WorldWideScience

Sample records for showed positive cooperativity

  1. Cooperation for a competitive position: The impact of hospital cooperation behavior on organizational performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchner, Vera Antonia; Hinz, Vera; Schreyögg, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Several public policy initiatives, particularly those involving managed care, aim to enhance cooperation between partners in the health care sector because it is expected that such cooperation will reduce costs and generate additional revenue. However, empirical evidence regarding the effects of cooperation on hospital performance is scarce, particularly with respect to creating a comprehensive measure of cooperation behavior. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of hospital cooperation behavior on organizational performance. We differentiate between horizontal and vertical cooperation using two alternative measures-cooperation depth and cooperation breadth-and include the interaction effects between both cooperation directions. Data are derived from a survey of German hospitals and combined with objective performance information from annual financial statements. Generalized linear regression models are used. The study findings provide insight into the nature of hospitals' cooperation behavior. In particular, we show that there are negative synergies between horizontal administrative cooperation behavior and vertical cooperation behavior. Whereas the depth and breadth of horizontal administrative cooperation positively affect financial performance (when there is no vertical cooperation), vertical cooperation positively affects financial performance (when there is no horizontal administrative cooperation) only when cooperation is broad (rather than deep). Horizontal cooperation is generally more effective than vertical cooperation at improving financial performance. Hospital managers should consider the negative interaction effect when making decisions about whether to recommend a cooperative relationship in a horizontal or vertical direction. In addition, managers should be aware of the limited financial benefit of cooperation behavior.

  2. A network traffic reduction method for cooperative positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Kallol; Wymeersch, Henk

    Cooperative positioning is suitable for applications where conventional positioning fails due to lack of connectivity with a sufficient number of reference nodes. In a dense network, as the number of cooperating devices increases, the number of packet exchanges also increases proportionally. This

  3. Pressure to cooperate: is positive reward interdependence really needed in cooperative learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchs, Céline; Gilles, Ingrid; Dutrévis, Marion; Butera, Fabrizio

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND. Despite extensive research on cooperative learning, the debate regarding whether or not its effectiveness depends on positive reward interdependence has not yet found clear evidence. AIMS. We tested the hypothesis that positive reward interdependence, as compared to reward independence, enhances cooperative learning only if learners work on a 'routine task'; if the learners work on a 'true group task', positive reward interdependence induces the same level of learning as reward independence. SAMPLE. The study involved 62 psychology students during regular workshops. METHOD. Students worked on two psychology texts in cooperative dyads for three sessions. The type of task was manipulated through resource interdependence: students worked on either identical (routine task) or complementary (true group task) information. Students expected to be assessed with a Multiple Choice Test (MCT) on the two texts. The MCT assessment type was introduced according to two reward interdependence conditions, either individual (reward independence) or common (positive reward interdependence). A follow-up individual test took place 4 weeks after the third session of dyadic work to examine individual learning. RESULTS. The predicted interaction between the two types of interdependence was significant, indicating that students learned more with positive reward interdependence than with reward independence when they worked on identical information (routine task), whereas students who worked on complementary information (group task) learned the same with or without reward interdependence. CONCLUSIONS. This experiment sheds light on the conditions under which positive reward interdependence enhances cooperative learning, and suggests that creating a real group task allows to avoid the need for positive reward interdependence. © 2010 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Cooperative Position Aware Mobility Pattern of AUVs for Avoiding Void Zones in Underwater WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Nadeem; Ejaz, Mudassir; Abdul, Wadood; Alamri, Atif; Almogren, Ahmad; Niaz, Iftikhar Azim; Guizani, Nadra

    2017-03-13

    In this paper, we propose two schemes; position-aware mobility pattern (PAMP) and cooperative PAMP (Co PAMP). The first one is an optimization scheme that avoids void hole occurrence and minimizes the uncertainty in the position estimation of glider's. The second one is a cooperative routing scheme that reduces the packet drop ratio by using the relay cooperation. Both techniques use gliders that stay at sojourn positions for a predefined time, at sojourn position self-confidence (s-confidence) and neighbor-confidence (n-confidence) regions that are estimated for balanced energy consumption. The transmission power of a glider is adjusted according to those confidence regions. Simulation results show that our proposed schemes outperform the compared existing one in terms of packet delivery ratio, void zones and energy consumption.

  5. Cooperative Position Aware Mobility Pattern of AUVs for Avoiding Void Zones in Underwater WSNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Nadeem; Ejaz, Mudassir; Abdul, Wadood; Alamri, Atif; Almogren, Ahmad; Niaz, Iftikhar Azim; Guizani, Nadra

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two schemes; position-aware mobility pattern (PAMP) and cooperative PAMP (Co PAMP). The first one is an optimization scheme that avoids void hole occurrence and minimizes the uncertainty in the position estimation of glider’s. The second one is a cooperative routing scheme that reduces the packet drop ratio by using the relay cooperation. Both techniques use gliders that stay at sojourn positions for a predefined time, at sojourn position self-confidence (s-confidence) and neighbor-confidence (n-confidence) regions that are estimated for balanced energy consumption. The transmission power of a glider is adjusted according to those confidence regions. Simulation results show that our proposed schemes outperform the compared existing one in terms of packet delivery ratio, void zones and energy consumption. PMID:28335377

  6. Cooperative Position Aware Mobility Pattern of AUVs for Avoiding Void Zones in Underwater WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Javaid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose two schemes; position-aware mobility pattern (PAMP and cooperative PAMP (Co PAMP. The first one is an optimization scheme that avoids void hole occurrence and minimizes the uncertainty in the position estimation of glider’s. The second one is a cooperative routing scheme that reduces the packet drop ratio by using the relay cooperation. Both techniques use gliders that stay at sojourn positions for a predefined time, at sojourn position self-confidence (s-confidence and neighbor-confidence (n-confidence regions that are estimated for balanced energy consumption. The transmission power of a glider is adjusted according to those confidence regions. Simulation results show that our proposed schemes outperform the compared existing one in terms of packet delivery ratio, void zones and energy consumption.

  7. Who Sits Where? Infrastructure-Free In-Vehicle Cooperative Positioning via Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongjian He

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seat-level positioning of a smartphone in a vehicle can provide a fine-grained context for many interesting in-vehicle applications, including driver distraction prevention, driving behavior estimation, in-vehicle services customization, etc. However, most of the existing work on in-vehicle positioning relies on special infrastructures, such as the stereo, cigarette lighter adapter or OBD (on-board diagnostic adapter. In this work, we propose iLoc, an infrastructure-free, in-vehicle, cooperative positioning system via smartphones. iLoc does not require any extra devices and uses only embedded sensors in smartphones to determine the phones’ seat-level locations in a car. In iLoc, in-vehicle smartphones automatically collect data during certain kinds of events and cooperatively determine the relative left/right and front/back locations. In addition, iLoc is tolerant to noisy data and possible sensor errors. We evaluate the performance of iLoc using experiments conducted in real driving scenarios. Results show that the positioning accuracy can reach 90% in the majority of cases and around 70% even in the worst-cases.

  8. Human-Induced Effects on RSS Ranging Measurements for Cooperative Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Rosa, Francescantonio; Pelosi, Mauro; Nurmi, Jari

    2012-01-01

    of human-induced perturbations for enhancing the final positioning accuracy through cooperative schemes has been assessed. It has been proved that the effect of cooperation is very limited if human factors are not taken into account when performing experimental activities.......We present experimental evaluations of human-induced perturbations on received-signal-strength-(RSS-) based ranging measurements for cooperative mobile positioning. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to gain insight and understand the impact of both body loss and hand grip...... on the RSS for enhancing proximity measurements among neighbouring devices in cooperative scenarios. Our main contribution is represented by experimental investigations. Analysis of the errors introduced in the distance estimation using path-loss-based methods has been carried out. Moreover, the exploitation...

  9. Identification of a effective cooperation model in the game positioning in a volleyball game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Mazur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper is aimed at identification of a model which shows the effective cooperation in the game positioning (exactly in receiving-passing the ball in a volleyball game. Design/methodology/approach: The original research method is used in this thesis which is called pragmatic unique case study. The research is aimed at observation USA team playing volleyball during The Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro 2016.  Findings: There is a cooperation model in receiving and passing the ball among USA volleyball team players found, based on the observation. There are also other cooperation models used by teams.                     Research and practical limitations/implications: Based in the research I can tell that there are different models of cooperation in the game positioning in volleyball. The teams which are the most effective use different models of cooperation while playing.                     Originality/value: The paper is original and leads to think about the identification of the process of cooperation in team games. More research in this field is recommended.

  10. Survey on Ranging Sensors and Cooperative Techniques for Relative Positioning of Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian de Ponte Müller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Future driver assistance systems will rely on accurate, reliable and continuous knowledge on the position of other road participants, including pedestrians, bicycles and other vehicles. The usual approach to tackle this requirement is to use on-board ranging sensors inside the vehicle. Radar, laser scanners or vision-based systems are able to detect objects in their line-of-sight. In contrast to these non-cooperative ranging sensors, cooperative approaches follow a strategy in which other road participants actively support the estimation of the relative position. The limitations of on-board ranging sensors regarding their detection range and angle of view and the facility of blockage can be approached by using a cooperative approach based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication. The fusion of both, cooperative and non-cooperative strategies, seems to offer the largest benefits regarding accuracy, availability and robustness. This survey offers the reader a comprehensive review on different techniques for vehicle relative positioning. The reader will learn the important performance indicators when it comes to relative positioning of vehicles, the different technologies that are both commercially available and currently under research, their expected performance and their intrinsic limitations. Moreover, the latest research in the area of vision-based systems for vehicle detection, as well as the latest work on GNSS-based vehicle localization and vehicular communication for relative positioning of vehicles, are reviewed. The survey also includes the research work on the fusion of cooperative and non-cooperative approaches to increase the reliability and the availability.

  11. Stereo-vision-based cooperative-vehicle positioning using OCC and neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifthekhar, Md. Shareef; Saha, Nirzhar; Jang, Yeong Min

    2015-10-01

    Vehicle positioning has been subjected to extensive research regarding driving safety measures and assistance as well as autonomous navigation. The most common positioning technique used in automotive positioning is the global positioning system (GPS). However, GPS is not reliably accurate because of signal blockage caused by high-rise buildings. In addition, GPS is error prone when a vehicle is inside a tunnel. Moreover, GPS and other radio-frequency-based approaches cannot provide orientation information or the position of neighboring vehicles. In this study, we propose a cooperative-vehicle positioning (CVP) technique by using the newly developed optical camera communications (OCC). The OCC technique utilizes image sensors and cameras to receive and decode light-modulated information from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). A vehicle equipped with an OCC transceiver can receive positioning and other information such as speed, lane change, driver's condition, etc., through optical wireless links of neighboring vehicles. Thus, the target vehicle position that is too far away to establish an OCC link can be determined by a computer-vision-based technique combined with the cooperation of neighboring vehicles. In addition, we have devised a back-propagation (BP) neural-network learning method for positioning and range estimation for CVP. The proposed neural-network-based technique can estimate target vehicle position from only two image points of target vehicles using stereo vision. For this, we use rear LEDs on target vehicles as image points. We show from simulation results that our neural-network-based method achieves better accuracy than that of the computer-vision method.

  12. Centralized Cooperative Positioning and Tracking with Realistic Communications Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mensing, Christian; Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen

    2010-01-01

    on the overall performance will be assessed. As we are considering a dynamic scenario, the cooperative positioning algorithms are based on extended Kalman filtering for position estimation and tracking. Simulation results for ultra-wideband based ranging information and WLAN based communications infrastructure...

  13. Channel Measurements and Characteristics for Cooperative Positioning Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei; Steinböck, Gerhard; Jost, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We have conducted an indoor channel measurement campaign to characterize the propagation channel for the development of cooperative positioning algorithms. The campaign focused particularly on the characteristics of multi-link channels with applications to positioning. In this contribution we...... present the measurement campaign and preliminary results on correlation characteristics of the received power. It is observed that the link-pair log power is uncorrelated. Moreover, the received log power can be modeled by realizations of independent Gaussian distributions for each link, based...... on the measured results....

