, except in CA1. Interestingly, DIA significantly reduced the GFAP+ cells/nuclei ratio in CA2 (-23%) and dentate gyrus (-48%). The reduction of GFAP+ cell density was in agreement with a lower expression of GFAP protein. Additionally, anorexia increased the expression of the intermediate filaments vimentin and nestin. Accordingly, anorexia increased the number of reactive astrocytes in CA2 and dentate gyrus more than twofold. We conclude that anorexia reduces the hippocampal GFAP+ cell density and increases vimentin and nestin expression.
An intervention to reduce the number of convenience stores selling tobacco: feasibility study.
Paynter, Janine; Glover, Marewa; Bullen, Chris; Sonia, Deepika
2016-05-01
Reduction of the availability of tobacco has been proposed as a means of reducing and denormalising tobacco use. Some retailers have stopped selling tobacco. Therefore, we investigated how willing New Zealand convenience store owners were to stop selling tobacco or sell nicotine replacement therapy. Promotion of their stores was offered as an incentive to stop selling tobacco. We asked convenience store owners in the Auckland metropolitan region of New Zealand to choose one of three actions. The first was to stop selling tobacco for a short period of time; the second was to restrict the hours that they sold tobacco; the third was to display and sell nicotine replacement therapy. All participating retailers completed a short interview about selling tobacco. We also surveyed customers about nicotine replacement and cessation. One-third of eligible retailers agreed to participate. Most who participated (93%) were unwilling to stop or restrict tobacco sales and 2 (7%) had already stopped selling tobacco. Tobacco was perceived as a key product for their businesses. Very few customers who purchased cigarettes noticed nicotine replacement therapy or obtained it from convenience stores. Substantially reducing the availability of tobacco in communities is likely to require legislative approaches, underpinned by sustained community pressure and support for convenience store owners who are willing to change their business model. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
On Counting the Rational Numbers
Almada, Carlos
2010-01-01
In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…
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Diego Iacono
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Background: Dystonias (Dys represent the third most common movement disorder after essential tremor (ET and Parkinson's disease (PD. While some pathogenetic mechanisms and genetic causes of Dys have been identified, little is known about their neuropathologic features. Previous neuropathologic studies have reported generically defined neuronal loss in various cerebral regions of Dys brains, mostly in the basal ganglia (BG, and specifically in the substantia nigra (SN. Enlarged pigmented neurons in the SN of Dys patients with and without specific genetic mutations (e.g., GAG deletions in DYT1 dystonia have also been described. Whether or not Dys brains are associated with decreased numbers or other morphometric changes of specific neuronal types is unknown and has never been addressed with quantitative methodologies. Methods: Quantitative immunohistochemistry protocols were used to estimate neuronal counts and volumes of nigral pigmented neurons in 13 SN of Dys patients and 13 SN of age‐matched control subjects (C. Results: We observed a significant reduction (∼20% of pigmented neurons in the SN of Dys compared to C (p<0.01. Neither significant volumetric changes nor evident neurodegenerative signs were observed in the remaining pool of nigral pigmented neurons in Dys brains. These novel quantitative findings were confirmed after exclusion of possible co‐occurring SN pathologies including Lewy pathology, tau‐neurofibrillary tangles, β‐amyloid deposits, ubiquitin (ubiq, and phosphorylated‐TAR DNA‐binding protein 43 (pTDP43‐positive inclusions. Discussion: A reduced number of nigral pigmented neurons in the absence of evident neurodegenerative signs in Dys brains could indicate previously unconsidered pathogenetic mechanisms of Dys such as neurodevelopmental defects in the SN.
Distribution of squares modulo a composite number
Aryan, Farzad
2015-01-01
In this paper we study the distribution of squares modulo a square-free number $q$. We also look at inverse questions for the large sieve in the distribution aspect and we make improvements on existing results on the distribution of $s$-tuples of reduced residues.
Neocortical glial cell numbers in human brains.
Pelvig, D P; Pakkenberg, H; Stark, A K; Pakkenberg, B
2008-11-01
Stereological cell counting was applied to post-mortem neocortices of human brains from 31 normal individuals, age 18-93 years, 18 females (average age 65 years, range 18-93) and 13 males (average age 57 years, range 19-87). The cells were differentiated in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia and neurons and counting were done in each of the four lobes. The study showed that the different subpopulations of glial cells behave differently as a function of age; the number of oligodendrocytes showed a significant 27% decrease over adult life and a strong correlation to the total number of neurons while the total astrocyte number is constant through life; finally males have a 28% higher number of neocortical glial cells and a 19% higher neocortical neuron number than females. The overall total number of neocortical neurons and glial cells was 49.3 billion in females and 65.2 billion in males, a difference of 24% with a high biological variance. These numbers can serve as reference values in quantitative studies of the human neocortex.
Relationship between number of spleen colonies and 125IdUrd incorporation into spleen and femur
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inoue, T.; Bullis, J.E.; Cronkite, E.P.; Hubner, G.E.
1983-01-01
Graded numbers of bone marrow (BM) cells were injected into fatally irradiated mice. Eight days later the mice were given 3.0 μCi (1 Ci = 3.7 x 10 10 Bq) of 125 IdUrd to label proliferating cells in the spleen and BM. On day 9 the mice were killed and the spleens and femurs were removed for splenic colony assay and measurement of radioactivity in the spleen and femurs. The number of splenic colonies shows a linear relationship with dose of marrow cells injected from 10 4 to 10 5 cells. The slope of the curve of spleen colonies versus number of cells injected is 5 and below 10 4 there is a striking departure from the simple linearity. Below 2 x 10 3 cells injected, the logarithm of the observed colony yield is linear with logarithm of the number of cells injected. Poisson calculation of the average number of pluripotent stem cells that should be present with numbers of marrow cells injected below 2 x 10 3 followed closely the actual observations. The data show that there is no detectible proliferation in the BM until the dose of marrow cells exceeds 3.5 x 10 4 cells. Induction of cells into cycle increases the seeding into the BM, and thymidine cytocide drastically reduces seeding in the BM, leading us to conclude that the BM is repopulated almost exclusively by stem cells in DNA synthesis
Sparse Reduced-Rank Regression for Simultaneous Dimension Reduction and Variable Selection
Chen, Lisha
2012-12-01
The reduced-rank regression is an effective method in predicting multiple response variables from the same set of predictor variables. It reduces the number of model parameters and takes advantage of interrelations between the response variables and hence improves predictive accuracy. We propose to select relevant variables for reduced-rank regression by using a sparsity-inducing penalty. We apply a group-lasso type penalty that treats each row of the matrix of the regression coefficients as a group and show that this penalty satisfies certain desirable invariance properties. We develop two numerical algorithms to solve the penalized regression problem and establish the asymptotic consistency of the proposed method. In particular, the manifold structure of the reduced-rank regression coefficient matrix is considered and studied in our theoretical analysis. In our simulation study and real data analysis, the new method is compared with several existing variable selection methods for multivariate regression and exhibits competitive performance in prediction and variable selection. © 2012 American Statistical Association.
Radon awareness in Ireland: a assessment of the effectiveness of radon road shows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Synnott, H.
2006-01-01
Full text: In late 2004 the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (R.P.I.I.) initiated a series of radon road shows in areas designated as High Radon Areas 1 in the R.P.I.I. s national radon survey of homes. The main objective of these road shows was to provide information to a local audience on the risks of exposure to radon. These road shows target both employers and householders. Each road show has the same general format. A presentation and/or meeting with a major employer representative group within the area. The purpose is to make employers aware of the risks associated with exposure to radon in the workplace and to highlight their obligations under current Irish health and safety legislation regarding radon in the workplace. An information stand on radon manned by R.P.I.I. staff members in a local shopping centre or other similar area. This provides those concerned about radon with accessible information on radon exposure risks, how to measure radon and the steps a home owner could take to reduce radon concentrations where necessary. Where possible R.P.I.I. staff members visit one or more schools in the general area. A short presentation on radon was given to students and students were given an opportunity to asks questions Maximizing media exposure to publicize our visits is vital to the success of these visits. Each visit is preceded by a Press Release whose main aim is to brief local and national media on the radon issue so as to achieve maximum publicity mainly through radio and television coverage. In general the media are very interested in the whole radon area and R.P.I.I. staff members have given 57 radio and 10 television interviews to date since the commencement of this initiative. The four road shows carried out to date have been successful in encouraging householders to carry out radon measurements. Since the start of the road shows to the present, the R.P.I.I. has seen a 44% increase in the number of householders requesting radon
Natural occupation numbers: When do they vanish?
Giesbertz, K.J.H.; Van Leeuwen, R.
The non-vanishing of the natural orbital (NO) occupation numbers of the one-particle density matrix of many-body systems has important consequences for the existence of a density matrix-potential mapping for nonlocal potentials in reduced density matrix functional theory and for the validity of the
Jusyte, Aiste; Pfister, Roland; Mayer, Sarah V; Schwarz, Katharina A; Wirth, Robert; Kunde, Wilfried; Schönenberg, Michael
2017-09-01
Classic findings on conformity and obedience document a strong and automatic drive of human agents to follow any type of rule or social norm. At the same time, most individuals tend to violate rules on occasion, and such deliberate rule violations have recently been shown to yield cognitive conflict for the rule-breaker. These findings indicate persistent difficulty to suppress the rule representation, even though rule violations were studied in a controlled experimental setting with neither gains nor possible sanctions for violators. In the current study, we validate these findings by showing that convicted criminals, i.e., individuals with a history of habitual and severe forms of rule violations, can free themselves from such cognitive conflict in a similarly controlled laboratory task. These findings support an emerging view that aims at understanding rule violations from the perspective of the violating agent rather than from the perspective of outside observer.
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R. A. Mollin
1986-01-01
Full Text Available A powerful number is a positive integer n satisfying the property that p2 divides n whenever the prime p divides n; i.e., in the canonical prime decomposition of n, no prime appears with exponent 1. In [1], S.W. Golomb introduced and studied such numbers. In particular, he asked whether (25,27 is the only pair of consecutive odd powerful numbers. This question was settled in [2] by W.A. Sentance who gave necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of such pairs. The first result of this paper is to provide a generalization of Sentance's result by giving necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of pairs of powerful numbers spaced evenly apart. This result leads us naturally to consider integers which are representable as a proper difference of two powerful numbers, i.e. n=p1−p2 where p1 and p2 are powerful numbers with g.c.d. (p1,p2=1. Golomb (op.cit. conjectured that 6 is not a proper difference of two powerful numbers, and that there are infinitely many numbers which cannot be represented as a proper difference of two powerful numbers. The antithesis of this conjecture was proved by W.L. McDaniel [3] who verified that every non-zero integer is in fact a proper difference of two powerful numbers in infinitely many ways. McDaniel's proof is essentially an existence proof. The second result of this paper is a simpler proof of McDaniel's result as well as an effective algorithm (in the proof for explicitly determining infinitely many such representations. However, in both our proof and McDaniel's proof one of the powerful numbers is almost always a perfect square (namely one is always a perfect square when n≢2(mod4. We provide in §2 a proof that all even integers are representable in infinitely many ways as a proper nonsquare difference; i.e., proper difference of two powerful numbers neither of which is a perfect square. This, in conjunction with the odd case in [4], shows that every integer is representable in
Dietary gluten reduces the number of intestinal regulatory T cells in mice
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ejsing-Duun, Maria; Josephsen, Jytte; Aasted, Bent
2008-01-01
It is well established that gluten-free diet reduces the incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, though the mechanism is not known. However, regulatory T cells (Treg) are likely to play an important role. Also, it is known that dietary gluten induces...... of female NOD and BALB / c mice of 3 week old were fed either a gluten-free diet or a standard diet. Lactococcus garvieae or saline water was administered per oral to one of each dietary group. Spleen and Peyer's patches were sampled from BALB / c mice for flow cytometric monitoring of IL-10 and Treg. NOD...... mice were diagnosed diabetic with blood glucose level >12 mmol / l. Dietary gluten significantly decreased the occurrence of Tregs by 10-15% (P diet. These results and the diabetes incidence were independent of the gluten-induced bacterial factor...
A strategy for reducing numbers? Response.
Jalan, B
1991-12-01
I am not particularly knowledgeable on the subject-matter of this article; but would like to make brief comments from the broad economic point of view. The concept of a demographic 'trap' is not sound. For one thing, this concept completely ignores the possibility of 'trade' in food by implicitly assuming that the capacity of a community to support its population depends on its own output of food through appropriate economic policies. There were many predictions of disastrous famines in India in the early 70s on the basis of considerations such as those advanced by Dr Ding. Amartya Sen has argued, quite plausibly, that famines occur because of maldistribution of food and lack of adequate 'safety nets' rather than a decline in total food output. Sen is referred to at 1 place in the article; but somewhat out of context. The conclusion that if the birth rate does not fall, the death rate should also not be allowed to fall is repugnant. Look at the countries of Latin America; population growth is high, but there is no 'entrapment'. The so called 'trap' can, of course, occur because of failure of economic and social policies and international economic policies. However, there is nothing inevitable about it (at any given rate of population growth). The author's plea for greater information and public education in respect of demographic trends and consequences is valid. There is also an urgent need for a new thrust in family planning programs on wider economic and social grounds. However, this case is quite independent of the 'entrapment' theory. full text
Role of Turbulent Prandtl Number on Heat Flux at Hypersonic Mach Numbers
Xiao, X.; Edwards, J. R.; Hassan, H. A.; Gaffney, R. L., Jr.
2007-01-01
A new turbulence model suited for calculating the turbulent Prandtl number as part of the solution is presented. The model is based on a set of two equations: one governing the variance of the enthalpy and the other governing its dissipation rate. These equations were derived from the exact energy equation and thus take into consideration compressibility and dissipation terms. The model is used to study two cases involving shock wave/boundary layer interaction at Mach 9.22 and Mach 5.0. In general, heat transfer prediction showed great improvement over traditional turbulence models where the turbulent Prandtl number is assumed constant. It is concluded that using a model that calculates the turbulent Prandtl number as part of the solution is the key to bridging the gap between theory and experiment for flows dominated by shock wave/boundary layer interactions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Melinda E Lull
Full Text Available NADPH oxidase is implicated in neurotoxic microglial activation and the progressive nature of Alzheimer's Disease (AD. Here, we test the ability of two NADPH oxidase inhibitors, apocynin and dextromethorphan (DM, to reduce learning deficits and neuropathology in transgenic mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish and London mutations (hAPP(751(SL.Four month old hAPP(751(SL mice were treated daily with saline, 15 mg/kg DM, 7.5 mg/kg DM, or 10 mg/kg apocynin by gavage for four months.Only hAPP(751(SL mice treated with apocynin showed reduced plaque size and a reduction in the number of cortical microglia, when compared to the saline treated group. Analysis of whole brain homogenates from all treatments tested (saline, DM, and apocynin demonstrated low levels of TNFα, protein nitration, lipid peroxidation, and NADPH oxidase activation, indicating a low level of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in hAPP(751(SL mice at 8 months of age that was not significantly affected by any drug treatment. Despite in vitro analyses demonstrating that apocynin and DM ameliorate Aβ-induced extracellular superoxide production and neurotoxicity, both DM and apocynin failed to significantly affect learning and memory tasks or synaptic density in hAPP(751(SL mice. To discern how apocynin was affecting plaque levels (plaque load and microglial number in vivo, in vitro analysis of microglia was performed, revealing no apocynin effects on beta-amyloid (Aβ phagocytosis, microglial proliferation, or microglial survival.Together, this study suggests that while hAPP(751(SL mice show increases in microglial number and plaque load, they fail to exhibit elevated markers of neuroinflammation consistent with AD at 8 months of age, which may be a limitation of this animal model. Despite absence of clear neuroinflammation, apocynin was still able to reduce both plaque size and microglial number, suggesting that apocynin may have additional
Double gloving to reduce surgical cross-infection.
Tanner, J; Parkinson, H
2006-07-19
The invasive nature of surgery, with its increased exposure to blood, means that during surgery there is a high risk of transfer of pathogens. Pathogens can be transferred through contact between surgical patients and the surgical team, resulting in post-operative or blood borne infections in patients or blood borne infections in the surgical team. Both patients and the surgical team need to be protected from this risk. This risk can be reduced by implementing protective barriers such as wearing surgical gloves. Wearing two pairs of surgical gloves, triple gloves, glove liners or cloth outer gloves, as opposed to one pair, is considered to provide an additional barrier and further reduce the risk of contamination. The primary objective of this review was to determine if additional glove protection reduces the number of surgical site or blood borne infections in patients or the surgical team. The secondary objective was to determine if additional glove protection reduces the number of perforations to the innermost pair of surgical gloves. The innermost gloves (next to skin) compared with the outermost gloves are considered to be the last barrier between the patient and the surgical team. We searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (January 2006), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL)(The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2005). We also contacted glove manufacturing companies and professional organisations. Randomised controlled trials involving: single gloving, double gloving, triple gloving, glove liners, knitted outer gloves, steel weave outer gloves and perforation indicator systems. Both authors independently assessed the relevance and quality of each trial. Data was extracted by one author and cross checked for accuracy by the second author. Two trials were found which addressed the primary outcome, namely, surgical site infections in patients. Both trials reported no infections. Thirty one randomised controlled trials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Fuursted, Kurt; Gahrn-Hansen, Bente
2005-01-01
laboratory systems documented a continuous increase of candidemia cases since the early 1990s. For the 272 susceptibility-tested isolates, MICs of amphotericin B and caspofungin were within the limits expected for the species or genus. However, decreased azole susceptibility, defined as a fluconazole MIC...... of >8 microg/ml and/or itraconazole MIC of >0.125 microg/ml, was detected for 11 Candida isolates that were neither C. glabrata nor C. krusei. Including intrinsically resistant fungi, we detected decreased susceptibility to fluconazole and/or itraconazole in 87 (32%) current Danish bloodstream fungal...... isolates. We showed a continuous increase of fungemia in Denmark and an annual rate in 2003 to 2004 higher than in most other countries. The proportion of bloodstream fungal isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole and/or itraconazole was also notably high....
Number Sense on the Number Line
Woods, Dawn Marie; Ketterlin Geller, Leanne; Basaraba, Deni
2018-01-01
A strong foundation in early number concepts is critical for students' future success in mathematics. Research suggests that visual representations, like a number line, support students' development of number sense by helping them create a mental representation of the order and magnitude of numbers. In addition, explicitly sequencing instruction…
Ensembles of a small number of conformations with relative populations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vammi, Vijay, E-mail: vsvammi@iastate.edu; Song, Guang, E-mail: gsong@iastate.edu [Iowa State University, Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Program, Department of Computer Science (United States)
2015-12-15
In our previous work, we proposed a new way to represent protein native states, using ensembles of a small number of conformations with relative Populations, or ESP in short. Using Ubiquitin as an example, we showed that using a small number of conformations could greatly reduce the potential of overfitting and assigning relative populations to protein ensembles could significantly improve their quality. To demonstrate that ESP indeed is an excellent alternative to represent protein native states, in this work we compare the quality of two ESP ensembles of Ubiquitin with several well-known regular ensembles or average structure representations. Extensive amount of significant experimental data are employed to achieve a thorough assessment. Our results demonstrate that ESP ensembles, though much smaller in size comparing to regular ensembles, perform equally or even better sometimes in all four different types of experimental data used in the assessment, namely, the residual dipolar couplings, residual chemical shift anisotropy, hydrogen exchange rates, and solution scattering profiles. This work further underlines the significance of having relative populations in describing the native states.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Schmale
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Aerosol–cloud interactions (ACI constitute the single largest uncertainty in anthropogenic radiative forcing. To reduce the uncertainties and gain more confidence in the simulation of ACI, models need to be evaluated against observations, in particular against measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Here we present a data set – ready to be used for model validation – of long-term observations of CCN number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites on 3 continents. Studied environments include coastal background, rural background, alpine sites, remote forests and an urban surrounding. Expectedly, CCN characteristics are highly variable across site categories. However, they also vary within them, most strongly in the coastal background group, where CCN number concentrations can vary by up to a factor of 30 within one season. In terms of particle activation behaviour, most continental stations exhibit very similar activation ratios (relative to particles > 20 nm across the range of 0.1 to 1.0 % supersaturation. At the coastal sites the transition from particles being CCN inactive to becoming CCN active occurs over a wider range of the supersaturation spectrum. Several stations show strong seasonal cycles of CCN number concentrations and particle number size distributions, e.g. at Barrow (Arctic haze in spring, at the alpine stations (stronger influence of polluted boundary layer air masses in summer, the rain forest (wet and dry season or Finokalia (wildfire influence in autumn. The rural background and urban sites exhibit relatively little variability throughout the year, while short-term variability can be high especially at the urban site. The average hygroscopicity parameter, κ, calculated from the chemical composition of submicron particles was highest at the coastal site of Mace Head (0.6 and lowest at the rain forest station ATTO (0.2–0.3. We performed closure
Approximate number word knowledge before the cardinal principle.
Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Spaepen, Elizabet; Levine, Susan C
2015-02-01
Approximate number word knowledge-understanding the relation between the count words and the approximate magnitudes of sets-is a critical piece of knowledge that predicts later math achievement. However, researchers disagree about when children first show evidence of approximate number word knowledge-before, or only after, they have learned the cardinal principle. In two studies, children who had not yet learned the cardinal principle (subset-knowers) produced sets in response to number words (verbal comprehension task) and produced number words in response to set sizes (verbal production task). As evidence of approximate number word knowledge, we examined whether children's numerical responses increased with increasing numerosity of the stimulus. In Study 1, subset-knowers (ages 3.0-4.2 years) showed approximate number word knowledge above their knower-level on both tasks, but this effect did not extend to numbers above 4. In Study 2, we collected data from a broader age range of subset-knowers (ages 3.1-5.6 years). In this sample, children showed approximate number word knowledge on the verbal production task even when only examining set sizes above 4. Across studies, children's age predicted approximate number word knowledge (above 4) on the verbal production task when controlling for their knower-level, study (1 or 2), and parents' education, none of which predicted approximation ability. Thus, children can develop approximate knowledge of number words up to 10 before learning the cardinal principle. Furthermore, approximate number word knowledge increases with age and might not be closely related to the development of exact number word knowledge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, Brian B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Purba, Victor [University of Minnesota; Jafarpour, Saber [University of California, Santa Barbara; Bullo, Francesco [University of California, Santa Barbara; Dhople, Sairaj [University of Minnesota
2017-08-31
Given that next-generation infrastructures will contain large numbers of grid-connected inverters and these interfaces will be satisfying a growing fraction of system load, it is imperative to analyze the impacts of power electronics on such systems. However, since each inverter model has a relatively large number of dynamic states, it would be impractical to execute complex system models where the full dynamics of each inverter are retained. To address this challenge, we derive a reduced-order structure-preserving model for parallel-connected grid-tied three-phase inverters. Here, each inverter in the system is assumed to have a full-bridge topology, LCL filter at the point of common coupling, and the control architecture for each inverter includes a current controller, a power controller, and a phase-locked loop for grid synchronization. We outline a structure-preserving reduced-order inverter model for the setting where the parallel inverters are each designed such that the filter components and controller gains scale linearly with the power rating. By structure preserving, we mean that the reduced-order three-phase inverter model is also composed of an LCL filter, a power controller, current controller, and PLL. That is, we show that the system of parallel inverters can be modeled exactly as one aggregated inverter unit and this equivalent model has the same number of dynamical states as an individual inverter in the paralleled system. Numerical simulations validate the reduced-order models.
MARIANE: MApReduce Implementation Adapted for HPC Environments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fadika, Zacharia; Dede, Elif; Govindaraju, Madhusudhan; Ramakrishnan, Lavanya
2011-07-06
MapReduce is increasingly becoming a popular framework, and a potent programming model. The most popular open source implementation of MapReduce, Hadoop, is based on the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). However, as HDFS is not POSIX compliant, it cannot be fully leveraged by applications running on a majority of existing HPC environments such as Teragrid and NERSC. These HPC environments typicallysupport globally shared file systems such as NFS and GPFS. On such resourceful HPC infrastructures, the use of Hadoop not only creates compatibility issues, but also affects overall performance due to the added overhead of the HDFS. This paper not only presents a MapReduce implementation directly suitable for HPC environments, but also exposes the design choices for better performance gains in those settings. By leveraging inherent distributed file systems' functions, and abstracting them away from its MapReduce framework, MARIANE (MApReduce Implementation Adapted for HPC Environments) not only allows for the use of the model in an expanding number of HPCenvironments, but also allows for better performance in such settings. This paper shows the applicability and high performance of the MapReduce paradigm through MARIANE, an implementation designed for clustered and shared-disk file systems and as such not dedicated to a specific MapReduce solution. The paper identifies the components and trade-offs necessary for this model, and quantifies the performance gains exhibited by our approach in distributed environments over Apache Hadoop in a data intensive setting, on the Magellan testbed at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johansen, Stein E.
2014-01-01
The paper recapitulates some key elements in previously published results concerning exact and complete reconstitution of the field of natural numbers, both as ordinal and as cardinal numbers, from systematic unfoldment of the Fibonacci algorithm. By this natural numbers emerge as Fibonacci 'atoms' and 'molecules' consistent with the notion of Zeckendorf sums. Here, the sub-set of prime numbers appears not as the primary numbers, but as an epistructure from a deeper Fibonacci constitution, and is thus targeted from a 'positive approach'. In the Fibonacci reconstitution of number theory natural numbers show a double geometrical aspect: partly as extension in space and partly as position in a successive structuring of space. More specifically, the natural numbers are shown to be distributed by a concise 5:3 code structured from the Fibonacci algorithm via Pascal's triangle. The paper discusses possible implications for the more general relation between number theory and geometry, as well as more specifically in relation to hadronic mathematics, initiated by R.M. Santilli, and also briefly to some other recent science linking number theory more directly to geometry and natural systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johansen, Stein E., E-mail: stein.johansen@svt.ntnu.no [Institute for Basic Research, Division of Physics, Palm Harbor, Florida, USA and Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Social Anthropology, Trondheim (Norway)
2014-12-10
The paper recapitulates some key elements in previously published results concerning exact and complete reconstitution of the field of natural numbers, both as ordinal and as cardinal numbers, from systematic unfoldment of the Fibonacci algorithm. By this natural numbers emerge as Fibonacci 'atoms' and 'molecules' consistent with the notion of Zeckendorf sums. Here, the sub-set of prime numbers appears not as the primary numbers, but as an epistructure from a deeper Fibonacci constitution, and is thus targeted from a 'positive approach'. In the Fibonacci reconstitution of number theory natural numbers show a double geometrical aspect: partly as extension in space and partly as position in a successive structuring of space. More specifically, the natural numbers are shown to be distributed by a concise 5:3 code structured from the Fibonacci algorithm via Pascal's triangle. The paper discusses possible implications for the more general relation between number theory and geometry, as well as more specifically in relation to hadronic mathematics, initiated by R.M. Santilli, and also briefly to some other recent science linking number theory more directly to geometry and natural systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konstantinos ePriftis
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Behavioral, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging data support the idea that numbers are represented along a mental number line (MNL, an analogical, visuo-spatial representation of number magnitude. The MNL is left-to-right oriented, with small numbers on the left and larger numbers on the right. Left neglect patients are impaired in processing the left side of the MNL and show a rightward deviation in the mental bisection of numerical intervals. In the present study we investigated the effects of optokinetic stimulation (OKS -a technique inducing spatial attention shifts by means of activation of the optokinetic nystagmus- on mental number interval bisection. One patient with left neglect following right hemisphere stroke (BG and four control patients with right hemisphere damage, but without neglect, performed the mental number interval bisection task in three experimental conditions of OKS: static, leftward, and rightward. In the static condition, BG misbisected to the right of the true midpoint. BG misbisected to the left following leftward OKS, but again to the right of the midpoint following rightward OKS. In contrast, the performance of controls was not significantly affected by the direction of OKS. We argue that shifts of visuospatial attention, induced by OKS, may affect the mental number interval bisection, suggesting the presence of an interaction between the processing of number magnitude and the processing of the perceptual space, in patients with neglect for the mental number space.
Plume structure in high-Rayleigh-number convection
Puthenveettil, Baburaj A.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.
2005-10-01
Near-wall structures in turbulent natural convection at Rayleigh numbers of 10^{10} to 10^{11} at A Schmidt number of 602 are visualized by a new method of driving the convection across a fine membrane using concentration differences of sodium chloride. The visualizations show the near-wall flow to consist of sheet plumes. A wide variety of large-scale flow cells, scaling with the cross-section dimension, are observed. Multiple large-scale flow cells are seen at aspect ratio (AR)= 0.65, while only a single circulation cell is detected at AR= 0.435. The cells (or the mean wind) are driven by plumes coming together to form columns of rising lighter fluid. The wind in turn aligns the sheet plumes along the direction of shear. the mean wind direction is seen to change with time. The near-wall dynamics show plumes initiated at points, which elongate to form sheets and then merge. Increase in rayleigh number results in a larger number of closely and regularly spaced plumes. The plume spacings show a common log normal probability distribution function, independent of the rayleigh number and the aspect ratio. We propose that the near-wall structure is made of laminar natural-convection boundary layers, which become unstable to give rise to sheet plumes, and show that the predictions of a model constructed on this hypothesis match the experiments. Based on these findings, we conclude that in the presence of a mean wind, the local near-wall boundary layers associated with each sheet plume in high-rayleigh-number turbulent natural convection are likely to be laminar mixed convection type.
Number conserving approach in quasiparticle representation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oudih, M.R.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N.H.
2003-01-01
An exact number conserving approach is formulated in the quasiparticle representation to show the effect of the particle-number projection on the ground and the first 0+ excited states. It is applied to the two-level pairing model, which allows an exact solution and a comparison to other approaches. The present method has proved to be an advantageous alternative as compared to the BCS and to the usual methods used to restore the particle number symmetry. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John G. Blake
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Bird populations have declined in many parts of the world but most of those declines can be attributed to effects of human activities (e.g., habitat fragmentation; declines in areas unaffected by human activities are not common. We have been sampling bird populations at an undisturbed site in lowland forest of eastern Ecuador annually since 2001 using a combination of mist nets and direct observations on two 100-ha plots. Bird numbers fluctuated on both plots during the first 8 years but did not show a consistent pattern of change. Since about 2008, numbers of birds on both plots have declined; capture rates in 2014 were ∼40% less than at the start of the study and observation rates were ∼50% less. Both understory and canopy species declined in abundance. Overall, insectivores showed the most pronounced declines but declines varied among trophic groups. The period from 2008 onward also was a period of stronger La Niña events which, at this study site, are associated with increased rainfall. The mechanism for the declines is not known but likely reflects a combination of reduced reproductive success coupled with reduced survival associated with changing climate.
Quality control of diagnostic radiology to reduce absorbed dose of patients in Iran
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aghahadi, Bahman.
1996-01-01
In order to reduce absorbed dose, to increase the image quality and to reduce the numbers of rejected films various quality control parameters were applied to X ray machines. These parameter are Kilo Volt peak, Milli Ampere, Exposure Time Focal Film Distance, Inherent Filters, Additional Filters Half Value Layer, Processor Condition, Cassettes. To evaluate and to apply these parameters in diagnostic radiological centers, ten hospitals were selected and a total number of 12 X ray machines were kept under quality control program. Considering different kinds of diagnostic radiology examination and to compare the dose before and after implementation of a quality control program, two kinds of examinations include in chest and abdomen examinations were considered. For each X ray machine, ten patients and for all selected centers, 120 patients were selected for chest examination and 120 patients for abdomen examinations; before and after implementation of quality control program, a total of 480 patients were selected randomly to be controlled. Base on different examinations carried out, it was concluded that both exposure conditions and general situations in radiological centers were not acceptable. The dosimetry results show that the average ski dose for chest and abdomen examinations were 0.28 m Gy and 4.23 Gy respectively. Before implementation of quality control step to reduce the surface skin dose, quality control parameters were applied and the exposure conditions were imposed. On average the absorbed doses for chest and abdomen examination were decreased to 79% and 61% respectively after the implementation of the program. From dose reduction point of view, the results of a part of this project which made by co-operation of International Atomic Energy Agency showed that Iran acquired the first grade for chest examination and second grade for abdomen examination. Base on the results obtained, the number of patients under chest and abdomen examination were 4041588 and
BCJ numerators from reduced Pfaffian
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Du, Yi-Jian [Center for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University,No. 299 Bayi Road, Wuhan 430072 (China); Teng, Fei [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah,115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)
2017-04-07
By expanding the reduced Pfaffian in the tree level Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) integrands for Yang-Mills (YM) and nonlinear sigma model (NLSM), we can get the Bern-Carrasco-Johansson (BCJ) numerators in Del Duca-Dixon-Maltoni (DDM) form for arbitrary number of particles in any spacetime dimensions. In this work, we give a set of very straightforward graphic rules based on spanning trees for a direct evaluation of the BCJ numerators for YM and NLSM. Such rules can be derived from the Laplace expansion of the corresponding reduced Pfaffian. For YM, the each one of the (n−2)! DDM form BCJ numerators contains exactly (n−1)! terms, corresponding to the increasing trees with respect to the color order. For NLSM, the number of nonzero numerators is at most (n−2)!−(n−3)!, less than those of several previous constructions.
Smith, Bryon M.; Yao, Xinyue; Chen, Kelly S.; Kirby, Elizabeth D.