  14. The collective benefits of feeling good and letting go: positive emotion and (disinhibition interact to predict cooperative behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Rand

    Full Text Available Cooperation is central to human existence, forming the bedrock of everyday social relationships and larger societal structures. Thus, understanding the psychological underpinnings of cooperation is of both scientific and practical importance. Recent work using a dual-process framework suggests that intuitive processing can promote cooperation while deliberative processing can undermine it. Here we add to this line of research by more specifically identifying deliberative and intuitive processes that affect cooperation. To do so, we applied automated text analysis using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC software to investigate the association between behavior in one-shot anonymous economic cooperation games and the presence inhibition (a deliberative process and positive emotion (an intuitive process in free-response narratives written after (Study 1, N = 4,218 or during (Study 2, N = 236 the decision-making process. Consistent with previous results, across both studies inhibition predicted reduced cooperation while positive emotion predicted increased cooperation (even when controlling for negative emotion. Importantly, there was a significant interaction between positive emotion and inhibition, such that the most cooperative individuals had high positive emotion and low inhibition. This suggests that inhibition (i.e., reflective or deliberative processing may undermine cooperative behavior by suppressing the prosocial effects of positive emotion.

  15. Spatiotemporal Local-Remote Senor Fusion (ST-LRSF) for Cooperative Vehicle Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Han-You; Nguyen, Hoa-Hung; Bhawiyuga, Adhitya

    2018-04-04

    Vehicle positioning plays an important role in the design of protocols, algorithms, and applications in the intelligent transport systems. In this paper, we present a new framework of spatiotemporal local-remote sensor fusion (ST-LRSF) that cooperatively improves the accuracy of absolute vehicle positioning based on two state estimates of a vehicle in the vicinity: a local sensing estimate, measured by the on-board exteroceptive sensors, and a remote sensing estimate, received from neighbor vehicles via vehicle-to-everything communications. Given both estimates of vehicle state, the ST-LRSF scheme identifies the set of vehicles in the vicinity, determines the reference vehicle state, proposes a spatiotemporal dissimilarity metric between two reference vehicle states, and presents a greedy algorithm to compute a minimal weighted matching (MWM) between them. Given the outcome of MWM, the theoretical position uncertainty of the proposed refinement algorithm is proven to be inversely proportional to the square root of matching size. To further reduce the positioning uncertainty, we also develop an extended Kalman filter model with the refined position of ST-LRSF as one of the measurement inputs. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed ST-LRSF framework can achieve high positioning accuracy for many different scenarios of cooperative vehicle positioning.

  16. Mobile positioning and tracking from conventional to cooperative techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Frattasi, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Current trends in mobile services envisage location-based networking as a major strong stimulator for the development of novel solutions for obtaining positioning information in wireless networks. This book discusses mobile positioning solutions applied on top of current wireless communication networks. Moreover, it introduces advanced and novel topics such as localization in heterogeneous and cooperative scenarios. In this fully updated second edition, the authors summarize recent developments in mobile positioning and tracking. Compared with the previous version, the new edition introduces more advanced topics, providing the bridge between research and industry. It works as an important reference and provides good foundations for new researchers.

  17. Positioning of equity in financial intermediation cooperatives compared to IFRS on financial instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Martínez Batista

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research has not transeccional experimental and design, it focuses on analyzing the equity position of financial intermediation cooperatives (I.F. against the contributions of its partners. Begins with theoretical approaches of international and local accounting standards, the ratio of total invested assets versus liabilities, Heritage and Contributions. The case study analyzed the balance sheet figures, the real differences under the uncertainty of the full standard. The results show 14.8% equity and deterioration of overall indebtedness in the same order. Case Study In the real situation, versus the full standard, and considering the irreducible minimum of Capital Contributions, as decreases in 10.2% Equity and Financial Liabilities increased 10.2%. In conclusion, it is considered solvent use some strategy that the situation of international accounting standards with national converge for the benefit of cooperatives.

  18. The collective benefits of feeling good and letting go: positive emotion and (dis)inhibition interact to predict cooperative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G; Kraft-Todd, Gordon; Gruber, June

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation is central to human existence, forming the bedrock of everyday social relationships and larger societal structures. Thus, understanding the psychological underpinnings of cooperation is of both scientific and practical importance. Recent work using a dual-process framework suggests that intuitive processing can promote cooperation while deliberative processing can undermine it. Here we add to this line of research by more specifically identifying deliberative and intuitive processes that affect cooperation. To do so, we applied automated text analysis using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) software to investigate the association between behavior in one-shot anonymous economic cooperation games and the presence inhibition (a deliberative process) and positive emotion (an intuitive process) in free-response narratives written after (Study 1, N = 4,218) or during (Study 2, N = 236) the decision-making process. Consistent with previous results, across both studies inhibition predicted reduced cooperation while positive emotion predicted increased cooperation (even when controlling for negative emotion). Importantly, there was a significant interaction between positive emotion and inhibition, such that the most cooperative individuals had high positive emotion and low inhibition. This suggests that inhibition (i.e., reflective or deliberative processing) may undermine cooperative behavior by suppressing the prosocial effects of positive emotion.

  19. The sound of cooperation: Musical influences on cooperative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniffin, Kevin M; Yan, Jubo; Wansink, Brian; Schulze, William D

    2017-03-01

    Music as an environmental aspect of professional workplaces has been closely studied with respect to consumer behavior while sparse attention has been given to its relevance for employee behavior. In this article, we focus on the influence of music upon cooperative behavior within decision-making groups. Based on results from two extended 20-round public goods experiments, we find that happy music significantly and positively influences cooperative behavior. We also find a significant positive association between mood and cooperative behavior. Consequently, while our studies provide partial support for the relevance of affect in relation to cooperation within groups, we also show an independently important function of happy music that fits with a theory of synchronous and rhythmic activity as a social lubricant. More generally, our findings indicate that music and perhaps other atmospheric variables that are designed to prime consumer behavior might have comparably important effects for employees and consequently warrant closer investigation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Organizational Behavior Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Cooperative testing of a positive personnel identifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Callaghan, P.B.; Grambihler, A.J.; Graham, D.K.; Bradley, R.G.

    1980-06-01

    HEDL has a requirement to ensure the identification of remote computer terminal operators on a real-time nuclear inventory data base. The integrity of this data base depends on input from authorized individuals. Thus, a key to developing such a system is the ability to positively identify people attempting access to the system. Small scale tests of the Identimat 2000T hand geometry unit with an adjusting alogrithm have suggested a promising solution. To prove operational suitability, HEDL, in cooperation with Sandia Laboratories, has designed a large scale test of the Identimat 2000T. Data gathering on error rates, reliability, maintainability, and user acceptance will determine if the Identimat 2000T is suitable for the HEDL application. If proven acceptable, use of the Identimat 2000T can be broadened to many general applications where security information, locations and systems are required

  1. Impact on Congestion and Fuel Consumption of a Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control System with Lane-Level Position Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Talavera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, vehicular communications systems have evolved and allowed for the improvement of adaptive cruise control (ACC systems to make them cooperative (cooperative adaptive cruise control, CACC. Conventional ACC systems use sensors on the ego-vehicle, such as radar or computer vision, to generate their behavioral decisions. However, by having vehicle-to-X (V2X onboard communications, the need to incorporate perception in the vehicle is drastically reduced. Thus, in this paper a CACC solution is proposed that only uses communications to make its decisions with the help of previous road mapping. At the same time, a method to develop these maps is presented, combining the information of a computer vision system to correct the positions obtained from the navigation system. In addition, the cut-in and cut-out maneuvers for a CACC platoon are taken into account, showing the tests of these situations in real environments with instrumented vehicles. To show the potential of the system in a larger-scale implementation, simulations of the behavior are provided under dense traffic conditions where the positive impact on the reduction of traffic congestion and fuel consumption is appreciated.

  2. The significance of the interconnection of second-level cooperatives and their peer-associated cooperatives for productivity growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Victoria, M.; Maté-Sánchez-Val, M.L.; Arcas-Lario, N.

    2017-01-01

    Cooperatives are especially important in current agri-food markets. These companies have responded to the current demand requirements with greater market orientation strategies to attract and satisfy customers. To do so, cooperatives have adopted different collaboration alternatives. In Spain, the most common alliance between cooperatives is materialised in second-level cooperatives, which are cooperatives integrated by at least two first-level cooperatives. The aim of this study was to analyse the interaction effects between first- and second level agri-food cooperatives on their productive growth and its components. To get this purpose, a Cobb-Douglas specification with spatial econometrics techniques was applied to evaluate this relationship. We included a spatial connectivity matrix to establish the interconnection among cooperatives of first- and second-level. Our results show a positive interaction effect highlighting the importance of these alliances on the productivity growth in the agri-food sector. The scarce amount of empirical papers explaining how second-level cooperatives influence the performance of first-level cooperatives shows the relevance of our study.

  3. The significance of the interconnection of second-level cooperatives and their peer-associated cooperatives for productivity growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Victoria, M.; Maté-Sánchez-Val, M.L.; Arcas-Lario, N.

    2017-09-01

    Cooperatives are especially important in current agri-food markets. These companies have responded to the current demand requirements with greater market orientation strategies to attract and satisfy customers. To do so, cooperatives have adopted different collaboration alternatives. In Spain, the most common alliance between cooperatives is materialised in second-level cooperatives, which are cooperatives integrated by at least two first-level cooperatives. The aim of this study was to analyse the interaction effects between first- and second level agri-food cooperatives on their productive growth and its components. To get this purpose, a Cobb-Douglas specification with spatial econometrics techniques was applied to evaluate this relationship. We included a spatial connectivity matrix to establish the interconnection among cooperatives of first- and second-level. Our results show a positive interaction effect highlighting the importance of these alliances on the productivity growth in the agri-food sector. The scarce amount of empirical papers explaining how second-level cooperatives influence the performance of first-level cooperatives shows the relevance of our study.

  4. How to increase the benefits of cooperation: Effects of training in transactive communication on cooperative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, Susanne; Hänze, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Transactive communication means referring to and building on a learning partner's idea, by, for example, extending the partner's idea or interlinking the partner's idea with an idea of one's own. This transforms the partner's idea into a more elaborate one. Previous research found a positive relationship between students' transactive communication and their learning results when working in small groups. To increase the benefits of cooperation, we developed and tested a module for training students in transactive communication. We assumed that this training would enhance students' transactive communication and also increase their knowledge acquisition during cooperative learning. Further, we distinguished between an actor's transactive communication and a learning partner's transactive communication and expected both to be positively associated with an actor's knowledge acquisition. Participants were 80 university students. In an experiment with pre- and post-test measurements, transactive communication was measured by coding students' communication in a cooperative learning situation before training and in another cooperative learning situation after training. For the post-test cooperative learning situation, knowledge was pre-tested and post-tested. Trained students outperformed controls in transactive communication and in knowledge acquisition. Positive training effects on actors' knowledge acquisition were partially mediated by the improved actors' transactive communication. Moreover, actors' knowledge acquisition was positively influenced by learning partners' transactive communication. Results show a meaningful increase in the benefits of cooperation through the training in transactive communication. Furthermore, findings indicate that students benefit from both elaborating on their partner's ideas and having their own ideas elaborated on. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Social heuristics shape intuitive cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G; Peysakhovich, Alexander; Kraft-Todd, Gordon T; Newman, George E; Wurzbacher, Owen; Nowak, Martin A; Greene, Joshua D

    2014-04-22

    Cooperation is central to human societies. Yet relatively little is known about the cognitive underpinnings of cooperative decision making. Does cooperation require deliberate self-restraint? Or is spontaneous prosociality reined in by calculating self-interest? Here we present a theory of why (and for whom) intuition favors cooperation: cooperation is typically advantageous in everyday life, leading to the formation of generalized cooperative intuitions. Deliberation, by contrast, adjusts behaviour towards the optimum for a given situation. Thus, in one-shot anonymous interactions where selfishness is optimal, intuitive responses tend to be more cooperative than deliberative responses. We test this 'social heuristics hypothesis' by aggregating across every cooperation experiment using time pressure that we conducted over a 2-year period (15 studies and 6,910 decisions), as well as performing a novel time pressure experiment. Doing so demonstrates a positive average effect of time pressure on cooperation. We also find substantial variation in this effect, and show that this variation is partly explained by previous experience with one-shot lab experiments.

  6. Underlying Mechanisms of Cooperativity, Input Specificity, and Associativity of Long-Term Potentiation Through a Positive Feedback of Local Protein Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Hao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation (LTP is a specific form of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity that is a leading mechanism of learning and memory in mammals. The properties of cooperativity, input specificity, and associativity are essential for LTP; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, based on experimentally observed phenomena, we introduce a computational model of synaptic plasticity in a pyramidal cell to explore the mechanisms responsible for the cooperativity, input specificity, and associativity of LTP. The model is based on molecular processes involved in synaptic plasticity and integrates gene expression involved in the regulation of neuronal activity. In the model, we introduce a local positive feedback loop of protein synthesis at each synapse, which is essential for bimodal response and synapse specificity. Bifurcation analysis of the local positive feedback loop of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signaling illustrates the existence of bistability, which is the basis of LTP induction. The local bifurcation diagram provides guidance for the realization of LTP, and the projection of whole system trajectories onto the two-parameter bifurcation diagram confirms the predictions obtained from bifurcation analysis. Moreover, model analysis shows that pre- and postsynaptic components are required to achieve the three properties of LTP. This study provides insights into the mechanisms underlying the cooperativity, input specificity, and associativity of LTP, and the further construction of neural networks for learning and memory.

  7. Exploring the impact of positive and negative emotions on cooperative behaviour in a Prisoner's Dilemma Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjell, Oscar N E; Thompson, Sam

    2013-12-19

    Objective. To explore the influences of discrete positive and negative emotions on cooperation in the context of a social dilemma game. Design. Two controlled studies were undertaken. In Study 1, 69 participants were randomly assigned to an essay emotion manipulation task designed to induce either guilt, joy or no strong emotion. In Study 2, 95 participants were randomly assigned to one of the same three tasks, and the impact of emotional condition on cooperation was explored using a repeated Prisoner's Dilemma Game. Results. Study 1 established that the manipulation task was successful in inducing the specified emotions. The analysis from Study 2 revealed no significant main effects for emotions, in contrast to previous research. However, there was a significant effect for participants' pre-existing tendency to cooperate (social value orientation; SVO). Conclusion. Methodological explanations for the result are explored, including the possible impact of trial-and-error strategies, different cooperation games and endogenous vs exogenous emotions.

  8. When cooperation begets cooperation: the role of key individuals in galvanizing support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Katherine; Wrangham, Richard; Glowacki, Luke; Russell, Andrew F

    2015-12-05

    Life abounds with examples of conspecifics actively cooperating to a common end, despite conflicts of interest being expected concerning how much each individual should contribute. Mathematical models typically find that such conflict can be resolved by partial-response strategies, leading investors to contribute relatively equitably. Using a case study approach, we show that such model expectations can be contradicted in at least four disparate contexts: (i) bi-parental care; (ii) cooperative breeding; (iii) cooperative hunting; and (iv) human cooperation. We highlight that: (a) marked variation in contributions is commonplace; and (b) individuals can often respond positively rather than negatively to the contributions of others. Existing models have surprisingly limited power in explaining these phenomena. Here, we propose that, although among-individual variation in cooperative contributions will be influenced by differential costs and benefits, there is likely to be a strong genetic or epigenetic component. We then suggest that selection can maintain high investors (key individuals) when their contributions promote support by increasing the benefits and/or reducing the costs for others. Our intentions are to raise awareness in--and provide testable hypotheses of--two of the most poorly understood, yet integral, questions regarding cooperative ventures: why do individuals vary in their contributions and when does cooperation beget cooperation? © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Exploring the impact of positive and negative emotions on cooperative behaviour in a Prisoner’s Dilemma Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar N.E. Kjell

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore the influences of discrete positive and negative emotions on cooperation in the context of a social dilemma game.Design. Two controlled studies were undertaken. In Study 1, 69 participants were randomly assigned to an essay emotion manipulation task designed to induce either guilt, joy or no strong emotion. In Study 2, 95 participants were randomly assigned to one of the same three tasks, and the impact of emotional condition on cooperation was explored using a repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma Game.Results. Study 1 established that the manipulation task was successful in inducing the specified emotions. The analysis from Study 2 revealed no significant main effects for emotions, in contrast to previous research. However, there was a significant effect for participants’ pre-existing tendency to cooperate (social value orientation; SVO.Conclusion. Methodological explanations for the result are explored, including the possible impact of trial-and-error strategies, different cooperation games and endogenous vs exogenous emotions.

  10. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2017-01-01

    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark by focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection...... by taking the location of the partners into account. In particular, the discussion is tied to the notion of varying knowledge bases firms utilize in their innovation creation processes. Firm level data from the 2010 Community Innovation Survey in Denmark was utilized to analyse cross-border innovation...... of innovativeness increase the likelihood of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on selecting partners within the European Union. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic...

  11. Direct labelling of the human P2X7 receptor and identification of positive and negative cooperativity of binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, A D; Chambers, L J; Clay, W C; Condreay, J P; Walter, D S; Chessell, I P

    2007-05-01

    The P2X(7) receptor exhibits complex pharmacological properties. In this study, binding of a [(3)H]-labelled P2X(7) receptor antagonist to human P2X(7) receptors has been examined to further understand ligand interactions with this receptor. The P2X(7) receptor antagonist, N-[2-({2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl}amino)-5-quinolinyl]-2-tricyclo[3.3.1.1(3,7)]dec-1-ylacetamide (compound-17), was radiolabelled with tritium and binding studies were performed using membranes prepared from U-2 OS or HEK293 cells expressing human recombinant P2X(7) receptors. Binding of [(3)H]-compound-17 was higher in membranes prepared from cells expressing P2X(7) receptors than from control cells and was inhibited by ATP suggesting labelled sites represented human P2X(7) receptors. Binding was reversible, saturable and modulated by P2X(7) receptor ligands (Brilliant Blue G, KN62, ATP, decavanadate). Furthermore, ATP potency was reduced in the presence of divalent cations or NaCl. Radioligand binding exhibited both positive and negative cooperativity. Positive cooperativity was evident from bell shaped Scatchard plots, reduction in radioligand dissociation rate by unlabelled compound-17 and enhancement of radioligand binding by KN62 and unlabelled compound-17. ATP and decavanadate inhibited binding in a negative cooperative manner as they enhanced radioligand dissociation. These data demonstrate that human P2X(7) receptors can be directly labelled and provide novel insights into receptor function. The positive cooperativity observed suggests that binding of compound-17 to one subunit in the P2X(7) receptor complex enhances subsequent binding to other P2X(7) subunits in the same complex. The negative cooperative effects of ATP suggest that ATP and compound-17 bind at separate, interacting, sites on the P2X(7) receptor.

  12. Spontaneous cooperation for prosocials, but not for proselfs: Social value orientation moderates spontaneous cooperation behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischkowski, Dorothee; Glöckner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation is essential for the success of societies and there is an ongoing debate whether individuals have therefore developed a general spontaneous tendency to cooperate or not. Findings that cooperative behavior is related to shorter decision times provide support for the spontaneous cooperation effect, although contrary results have also been reported. We show that cooperative behavior is better described as person × situation interaction, in that there is a spontaneous cooperation effect for prosocial but not for proself persons. In three studies, one involving population representative samples from the US and Germany, we found that cooperation in a public good game is dependent on an interaction between individuals’ social value orientation and decision time. Increasing deliberation about the dilemma situation does not affect persons that are selfish to begin with, but it is related to decreasing cooperation for prosocial persons that gain positive utility from outcomes of others and score high on the related general personality trait honesty/humility. Our results demonstrate that the spontaneous cooperation hypothesis has to be qualified in that it is limited to persons with a specific personality and social values. Furthermore, they allow reconciling conflicting previous findings by identifying an important moderator for the effect. PMID:26876773

  13. Adaptive play stabilizes cooperation in continuous public goods games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Te; Wang, Long

    2018-04-01

    We construct a model to study the effects of repeated interaction on the evolution of cooperation in continuous public goods games. Instead of preassigning the duration of repeatedness, the likelihood of group entering next round interaction is positively dependent on the group's current cooperativeness. Meanwhile, when the disturbance happens, the interaction terminates. Under rare mutations, we show that such adaptive play can lead to the dominance of full cooperative state for weak disturbance. For fairly strong disturbance, all-or-none cooperative states share higher fractions of time in the long run, results similar to the ones reported in the study (Pinheiro et al., 2014) while differing from the ones reported in another relevant study (Van Segbroeck et al., 2012), although only strategy space and way determining next round vary. Our results remain valid when groups enter next round with a given probability independent of groups' cooperativeness. In the synergic public goods games, the positive effects of repeated interactions on promoting cooperation is further strengthened. In the discounted public goods game, only very weak disturbance can lead to the dominance of full cooperative state while fairly strong disturbance can favor both full cooperative state and a partially cooperative state. Our study thus enriches the literature on the evolution of cooperation in repeated public goods games.

  14. Modeling the role of negative cooperativity in metabolic regulation and homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot C Bush

    Full Text Available A significant proportion of enzymes display cooperativity in binding ligand molecules, and such effects have an important impact on metabolic regulation. This is easiest to understand in the case of positive cooperativity. Sharp responses to changes in metabolite concentrations can allow organisms to better respond to environmental changes and maintain metabolic homeostasis. However, despite the fact that negative cooperativity is almost as common as positive, it has been harder to imagine what advantages it provides. Here we use computational models to explore the utility of negative cooperativity in one particular context: that of an inhibitor binding to an enzyme. We identify several factors which may contribute, and show that acting together they can make negative cooperativity advantageous.

  15. Heterogeneous game resource distributions promote cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guang-Hai; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Yan-Cun; Tian, Sheng-Wen; Yue, Jun

    2018-01-01

    In social networks, individual abilities to establish interactions are always heterogeneous and independent of the number of topological neighbors. We here study the influence of heterogeneous distributions of abilities on the evolution of individual cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game. First, we introduced a prisoner's dilemma game, taking into account individual heterogeneous abilities to establish games, which are determined by the owned game resources. Second, we studied three types of game resource distributions that follow the power-law property. Simulation results show that the heterogeneous distribution of individual game resources can promote cooperation effectively, and the heterogeneous level of resource distributions has a positive influence on the maintenance of cooperation. Extensive analysis shows that cooperators with large resource capacities can foster cooperator clusters around themselves. Furthermore, when the temptation to defect is high, cooperator clusters in which the central pure cooperators have larger game resource capacities are more stable than other cooperator clusters.

  16. The level of influence of trust, commitment, cooperation, and power in the interorganizational relationships of Brazilian credit cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Maria Martins

    Full Text Available Abstract This article aims to analyze the level of influence of trust, commitment, cooperation, and power in the interrelationships of individual credit cooperatives and their central organization in Brazil. The quantitative and descriptive research was developed in unique credit unions linked to the Central Bank of Brazil and the Organization of Brazilian Cooperatives. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling, with the estimation through partial least squares. The results obtained for the coefficients of determination (R2 of the endogenous latent variables confirmed the assumptions found in the theoretical models of Morgan and Hunt (1994 and Coote, Forrest, and Tam (2003. Statistical significance was also found in the relationships between power and trust, commitment and cooperation, trust and commitment, trust and cooperation, and power and commitment. However, in this study the relationship between power and commitment characterized the significance and was positive between the individual credit cooperatives and their central organization. This is in line with the understanding that power is the solution to resolving conflicts. The research identifies how the constructs of trust, commitment, cooperation, and power show relevance to the alignment of relations between individual credit cooperatives and their central organization.