2018-01-01
The mammalian hippocampus shows marked decline in function with aging across many species, including humans and laboratory rodent models. This decline frequently manifests in memory impairments that occur even in the absence of dementia pathology. In humans, a number of factors correlate with preserved hippocampal memory in aging, such as exercise, cognitive stimulation and number of social ties. While interventional studies and animal models clearly indicate that exercise and cognitive stimulation lead to hippocampal preservation, there is relatively little research on whether a decline in social ties leads to cognitive decline or vice versa. Even in animal studies of environmental enrichment in aging, the focus typically falls on physical enrichment such as a rotating cast of toys, rather than the role of social interactions. The present studies investigated the hypothesis that a greater number of social ties in aging mice would lead to improved hippocampal function. Aged, female C57/Bl6 mice were housed for 3 months in pairs or large groups (7 mice per cage). Group-housed mice showed greater novel object location memory and stronger preference for a spatial navigation strategy in the Barnes maze, though no difference in escape latency, compared to pair-housed mice. Group-housed mice did not differ from pair-housed mice in basal corticosterone levels or adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Group-housed mice did, however, show reduced numbers of Iba1/CD68+ microglia in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that group housing led to better memory function and reduced markers of neuroinflammation in aged mice. More broadly, they support a causative link between social ties and hippocampal function, suggesting that merely having a larger social network can positively influence the aging brain. Future research should address the molecular mechanisms by which a greater number of social ties alters hippocampal function. PMID:29904345
Evaluation of phase separator number in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) unit
Jayanti, A. D.; Indarto, A.
2016-11-01
The removal process of acid gases such as H2S in natural gas processing industry is required in order to meet sales gas specification. Hydrodesulfurization (HDS)is one of the processes in the refinery that is dedicated to reduce sulphur.InHDS unit, phase separator plays important role to remove H2S from hydrocarbons, operated at a certain pressure and temperature. Optimization of the number of separator performed on the system is then evaluated to understand the performance and economics. From the evaluation, it shows that all systems were able to meet the specifications of H2S in the desired product. However, one separator system resulted the highest capital and operational costs. The process of H2S removal with two separator systems showed the best performance in terms of both energy efficiency with the lowest capital and operating cost. The two separator system is then recommended as a reference in the HDS unit to process the removal of H2S from natural gas.
Number magnitude to finger mapping is disembodied and topological.
Plaisier, Myrthe A; Smeets, Jeroen B J
2011-03-01
It has been shown that humans associate fingers with numbers because finger counting strategies interact with numerical judgements. At the same time, there is evidence that there is a relation between number magnitude and space as small to large numbers seem to be represented from left to right. In the present study, we investigated whether number magnitude to finger mapping is embodied (related to the order of fingers on the hand) or disembodied (spatial). We let healthy human volunteers name random numbers between 1 and 30, while simultaneously tapping a random finger. Either the hands were placed directly next to each other, 30 cm apart, or the hands were crossed such that the left hand was on the right side of the body mid-line. The results show that naming a smaller number than the previous one was associated with tapping a finger to the left of the previously tapped finger. This shows that there is a spatial (disembodied) mapping between number magnitude and fingers. Furthermore, we show that this mapping is topological rather than metrically scaled.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dwimahyani, I.; Suyono, G.
1988-01-01
An experiment has been carried out to estimate the genetically effective cell numbers on panicle formation of 2 rice varieties. Seeds of Seratus Malam were irradiated with gamma rays 60-Co with doses 0.2; 0.3; 0.4; 0.5 kGy, while Cisadane obtained doses 0.1; 0.2; 0.3; 0.4; and 0.5 kGy. Seeds then planted as M1 generation. Panicle form this M1 generation were observed and appeared as Albania and Xantha. Form this observation segregation ratio could be determined. It was showed that Cisadane was more sensitive than Seratus Malam variety. The genetically effective Cell Numbers value at low dose was 3 for both varieties. At high dose, the genetically effective cell numbers values was 2 for Seratus Malam and 1 for Cisadane varieties. Result indicate that high dose of irradiation could kill cell and therefore reduce effective cell numbers on panicle formation. (Authors). 6 refs, 3 tabs
Atomic Fisher information versus atomic number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagy, A.; Sen, K.D.
2006-01-01
It is shown that the Thomas-Fermi Fisher information is negative. A slightly more sophisticated model proposed by Gaspar provides a qualitatively correct expression for the Fisher information: Gaspar's Fisher information is proportional to the two-third power of the atomic number. Accurate numerical calculations show an almost linear dependence on the atomic number
Reduced cell number in the neocortical part of the human fetal brain in Down syndrome
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, K.B.; Laursen, H.; Graem, N.
2008-01-01
Mental retardation is seen in all individuals with Down syndrome (DS) and different brain abnormalities are reported. The aim of this study was to investigate if mental retardation at least in part is a result of a lower cell number in the neocortical part of the human fetal forebrain. We therefore...
Kippin, Tod E; Cain, Sean W; Masum, Zahra; Ralph, Martin R
2004-03-17
Many of the effects of prenatal stress on the endocrine function, brain morphology, and behavior in mammals can be reversed by brief sessions of postnatal separation and handling. We have tested the hypothesis that the effects of both the prenatal and postnatal experiences are mediated by negative and positive regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) number during critical stages in neurodevelopment. We used the in vitro clonal neurosphere assay to quantify NSCs in hamsters that had experienced prenatal stress (maternal restraint stress for 2 hr per day, for the last 7 d of gestation), postnatal handling (maternal-offspring separation for 15 min per day during postnatal days 1-21), orboth. Prenatal stress reduced the number of NSCs derived from the subependyma of the lateral ventricle. The effect was already present at postnatal day 1 and persisted into adulthood (at least 14 months of age). Similarly, prenatal stress reduced in vivo proliferation in the adult subependyma of the lateral ventricle. Conversely, postnatal handling increased NSC number and reversed the effect of prenatal stress. The effects of prenatal stress on NSCs and proliferation and the effect of postnatal handling on NSCs did not differ between male and females. The findings demonstrate that environmental factors can produce changes in NSC number that are present at birth and endure into late adulthood. These changes may underlie some of the behavioral effects produced by prenatal stress and postnatal handling.
Development of fuel number reader by ultrasonic imaging techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Omote, T.; Yoshida, T.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on a spent fuel ID number reader using ultrasonic imaging techniques that has been developed to realize efficient and automatic verification of fuel numbers, thereby to reduce mental load and radiation exposure for operators engaged in the verification task. The ultrasonic imaging techniques for automatic fuel number recognition are described. High-speed and high reliability imaging of the spent fuel ID number are obtained by using linear array type ultrasonic probe. The ultrasonic wave is scanned by switching array probe in vertical direction, and scanned mechanically in horizontal direction. Time for imaging of spent fuel ID number on assembly was confirmed less than three seconds by these techniques. And it can recognize spent fuel ID number even if spent fuel ID number can not be visualized by an optical method because of depositing fuel number regions by soft card. In order to recognize spent fuel ID number more rapidly and more reliably, coded fuel number expressed by plural separate recesses form is developed. Every coded fuel number consists of six small holes (about 1 mm dia.) and can be marked adjacent to the existing fuel number expressed by letters and numbers
A Self-Adaptive Fuzzy c-Means Algorithm for Determining the Optimal Number of Clusters
Wang, Zhihao; Yi, Jing
2016-01-01
For the shortcoming of fuzzy c-means algorithm (FCM) needing to know the number of clusters in advance, this paper proposed a new self-adaptive method to determine the optimal number of clusters. Firstly, a density-based algorithm was put forward. The algorithm, according to the characteristics of the dataset, automatically determined the possible maximum number of clusters instead of using the empirical rule n and obtained the optimal initial cluster centroids, improving the limitation of FCM that randomly selected cluster centroids lead the convergence result to the local minimum. Secondly, this paper, by introducing a penalty function, proposed a new fuzzy clustering validity index based on fuzzy compactness and separation, which ensured that when the number of clusters verged on that of objects in the dataset, the value of clustering validity index did not monotonically decrease and was close to zero, so that the optimal number of clusters lost robustness and decision function. Then, based on these studies, a self-adaptive FCM algorithm was put forward to estimate the optimal number of clusters by the iterative trial-and-error process. At last, experiments were done on the UCI, KDD Cup 1999, and synthetic datasets, which showed that the method not only effectively determined the optimal number of clusters, but also reduced the iteration of FCM with the stable clustering result. PMID:28042291
Benstoem, F; Pinnekamp, J
2017-07-01
Adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC) is a promising step to extend existing treatment trains in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and, thus, to reduce the concentration of micropollutants (MPs) (e.g. pharmaceuticals) in wastewater. It is common practice to use characteristic numbers when choosing GAC for a specific application. In this study, characteristic numbers were correlated for five different GACs, with measured adsorption capacities of these carbons for three pharmaceutical MPs (carbamazepine, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole) and dissolved organic carbon of a WWTP effluent. The adsorption capacities were measured using rapid small scale column tests. Density of GAC showed the highest correlation to adsorption of MP. All other characteristic numbers (iodine number, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface and methylene blue titre) are not suitable markers for choosing an appropriate activated carbon product for the elimination of MPs from municipal wastewater.
Noël, Marie-Pascale; Rousselle, Laurence
2011-01-01
Studies on developmental dyscalculia (DD) have tried to identify a basic numerical deficit that could account for this specific learning disability. The first proposition was that the number magnitude representation of these children was impaired. However, Rousselle and Noël (2007) brought data showing that this was not the case but rather that these children were impaired when processing the magnitude of symbolic numbers only. Since then, incongruent results have been published. In this paper, we will propose a developmental perspective on this issue. We will argue that the first deficit shown in DD regards the building of an exact representation of numerical value, thanks to the learning of symbolic numbers, and that the reduced acuity of the approximate number magnitude system appears only later and is secondary to the first deficit.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
improved by Selberg [4] in 1941 who showed that a pos- ... be seen by entries of his first letter to G H Hardy in ... tary in the technical sense of the word, employed com- ..... III: On the expression of a number as a sum of primes, Acta Math.,.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayes, Felicity; Williamson, Jennifer; Mills, Gina
2012-01-01
Mesocosms representing the BAP Priority habitat ‘Calcareous Grassland’ were exposed to eight ozone profiles for twelve-weeks in two consecutive years. Half of the mesocosms received a reduced watering regime during the exposure periods. Numbers and timing of flowering in the second exposure period were related to ozone concentration and phytotoxic ozone dose (accumulated stomatal flux). For Lotus corniculatus, ozone accelerated the timing of the maximum number of flowers. An increase in mean ozone concentration from 30 ppb to 70 ppb corresponded with an advance in the timing of maximum flowering by six days. A significant reduction in flower numbers with increasing ozone was found for Campanula rotundifolia and Scabiosa columbaria and the relationship with ozone was stronger for those that were well-watered than for those with reduced watering. These changes in flowering timing and numbers could have large ecological impacts, affecting plant pollination and the food supply of nectar feeding insects. - Highlights: ► An increase in ozone accelerated timing of maximum flowering in Lotus corniculatus. ► Ozone reduced flower numbers in Campanula rotundifolia and Scabiosa columbaria. ► Reduced water availability did not protect most species from the effects of ozone. - Increased tropospheric ozone affected timing of flowering and maximum flower numbers in calcareous grassland mesocosms.
Lepton number violation in theories with a large number of standard model copies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovalenko, Sergey; Schmidt, Ivan; Paes, Heinrich
2011-01-01
We examine lepton number violation (LNV) in theories with a saturated black hole bound on a large number of species. Such theories have been advocated recently as a possible solution to the hierarchy problem and an explanation of the smallness of neutrino masses. On the other hand, the violation of the lepton number can be a potential phenomenological problem of this N-copy extension of the standard model as due to the low quantum gravity scale black holes may induce TeV scale LNV operators generating unacceptably large rates of LNV processes. We show, however, that this issue can be avoided by introducing a spontaneously broken U 1(B-L) . Then, due to the existence of a specific compensation mechanism between contributions of different Majorana neutrino states, LNV processes in the standard model copy become extremely suppressed with rates far beyond experimental reach.
Number of warning information sources and decision making during tornadoes.
Luo, Jianjun; Cong, Zhen; Liang, Daan
2015-03-01
Taking proper protective action upon receiving tornado warnings is critical to reducing casualties. With more warning information sources becoming available, how the number of such information sources affects decision making should be quantitatively investigated. To examine how the number of warning information sources affected individuals' decisions to take protective action during tornadoes. A telephone survey using random sampling was conducted in 2012 with residents in Tuscaloosa AL and Joplin MO, resulting in a working sample of 782 respondents. Both cities were struck by violent tornadoes (Enhanced Fujita Scale [EF]4 and EF5) in 2011. The analysis was conducted in 2013. Logistic regression analysis showed that relative to having only one warning information source, having two and three or more warning information sources significantly increased the odds of taking protective action in Joplin but not in Tuscaloosa; having three or more sources had a significantly stronger effect on taking protective action in Joplin than in Tuscaloosa. Having an emergency preparation plan in both cities and being white in Tuscaloosa significantly increased the odds of taking protective action, whereas being divorced in Joplin reduced these odds. Receiving warnings from more warning information sources might be more beneficial in places with less previous exposure to tornadoes and for populations with lower awareness of a potential tornado and higher probability of receiving no warnings. Emergency management agencies and public health officials should give priority to these places and populations when formulating disaster mitigation decisions and policies. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Residual number processing in dyscalculia.
Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J
2014-01-01
Developmental dyscalculia - a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts - is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.
Residual number processing in dyscalculia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marinella Cappelletti
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.
Residual number processing in dyscalculia☆
Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.
2013-01-01
Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia. PMID:24266008
Parameter study of simplified dragonfly airfoil geometry at Reynolds number of 6000.
Levy, David-Elie; Seifert, Avraham
2010-10-21
Aerodynamic study of a simplified Dragonfly airfoil in gliding flight at Reynolds numbers below 10,000 is motivated by both pure scientific interest and technological applications. At these Reynolds numbers, the natural insect flight could provide inspiration for technology development of Micro UAV's and more. Insect wings are typically characterized by corrugated airfoils. The present study follows a fundamental flow physics study (Levy and Seifert, 2009), that revealed the importance of flow separation from the first corrugation, the roll-up of the separated shear layer to discrete vortices and their role in promoting flow reattachment to the aft arc, as the leading mechanism enabling high-lift, low drag performance of the Dragonfly gliding flight. This paper describes the effect of systematic airfoil geometry variations on the aerodynamic properties of a simplified Dragonfly airfoil at Reynolds number of 6000. The parameter study includes a detailed analysis of small variations of the nominal geometry, such as corrugation placement or height, rear arc and trailing edge shape. Numerical simulations using the 2D laminar Navier-Stokes equations revealed that the flow accelerating over the first corrugation slope is followed by an unsteady pressure recovery, combined with vortex shedding. The latter allows the reattachment of the flow over the rear arc. Also, the drag values are directly linked to the vortices' magnitude. This parametric study shows that geometric variations which reduce the vortices' amplitude, as reduction of the rear cavity depth or the reduction of the rear arc and trailing edge curvature, will reduce the drag values. Other changes will extend the flow reattachment over the rear arc for a larger mean lift coefficients range; such as the negative deflection of the forward flat plate. These changes consequently reduce the drag values at higher mean lift coefficients. The detailed geometry study enabled the definition of a corrugated airfoil
Liu, Y J; Tran, T; Postma, G; Buydens, L M C; Jansen, J
2018-08-22
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is widely used in analytical chemistry, to reduce the dimensionality of a multivariate data set in a few Principal Components (PCs) that summarize the predominant patterns in the data. An accurate estimate of the number of PCs is indispensable to provide meaningful interpretations and extract useful information. We show how existing estimates for the number of PCs may fall short for datasets with considerable coherence, noise or outlier presence. We present here how Angle Distribution of the Loading Subspaces (ADLS) can be used to estimate the number of PCs based on the variability of loading subspace across bootstrap resamples. Based on comprehensive comparisons with other well-known methods applied on simulated dataset, we show that ADLS (1) may quantify the stability of a PCA model with several numbers of PCs simultaneously; (2) better estimate the appropriate number of PCs when compared with the cross-validation and scree plot methods, specifically for coherent data, and (3) facilitate integrated outlier detection, which we introduce in this manuscript. We, in addition, demonstrate how the analysis of different types of real-life spectroscopic datasets may benefit from these advantages of ADLS. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Reynold-Number Effects on Near-Wall Turbulence
Mansour, N. N.; Kim, J.; Moser, R. D.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
The Reynolds stress budget in a full developed turbulent channel flow for three Reynolds numbers (Re = 180,395,590) are used to investigate the near wall scaling of various turbulence quantities. We find that as the Reynolds number increases, the extent of the region where the production of the kinetic energy is equal to the dissipation increases. At the highest Reynolds number the region of equilibrium extends from y+ - 120 to y+ = 240. As the Reynolds number increases, we find that wall scaling collapses the budgets for the streamwise fluctuating component, but the budgets for the other two components show Reynolds number dependency.
2010-05-01
Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events
Nonclassicality in phase-number uncertainty relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matia-Hernando, Paloma; Luis, Alfredo
2011-01-01
We show that there are nonclassical states with lesser joint fluctuations of phase and number than any classical state. This is rather paradoxical since one would expect classical coherent states to be always of minimum uncertainty. The same result is obtained when we replace phase by a phase-dependent field quadrature. Number and phase uncertainties are assessed using variance and Holevo relation.
Nonclassicality in phase-number uncertainty relations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matia-Hernando, Paloma; Luis, Alfredo [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
2011-12-15
We show that there are nonclassical states with lesser joint fluctuations of phase and number than any classical state. This is rather paradoxical since one would expect classical coherent states to be always of minimum uncertainty. The same result is obtained when we replace phase by a phase-dependent field quadrature. Number and phase uncertainties are assessed using variance and Holevo relation.
Risius, Steffen; Costantini, Marco; Koch, Stefan; Hein, Stefan; Klein, Christian
2018-05-01
The influence of unit Reynolds number (Re_1=17.5× 106-80× 106 {m}^{-1}), Mach number (M= 0.35-0.77) and incompressible shape factor (H_{12} = 2.50-2.66) on laminar-turbulent boundary layer transition was systematically investigated in the Cryogenic Ludwieg-Tube Göttingen (DNW-KRG). For this investigation the existing two-dimensional wind tunnel model, PaLASTra, which offers a quasi-uniform streamwise pressure gradient, was modified to reduce the size of the flow separation region at its trailing edge. The streamwise temperature distribution and the location of laminar-turbulent transition were measured by means of temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) with a higher accuracy than attained in earlier measurements. It was found that for the modified PaLASTra model the transition Reynolds number (Re_{ {tr}}) exhibits a linear dependence on the pressure gradient, characterized by H_{12}. Due to this linear relation it was possible to quantify the so-called `unit Reynolds number effect', which is an increase of Re_{ {tr}} with Re_1. By a systematic variation of M, Re_1 and H_{12} in combination with a spectral analysis of freestream disturbances, a stabilizing effect of compressibility on boundary layer transition, as predicted by linear stability theory, was detected (`Mach number effect'). Furthermore, two expressions were derived which can be used to calculate the transition Reynolds number as a function of the amplitude of total pressure fluctuations, Re_1 and H_{12}. To determine critical N-factors, the measured transition locations were correlated with amplification rates, calculated by incompressible and compressible linear stability theory. By taking into account the spectral level of total pressure fluctuations at the frequency of the most amplified Tollmien-Schlichting wave at transition location, the scatter in the determined critical N-factors was reduced. Furthermore, the receptivity coefficients dependence on incidence angle of acoustic waves was used to
Number names and number understanding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten
2014-01-01
This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....
Vegetable oil and fat viscosity forecast models based on iodine number and saponification number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toscano, G.; Riva, G.; Foppa Pedretti, E.; Duca, D.
2012-01-01
Vegetable oil and fats can be considered as an important renewable source for the energy production. There are many applications where these biofuels are used directly in engines. However, the use of pure vegetable oils causes some problems as consequence of its chemical and physical characteristic. Viscosity is one of the most important parameters affecting several physical and mechanical processes of the operation of the engine. The determination of this parameter at different tis important to determine the behavior of the vegetable oil and fats. In this work we investigated the effects of two analytical chemical parameters (iodine number and saponification number) and forecasting models have been proposed. -- Highlights: ► Vegetable oil and fat viscosity is predicted by mathematical model based on saponification number and iodine number. ► Unsaturated vegetable oils with small size molecules of fatty acids have a lower viscosity values. ► The models proposed show an average error lower than 12%
Damköhler number effects on soot formation and growth in turbulent nonpremixed flames
Attili, Antonio
2015-01-01
The effect of Damköhler number on turbulent nonpremixed sooting flames is investigated via large scale direct numerical simulation in three-dimensional n-heptane/air jet flames at a jet Reynolds number of 15,000 and at three different Damköhler numbers. A reduced chemical mechanism, which includes the soot precursor naphthalene, and a high-order method of moments are employed. At the highest Damköhler number, local extinction is negligible, while flames holes are observed in the two lowest Damköhler number cases. Compared to temperature and other species controlled by fuel oxidation chemistry, naphthalene is found to be affected more significantly by the Damköhler number. Consequently, the overall soot mass fraction decreases by more than one order of magnitude for a fourfold decrease of the Damköhler number. On the contrary, the overall number density of soot particles is approximately the same, but its distribution in mixture fraction space is different in the three cases. The total soot mass growth rate is found to be proportional to the Damköhler number. In the two lowest Da number cases, soot leakage across the flame is observed. Leveraging Lagrangian statistics, it is concluded that soot leakage is due to patches of soot that cross the stoichiometric surface through flame holes. These results show the leading order effects of turbulent mixing in controlling the dynamics of soot in turbulent flames. © 2014 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angelica B Bernal
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have shown recently that maternal undernutrition (UN advanced female pubertal onset in a manner that is dependent upon the timing of UN. The long-term consequence of this accelerated puberty on ovarian function is unknown. Recent findings suggest that oxidative stress may be one mechanism whereby early life events impact on later physiological functioning. Therefore, using an established rodent model of maternal UN at critical windows of development, we examined maternal UN-induced changes in offspring ovarian function and determined whether these changes were underpinned by ovarian oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our study is the first to show that maternal UN significantly reduced primordial and secondary follicle number in offspring in a manner that was dependent upon the timing of maternal UN. Specifically, a reduction in these early stage follicles was observed in offspring born to mothers undernourished throughout both pregnancy and lactation. Additionally, antral follicle number was reduced in offspring born to all mothers that were UN regardless of whether the period of UN was restricted to pregnancy or lactation or both. These reductions were associated with decreased mRNA levels of genes critical for follicle maturation and ovulation. Increased ovarian protein carbonyls were observed in offspring born to mothers UN during pregnancy and/or lactation and this was associated with peroxiredoxin 3 hyperoxidation and reduced mRNA levels; suggesting compromised antioxidant defence. This was not observed in offspring of mothers UN during lactation alone. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that maternal UN, particularly at a time-point that includes pregnancy, results in reduced offspring ovarian follicle numbers and mRNA levels of regulatory genes and may be mediated by increased ovarian oxidative stress coupled with a decreased ability to repair the resultant oxidative damage. Together these data are suggestive of
Comish, Paul B; Drumond, Ana Luiza; Kinnell, Hazel L; Anderson, Richard A; Matin, Angabin; Meistrich, Marvin L; Shetty, Gunapala
2014-01-01
Exposure to radiation during fetal development induces testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) and reduces spermatogenesis in mice. However, whether DNA damaging chemotherapeutic agents elicit these effects in mice remains unclear. Among such agents, cyclophosphamide (CP) is currently used to treat breast cancer in pregnant women, and the effects of fetal exposure to this drug manifested in the offspring must be better understood to offer such patients suitable counseling. The present study was designed to determine whether fetal exposure to CP induces testicular cancer and/or gonadal toxicity in 129 and in 129.MOLF congenic (L1) mice. Exposure to CP on embryonic days 10.5 and 11.5 dramatically increased TGCT incidence to 28% in offspring of 129 mice (control value, 2%) and to 80% in the male offspring of L1 (control value 33%). These increases are similar to those observed in both lines of mice by radiation. In utero exposure to CP also significantly reduced testis weights at 4 weeks of age to ∼ 70% of control and induced atrophic seminiferous tubules in ∼ 30% of the testes. When the in utero CP-exposed 129 mice reached adulthood, there were significant reductions in testicular and epididymal sperm counts to 62% and 70%, respectively, of controls. In female offspring, CP caused the loss of 77% of primordial follicles and increased follicle growth activation. The results indicate that i) DNA damage is a common mechanism leading to induction of testicular cancer, ii) increased induction of testis cancer by external agents is proportional to the spontaneous incidence due to inherent genetic susceptibility, and iii) children exposed to radiation or DNA damaging chemotherapeutic agents in utero may have increased risks of developing testis cancer and having reduced spermatogenic potential or diminished reproductive lifespan.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul B Comish
Full Text Available Exposure to radiation during fetal development induces testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT and reduces spermatogenesis in mice. However, whether DNA damaging chemotherapeutic agents elicit these effects in mice remains unclear. Among such agents, cyclophosphamide (CP is currently used to treat breast cancer in pregnant women, and the effects of fetal exposure to this drug manifested in the offspring must be better understood to offer such patients suitable counseling. The present study was designed to determine whether fetal exposure to CP induces testicular cancer and/or gonadal toxicity in 129 and in 129.MOLF congenic (L1 mice. Exposure to CP on embryonic days 10.5 and 11.5 dramatically increased TGCT incidence to 28% in offspring of 129 mice (control value, 2% and to 80% in the male offspring of L1 (control value 33%. These increases are similar to those observed in both lines of mice by radiation. In utero exposure to CP also significantly reduced testis weights at 4 weeks of age to ∼ 70% of control and induced atrophic seminiferous tubules in ∼ 30% of the testes. When the in utero CP-exposed 129 mice reached adulthood, there were significant reductions in testicular and epididymal sperm counts to 62% and 70%, respectively, of controls. In female offspring, CP caused the loss of 77% of primordial follicles and increased follicle growth activation. The results indicate that i DNA damage is a common mechanism leading to induction of testicular cancer, ii increased induction of testis cancer by external agents is proportional to the spontaneous incidence due to inherent genetic susceptibility, and iii children exposed to radiation or DNA damaging chemotherapeutic agents in utero may have increased risks of developing testis cancer and having reduced spermatogenic potential or diminished reproductive lifespan.
Nussenbaum, Kate; Amso, Dima; Markant, Julie
2017-11-01
Previous work has demonstrated that increasing the number of distractors in a search array can reduce interference from distractor content during target processing. However, it is unclear how this reduced interference influences learning of target information. Here, we investigated how varying the amount and content of distraction present in a learning environment affects visual search and subsequent memory for target items. In two experiments, we demonstrate that the number and content of competing distractors interact in their influence on target selection and memory. Specifically, while increasing the number of distractors present in a search array made target detection more effortful, it did not impair learning and memory for target content. Instead, when the distractors contained category information that conflicted with the target, increasing the number of distractors from one to three actually benefitted learning and memory. These data suggest that increasing numbers of distractors may reduce interference from conflicting conceptual information during encoding.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lundberg, Pernilla; Koskinen, Cecilia; Baldock, Paul A.; Loethgren, Hanna; Stenberg, Asa; Lerner, Ulf H.; Oldenborg, Per-Arne
2007-01-01
Physical interaction between the cell surface receptors CD47 and signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα) was reported to regulate cell migration, phagocytosis, cytokine production, and macrophage fusion. However, it is unclear if the CD47/SIRPα-interaction can also regulate macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL)-stimulated formation of osteoclasts. Here, we show that functional blocking antibodies to either CD47 or SIRPα strongly reduced formation of multinucleated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) + osteoclasts in cultures of murine hematopoietic cells, stimulated in vitro by M-CSF and RANKL. In addition, the numbers of osteoclasts formed in M-CSF/RANKL-stimulated bone marrow macrophage cultures from CD47 -/- mice were strongly reduced, and bones of CD47 -/- mice exhibited significantly reduced osteoclast numbers, as compared with wild-type controls. We conclude that the CD47/SIRPα interaction is important for M-CSF/RANKL-stimulated osteoclast formation both in vivo and in vitro, and that absence of CD47 results in decreased numbers of osteoclasts in CD47 -/- mice
Tsutsui, Keisuke; Kaku, Masato; Motokawa, Masahide; Tohma, Yuiko; Kawata, Toshitsugu; Fujita, Tadashi; Kohno, Shinya; Ohtani, Junji; Tenjoh, Kaoru; Nakano, Mao; Kamada, Hiroko; Tanne, Kazuo
2007-02-01
It has been reported that reduction of masticatory afferent stimulation might influence learning and memory function. In order to clarify the influences of reduced masticatory sensory input on spatial memory/learning ability and neuropathological changes, we conducted the Morris water maze experiment and investigated the number of hippocampal neurons in association with the differences in masticatory afferent stimuli from hard- and soft-diet feeding in mice. The water maze experiment showed no significant difference in learning ability between 180-day-old solid- and powderdiet groups. Meanwhile, the ability was significantly reduced in the 360-day-old powder-diet group as compared with the age-matched solid-diet group. The total number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions was significantly smaller in 360-day-old powder-diet group than in the remaining groups. These results demonstrate that reduction of masticatory afferent stimuli due to long-term soft-diet feeding may induce neuron loss in the hippocampus and reduced memory/learning ability.
Exploring Effect of Location Number on Map-Based Graphical Password Authentication
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meng, Weizhi; Lee, Wang; Au, Man Ho
2017-01-01
select their secrets (geographical points) on a world map. In particular, PassMap allows users to select two locations on a map, while GeoPass reduces the number of locations to only one. At first glance, selecting one location is more vulnerable to attacks, while increasing the location number may add...
Reduced precipitation over large water bodies in the Brazilian Amazon shown from TRMM data
Paiva, Rodrigo Cauduro Dias; Buarque, Diogo Costa; Clarke, Robin T.; Collischonn, Walter; Allasia, Daniel Gustavo
2011-02-01
Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) data show lower rainfall over large water bodies in the Brazilian Amazon. Mean annual rainfall (P), number of wet days (rainfall > 2 mm) (W) and annual rainfall accumulated over 3-hour time intervals (P3hr) were computed from TRMM 3B42 data for 1998-2009. Reduced rainfall was marked over the Rio Solimões/Amazon, along most Amazon tributaries and over the Balbina reservoir. In a smaller test area, a heuristic argument showed that P and W were reduced by 5% and 6.5% respectively. Allowing for TRMM 3B42 spatial resolution, the reduction may be locally greater. Analyses of diurnal rainfall patterns showed that rainfall is lowest over large rivers during the afternoon, when most rainfall is convective, but at night and early morning the opposite occurs, with increased rainfall over rivers, although this pattern is less marked. Rainfall patterns reported from studies of smaller Amazonian regions therefore exist more widely.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maeda, Hiroko; Kawai, Takeshi; Kanasaki, Yoshiki; Akagi, Hiroaki
1981-01-01
This report is studied on CT number and CT images of the eight cases with fatty liver. Five of these cases showed the reversal of densities of the liver and vessels. In these cases, the diagnoses of the fatty liver were easible. In other cases, the diagnoses were possible only by comparison of the CT number of the liver and spleen because the CT number of normal liver were higher than those of the spleen. In the results which we examined the correlation of the CT number and specific gravities of the blood, normal saline, distilled water, mayonnaise, eatable iol, ethyl alcohol and lard, we observed the linear relationship between CT number and specific gravities. And so, we think that the diagnosis of the fatty liver and the degree of fatty infiltration can be guessed by the CT number of the liver and spleen. (author)
Taghdiri, Foad; Chung, Jonathan; Irwin, Samantha; Multani, Namita; Tarazi, Apameh; Ebraheem, Ahmed; Khodadadi, Mozghan; Goswami, Ruma; Wennberg, Richard; Mikulis, David; Green, Robin; Davis, Karen; Tator, Charles; Eizenman, Moshe; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela
2018-03-01
The aim of this study was to examine the potential utility of a self-paced saccadic eye movement as a marker of post-concussion syndrome (PCS) and monitoring the recovery from PCS. Fifty-nine persistently symptomatic participants with at least two concussions performed the self-paced saccade (SPS) task. We evaluated the relationships between the number of SPSs and 1) number of self-reported concussion symptoms, and 2) integrity of major white matter (WM) tracts (as measured by fractional anisotropy [FA] and mean diffusivity) that are directly or indirectly involved in saccadic eye movements and often affected by concussion. These tracts included the uncinate fasciculus (UF), cingulum (Cg) and its three subcomponents (subgenual, retrosplenial, and parahippocampal), superior longitudinal fasciculus, and corpus callosum. Mediation analyses were carried out to examine whether specific WM tracts (left UF and left subgenual Cg) mediated the relationship between the number of SPSs and 1) interval from last concussion or 2) total number of self-reported symptoms. The number of SPSs was negatively correlated with the total number of self-reported symptoms (r = -0.419, p = 0.026). The number of SPSs were positively correlated with FA of left UF and left Cg (r = 0.421, p = 0.013 and r = 0.452, p = 0.008; respectively). FA of the subgenual subcomponent of the left Cg partially mediated the relationship between the total number of symptoms and the number of SPSs, while FA of the left UF mediated the relationship between interval from last concussion and the number of SPSs. In conclusion, SPS testing as a fast and objective assessment may reflect symptom burden in patients with PCS. In addition, since the number of SPSs is associated with the integrity of some WM tracts, it may be useful as a diagnostic biomarker in patients with PCS.
Experimental study of pitching and plunging airfoils at low Reynolds numbers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baik, Yeon Sik; Bernal, Luis P. [University of Michigan, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
2012-12-15
Measurements of the unsteady flow structure and force time history of pitching and plunging SD7003 and flat plate airfoils at low Reynolds numbers are presented. The airfoils were pitched and plunged in the effective angle of attack range of 2.4 -13.6 (shallow-stall kinematics) and -6 to 22 (deep-stall kinematics). The shallow-stall kinematics results for the SD7003 airfoil show attached flow and laminar-to-turbulent transition at low effective angle of attack during the down stroke motion, while the flat plate model exhibits leading edge separation. Strong Re-number effects were found for the SD7003 airfoil which produced approximately 25 % increase in the peak lift coefficient at Re = 10,000 compared to higher Re flows. The flat plate airfoil showed reduced Re effects due to leading edge separation at the sharper leading edge, and the measured peak lift coefficient was higher than that predicted by unsteady potential flow theory. The deep-stall kinematics resulted in leading edge separation that led to formation of a large leading edge vortex (LEV) and a small trailing edge vortex (TEV) for both airfoils. The measured peak lift coefficient was significantly higher ({proportional_to}50 %) than that for the shallow-stall kinematics. The effect of airfoil shape on lift force was greater than the Re effect. Turbulence statistics were measured as a function of phase using ensemble averages. The results show anisotropic turbulence for the LEV and isotropic turbulence for the TEV. Comparison of unsteady potential flow theory with the experimental data showed better agreement by using the quasi-steady approximation, or setting C(k) = 1 in Theodorsen theory, for leading edge-separated flows. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gale, M.D.; Flintham, J.E.