  17. [International cooperation at Public Health: proposals to a debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola, Maria Andréa; Corrêa, Marilena Cordeiro Dias Villela; Guimarães, Eduardo Ribas De Biase

    2010-07-01

    In the available literature, there is no study devoted to international cooperation in public health. This paper aims to partly fill this gap, raising and examining the state of art in this area as well as how it interferes in the evaluation of post-graduate programs. The study used secondary data available at CAPES "Indicators Journals", during the years of 1998 to 2006. It also analyzes foreign scholarships and special programs of cooperation of CAPES from 2005 to 2009 through a quantitative descriptive methodology. It shows that international cooperation in the area is relatively developed in a variety of themes and diverse partnerships, focusing in the United States. It is observed a positive correlation between the number of international cooperation and a high-concept program into the evaluation of CAPES, the last triennium of evaluation. The sub-areas where there is more cooperation are, in order: epidemiology; planning, and others. There is a variety of institutions, themes and subareas involved in international cooperation that could be a positive indicator in the evaluation, but as far as was possible to infer, no significant correlation in this direction was found.

  18. Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shakti

    2014-07-22

    Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Family co-operation programme description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peine, H A; Terry, T

    1990-01-01

    Current parenting practices indicate a continuing trend towards less family interaction. Institutional attempts to intervene with parents often fail. The 'Family Co-operation Programme' provides a tangible method for families and schools to work together in preventing alcohol and drug abuse, by utilising the positive influence of the home and strengthening family relationships. The Board of Education for the State of Utah has tested and is currently implementing a unique, low-cost, alternative to impact on the home. Utilising a K-12 alcohol/drug abuse school-based curriculum, the child, based on his/her inclass training, becomes the resource for family co-operation activities. These include training in coping skills, decision-making, resistance to peer persuasion, increased self-esteem and alcohol/drug information. Grade level materials go home with the child, who returns a requested parent evaluation. Data for over one thousand families show the positive impact of the activities.

  20. [How children show positive and negative relationships on their drawings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramel, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    This study analyses, whether pictures of children showing a positive relationship are significantly different from those showing a negative one with respect to several criteria. The study involved a random selection of 45 children aged 4;6 to 11;6 years. The children painted a picture with themselves and a person they liked and a picture of themselves with someone they disliked. For the most part, the children drew pictures of themselves with peers both with respect to positive as well as negative images. In an interview afterwards, the children specified the criteria in their drawings by which the quality of the particular relationship can be identified. Positive and negative relationship paintings differ in the character of activity described. The sun as an element in children's paintings is painted not more frequent on positive compared to negative pictures. The colour black is used more often in the drawings signifying negative relationships. While girls used more colour in negative relationship drawings, boys used more colour in the positive ones. There was no significant difference in the use of favourite colours and decorative elements between the two groups. Only in negative relationship drawings people were looking away from each other. Smiling individuals were more common in the positive relationship pictures and in pictures painted by the 6 to 8 year olds. A greater distance between the individuals emerged on negative relationship drawings of the girls.

  1. A User Cooperation Stimulating Strategy Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including “what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?” and “what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?” Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.

  2. A User Cooperation Stimulating Strategy Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Fan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including "what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?" and "what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?" Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.

  3. An assessment on the use of stationary vehicles to support cooperative positioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez-Hurtado, Rodrigo H.; Crisostomi, Emanuele; Shorten, Robert N.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the ability of stationary vehicles (e.g. parked or temporary stopped cars) as tools to enhance the capabilities of existing cooperative positioning algorithms in vehicular networks. First, some real-world facts are provided to support the feasibility of our ideas. Then, we examine the idea in greater details in terms of the technical requirements and methodological analysis, and provide a comprehensive experimental evaluation using dedicated simulations. The routing of a drone through an urban scenario is presented as a non-traditional application case, where the benefits of the proposed approach are reflected in a better utilisation of the flight time.

  4. Payoff-related migration enhances cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Hongyan; Dai Qionglin; Li Haihong; Zhu Yun; Yang Junzhong; Zhang Mei

    2011-01-01

    In reality, migration of an individual usually correlates with the individual's financial or social status. Here, we consider the situation where migration of a player depends on the player's payoff to an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game. When the mobility of a player is positively correlated with the player's normalized payoff, P i , where the mobility of player i is defined as μ i =P i α , we found that cooperation could be promoted strongly in the case of a high density of players because of the introduction of this kind of migration. Moreover, the system could reach a state of complete cooperation in a large region on the given parameter space. Interestingly, enhancement of cooperation shows a non-monotonic behavior with an increase in α. We also found that the positive effects of this kind of migration on cooperation are robust in the face of changes to the network structure and the strategy-updating rule. In addition, we consider another situation where the mobility of a player is anti-correlated with the player's normalized payoff, and we observe that cooperation enhancement still exists.

  5. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin, Katherine A.; Acheson, Daniel J.; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was ac...

  6. Cooperative communication within and between single nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ningmu; Zhou, Xiaochun; Chen, Guanqun; Andoy, Nesha May; Jung, Won; Liu, Guokun; Chen, Peng

    2018-06-01

    Enzymes often show catalytic allostery in which reactions occurring at different sites communicate cooperatively over distances of up to a few nanometres. Whether such effects can occur with non-biological nanocatalysts remains unclear, even though these nanocatalysts can undergo restructuring and molecules can diffuse over catalyst surfaces. Here we report that phenomenologically similar, but mechanistically distinct, cooperative effects indeed exist for nanocatalysts. Using spatiotemporally resolved single-molecule catalysis imaging, we find that catalytic reactions on a single Pd or Au nanocatalyst can communicate with each other, probably via hopping of positively charged holes on the catalyst surface, over 102 nanometres and with a temporal memory of 101 to 102 seconds, giving rise to positive cooperativity among its surface active sites. Similar communication is also observed between individual nanocatalysts, however it operates via a molecular diffusion mechanism involving negatively charged product molecules, and its communication distance is many micrometres. Generalization of these long-range intra- and interparticle catalytic communication mechanisms may introduce a novel conceptual framework for understanding nanoscale catalysis.

  7. Harnessing the power of reputation: strengths and limits for promoting cooperative behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Pat

    2012-12-20

    Evolutionary approaches have done much to identify the pressures that select for cooperative sentiment. This helps us understand when and why cooperation will arise, and applied research shows how these pressures can be harnessed to promote various types of cooperation. In particular, recent evidence shows how opportunities to acquire a good reputation can promote cooperation in laboratory and applied settings. Cooperation can be promoted by tapping into forces like indirect reciprocity, costly signaling, and competitive altruism. When individuals help others, they receive reputational benefits (or avoid reputational costs), and this gives people an incentive to help. Such findings can be applied to promote many kinds of helping and cooperation, including charitable donations, tax compliance, sustainable and pro-environmental behaviors, risky heroism, and more. Despite the potential advantages of using reputation to promote positive behaviors, there are several risks and limits. Under some circumstances, opportunities for reputation will be ineffective or promote harmful behaviors. By better understanding the dynamics of reputation and the circumstances under which cooperation can evolve, we can better design social systems to increase the rate of cooperation and reduce conflict.

  8. POSITIONING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AS KEY SUCCESS FACTOR IN THE GROWTH OF COOPERATIVES IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeop Hussin Bidin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic and business challenges in the new millennium have shaped the manner cooperative movement in Malaysia charts its future outlook. After almost 82 years, a national policy was launched by the Government on January 2004 to assist in the comprehensive development of the cooperative movement. The National CooperativePolicy (NCP will ensure that the huge resources of the cooperatives can be harnessed to generate and contribute to the economic growth of the country. However, in the light of many issues such as weak structure and the absence of good corporate governance in some cooperatives, the present Cooperative Act 1993 is being reviewed and several new provisions would be added to increase supervision, monitoring and enforcement against existing cooperatives in alaysia. It is quite imperative that by regulating the operation of cooperatives will require also the managing of intellectual and human capital assets that exist in the movement. Through establishing a framework and terms of reference such that fundamental elements of knowledge management can be instilled areprerequisites to developing innovativeness in this growing economic sector. The sharing of knowledge among the cooperatives will eventually produce better and more educated human resources that are able to experience greater control over the works and the administration of their quality working life. Structural analysis of the cooperative movement indicates the significant influence of knowledge management in sustaining its future growth given the timely introduction of the NCP. Thus, measures taken to underline this influence will also be addressed to represent the cooperative movement's readiness to face economic and business challenges in Malaysia.

  9. The emergence of cooperation in tie strength models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bo; Yue, Yunpeng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a tie strength model to explain the emergence of cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma games, assuming that cooperators preferentially allocate their investments to friends with strong ties. Two types of prisoner's dilemma models are examined in this study: the traditional two-strategy model considering only cooperators and defectors; the expanded three-strategy model consisting cooperators, defectors and extortioners. The results show that tie strength model contributes to the promotion of cooperation in both types of prisoner's dilemma games. However, we point out that the influence of the investment preference is quite different in the two prisoner's dilemma game settings. In the two-strategy prisoner's dilemma game, only small preference contributes to the promotion of cooperation. Once this preference exceeds a critical value, cooperation will be prohibited. We explain this phenomenon by arguing that extremely strong investment preference undermines the ability of cooperative clusters to resist defectors. Moreover, we extend the analysis into the three-strategy case and discover that the catalytic effect of extortioners can eliminate this first up and then down trend in the two-strategy model. The equilibrium fraction of cooperators is always positively correlated to the level of investment preference in three-strategy models.

  10. The increased risk of predation enhances cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krams, Indrikis; Bērziņš, Arnis; Krama, Tatjana; Wheatcroft, David; Igaune, Kristīne; Rantala, Markus J.

    2010-01-01

    Theory predicts that animals in adverse conditions can decrease individual risks and increase long-term benefits by cooperating with neighbours. However, some empirical studies suggest that animals often focus on short-term benefits, which can reduce the likelihood that they will cooperate with others. In this experimental study, we tested between these two alternatives by evaluating whether increased predation risk (as a correlate of environmental adversity) enhances or diminishes the occurrence of cooperation in mobbing, a common anti-predator behaviour, among breeding pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca. We tested whether birds would join their mobbing neighbours more often and harass a stuffed predator placed near their neighbours' nests more intensely in areas with a higher perceived risk of predation. Our results show that birds attended mobs initiated by their neighbours more often, approached the stuffed predator significantly more closely, and mobbed it at a higher intensity in areas where the perceived risk of predation was experimentally increased. In such high-risk areas, birds also were more often involved in between-pair cooperation. This study demonstrates the positive impact of predation risk on cooperation in breeding songbirds, which might help in explaining the emergence and evolution of cooperation. PMID:19846454

  11. Travelling wave solutions in delayed cooperative systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bingtuan; Zhang, Liang

    2011-01-01

    We establish the existence of travelling wave solutions for delayed cooperative recursions that are allowed to have more than two equilibria. We define an important extended real number that is used to determine the speeds of travelling wave solutions. The results can be applied to a large class of delayed cooperative reaction–diffusion models. We show that for a delayed Lotka–Volterra reaction–diffusion competition model, there exists a finite positive number c * + that can be characterized as the slowest speed of travelling wave solutions connecting two mono-culture equilibria or connecting a mono-culture with the coexistence equilibrium

  12. Separating conditional and unconditional cooperation in a sequential Prisoner’s Dilemma game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieth, Laura; Buchner, Axel

    2017-01-01

    Most theories of social exchange distinguish between two different types of cooperation, depending on whether or not cooperation occurs conditional upon the partner’s previous behaviors. Here, we used a multinomial processing tree model to distinguish between positive and negative reciprocity and cooperation bias in a sequential Prisoner’s Dilemma game. In Experiments 1 and 2, the facial expressions of the partners were varied to manipulate cooperation bias. In Experiment 3, an extinction instruction was used to manipulate reciprocity. The results confirm that people show a stronger cooperation bias when interacting with smiling compared to angry-looking partners, supporting the notion that a smiling facial expression in comparison to an angry facial expression helps to construe a situation as cooperative rather than competitive. Reciprocity was enhanced for appearance-incongruent behaviors, but only when participants were encouraged to form expectations about the partners’ future behaviors. Negative reciprocity was not stronger than positive reciprocity, regardless of whether expectations were manipulated or not. Experiment 3 suggests that people are able to ignore previous episodes of cheating as well as previous episodes of cooperation if these turn out to be irrelevant for predicting a partner’s future behavior. The results provide important insights into the mechanisms of social cooperation. PMID:29121671

  13. Need for cooperative work in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Acosta Padrón

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper claims for the use of cooperative work to achieve democratic, communicative and socializing learning; Furthermore, theoretical grounds for cooperative work are presented, from sociological and psychological positions about the development of cooperative work on the basis of Vigotsky, Kart Lewin and Dewey ́s works, among others.