1984-01-01
The Tom Thumb dwarfing gene, Rht3, like the related genes Rht1 and Rht2 from Norin 10, has pleiotropic effects on individual ear yields, and grain protein concentrations. An experiment was conducted in which tiller number per plant and grain number per spike were restricted to ascertain whether reduced grain size and protein content are primary or secondary competitive effects in near-isogenic lines. The potential for grain growth was shown to be identical in Rht3 and rht genotypes when grain set was restricted, indicating that the primary effect of the gene is to increase spikelet fertility. Nitrogen accumulation within the grain was also affected by inter-grain competition but decreased nitrogen yields per plant indicated that reduced protein levels are, in part, a primary effect of the gene. Analysis of individual grain yields within Rht3 and rht spikes showed that the gene affected developmental 'dominance' relationships within the spike. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven Mark Gillespie
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Psychopathic traits are linked with impairments in emotional facial expression recognition. These impairments may, in part, reflect reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces. Although reduced attention to the eyes has been noted among children with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits, similar findings are yet to be found in relation to psychopathic traits among adult male participants. Here we investigated the relationship of primary (selfish, uncaring and secondary (impulsive, antisocial psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes among adult male non-offenders during an emotion recognition task. We measured the number of fixations, and overall dwell time, on the eyes and the mouth of male and female faces showing the six basic emotions at varying levels of intensity. We found no relationship of primary or secondary psychopathic traits with recognition accuracy. However, primary psychopathic traits were associated with a reduced number of fixations, and lower overall dwell time, on the eyes relative to the mouth across expressions, intensity, and sex. Furthermore, the relationship of primary psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes of angry and fearful faces was influenced by the sex and intensity of the expression. We also showed that a greater number of fixations on the eyes, relative to the mouth, was associated with increased accuracy for angry and fearful expression recognition. These results are the first to show effects of psychopathic traits on attention to the eyes of emotional faces in an adult male sample, and may support amygdala based accounts of psychopathy. These findings may also have methodological implications for clinical studies of emotion recognition.
Dexter, Franklin; Marcon, Eric; Aker, John; Epstein, Richard H
2009-09-01
More personnel are needed to turn over operating rooms (ORs) promptly when there are more simultaneous turnovers. Anesthesia and/or OR information management system data can be analyzed statistically to quantify simultaneous turnovers to evaluate whether to add an additional turnover team. Data collected for each case at a six OR facility were room, date of surgery, time of patient entry into the OR, and time of patient exit from the OR. The number of simultaneous turnovers was calculated for each 1 min of 122 4-wk periods. Our end point was the reduction in the daily minutes of simultaneous turnovers exceeding the number of teams caused by the addition of a team. Increasing from two turnover teams to three teams reduced the mean daily minutes of simultaneous turnovers exceeding the numbers of teams by 19 min. The ratio of 19 min to 8 h valued the time of extra personnel as 4.0% of the time of OR staff, surgeons, and anesthesia providers. Validity was suggested by other methods of analyses also suggesting staffing for three simultaneous turnovers. Discrete-event simulation showed that the reduction in daily minutes of turnover times from the addition of a team would likely match or exceed the reduction in the daily minutes of simultaneous turnovers exceeding the numbers of teams. Confidence intervals for daily minutes of turnover times achieved by increasing from two to three teams were calculated using successive 4-wk periods. The distribution was sufficiently close to normal that accurate confidence intervals could be calculated using Student's t distribution (Lilliefors' test P = 0.58). Analysis generally should use 13 4-wk periods as increasing the number of periods from 6 to 13 significantly reduced the coefficient of variation of the averages but not increasing the number of periods from 6 to 9 or from 9 to 13. The number of simultaneous turnovers can be calculated for each 1 min over 1 yr. The reduction in the daily minutes of simultaneous turnovers
Bank Control and the Number of Bank Relations of Japanese Firms
Sterken, Elmer; Ogawa, Kazuo; Tokutsu, Ichiro
2005-01-01
We explore the determinants of the number of long-term bank relations of listed Japanese firms using a unique data set covering the period 1982-1999. Having a relation with a top-equity holding bank reduces the number of bank relations, while debt-rich and cash-poor firms have more bank relations.
Genomic copy number variations in three Southeast Asian populations.
Ku, Chee-Seng; Pawitan, Yudi; Sim, Xueling; Ong, Rick T H; Seielstad, Mark; Lee, Edmund J D; Teo, Yik-Ying; Chia, Kee-Seng; Salim, Agus
2010-07-01
Research on the role of copy number variations (CNVs) in the genetic risk of diseases in Asian populations has been hampered by a relative lack of reference CNV maps for Asian populations outside the East Asians. In this article, we report the population characteristics of CNVs in Chinese, Malay, and Asian Indian populations in Singapore. Using the Illumina Human 1M Beadchip array, we identify 1,174 CNV loci in these populations that corroborated with findings when the same samples were typed on the Affymetrix 6.0 platform. We identify 441 novel loci not previously reported in the Database of Genomic Variations (DGV). We observe a considerable number of loci that span all three populations and were previously unreported, as well as population-specific loci that are quite common in the respective populations. From this we observe the distribution of CNVs in the Asian Indian population to be considerably different from the Chinese and Malay populations. About half of the deletion loci and three-quarters of duplication loci overlap UCSC genes. Tens of loci show population differentiation and overlap with genes previously known to be associated with genetic risk of diseases. One of these loci is the CYP2A6 deletion, previously linked to reduced susceptibility to lung cancer. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Algorithm of reducing the false positives in IDS based on correlation Analysis
Liu, Jianyi; Li, Sida; Zhang, Ru
2018-03-01
This paper proposes an algorithm of reducing the false positives in IDS based on correlation Analysis. Firstly, the algorithm analyzes the distinguishing characteristics of false positives and real alarms, and preliminary screen the false positives; then use the method of attribute similarity clustering to the alarms and further reduces the amount of alarms; finally, according to the characteristics of multi-step attack, associated it by the causal relationship. The paper also proposed a reverse causation algorithm based on the attack association method proposed by the predecessors, turning alarm information into a complete attack path. Experiments show that the algorithm simplifies the number of alarms, improve the efficiency of alarm processing, and contribute to attack purposes identification and alarm accuracy improvement.
Will sex selection reduce fertility?
Leung, S F
1994-01-01
Population control is one of the primary policies applied against poverty in many low income countries. The widespread prevalence of son preference in some countries such as China and India, however, works against any reduction of fertility. This is so because parents often continue to have children until they obtain the number of sons which they desire. The bias against girls has also led to higher abortion and mortality rates of female children. It is frequently argued that if sex selection methods are made available to parents so that they can control the gender of their children, population growth would be lowered and women's welfare improved. The author investigates both theoretically and numerically the impact of sex selection on fertility. A static quantity-quality model of fertility is used to compare fertility choices when parents cannot choose the gender of children versus a situation in which parents can choose gender. Empirical data are drawn from the 1976 Malaysian Family Life Survey. Analysis found that whether sex selection reduces fertility depends upon the second and third derivatives of the utility function and the child expenditure function. A numerical dynamic analysis is also presented. The simulation shows, using empirical dynamic models of fertility and the Monte Carlo integration technique, that sex selection on the firstborn child among the Chinese in Malaysia could reduce fertility by about 3%.
Laser entertainment and light shows in education
Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles
2002-05-01
Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.
Kim, Kyoungyoun; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna
2018-03-01
The effects of polymer stresses on the analogy between momentum and heat transfer are examined by using a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of viscoelastic turbulent channel flows using a constant heat flux boundary condition. The Reynolds number based on the friction velocity and channel half height is 125, and the Prandtl number is 5. The polymer stress is modeled using the finitely extensible nonlinear elastic-Peterlin constitutive model, and low (15%), intermediate (34%), and high drag reduction (DR) (52%) cases are examined. The Colburn analogy is found to be inapplicable for viscoelastic turbulent flows, suggesting dissimilarity between the momentum and heat transfer at the macroscopic coefficient level. The mean temperature profile also shows behaviour different from the mean velocity profile in drag-reduced flows. In contrast to the dissimilarity in the mean profiles, the turbulent Prandtl number Prt predicted by the DNS is near unity. This implies that turbulent heat transfer is still analogous to turbulent momentum transfer in drag-reduced flows, as in Newtonian flow. An increase in DR is accompanied by an increase in the correlation coefficient ρuθ between the instantaneous fluctuations in the streamwise velocity u and temperature θ. The correlation coefficient between u' and wall-normal velocity fluctuations v', ρ-u v, exhibits a profile similar to that of ρ-θ v in drag-reduced and Newtonian flows. Finally, the budget analysis of the transport equations of turbulent heat flux shows a strong similarity between the turbulent momentum and heat transfer, which is consistent with the predictions of Prt near unity.
Standard random number generation for MBASIC
Tausworthe, R. C.
1976-01-01
A machine-independent algorithm is presented and analyzed for generating pseudorandom numbers suitable for the standard MBASIC system. The algorithm used is the polynomial congruential or linear recurrence modulo 2 method. Numbers, formed as nonoverlapping adjacent 28-bit words taken from the bit stream produced by the formula a sub m + 532 = a sub m + 37 + a sub m (modulo 2), do not repeat within the projected age of the solar system, show no ensemble correlation, exhibit uniform distribution of adjacent numbers up to 19 dimensions, and do not deviate from random runs-up and runs-down behavior.
Reduced Graphene Oxide on Nickel Foam for Supercapacitor Electrodes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Uma Ramabadran
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The focus of this paper is the investigation of reduced graphene oxide (GO/nickel foam (RGON samples for use as supercapacitor electrodes. Nickel foam samples were soaked in a GO suspension and dried before being subjected to two different methods to remove oxygen. Atmospheric pressure annealed (APA samples were treated with a varying number (10–18 of nitrogen plasma jet scans, where sample temperatures did not exceed 280 °C. Furnace annealed (FA samples were processed in an atmosphere of hydrogen and argon, at temperatures ranging from 600 °C to 900 °C. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM data indicated that the carbon to oxygen (C:O ratio for APA samples was minimized at an intermediate number of plasma scans. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic (FTIR and Raman spectroscopic data supported this finding. ESEM analysis from FA samples showed that with increasing temperatures of annealing, GO is transformed to reduced graphene oxide (RGO, with C:O ratios exceeding 35:1. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS and X-ray diffraction (XRD data indicated the formation of RGO with an increasing annealing temperature until 800 °C, when oxygen reincorporation in the surface atomic layers becomes an issue. Supercapacitors, constructed using the FA samples, demonstrated performances that correlated with surface atomic layer optimization of the C:O ratio.
The Adaptive QSE-reduced Nuclear Reaction Network for Silicon Burning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parete-Koon, Suzanne; Hix, William Raphael; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl W.
2008-01-01
The nuclei of the 'iron peak' are formed in massive stars shortly before core collapse and during their supernova outbursts as well as during thermonuclear supernovae. Complete and incomplete silicon burning during these events are responsible for the production of a wide range of nuclei with atomic mass numbers from 28 to 64. Because of the large number of nuclei involved, accurate modeling of silicon burning is computationally expensive. However, examination of the physics of silicon burning has revealed that the nuclear evolution is dominated by large groups of nuclei in mutual equilibrium. We present an improvement on our hybrid equilibrium-network scheme which takes advantage of this quasi-equilibrium in order to reduce the number of independent variables calculated. Because the size and membership of these groups vary as the temperature, density and electron faction change, achieving maximal efficiency requires dynamic adjustment of group number and membership. Toward this end, we are implementing a scheme beginning with 2 QSE groups at appropriately high temperature, then progressing through, 3 and 3* group stages (with successively more independent variables) as temperature declines. This combination allows accurate prediction of the nuclear abundance evolution, deleptonization and energy generation at a further reduced computational cost when compared to a conventional nuclear reaction network or our previous 3 fixed group QSE-reduced network. During silicon burning, the resultant QSE-reduced network is up to 20 times faster than the full network it replaces without significant loss of accuracy. These reductions in computational cost and the number of species evolved make QSE-reduced networks well suited for inclusion within hydrodynamic simulations, particularly in multi-dimensional applications
Lee, Joo Eun; Kim, Tae Hyun; Cho, Kyoung Hee; Han, Kyu-Tae; Park, Eun-Cheol
2017-06-08
There is an urgent need to reduce readmission of patients with pneumonia and improve quality of care. To assess the association between hospital resources and quality of care, we examined the effect of number of doctors per bed on 30-day readmission and investigated the combined effect of number of doctors per bed and number of beds. We used nationwide cohort sample data of health insurance claims by the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) from 2002 to 2013. Pneumonia admissions to acute care hospitals among 7446 inpatients older than 65 were examined. We conducted a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model to analyze the association between the number of doctors per bed and 30-day readmission, as well as that of pneumonia-specific 30-day readmission with the combined effects of number of doctors per bed and number of beds. Overall, 1421 (19.1%) patients were readmitted within 30 days and 756 (11.2%) patients were readmitted for pneumonia within 30 days. Patients with pneumonia treated by very low or low number of doctors per bed showed higher readmission (pneumonia-specific readmission: hazard ratio [HR] = 1. 406, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.072-1.843 for low number of doctors per bed; all-cause readmissions: HR = 1.276, 95% CI = 1.026-1.587 for very low number of doctors per bed, and HR = 1.280, 95% CI = 1.064-1.540 for low number of doctors per bed). This empirical study showed that patients with pneumonia cared for in hospitals with more doctors were less likely to be readmitted. Pneumonia-specific 30-day readmission was also significantly associated with the combined effect of the number of doctors and the number of hospital beds.
Missbach, Benjamin; Florack, Arnd; Weissmann, Lukas; König, Jürgen
2014-01-01
Research has shown that imagining food consumption leads to food-specific habituation effects. In the present research, we replicated these effects and further examined whether the depletion of self-regulatory resources would reduce the habituation effects of imagined food consumption. Since self-regulatory resources have been shown to reduce habituation effects during the perception of emotional stimuli, we expected a reduction in habituation effects from imagined food consumption when self-regulatory resources were depleted. In Study 1, we replicated habituation effects as a response to imagining gummy bear consumption with a high (36) and medium number (18) of repetitions in a camouflaged taste test. Participants imagining gummy bear intake showed decreased food intake compared with participants who imagined putting a coin into a laundry machine. The number of repetitions did not significantly moderate the observed habituation effect. In Study 2, we investigated whether self-regulatory depletion would impede habituation effects evoked by the imagination of walnut consumption. Participants in a depleted state did not show a reduction in food intake after imagining walnut intake compared with participants in a non-depleted state. We discuss directions for future research and processes that might underlie the observed moderating effect of self-regulatory resources.
SOLAR CYCLE 24: CURIOUS CHANGES IN THE RELATIVE NUMBERS OF SUNSPOT GROUP TYPES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kilcik, A.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Ozguc, A.; Rozelot, J. P.
2014-01-01
Here, we analyze different sunspot group (SG) behaviors from the points of view of both the sunspot counts (SSCs) and the number of SGs, in four categories, for the time period of 1982 January-2014 May. These categories include data from simple (A and B), medium (C), large (D, E, and F), and decaying (H) SGs. We investigate temporal variations of all data sets used in this study and find the following results. (1) There is a very significant decrease in the large groups' SSCs and the number of SGs in solar cycle 24 (cycle 24) compared to cycles 21-23. (2) There is no strong variation in the decaying groups' data sets for the entire investigated time interval. (3) Medium group data show a gradual decrease for the last three cycles. (4) A significant decrease occurred in the small groups during solar cycle 23, while no strong changes show in the current cycle (cycle 24) compared to the previous ones. We confirm that the temporal behavior of all categories is quite different from cycle to cycle and it is especially flagrant in solar cycle 24. Thus, we argue that the reduced absolute number of the large SGs is largely, if not solely, responsible for the weak cycle 24. These results might be important for long-term space weather predictions to understand the rate of formation of different groups of sunspots during a solar cycle and the possible consequences for the long-term geomagnetic activity
Practical Solutions for Reducing Container Ships’ Waiting Times at Ports Using Simulation Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Abdorreza Sheikholeslami; Gholamreza Ilati; Yones Eftekhari Yeganeh
2013-01-01
The main challenge for container ports is the planning required for berthing container ships while docked in port. Growth of containerization is creating problems for ports and container terminals as they reach their capacity limits of various resources which increasingly leads to traffic and port congestion. Good planning and management of container terminal operations reduces waiting time for liner ships. Reducing the waiting time improves the terminal’s productivity and decreases the port difficulties. Two important keys to reducing waiting time with berth allocation are determining suitable access channel depths and increasing the number of berths which in this paper are studied and analyzed as practical solutions. Simulation based analysis is the only way to understand how various resources interact with each other and how they are affected in the berthing time of ships. We used the Enterprise Dynamics software to produce simulation models due to the complexity and nature of the problems. We further present case study for berth allocation simulation of the biggest container terminal in Iran and the optimum access channel depth and the number of berths are obtained from simulation results. The results show a significant reduction in the waiting time for container ships and can be useful for major functions in operations and development of container ship terminals.
Dimensionless numbers in additive manufacturing
Mukherjee, T.; Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.
2017-02-01
The effects of many process variables and alloy properties on the structure and properties of additively manufactured parts are examined using four dimensionless numbers. The structure and properties of components made from 316 Stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and Inconel 718 powders for various dimensionless heat inputs, Peclet numbers, Marangoni numbers, and Fourier numbers are studied. Temperature fields, cooling rates, solidification parameters, lack of fusion defects, and thermal strains are examined using a well-tested three-dimensional transient heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results show that lack of fusion defects in the fabricated parts can be minimized by strengthening interlayer bonding using high values of dimensionless heat input. The formation of harmful intermetallics such as laves phases in Inconel 718 can be suppressed using low heat input that results in a small molten pool, a steep temperature gradient, and a fast cooling rate. Improved interlayer bonding can be achieved at high Marangoni numbers, which results in vigorous circulation of liquid metal, larger pool dimensions, and greater depth of penetration. A high Fourier number ensures rapid cooling, low thermal distortion, and a high ratio of temperature gradient to the solidification growth rate with a greater tendency of plane front solidification.
Edge Probability and Pixel Relativity-Based Speckle Reducing Anisotropic Diffusion.
Mishra, Deepak; Chaudhury, Santanu; Sarkar, Mukul; Soin, Arvinder Singh; Sharma, Vivek
2018-02-01
Anisotropic diffusion filters are one of the best choices for speckle reduction in the ultrasound images. These filters control the diffusion flux flow using local image statistics and provide the desired speckle suppression. However, inefficient use of edge characteristics results in either oversmooth image or an image containing misinterpreted spurious edges. As a result, the diagnostic quality of the images becomes a concern. To alleviate such problems, a novel anisotropic diffusion-based speckle reducing filter is proposed in this paper. A probability density function of the edges along with pixel relativity information is used to control the diffusion flux flow. The probability density function helps in removing the spurious edges and the pixel relativity reduces the oversmoothing effects. Furthermore, the filtering is performed in superpixel domain to reduce the execution time, wherein a minimum of 15% of the total number of image pixels can be used. For performance evaluation, 31 frames of three synthetic images and 40 real ultrasound images are used. In most of the experiments, the proposed filter shows a better performance as compared to the state-of-the-art filters in terms of the speckle region's signal-to-noise ratio and mean square error. It also shows a comparative performance for figure of merit and structural similarity measure index. Furthermore, in the subjective evaluation, performed by the expert radiologists, the proposed filter's outputs are preferred for the improved contrast and sharpness of the object boundaries. Hence, the proposed filtering framework is suitable to reduce the unwanted speckle and improve the quality of the ultrasound images.
Analysis of reduced widths and size
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, H.C.; Ram Raj; Nath, N.
1977-01-01
Recent data on S-wave neutron reduced widths for a large number of nuclei have been analysed nucleus-wise and the calculations for the degree of freedom of the associated (chi) 2 -distribution have been made using the Porter and Thomas procedure. It is noted that a number of nuclei can be fitted by a (chi) 2 -distribution with degree of freedom one, while there are few which are identified to follow a (chi) 2 -distribution with degree of freedom two and even more than two. The present analysis thus contradicts the usual presumption according to which the degree of freedom is taken to be always unity. An analytical attempt has also been made to ascertain the suitability of the data on reduced widths to be used for the analysis. These considerations are likely to modify the neutron cross-section evaluations. (author)
On the Concept Image of Complex Numbers
Nordlander, Maria Cortas; Nordlander, Edvard
2012-01-01
A study of how Swedish students understand the concept of complex numbers was performed. A questionnaire was issued reflecting the student view of own perception. Obtained answers show a variety of concept images describing how students adopt the concept of complex numbers. These concept images are classified into four categories in order to…
New similarity of triangular fuzzy number and its application.
Zhang, Xixiang; Ma, Weimin; Chen, Liping
2014-01-01
The similarity of triangular fuzzy numbers is an important metric for application of it. There exist several approaches to measure similarity of triangular fuzzy numbers. However, some of them are opt to be large. To make the similarity well distributed, a new method SIAM (Shape's Indifferent Area and Midpoint) to measure triangular fuzzy number is put forward, which takes the shape's indifferent area and midpoint of two triangular fuzzy numbers into consideration. Comparison with other similarity measurements shows the effectiveness of the proposed method. Then, it is applied to collaborative filtering recommendation to measure users' similarity. A collaborative filtering case is used to illustrate users' similarity based on cloud model and triangular fuzzy number; the result indicates that users' similarity based on triangular fuzzy number can obtain better discrimination. Finally, a simulated collaborative filtering recommendation system is developed which uses cloud model and triangular fuzzy number to express users' comprehensive evaluation on items, and result shows that the accuracy of collaborative filtering recommendation based on triangular fuzzy number is higher.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Just, Søren Andreas; Lindegaard, Hanne; Hejbøl, Eva Kildall
2017-01-01
using flow cytometry on lysed peripheral blood. Further, we showed for the first time, that the level of circulating fibrocytes correlated with the number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, that differentiated into mature fibrocytes in vitro. Reduced DLCOc was correlated with high levels...
Chen, Xin; Liu, Li; Zhou, Sida; Yue, Zhenjiang
2016-09-01
Reduced order models(ROMs) based on the snapshots on the CFD high-fidelity simulations have been paid great attention recently due to their capability of capturing the features of the complex geometries and flow configurations. To improve the efficiency and precision of the ROMs, it is indispensable to add extra sampling points to the initial snapshots, since the number of sampling points to achieve an adequately accurate ROM is generally unknown in prior, but a large number of initial sampling points reduces the parsimony of the ROMs. A fuzzy-clustering-based adding-point strategy is proposed and the fuzzy clustering acts an indicator of the region in which the precision of ROMs is relatively low. The proposed method is applied to construct the ROMs for the benchmark mathematical examples and a numerical example of hypersonic aerothermodynamics prediction for a typical control surface. The proposed method can achieve a 34.5% improvement on the efficiency than the estimated mean squared error prediction algorithm and shows same-level prediction accuracy.
Experimental determination of Ramsey numbers.
Bian, Zhengbing; Chudak, Fabian; Macready, William G; Clark, Lane; Gaitan, Frank
2013-09-27
Ramsey theory is a highly active research area in mathematics that studies the emergence of order in large disordered structures. Ramsey numbers mark the threshold at which order first appears and are extremely difficult to calculate due to their explosive rate of growth. Recently, an algorithm that can be implemented using adiabatic quantum evolution has been proposed that calculates the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m,n). Here we present results of an experimental implementation of this algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and R(m,2) for 4≤m≤8. The R(8,2) computation used 84 qubits of which 28 were computational qubits. This computation is the largest experimental implementation of a scientifically meaningful adiabatic evolution algorithm that has been done to date.
Suspensions with reduced violin string modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, B H; Ju, L; Blair, D G
2006-01-01
We discuss the possibility of significantly reducing the number and Q-factor of violin string modes in the mirror suspension. Simulations of a bar-flexure suspension and an orthogonal ribbon have shown a reduction in the number of violin string modes when compared to a normal ribbon suspension. By calculating the expected suspension thermal noise, we find that the orthogonal ribbon provides a promising suspension alternative. A lower number of violin modes oscillating in the direction of the laser and a reduction in violin mode peak values of at least 23dB can be achieved with a slight increase in thermal noise above 40Hz
Suspensions with reduced violin string modes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, B H; Ju, L; Blair, D G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)
2006-03-02
We discuss the possibility of significantly reducing the number and Q-factor of violin string modes in the mirror suspension. Simulations of a bar-flexure suspension and an orthogonal ribbon have shown a reduction in the number of violin string modes when compared to a normal ribbon suspension. By calculating the expected suspension thermal noise, we find that the orthogonal ribbon provides a promising suspension alternative. A lower number of violin modes oscillating in the direction of the laser and a reduction in violin mode peak values of at least 23dB can be achieved with a slight increase in thermal noise above 40Hz.
Van Hoof, Jo; Verschaffel, Lieven; Ghesquière, Pol; Van Dooren, Wim
2017-12-01
Previous research indicated that in several cases learners' errors on rational number tasks can be attributed to learners' tendency to (wrongly) apply natural number properties. There exists a large body of literature both on learners' struggle with understanding the rational number system and on the role of the natural number bias in this struggle. However, little is known about this phenomenon in learners with dyscalculia. We investigated the rational number understanding of learners with dyscalculia and compared it with the rational number understanding of learners without dyscalculia. Three groups of learners were included: sixth graders with dyscalculia, a chronological age match group, and an ability match group. The results showed that the rational number understanding of learners with dyscalculia is significantly lower than that of typically developing peers, but not significantly different from younger learners, even after statistically controlling for mathematics achievement. Next to a delay in their mathematics achievement, learners with dyscalculia seem to have an extra delay in their rational number understanding, compared with peers. This is especially the case in those rational number tasks where one has to inhibit natural number knowledge to come to the right answer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A Repetition Test for Pseudo-Random Number Generators
Gil, Manuel; Gonnet, Gaston H.; Petersen, Wesley P.
2017-01-01
A new statistical test for uniform pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) is presented. The idea is that a sequence of pseudo-random numbers should have numbers reappear with a certain probability. The expectation time that a repetition occurs provides the metric for the test. For linear congruential generators (LCGs) failure can be shown theoretically. Empirical test results for a number of commonly used PRNGs are reported, showing that some PRNGs considered to have good statistical propert...
Teach Kids about Numbers All around Us
Hudson, Hannah Trierweiler
2011-01-01
Recognizing the role numbers play in people's everyday lives is crucial to students' math understanding now and down the road. That's why Bob Krech, a curriculum specialist in New Jersey's West Windsor-Plainsboro district, likes to teach a lesson he calls "Numbers All Around Us." This lesson uses real-world examples to show that numbers…
The MIXMAX random number generator
Savvidy, Konstantin G.
2015-11-01
In this paper, we study the randomness properties of unimodular matrix random number generators. Under well-known conditions, these discrete-time dynamical systems have the highly desirable K-mixing properties which guarantee high quality random numbers. It is found that some widely used random number generators have poor Kolmogorov entropy and consequently fail in empirical tests of randomness. These tests show that the lowest acceptable value of the Kolmogorov entropy is around 50. Next, we provide a solution to the problem of determining the maximal period of unimodular matrix generators of pseudo-random numbers. We formulate the necessary and sufficient condition to attain the maximum period and present a family of specific generators in the MIXMAX family with superior performance and excellent statistical properties. Finally, we construct three efficient algorithms for operations with the MIXMAX matrix which is a multi-dimensional generalization of the famous cat-map. First, allowing to compute the multiplication by the MIXMAX matrix with O(N) operations. Second, to recursively compute its characteristic polynomial with O(N2) operations, and third, to apply skips of large number of steps S to the sequence in O(N2 log(S)) operations.
Chalvet, Fabienne; Netter, Sophie; Dos Santos, Nicolas; Poisot, Emilie; Paces-Fessy, Mélanie; Cumenal, Delphine; Peronnet, Frédérique; Pret, Anne-Marie; Théodore, Laurent
2012-01-01
The potential to produce new cells during adult life depends on the number of stem cell niches and the capacity of stem cells to divide, and is therefore under the control of programs ensuring developmental homeostasis. However, it remains generally unknown how the number of stem cell niches is controlled. In the insect ovary, each germline stem cell (GSC) niche is embedded in a functional unit called an ovariole. The number of ovarioles, and thus the number of GSC niches, varies widely among species. In Drosophila, morphogenesis of ovarioles starts in larvae with the formation of terminal filaments (TFs), each made of 8–10 cells that pile up and sort in stacks. TFs constitute organizers of individual germline stem cell niches during larval and early pupal development. In the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup, the number of ovarioles varies interspecifically from 8 to 20. Here we show that pipsqueak, Trithorax-like, batman and the bric-à-brac (bab) locus, all encoding nuclear BTB/POZ factors of the Tramtrack Group, are involved in limiting the number of ovarioles in D. melanogaster. At least two different processes are differentially perturbed by reducing the function of these genes. We found that when the bab dose is reduced, sorting of TF cells into TFs was affected such that each TF contains fewer cells and more TFs are formed. In contrast, psq mutants exhibited a greater number of TF cells per ovary, with a normal number of cells per TF, thereby leading to formation of more TFs per ovary than in the wild type. Our results indicate that two parallel genetic pathways under the control of a network of nuclear BTB factors are combined in order to negatively control the number of germline stem cell niches. PMID:23185495
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gregg S Gonsalves
Full Text Available Sexual violence is a major public health issue, affecting 35% of women worldwide. Major risk factors for sexual assault include inadequate indoor sanitation and the need to travel to outdoor toilet facilities. We estimated how increasing the number of toilets in an urban township (Khayelitsha, South Africa might reduce both economic costs and the incidence and social burden of sexual assault.We developed a mathematical model that links risk of sexual assault to the number of sanitation facilities and the time a woman must spend walking to a toilet. We defined a composite societal cost function, comprising both the burden of sexual assault and the costs of installing and maintaining public chemical toilets. By expressing total social costs as a function of the number of available toilets, we were able to identify an optimal (i.e., cost-minimizing social investment in toilet facilities.There are currently an estimated 5600 toilets in Khayelitsha. This results in 635 sexual assaults and US$40 million in combined social costs each year. Increasing the number of toilets to 11300 would minimize total costs ($35 million and reduce sexual assaults to 446. Higher toilet installation and maintenance costs would be more than offset by lower sexual assault costs. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis shows that the optimal number of toilets exceeds the original allocation of toilets in the township in over 80% of the 5000 iterations of the model.Improving access to sanitation facilities in urban settlements will simultaneously reduce the incidence of sexual assaults and overall cost to society. Since our analysis ignores the many additional health benefits of improving sanitation in resource-constrained urban areas (e.g., potential reductions in waterborne infectious diseases, the optimal number of toilets identified here should be interpreted as conservative.
Effect of six sigma program on the number of surgeries cancellation.
Gheysari, Esmat; Yousefi, Hojatollah; Soleymani, Hossain; Mojdeh, Soheila
2016-01-01
Today, the rate of surgeries is increasing, but surgeries are canceled due to various reasons. Unexpected cancellation of surgeries not only results in disorder in the operating room schedule, but also causes stress for patients and their family and increases costs. We determined the number and causes of surgery cancellations and areas for improvement. This outcome evaluation of Six Sigma program was conducted on 850 cases after the implementation of the program and compared to that of 850 cases which received routine care before the program. Cases were selected through easy sampling during the study. Before the implementation, the number of cancellations was recorded daily and their reasons were investigated. Then, Six Sigma program was implemented in accordance with the reasons for each category and necessary steps were taken to prevent the cancellation of surgeries. Data were collected for 3 months using a three-section data collection form. For data analysis, distribution and relative frequency and chi-square test were used. The three categories of patient, physician, and hospital system were identified as the main causes. The highest rate of cancellation was related to ENT surgeries (74.19%). No cancellations were made in orology surgeries. The implementation of the Six Sigma program caused a significant difference in surgery cancellation (P = 0.003); 31 (3.6%) cases of cancellation were reduced to 12 (1.4%) cases. The results showed that Six Sigma program is a pre-surgery care quality improvement program. Patient education and the implementation of the 6 sigma program can be effective in reducing the rate of cancellation of operations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Satya Darmayani
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Hands are the principal carriers of bacterial diseases, therefore very important to know that washing hands with soap or hand sanitizer is highly effective healthy behaviors to reduce bacteria in the palm. This study aimed to determine the total number of bacteria between washing hands with soap and hand sanitizer, also applying the results of these studies as a learning resource in bacteriology. The research design was the true experiment with pretest-posttest control group research design and laboratory examination. Analysis of data using paired t-test and independent sample t-test with α = 0.05. The result using paired t-test obtained t count= 2.48921> t 0.05 (14 = 2.14479 (with liquid soap, obtained t count= 2.32937> t 0.05 (14 = 2.14479 (with hand sanitizer. As for the comparison of the total number of bacteria include washing hands with soap and hand sanitizer using independent samples t-test obtained results there were differences in the total number of bacteria include washing hands with liquid soap and hand sanitizer with t count= 2.23755> t 0.05 ( 13 = 2.16037. That results showed hand sanitizer more effective to reduce the number of bacteria than the liquid soap, that was hand sanitizer 96% and liquid soap by 95%.
Preferential solvation: dividing surface vs excess numbers.
Shimizu, Seishi; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki
2014-04-10
How do osmolytes affect the conformation and configuration of supramolecular assembly, such as ion channel opening and actin polymerization? The key to the answer lies in the excess solvation numbers of water and osmolyte molecules; these numbers are determinable solely from experimental data, as guaranteed by the phase rule, as we show through the exact solution theory of Kirkwood and Buff (KB). The osmotic stress technique (OST), in contrast, purposes to yield alternative hydration numbers through the use of the dividing surface borrowed from the adsorption theory. However, we show (i) OST is equivalent, when it becomes exact, to the crowding effect in which the osmolyte exclusion dominates over hydration; (ii) crowding is not the universal driving force of the osmolyte effect (e.g., actin polymerization); (iii) the dividing surface for solvation is useful only for crowding, unlike in the adsorption theory which necessitates its use due to the phase rule. KB thus clarifies the true meaning and limitations of the older perspectives on preferential solvation (such as solvent binding models, crowding, and OST), and enables excess number determination without any further assumptions.
Clinical studies on thyroid CT number in Graves' disease and destructive thyrotoxicosis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamijo, Keiichi (Kamijo Thyroid and Pituitary Clinic, Sapporo (Japan))
1994-02-01
The purpose of the present study was to investigate CT Hounsfield unit (H.U.) of the thyroid in hyperthyroid and euthyroid Graves' disease and destructive thyrotoxicosis. The mean thyroid CT number in 95 controls was 122[+-]18 H.U.([+-]SD) and did not change significatly with advancing age. The mean thyroid CT number ([+-]SD) of 85[+-]22 H.U. in 60 patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease was significantly lower than either in normal controls or 116[+-]22 H.U. in 11 patients with euthyroid Graves' disease. Comparison of thyroid hormones and TSH receptor Ab values of untreated patients with a normal and an abnormally low thyroid CT number showed that serum total and free T[sub 3] were significantly higher in the latter group than the former group. With respect to the effect of methimazol (MMI) on the thyroid CT number, in the untreated 10 patients with a low thyroid CT number, the initial mean CT number was 65[+-]11 H.U. and increased significantly to 76[+-]14 H.U. after treatment with MMI. In contrast, in 6 patients with a normal thyroid CT number prior to therapy, the initial mean thyroid CT number was 102[+-]11 H.U. and fell significantly to 84[+-]16 H.U. after treatment with MMI. The thyroid CT number in destructive thyrotoxicosis is markedly decreased to less than 70 H.U. and the mean values of 57[+-]7 H.U. in 6 patients with silent thyroiditis and of 61[+-]5 H.U. in 7 with subacute thyroiditis differ significantly from Graves' disease. In conclusion, the thyroid CT number is significantly reduced in hyperthyroid Graves' disease, normal in euthyroid Graves' disease and markedly decreased in destructive thyrotoxicosis. The high T-3 value seemed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of a decline in the thyroid CT number in Graves' disease. An antithyroid drug therapy caused two different changes in the thyroid CT number, depending on whether the thyroid CT number prior to therapy was normal or low. (author).
Ranucci, Marco; Castelvecchio, Serenella; Menicanti, Lorenzo; Frigiola, Alessandro; Pelissero, Gabriele
2010-03-01
The European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation (EuroSCORE) is currently used in many institutions and is considered a reference tool in many countries. We hypothesised that too many variables were included in the EuroSCORE using limited patient series. We tested different models using a limited number of variables. A total of 11150 adult patients undergoing cardiac operations at our institution (2001-2007) were retrospectively analysed. The 17 risk factors composing the EuroSCORE were separately analysed and ranked for accuracy of prediction of hospital mortality. Seventeen models were created by progressively including one factor at a time. The models were compared for accuracy with a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis and area under the curve (AUC) evaluation. Calibration was tested with Hosmer-Lemeshow statistics. Clinical performance was assessed by comparing the predicted with the observed mortality rates. The best accuracy (AUC 0.76) was obtained using a model including only age, left ventricular ejection fraction, serum creatinine, emergency operation and non-isolated coronary operation. The EuroSCORE AUC (0.75) was not significantly different. Calibration and clinical performance were better in the five-factor model than in the EuroSCORE. Only in high-risk patients were 12 factors needed to achieve a good performance. Including many factors in multivariable logistic models increases the risk for overfitting, multicollinearity and human error. A five-factor model offers the same level of accuracy but demonstrated better calibration and clinical performance. Models with a limited number of factors may work better than complex models when applied to a limited number of patients. Copyright (c) 2009 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
New Approach to reduce High School Dropout Rates
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Mauricio Cristhian Portillo-Torres
2015-05-01
Full Text Available From 2006 to 2014, the Ministry of Public Education of Costa Rica implemented four strategic actions to reduce high school dropout rates. The main purpose of these actions was to promote student participation and student identification with their school. Studies prepared by the Ministry of Education and the Comptroller of the Republic were revised to assess the impact of these actions. The result of these actions does not show an actual decrease in the number of students who leave high school. Therefore, a more holistic view is necessary to ensure the students’ stay. This review suggests using use the concept of student engagement and applying a three tier system-wide dropout preventive actions: universal, targeted and intensive.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hubert-Tremblay, Vincent; Archambault, Louis; Tubic, Dragan; Roy, Rene; Beaulieu, Luc
2006-01-01
The purpose of the present study is to introduce a compression algorithm for the CT (computed tomography) data used in Monte Carlo simulations. Performing simulations on the CT data implies large computational costs as well as large memory requirements since the number of voxels in such data reaches typically into hundreds of millions voxels. CT data, however, contain homogeneous regions which could be regrouped to form larger voxels without affecting the simulation's accuracy. Based on this property we propose a compression algorithm based on octrees: in homogeneous regions the algorithm replaces groups of voxels with a smaller number of larger voxels. This reduces the number of voxels while keeping the critical high-density gradient area. Results obtained using the present algorithm on both phantom and clinical data show that compression rates up to 75% are possible without losing the dosimetric accuracy of the simulation
Cosmic numbers the numbers that define our universe
Stein, James D
2011-01-01
Our fascination with numbers begins when we are children and continues throughout our lives. We start counting our fingers and toes and end up balancing checkbooks and calculating risk. So powerful is the appeal of numbers that many people ascribe to them a mystical significance. Other numbers go beyond the supernatural, working to explain our universe and how it behaves. In Cosmic Numbers , mathematics professor James D. Stein traces the discovery, evolution, and interrelationships of the numbers that define our world. Everyone knows about the speed of light and absolute zero, but numbers lik
Proper Use of Capillary Number in Chemical Flooding
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Hu Guo
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Capillary number theory is very important for chemical flooding enhanced oil recovery. The difference between microscopic capillary number and the microscopic one is easy to confuse. After decades of development, great progress has been made in capillary number theory and it has important but sometimes incorrect application in EOR. The capillary number theory was based on capillary tube bundles and Darcy’s law hypothesis, and this should always be kept in mind when used in chemical flooding EOR. The flow in low permeability porous media often shows obvious non-Darcy effects, which is beyond Darcy’s law. Experiments data from ASP flooding and SP flooding showed that remaining oil saturation was not always decreasing as capillary number kept on increasing. Relative permeability was proved function of capillary number; its rate dependence was affected by capillary end effects. The mobility control should be given priority rather than lowering IFT. The displacement efficiency was not increased as displacement velocity increased as expected in heavy oil chemical flooding. Largest capillary number does not always make highest recovery in chemical flooding in heterogeneous reservoir. Misuse of CDC in EOR included the ignorance of mobility ratio, Darcy linear flow hypothesis, difference between microscopic capillary number and the microscopic one, and heterogeneity caused flow regime alteration. Displacement of continuous oil or remobilization of discontinuous oil was quite different.
Triangular Numbers, Gaussian Integers, and KenKen
Watkins, John J.
2012-01-01
Latin squares form the basis for the recreational puzzles sudoku and KenKen. In this article we show how useful several ideas from number theory are in solving a KenKen puzzle. For example, the simple notion of triangular number is surprisingly effective. We also introduce a variation of KenKen that uses the Gaussian integers in order to…
Suggs, Jennifer A; Melkani, Girish C; Glasheen, Bernadette M; Detor, Mia M; Melkani, Anju; Marsan, Nathan P; Swank, Douglas M; Bernstein, Sanford I
2017-06-01
Individuals with inclusion body myopathy type 3 (IBM3) display congenital joint contractures with early-onset muscle weakness that becomes more severe in adulthood. The disease arises from an autosomal dominant point mutation causing an E706K substitution in myosin heavy chain type IIa. We have previously expressed the corresponding myosin mutation (E701K) in homozygous Drosophila indirect flight muscles and recapitulated the myofibrillar degeneration and inclusion bodies observed in the human disease. We have also found that purified E701K myosin has dramatically reduced actin-sliding velocity and ATPase levels. Since IBM3 is a dominant condition, we now examine the disease state in heterozygote Drosophila in order to gain a mechanistic understanding of E701K pathogenicity. Myosin ATPase activities in heterozygotes suggest that approximately equimolar levels of myosin accumulate from each allele. In vitro actin sliding velocity rates for myosin isolated from the heterozygotes were lower than the control, but higher than for the pure mutant isoform. Although sarcomeric ultrastructure was nearly wild type in young adults, mechanical analysis of skinned indirect flight muscle fibers revealed a 59% decrease in maximum oscillatory power generation and an approximately 20% reduction in the frequency at which maximum power was produced. Rate constant analyses suggest a decrease in the rate of myosin attachment to actin, with myosin spending decreased time in the strongly bound state. These mechanical alterations result in a one-third decrease in wing beat frequency and marginal flight ability. With aging, muscle ultrastructure and function progressively declined. Aged myofibrils showed Z-line streaming, consistent with the human heterozygote phenotype. Based upon the mechanical studies, we hypothesize that the mutation decreases the probability of the power stroke occurring and/or alters the degree of movement of the myosin lever arm, resulting in decreased in vitro
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jennifer A. Suggs
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Individuals with inclusion body myopathy type 3 (IBM3 display congenital joint contractures with early-onset muscle weakness that becomes more severe in adulthood. The disease arises from an autosomal dominant point mutation causing an E706K substitution in myosin heavy chain type IIa. We have previously expressed the corresponding myosin mutation (E701K in homozygous Drosophila indirect flight muscles and recapitulated the myofibrillar degeneration and inclusion bodies observed in the human disease. We have also found that purified E701K myosin has dramatically reduced actin-sliding velocity and ATPase levels. Since IBM3 is a dominant condition, we now examine the disease state in heterozygote Drosophila in order to gain a mechanistic understanding of E701K pathogenicity. Myosin ATPase activities in heterozygotes suggest that approximately equimolar levels of myosin accumulate from each allele. In vitro actin sliding velocity rates for myosin isolated from the heterozygotes were lower than the control, but higher than for the pure mutant isoform. Although sarcomeric ultrastructure was nearly wild type in young adults, mechanical analysis of skinned indirect flight muscle fibers revealed a 59% decrease in maximum oscillatory power generation and an approximately 20% reduction in the frequency at which maximum power was produced. Rate constant analyses suggest a decrease in the rate of myosin attachment to actin, with myosin spending decreased time in the strongly bound state. These mechanical alterations result in a one-third decrease in wing beat frequency and marginal flight ability. With aging, muscle ultrastructure and function progressively declined. Aged myofibrils showed Z-line streaming, consistent with the human heterozygote phenotype. Based upon the mechanical studies, we hypothesize that the mutation decreases the probability of the power stroke occurring and/or alters the degree of movement of the myosin lever arm, resulting in
Clinical studies on thyroid CT number in Graves' disease and destructive thyrotoxicosis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamijo, Keiichi
1994-01-01
The purpose of the present study was to investigate CT Hounsfield unit (H.U.) of the thyroid in hyperthyroid and euthyroid Graves' disease and destructive thyrotoxicosis. The mean thyroid CT number in 95 controls was 122±18 H.U.(±SD) and did not change significatly with advancing age. The mean thyroid CT number (±SD) of 85±22 H.U. in 60 patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease was significantly lower than either in normal controls or 116±22 H.U. in 11 patients with euthyroid Graves' disease. Comparison of thyroid hormones and TSH receptor Ab values of untreated patients with a normal and an abnormally low thyroid CT number showed that serum total and free T 3 were significantly higher in the latter group than the former group. With respect to the effect of methimazol (MMI) on the thyroid CT number, in the untreated 10 patients with a low thyroid CT number, the initial mean CT number was 65±11 H.U. and increased significantly to 76±14 H.U. after treatment with MMI. In contrast, in 6 patients with a normal thyroid CT number prior to therapy, the initial mean thyroid CT number was 102±11 H.U. and fell significantly to 84±16 H.U. after treatment with MMI. The thyroid CT number in destructive thyrotoxicosis is markedly decreased to less than 70 H.U. and the mean values of 57±7 H.U. in 6 patients with silent thyroiditis and of 61±5 H.U. in 7 with subacute thyroiditis differ significantly from Graves' disease. In conclusion, the thyroid CT number is significantly reduced in hyperthyroid Graves' disease, normal in euthyroid Graves' disease and markedly decreased in destructive thyrotoxicosis. The high T-3 value seemed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of a decline in the thyroid CT number in Graves' disease. An antithyroid drug therapy caused two different changes in the thyroid CT number, depending on whether the thyroid CT number prior to therapy was normal or low. (author)
Tabassum, Shahina; Ullah Munshi, Saif; Hossain, Marufa; Imam, Akhter
2014-01-01
ABSTRACT Background and aim Assessment of therapeutic response is important for monitoring the prognosis and to take decision for cessation of nucleoside analogues therapy in chronic hepatitis B patients. In addition to serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hepatitis B virus (HBV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) load and HBeAg status, identification of molecular markers associated with host immune response would be essential to assess therapeutic response. In this regard the current study was performed with the aim to detect expression of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-I gene in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) of treated chronic hepatitis B patients and also to correlate expression of this gene with serum HBV DNA load and serum ALT levels. Materials and methods The study analyzed 60 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, including 30 untreated and 30 nucleoside analogs treated and 10 healthy controls. PECAM-1 gene expression/ transcripts were detected by conventional RT-PCR. Results The expression PECAM-1 mRNA in the PBMCs of CHB patients was significantly higher in untreated (3.17 ± 0.75) than the treated patients (1.64 ± 0.29) (p Tabassum S, Munshi SU, Hossain M, Imam A. Nucleoside Analog-treated Chronic Hepatitis B Patients showed Reduced Expression of PECAM-1 Gene in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Bangladesh. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2014;4(2):87-91. PMID:29699354
Reducing ammonia emissions in Europe
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacobsen, Brian H.
2011-01-01
The NEC directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the largest reductions since 1990...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yi-hua Zhong
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Recently, various methods have been developed for solving linear programming problems with fuzzy number, such as simplex method and dual simplex method. But their computational complexities are exponential, which is not satisfactory for solving large-scale fuzzy linear programming problems, especially in the engineering field. A new method which can solve large-scale fuzzy number linear programming problems is presented in this paper, which is named a revised interior point method. Its idea is similar to that of interior point method used for solving linear programming problems in crisp environment before, but its feasible direction and step size are chosen by using trapezoidal fuzzy numbers, linear ranking function, fuzzy vector, and their operations, and its end condition is involved in linear ranking function. Their correctness and rationality are proved. Moreover, choice of the initial interior point and some factors influencing the results of this method are also discussed and analyzed. The result of algorithm analysis and example study that shows proper safety factor parameter, accuracy parameter, and initial interior point of this method may reduce iterations and they can be selected easily according to the actual needs. Finally, the method proposed in this paper is an alternative method for solving fuzzy number linear programming problems.
Strouhal number for free swimming
Saadat, Mehdi; van Buren, Tyler; Floryan, Daniel; Smits, Alexander; Haj-Hariri, Hossein
2015-11-01
In this work, we present experimental results to explore the implications of free swimming for Strouhal number (as an outcome) in the context of a simple model for a fish that consists of a 2D virtual body (source of drag) and a 2D pitching foil (source of thrust) representing cruising with thunniform locomotion. The results validate the findings of Saadat and Haj-Hariri (2012): for pitching foils thrust coefficient is a function of Strouhal number for all gaits having amplitude less than a certain critical value. Equivalently, given the balance of thrust and drag forces at cruise, Strouhal number is only a function of the shape, i.e. drag coefficient and area, and essentially a constant for high enough swimming speeds for which the mild dependence of drag coefficient on the speed vanishes. Furthermore, a dimensional analysis generalizes the findings. A scaling analysis shows that the variation of Strouhal number with cruising speed is functionally related to the variation of body drag coefficient with speed. Supported by ONR MURI Grant N00014-14-1-0533.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kriegbaum, Margit; Larsen, Anne Mette; Christensen, Ulla
2011-01-01
and to study joint exposure to both. Methods Birth cohort study of smoking cessation of 6232 Danish men born in 1953 with a follow-up at age 51 (response rate 66.2%). History of unemployment and cohabitation was measured annually using register data. Information on smoking cessation was obtained...... by a questionnaire. Results The probability of smoking cessation decreased with the number of job losses (ranging from 1 OR 0.54 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.64) to 3+ OR 0.41 (95% CI 0.30 to 0.55)) and of broken partnerships (ranging from 1 OR 0.74 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.85) to 3+ OR 0.50 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.63)). Furthermore......–23 years (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.52)). Those who never cohabited and experienced one or more job losses had a particular low chance of smoking cessation (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.30). Conclusion The numbers of job losses and of broken partnerships were both inversely associated with probability...
Unpredictability and the transmission of numbers
Myers, John M.; Madjid, F. Hadi
2016-03-01
Curiously overlooked in physics is its dependence on the transmission of numbers. For example, the transmission of numerical clock readings is implicit in the concept of a coordinate system. The transmission of numbers and other logical distinctions is often achieved over a computer-mediated communications network in the face of an unpredictable environment. By unpredictable we mean something stronger than the spread of probabilities over given possible outcomes, namely an opening to unforeseeable possibilities. Unpredictability, until now overlooked in theoretical physics, makes the transmission of numbers interesting. Based on recent proofs within quantum theory that provide a theoretical foundation to unpredictability, here we show how regularities in physics rest on a background of channels over which numbers are transmitted. As is known to engineers of digital communications, numerical transmissions depend on coordination reminiscent of the cycle of throwing and catching by players tossing a ball back and forth. In digital communications, the players are computers, and the required coordination involves unpredictably adjusting "live clocks" that step these computers through phases of a cycle. We show how this phasing, which we call logical synchronization, constrains number-carrying networks, and, if a spacetime manifold in invoked, put "stripes" on spacetime. Via its logically synchronized channels, a network of live clocks serves as a reference against which to locate events. Such a network in any case underpins a coordinate frame, and in some cases the direct use of a network can be tailored to investigate an unpredictable environment. Examples include explorations of gravitational variations near Earth.
On badly approximable complex numbers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Esdahl-Schou, Rune; Kristensen, S.
We show that the set of complex numbers which are badly approximable by ratios of elements of , where has maximal Hausdorff dimension. In addition, the intersection of these sets is shown to have maximal dimension. The results remain true when the sets in question are intersected with a suitably...
Numerical Test of Analytical Theories for Perpendicular Diffusion in Small Kubo Number Turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heusen, M.; Shalchi, A., E-mail: husseinm@myumanitoba.ca, E-mail: andreasm4@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada)
2017-04-20
In the literature, one can find various analytical theories for perpendicular diffusion of energetic particles interacting with magnetic turbulence. Besides quasi-linear theory, there are different versions of the nonlinear guiding center (NLGC) theory and the unified nonlinear transport (UNLT) theory. For turbulence with high Kubo numbers, such as two-dimensional turbulence or noisy reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, the aforementioned nonlinear theories provide similar results. For slab and small Kubo number turbulence, however, this is not the case. In the current paper, we compare different linear and nonlinear theories with each other and test-particle simulations for a noisy slab model corresponding to small Kubo number turbulence. We show that UNLT theory agrees very well with all performed test-particle simulations. In the limit of long parallel mean free paths, the perpendicular mean free path approaches asymptotically the quasi-linear limit as predicted by the UNLT theory. For short parallel mean free paths we find a Rechester and Rosenbluth type of scaling as predicted by UNLT theory as well. The original NLGC theory disagrees with all performed simulations regardless what the parallel mean free path is. The random ballistic interpretation of the NLGC theory agrees much better with the simulations, but compared to UNLT theory the agreement is inferior. We conclude that for this type of small Kubo number turbulence, only the latter theory allows for an accurate description of perpendicular diffusion.
Numerical Test of Analytical Theories for Perpendicular Diffusion in Small Kubo Number Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heusen, M.; Shalchi, A.
2017-01-01
In the literature, one can find various analytical theories for perpendicular diffusion of energetic particles interacting with magnetic turbulence. Besides quasi-linear theory, there are different versions of the nonlinear guiding center (NLGC) theory and the unified nonlinear transport (UNLT) theory. For turbulence with high Kubo numbers, such as two-dimensional turbulence or noisy reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, the aforementioned nonlinear theories provide similar results. For slab and small Kubo number turbulence, however, this is not the case. In the current paper, we compare different linear and nonlinear theories with each other and test-particle simulations for a noisy slab model corresponding to small Kubo number turbulence. We show that UNLT theory agrees very well with all performed test-particle simulations. In the limit of long parallel mean free paths, the perpendicular mean free path approaches asymptotically the quasi-linear limit as predicted by the UNLT theory. For short parallel mean free paths we find a Rechester and Rosenbluth type of scaling as predicted by UNLT theory as well. The original NLGC theory disagrees with all performed simulations regardless what the parallel mean free path is. The random ballistic interpretation of the NLGC theory agrees much better with the simulations, but compared to UNLT theory the agreement is inferior. We conclude that for this type of small Kubo number turbulence, only the latter theory allows for an accurate description of perpendicular diffusion.
Reducing the extinction risk of stochastic populations via nondemographic noise
Be'er, Shay; Assaf, Michael
2018-02-01
We consider nondemographic noise in the form of uncertainty in the reaction step size and reveal a dramatic effect this noise may have on the stability of self-regulating populations. Employing the reaction scheme m A →k A but allowing, e.g., the product number k to be a priori unknown and sampled from a given distribution, we show that such nondemographic noise can greatly reduce the population's extinction risk compared to the fixed k case. Our analysis is tested against numerical simulations, and by using empirical data of different species, we argue that certain distributions may be more evolutionary beneficial than others.
Dolphin shows and interaction programs: benefits for conservation education?
Miller, L J; Zeigler-Hill, V; Mellen, J; Koeppel, J; Greer, T; Kuczaj, S
2013-01-01
Dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs are two types of education programs within zoological institutions used to educate visitors about dolphins and the marine environment. The current study examined the short- and long-term effects of these programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs demonstrated a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Three months following the experience, participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs retained the knowledge learned during their experience and reported engaging in more conservation-related behaviors. Additionally, the number of dolphin shows attended in the past was a significant predictor of recent conservation-related behavior suggesting that repetition of these types of experiences may be important in inspiring people to conservation action. These results suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program for visitors of zoological facilities. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakayama, Kazunori; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.
2011-01-01
We propose that the stability of dark matter is ensured by a discrete subgroup of the U(1) B-L gauge symmetry, Z 2 (B-L). We introduce a set of chiral fermions charged under the U(1) B-L in addition to the right-handed neutrinos, and require the anomaly-cancellation conditions associated with the U(1) B-L gauge symmetry. We find that the possible number of fermions and their charges are tightly constrained, and that non-trivial solutions appear when at least five additional chiral fermions are introduced. The Fermat theorem in the number theory plays an important role in this argument. Focusing on one of the solutions, we show that there is indeed a good candidate for dark matter, whose stability is guaranteed by Z 2 (B-L).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sun; Kang, Duk Sik; Lee, Young Joo; Sohn, Chul Ho; Woo, Seung Koo; Suh, Kyung Jin
2005-01-01
We wished to analyze, qualitatively and quantitatively, the noise performance of fractional anisotropy brain images along with the different diffusion gradient numbers by using the histogram method. Diffusion tensor images were acquired using a 3.0 T MR scanner from ten normal volunteers who had no neurological symptoms. The single-shot spin-echo EPI with a Stejskal-Tanner type diffusion gradient scheme was employed for the diffusion tensor measurement. With a b-valuee of 1000 s/mm 2 , the diffusion tensor images were obtained for 6, 11, 23, 35 and 47 diffusion gradient directions. FA images were generated for each DTI scheme. The histograms were then obtained at selected ROIs for the anatomical structures on the FA image. At the same ROI location, the mean FA value and the standard deviation of the mean FA value were calculated. The quality of the FA image was improved as the number of diffusion gradient directions increased by showing better contrast between the WM and GM. The histogram showed that the variance of FA values was reduced as the number of diffusion gradient directions increased. This histogram analysis was in good agreement with the result obtained using quantitative analysis. The image quality of the FA map was significantly improved as the number of diffusion gradient directions increased. The histogram analysis well demonstrated that the improvement in the FA images resulted from the reduction in the variance of the FA values included in the ROI
29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.
2010-07-01
... leave schedule is a leave schedule that reduces an employee's usual number of working hours per workweek, or hours per workday. A reduced leave schedule is a change in the employee's schedule for a period of... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. 825.202...
Nielsen number of a covering map
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Jerzy Jezierski
2006-02-01
Full Text Available We consider a finite regular covering pH:XÃ‹ÂœHÃ¢Â†Â’X over a compact polyhedron and a map f:XÃ¢Â†Â’X admitting a lift fÃ‹Âœ:XÃ‹ÂœHÃ¢Â†Â’XÃ‹ÂœH. We show some formulae expressing the Nielsen number N(f as a linear combination of the Nielsen numbers of its lifts.
Reducing the likelihood of long tennis matches.
Barnett, Tristan; Alan, Brown; Pollard, Graham
2006-01-01
Long matches can cause problems for tournaments. For example, the starting times of subsequent matches can be substantially delayed causing inconvenience to players, spectators, officials and television scheduling. They can even be seen as unfair in the tournament setting when the winner of a very long match, who may have negative aftereffects from such a match, plays the winner of an average or shorter length match in the next round. Long matches can also lead to injuries to the participating players. One factor that can lead to long matches is the use of the advantage set as the fifth set, as in the Australian Open, the French Open and Wimbledon. Another factor is long rallies and a greater than average number of points per game. This tends to occur more frequently on the slower surfaces such as at the French Open. The mathematical method of generating functions is used to show that the likelihood of long matches can be substantially reduced by using the tiebreak game in the fifth set, or more effectively by using a new type of game, the 50-40 game, throughout the match. Key PointsThe cumulant generating function has nice properties for calculating the parameters of distributions in a tennis matchA final tiebreaker set reduces the length of matches as currently being used in the US OpenA new 50-40 game reduces the length of matches whilst maintaining comparable probabilities for the better player to win the match.
Ghersi, Dario; Parakh, Abhishek; Mezei, Mihaly
2017-12-05
Four pseudorandom number generators were compared with a physical, quantum-based random number generator using the NIST suite of statistical tests, which only the quantum-based random number generator could successfully pass. We then measured the effect of the five random number generators on various calculated properties in different Markov-chain Monte Carlo simulations. Two types of systems were tested: conformational sampling of a small molecule in aqueous solution and liquid methanol under constant temperature and pressure. The results show that poor quality pseudorandom number generators produce results that deviate significantly from those obtained with the quantum-based random number generator, particularly in the case of the small molecule in aqueous solution setup. In contrast, the widely used Mersenne Twister pseudorandom generator and a 64-bit Linear Congruential Generator with a scrambler produce results that are statistically indistinguishable from those obtained with the quantum-based random number generator. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates Among Teens
... Teens Winnable Battles Social Media at CDC Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates among Teens Aged 15–19 ... Pregnancy Prevention Community-Wide Initiative. National Rates and Disparities Nationally, the teen birth rate (number of births ...
Linear Mapping of Numbers onto Space Requires Attention
Anobile, Giovanni; Cicchini, Guido Marco; Burr, David C.
2012-01-01
Mapping of number onto space is fundamental to mathematics and measurement. Previous research suggests that while typical adults with mathematical schooling map numbers veridically onto a linear scale, pre-school children and adults without formal mathematics training, as well as individuals with dyscalculia, show strong compressive,…
Patients' Preference for Number of Embryos Transferred During IVF ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Background: The Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority is considering limiting the number of embryos that can be transferred to single embryo per cycle as has been done in several European countries, with the aim of reducing the rate of multiple pregnancies and its attendant complications following in vitro ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leon P, A. A.; Martinez B, M. R.; Hernandez P, C. F.; Espinoza G, J. G.; Castaneda M, V. H.; Solis S, L. O.; Castaneda M, R.; Ortiz R, J. M.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Av. Ramon Lopez Velarde 801, Col. Centro, 98000 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Mendez V, R. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Laboratorio de Patrones Neutronicos, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gallego, E. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, ETSI Industriales, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); De Sousa L, M. A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)
2016-10-15
The neutron spectrometry is an experimental process for determining the energy distribution called the Spectrum. Among the methods available for neutron spectrometry, one can mention the Bonner Sphere Spectrometric System as one of the most used, consisting of a detector placed in the center of a set of polyethylene spheres whose diameters range from 2 to 18 inches, however has some disadvantages such as the long periods of time to perform the measurements, the weight and the spheres number that vary according to the system. From this, alternative methods such as artificial neural networks are proposed. For this project neural networks of reverse propagation were used with the methodology of robust design of artificial neural networks, with the aid of a computational tool that maximizes the performance, making the time used for the training s of the network is the smallest possible and thus gets the orthogonal fixes quickly to determine the best network topology. The counting rates of a spectrometric system with 7 spheres, 2 spheres and one sphere of 5 and 8 inches were used. This methodology seeks to reduce the work used as in the spectrometric system formed by a greater number of spheres, since to enter less data in the counting rates to obtain the spectra with 60 energy levels saves time and space, because at having a smaller number of spheres its portability is easier to move from one place to another, for this we performed several experiments with different errors until we reached the optimal error so that the topology of the network was appropriate and find the best design parameters. A statistical software JMP was also used to obtain the best topologies and thus to retrain obtaining its best and worst spectra, in order to determine if the reduction is possible. (Author)
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NUMBER NAMES AND NUMBER CONCEPTS
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten
Different countries have different names for numbers. These names are often related in a regular way to the base-10 place value system used for writing numbers as digits. However, in several languages, this regularity breaks down (e.g., between 10 and 20), and there is limited knowledge of how th......, a second, regular set of number names is introduced in primary school. The study’s findings suggest that the regularity of number names influences the development of number concepts and creates a positive impact on the understanding of the base-10 system....
Did abortion legalization reduce the number of unwanted children? Evidence from adoptions.
Bitler, Marianne; Madeline, Zavodny
2002-01-01
The legalization of abortion in the United States led to well-known changes in reproductive behavior, but its effect on adoptions has not been investigated. Variation across states in the timing and extent of abortion legalization is used to identify the effects of changes in the legal status of abortion on adoption rates from 1961 to 1975. These effects are estimated in regression analyses that control for states' economic, demographic and political characteristics, as well as for health care availability within states. The rate of adoptions of children born to white women declined by 34-37% in states that repealed restrictive abortion laws before Roe v. Wade. The effect was concentrated among adoptions by petitioners not related to the child. Legal reforms resulting in small increases in access, such as in cases of rape and incest, were associated with a 15-18% decline in adoptions of children born to nonwhite women; however, this decline may have been due to other changes in the policy environment for such adoptions. Rates of adoption of children born to white women appear to have declined after Roe v. Wade, but this association is not statistically significant. The estimated effect of abortion legalization on adoption rates is sizable and can account for much of the decline in adoptions, particularly of children born to white women, during the early 1970s. These findings support previous studies' conclusions that abortion legalization led to a reduction in the number of "unwanted" children; such a reduction may have improved average infant health and children's living conditions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2014-01-01
The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...
The impact of multiple show-ups on eyewitness decision-making and innocence risk.
Smith, Andrew M; Bertrand, Michelle; Lindsay, R C L; Kalmet, Natalie; Grossman, Deborah; Provenzano, Daniel
2014-09-01
If an eyewitness rejects a show-up, police may respond by finding a new suspect and conducting a second show-up with the same eyewitness. Police may continue finding suspects and conducting show-ups until the eyewitness makes an identification (Study 1). Relatively low criterion-setting eyewitnesses filter themselves out of the multiple show-ups procedure by choosing the first suspect with whom they are presented (Studies 2 and 3). Accordingly, response bias was more stringent on the second show-up when compared with the first, but became no more stringent with additional show-ups. Despite this stringent shift in response bias, innocence risk increased with additional show-ups, as false alarms cumulate (Studies 2 and 3). Although unbiased show-up instructions decreased innocent suspect identifications, the numbers were still discouraging (Study 4). Given the high number of innocent suspects who would be mistakenly identified through the use of multiple show-up procedures, using such identifications as evidence of guilt is questionable. Although evidence of guilt is limited to identifications from a single show-up, practical constraints might sometimes require police to use additional show-ups. Accordingly, we propose a stronger partition between evidentiary and investigative procedures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Per; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Andersen, Torben Ole
2014-01-01
A conventional simplification of the thermal problem in fluid film lubrication analysis is performed by assuming that the main direction of heat flow is conduction through the film thickness, and thereby neglecting convection. However, in a significant amount of applications, convection is not ne......A conventional simplification of the thermal problem in fluid film lubrication analysis is performed by assuming that the main direction of heat flow is conduction through the film thickness, and thereby neglecting convection. However, in a significant amount of applications, convection...... is not negligible, whereby the majority of design engineers exclusively use numerical solvers. This paper presents a perturbation series expansion of the temperature field for small values of the Brinkman number. The derived perturbation solution and the more conventional analytical solution, where convection...
Vaginitis. Reducing the number of refractory cases.