  14. The risk of predation favors cooperation among breeding prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krama, Tatjana; Berzins, Arnis; Rantala, Markus J

    2010-01-01

    Empirical studies have shown that animals often focus on short-term benefits under conditions of predation risk, which reduces the likelihood that they will cooperate with others. However, some theoretical studies predict that animals in adverse conditions should not avoid cooperation with their neighbors since it may decrease individual risks and increase long-term benefits of reciprocal help. We experimentally tested these two alternatives to find out whether increased predation risk enhances or diminishes the occurrence of cooperation in mobbing, a common anti-predator behavior, among breeding pied flycatchers, Ficedula hypoleuca. Our results show that birds attended mobs initiated by their neighbors more often, approached the stuffed predator significantly more closely, and mobbed it at a higher intensity in areas where the perceived risk of predation was experimentally increased. This study demonstrates a positive impact of predation risk on cooperation in breeding songbirds, which might help to explain the emergence and evolution of cooperation. PMID:20714404

  15. The incorporation of a cooperative society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar Garteiz-Aurrecoa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The new Spanish General Law regulates cooperatives and qualifies them as economic entities for conducting business, so its commercial nature is recognized aside positions that defend the absence of profit in cooperatives.

  16. Cooperative Networks: Altruism, Group Solidarity, Reciprocity, and Sanctioning in Ugandan Producer Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarri, Delia

    2015-09-01

    Repeated interaction and social networks are commonly considered viable solutions to collective action problems. This article identifies and systematically measures four general mechanisms--that is, generalized altruism, group solidarity, reciprocity, and the threat of sanctioning--and tests which of them brings about cooperation in the context of Ugandan producer organizations. Using an innovative methodological framework that combines "lab-in-the-field" experiments with survey interviews and complete social networks data, the article goes beyond the assessment of a relationship between social networks and collective outcomes to study the mechanisms that favor cooperative behavior. The article first establishes a positive relationship between position in the network structure and propensity to cooperate in the producer organization and then uses farmers' behavior in dictator and public goods games to test different mechanisms that may account for such a relationship. Results show that cooperation is induced by patterns of reciprocity that emerge through repeated interaction rather than other-regarding preferences like altruism or group solidarity.

  17. Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    Nationalt Center for Kompetenceudvikling har evalueret undervisningsmetoden Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen og dokumenteret positive effekter på oplevelsen af samarbejde og på lærere og kursisters engagement - men har ikke kunnet påvise systematiske positive effekter af metoden på...... kursisters frafald, fravær og karakterer. Projektet har afprøvet og videreudviklet den pædagogiske metode Cooperative Learning (CL) i en dansk virkelighed og mere specifikt i forhold til VUC'ernes nye kursistgrupper med det overordnede mål at øge gennemførslen markant og målbart ved at anvende og udvikle en...

  18. Extending the Cooperative Phenotype: Assessing the Stability of Cooperation across Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigstad, Amanda G; Strømland, Eirik A; Tinghög, Gustav

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies whether individual cooperation is stable across settings and over time. Involving more than 7,000 subjects on two different continents, this study documents positive correlation in cooperative behavior across economic games in Norway, Sweden, Austria, and the United States. The game measures also correlate with a tendency to make deontological judgments in moral dilemmas, and display of general trust toward strangers. Using time-variation in the data, we test whether temporal stability of behavior is similar in the United States and Norway, and find similar stability estimates for both the American and Norwegian samples. The findings here provide further evidence of the existence of a stable behavioral inclination toward prosociality - a "cooperative phenotype," as it has recently been termed. Also in line with previous research, we find that punishment and cooperation seem to be uncorrelated.

  19. Math’s teaching through cooperative learning in year-2 Primary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Iglesias Muñiz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess the effects of cooperative learning as a methodological tool for maths teaching. A quasi-experimental design with non-equivalent groups of students was used. A total of 33 students belonging to two year-2 Primary Education intact classes agreed to participate. One experienced a cooperative learning approach, while the other one experienced a traditional approach. Assessment was performed quantitatively through a maths’ skills test and qualitatively through children’s drawings. Quantitative results showed that the cooperative learning group reached higher math scores, while from the qualitative results emerged 3 positive categories: enjoyment, learning, group work and 3 negative: boredom/tiredness, difficult and bad behaviour. Cooperative learning seems to debilitate students’ negative perceptions on the math class.

  20. Pi-pi Stacking Mediated Cooperative Mechanism for Human Cytochrome P450 3A4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botao Fa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4 is an important member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily with responsibility for metabolizing ~50% of clinical drugs. Experimental evidence showed that CYP3A4 can adopt multiple substrates in its active site to form a cooperative binding model, accelerating substrate metabolism efficiency. In the current study, we constructed both normal and cooperative binding models of human CYP3A4 with antifungal drug ketoconazoles (KLN. Molecular dynamics simulation and free energy calculation were then carried out to study the cooperative binding mechanism. Our simulation showed that the second KLN in the cooperative binding model had a positive impact on the first one binding in the active site by two significant pi-pi stacking interactions. The first one was formed by Phe215, functioning to position the first KLN in a favorable orientation in the active site for further metabolism reactions. The second one was contributed by Phe304. This pi-pi stacking was enhanced in the cooperative binding model by the parallel conformation between the aromatic rings in Phe304 and the dioxolan moiety of the first KLN. These findings can provide an atomic insight into the cooperative binding in CYP3A4, revealing a novel pi-pi stacking mechanism for drug-drug interactions.

  1. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperators...... can identify and then work with one another. Changes to parameters that would seem to make cooperation more attractive, such as an increase in the discount factor or the fraction of conditional cooperators, can reduce equilibrium cooperation if they decrease a selfish player's incentive to sort....

  2. Extending the Cooperative Phenotype: Assessing the Stability of Cooperation across Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda G. Reigstad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies whether individual cooperation is stable across settings and over time. Involving more than 7,000 subjects on two different continents, this study documents positive correlation in cooperative behavior across economic games in Norway, Sweden, Austria, and the United States. The game measures also correlate with a tendency to make deontological judgments in moral dilemmas, and display of general trust toward strangers. Using time-variation in the data, we test whether temporal stability of behavior is similar in the United States and Norway, and find similar stability estimates for both the American and Norwegian samples. The findings here provide further evidence of the existence of a stable behavioral inclination toward prosociality – a “cooperative phenotype,” as it has recently been termed. Also in line with previous research, we find that punishment and cooperation seem to be uncorrelated.

  3. Cooperative learning in the clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, P L

    1997-01-01

    The modern clinical practice setting presents nurses with challenges about which they must think critically and develop increasingly autonomous problem-solving approaches. It is essential to provide nursing students with opportunities to practice critical thinking so that they can develop this crucial skill. Cooperative learning strategies are interactive teaching methods that stimulate students to think critically, communicate effectively with peers, and accept responsibility for learning through group process activities. Group care planning is one such cooperative strategy that also promotes a positive attitude about care planning and sharpens time management skills. Cooperative assessment and care planning foster the development of critical thinking and effective problem resolution, preparing students for patient care problems they will likely encounter in future positions.

  4. Cooperative relationships and competitiveness in supermarket sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Centenaro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This article aims to investigate the influence of cooperative relations in the performance of companies in the supermarket sector, comparing the companies associated networks with companies not associated. Design/methodology/approach – The research method employed was a survey research with 31 companies. Findings – The results indicate that the cooperative relationships with suppliers have a positive impact on companies of performance, while the cooperative relationships with competitors and local institutions do not influence the performance. Moreover, it appears that there is no relationship between participation in a network of cooperation and achieving superior performance. However, companies linked to the network present better cooperative relationships with suppliers, which positively impacts the performance and therefore have competitive advantages over companies not associated to networks. Originality/value – The cooperative relationships with suppliers can provide benefits such as reducing logistics costs, improved product portfolio, better negotiating prices and terms, partnership for conducting marketing strategies among others, thus increasing the competitiveness of companies in the supermarket sector.

  5. Environmental stability and the evolution of cooperative breeding in hornbills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan-Carlos T.; Sheldon, Ben C.; Tobias, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive cooperation in social animals has been the focus of intensive research, yet the role of environmental factors in promoting such cooperation remains uncertain. A recent global analysis suggested that cooperative breeding in birds is a ‘bet-hedging’ strategy associated with climatic uncertainty, but it is unclear whether this mechanism applies generally or is restricted to the insectivorous passerines that predominate as cooperative breeders at the global scale. Here, we use a phylogenetic framework to assess the effect of climate on the evolution of cooperation in hornbills (Bucerotidae), an avian family characterized by frugivory and carnivory. We show that, in contrast to the global pattern, cooperative reproduction is positively associated with both inter- and intra-annual climatic stability. This reversed relationship implies that hornbills are relatively insensitive to climatic fluctuations, perhaps because of their dietary niche or increased body mass, both of which may remove the need for bet-hedging. We conclude that the relationship between climatic variability and cooperative breeding is inconsistent across taxa, and potentially mediated by life-history variation. These findings help to explain the mixed results of previous studies and highlight the likely shortcomings of global datasets inherently biased towards particular categories. PMID:23926149

  6. Reciprocity, culture and human cooperation: previous insights and a new cross-cultural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt

    2009-03-27

    Understanding the proximate and ultimate sources of human cooperation is a fundamental issue in all behavioural sciences. In this paper, we review the experimental evidence on how people solve cooperation problems. Existing studies show without doubt that direct and indirect reciprocity are important determinants of successful cooperation. We also discuss the insights from a large literature on the role of peer punishment in sustaining cooperation. The experiments demonstrate that many people are 'strong reciprocators' who are willing to cooperate and punish others even if there are no gains from future cooperation or any other reputational gains. We document this in new one-shot experiments, which we conducted in four cities in Russia and Switzerland. Our cross-cultural approach allows us furthermore to investigate how the cultural background influences strong reciprocity. Our results show that culture has a strong influence on positive and in especially strong negative reciprocity. In particular, we find large cross-cultural differences in 'antisocial punishment' of pro-social cooperators. Further cross-cultural research and experiments involving different socio-demographic groups document that the antisocial punishment is much more widespread than previously assumed. Understanding antisocial punishment is an important task for future research because antisocial punishment is a strong inhibitor of cooperation.

  7. Positive impacts in soil and water conservation in an Andean region of South America: Case scenarios from a USAID multidisciplinary cooperative project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USAID-SANREM-Virginia Polytechnic Institute project has made and continues to make an excellent impact, specifically showcasing the positive results of soil and water conservation (Barrera et al. 2010a; 2010b). This project has strong international cooperation between the USA, Ecuador and Bolivi...

  8. BICM-based cooperative communication systems with relay selection: Constellation and multiplexer design

    KAUST Repository

    Malik, Muhammad Talha

    2014-09-01

    We propose a new bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM)-based cooperative communication system where different BICM modules can be optimized jointly considering the average signal to noise ratios of the direct and the two-hop Rayleigh fading channels. As such, the full benefit of BICM can be exploited in the context of cooperative communication. Our design considers cooperative communication systems with so called max-min relay selection scheme that has no loss in performance in terms of diversity- multiplexing trade off in orthogonal cooperation. The presented numerical results for rate 1/2 convolutional code with 8-ary pulse amplitude modulation equivalently 64-ary quadrature amplitude modulation show that the proposed design can offer gains up to 1.4 dB over the traditional BICM design for a target bit error rate of 10-6. Moreover the results show that the amount of gain depends on the relays\\' positions and increases with the number of relays available for selection.