Josey, W E
1977-09-01
Therapeutic failure in vaginitis can be minimized if all cases are properly diagnosed and specific therapy is given. Use of wet mounts combined with liberal use of cultures, especially for Corynebacterium vaginale, should result in an accurate diagnosis in over 90% of cases. Treatment of choice for candidiasis is nystatin or miconazole nitrate applied topically. For trichomoniasis, metronidazole should be given orally to both sexual partners. Ampicillin, cephalexin, or cephradine are recommended for C vaginale infection.
Hydration numbers of trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
David, F.; Fourest, B.; Duplessis, J.
1987-01-01
Investigations on the structure of actinide aquo ions and determination of hydration numbers have to be studied, essentially, through radiochemical methods. They measured the transport numbers, diffusion coefficient D by the open end capillary method and ionic mobility u by electrophoresis. Both methods show a discontinuity in the transport number corresponding to the crystallographic radius of Eu 3+ or Bk 3+ ion. They deduced the volume of the actinide aquo ions, and the coordination number in the primary sphere. From calculations of the electrostriction phenomenon in the vicinity of central ion, they obtained effective volume of the water molecules and the dynamic hydration number corresponding to the second hydration sphere
Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Guariglia, Sara R; McGlothan, Jennifer L; Stansfield, Kirstie H; Stanton, Patric K; Guilarte, Tomás R
2015-01-01
Childhood lead (Pb2+) intoxication is a global public health problem and accounts for 0.6% of the global burden of disease associated with intellectual disabilities. Despite the recognition that childhood Pb2+ intoxication contributes significantly to intellectual disabilities, there is a fundamental lack of knowledge on presynaptic mechanisms by which Pb2+ disrupts synaptic function. In this study, using a well-characterized rodent model of developmental Pb2+ neurotoxicity, we show that Pb2+ exposure markedly inhibits presynaptic vesicular release in hippocampal Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in young adult rats. This effect was associated with ultrastructural changes which revealed a reduction in vesicle number in the readily releasable/docked vesicle pool, disperse vesicle clusters in the resting pool, and a reduced number of presynaptic terminals with multiple mitochondria with no change in presynaptic calcium influx. These studies provide fundamental knowledge on mechanisms by which Pb2+ produces profound inhibition of presynaptic vesicular release that contribute to deficits in synaptic plasticity and intellectual development.
Nature of Reduced Carbon in Martian Meteorites
Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; McKay, D. S.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; White, L. M.
2012-01-01
Martian meteorites provide important information on the nature of reduced carbon components present on Mars throughout its history. The first in situ analyses for carbon on the surface of Mars by the Viking landers yielded disappointing results. With the recognition of Martian meteorites on Earth, investigations have shown carbon-bearing phases exist on Mars. Studies have yielded presence of reduced carbon, carbonates and inferred graphitic carbon phases. Samples ranging in age from the first approximately 4 Ga of Mars history [e.g. ALH84001] to nakhlites with a crystallization age of 1.3 Ga [e.g. Nakhla] with aqueous alteration processes occurring 0.5-0.7 Ga after crystallizaton. Shergottites demonstrate formation ages around 165-500 Ma with younger aqueous alterations events. Only a limited number of the Martian meteorites do not show evidence of significance terrestrial alterations. Selected areas within ALH84001, Nakhla, Yamato 000593 and possibly Tissint are suitable for study of their indigenous reduced carbon bearing phases. Nakhla possesses discrete, well-defined carbonaceous phases present within iddingsite alteration zones. Based upon both isotopic measurements and analysis of Nakhla's organic phases the presence of pre-terrestrial organics is now recognized. The reduced carbon-bearing phases appear to have been deposited during preterrestrial aqueous alteration events that produced clays. In addition, the microcrystalline layers of Nakhla's iddingsite have discrete units of salt crystals suggestive of evaporation processes. While we can only speculate on the origin of these unique carbonaceous structures, we note that the significance of such observations is that it may allow us to understand the role of Martian carbon as seen in the Martian meteorites with obvious implications for astrobiology and the pre-biotic evolution of Mars. In any case, our observations strongly suggest that reduced organic carbon exists as micrometer- size, discrete structures
Reduced Complexity Volterra Models for Nonlinear System Identification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hacıoğlu Rıfat
2001-01-01
Full Text Available A broad class of nonlinear systems and filters can be modeled by the Volterra series representation. However, its practical use in nonlinear system identification is sometimes limited due to the large number of parameters associated with the Volterra filter′s structure. The parametric complexity also complicates design procedures based upon such a model. This limitation for system identification is addressed in this paper using a Fixed Pole Expansion Technique (FPET within the Volterra model structure. The FPET approach employs orthonormal basis functions derived from fixed (real or complex pole locations to expand the Volterra kernels and reduce the number of estimated parameters. That the performance of FPET can considerably reduce the number of estimated parameters is demonstrated by a digital satellite channel example in which we use the proposed method to identify the channel dynamics. Furthermore, a gradient-descent procedure that adaptively selects the pole locations in the FPET structure is developed in the paper.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Y. Kang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Recently, many mathematicians have studied different kinds of the Euler, Bernoulli, and Genocchi numbers and polynomials. In this paper, we give another definition of polynomials Ũn(x. We observe an interesting phenomenon of “scattering” of the zeros of the polynomials Ũn(x in complex plane. We find out some identities and properties related to polynomials Ũn(x. Finally, we also derive interesting relations between polynomials Ũn(x, Stirling numbers, central factorial numbers, and Euler numbers.
Psychophysical evidence for the number sense.
Burr, David C; Anobile, Giovanni; Arrighi, Roberto
2017-02-19
It is now clear that most animals, including humans, possess an ability to rapidly estimate number. Some have questioned whether this ability arises from dedicated numerosity mechanisms, or is derived indirectly from judgements of density or other attributes. We describe a series of psychophysical experiments, largely using adaptation techniques, which demonstrate clearly the existence of a number sense in humans. The number sense is truly general, extending over space, time and sensory modality, and is closely linked with action. We further show that when multiple cues are present, numerosity emerges as the natural dimension for discrimination. However, when element density increases past a certain level, the elements become too crowded to parse, and the scene is perceived as a texture rather than array of elements. The two different regimes are psychophysically discriminable in that they follow distinct psychophysical laws, and show different dependencies on eccentricity, luminance levels and effects of perceptual grouping. The distinction is important, as the ability to discriminate numerosity, but not texture, correlates with formal maths skills.This article is part of the discussion meeting issue 'The origins of numerical abilities'. © 2017 The Authors.
Psychophysical evidence for the number sense
2018-01-01
It is now clear that most animals, including humans, possess an ability to rapidly estimate number. Some have questioned whether this ability arises from dedicated numerosity mechanisms, or is derived indirectly from judgements of density or other attributes. We describe a series of psychophysical experiments, largely using adaptation techniques, which demonstrate clearly the existence of a number sense in humans. The number sense is truly general, extending over space, time and sensory modality, and is closely linked with action. We further show that when multiple cues are present, numerosity emerges as the natural dimension for discrimination. However, when element density increases past a certain level, the elements become too crowded to parse, and the scene is perceived as a texture rather than array of elements. The two different regimes are psychophysically discriminable in that they follow distinct psychophysical laws, and show different dependencies on eccentricity, luminance levels and effects of perceptual grouping. The distinction is important, as the ability to discriminate numerosity, but not texture, correlates with formal maths skills. This article is part of the discussion meeting issue ‘The origins of numerical abilities’. PMID:29292350
Notes on symmetric and exterior depth and annihilator numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gesa Kampf
2008-11-01
Full Text Available We survey and compare invariants of modules over the polynomial ring and the exterior algebra. In our considerations, we focus on the depth. The exterior analogue of depth was ﬁrst introduced by Aramova, Avramov and Herzog. We state similarities between the two notion of depth and exhibit their relation in the case of squarefree modules. Work of Conca, Herzog and Hibi and Trung, respectively, shows that annihilator numbers are a meaningful generalization of depth over the polynomial ring. We introduce and study annihilator numbers over the exterior algebra. Despite some minor differences in the deﬁnition, those invariants show common behavior. In both situations a positive linear combination of the annihilator numbers can be used to bound the symmetric and exterior graded Betti numbers, respectively, from above.
Neglect Impairs Explicit Processing of the Mental Number Line
Zorzi, Marco; Bonato, Mario; Treccani, Barbara; Scalambrin, Giovanni; Marenzi, Roberto; Priftis, Konstantinos
2012-01-01
Converging evidence suggests that visuospatial attention plays a pivotal role in numerical processing, especially when the task involves the manipulation of numerical magnitudes. Visuospatial neglect impairs contralesional attentional orienting not only in perceptual but also in numerical space. Indeed, patients with left neglect show a bias toward larger numbers when mentally bisecting a numerical interval, as if they were neglecting its leftmost part. In contrast, their performance in parity judgments is unbiased, suggesting a dissociation between explicit and implicit processing of numerical magnitude. Here we further investigate the consequences of these visuospatial attention impairments on numerical processing and their interaction with task demands. Patients with right hemisphere damage, with and without left neglect, were administered both a number comparison and a parity judgment task that had identical stimuli and response requirements. Neglect patients’ performance was normal in the parity task, when processing of numerical magnitude was implicit, whereas they showed characteristic biases in the number comparison task, when access to numerical magnitude was explicit. Compared to patients without neglect, they showed an asymmetric distance effect, with slowing of the number immediately smaller than (i.e., to the left of) the reference and a stronger SNARC effect, particularly for large numbers. The latter might index an exaggerated effect of number-space compatibility after ipsilesional (i.e., rightward) orienting in number space. Thus, the effect of neglect on the explicit processing of numerical magnitude can be understood in terms of both a failure to orient to smaller (i.e., contralesional) magnitudes and a difficulty to disengage from larger (i.e., ipsilesional) magnitudes on the number line, which resembles the disrupted pattern of attention orienting in visual space. PMID:22661935
Central fuel banking to reduce the number of proliferation sensitive enrichment activities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cserhati, A.
2008-01-01
Central fuel banking is a complex international political, economic and technical concept that aims to reduce uncontrolled spreading of uranium enrichment technology in the world in order to prevent proliferation of nuclear weapons. This paper first gives an outline of the notions: 'non-proliferation', the 'front-end' of the fuel cycle, the scope of fuel baking, nuclear fuel and the 60 years of enrichment technology. Enrichment technology is highly concentrated in the nuclear weapon states and other developed countries, but this is not exclusive any more. The technology is spreading. The global demand for enrichment services - parallel to massive nuclear investments in the civil sector and the ageing of older facilities - is constantly growing. Proliferation sensitivity calls for an effective and comprehensive non-proliferation regime. The solution may be multilateralizing the nuclear fuel cycle. After a historical overview, the proposals on multilateral nuclear approaches are presented. The assessment of the proposals is complex in the dimensions of: the non-proliferation aim, the assurance of supply aspect and other variables such as legal issues and non-nuclear inducements. A general evaluation and the recommendations of the Expert Panel of the IAEA are introduced outlining a plan on a middle- and long-term basis. The conclusion of the paper stresses the importance and challenge in finding the 'new balance' between obligations and interests of the members of the global community stating that the answers will have a significant impact on the nuclear indus- try, world wide economics and security policy. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henky P Rahardjo; V I S Wardhani
2007-01-01
In order to reduce the existing bubble in the core of Bandung TRIGA 2000 reactor during its operation above 1000 kW, was done by increasing the effectivity of the heat exchanger (HE). One of the methods for increasing this effectivity is done by adding the number of plate to heat exchanger. To get an appropriate number of plate to be added on achieving its requirement, the analysis to know how the comparison of its performance on variation of addition the number of plate, is needed. The analysis was done by using the NTU-Effectivity method. The variables which influence its effectivity was obtained from the operational experiences since of the year 2000 until 2005. Besides that, it was assumed that the properties of working fluid had not much changed on its temperature and its pressure and small fouling deposit on the plate of HE. The results show that generally the addition of the number of plate would increase the effectivity of the heat exchanger. But for the low flow rate of the primary(600 gpm) and the high flow rate of the secondary(6000 gpm), a little bit of increasing effectivity was obtained for the addition the number of plate, and the effectivity had been reached to above 98%. (author)
Airline Overbooking Problem with Uncertain No-Shows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chunxiao Zhang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper considers an airline overbooking problem of a new single-leg flight with discount fare. Due to the absence of historical data of no-shows for a new flight, and various uncertain human behaviors or unexpected events which causes that a few passengers cannot board their aircraft on time, we fail to obtain the probability distribution of no-shows. In this case, the airlines have to invite some domain experts to provide belief degree of no-shows to estimate its distribution. However, human beings often overestimate unlikely events, which makes the variance of belief degree much greater than that of the frequency. If we still regard the belief degree as a subjective probability, the derived results will exceed our expectations. In order to deal with this uncertainty, the number of no-shows of new flight is assumed to be an uncertain variable in this paper. Given the chance constraint of social reputation, an overbooking model with discount fares is developed to maximize the profit rate based on uncertain programming theory. Finally, the analytic expression of the optimal booking limit is obtained through a numerical example, and the results of sensitivity analysis indicate that the optimal booking limit is affected by flight capacity, discount, confidence level, and parameters of the uncertainty distribution significantly.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ming Ren Toh
2014-01-01
Conclusion: Complex medication regimen (i.e. multiple medications and multiple doses per day is a statistically significant predictor of number of readmissions. Simplifying therapeutic regimens with alternatives such as longer-acting or fixed-dose combination drugs may facilitate better patient adherence and reduce costly readmissions.
Svanberg, Anncarin; Birgegård, Gunnar; Ohrn, Kerstin
2007-10-01
Mucositis is a major complication in myeloablative therapy, which often necessitates advanced pharmacological pain treatment, including i.v. opioids. Attempts to prevent oral mucositis have included oral cryotherapy, which has been shown to reduce mucositis, but there is a lack of knowledge concerning the effect of oral cryotherapy on opioid use by reducing the mucositis for patients treated with myeloablative therapy before bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The aim of the present study was to evaluate if oral cryotherapy could delay or alleviate the development of mucositis and thereby reduce the number of days with i.v. opioids among patients who receive myeloablative therapy before BMT. Eighty patients 18 years and older, scheduled for BMT, were included consecutively and randomised to oral cryotherapy or standard oral care. A stratified randomisation was used with regard to type of transplantation. Intensity of pain, severity of mucositis and use of opioids were recorded using pain visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, mucositis index scores and medical and nursing charts. This study showed that patients receiving oral cryotherapy had less pronounced mucositis and significantly fewer days with i.v. opioids than the control group. In the autologous setting, cryotherapy patients also needed significantly lower total dose of opioids. Oral cryotherapy is an effective and well-tolerated therapy to alleviate mucositis and consequently reduce the number of days with i.v. opioids among patients treated with myeloablative therapy before BMT.
Impact of High Mathematics Education on the Number Sense
Castronovo, Julie; Göbel, Silke M.
2012-01-01
In adult number processing two mechanisms are commonly used: approximate estimation of quantity and exact calculation. While the former relies on the approximate number sense (ANS) which we share with animals and preverbal infants, the latter has been proposed to rely on an exact number system (ENS) which develops later in life following the acquisition of symbolic number knowledge. The current study investigated the influence of high level math education on the ANS and the ENS. Our results showed that the precision of non-symbolic quantity representation was not significantly altered by high level math education. However, performance in a symbolic number comparison task as well as the ability to map accurately between symbolic and non-symbolic quantities was significantly better the higher mathematics achievement. Our findings suggest that high level math education in adults shows little influence on their ANS, but it seems to be associated with a better anchored ENS and better mapping abilities between ENS and ANS. PMID:22558077
Ibrahim, Marwa K.; Barnes, Jeffrey L.; Anstead, Gregory M.; Jimenez, Fabio; Travi, Bruno L.; Peniche, Alex G.; Osorio, E. Yaneth; Ahuja, Seema S.; Melby, Peter C.
2013-01-01
In a murine model of moderate childhood malnutrition we found that polynutrient deficiency led to a 4–5-fold increase in early visceralization of L. donovani (3 days post-infection) following cutaneous infection and a 16-fold decrease in lymph node barrier function (pmalnutrition-related parasite dissemination we analyzed the cellularity, architecture, and function of the skin-draining lymph node. There was no difference in the localization of multiple cell populations in the lymph node of polynutrient deficient (PND) mice, but there was reduced cellularity with fewer CD11c+dendritic cells (DCs), fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), MOMA-2+ macrophages, and CD169+ subcapsular sinus macrophage (p<0.05 for all) compared to the well-nourished (WN) mice. The parasites were equally co-localized with DCs associated with the lymph node conduit network in the WN and PND mice, and were found in the high endothelial venule into which the conduits drain. When a fluorescent low molecular weight (10 kD) dextran was delivered in the skin, there was greater efflux of the marker from the lymph node conduit system to the spleens of PND mice (p<0.04), indicating that flow through the conduit system was altered. There was no evidence of disruption of the conduit or subcapsular sinus architecture, indicating that the movement of parasites into the subcortical conduit region was due to an active process and not from passive movement through a leaking barrier. These results indicate that the impaired capacity of the lymph node to act as a barrier to dissemination of L. donovani infection is associated with a reduced number of lymph node phagocytes, which most likely leads to reduced capture of parasites as they transit through the sinuses and conduit system. PMID:23967356
Fuzzy Control of Tidal volume, Respiration number and Pressure value
Hasan Guler; Fikret Ata
2010-01-01
In this study, control of tidal volume, respiration number and pressure value which are arrived to patient at mechanical ventilator device which is used in intensive care units were performed with fuzzy logic controller. The aim of this system is to reduce workload of aneshesiologist. By calculating tidal volume, respiration number and pressure value, the error Pe(k) between reference pressure value (Pref) and pressure of gas given ill person (Phasta) and error change rate ;#948;Pe(k) were co...
Number-concept acquisition and general vocabulary development.
Negen, James; Sarnecka, Barbara W
2012-11-01
How is number-concept acquisition related to overall language development? Experiments 1 and 2 measured number-word knowledge and general vocabulary in a total of 59 children, ages 30-60 months. A strong correlation was found between number-word knowledge and vocabulary, independent of the child's age, contrary to previous results (D. Ansari et al., 2003). This result calls into question arguments that (a) the number-concept creation process is scaffolded mainly by visuo-spatial development and (b) that language only becomes integrated after the concepts are created (D. Ansari et al., 2003). Instead, this may suggest that having a larger nominal vocabulary helps children learn number words. Experiment 3 shows that the differences with previous results are likely due to changes in how the data were analyzed. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Straight flavor of Binary Number in Decimal Number System
MD. Abdul Awal Ansary; Sushanta Acharjee
2012-01-01
Different number systems are available on the basis of their base numbers. For instance, decimal number system is of base 10, hexadecimal number system which base is 16 and, Binary number system which base is 2 etc. Some numbers systems are easy to understand by the human being and some are easy to understand by electronics machine for instance digital computers. Computers only can understand data and instructions that are stored in binary form, though we input the data and instruction in dec...
Damköhler number effects on soot formation and growth in turbulent nonpremixed flames
Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Mueller, Michael E.; Pitsch, Heinz
2015-01-01
numbers. A reduced chemical mechanism, which includes the soot precursor naphthalene, and a high-order method of moments are employed. At the highest Damköhler number, local extinction is negligible, while flames holes are observed in the two lowest
Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Sleep Duration Discordant Monozygotic Twins
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wrede, Joanna E; Mengel-From, Jonas; Buchwald, Dedra
2015-01-01
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number is an important component of mitochondrial function and varies with age, disease, and environmental factors. We aimed to determine whether mtDNA copy number varies with habitual differences in sleep duration within pairs of monozygotic twins...... structure to assess within-pair effects of sleep duration on mtDNA copy number. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Mean within-pair sleep duration difference per 24 hours was 94.3 minutes (SD 62.6 min). We found reduced sleep duration (β = 0.06; 95% CI 0.004, 0.12; P sleep efficiency (β = 0.51; 95% CI 0.......06, 0.95; P DNA copy number within twin pairs. Thus every 1-minute decrease in actigraphy-defined sleep duration was associated with a decrease in mtDNA copy number of 0.06. Likewise, a 1% decrease in actigraphy-defined sleep efficiency was associated...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakayama, Kazunori [Theory Center, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Takahashi, Fuminobu, E-mail: fumi@tuhep.phys.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8568 (Japan); Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8568 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)
2011-05-23
We propose that the stability of dark matter is ensured by a discrete subgroup of the U(1){sub B-L} gauge symmetry, Z{sub 2}(B-L). We introduce a set of chiral fermions charged under the U(1){sub B-L} in addition to the right-handed neutrinos, and require the anomaly-cancellation conditions associated with the U(1){sub B-L} gauge symmetry. We find that the possible number of fermions and their charges are tightly constrained, and that non-trivial solutions appear when at least five additional chiral fermions are introduced. The Fermat theorem in the number theory plays an important role in this argument. Focusing on one of the solutions, we show that there is indeed a good candidate for dark matter, whose stability is guaranteed by Z{sub 2}(B-L).
Rhodes, Jonathan R.; Lunney, Daniel; Callaghan, John; McAlpine, Clive A.
2014-01-01
Roads and vehicular traffic are among the most pervasive of threats to biodiversity because they fragmenting habitat, increasing mortality and opening up new areas for the exploitation of natural resources. However, the number of vehicles on roads is increasing rapidly and this is likely to continue into the future, putting increased pressure on wildlife populations. Consequently, a major challenge is the planning of road networks to accommodate increased numbers of vehicles, while minimising impacts on wildlife. Nonetheless, we currently have few principles for guiding decisions on road network planning to reduce impacts on wildlife in real landscapes. We addressed this issue by developing an approach for quantifying the impact on wildlife mortality of two alternative mechanisms for accommodating growth in vehicle numbers: (1) increasing the number of roads, and (2) increasing traffic volumes on existing roads. We applied this approach to a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) population in eastern Australia and quantified the relative impact of each strategy on mortality. We show that, in most cases, accommodating growth in traffic through increases in volumes on existing roads has a lower impact than building new roads. An exception is where the existing road network has very low road density, but very high traffic volumes on each road. These findings have important implications for how we design road networks to reduce their impacts on biodiversity. PMID:24646891
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonathan R Rhodes
Full Text Available Roads and vehicular traffic are among the most pervasive of threats to biodiversity because they fragmenting habitat, increasing mortality and opening up new areas for the exploitation of natural resources. However, the number of vehicles on roads is increasing rapidly and this is likely to continue into the future, putting increased pressure on wildlife populations. Consequently, a major challenge is the planning of road networks to accommodate increased numbers of vehicles, while minimising impacts on wildlife. Nonetheless, we currently have few principles for guiding decisions on road network planning to reduce impacts on wildlife in real landscapes. We addressed this issue by developing an approach for quantifying the impact on wildlife mortality of two alternative mechanisms for accommodating growth in vehicle numbers: (1 increasing the number of roads, and (2 increasing traffic volumes on existing roads. We applied this approach to a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus population in eastern Australia and quantified the relative impact of each strategy on mortality. We show that, in most cases, accommodating growth in traffic through increases in volumes on existing roads has a lower impact than building new roads. An exception is where the existing road network has very low road density, but very high traffic volumes on each road. These findings have important implications for how we design road networks to reduce their impacts on biodiversity.
Rhodes, Jonathan R; Lunney, Daniel; Callaghan, John; McAlpine, Clive A
2014-01-01
Roads and vehicular traffic are among the most pervasive of threats to biodiversity because they fragmenting habitat, increasing mortality and opening up new areas for the exploitation of natural resources. However, the number of vehicles on roads is increasing rapidly and this is likely to continue into the future, putting increased pressure on wildlife populations. Consequently, a major challenge is the planning of road networks to accommodate increased numbers of vehicles, while minimising impacts on wildlife. Nonetheless, we currently have few principles for guiding decisions on road network planning to reduce impacts on wildlife in real landscapes. We addressed this issue by developing an approach for quantifying the impact on wildlife mortality of two alternative mechanisms for accommodating growth in vehicle numbers: (1) increasing the number of roads, and (2) increasing traffic volumes on existing roads. We applied this approach to a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) population in eastern Australia and quantified the relative impact of each strategy on mortality. We show that, in most cases, accommodating growth in traffic through increases in volumes on existing roads has a lower impact than building new roads. An exception is where the existing road network has very low road density, but very high traffic volumes on each road. These findings have important implications for how we design road networks to reduce their impacts on biodiversity.
The 17 GHz active region number
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Selhorst, C. L.; Pacini, A. A. [IP and D-Universidade do Vale do Paraíba-UNIVAP, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Costa, J. E. R. [CEA, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Valio, A. [CRAAM, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, São Paulo (Brazil); Shibasaki, K., E-mail: caius@univap.br [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory/NAOJ, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan)
2014-08-01
We report the statistics of the number of active regions (NAR) observed at 17 GHz with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph between 1992, near the maximum of cycle 22, and 2013, which also includes the maximum of cycle 24, and we compare with other activity indexes. We find that NAR minima are shorter than those of the sunspot number (SSN) and radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7). This shorter NAR minima could reflect the presence of active regions generated by faint magnetic fields or spotless regions, which were a considerable fraction of the counted active regions. The ratio between the solar radio indexes F10.7/NAR shows a similar reduction during the two minima analyzed, which contrasts with the increase of the ratio of both radio indexes in relation to the SSN during the minimum of cycle 23-24. These results indicate that the radio indexes are more sensitive to weaker magnetic fields than those necessary to form sunspots, of the order of 1500 G. The analysis of the monthly averages of the active region brightness temperatures shows that its long-term variation mimics the solar cycle; however, due to the gyro-resonance emission, a great number of intense spikes are observed in the maximum temperature study. The decrease in the number of these spikes is also evident during the current cycle 24, a consequence of the sunspot magnetic field weakening in the last few years.
Reduced recruitment in Hyalella azteca (Saussure, 1858) exposed to copper.
Othman, M Shuhaimi; Pascoe, David
2002-09-01
Neonates of the amphipod Hyalella azteca were exposed for a 35-day period in the laboratory to a range of copper concentrations, nominally 18 microg/l, 40 microg/l, 70 microg/l and 260 microg/l. The reproductive status of the population was assessed by recording recruitment, the number of precopulatory pairs and number of gravid females. At the end of the experiment, the body lengths of individuals were measured using image analysis. There was a significant decrease in the final population size of H. azteca with increasing copper concentration and compared with the control. Copper significantly reduced recruitment of juveniles and length composition of the final population and there was also a trend toward reduced precopula number with increasing copper concentrations.
Reducing Smoking at the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.
Behrens, Ruth A.
Company policies and programs aimed at reducing smoking among employees have a number of other important benefits to employees and the company alike. Limiting or banning smoking helps create a safe and healthy workplace and may reduce direct health care costs, health and life insurance costs, employee absenteeism, costs associated with maintaining…
Bubble number saturation curve and asymptotics of hypobaric and hyperbaric exposures.
Wienke, B R
1991-12-01
Within bubble number limits of the varying permeability and reduced gradient bubble models, it is shown that a linear form of the saturation curve for hyperbaric exposures and a nearly constant decompression ratio for hypobaric exposures are simultaneously recovered from the phase volume constraint. Both limits are maintained within a single bubble number saturation curve. A bubble term, varying exponentially with inverse pressure, provides closure. Two constants describe the saturation curve, both linked to seed numbers. Limits of other decompression models are also discussed and contrasted for completeness. It is suggested that the bubble number saturation curve thus provides a consistent link between hypobaric and hyperbaric data, a link not established by earlier decompression models.
Large number discrimination by mosquitofish.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christian Agrillo
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that fish display rudimentary numerical abilities similar to those observed in mammals and birds. The mechanisms underlying the discrimination of small quantities (<4 were recently investigated while, to date, no study has examined the discrimination of large numerosities in fish. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects were trained to discriminate between two sets of small geometric figures using social reinforcement. In the first experiment mosquitofish were required to discriminate 4 from 8 objects with or without experimental control of the continuous variables that co-vary with number (area, space, density, total luminance. Results showed that fish can use the sole numerical information to compare quantities but that they preferentially use cumulative surface area as a proxy of the number when this information is available. A second experiment investigated the influence of the total number of elements to discriminate large quantities. Fish proved to be able to discriminate up to 100 vs. 200 objects, without showing any significant decrease in accuracy compared with the 4 vs. 8 discrimination. The third experiment investigated the influence of the ratio between the numerosities. Performance was found to decrease when decreasing the numerical distance. Fish were able to discriminate numbers when ratios were 1:2 or 2:3 but not when the ratio was 3:4. The performance of a sample of undergraduate students, tested non-verbally using the same sets of stimuli, largely overlapped that of fish. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Fish are able to use pure numerical information when discriminating between quantities larger than 4 units. As observed in human and non-human primates, the numerical system of fish appears to have virtually no upper limit while the numerical ratio has a clear effect on performance. These similarities further reinforce the view of a common origin of non-verbal numerical systems in all
Genetic dissection of grain size and grain number trade-offs in CIMMYT wheat germplasm.
Griffiths, Simon; Wingen, Luzie; Pietragalla, Julian; Garcia, Guillermo; Hasan, Ahmed; Miralles, Daniel; Calderini, Daniel F; Ankleshwaria, Jignaben Bipinchandra; Waite, Michelle Leverington; Simmonds, James; Snape, John; Reynolds, Matthew
2015-01-01
Grain weight (GW) and number per unit area of land (GN) are the primary components of grain yield in wheat. In segregating populations both yield components often show a negative correlation among themselves. Here we use a recombinant doubled haploid population of 105 individuals developed from the CIMMYT varieties Weebill and Bacanora to understand the relative contribution of these components to grain yield and their interaction with each other. Weebill was chosen for its high GW and Bacanora for high GN. The population was phenotyped in Mexico, Argentina, Chile and the UK. Two loci influencing grain yield were indicated on 1B and 7B after QTL analysis. Weebill contributed the increasing alleles. The 1B effect, which is probably caused by to the 1BL.1RS rye introgression in Bacanora, was a result of increased GN, whereas, the 7B QTL controls GW. We concluded that increased in GW from Weebill 7B allele is not accompanied by a significant reduction in grain number. The extent of the GW and GN trade-off is reduced. This makes this locus an attractive target for marker assisted selection to develop high yielding bold grain varieties like Weebill. AMMI analysis was used to show that the 7B Weebill allele appears to contribute to yield stability.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang Weizheng; Kuang Jishun; You Zhiqiang; Liu Peng, E-mail: jshkuang@163.com [College of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)
2011-07-15
This paper presents a new test scheme based on scan block encoding in a linear feedback shift register (LFSR) reseeding-based compression environment. Meanwhile, our paper also introduces a novel algorithm of scan-block clustering. The main contribution of this paper is a flexible test-application framework that achieves significant reductions in switching activity during scan shift and the number of specified bits that need to be generated via LFSR reseeding. Thus, it can significantly reduce the test power and test data volume. Experimental results using Mintest test set on the larger ISCAS'89 benchmarks show that the proposed method reduces the switching activity significantly by 72%-94% and provides a best possible test compression of 74%-94% with little hardware overhead. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaitlynn LeRiche
Full Text Available Pokey is a class II DNA transposon that inserts into 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes and other genomic regions of species in the subgenus, Daphnia. Two divergent lineages, PokeyA and PokeyB have been identified. Recombination between misaligned rRNA genes changes their number and the number of Pokey elements. We used quantitative PCR (qPCR to estimate rRNA gene and Pokey number in isolates from natural populations of Daphnia obtusa, and in clonally-propagated mutation accumulation lines (MAL initiated from a single D. obtusa female. The change in direction and magnitude of Pokey and rRNA gene number did not show a consistent pattern across ∼ 87 generations in the MAL; however, Pokey and rRNA gene number changed in concert. PokeyA and 28S gene number were positively correlated in the isolates from both natural populations and the MAL. PokeyB number was much lower than PokeyA in both MAL and natural population isolates, and showed no correlation with 28S gene number. Preliminary analysis did not detect PokeyB outside rDNA in any isolates and detected only 0 to 4 copies of PokeyA outside rDNA indicating that Pokey may be primarily an rDNA element in D. obtusa. The recombination rate in this species is high and the average size of the rDNA locus is about twice as large as that in other Daphnia species such as D. pulicaria and D. pulex, which may have facilitated expansion of PokeyA to much higher numbers in D. obtusa rDNA than these other species.
Reynolds-number dependence of turbulence enhancement on collision growth
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R. Onishi
2016-10-01
Full Text Available This study investigates the Reynolds-number dependence of turbulence enhancement on the collision growth of cloud droplets. The Onishi turbulent coagulation kernel proposed in Onishi et al. (2015 is updated by using the direct numerical simulation (DNS results for the Taylor-microscale-based Reynolds number (Reλ up to 1140. The DNS results for particles with a small Stokes number (St show a consistent Reynolds-number dependence of the so-called clustering effect with the locality theory proposed by Onishi et al. (2015. It is confirmed that the present Onishi kernel is more robust for a wider St range and has better agreement with the Reynolds-number dependence shown by the DNS results. The present Onishi kernel is then compared with the Ayala–Wang kernel (Ayala et al., 2008a; Wang et al., 2008. At low and moderate Reynolds numbers, both kernels show similar values except for r2 ∼ r1, for which the Ayala–Wang kernel shows much larger values due to its large turbulence enhancement on collision efficiency. A large difference is observed for the Reynolds-number dependences between the two kernels. The Ayala–Wang kernel increases for the autoconversion region (r1, r2 < 40 µm and for the accretion region (r1 < 40 and r2 > 40 µm; r1 > 40 and r2 < 40 µm as Reλ increases. In contrast, the Onishi kernel decreases for the autoconversion region and increases for the rain–rain self-collection region (r1, r2 > 40 µm. Stochastic collision–coalescence equation (SCE simulations are also conducted to investigate the turbulence enhancement on particle size evolutions. The SCE with the Ayala–Wang kernel (SCE-Ayala and that with the present Onishi kernel (SCE-Onishi are compared with results from the Lagrangian Cloud Simulator (LCS; Onishi et al., 2015, which tracks individual particle motions and size evolutions in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The SCE-Ayala and SCE-Onishi kernels show consistent
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Rita Vik
2015-08-01
Conclusion: Chicken protein displayed a slight potential to increase mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and reduce plasma TAG. However, CP did not affect plasma cholesterol levels, inflammation status or atherosclerotic development in apoE−/− mice. Based on these results, dietary intervention with CP does not have sufficient capacity to influence atherosclerotic development in apoE−/− mice.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
1997-01-01
.... The number of accidents and the number of fatalities are too high. what can we do about it? Can we make improvements in our efforts to reduce the number of rollover/ turnover accidents, and also improve our chances of surviving such an accident...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jayatissa, Magdalena N; Bisgaard, Christina; West, Mark J
2008-01-01
mild stress and chronic escitalopram treatment. Furthermore, we investigated which classes of immature granule cells are affected by stress and targeted by escitalopram. Rats were initially exposed to 2weeks of CMS and 4weeks of escitalopram treatment with concurrent exposure to stress. The behavioral...... changes, indicating a decrease in sensitivity to a reward, were assessed in terms of sucrose consumption. We found a significant 22.4% decrease in the total number of granule cells in the stressed rats. This decrease was reversed in the stressed escitalopram treated rats that responded to the treatment......, but not in the rats that did not respond to escitalopram treatment. These changes were not followed by alterations in the volume of the granule cell layer. We also showed a differential regulation of dentate neurons, in different stages of development, by chronic stress and chronic escitalopram treatment. Our study...
Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.
2012-01-01
We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.
Masunaga, S; Liu, Y; Tanaka, H; Sakurai, Y; Suzuki, M; Kondo, N; Maruhashi, A; Ono, K
2011-01-01
Objectives The aim was to evaluate the influence of bevacizumab on intratumour oxygenation status and lung metastasis following radiotherapy, with specific reference to the response of quiescent (Q) cell populations within irradiated tumours. Methods B16-BL6 melanoma tumour-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells. They received γ-ray irradiation following treatment with the acute hypoxia-releasing agent nicotinamide or local mild temperature hyperthermia (MTH) with or without the administration of bevacizumab under aerobic conditions or totally hypoxic conditions, achieved by clamping the proximal end of the tumours. Immediately after the irradiation, cells from some tumours were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the Q and total (P + Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In the other tumour-bearing mice, macroscopic lung metastases were enumerated 17 days after irradiation. Results 3 days after bevacizumab administration, acute hypoxia-rich total cell population in the tumour showed a remarkably enhanced radiosensitivity to γ-rays, and the hypoxic fraction (HF) was reduced, even after MTH treatment. However, the hypoxic fraction was not reduced after nicotinamide treatment. With or without γ-ray irradiation, bevacizumab administration showed some potential to reduce the number of lung metastases as well as nicotinamide treatment. Conclusion Bevacizumab has the potential to reduce perfusion-limited acute hypoxia and some potential to cause a decrease in the number of lung metastases as well as nicotinamide. PMID:21586505
General Reducibility and Solvability of Polynomial Equations ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
General Reducibility and Solvability of Polynomial Equations. ... Unlike quadratic, cubic, and quartic polynomials, the general quintic and higher degree polynomials cannot be solved algebraically in terms of finite number of additions, ... Galois Theory, Solving Polynomial Systems, Polynomial factorization, Polynomial Ring ...
Sulfate reducing potential in an estuarine beach
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
LokaBharathi, P.A.; Chandramohan, D.
Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and their activity (SRA) together with total anaerobic and aerobic bacterial flora were estimated during July 1982-April 1983 and July-August 1984 from 1, 3 and 5 cm depths using core samples. The average number (no...
Increased mast cell numbers in a calcaneal tendon overuse model.
Pingel, J; Wienecke, J; Kongsgaard, M; Behzad, H; Abraham, T; Langberg, H; Scott, A
2013-12-01
Tendinopathy is often discovered late because the initial development of tendon pathology is asymptomatic. The aim of this study was to examine the potential role of mast cell involvement in early tendinopathy using a high-intensity uphill running (HIUR) exercise model. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided in two groups: running group (n = 12); sedentary control group (n = 12). The running-group was exposed to the HIUR exercise protocol for 7 weeks. The calcaneal tendons of both hind limbs were dissected. The right tendon was used for histologic analysis using Bonar score, immunohistochemistry, and second harmonic generation microscopy (SHGM). The left tendon was used for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. An increased tendon cell density in the runners were observed compared to the controls (P = 0.05). Further, the intensity of immunostaining of protein kinase B, P = 0.03; 2.75 ± 0.54 vs 1.17 ± 0.53, was increased in the runners. The Bonar score (P = 0.05), and the number of mast cells (P = 0.02) were significantly higher in the runners compared to the controls. Furthermore, SHGM showed focal collagen disorganization in the runners, and reduced collagen density (P = 0.03). IL-3 mRNA levels were correlated with mast cell number in sedentary animals. The qPCR analysis showed no significant differences between the groups in the other analyzed targets. The current study demonstrates that 7-week HIUR causes structural changes in the calcaneal tendon, and further that these changes are associated with an increased mast cell density. © 2013 The Authors. Scand J Med Sci Sports published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
First-born siblings show better second language skills than later born siblings
Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M.; Grob, Alexander
2015-01-01
We examined the extent to which three sibling structure variables number of siblings, birth order, and presence of an older sibling at school age are linked to the second language skills of bilingual children. The research questions were tested using an ethnically heterogeneous sample of 1209 bilingual children with German as a second language. Controlling for children’s age, sex, nationality, number of children’s books at home, family language and parental German language skills, hierarchical regression analyses showed an inverse relationship between the number of siblings and second language skills: the more siblings a child had, the lower was his/her second language proficiency. This relationship was mediated by attendance in early education institutions. Moreover, first-born siblings showed better second language skills than later born siblings. The current study revealed that the resource dilution model, i.e., the decrease in resources for every additional sibling, holds for second language acquisition. Moreover, the results indicate that bilingual children from families with several children benefit from access to early education institutions. PMID:26089806
First-born siblings show better second language skills than later born siblings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karin eKeller
2015-06-01
Full Text Available We examined the extent to which three sibling structure variables number of siblings, birth order and presence of an older sibling at school age are linked to the second language skills of bilingual children. The research questions were tested using an ethnically heterogeneous sample of 1209 bilingual children with German as a second language. Controlling for children’s age, sex, nationality, number of children’s books at home, family language and parental German language skills, hierarchical regression analyses showed an inverse relationship between the number of siblings and second language skills: The more siblings a child had, the lower was his/her second language proficiency. This relationship was mediated by attendance in early education institutions. Moreover, first-born siblings showed better second language skills than later born siblings.The current study revealed that the resource dilution model, i.e., the decrease in resources for every additional sibling, holds for second language acquisition. Moreover, the results indicate that bilingual children from families with several children benefit from access to early education institutions.
Minocycline HCl microspheres reduce red-complex bacteria in periodontal disease therapy.
Goodson, J Max; Gunsolley, John C; Grossi, Sara G; Bland, Paul S; Otomo-Corgel, Joan; Doherty, Frances; Comiskey, Judy
2007-08-01
The objective of this trial was to measure the antimicrobial effects of a minocycline HCl microsphere (MM) local drug-delivery system when used as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP). DNA probe analysis for 40 bacteria was used to evaluate the oral bacteria of 127 subjects with moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis. Subjects were randomly assigned to either SRP alone (N = 65) or MM + SRP (N = 62). The primary endpoints of this study were changes in numbers and proportions of the red-complex bacteria (RCB) and the sum of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia (formally T. forsythensis), and Treponema denticola relative to 40 oral bacteria at each test site from baseline to day 30. Numbers of RCB from the five test sites were averaged to provide a value for each subject. MM + SRP reduced the proportion of RCB by 6.49% and the numbers by 9.4 x 10(5). The reduction in RCB proportions and numbers by SRP alone (5.03% and 5.1 x 10(5), respectively) was significantly less. In addition, MM + SRP reduced probing depth by 1.38 mm (compared to 1.01 mm by SRP alone), bleeding on probing was reduced by 25.2% (compared to 13.8% by SRP alone), and a clinical attachment level gain of 1.16 mm (compared to 0.80 mm by SRP alone) was achieved. These observations support the hypothesis that RCBs are responsible for periodontal disease and that local antimicrobial therapy using MM + SRP effectively reduces numbers of RCBs and their proportions to a greater extent than SRP alone.
Paramasivan, Sathish; Jones, Damien; Baker, Leonie; Hanton, Lyall; Robinson, Simon; Wormald, Peter J; Tan, Lorwai
2014-01-01
Chitosan-dextran gel has been used as an antihemostatic agent and antiadhesive agent after endoscopic sinus surgery. Because Staphylococcus aureus biofilms have been implicated in recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis, this study aimed to further investigate the (i) anti-inflammatory, (ii) bacterial biofilm inhibition, (iii) antiproliferative effects, and (iv) wound-healing properties of chitosan and chitosan-dextran gel. Fibroblasts were isolated from human nasal tissue and were used to determine the effects of chitosan and chitosan-dextran gel on (i) cell proliferation, (ii) wound healing, (iii) inflammation in fibroblast cultures challenged with superantigens S. aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST), and (iv) on S. aureus biofilms. Chitosan was highly effective at reducing IL-8 expression after TSST and SEB challenge. Chitosan was also effective at reducing IL-8 expression of nonchallenged fibroblasts showing its anti-inflammatory effects on fibroblasts in a diseased state. Chitosan-dextran gel showed strong antibiofilm properties at 50% (v/v) concentration in vitro. Dextran, on its own, showed antibiofilm properties at 1.25% (w/v) concentration. Chitosan, on its own, reduced proliferation of fibroblasts to 82% of control proliferation and chitosan-dextran gel reduced proliferation of the fibroblasts to 0.04% of control proliferation. Relative to the no treatment controls, chitosan-dextran gel significantly delayed the wound-healing rate over the first 48 hours of the experiment. Chitosan-dextran gel reduced fibroblast proliferation and wound-healing time, showing a possible mechanism of reducing adhesions in the postsurgical period. Chitosan reduced IL-8 levels, showing its anti-inflammatory properties. Chitosan-dextran gel and dextran treatment showed antibiofilm properties in our model.
Førsvoll, J; Janssen, E A M; Møller, I; Wathne, N; Skaland, I; Klos, J; Kristoffersen, E K; Øymar, K
2015-07-01
The syndrome of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) is an autoinflammatory disorder of unknown aetiology. Tonsillectomy may cause a prompt resolution of the syndrome. The aim was to study the histologic and immunological aspects of the palatine tonsils in PFAPA, to help understand the pathophysiology of the syndrome. Tonsils from children with PFAPA (n = 11) and children with tonsillar hypertrophy (n = 16) were evaluated histologically after haematoxylin and eosin staining. The number of different cell types was identified immunohistochemically by cluster of differentiation (CD) markers: CD3 (T cells), CD4 (T helper cells), CD8 (cytotoxic T cells), CD15 (neutrophils), CD20 (B cells), CD45 (all leucocytes), CD57 (NK cells) and CD163 (monocytes and macrophages). Tonsils from children with PFAPA showed reactive lymphoid hyperplasia dominated by well-developed germinal centres with many tingible body macrophages. The histologic findings were unspecific, and a similar morphologic appearance was also found in the tonsils from controls. The number of CD8+ cells in germinal centres differed between children with PFAPA [median 9 cells (quartiles: 5, 15)] and controls [18 cells (12, 33) (P = 0.001)] and between children with PFAPA with (median 14 cells; 9, 16) and without (4 cells; 3, 8) aphthous stomatitis (P = 0.015). For the other cell types, no differences in germinal centres were found between children with PFAPA and controls. In conclusion, a lower number of CD8+ cells were found in germinal centres of tonsils in children with PFAPA compared to controls, which may be a feature linked to the aetiology of the syndrome. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Forcing clique immersions through chromatic number
Gauthier, Gregory; Le, Tien-Nam; Wollan, Paul
2017-01-01
Building on recent work of Dvo\\v{r}\\'ak and Yepremyan, we show that every simple graph of minimum degree $7t+7$ contains $K_t$ as an immersion and that every graph with chromatic number at least $3.54t + 4$ contains $K_t$ as an immersion. We also show that every graph on $n$ vertices with no stable set of size three contains $K_{2\\lfloor n/5 \\rfloor}$ as an immersion.
The role of digital tomosynthesis in reducing the number of equivocal breast reportings
Alakhras, Maram; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Rickard, Mary; Bourne, Roger; Brennan, Patrick C.
2015-03-01
Purpose To compare radiologists' confidence in assessing breast cancer using combined digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) compared with DM alone as a function of previous experience with DBT. Materials and Methods Institutional ethics approval was obtained. Twenty-three experienced breast radiologists reviewed 50 cases in two modes, DM alone and DM+DBT. Twenty-seven cases presented with breast cancer. Each radiologist was asked to detect breast lesions and give a confidence score of 1-5 (1- Normal, 2- Benign, 3- Equivocal, 4- Suspicious, 5- Malignant). Radiologists were divided into three sub-groups according to their prior experience with DBT (none, workshop experience, and clinical experience). Confidence scores using DM+DBT were compared with DM alone for all readers combined and for each DBT experience subgroup. Statistical analyses, using GraphPad Prism 5, were carried out using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test with statistical significance set at pResults Confidence scores were higher for true positive cancer cases using DM+DBT compared with DM alone for all readers (p Conclusion Addition of DBT to DM increases the confidence level of radiologists in scoring cancer and normal/benign cases. This finding appears to apply across radiologists with varying levels of DBT experience, however further work involving greater numbers of radiologists is required.
Hastie, Graham; Soufi, Mazen; Wilson, James; Roy, Bibhas
2018-03-01
We aimed to assess the effectiveness of PRP injections in lateral epicondylitis of the elbow as it was felt after PRP introduction the numbers of patients requiring surgery for had reduced. We conducted a retrospective review of cases from the 1 st January 2008 to 31st December 2015. The numbers of patients undergoing surgical release and the numbers of patients requiring PRP injections were recorded each year and the numbers of patients requiring surgery was compared pre and post PRP injection to ascertain if PRP introduction reduced surgical intervention. Prior to PRP, a yearly mean of 12.75 patients underwent surgery, since PRP this reduced to 4.25 patients, P lateral epicondylitis of the elbow, not only a safe but also very effective tool in reducing symptoms and have shown it has reduced the need for surgical intervention in this difficult cohort of patients.
Dual Numbers Approach in Multiaxis Machines Error Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaroslav Hrdina
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Multiaxis machines error modeling is set in the context of modern differential geometry and linear algebra. We apply special classes of matrices over dual numbers and propose a generalization of such concept by means of general Weil algebras. We show that the classification of the geometric errors follows directly from the algebraic properties of the matrices over dual numbers and thus the calculus over the dual numbers is the proper tool for the methodology of multiaxis machines error modeling.
Multisite study of particle number concentrations in urban air.
Harrison, Roy M; Jones, Alan M
2005-08-15
Particle number concentration data are reported from a total of eight urban site locations in the United Kingdom. Of these, six are central urban background sites, while one is an urban street canyon (Marylebone Road) and another is influenced by both a motorway and a steelworks (Port Talbot). The concentrations are generally of a similar order to those reported in the literature, although higher than those in some of the other studies. Highest concentrations are at the Marylebone Road site and lowest are at the Port Talbot site. The central urban background locations lie somewhere between with concentrations typically around 20 000 cm(-3). A seasonal pattern affects all sites, with highest concentrations in the winter months and lowest concentrations in the summer. Data from all sites show a diurnal variation with a morning rush hour peak typical of an anthropogenic pollutant. When the dilution effects of windspeed are accounted for, the data show little directionality at the central urban background sites indicating the influence of sources from all directions as might be expected if the major source were road traffic. At the London Marylebone Road site there is high directionality driven by the air circulation in the street canyon, and at the Port Talbot site different diurnal patterns are seen for particle number count and PM10 influenced by emissions from road traffic (particle number count) and the steelworks (PM10) and local meteorological factors. Hourly particle number concentrations are generally only weakly correlated to NO(x) and PM10, with the former showing a slightly closer relationship. Correlations between daily average particle number count and PM10 were also weak. Episodes of high PM10 concentration in summer typically show low particle number concentrations consistent with transport of accumulation mode secondary aerosol, while winter episodes are frequently associated with high PM10 and particle number count arising from poor dispersion of
Accessing photon number via an atomic time interval
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Camparo, J.C.; Coffer, J.G.
2002-01-01
We show that Rabi resonances can be used to assess field strength in terms of time at the atomic level. Rabi resonances are enhancements in the amplitude of atomic population oscillations when the Rabi frequency, Ω, 'matches' a field-modulation frequency, ω m . We demonstrate that Ω=2κω m and find that κ=1.03±0.05. Since Ω is defined by field strength (i.e., photon number) through atomic constants, and ω m may be referenced to an atomic clock, our work shows that Rabi resonances provide a connection between time and photon number
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Pavletič
2014-04-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACTSince 2004, the Ciril Kosmač Library of Tolmin has been continuously preparing a radio show on books and libraries on the local radio station Alpski val. The show has been used as an advertising platform or as a means of primary library promotion. The radio show is regarded as one of the tools of what is termed market communication, and it is intended to provide broad public information on the services of a public library, to promote the library’s activities and holdings and to foster a reading culture. The aim of the show is to stimulate the potential user interest in visiting and using the services of a public library, to expand the circle of users and consequently raise the number of visits and library loans. The title of the show, its audio image, target audience, metapromotion and substantive concept are all key to planning the radio show on books and libraries. The radio show is an example of an effective tool that helps to establish the library’s ties with the local community. This example of best practices shows that it is worth pursuing this activity in Slovenia’s public libraries and highlighting it on their websites.
Set size and culture influence children's attention to number.
Cantrell, Lisa; Kuwabara, Megumi; Smith, Linda B
2015-03-01
Much research evidences a system in adults and young children for approximately representing quantity. Here we provide evidence that the bias to attend to discrete quantity versus other dimensions may be mediated by set size and culture. Preschool-age English-speaking children in the United States and Japanese-speaking children in Japan were tested in a match-to-sample task where number was pitted against cumulative surface area in both large and small numerical set comparisons. Results showed that children from both cultures were biased to attend to the number of items for small sets. Large set responses also showed a general attention to number when ratio difficulty was easy. However, relative to the responses for small sets, attention to number decreased for both groups; moreover, both U.S. and Japanese children showed a significant bias to attend to total amount for difficult numerical ratio distances, although Japanese children shifted attention to total area at relatively smaller set sizes than U.S. children. These results add to our growing understanding of how quantity is represented and how such representation is influenced by context--both cultural and perceptual. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reynolds number dependency in equilibrium two-dimensional turbulence
Bracco, A.; McWilliams, J.
2009-04-01
We use the Navier-Stokes equations for barotropic turbulence as a zero-order approximation of chaotic space-time patterns and equilibrium distributions that mimic turbulence in geophysical flows. In this overly-simplified set-up for which smooth-solutions exist, we investigate if is possible to bound the uncertainty associated with the numerical domain discretization, i.e. with the limitation imposed by the Reynolds number range we can explore. To do so we analyze a series of stationary barotropic turbulence simulations spanning a large range of Reynolds numbers and run over a three year period for over 300,000 CPU hours. We find a persistent Reynolds number dependency in the energy power spectra and second order vorticity structure function, while distributions of dynamical quantities such as velocity, vorticity, dissipation rates and others are invariant in shape and have variances scaling with the viscosity coefficient according to simple power-laws. The relevance to this work to the possibility of conceptually reducing uncertainties in climate models will be discussed.
Characteristics and outcomes for women physicians who work reduced hours.
Carr, Phyllis L; Gareis, Karen C; Barnett, Rosalind C
2003-05-01
To understand the characteristics of women physicians who work reduced hours in dual-earner couples and how such work schedules affect the quality of the marital role, parental role, and job role, as well as indicators of psychological distress, burnout, career satisfaction, and life satisfaction. Survey of a random sample of female physicians between 25 and 50 years of age, working within 25 miles of Boston, whose names were obtained from the Registry of Board Certification in Medicine in Massachusetts. Interviewers conducted a 60-minute face-to-face close-ended interview after a 20-minute mailed questionnaire had been completed. Fifty-one full-time physicians and 47 reduced-hours physicians completed the study, for a completion rate of 49.5%. There was no difference in age, number of years as a physician, mean household income, number of children, or presence of an infant in the home between reduced-hours and full-time physicians. Reduced-hours physicians, however, were more likely to be in a generalist specialty (40% vs. 12%, p = 0.001) and to spend a greater portion of their time in patient care (64.5% vs. 50.1%, p = 0.003) and less time in research (4.9% vs. 18.0%, p = 0.002) than full-time physicians. In addition, there was no difference between the two groups in the perception of work interfering with family life (1.8 vs. 1.7, p = 0.17; scale 1-7 with 7 high) or family life interfering with work (1.4 vs. 1.5, p = 0.62). Physicians who worked their preferred number of hours (25% of full-time and 57% of reduced-hours physicians), regardless of full-time (self-reported hours 35-90 hours per week) or reduced-hours (20-60 hours per week) status, reported better job role quality (r = 0.35, p = 0.001), schedule fit (r = 0.41, p Women physicians who work their preferred number of hours achieve the best balance of work and family outcomes.
Reducing Campylobacter jejuni colonization of poultry via vaccination.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jason M Neal-McKinney
Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a leading bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal disease worldwide. While C. jejuni is a commensal organism in chickens, case-studies have demonstrated a link between infection with C. jejuni and the consumption of foods that have been cross-contaminated with raw or undercooked poultry. We hypothesized that vaccination of chickens with C. jejuni surface-exposed colonization proteins (SECPs would reduce the ability of C. jejuni to colonize chickens, thereby reducing the contamination of poultry products at the retail level and potentially providing a safer food product for consumers. To test our hypothesis, we injected chickens with recombinant C. jejuni peptides from CadF, FlaA, FlpA, CmeC, and a CadF-FlaA-FlpA fusion protein. Seven days following challenge, chickens were necropsied and cecal contents were serially diluted and plated to determine the number of C. jejuni per gram of material. The sera from the chickens were also analyzed to determine the concentration and specificity of antibodies reactive against the C. jejuni SECPs. Vaccination of chickens with the CadF, FlaA, and FlpA peptides resulted in a reduction in the number of C. jejuni in the ceca compared to the non-vaccinated C. jejuni-challenged group. The greatest reduction in C. jejuni colonization was observed in chickens injected with the FlaA, FlpA, or CadF-FlaA-FlpA fusion proteins. Vaccination of chickens with different SECPs resulted in the production of C. jejuni-specific IgY antibodies. In summary, we show that the vaccination of poultry with individual C. jejuni SECPs or a combination of SECPs provides protection of chickens from C. jejuni colonization.
Earthquake number forecasts testing
Kagan, Yan Y.
2017-10-01
and kurtosis both tend to zero for large earthquake rates: for the Gaussian law, these values are identically zero. A calculation of the NBD skewness and kurtosis levels based on the values of the first two statistical moments of the distribution, shows rapid increase of these upper moments levels. However, the observed catalogue values of skewness and kurtosis are rising even faster. This means that for small time intervals, the earthquake number distribution is even more heavy-tailed than the NBD predicts. Therefore for small time intervals, we propose using empirical number distributions appropriately smoothed for testing forecasted earthquake numbers.
Bernoulli-Carlitz and Cauchy-Carlitz numbers with Stirling-Carlitz numbers
Kaneko, Hajime; Komatsu, Takao
2017-01-01
Recently, the Cauchy-Carlitz number was defined as the counterpart of the Bernoulli-Carlitz number. Both numbers can be expressed explicitly in terms of so-called Stirling-Carlitz numbers. In this paper, we study the second analogue of Stirling-Carlitz numbers and give some general formulae, including Bernoulli and Cauchy numbers in formal power series with complex coefficients, and Bernoulli-Carlitz and Cauchy-Carlitz numbers in function fields. We also give some applications of Hasse-Teichm...
Simulating an arbitrary number of flavors of dynamical overlap fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeGrand, T.; Schaefer, S.
2006-05-01
We present a set of related Hybrid Monte Carlo methods to simulate an arbitrary number of dynamical overlap fermions. Each fermion is represented by a chiral pseudo-fermion field. The new algorithm reduces critical slowing down in the chiral limit and for sectors of nontrivial topology. (Orig.)
What controls the low ice number concentration in the upper troposphere?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Zhou
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Cirrus clouds in the tropical tropopause play a key role in regulating the moisture entering the stratosphere through their dehydrating effect. Low ice number concentrations ( < 200 L−1 and high supersaturations (150–160 % have been observed in these clouds. Different mechanisms have been proposed to explain these low ice number concentrations, including the inhibition of homogeneous freezing by the deposition of water vapour onto pre-existing ice crystals, heterogeneous ice formation on glassy organic aerosol ice nuclei (IN, and limiting the formation of ice number from high-frequency gravity waves. In this study, we examined the effect from three different representations of updraft velocities, the effect from pre-existing ice crystals, the effect from different water vapour deposition coefficients (α = 0.1 or 1, and the effect of 0.1 % of the total secondary organic aerosol (SOA particles acting as IN. Model-simulated ice crystal numbers are compared against an aircraft observational dataset.Including the effect from water vapour deposition on pre-existing ice particles can effectively reduce simulated in-cloud ice number concentrations for all model setups. A larger water vapour deposition coefficient (α = 1 can also efficiently reduce ice number concentrations at temperatures below 205 K, but less so at higher temperatures. SOA acting as IN is most effective at reducing ice number concentrations when the effective updraft velocities are moderate ( ∼ 0.05–0.2 m s−1. However, the effects of including SOA as IN and using (α = 1 are diminished when the effect from pre-existing ice is included.When a grid-resolved large-scale updraft velocity ( < 0.1 m s−1 is used, the ice nucleation parameterization with homogeneous freezing only or with both homogeneous freezing and heterogeneous nucleation is able to generate low ice number concentrations in good agreement
Liu, Biao; Long, Mengqiu; Cai, Meng-Qiu; Yang, Junliang
2018-03-01
Inorganic halide perovskites have attracted great attention in recent years as promising materials for optoelectronic devices, with ultrathin inorganic halide perovskites showing excellent properties and great potential applications. Herein, the intrinsic electronic and optical properties of ultrathin cesium tin tri-iodide (CsSnI3) perovskite with a varying number of layers are explored using first-principles calculations. The results reveal that ultrathin CsSnI3 is a direct band gap semiconductor, and the band gap continues to increase to 1.83 eV from 1.28 eV as the number of layers is reduced to one layer from the bulk. By decreasing the number of layers, the effective mass of ultrathin CsSnI3 increases, and the optical absorption intensity along the x and y directions shows that the linear dichroism becomes stronger and stronger. Furthermore, the carrier mobilities (µ) can be predicted, and they show obvious in-plane anisotropy. The µ of the electrons is higher than that of the holes, and the electron mobility along the y direction is higher than that along the x direction. The layer thickness does not distinctly influence the µ. The difference in the atomic orbital distribution has the nature of obvious anisotropy in ultrathin CsSnI3. This work suggests that ultrathin inorganic perovskite could be a potential candidate for future nano-optoelectronic devices.
Tailor-made Surgical Guide Reduces Incidence of Outliers of Cup Placement.
Hananouchi, Takehito; Saito, Masanobu; Koyama, Tsuyoshi; Sugano, Nobuhiko; Yoshikawa, Hideki
2010-04-01
Malalignment of the cup in total hip arthroplasty (THA) increases the risks of postoperative complications such as neck cup impingement, dislocation, and wear. We asked whether a tailor-made surgical guide based on CT images would reduce the incidence of outliers beyond 10 degrees from preoperatively planned alignment of the cup compared with those without the surgical guide. We prospectively followed 38 patients (38 hips, Group 1) having primary THA with the conventional technique and 31 patients (31 hips, Group 2) using the surgical guide. We designed the guide for Group 2 based on CT images and fixed it to the acetabular edge with a Kirschner wire to indicate the planned cup direction. Postoperative CT images showed the guide reduced the number of outliers compared with the conventional method (Group 1, 23.7%; Group 2, 0%). The surgical guide provided more reliable cup insertion compared with conventional techniques. Level II, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Reduced modeling of signal transduction – a modular approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ederer Michael
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Combinatorial complexity is a challenging problem in detailed and mechanistic mathematical modeling of signal transduction. This subject has been discussed intensively and a lot of progress has been made within the last few years. A software tool (BioNetGen was developed which allows an automatic rule-based set-up of mechanistic model equations. In many cases these models can be reduced by an exact domain-oriented lumping technique. However, the resulting models can still consist of a very large number of differential equations. Results We introduce a new reduction technique, which allows building modularized and highly reduced models. Compared to existing approaches further reduction of signal transduction networks is possible. The method also provides a new modularization criterion, which allows to dissect the model into smaller modules that are called layers and can be modeled independently. Hallmarks of the approach are conservation relations within each layer and connection of layers by signal flows instead of mass flows. The reduced model can be formulated directly without previous generation of detailed model equations. It can be understood and interpreted intuitively, as model variables are macroscopic quantities that are converted by rates following simple kinetics. The proposed technique is applicable without using complex mathematical tools and even without detailed knowledge of the mathematical background. However, we provide a detailed mathematical analysis to show performance and limitations of the method. For physiologically relevant parameter domains the transient as well as the stationary errors caused by the reduction are negligible. Conclusion The new layer based reduced modeling method allows building modularized and strongly reduced models of signal transduction networks. Reduced model equations can be directly formulated and are intuitively interpretable. Additionally, the method provides very good
A method for generating skewed random numbers using two overlapping uniform distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ermak, D.L.; Nasstrom, J.S.
1995-02-01
The objective of this work was to implement and evaluate a method for generating skewed random numbers using a combination of uniform random numbers. The method provides a simple and accurate way of generating skewed random numbers from the specified first three moments without an a priori specification of the probability density function. We describe the procedure for generating skewed random numbers from unifon-n random numbers, and show that it accurately produces random numbers with the desired first three moments over a range of skewness values. We also show that in the limit of zero skewness, the distribution of random numbers is an accurate approximation to the Gaussian probability density function. Future work win use this method to provide skewed random numbers for a Langevin equation model for diffusion in skewed turbulence
Winkens, R A; Pop, P; Bugter-Maessen, A M; Grol, R P; Kester, A D; Beusmans, G H; Knottnerus, J A
1995-02-25
Feedback can be described as a way to provide information on doctors' performance to enable changes in future behaviour. Feedback is used with the aim of changing test-ordering behaviour. It can lead to reductions in test usage and cost savings. It is not sufficiently clear, however, whether feedback leads to more appropriate test use. Since 1985, the Diagnostic Coordinating Center Maastricht has been giving feedback on diagnostic tests as a routine health care activity to all family doctors in its region. Both quantity and quality of requests are discussed. In a randomised, controlled trial over 2.5 years, discussion of tests not included previously was added to the existing routine feedback. One group of family doctors (n = 39) received feedback on test-group A (electrocardiography, endoscopy, cervical smears, and allergy tests), the other (n = 40) on test-group B (radiographic and ultrasonographic tests). Thus, each group of doctors acted as a control group for the other. Changes in volume and rationality of requests were analysed. The number of requests decreased during the trial (p = 0.036). Request numbers decreased particularly for test-group A (p = 0.04). The proportion of requests that were non-rational decreased more in the intervention than in the control groups (p = 0.009). Rationality improved predominantly for test-group B (p = 0.043). Thus, routine feedback can change the quantity and quality of requests.
Non-intrusive reduced order modeling of nonlinear problems using neural networks
Hesthaven, J. S.; Ubbiali, S.
2018-06-01
We develop a non-intrusive reduced basis (RB) method for parametrized steady-state partial differential equations (PDEs). The method extracts a reduced basis from a collection of high-fidelity solutions via a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and employs artificial neural networks (ANNs), particularly multi-layer perceptrons (MLPs), to accurately approximate the coefficients of the reduced model. The search for the optimal number of neurons and the minimum amount of training samples to avoid overfitting is carried out in the offline phase through an automatic routine, relying upon a joint use of the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) and the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) training algorithm. This guarantees a complete offline-online decoupling, leading to an efficient RB method - referred to as POD-NN - suitable also for general nonlinear problems with a non-affine parametric dependence. Numerical studies are presented for the nonlinear Poisson equation and for driven cavity viscous flows, modeled through the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Both physical and geometrical parametrizations are considered. Several results confirm the accuracy of the POD-NN method and show the substantial speed-up enabled at the online stage as compared to a traditional RB strategy.
A Reduced Wind Power Grid Model for Research and Education
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Akhmatov, Vladislav; Lund, Torsten; Hansen, Anca Daniela
2007-01-01
A reduced grid model of a transmission system with a number of central power plants, consumption centers, local wind turbines and a large offshore wind farm is developed and implemented in the simulation tool PowerFactory (DIgSILENT). The reduced grid model is given by Energinet.dk, Transmission...
Kairov, Ulykbek; Cantini, Laura; Greco, Alessandro; Molkenov, Askhat; Czerwinska, Urszula; Barillot, Emmanuel; Zinovyev, Andrei
2017-09-11
Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is a method that models gene expression data as an action of a set of statistically independent hidden factors. The output of ICA depends on a fundamental parameter: the number of components (factors) to compute. The optimal choice of this parameter, related to determining the effective data dimension, remains an open question in the application of blind source separation techniques to transcriptomic data. Here we address the question of optimizing the number of statistically independent components in the analysis of transcriptomic data for reproducibility of the components in multiple runs of ICA (within the same or within varying effective dimensions) and in multiple independent datasets. To this end, we introduce ranking of independent components based on their stability in multiple ICA computation runs and define a distinguished number of components (Most Stable Transcriptome Dimension, MSTD) corresponding to the point of the qualitative change of the stability profile. Based on a large body of data, we demonstrate that a sufficient number of dimensions is required for biological interpretability of the ICA decomposition and that the most stable components with ranks below MSTD have more chances to be reproduced in independent studies compared to the less stable ones. At the same time, we show that a transcriptomics dataset can be reduced to a relatively high number of dimensions without losing the interpretability of ICA, even though higher dimensions give rise to components driven by small gene sets. We suggest a protocol of ICA application to transcriptomics data with a possibility of prioritizing components with respect to their reproducibility that strengthens the biological interpretation. Computing too few components (much less than MSTD) is not optimal for interpretability of the results. The components ranked within MSTD range have more chances to be reproduced in independent studies.