  9. Cooperation of general practitioners and occupational physicians: Identity, trust and responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Noks; Grumbkow, Jasper von

    2009-01-01

    Our study shows that different social psychological mechanisms have a profound effect on the quality of the cooperation of GPs and OPs. Especially we found significant differences between the two professions in professional identity, relative position, dependency, trust and responsibility. There is

  10. Alternative vision or utopian fantasy? Cooperation, empowerment and women's cooperative development in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoux, L

    1995-01-01

    The discussion addresses the costs and benefits of working in cooperatives in India, imposed participation, methods for increasing incomes, preconceived models, the importance of meeting the actual needs of women, and participatory options. This author evaluated 10 producer cooperatives in West Bengal, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu during 1984-92. It is argued that more discussion is needed on how ideals of cooperation and empowerment of women can occur simultaneous with the context in which cooperatives must operate. The ten study cooperatives were all officially registered cooperatives. Cooperatives varied in size, organizational structure, and forms of support. Four were determined to be successful in economic and participatory terms. Three were successful because of the efforts of the women themselves. All three cases were based on earning goals that were higher than the women could have achieved on their own. Six failed in terms of participatory decision making and cooperative operations. Lack of sufficient support and/or excessive bureaucratic red tape were involved in the six failures, but to varying degrees. Type of support and means of implementation were important in the six failures. All women used cooperatives as a means of increasing income. Participation rules were imposed by outside agencies. Women were given "cooperative" training. Disputes occurred because women selected to power positions were powerful leaders outside the cooperative. Consensus was difficult to reach. There were conflicts of interest between different departments. Quality control was made difficult by women's inability to provide discipline. Personal conflicts from outside were carried on within the cooperative. Incomes could be improved by training women in local marketing and networking, insuring adequate resources and capital, and providing savings schemes. Gender inequalities were a key factor limiting income for women, but cooperatives did not address this issue. Gains for women

  11. The Cooperative Education as central axis for the integral Formation in the cooperative sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iriadna Marín de León

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The cooperative constitutes one of the most important sectors in the economy in any economic formation - social, its fundamental cell is the man's integral development who should be capable for, from a reflexive and creative position, to assume the challenges that it implies an efficient and effective administration in function of the cooperative company. It is the educational dimension in cooperative values the key for the future, conceived in a systematic way and assuming an appropriate methodological conception. In this perspective, leaving of the theoretical foundation of the administration of the human resources in general, he intends to be carried out an integral analysis of the formation processes and education for the cooperative with the purpose of valuing the central aspects of this thematic one, leaving of the fact that the education constitutes the medullary element that leads to a true cooperative formation.

  12. Strategies of EU agro-food cooperatives to confront globalization: The case of wine cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sebastián Castillo Valero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to globalization and market integration, the agro-food cooperative sector needs to be more competitive. This generates new challenges for cooperative enterprises in the agro-food sector. In this article the analysis of the wine producing sector is undertaken in the area of greatest world-wide wine production and commercialization, Castilla-La Mancha. EU wineries and cooperatives should propose strategic lines within an economy marked by a globalization process in world markets. The paradigmatic case is analyzed in this paper of the comparison of strategies followed by cooperatives confronting capitalist winery enterprises. Therefore, the degree of suitability is aimed to be elucidated and the success of the foundations of international commercial strategies that cooperative enterprises of the sector have followed, depending on their characteristics. Moreover, an exhaustive diagnosis is offered of the current strategic situation of cooperatives and their probability of gaining access to and/or growing in the international market. The parameters that have resulted significant are used as conclusions and recommendations so that cooperatives will reformulate their strategies and the organizations linked to the agro-food sector will know what factors to foment and support in their internationalization and global competitive positioning.

  13. Third-party punishment increases cooperation in children through (misaligned) expectations and conditional cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lergetporer, Philipp; Angerer, Silvia; Glätzle-Rützler, Daniela; Sutter, Matthias

    2014-05-13

    The human ability to establish cooperation, even in large groups of genetically unrelated strangers, depends upon the enforcement of cooperation norms. Third-party punishment is one important factor to explain high levels of cooperation among humans, although it is still somewhat disputed whether other animal species also use this mechanism for promoting cooperation. We study the effectiveness of third-party punishment to increase children's cooperative behavior in a large-scale cooperation game. Based on an experiment with 1,120 children, aged 7 to 11 y, we find that the threat of third-party punishment more than doubles cooperation rates, despite the fact that children are rarely willing to execute costly punishment. We can show that the higher cooperation levels with third-party punishment are driven by two components. First, cooperation is a rational (expected payoff-maximizing) response to incorrect beliefs about the punishment behavior of third parties. Second, cooperation is a conditionally cooperative reaction to correct beliefs that third party punishment will increase a partner's level of cooperation.

  14. Coevolution of Cooperation and Layer Selection Strategy in Multiplex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuki Hayashi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the emergent dynamics in multiplex networks, composed of layers of multiple networks, has been discussed extensively in network sciences. However, little is still known about whether and how the evolution of strategy for selecting a layer to participate in can contribute to the emergence of cooperative behaviors in multiplex networks of social interactions. To investigate these issues, we constructed a coevolutionary model of cooperation and layer selection strategies in which each an individual selects one layer from multiple layers of social networks and plays the Prisoner’s Dilemma with neighbors in the selected layer. We found that the proportion of cooperative strategies increased with increasing the number of layers regardless of the degree of dilemma, and this increase occurred due to a cyclic coevolution process of game strategies and layer selection strategies. We also showed that the heterogeneity of links among layers is a key factor for multiplex networks to facilitate the evolution of cooperation, and such positive effects on cooperation were observed regardless of the difference in the stochastic properties of network topologies.

  15. Neural correlates of social cooperation and non-cooperation as a function of psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, James K; Glenn, Andrea L; Jairam, Meeta R; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Goldsmith, David R; Elfenbein, Hanie A; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2007-06-01

    Psychopathy is a disorder involving a failure to experience many emotions that are necessary for appropriate social behavior. In this study, we probed the behavioral, emotional, and neural correlates of psychopathic traits within the context of a dyadic social interaction. Thirty subjects were imaged with functional magnetic resonance imaging while playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game with human confederates who were outside the scanner. Subjects also completed two self-report psychopathy questionnaires. Subjects scoring higher on psychopathy, particularly males, defected more often and were less likely to continue cooperating after establishing mutual cooperation with a partner. Further, they experienced more outcomes in which their cooperation was not reciprocated (cooperate-defect outcome). After such outcomes, subjects scoring high in psychopathy showed less amygdala activation, suggesting weaker aversive conditioning to those outcomes. Compared with low-psychopathy subjects, subjects higher in psychopathy also showed weaker activation within orbitofrontal cortex when choosing to cooperate and showed weaker activation within dorsolateral prefrontal and rostral anterior cingulate cortex when choosing to defect. These findings suggest that whereas subjects scoring low on psychopathy have emotional biases toward cooperation that can only be overcome with effortful cognitive control, subjects scoring high on psychopathy have an opposing bias toward defection that likewise can only be overcome with cognitive effort.

  16. Evolution of cooperation through adaptive interaction in a spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qiuhui; Liu, Xuesong; Bao, Honglin; Su, Yu; He, Mingfeng

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of adaptive interaction on the evolution of cooperation in a spatial prisoner's dilemma game. The connections of players are co-evolutionary with cooperation; whether adjacent players can play the prisoner's dilemma game is associated with the strategies they took in the preceding round. If a player defected in the preceding round, his neighbors will refuse to play the prisoner's dilemma game with him in accordance with a certain probability distribution. We use the disconnecting strength to represent this probability. We discuss the evolution of cooperation with different values of temptation to defect, sucker's payoff and disconnecting strength. The simulation results show that cooperation can be significantly enhanced through increasing the value of the disconnecting strength. In addition, the increase in disconnecting strength can improve the cooperators' ability to resist the increase in temptation and the decrease in reward. We study the parameter ranges for three different evolutionary results: cooperators extinction, defectors extinction, cooperator and defector co-existence. Meanwhile, we recruited volunteers and designed a human behavioral experiment to verify the theoretical simulation results. The punishment of disconnection has a positive effect on cooperation. A higher disconnecting strength will enhance cooperation more significantly. Our research findings reveal some significant insights into efficient mechanisms of the evolution of cooperation.

  17. Conditional cooperation on three continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocher, M.G.; Cherry, T.; Kroll, S.; Netzer, R.; Sutter, M.

    2007-01-01

    We show in a public goods experiment on three continents that conditional cooperation is a universal behavioral regularity. Yet, the number of conditional cooperators and the extent of conditional cooperation are much higher in the U.S.A. than anywhere else.

  18. On the relative advantage of cooperatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Svend; Schultz, Christian

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fact that farmers in a cooperative individually decide how much to supply to the cooperative may serve as a commitment device for credibly (and profitably) gaining market share in competition with a profit maximizing firm......We show that the fact that farmers in a cooperative individually decide how much to supply to the cooperative may serve as a commitment device for credibly (and profitably) gaining market share in competition with a profit maximizing firm...

  19. International relations and co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    future UJD will make efforts to develop mutual confidence, favourable international co-operation, and by its activity UJD would like to contribute to a positive international position of the Slovak Republic in peaceful use of nuclear energy

  20. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Katherine A; Acheson, Daniel J; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-12-22

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was achieved if the combined investments exceeded a threshold, and the higher ranked individual distributed the spoils unless control was contested by the partner. Compared to a condition lacking hierarchy, cooperation declined in the presence of a hierarchy due to a decrease in investment by lower ranked individuals. Furthermore, hierarchy was detrimental to cooperation regardless of whether it was earned or arbitrary. These findings mirror results from nonhuman primates and demonstrate that hierarchies are detrimental to cooperation. However, these results deviate from nonhuman primate findings by demonstrating that human behavior is responsive to changing hierarchical structures and suggests partnership dynamics that may improve cooperation. This work introduces a controlled way to investigate the social influences on human behavior, and demonstrates the evolutionary continuity of human behavior with other primate species.

  1. A Theoretical Approach to Norm Ecosystems: Two Adaptive Architectures of Indirect Reciprocity Show Different Paths to the Evolution of Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Uchida

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity is one of the basic mechanisms to sustain mutual cooperation, by which beneficial acts are returned, not by the recipient, but by third parties. This mechanism relies on the ability of individuals to know the past actions of others, and to assess those actions. There are many different systems of assessing others, which can be interpreted as rudimentary social norms (i.e., views on what is “good” or “bad”. In this paper, impacts of different adaptive architectures, i.e., ways for individuals to adapt to environments, on indirect reciprocity are investigated. We examine two representative architectures: one based on replicator dynamics and the other on genetic algorithm. Different from the replicator dynamics, the genetic algorithm requires describing the mixture of all possible norms in the norm space under consideration. Therefore, we also propose an analytic method to study norm ecosystems in which all possible second order social norms potentially exist and compete. The analysis reveals that the different adaptive architectures show different paths to the evolution of cooperation. Especially we find that so called Stern-Judging, one of the best studied norms in the literature, exhibits distinct behaviors in both architectures. On one hand, in the replicator dynamics, Stern-Judging remains alive and gets a majority steadily when the population reaches a cooperative state. On the other hand, in the genetic algorithm, it gets a majority only temporarily and becomes extinct in the end.

  2. A Theoretical Approach to Norm Ecosystems: Two Adaptive Architectures of Indirect Reciprocity Show Different Paths to the Evolution of Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Okada, Isamu; Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2018-02-01

    Indirect reciprocity is one of the basic mechanisms to sustain mutual cooperation, by which beneficial acts are returned, not by the recipient, but by third parties. This mechanism relies on the ability of individuals to know the past actions of others, and to assess those actions. There are many different systems of assessing others, which can be interpreted as rudimentary social norms (i.e., views on what is “good” or “bad”). In this paper, impacts of different adaptive architectures, i.e., ways for individuals to adapt to environments, on indirect reciprocity are investigated. We examine two representative architectures: one based on replicator dynamics and the other on genetic algorithm. Different from the replicator dynamics, the genetic algorithm requires describing the mixture of all possible norms in the norm space under consideration. Therefore, we also propose an analytic method to study norm ecosystems in which all possible second order social norms potentially exist and compete. The analysis reveals that the different adaptive architectures show different paths to the evolution of cooperation. Especially we find that so called Stern-Judging, one of the best studied norms in the literature, exhibits distinct behaviors in both architectures. On one hand, in the replicator dynamics, Stern-Judging remains alive and gets a majority steadily when the population reaches a cooperative state. On the other hand, in the genetic algorithm, it gets a majority only temporarily and becomes extinct in the end.

  3. Direct Interaction between the Voltage Sensors Produces Cooperative Sustained Deactivation in Voltage-gated H+ Channel Dimers*

    OpenAIRE

    Okuda, Hiroko; Yonezawa, Yasushige; Takano, Yu; Okamura, Yasushi; Fujiwara, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    The voltage-gated H+ channel (Hv) is a voltage sensor domain-like protein consisting of four transmembrane segments (S1?S4). The native Hv structure is a homodimer, with the two channel subunits functioning cooperatively. Here we show that the two voltage sensor S4 helices within the dimer directly cooperate via a ?-stacking interaction between Trp residues at the middle of each segment. Scanning mutagenesis showed that Trp situated around the original position provides the slow gating kineti...

  4. Coevolution between positive reciprocity, punishment, and partner switching in repeated interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubs, Matthias; Bshary, Redouan; Lehmann, Laurent

    2016-06-15

    Cooperation based on mutual investments can occur between unrelated individuals when they are engaged in repeated interactions. Individuals then need to use a conditional strategy to deter their interaction partners from defecting. Responding to defection such that the future payoff of a defector is reduced relative to cooperating with it is called a partner control mechanism. Three main partner control mechanisms are (i) to switch from cooperation to defection when being defected ('positive reciprocity'), (ii) to actively reduce the payoff of a defecting partner ('punishment'), or (iii) to stop interacting and switch partner ('partner switching'). However, such mechanisms to stabilize cooperation are often studied in isolation from each other. In order to better understand the conditions under which each partner control mechanism tends to be favoured by selection, we here analyse by way of individual-based simulations the coevolution between positive reciprocity, punishment, and partner switching. We show that random interactions in an unstructured population and a high number of rounds increase the likelihood that selection favours partner switching. In contrast, interactions localized in small groups (without genetic structure) increase the likelihood that selection favours punishment and/or positive reciprocity. This study thus highlights the importance of comparing different control mechanisms for cooperation under different conditions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Competitive Centipede Games: Zero-End Payoffs and Payoff Inequality Deter Reciprocal Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M. Krockow

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reciprocal cooperation can be studied in the Centipede game, in which two players alternate in choosing between a cooperative GO move and a non-cooperative STOP move. GO sustains the interaction and increases the player pair’s total payoff while incurring a small personal cost; STOP terminates the interaction with a favorable payoff to the defector. We investigated cooperation in four Centipede games differing in their payoffs at the game’s end (positive versus zero and payoff difference between players (moderate versus high difference. The games shared the same game-theoretic solution, therefore they should have elicited identical decision patterns, according to orthodox game theory. Nevertheless, both zero-end payoffs and high payoff inequality were found to reduce cooperation significantly. Contrary to previous predictions, combining these two factors in one game resulted in a slight weakening of their independent deterrent effects. These findings show that small changes in the payoff function have large and significant effects on cooperation, and that the effects do not combine synergistically.

  6. Smartphone-Based Cooperative Indoor Localization with RFID Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Seco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In GPS-denied indoor environments, localization and tracking of people can be achieved with a mobile device such as a smartphone by processing the received signal strength (RSS of RF signals emitted from known location beacons (anchor nodes, combined with Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR estimates of the user motion. An enhacement of this localization technique is feasible if the users themselves carry additional RF emitters (mobile nodes, and the cooperative position estimates of a group of persons incorporate the RSS measurements exchanged between users. We propose a centralized cooperative particle filter (PF formulation over the joint state of all users that permits to process RSS measurements from both anchor and mobile emitters, as well as PDR motion estimates and map information (if available to increase the overall positioning accuracy, particularly in regions with low density of anchor nodes. Smartphones are used as a convenient mobile platform for sensor measurements acquisition, low-level processing, and data transmission to a central unit, where cooperative localization processing takes place. The cooperative method is experimentally demonstrated with four users moving in an area of 1600 m 2 , with 7 anchor nodes comprised of active RFID (radio frequency identification tags, and additional mobile tags carried by each user. Due to the limited coverage provided by the anchor beacons, RSS-based individual localization is inaccurate (6.1 m median error, but this improves to 4.9 m median error with the cooperative PF. Further gains are produced if the PDR information is added to the filter: median error of 3.1 m (individual and 2.6 m (cooperative; and if map information is also considered, the results are 1.8 m (individual and 1.6 m (cooperative. Thus, for each version of the particle filter, cooperative localization outperforms individual localization in terms of positioning accuracy.

  7. Cooperative sentry vehicles and differential GPS leapfrog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FEDDEMA,JOHN T.; LEWIS,CHRISTOPHER L.; LAFARGE,ROBERT A.

    2000-06-07

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center is developing and testing the feasibility of using a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter, perform a surround task, and travel extended distances. This paper describes the authors most recent activities. In particular, this paper highlights the development of a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) leapfrog capability that allows two or more vehicles to alternate sending DGPS corrections. Using this leapfrog technique, this paper shows that a group of autonomous vehicles can travel 22.68 kilometers with a root mean square positioning error of only 5 meters.

  8. Anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive patients show a characteristic necrotizing perifascicular myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescam-Mancini, Lénaig; Allenbach, Yves; Hervier, Baptiste; Devilliers, Hervé; Mariampillay, Kuberaka; Dubourg, Odile; Maisonobe, Thierry; Gherardi, Romain; Mezin, Paulette; Preusse, Corinna; Stenzel, Werner; Benveniste, Olivier

    2015-09-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies can be classified as polymyositis, dermatomyositis, immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy, sporadic inclusion body myositis or non-specific myositis. Anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive patients are assigned to either polymyositis or dermatomyositis suggesting overlapping pathological features. We aimed to determine if anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive myopathy has a specific morphological phenotype. In a series of 53 muscle biopsies of anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive patients, relevant descriptive criteria defining a characteristic morphological pattern were identified. They were tested in a second series of anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive patients and compared to 63 biopsies from patients suffering from other idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. In anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive patients, necrotic fibres, which strongly clustered in perifascicular regions, were frequently observed. Sarcolemmal complement deposition was detected specifically in perifascicular areas. Inflammation was mainly located in the perimysium and around vessels in 90.6%. Perimysial fragmentation was observed in 90% of cases. Major histocompatibility complex class I staining was diffusely positive, with a perifascicular reinforcement. Multivariate analysis showed that criteria defining perifascicular pathology: perifascicular necrosis, atrophy, and perimysial fragmentation allow the distinction of anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive patients, among patients suffering from other idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive patients displayed perifascicular necrosis, whereas dermatomyositis patients exhibited perifascicular atrophy. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Theoretical Perspectives Underlying the Application of Cooperative Learning in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Van Dat

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative learning has been the centre of worldwide attention because it has been shown to have strong effects on student learning, as well as other positive outcomes. Although the academic, social, affective and psychological outcomes of students taught by cooperative learning are more positive compared with students taught by the traditional…

  10. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured the Slovak Republic (SR) obligations with relation to the international agreements and with the SR membership in the IAEA.International co-operation has been ensured on the basis of the bilateral international agreements. With the Ministry of Foreign Affairs co-operation, the SR fulfilled its financial obligations to this organization in due time and in the full scope. Representing Central and Eastern Europe interest in the Board of Governors, the SR participation in the highest executive in the highest executive authority was finished in 1996.The Board of Governors Vice-chairman position was executed by NRA SR Chairman. 5 national and 6 regional technical co-operation and assistance projects were realized in 1996. 12 organizations participated in these projects and accordingly 104 experts took part in training programmes, scientific visits or as the mission members abroad. Besides, Slovak experts participated at work of technical advisory and consultation groups with the significant assistance. In the framework of IAEA co-operation, the SR was visited by 11 expert missions formed by 28 experts from 19 countries including IAEA. Slovak organizations, namely institutes of the Academy of Sciences, Slovak research centres and universities participated in IAEA scientific and research activities through NRA SR. 15 scientific contracts in total were approved and realized and these contracts are utilized as supplementary financing of the own scientific and research projects. Other international co-operation and regional co-operation activities of the NRA SR in 1996 are reviewed

  11. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Katherine A.; Acheson, Daniel J.; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was achieved if the combined investments exceeded a threshold, and the higher ranked individual distributed the spoils unless control was contested by the partner. Compared to a condition lacking hierarchy, cooperation declined in the presence of a hierarchy due to a decrease in investment by lower ranked individuals. Furthermore, hierarchy was detrimental to cooperation regardless of whether it was earned or arbitrary. These findings mirror results from nonhuman primates and demonstrate that hierarchies are detrimental to cooperation. However, these results deviate from nonhuman primate findings by demonstrating that human behavior is responsive to changing hierarchical structures and suggests partnership dynamics that may improve cooperation. This work introduces a controlled way to investigate the social influences on human behavior, and demonstrates the evolutionary continuity of human behavior with other primate species. PMID:26692287

  12. Impacts of extension access and cooperative membership on technology adoption and household welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wossen, Tesfamicheal; Abdoulaye, Tahirou; Alene, Arega; Haile, Mekbib G; Feleke, Shiferaw; Olanrewaju, Adetunji; Manyong, Victor

    2017-08-01

    This paper examines the impacts of access to extension services and cooperative membership on technology adoption, asset ownership and poverty using household-level data from rural Nigeria. Using different matching techniques and endogenous switching regression approach, we find that both extension access and cooperative membership have a positive and statistically significant effect on technology adoption and household welfare. Moreover, we find that both extension access and cooperative membership have heterogeneous impacts. In particular, we find evidence of a positive selection as the average treatment effects of extension access and cooperative membership are higher for farmers with the highest propensity to access extension and cooperative services. The impact of extension services on poverty reduction and of cooperatives on technology adoption is significantly stronger for smallholders with access to formal credit than for those without access. This implies that expanding rural financial markets can maximize the potential positive impacts of extension and cooperative services on farmers' productivity and welfare.

  13. Cooperation is enhanced by inhomogeneous inertia in spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuhua; Zhang, Zhipeng; Wu, Yu'e.; Xie, Yunya

    2018-01-01

    Inertia is an important factor that cannot be ignored in the real world for some lazy individuals in the process of decision making. In this work, we introduce a simple classification mechanism of strategy changing in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games on different topologies. In this model, a part of players update their strategies according to not only the payoff difference, but also the inertia factor, which makes nodes heterogeneous and the system inhomogeneous. Moreover, we also study the impact of the number of neighbors on the evolution of cooperation. The results show that the evolution of cooperation will be promoted to a high level when the inertia factor and the inhomogeneous system are combined. In addition, we find that the more neighbors one player has, the higher density of cooperators is sustained in the optimal position. This work could be conducive to understanding the emergence and persistence of cooperative behavior caused by the inertia factor in reality.

  14. Local and Sustainable Food Supply: The Role of European Retail Consumer Co-operatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hingley

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  This paper investigates the rationale for local and sustainable food systems and retailer co-operatives as their entry points within local conditions. Emphasis is on localised food networks and connection between socially as well as environmentally sustainable production, distribution and consumption. Investigated is the premise that co-operative organisational structures, for reasons of their long-term socially responsible origins are at the forefront of development of local and sustainable food systems and are thereby in a position to offer a specific contribution to market development. Two key research questions are proposed: Firstly, is there a pre-determination of co-operatives to issues of sustainable and local food sourcing given the historical and practical context of their ethical/socially responsible and stakeholder-based business model? Secondly, do co-ops express support for re-localising food systems and what contribution do they make concerning sustainable food and their relationships with local food suppliers? The method of investigation is through a two country retailer co-operative sector analysis and comparison (Finland and Italy. The enquiry is qualitative and exploratory in nature in the form of an embedded, multiple case design. The paper makes practical and theoretical contribution to knowledge concerning interpretation of ‘localness’ in food, the role of co-operatives and the co-operative ethos in sustainable food systems and the development of the local food economy. Results of the study show a positive relationship between co-operative ethos and (social sustainability in local food, but the de-centralised nature of retailer co-operation also provides a barrier to replication of good practice.