Fernández-Varela, R; Andrade, J M; Muniategui, S; Prada, D; Ramírez-Villalobos, F
2010-04-01
Identifying petroleum-related products released into the environment is a complex and difficult task. To achieve this, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of outstanding importance nowadays. Despite traditional quantitative fingerprinting uses straightforward univariate statistical analyses to differentiate among oils and to assess their sources, a multivariate strategy based on Procrustes rotation (PR) was applied in this paper. The aim of PR is to select a reduced subset of PAHs still capable of performing a satisfactory identification of petroleum-related hydrocarbons. PR selected two subsets of three (C(2)-naphthalene, C(2)-dibenzothiophene and C(2)-phenanthrene) and five (C(1)-decahidronaphthalene, naphthalene, C(2)-phenanthrene, C(3)-phenanthrene and C(2)-fluoranthene) PAHs for each of the two datasets studied here. The classification abilities of each subset of PAHs were tested using principal components analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and Kohonen neural networks and it was demonstrated that they unraveled the same patterns as the overall set of PAHs. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M.A.
2005-01-01
We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set Z D n associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of Z D n into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analytically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension D. When D is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kennedy RodneyA
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We investigate reduced-rank shift-invariant technique and its application for synchronization and channel identification in UWB systems. Shift-invariant techniques, such as ESPRIT and the matrix pencil method, have high resolution ability, but the associated high complexity makes them less attractive in real-time implementations. Aiming at reducing the complexity, we developed novel reduced-rank identification of principal components (RIPC algorithms. These RIPC algorithms can automatically track the principal components and reduce the computational complexity significantly by transforming the generalized eigen-problem in an original high-dimensional space to a lower-dimensional space depending on the number of desired principal signals. We then investigate the application of the proposed RIPC algorithms for joint synchronization and channel estimation in UWB systems, where general correlator-based algorithms confront many limitations. Technical details, including sampling and the capture of synchronization delay, are provided. Experimental results show that the performance of the RIPC algorithms is only slightly inferior to the general full-rank algorithms.
High-resolution LES of the rotating stall in a reduced scale model pump-turbine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pacot, Olivier; Avellan, François; Kato, Chisachi
2014-01-01
Extending the operating range of modern pump-turbines becomes increasingly important in the course of the integration of renewable energy sources in the existing power grid. However, at partial load condition in pumping mode, the occurrence of rotating stall is critical to the operational safety of the machine and on the grid stability. The understanding of the mechanisms behind this flow phenomenon yet remains vague and incomplete. Past numerical simulations using a RANS approach often led to inconclusive results concerning the physical background. For the first time, the rotating stall is investigated by performing a large scale LES calculation on the HYDRODYNA pump-turbine scale model featuring approximately 100 million elements. The computations were performed on the PRIMEHPC FX10 of the University of Tokyo using the overset Finite Element open source code FrontFlow/blue with the dynamic Smagorinsky turbulence model and the no-slip wall condition. The internal flow computed is the one when operating the pump-turbine at 76% of the best efficiency point in pumping mode, as previous experimental research showed the presence of four rotating cells. The rotating stall phenomenon is accurately reproduced for a reduced Reynolds number using the LES approach with acceptable computing resources. The results show an excellent agreement with available experimental data from the reduced scale model testing at the EPFL Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines. The number of stall cells as well as the propagation speed corroborates the experiment
High-resolution LES of the rotating stall in a reduced scale model pump-turbine
Pacot, Olivier; Kato, Chisachi; Avellan, François
2014-03-01
Extending the operating range of modern pump-turbines becomes increasingly important in the course of the integration of renewable energy sources in the existing power grid. However, at partial load condition in pumping mode, the occurrence of rotating stall is critical to the operational safety of the machine and on the grid stability. The understanding of the mechanisms behind this flow phenomenon yet remains vague and incomplete. Past numerical simulations using a RANS approach often led to inconclusive results concerning the physical background. For the first time, the rotating stall is investigated by performing a large scale LES calculation on the HYDRODYNA pump-turbine scale model featuring approximately 100 million elements. The computations were performed on the PRIMEHPC FX10 of the University of Tokyo using the overset Finite Element open source code FrontFlow/blue with the dynamic Smagorinsky turbulence model and the no-slip wall condition. The internal flow computed is the one when operating the pump-turbine at 76% of the best efficiency point in pumping mode, as previous experimental research showed the presence of four rotating cells. The rotating stall phenomenon is accurately reproduced for a reduced Reynolds number using the LES approach with acceptable computing resources. The results show an excellent agreement with available experimental data from the reduced scale model testing at the EPFL Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines. The number of stall cells as well as the propagation speed corroborates the experiment.
Myths and Facts on the Future Number of Muslims
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacobsen, Brian Arly
2013-01-01
The article discusses various estimates of Muslim populations in Europe, showing that the public debate on numbers reflects academia’s difficulties in quantifying the Muslim populations. Projections of growth in the number of Muslims in Europe are exaggerated both in academia and in the public in...
Cost reducing investments and spatial competition
Domenico Scalera; Alberto Zazzaro
2005-01-01
In this paper we analyze the relationship between competition and cost reducing investments in the context of a location model. In particular, we derive the symmetric subgame-perfect equilibrium of a three-stage circular city model with closed-loop strategies, and study the effects of changes in competition fundamentals under both a given number of firms and free entry
Divisibility patterns of natural numbers on a complex network.
Shekatkar, Snehal M; Bhagwat, Chandrasheel; Ambika, G
2015-09-16
Investigation of divisibility properties of natural numbers is one of the most important themes in the theory of numbers. Various tools have been developed over the centuries to discover and study the various patterns in the sequence of natural numbers in the context of divisibility. In the present paper, we study the divisibility of natural numbers using the framework of a growing complex network. In particular, using tools from the field of statistical inference, we show that the network is scale-free but has a non-stationary degree distribution. Along with this, we report a new kind of similarity pattern for the local clustering, which we call "stretching similarity", in this network. We also show that the various characteristics like average degree, global clustering coefficient and assortativity coefficient of the network vary smoothly with the size of the network. Using analytical arguments we estimate the asymptotic behavior of global clustering and average degree which is validated using numerical analysis.
Bounds on the 2-domination number in cactus graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mustapha Chellali
2006-01-01
Full Text Available A \\(2\\-dominating set of a graph \\(G\\ is a set \\(D\\ of vertices of \\(G\\ such that every vertex not in \\(S\\ is dominated at least twice. The minimum cardinality of a \\(2\\-dominating set of \\(G\\ is the \\(2\\-domination number \\(\\gamma_{2}(G\\. We show that if \\(G\\ is a nontrivial connected cactus graph with \\(k(G\\ even cycles (\\(k(G\\geq 0\\, then \\(\\gamma_{2}(G\\geq\\gamma_{t}(G-k(G\\, and if \\(G\\ is a graph of order \\(n\\ with at most one cycle, then \\(\\gamma_{2}(G\\geqslant(n+\\ell-s/2\\ improving Fink and Jacobson's lower bound for trees with \\(\\ell>s\\, where \\(\\gamma_{t}(G\\, \\(\\ell\\ and \\(s\\ are the total domination number, the number of leaves and support vertices of \\(G\\, respectively. We also show that if \\(T\\ is a tree of order \\(n\\geqslant 3\\, then \\(\\gamma_{2}(T\\leqslant\\beta(T+s-1\\, where \\(\\beta(T\\ is the independence number of \\(T\\.
The numerology of gender: gendered perceptions of even and odd numbers.
Wilkie, James E B; Bodenhausen, Galen V
2015-01-01
Do numbers have gender? Wilkie and Bodenhausen (2012) examined this issue in a series of experiments on perceived gender. They examined the perceived gender of baby faces and foreign names. Arbitrary numbers presented with these faces and names influenced their perceived gender. Specifically, odd numbers connoted masculinity, while even numbers connoted femininity. In two new studies (total N = 315), we further examined the gendering of numbers. The first study examined explicit ratings of 1-digit numbers. We confirmed that odd numbers seemed masculine while even numbers seemed feminine. Although both men and women showed this pattern, it was more pronounced among women. We also examined whether this pattern holds for automatic as well as deliberated reactions. Results of an Implicit Association Test showed that it did, but only among the women. The implicit and explicit patterns of numerical gender ascription were moderately correlated. The second study examined explicit perceptions of 2-digit numbers. Again, women viewed odd numbers as more masculine and less feminine than even numbers. However, men viewed 2-digit numbers as relatively masculine, regardless of whether they were even or odd. These results indicate that women and men impute gender to numbers in different ways and to different extents. We discuss possible implications for understanding how people relate to and are influenced by numbers in a variety of real-life contexts.
The numerology of gender: Gendered perceptions of even and odd numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James eWilkie
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Do numbers have gender? Wilkie and Bodenhausen (2012 examined this issue in a series of experiments on perceived gender. They examined the perceived gender of baby faces and foreign names. Arbitrary numbers presented with these faces and names influenced their perceived gender. Specifically, odd numbers connoted masculinity, while even numbers connoted femininity. In two new studies (total N = 315, we further examined the gendering of numbers. The first study examined explicit ratings of 1-digit numbers. We confirmed that odd numbers seemed masculine while even numbers seemed feminine. Although both men and women showed this pattern, it was more pronounced among women. We also examined whether this pattern holds for automatic as well as deliberated reactions. Results of an Implicit Association Test showed that it did, but only among the women. The implicit and explicit patterns of numerical gender ascription were moderately correlated. The second study examined explicit perceptions of 2-digit numbers. Again, women viewed odd numbers as more masculine and less feminine than even numbers. However, men viewed 2-digit numbers as relatively masculine, regardless of whether they were even or odd. These results indicate that women and men impute gender to numbers in different ways and to different extents. We discuss possible implications for understanding how people relate to and are influenced by numbers in a variety of real-life contexts.
Early math matters: kindergarten number competence and later mathematics outcomes.
Jordan, Nancy C; Kaplan, David; Ramineni, Chaitanya; Locuniak, Maria N
2009-05-01
Children's number competencies over 6 time points, from the beginning of kindergarten to the middle of 1st grade, were examined in relation to their mathematics achievement over 5 later time points, from the end of 1st grade to the end of 3rd grade. The relation between early number competence and mathematics achievement was strong and significant throughout the study period. A sequential process growth curve model showed that kindergarten number competence predicted rate of growth in mathematics achievement between 1st and 3rd grades as well as achievement level through 3rd grade. Further, rate of growth in early number competence predicted mathematics performance level in 3rd grade. Although low-income children performed more poorly than their middle-income counterparts in mathematics achievement and progressed at a slower rate, their performance and growth were mediated through relatively weak kindergarten number competence. Similarly, the better performance and faster growth of children who entered kindergarten at an older age were explained by kindergarten number competence. The findings show the importance of early number competence for setting children's learning trajectories in elementary school mathematics. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved
Early Math Matters: Kindergarten Number Competence and Later Mathematics Outcomes
Jordan, Nancy C.; Kaplan, David; Ramineni, Chaitanya; Locuniak, Maria N.
2009-01-01
Children’s number competencies over 6 time points, from the beginning of kindergarten to the middle of 1st grade, were examined in relation to their mathematics achievement over 5 later time points, from the end of 1st grade to the end of 3rd grade. The relation between early number competence and mathematics achievement was strong and significant throughout the study period. A sequential process growth curve model showed that kindergarten number competence predicted rate of growth in mathematics achievement between 1st and 3rd grades as well as achievement level through 3rd grade. Further, rate of growth in early number competence predicted mathematics performance level in 3rd grade. Although low-income children performed more poorly than their middle-income counterparts in mathematics achievement and progressed at a slower rate, their performance and growth were mediated through relatively weak kindergarten number competence. Similarly, the better performance and faster growth of children who entered kindergarten at an older age were explained by kindergarten number competence. The findings show the importance of early number competence for setting children’s learning trajectories in elementary school mathematics. PMID:19413436
Number systems and combinatorial problems
Yordzhev, Krasimir
2014-01-01
The present work has been designed for students in secondary school and their teachers in mathematics. We will show how with the help of our knowledge of number systems we can solve problems from other fields of mathematics for example in combinatorial analysis and most of all when proving some combinatorial identities. To demonstrate discussed in this article method we have chosen several suitable mathematical tasks.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rana, Swapan; Parashar, Preeti [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 BT Road, Kolkata (India)
2011-11-15
We show that all multipartite pure states that are stochastic local operation and classical communication (SLOCC) equivalent to the N-qubit W state can be uniquely determined (among arbitrary states) from their bipartite marginals. We also prove that only (N-1) of the bipartite marginals are sufficient and that this is also the optimal number. Thus, contrary to the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) class, W-type states preserve their reducibility under SLOCC. We also study the optimal reducibility of some larger classes of states. The generic Dicke states |GD{sub N}{sup l}> are shown to be optimally determined by their (l+1)-partite marginals. The class of ''G'' states (superposition of W and W) are shown to be optimally determined by just two (N-2)-partite marginals.
Personal messages reduce vandalism and theft of unattended scientific equipment.
Clarin, B-Markus; Bitzilekis, Eleftherios; Siemers, Björn M; Goerlitz, Holger R
2014-02-01
Scientific equipment, such as animal traps and autonomous data collection systems, is regularly left in the field unattended, making it an easy target for vandalism or theft. We tested the effectiveness of three label types, which differed in their information content and tone of the message, that is, personal , neutral or threatening , for reducing incidents of vandalism and theft of unattended scientific field equipment. The three label types were attached to 20 scientific equipment dummies each, which were placed semi-hidden and evenly distributed in four public parks in Munich, Germany. While the label type had no effect on the severity of the interactions with our equipment dummies, the personal label reduced the overall number of interactions by c . 40-60%, compared with the dummies showing the neutral or threatening label type. We suggest that researchers, in addition to securing their field equipment, label it with personal and polite messages that inform about the ongoing research and directly appeal to the public not to disturb the equipment. Further studies should extend these results to areas with different socio-economic structure.
Baryon asymmetry, dark matter and local baryon number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fileviez Pérez, Pavel; Patel, Hiren H.
2014-01-01
We propose a new mechanism to understand the relation between baryon and dark matter asymmetries in the universe in theories where the baryon number is a local symmetry. In these scenarios the B−L asymmetry generated through a mechanism such as leptogenesis is transferred to the dark matter and baryonic sectors through sphalerons processes which conserve total baryon number. We show that it is possible to have a consistent relation between the dark matter relic density and the baryon asymmetry in the universe even if the baryon number is broken at the low scale through the Higgs mechanism. We also discuss the case where one uses the Stueckelberg mechanism to understand the conservation of baryon number in nature.
Barnes, John
2016-01-01
In this intriguing book, John Barnes takes us on a journey through aspects of numbers much as he took us on a geometrical journey in Gems of Geometry. Similarly originating from a series of lectures for adult students at Reading and Oxford University, this book touches a variety of amusing and fascinating topics regarding numbers and their uses both ancient and modern. The author intrigues and challenges his audience with both fundamental number topics such as prime numbers and cryptography, and themes of daily needs and pleasures such as counting one's assets, keeping track of time, and enjoying music. Puzzles and exercises at the end of each lecture offer additional inspiration, and numerous illustrations accompany the reader. Furthermore, a number of appendices provides in-depth insights into diverse topics such as Pascal’s triangle, the Rubik cube, Mersenne’s curious keyboards, and many others. A theme running through is the thought of what is our favourite number. Written in an engaging and witty sty...
Petersen, T Kyle
2015-01-01
This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiangyi Kong
Full Text Available Day 3 cleavage embryo transfer is routine in many assisted reproductive technology centers today. Embryos are usually selected according to cell number, cell symmetry and fragmentation for transfer. Many studies have showed the relationship between cell number and embryo developmental potential. However, there is limited understanding of embryo division behavior and their association with embryo cell number and developmental potential. A retrospective and observational study was conducted to investigate how different division behaviors affect cell number and developmental potential of day 3 embryos by time-lapse imaging. Based on cell number at day 3, the embryos (from 104 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI treatment cycles, n = 799 were classified as follows: less than 5 cells (10C; n = 42. Division behavior, morphokinetic parameters and blastocyst formation rate were analyzed in 5 groups of day 3 embryos with different cell numbers. In 10C embryos increased compared to 7-8C embryos (45.8%, 33.3% vs. 11.1%, respectively. In ≥5C embryos, FR and DC significantly reduced developmental potential, whereas 10C. In NB embryos, the cell cycle elongation or shortening was the main cause for abnormally low or high cell number, respectively. After excluding embryos with abnormal division behaviors, the developmental potential, implantation rate and live birth rate of day 3 embryos increased with cell number.
Continental anthropogenic primary particle number emissions
Paasonen, Pauli; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Klimont, Zbigniew; Visschedijk, Antoon; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Amann, Markus
2016-06-01
Atmospheric aerosol particle number concentrations impact our climate and health in ways different from those of aerosol mass concentrations. However, the global, current and future anthropogenic particle number emissions and their size distributions are so far poorly known. In this article, we present the implementation of particle number emission factors and the related size distributions in the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model. This implementation allows for global estimates of particle number emissions under different future scenarios, consistent with emissions of other pollutants and greenhouse gases. In addition to determining the general particulate number emissions, we also describe a method to estimate the number size distributions of the emitted black carbon particles. The first results show that the sources dominating the particle number emissions are different to those dominating the mass emissions. The major global number source is road traffic, followed by residential combustion of biofuels and coal (especially in China, India and Africa), coke production (Russia and China), and industrial combustion and processes. The size distributions of emitted particles differ across the world, depending on the main sources: in regions dominated by traffic and industry, the number size distribution of emissions peaks in diameters range from 20 to 50 nm, whereas in regions with intensive biofuel combustion and/or agricultural waste burning, the emissions of particles with diameters around 100 nm are dominant. In the baseline (current legislation) scenario, the particle number emissions in Europe, Northern and Southern Americas, Australia, and China decrease until 2030, whereas especially for India, a strong increase is estimated. The results of this study provide input for modelling of the future changes in aerosol-cloud interactions as well as particle number related adverse health effects, e.g. in response to tightening
Continental anthropogenic primary particle number emissions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Paasonen
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol particle number concentrations impact our climate and health in ways different from those of aerosol mass concentrations. However, the global, current and future anthropogenic particle number emissions and their size distributions are so far poorly known. In this article, we present the implementation of particle number emission factors and the related size distributions in the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas–Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies model. This implementation allows for global estimates of particle number emissions under different future scenarios, consistent with emissions of other pollutants and greenhouse gases. In addition to determining the general particulate number emissions, we also describe a method to estimate the number size distributions of the emitted black carbon particles. The first results show that the sources dominating the particle number emissions are different to those dominating the mass emissions. The major global number source is road traffic, followed by residential combustion of biofuels and coal (especially in China, India and Africa, coke production (Russia and China, and industrial combustion and processes. The size distributions of emitted particles differ across the world, depending on the main sources: in regions dominated by traffic and industry, the number size distribution of emissions peaks in diameters range from 20 to 50 nm, whereas in regions with intensive biofuel combustion and/or agricultural waste burning, the emissions of particles with diameters around 100 nm are dominant. In the baseline (current legislation scenario, the particle number emissions in Europe, Northern and Southern Americas, Australia, and China decrease until 2030, whereas especially for India, a strong increase is estimated. The results of this study provide input for modelling of the future changes in aerosol–cloud interactions as well as particle number related adverse health effects, e.g. in response
Evaluation of the performance of the reduced local lymph node assay for skin sensitization testing.
Ezendam, Janine; Muller, Andre; Hakkert, Betty C; van Loveren, Henk
2013-06-01
The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is the preferred method for classification of sensitizers within REACH. To reduce the number of mice for the identification of sensitizers the reduced LLNA was proposed, which uses only the high dose group of the LLNA. To evaluate the performance of this method for classification, LLNA data from REACH registrations were used and classification based on all dose groups was compared to classification based on the high dose group. We confirmed previous examinations of the reduced LLNA showing that this method is less sensitive compared to the LLNA. The reduced LLNA misclassified 3.3% of the sensitizers identified in the LLNA and misclassification occurred in all potency classes and that there was no clear association with irritant properties. It is therefore not possible to predict beforehand which substances might be misclassified. Another limitation of the reduced LLNA is that skin sensitizing potency cannot be assessed. For these reasons, it is not recommended to use the reduced LLNA as a stand-alone assay for skin sensitization testing within REACH. In the future, the reduced LLNA might be of added value in a weight of evidence approach to confirm negative results obtained with non-animal approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reduced randomness in quantum cryptography with sequences of qubits encoded in the same basis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lamoureux, L.-P.; Cerf, N. J.; Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.; Gisin, N.; Macchiavello, C.
2006-01-01
We consider the cloning of sequences of qubits prepared in the states used in the BB84 or six-state quantum cryptography protocol, and show that the single-qubit fidelity is unaffected even if entire sequences of qubits are prepared in the same basis. This result is only valid provided that the sequences are much shorter than the total key. It is of great importance for practical quantum cryptosystems because it reduces the need for high-speed random number generation without impairing on the security against finite-size cloning attacks
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T. Pathinathan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we define diamond fuzzy number with the help of triangular fuzzy number. We include basic arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction of diamond fuzzy numbers with examples. We define diamond fuzzy matrix with some matrix properties. We have defined Nested diamond fuzzy number and Linked diamond fuzzy number. We have further classified Right Linked Diamond Fuzzy number and Left Linked Diamond Fuzzy number. Finally we have verified the arithmetic operations for the above mentioned types of Diamond Fuzzy Numbers.
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Schwarzweller Christoph
2015-02-01
Full Text Available In this article we introduce Proth numbers and prove two theorems on such numbers being prime [3]. We also give revised versions of Pocklington’s theorem and of the Legendre symbol. Finally, we prove Pepin’s theorem and that the fifth Fermat number is not prime.
Koninck, Jean-Marie De
2009-01-01
Who would have thought that listing the positive integers along with their most remarkable properties could end up being such an engaging and stimulating adventure? The author uses this approach to explore elementary and advanced topics in classical number theory. A large variety of numbers are contemplated: Fermat numbers, Mersenne primes, powerful numbers, sublime numbers, Wieferich primes, insolite numbers, Sastry numbers, voracious numbers, to name only a few. The author also presents short proofs of miscellaneous results and constantly challenges the reader with a variety of old and new n
Electron microscopy at reduced levels of irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuo, I.A.M.
1975-05-01
Specimen damage by electron radiation is one of the factors that limits high resolution electron microscopy of biological specimens. A method was developed to record images of periodic objects at a reduced electron exposure in order to preserve high resolution structural detail. The resulting image would tend to be a statistically noisy one, as the electron exposure is reduced to lower and lower values. Reconstruction of a statistically defined image from such data is possible by spatial averaging of the electron signals from a large number of identical unit cells. (U.S.)
Topological signatures of interstellar magnetic fields - I. Betti numbers and persistence diagrams
Makarenko, Irina; Shukurov, Anvar; Henderson, Robin; Rodrigues, Luiz F. S.; Bushby, Paul; Fletcher, Andrew
2018-04-01
The interstellar medium (ISM) is a magnetized system in which transonic or supersonic turbulence is driven by supernova explosions. This leads to the production of intermittent, filamentary structures in the ISM gas density, whilst the associated dynamo action also produces intermittent magnetic fields. The traditional theory of random functions, restricted to second-order statistical moments (or power spectra), does not adequately describe such systems. We apply topological data analysis (TDA), sensitive to all statistical moments and independent of the assumption of Gaussian statistics, to the gas density fluctuations in a magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the multiphase ISM. This simulation admits dynamo action, so produces physically realistic magnetic fields. The topology of the gas distribution, with and without magnetic fields, is quantified in terms of Betti numbers and persistence diagrams. Like the more standard correlation analysis, TDA shows that the ISM gas density is sensitive to the presence of magnetic fields. However, TDA gives us important additional information that cannot be obtained from correlation functions. In particular, the Betti numbers per correlation cell are shown to be physically informative. Magnetic fields make the ISM more homogeneous, reducing the abundance of both isolated gas clouds and cavities, with a stronger effect on the cavities. Remarkably, the modification of the gas distribution by magnetic fields is captured by the Betti numbers even in regions more than 300 pc from the mid-plane, where the magnetic field is weaker and correlation analysis fails to detect any signatures of magnetic effects.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Admin
Triangular number, figurate num- ber, rangoli, Brahmagupta–Pell equation, Jacobi triple product identity. Figure 1. The first four triangular numbers. Left: Anuradha S Garge completed her PhD from. Pune University in 2008 under the supervision of Prof. S A Katre. Her research interests include K-theory and number theory.
Persistent consequences of atypical early number concepts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michèle M. M. Mazzocco
2013-09-01
Full Text Available How does symbolic number knowledge performance help identify young children at risk for poor mathematics achievement outcomes? In research and practice, classification of mathematics learning disability (MLD, or dyscalculia is typically based on composite scores from broad measures of mathematics achievement. These scores do predict later math achievement levels, but do not specify the nature of math difficulties likely to emerge among students at greatest risk for long-term mathematics failure. Here we report that gaps in 2nd and 3rd graders’ number knowledge predict specific types of errors made on math assessments at Grade 8. Specifically, we show that early whole number misconceptions predict slower and less accurate performance, and atypical computational errors, on Grade 8 arithmetic tests. We demonstrate that basic number misconceptions can be detected by idiosyncratic responses to number knowledge items, and that when such misconceptions are evident during primary school they persist throughout the school age years, with variable manifestation throughout development. We conclude that including specific qualitative assessments of symbolic number knowledge in primary school may provide greater specificity of the types of difficulties likely to emerge among students at risk for poor mathematics outcomes.
Microprocessor Protection of Power Reducing Transformers
F. A. Romanuk; S. P. Korolev; M. S. Loman
2011-01-01
The paper contains analysis of advantages and disadvantages of existing differential protection terminals of power reducing transformers. The paper shows that there are good reasons to develop microprocessor protection of power reducing transformer which contains required functions and settings and which is based on Belarusian principles of relay protection system construction. The paper presents functional structure of microprocessor terminal of power reducing transformer which is developed.
Modified Mason number for charged paramagnetic colloidal suspensions
Du, Di; Hilou, Elaa; Biswal, Sibani Lisa
2016-06-01
The dynamics of magnetorheological fluids have typically been described by the Mason number, a governing parameter defined as the ratio between viscous and magnetic forces in the fluid. For most experimental suspensions of magnetic particles, surface forces, such as steric and electrostatic interactions, can significantly influence the dynamics. Here we propose a theory of a modified Mason number that accounts for surface forces and show that this modified Mason number is a function of interparticle distance. We demonstrate that this modified Mason number is accurate in describing the dynamics of a rotating pair of paramagnetic colloids of identical or mismatched sizes in either high or low salt solutions. The modified Mason number is confirmed to be pseudoconstant for particle pairs and particle chains undergoing a stable-metastable transition during rotation. The interparticle distance term can be calculated using theory or can be measured experimentally. This modified Mason number is more applicable to magnetorheological systems where surface forces are not negligible.
Generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz numbers and the universal Bernoulli numbers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ônishi, Yoshihiro
2011-01-01
The three fundamental properties of the Bernoulli numbers, namely, the von Staudt-Clausen theorem, von Staudt's second theorem, and Kummer's original congruence, are generalized to new numbers that we call generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz numbers. These are coefficients in the power series expansion of a higher-genus algebraic function with respect to a suitable variable. Our generalization differs strongly from previous works. Indeed, the order of the power of the modulus prime in our Kummer-type congruences is exactly the same as in the trigonometric function case (namely, Kummer's own congruence for the original Bernoulli numbers), and as in the elliptic function case (namely, H. Lang's extension for the Hurwitz numbers). However, in other past results on higher-genus algebraic functions, the modulus was at most half of its value in these classical cases. This contrast is clarified by investigating the analogue of the three properties above for the universal Bernoulli numbers. Bibliography: 34 titles.
Generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz numbers and the universal Bernoulli numbers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Onishi, Yoshihiro [Faculty of Education Human Sciences, University of Yamanashi, Takeda, Kofu (Japan)
2011-10-31
The three fundamental properties of the Bernoulli numbers, namely, the von Staudt-Clausen theorem, von Staudt's second theorem, and Kummer's original congruence, are generalized to new numbers that we call generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz numbers. These are coefficients in the power series expansion of a higher-genus algebraic function with respect to a suitable variable. Our generalization differs strongly from previous works. Indeed, the order of the power of the modulus prime in our Kummer-type congruences is exactly the same as in the trigonometric function case (namely, Kummer's own congruence for the original Bernoulli numbers), and as in the elliptic function case (namely, H. Lang's extension for the Hurwitz numbers). However, in other past results on higher-genus algebraic functions, the modulus was at most half of its value in these classical cases. This contrast is clarified by investigating the analogue of the three properties above for the universal Bernoulli numbers. Bibliography: 34 titles.
Seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis in plant communities of the Atlantic Forest
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Pedro Henrique Santin Brancalion
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Investigations of seed size and number differences among plant populations growing in contrasting habitats can provide relevant information about ecological strategies that optimize reproductive effort. This may imply important consequences for biodiversity conservation and restoration. Therefore, we sought to investigate seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis populations growing in plant communities in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Seed dry mass and seed number per bunch were evaluated in 2008 and 2009 in large remnants of the Seasonally Dry Forest, Restinga Forest and Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil, in 20 individuals per site and year. Seed size and seed number varied among forest types, but a seed size-number trade-off was neither observed within nor among populations. Positive association between seed size and number was found in the Atlantic Rainforest, and reduced seed crop was not accompanied by heavier seeds in the Restinga Forest. Seed dry mass declined in 2009 in all three forest types. Compared to seed number in 2008, palms of both the Restinga Forest and the Atlantic Rainforest produced in 2009 higher yields of smaller seeds - evidence of between years seed size-number trade-off -, while the Seasonally Dry Forest population produced a reduced number of smaller seeds. Such a flexible reproductive strategy, involving neutral, positive, and negative associations between seed size and number could enhance the ecological amplitude of this species and their potential to adapt to different environment conditions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taddei Kevin
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 (LRP1 has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD but its signalling has not been fully evaluated. There is good evidence that the cytoplasmic domain of LRP1 is involved in protein-protein interactions, important in the cell biology of LRP1. Results We carried out three yeast two-hybrid screens to identify proteins that interact with the cytoplasmic domain of LRP1. The screens included both conventional screens as well as a novel, split-ubiquitin-based screen in which an LRP1 construct was expressed and screened as a transmembrane protein. The split-ubiquitin screen was validated in a screen using full-length amyloid protein precursor (APP, which successfully identified FE65 and FE65L2, as well as novel interactors (Rab3a, Napg, and ubiquitin b. Using both a conventional screen as well as the split-ubiquitin screen, we identified NYGGF4 as a novel LRP1 interactor. The interaction between LRP1 and NYGGF4 was validated using two-hybrid assays, coprecipitation and colocalization in mammalian cells. Mutation analysis demonstrated a specific interaction of NYGGF4 with an NPXY motif that required an intact tyrosine residue. Interestingly, while we confirmed that other LRP1 interactors we identified, including JIP1B and EB-1, were also able to bind to APP, NYGGF4 was unique in that it showed specific binding with LRP1. Expression of NYGGF4 decreased significantly in patients with AD as compared to age-matched controls, and showed decreasing expression with AD disease progression. Examination of Nyggf4 expression in mice with different alleles of the human APOE4 gene showed significant differences in Nyggf4 expression. Conclusions These results implicate NYGGF4 as a novel and specific interactor of LRP1. Decreased expression of LRP1 and NYGGF4 over disease, evident with the presence of even moderate numbers of neuritic plaques, suggests that LRP1-NYGGF4 is a system altered
Improving the quark number susceptibilities for staggered fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavai, Rajiv V.
2003-01-01
Quark number susceptibilities approach their ideal gas limit at sufficiently high temperatures. As in the case of other thermodynamic quantities, this limit itself is altered substantially on lattices with small temporal extent, N t = 4-8, making it thus difficult to check the validity of perturbation theory. Unlike other observables, improving susceptibilities or number densities is subject to constraints of current conservation and absence of chemical potential (μ) dependent divergences. We construct such an improved number density and susceptibility for staggered fermions and show that they approximate the continuum ideal gas limit better on small temporal lattices
The Stokes-Einstein relation at moderate Schmidt number.
Balboa Usabiaga, Florencio; Xie, Xiaoyi; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Donev, Aleksandar
2013-12-07
The Stokes-Einstein relation for the self-diffusion coefficient of a spherical particle suspended in an incompressible fluid is an asymptotic result in the limit of large Schmidt number, that is, when momentum diffuses much faster than the particle. When the Schmidt number is moderate, which happens in most particle methods for hydrodynamics, deviations from the Stokes-Einstein prediction are expected. We study these corrections computationally using a recently developed minimally resolved method for coupling particles to an incompressible fluctuating fluid in both two and three dimensions. We find that for moderate Schmidt numbers the diffusion coefficient is reduced relative to the Stokes-Einstein prediction by an amount inversely proportional to the Schmidt number in both two and three dimensions. We find, however, that the Einstein formula is obeyed at all Schmidt numbers, consistent with linear response theory. The mismatch arises because thermal fluctuations affect the drag coefficient for a particle due to the nonlinear nature of the fluid-particle coupling. The numerical data are in good agreement with an approximate self-consistent theory, which can be used to estimate finite-Schmidt number corrections in a variety of methods. Our results indicate that the corrections to the Stokes-Einstein formula come primarily from the fact that the particle itself diffuses together with the momentum. Our study separates effects coming from corrections to no-slip hydrodynamics from those of finite separation of time scales, allowing for a better understanding of widely observed deviations from the Stokes-Einstein prediction in particle methods such as molecular dynamics.
Yavari, Somayeh; Valadan Zoej, Mohammad Javad; Salehi, Bahram
2018-05-01
The procedure of selecting an optimum number and best distribution of ground control information is important in order to reach accurate and robust registration results. This paper proposes a new general procedure based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) which is applicable for all kinds of features (point, line, and areal features). However, linear features due to their unique characteristics are of interest in this investigation. This method is called Optimum number of Well-Distributed ground control Information Selection (OWDIS) procedure. Using this method, a population of binary chromosomes is randomly initialized. The ones indicate the presence of a pair of conjugate lines as a GCL and zeros specify the absence. The chromosome length is considered equal to the number of all conjugate lines. For each chromosome, the unknown parameters of a proper mathematical model can be calculated using the selected GCLs (ones in each chromosome). Then, a limited number of Check Points (CPs) are used to evaluate the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of each chromosome as its fitness value. The procedure continues until reaching a stopping criterion. The number and position of ones in the best chromosome indicate the selected GCLs among all conjugate lines. To evaluate the proposed method, a GeoEye and an Ikonos Images are used over different areas of Iran. Comparing the obtained results by the proposed method in a traditional RFM with conventional methods that use all conjugate lines as GCLs shows five times the accuracy improvement (pixel level accuracy) as well as the strength of the proposed method. To prevent an over-parametrization error in a traditional RFM due to the selection of a high number of improper correlated terms, an optimized line-based RFM is also proposed. The results show the superiority of the combination of the proposed OWDIS method with an optimized line-based RFM in terms of increasing the accuracy to better than 0.7 pixel, reliability, and reducing systematic
Gould, Jeffrey B; Mayo, Jonathan; Shaw, Gary M; Stevenson, David K
2014-06-01
Maternal obesity is a major source of preventable perinatal morbidity, but studies of the relationship between obesity and preterm birth have been inconsistent. This review looks at two major studies covering just under 3.5 million births, from California, USA, and Sweden. Inconsistent findings in previous studies appear to stem from the complex relationship between obesity and preterm birth. Initiatives to decrease maternal obesity represent an important strategy in reducing preterm birth. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others
An introduction to the Hupa number system is provided in this workbook, one in a series of numerous materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. The book is written in English with Hupa terms used only for the names of numbers. The opening pages present the numbers from 1-10, giving the numeral, the Hupa word, the English word, and…
Determination of the number of radicals in the initial chain reactions by mathematical methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pejović Branko B.
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Starting from the fact that the real mechanism in a chemical equation takes places through a certain number of radicals which participate in simultaneous reactions and initiate chain reactions according to a particular pattern, the aim of this study is to determine their number in the first couple of steps of the reaction. Based on this, the numbers of radicals were determined in the general case, in the form of linear difference equations, which, by certain mathematical transformations, were reduced to one equation that satisfies a particular numeric series, entirely defined if its first members are known. The equation obtained was solved by a common method developed in the theory of numeric series, in which its solutions represent the number of radicals in an arbitrary step of the reaction observed, in the analytical form. In the final part of the study, the method was tested and verified using two characteristic examples from general chemistry. The study also gives a suggestion of a more efficient procedure by reducing the difference equation to a lower order.
Microprocessor Protection of Power Reducing Transformers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. A. Romanuk
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of advantages and disadvantages of existing differential protection terminals of power reducing transformers. The paper shows that there are good reasons to develop microprocessor protection of power reducing transformer which contains required functions and settings and which is based on Belarusian principles of relay protection system construction. The paper presents functional structure of microprocessor terminal of power reducing transformer which is developed.
Gyorfy, Zsuzsanna; Draskovits, Gabor; Vernyik, Viktor; Blattner, Frederick F.; Gaal, Tamas; Posfai, Gyorgy
2015-01-01
Ribosomal RNA (rrn) operons, characteristically present in several copies in bacterial genomes (7 in E. coli), play a central role in cellular physiology. We investigated the factors determining the optimal number of rrn operons in E. coli by constructing isogenic variants with 5–10 operons. We found that the total RNA and protein content, as well as the size of the cells reflected the number of rrn operons. While growth parameters showed only minor differences, competition experiments revealed a clear pattern: 7–8 copies were optimal under conditions of fluctuating, occasionally rich nutrient influx and lower numbers were favored in stable, nutrient-limited environments. We found that the advantages of quick adjustment to nutrient availability, rapid growth and economic regulation of ribosome number all contribute to the selection of the optimal rrn operon number. Our results suggest that the wt rrn operon number of E. coli reflects the natural, ‘feast and famine’ life-style of the bacterium, however, different copy numbers might be beneficial under different environmental conditions. Understanding the impact of the copy number of rrn operons on the fitness of the cell is an important step towards the creation of functional and robust genomes, the ultimate goal of synthetic biology. PMID:25618851
Pseudo-random number generator for the Sigma 5 computer
Carroll, S. N.
1983-01-01
A technique is presented for developing a pseudo-random number generator based on the linear congruential form. The two numbers used for the generator are a prime number and a corresponding primitive root, where the prime is the largest prime number that can be accurately represented on a particular computer. The primitive root is selected by applying Marsaglia's lattice test. The technique presented was applied to write a random number program for the Sigma 5 computer. The new program, named S:RANDOM1, is judged to be superior to the older program named S:RANDOM. For applications requiring several independent random number generators, a table is included showing several acceptable primitive roots. The technique and programs described can be applied to any computer having word length different from that of the Sigma 5.
Toll-Like Receptor 4 Reduces Oxidative Injury via Glutathione Activity in Sheep
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shoulong Deng
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 is an important sensor of Gram-negative bacteria and can trigger activation of the innate immune system. Increased activation of TLR4 can lead to the induction of oxidative stress. Herein, the pathway whereby TLR4 affects antioxidant activity was studied. In TLR4-overexpressing sheep, TLR4 expression was found to be related to the integration copy number when monocytes were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Consequently, production of malondialdehyde (MDA was increased, which could increase the activation of prooxidative stress enzymes. Meanwhile, activation of an antioxidative enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, was increased. Real-time PCR showed that expression of activating protein-1 (AP-1 and the antioxidative-related genes was increased. By contrast, the expression levels of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 and catalase (CAT were reduced. In transgenic sheep, glutathione (GSH levels were dramatically reduced. Furthermore, transgenic sheep were intradermally injected with LPS in each ear. The amounts of inflammatory infiltrates were correlated with the number of TLR4 copies that were integrated in the genome. Additionally, the translation of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS was increased. Our findings indicated that overexpression of TLR4 in sheep could ameliorate oxidative injury through GSH secretion that was induced by LPS stimulation. Furthermore, TLR4 promoted γ-GCS translation through the AP-1 pathway, which was essential for GSH synthesis.
The Use of Water-filled Bags to Reduce the Effects of Explosives
1994-08-01
of Water-filled Bags to Reduce the Effects of Explosives. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Heery inc (and designed at Edinburgh University by Matthew Rea) is already in operation not far from here in the Disneyland ’Typhoon Lagoon’ at Orlando
Approximation of complex algebraic numbers by algebraic numbers of bounded degree
Bugeaud, Yann; Evertse, Jan-Hendrik
2007-01-01
We investigate how well complex algebraic numbers can be approximated by algebraic numbers of degree at most n. We also investigate how well complex algebraic numbers can be approximated by algebraic integers of degree at most n+1. It follows from our investigations that for every positive integer n there are complex algebraic numbers of degree larger than n that are better approximable by algebraic numbers of degree at most n than almost all complex numbers. As it turns out, these numbers ar...
Kuhla, Angela; Rühlmann, Claire; Lindner, Tobias; Polei, Stefan; Hadlich, Stefan; Krause, Bernd J; Vollmar, Brigitte; Teipel, Stefan J
2017-01-01
Transgenic animal models of Aβ pathology provide mechanistic insight into some aspects of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology related to Aβ accumulation. Quantitative neuroimaging is a possible aid to improve translation of mechanistic findings in transgenic models to human end phenotypes of brain morphology or function. Therefore, we combined MRI-based morphometry, MRS-based NAA-assessment and quantitative histology of neurons and amyloid plaque load in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model to determine the interrelationship between morphological changes, changes in neuron numbers and amyloid plaque load with reductions of NAA levels as marker of neuronal functional viability. The APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse showed an increase of Aβ plaques, loss of neurons and an impairment of NAA/Cr ratio, which however was not accompanied with brain atrophy. As brain atrophy is one main characteristic in human AD, conclusions from murine to human AD pathology should be drawn with caution.
Sensitivity in risk analyses with uncertain numbers.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tucker, W. Troy; Ferson, Scott
2006-06-01
Sensitivity analysis is a study of how changes in the inputs to a model influence the results of the model. Many techniques have recently been proposed for use when the model is probabilistic. This report considers the related problem of sensitivity analysis when the model includes uncertain numbers that can involve both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty and the method of calculation is Dempster-Shafer evidence theory or probability bounds analysis. Some traditional methods for sensitivity analysis generalize directly for use with uncertain numbers, but, in some respects, sensitivity analysis for these analyses differs from traditional deterministic or probabilistic sensitivity analyses. A case study of a dike reliability assessment illustrates several methods of sensitivity analysis, including traditional probabilistic assessment, local derivatives, and a ''pinching'' strategy that hypothetically reduces the epistemic uncertainty or aleatory uncertainty, or both, in an input variable to estimate the reduction of uncertainty in the outputs. The prospects for applying the methods to black box models are also considered.
Number theory an introduction via the density of primes
Fine, Benjamin
2016-01-01
Now in its second edition, this textbook provides an introduction and overview of number theory based on the density and properties of the prime numbers. This unique approach offers both a firm background in the standard material of number theory, as well as an overview of the entire discipline. All of the essential topics are covered, such as the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, theory of congruences, quadratic reciprocity, arithmetic functions, and the distribution of primes. New in this edition are coverage of p-adic numbers, Hensel's lemma, multiple zeta-values, and elliptic curve methods in primality testing. Key topics and features include: A solid introduction to analytic number theory, including full proofs of Dirichlet's Theorem and the Prime Number Theorem Concise treatment of algebraic number theory, including a complete presentation of primes, prime factorizations in algebraic number fields, and unique factorization of ideals Discussion of the AKS algorithm, which shows that primality testing is...
Computation and theory of Euler sums of generalized hyperharmonic numbers
Xu, Ce
2017-01-01
Recently, Dil and Boyadzhiev \\cite{AD2015} proved an explicit formula for the sum of multiple harmonic numbers whose indices are the sequence $\\left( {{{\\left\\{ 0 \\right\\}}_r},1} \\right)$. In this paper we show that the sums of multiple harmonic numbers whose indices are the sequence $\\left( {{{\\left\\{ 0 \\right\\}}_r,1};{{\\left\\{ 1 \\right\\}}_{k-1}}} \\right)$ can be expressed in terms of (multiple) zeta values, multiple harmonic numbers and Stirling numbers of the first kind, and give an explic...
Techniques for Computing the DFT Using the Residue Fermat Number Systems and VLSI
Truong, T. K.; Chang, J. J.; Hsu, I. S.; Pei, D. Y.; Reed, I. S.
1985-01-01
The integer complex multiplier and adder over the direct sum of two copies of a finite field is specialized to the direct sum of the rings of integers modulo Fermat numbers. Such multiplications and additions can be used in the implementation of a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of a sequence of complex numbers. The advantage of the present approach is that the number of multiplications needed for the DFT can be reduced substantially over the previous approach. The architectural designs using this approach are regular, simple, expandable and, therefore, naturally suitable for VLSI implementation.
Relativistic mechanics with reduced fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sokolov, S.N.
1996-01-01
A new relativistic classical mechanics of interacting particles using a concept of a reduced field (RF) os proposed. RF is a mediator of interactions, the state of which is described by a finite number of two-argument functions. Ten of these functions correspond to the generators of the Poincare group. Equations of motion contain the retardation of interactions required by the causality principle and have form of a finite system of ordinary hereditary differential equations [ru
Sugar Cane Genome Numbers Assumption by Ribosomal DNA FISH Techniques
Thumjamras, S.; Jong, de H.; Iamtham, S.; Prammanee, S.
2013-01-01
Conventional cytological method is limited for polyploidy plant genome study, especially sugar cane chromosomes that show unstable numbers of each cultivar. Molecular cytogenetic as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques were used in this study. A basic chromosome number of sugar cane
Reducing online identity disclosure using warnings.
Carpenter, Sandra; Zhu, Feng; Kolimi, Swapna
2014-09-01
In an experimental design, we tested whether written warnings can reduce the amount of identity information exposure online. A psychological attack on information privacy that has been shown to be effective in previous research was launched. This attack took advantage of the fact that people respond to certain types of requests in a relatively automatic, or mindless, fashion. The experiment manipulated the word that was used in the alert header: "warning", "caution", or "hazard". All warnings proved to be effective in reducing disclosure, but "hazard" proved to be most effective. Also warnings were more effective in reducing disclosure of driver's license numbers than email addresses. The discussion (a) provides tentative conclusions why these patterns were obtained, (b) suggests how to design warnings in cyber-environments, and (c) addresses future possibilities for research on this topic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Fernandez, Marina O; Sharma, Shweta; Kim, Sun; Rickert, Emily; Hsueh, Katherine; Hwang, Vicky; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Webster, Nicholas J G
2017-01-01
The peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is expressed in the hypothalamus in areas involved in energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. In this study, we created a deletion of PPARγ brain-knockout (BKO) in mature neurons in female mice to investigate its involvement in metabolism and reproduction. We observed that there was no difference in age at puberty onset between female BKOs and littermate controls, but the BKOs gave smaller litters when mated and fewer oocytes when ovulated. The female BKO mice had regular cycles but showed an increase in the number of cycles with prolonged estrus. The mice also had increased luteinizing hormone (LH) levels during the LH surge and histological examination showed hemorrhagic corpora lutea. The mice were challenged with a 60% high-fat diet (HFD). Metabolically, the female BKO mice showed normal body weight, glucose and insulin tolerance, and leptin levels but were protected from obesity-induced leptin resistance. The neuronal knockout also prevented the reduction in estrous cycles due to the HFD. Examination of ovarian histology showed a decrease in the number of primary and secondary follicles in both genotypes due to the HFD, but the BKO ovaries showed an increase in the number of hemorrhagic follicles. In summary, our results show that neuronal PPARγ is required for optimal female fertility but is also involved in the adverse effects of diet-induced obesity by creating leptin resistance potentially through induction of the repressor Socs3. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.
Reduced aliasing artifacts using shaking projection k-space sampling trajectory
Zhu, Yan-Chun; Du, Jiang; Yang, Wen-Chao; Duan, Chai-Jie; Wang, Hao-Yu; Gao, Song; Bao, Shang-Lian
2014-03-01
Radial imaging techniques, such as projection-reconstruction (PR), are used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for dynamic imaging, angiography, and short-T2 imaging. They are less sensitive to flow and motion artifacts, and support fast imaging with short echo times. However, aliasing and streaking artifacts are two main sources which degrade radial imaging quality. For a given fixed number of k-space projections, data distributions along radial and angular directions will influence the level of aliasing and streaking artifacts. Conventional radial k-space sampling trajectory introduces an aliasing artifact at the first principal ring of point spread function (PSF). In this paper, a shaking projection (SP) k-space sampling trajectory was proposed to reduce aliasing artifacts in MR images. SP sampling trajectory shifts the projection alternately along the k-space center, which separates k-space data in the azimuthal direction. Simulations based on conventional and SP sampling trajectories were compared with the same number projections. A significant reduction of aliasing artifacts was observed using the SP sampling trajectory. These two trajectories were also compared with different sampling frequencies. A SP trajectory has the same aliasing character when using half sampling frequency (or half data) for reconstruction. SNR comparisons with different white noise levels show that these two trajectories have the same SNR character. In conclusion, the SP trajectory can reduce the aliasing artifact without decreasing SNR and also provide a way for undersampling reconstruction. Furthermore, this method can be applied to three-dimensional (3D) hybrid or spherical radial k-space sampling for a more efficient reduction of aliasing artifacts.
Reduced aliasing artifacts using shaking projection k-space sampling trajectory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Yan-Chun; Yang Wen-Chao; Wang Hao-Yu; Gao Song; Bao Shang-Lian; Du Jiang; Duan Chai-Jie
2014-01-01
Radial imaging techniques, such as projection-reconstruction (PR), are used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for dynamic imaging, angiography, and short-T2 imaging. They are less sensitive to flow and motion artifacts, and support fast imaging with short echo times. However, aliasing and streaking artifacts are two main sources which degrade radial imaging quality. For a given fixed number of k-space projections, data distributions along radial and angular directions will influence the level of aliasing and streaking artifacts. Conventional radial k-space sampling trajectory introduces an aliasing artifact at the first principal ring of point spread function (PSF). In this paper, a shaking projection (SP) k-space sampling trajectory was proposed to reduce aliasing artifacts in MR images. SP sampling trajectory shifts the projection alternately along the k-space center, which separates k-space data in the azimuthal direction. Simulations based on conventional and SP sampling trajectories were compared with the same number projections. A significant reduction of aliasing artifacts was observed using the SP sampling trajectory. These two trajectories were also compared with different sampling frequencies. A SP trajectory has the same aliasing character when using half sampling frequency (or half data) for reconstruction. SNR comparisons with different white noise levels show that these two trajectories have the same SNR character. In conclusion, the SP trajectory can reduce the aliasing artifact without decreasing SNR and also provide a way for undersampling reconstruction. Furthermore, this method can be applied to three-dimensional (3D) hybrid or spherical radial k-space sampling for a more efficient reduction of aliasing artifacts
Bijleveld, F. D.
In this study some statistical issues involved in the simultaneous analysis of accident related outcomes of the road traffic process are investigated. Since accident related outcomes like the number of victims, fatalities or accidents show interdependencies, their simultaneous analysis requires that
Scatter-Reducing Sounding Filtration Using a Genetic Algorithm and Mean Monthly Standard Deviation
Mandrake, Lukas
2013-01-01
Retrieval algorithms like that used by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 mission generate massive quantities of data of varying quality and reliability. A computationally efficient, simple method of labeling problematic datapoints or predicting soundings that will fail is required for basic operation, given that only 6% of the retrieved data may be operationally processed. This method automatically obtains a filter designed to reduce scatter based on a small number of input features. Most machine-learning filter construction algorithms attempt to predict error in the CO2 value. By using a surrogate goal of Mean Monthly STDEV, the goal is to reduce the retrieved CO2 scatter rather than solving the harder problem of reducing CO2 error. This lends itself to improved interpretability and performance. This software reduces the scatter of retrieved CO2 values globally based on a minimum number of input features. It can be used as a prefilter to reduce the number of soundings requested, or as a post-filter to label data quality. The use of the MMS (Mean Monthly Standard deviation) provides a much cleaner, clearer filter than the standard ABS(CO2-truth) metrics previously employed by competitor methods. The software's main strength lies in a clearer (i.e., fewer features required) filter that more efficiently reduces scatter in retrieved CO2 rather than focusing on the more complex (and easily removed) bias issues.
Grešak, Rozalija
2015-01-01
The field of real numbers is usually constructed using Dedekind cuts. In these thesis we focus on the construction of the field of real numbers using metric completion of rational numbers using Cauchy sequences. In a similar manner we construct the field of p-adic numbers, describe some of their basic and topological properties. We follow by a construction of complex p-adic numbers and we compare them with the ordinary complex numbers. We conclude the thesis by giving a motivation for the int...
Bridge Condition Assessment Using D Numbers
Hu, Yong
2014-01-01
Bridge condition assessment is a complex problem influenced by many factors. The uncertain environment increases more its complexity. Due to the uncertainty in the process of assessment, one of the key problems is the representation of assessment results. Though there exists many methods that can deal with uncertain information, however, they have more or less deficiencies. In this paper, a new representation of uncertain information, called D numbers, is presented. It extends the Dempster-Shafer theory. By using D numbers, a new method is developed for the bridge condition assessment. Compared to these existing methods, the proposed method is simpler and more effective. An illustrative case is given to show the effectiveness of the new method. PMID:24696639
Number sense in infancy predicts mathematical abilities in childhood.
Starr, Ariel; Libertus, Melissa E; Brannon, Elizabeth M
2013-11-05
Human infants in the first year of life possess an intuitive sense of number. This preverbal number sense may serve as a developmental building block for the uniquely human capacity for mathematics. In support of this idea, several studies have demonstrated that nonverbal number sense is correlated with mathematical abilities in children and adults. However, there has been no direct evidence that infant numerical abilities are related to mathematical abilities later in childhood. Here, we provide evidence that preverbal number sense in infancy predicts mathematical abilities in preschool-aged children. Numerical preference scores at 6 months of age correlated with both standardized math test scores and nonsymbolic number comparison scores at 3.5 years of age, suggesting that preverbal number sense facilitates the acquisition of numerical symbols and mathematical abilities. This relationship held even after controlling for general intelligence, indicating that preverbal number sense imparts a unique contribution to mathematical ability. These results validate the many prior studies purporting to show number sense in infancy and support the hypothesis that mathematics is built upon an intuitive sense of number that predates language.
van Heesch, Mirjam M J; Bonsel, Gouke J; Dumoulin, John C M; Evers, Johannes L H; van der Hoeven, Mark Ahbm; Severens, Johan L; Dykgraaf, Ramon H M; van der Veen, Fulco; Tonch, Nino; Nelen, Willianne L D M; van Zonneveld, Piet; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Tamminga, Pieter; Steiner, Katerina; Koopman-Esseboom, Corine; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Snellen, Diana; Dirksen, Carmen D
2010-10-20
Pregnancies induced by in vitro fertilisation (IVF) often result in twin gestations, which are associated with both maternal and perinatal complications. An effective way to reduce the number of IVF twin pregnancies is to decrease the number of embryos transferred from two to one. The interpretation of current studies is limited because they used live birth as outcome measure and because they applied limited time horizons. So far, research on long-term outcomes of IVF twins and singletons is scarce and inconclusive. The objective of this study is to investigate the short (1-year) and long-term (5 and 18-year) costs and health outcomes of IVF singleton and twin children and to consider these in estimating the cost-effectiveness of single embryo transfer compared with double embryo transfer, from a societal and a healthcare perspective. A multi-centre cohort study will be performed, in which IVF singletons and IVF twin children born between 2003 and 2005 of whom parents received IVF treatment in one of the five participating Dutch IVF centres, will be compared. Data collection will focus on children at risk of health problems and children in whom health problems actually occurred. First year of life data will be collected in approximately 1,278 children (619 singletons and 659 twin children). Data up to the fifth year of life will be collected in approximately 488 children (200 singletons and 288 twin children). Outcome measures are health status, health-related quality of life and costs. Data will be obtained from hospital information systems, a parent questionnaire and existing registries. Furthermore, a prognostic model will be developed that reflects the short and long-term costs and health outcomes of IVF singleton and twin children. This model will be linked to a Markov model of the short-term cost-effectiveness of single embryo transfer strategies versus double embryo transfer strategies to enable the calculation of the long-term cost-effectiveness. This is
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
van Goudoever Johannes B
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancies induced by in vitro fertilisation (IVF often result in twin gestations, which are associated with both maternal and perinatal complications. An effective way to reduce the number of IVF twin pregnancies is to decrease the number of embryos transferred from two to one. The interpretation of current studies is limited because they used live birth as outcome measure and because they applied limited time horizons. So far, research on long-term outcomes of IVF twins and singletons is scarce and inconclusive. The objective of this study is to investigate the short (1-year and long-term (5 and 18-year costs and health outcomes of IVF singleton and twin children and to consider these in estimating the cost-effectiveness of single embryo transfer compared with double embryo transfer, from a societal and a healthcare perspective. Methods/Design A multi-centre cohort study will be performed, in which IVF singletons and IVF twin children born between 2003 and 2005 of whom parents received IVF treatment in one of the five participating Dutch IVF centres, will be compared. Data collection will focus on children at risk of health problems and children in whom health problems actually occurred. First year of life data will be collected in approximately 1,278 children (619 singletons and 659 twin children. Data up to the fifth year of life will be collected in approximately 488 children (200 singletons and 288 twin children. Outcome measures are health status, health-related quality of life and costs. Data will be obtained from hospital information systems, a parent questionnaire and existing registries. Furthermore, a prognostic model will be developed that reflects the short and long-term costs and health outcomes of IVF singleton and twin children. This model will be linked to a Markov model of the short-term cost-effectiveness of single embryo transfer strategies versus double embryo transfer strategies to enable the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, J.-H.; Nishihara, M.; Adamovich, I.V.; Samimy, M.; Gorbatov, S.V.; Pliavaka, F.V.
2010-01-01
Recently developed localized arc filament plasma actuators (LAFPAs) have shown tremendous control authority in high-speed and high Reynolds number flow for mixing enhancement and noise mitigation. Previously, these actuators were powered by a high-voltage pulsed DC plasma generator with low energy coupling efficiency of 5-10%. In the present work, a new custom-designed 8-channel pulsed radio frequency (RF) plasma generator has been developed to power up to 8 plasma actuators operated over a wide range of forcing frequencies (up to 50 kHz) and duty cycles (1-50%), and at high energy coupling efficiency (up to 80-85%). This reduces input electrical power requirements by approximately an order of magnitude, down to 12 W per actuator operating at 10% duty cycle. The new pulsed RF plasma generator is scalable to a system with a large number of channels. Performance of pulsed RF plasma actuators used for flow control was studied in a Mach 0.9 circular jet with a Reynolds number of about 623,000 and compared with that of pulsed DC actuators. Eight actuators were distributed uniformly on the perimeter of a 2.54-cm diameter circular nozzle extension. Both types of actuators coupled approximately the same amount of power to the flow, but with drastically different electrical inputs to the power supplies. Particle image velocimetry measurements showed that jet centerline Mach number decay produced by DC and RF actuators operating at the same forcing frequencies and duty cycles is very similar. At a forcing Strouhal number near 0.3, close to the jet column instability frequency, well-organized periodic structures, with similar patterns and dimensions, were generated in the jets forced by both DC and RF actuators. Far-field acoustic measurements demonstrated similar trends in the overall sound pressure level (OASPL) change produced by both types of actuators, resulting in OASPL reduction up to 1.2-1.5 dB in both cases. We conclude that pulsed RF actuators demonstrate flow
Potocki, J K; Tharp, H S
1993-01-01
The success of treating cancerous tissue with heat depends on the temperature elevation, the amount of tissue elevated to that temperature, and the length of time that the tissue temperature is elevated. In clinical situations the temperature of most of the treated tissue volume is unknown, because only a small number of temperature sensors can be inserted into the tissue. A state space model based on a finite difference approximation of the bioheat transfer equation (BHTE) is developed for identification purposes. A full-order extended Kalman filter (EKF) is designed to estimate both the unknown blood perfusion parameters and the temperature at unmeasured locations. Two reduced-order estimators are designed as computationally less intensive alternatives to the full-order EKF. Simulation results show that the success of the estimation scheme depends strongly on the number and location of the temperature sensors. Superior results occur when a temperature sensor exists in each unknown blood perfusion zone, and the number of sensors is at least as large as the number of unknown perfusion zones. Unacceptable results occur when there are more unknown perfusion parameters than temperature sensors, or when the sensors are placed in locations that do not sample the unknown perfusion information.
Military Review. Volume 88, Number 6, November-December 2008
2008-12-01
provided jobs for unemployed males who might otherwise have taken up arms against the coalition. it stimulated the local economy and led to the...in addition, as access to capital for entrepreneurs creates economic activity, it reduces the number of unemployed men who might otherwise become...Qaeda), juxtaposed above, are emblematic of the psychic gulf be- tween world views, ancient and modern, religious and secular, East and West. Today
Modulation of Apoptosis Controls Inhibitory Interneuron Number in the Cortex
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Myrto Denaxa
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Cortical networks are composed of excitatory projection neurons and inhibitory interneurons. Finding the right balance between the two is important for controlling overall cortical excitation and network dynamics. However, it is unclear how the correct number of cortical interneurons (CIs is established in the mammalian forebrain. CIs are generated in excess from basal forebrain progenitors, and their final numbers are adjusted via an intrinsically determined program of apoptosis that takes place during an early postnatal window. Here, we provide evidence that the extent of CI apoptosis during this critical period is plastic and cell-type specific and can be reduced in a cell-autonomous manner by acute increases in neuronal activity. We propose that the physiological state of the emerging neural network controls the activity levels of local CIs to modulate their numbers in a homeostatic manner.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Micallef, Gilbert; Mogensen, Preben; Scheck, Hans-Otto
2012-01-01
While operators have to upgrade the capacity of their networks, they have committed themselves to reduce their CO2 emissions, partly by reducing their energy consumption. This article investigates the challenges faced by operators and quantifies, through a number of case studies, the impact...... the possible savings by adopting an energy-efficient capacity evolution together with an equipment replacement and site upgrade strategy. Results show that network operators can get relatively close to their targets, with energy reductions of up to 40% noted. While this can be improved further through software...... based energy saving features, further CO2 emissions can be offset through carbon-neutral energy sources....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narvaiz, P.; Lescano, G.; Kairiyama, E.
1992-01-01
Egg powder was treated with 0, 2, 5 and 10 kGy of gamma radiation at 20 C to inactivate Salmonella and to stabilize its microbial load. Microbial, physicochemical and sensory determinations were performed during 4 months of storage to select the optimal radiation dose to attain the objective without significantly reducing egg quality. Microbial results show that 2.0 kGy inactivated Salmonella and reduced microbial load to levels below those stipulated by the Argentine regulations. Physicochemical determinations of egg powder extracts for peroxide number, spectrophotometric measurements in the visible and ultraviolet regions, functional properties on sponge cakes made with egg powder (height, compression-relaxation cycle parameters), foam stability and viscosity showed that gamma radiation at the dose of 2 kGy, did not cause significant changes in these parameters. Higher radiation doses (5 and 10 kGy) did increase rancidity, pigment loss and protein chain scission. Sensory determinations performed on egg powder, and on cakes manufactured with it, agreed with the physicochemical results. After 110 storage days, 2 kGy was the most suitable of the tested doses
Allee effect in the selection for prime-numbered cycles in periodical cicadas.
Tanaka, Yumi; Yoshimura, Jin; Simon, Chris; Cooley, John R; Tainaka, Kei-ichi
2009-06-02
Periodical cicadas are well known for their prime-numbered life cycles (17 and 13 years) and their mass periodical emergences. The origination and persistence of prime-numbered cycles are explained by the hybridization hypothesis on the basis of their lower likelihood of hybridization with other cycles. Recently, we showed by using an integer-based numerical model that prime-numbered cycles are indeed selected for among 10- to 20-year cycles. Here, we develop a real-number-based model to investigate the factors affecting the selection of prime-numbered cycles. We include an Allee effect in our model, such that a critical population size is set as an extinction threshold. We compare the real-number models with and without the Allee effect. The results show that in the presence of an Allee effect, prime-numbered life cycles are most likely to persist and to be selected under a wide range of extinction thresholds.
A cry in the dark: depressed mothers show reduced neural activation to their own infant’s cry
Ablow, Jennifer C.
2012-01-01
This study investigated depression-related differences in primiparous mothers’ neural response to their own infant’s distress cues. Mothers diagnosed with major depressive disorder (n = 11) and comparison mothers with no diagnosable psychopathology (n = 11) were exposed to their own 18-months-old infant’s cry sound, as well as unfamiliar infant’s cry and control sound, during functional neuroimaging. Depressed mothers’ response to own infant cry greater than other sounds was compared to non-depressed mothers’ response in the whole brain [false discovery rate (FDR) corrected]. A continuous measure of self-reported depressive symptoms (CESD) was also tested as a predictor of maternal response. Non-depressed mothers activated to their own infant’s cry greater than control sound in a distributed network of para/limbic and prefrontal regions, whereas depressed mothers as a group failed to show activation. Non-depressed compared to depressed mothers showed significantly greater striatal (caudate, nucleus accumbens) and medial thalamic activation. Additionally, mothers with lower depressive symptoms activated more strongly in left orbitofrontal, dorsal anterior cingulate and medial superior frontal regions. Non-depressed compared to depressed mothers activated uniquely to own infant greater than other infant cry in occipital fusiform areas. Disturbance of these neural networks involved in emotional response and regulation may help to explain parenting deficits in depressed mothers. PMID:21208990
Architectures for Quantum Simulation Showing a Quantum Speedup
Bermejo-Vega, Juan; Hangleiter, Dominik; Schwarz, Martin; Raussendorf, Robert; Eisert, Jens
2018-04-01
One of the main aims in the field of quantum simulation is to achieve a quantum speedup, often referred to as "quantum computational supremacy," referring to the experimental realization of a quantum device that computationally outperforms classical computers. In this work, we show that one can devise versatile and feasible schemes of two-dimensional, dynamical, quantum simulators showing such a quantum speedup, building on intermediate problems involving nonadaptive, measurement-based, quantum computation. In each of the schemes, an initial product state is prepared, potentially involving an element of randomness as in disordered models, followed by a short-time evolution under a basic translationally invariant Hamiltonian with simple nearest-neighbor interactions and a mere sampling measurement in a fixed basis. The correctness of the final-state preparation in each scheme is fully efficiently certifiable. We discuss experimental necessities and possible physical architectures, inspired by platforms of cold atoms in optical lattices and a number of others, as well as specific assumptions that enter the complexity-theoretic arguments. This work shows that benchmark settings exhibiting a quantum speedup may require little control, in contrast to universal quantum computing. Thus, our proposal puts a convincing experimental demonstration of a quantum speedup within reach in the near term.