  15. Perception of Teacher on Cooperative Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alias Nur Salimah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The participation of students in the process of learning is one of the keys to ensure effective learning outcomes either in terms of knowledge or skill. However, teacher-centred teaching methods which have been practiced in this country after so long avert students to fully engage in the learning process especially in a classroom. Various attempts have been made by the government to emphasize student’s development in term of communication, creativity and innovation through the of process learning in class. It requires school to implement student-centred teaching methods such as cooperative learning. Cooperative learning is a teaching method that requires teachers not only interacts with the students but also with other teaching aids such as audio, video and computer. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify teachers' perception on the implementation of cooperative learning in the teaching and learning process in class. 25 teachers were selected as respondents. Mixed methods were used in this study, where the instrument of questionnaires and interviews were used to collect the data. Quantitative data analysis was made using descriptive statistics of frequency, mean and percentage. While, qualitative data analysis was based on the recommendations of the Miles & Huberman (1994. The findings showed teachers have a positive attitude toward cooperative learning and they are ready and feel confident to practice it. However, the constraints are classroom control, time and limited teaching aids

  16. A LOOK INSIDE COOPERATION BETWEEN PROSECUTORS AND LAW ENFORCEMENT DURING CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dževad Mahmutović

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with crime scene investigation as a measure of inquiry, conceptually and substantially, subjects of investigation, as well as their mutual relations. The analysis of the existing legal framework suggests that the current Criminal Procedure Code of Bosnia and Herzegovina offers the appropriate basis for the cooperation between prosecutors and law enforcement. However, previous practice indicates certain shortcomings in the cooperation and coordination between prosecutors and law enforcement. With this paper, the authors wanted to examine the opinions of direct actors on this matter. The results show that they are satisfied with the legal regulation of their mutual relations during investigations, and they express positive opinions in terms of their cooperation. Of course, the possibility of improving that cooperation is also noted, and the methods of achieving it should be identified in further research.

  17. Social influence promotes cooperation in the public goods game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Dou, Puxuan; Wang, Long

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies mainly consider the random selection pattern in which individuals randomly choose reference models from their neighbors for strategy updating. However, the random selection pattern is unable to capture all real world circumstances. We institute a spatial model to investigate the effects of influence-based reference selection pattern on the evolution of cooperation in the context of public goods games. Whenever experiencing strategy updating, all the individuals each choose one of its neighbors as a reference with the probability proportional to this neighbor’s influence. Levels of individuals’ influence are dynamical. When an individual is imitated, the level of its influence increases, thus constituting a positive feedback between the frequencies of individuals being imitated and the likelihood for them to be reference models. We find that the level of collective cooperation can be enhanced whenever the influence-based reference selection pattern is integrated into the strategy updating process. Results also show that the evolution of cooperation can be promoted when the increase in individuals’ frequency of being imitated upholds their influence in large magnitude. Our work may improve the understanding of how influence-based selection patterns promote cooperative behavior.

  18. Benefits of cooperation with genetic kin in a subsocial spider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, J.M.; Bilde, T.

    2008-01-01

    also promote helping behavior in many cooperatively breeding taxa. Investigating transitional systems is therefore particularly suitable for understanding the influence of kin selection on the initial spread of cooperative behaviors. Here we investigated the role of kinship in cooperative feeding. We...... in prey capture and feed communally. We provide clear experimental evidence for net benefits of cooperating with kin. Genetic relatedness within groups and not association with familiar individuals directly improved feeding efficiency and growth rates, demonstrating a positive effect of kin cooperation...

  19. Group Cooperation without Group Selection: Modest Punishment Can Recruit Much Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnow, Max M; Delton, Andrew W; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2015-01-01

    Humans everywhere cooperate in groups to achieve benefits not attainable by individuals. Individual effort is often not automatically tied to a proportionate share of group benefits. This decoupling allows for free-riding, a strategy that (absent countermeasures) outcompetes cooperation. Empirically and formally, punishment potentially solves the evolutionary puzzle of group cooperation. Nevertheless, standard analyses appear to show that punishment alone is insufficient, because second-order free riders (those who cooperate but do not punish) can be shown to outcompete punishers. Consequently, many have concluded that other processes, such as cultural or genetic group selection, are required. Here, we present a series of agent-based simulations that show that group cooperation sustained by punishment easily evolves by individual selection when you introduce into standard models more biologically plausible assumptions about the social ecology and psychology of ancestral humans. We relax three unrealistic assumptions of past models. First, past models assume all punishers must punish every act of free riding in their group. We instead allow punishment to be probabilistic, meaning punishers can evolve to only punish some free riders some of the time. This drastically lowers the cost of punishment as group size increases. Second, most models unrealistically do not allow punishment to recruit labor; punishment merely reduces the punished agent's fitness. We instead realistically allow punished free riders to cooperate in the future to avoid punishment. Third, past models usually restrict agents to interact in a single group their entire lives. We instead introduce realistic social ecologies in which agents participate in multiple, partially overlapping groups. Because of this, punitive tendencies are more expressed and therefore more exposed to natural selection. These three moves toward greater model realism reveal that punishment and cooperation easily evolve by

  20. Group Cooperation without Group Selection: Modest Punishment Can Recruit Much Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max M Krasnow

    Full Text Available Humans everywhere cooperate in groups to achieve benefits not attainable by individuals. Individual effort is often not automatically tied to a proportionate share of group benefits. This decoupling allows for free-riding, a strategy that (absent countermeasures outcompetes cooperation. Empirically and formally, punishment potentially solves the evolutionary puzzle of group cooperation. Nevertheless, standard analyses appear to show that punishment alone is insufficient, because second-order free riders (those who cooperate but do not punish can be shown to outcompete punishers. Consequently, many have concluded that other processes, such as cultural or genetic group selection, are required. Here, we present a series of agent-based simulations that show that group cooperation sustained by punishment easily evolves by individual selection when you introduce into standard models more biologically plausible assumptions about the social ecology and psychology of ancestral humans. We relax three unrealistic assumptions of past models. First, past models assume all punishers must punish every act of free riding in their group. We instead allow punishment to be probabilistic, meaning punishers can evolve to only punish some free riders some of the time. This drastically lowers the cost of punishment as group size increases. Second, most models unrealistically do not allow punishment to recruit labor; punishment merely reduces the punished agent's fitness. We instead realistically allow punished free riders to cooperate in the future to avoid punishment. Third, past models usually restrict agents to interact in a single group their entire lives. We instead introduce realistic social ecologies in which agents participate in multiple, partially overlapping groups. Because of this, punitive tendencies are more expressed and therefore more exposed to natural selection. These three moves toward greater model realism reveal that punishment and cooperation

  1. Cooperative learning as an approach to pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolinske, T; Millis, B

    1999-01-01

    Lecture-based pedagogical approaches cannot adequately prepare students in professional and technical occupational therapy programs. Faculty members in other disciplines are turning to a well-known and well-researched teaching approach called cooperative learning, which is more carefully structured and defined than most other forms of small group learning. Cooperative learning includes several key principles: positive interdependence, individual responsibility, appropriate grouping, group maintenance, cooperative skills, and promotive (interaction) time. This article provides ideas for managing the classroom with cooperative learning activities and describes eight of them: Three-Step Interview, Roundtable, Think-Pair-Share, Structured Problem Solving, Send/Pass-a-Problem, Generic Question Stems, Double Entry Journal, and Dyadic Essay Confrontation. Each activity is applied to content embedded in professional and technical occupational therapy curricula. A cooperative learning approach to evaluating learning is also presented.

  2. Social Stratification and Cooperative Behavior in Spatial Prisoners' Dilemma Games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lu

    Full Text Available It has been a long-lasting pursuit to promote cooperation, and this study aims to promote cooperation via the combination of social stratification and the spatial prisoners' dilemma game. It is previously assumed that agents share the identical payoff matrix, but the stratification or diversity exists and exerts influences in real societies. Thus, two additional classes, elites and scoundrels, derive from and coexist with the existing class, commons. Three classes have different payoff matrices. We construct a model where agents play the prisoners' dilemma game with neighbors. It indicates that stratification and temptation jointly influence cooperation. Temptation permanently reduces cooperation; elites play a positive role in promoting cooperation while scoundrels undermine it. As the temptation getting larger and larger, elites play a more and more positive and critical role while scoundrels' negative effect becomes weaker and weaker, and it is more obvious when temptation goes beyond its threshold.

  3. Cooperation and retaliation in collective good games : Does counter-punishment really destroy cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Dieko; Dijkstra, Jacob; Flache, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has pointed to the potential of counter-punishment opportunities to undermine the positive effects of ‘altruistic punishment’ on cooperation in collective good games. These studies may have excluded important aspects of punishment in real life settings, notably the ambiguity

  4. Cooperative and Non-Cooperative Game Control Strategies of the Ship in Collision Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Lisowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces the positional cooperative and non-cooperative game of a greater number of met ships for the description of the process considered as well as for the synthesis of optimal control strategies of the own ship in collision situation. The approximated mathematical model of differential game in the form of triple linear programming problem is used for the synthesis of safe ship trajectory as a multistage process decision. The considerations have been illustrated an example of program computer simulation to determine the safe ship trajectories in situation of passing a many of the ships encountered.

  5. Subsidizing R&D cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.

    2001-01-01

    A framework is developed with which the implementation of two commonly used R&D-stimulating policies can be evaluated: providing R&D subsidies and sustaining the formation of R&D cooperatives. Subsidized R&D cooperatives can also be analyzed. The analysis shows that providing R&D subsidies is more

  6. Physical Layer Security for Cooperative NOMA Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Jianchao

    2018-01-09

    In this correspondence, we investigate the physical layer security for cooperative non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) systems, where both amplify-and-forward (AF) and decode-and-forward (DF) protocols are considered. More specifically, some analytical expressions are derived for secrecy outage probability (SOP) and strictly positive secrecy capacity (SPSC). Results show that AF and DF almost achieve the same secrecy performance. Moreover, asymptotic results demonstrate that the SOP tends to a constant at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Finally, our results show that the secrecy performance of considered NOMA systems is independent of the channel conditions between the relay and the poor user.

  7. Physical Layer Security for Cooperative NOMA Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Jianchao; Yang, Liang; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    In this correspondence, we investigate the physical layer security for cooperative non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) systems, where both amplify-and-forward (AF) and decode-and-forward (DF) protocols are considered. More specifically, some analytical expressions are derived for secrecy outage probability (SOP) and strictly positive secrecy capacity (SPSC). Results show that AF and DF almost achieve the same secrecy performance. Moreover, asymptotic results demonstrate that the SOP tends to a constant at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Finally, our results show that the secrecy performance of considered NOMA systems is independent of the channel conditions between the relay and the poor user.

  8. Effects of Cooperative Learning STAD on Mathematical Communication Ability of Elementary School Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelasari, E.; Wahyudin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the increasing of mathematical communications capability, and difference between students who get STAD cooperative learning and students who receive Direct Instruction. This study is a quasi-experimental study with pretest posttest study design. Subjects in this study in one of the fifth grade elementary school located in Cibeureum District, Kuningan. The research instrument used was a written test mathematical communication skills. The results showed that the improvement of mathematical communication capabilities Direct Instruction students who scored significantly better than students who learned with STAD cooperative learning. By grouping according to the ability of students will show a positive impact on student achievement in the classroom.

  9. RUSSIAN-VIETNAMESE MILITARY-TECHNICAL COOPERATION: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н В Федоров

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam plays important role in Russian policy in the Asia-Pacific region. Military-technical cooperation holds special position in Russian-Vietnamese relations. The aim of the article is the detection of the special features of military-technical cooperation between Russia and Vietnam, and also challenges and opportunities it provides for Russian policy. After the collapse of the USSR defense interaction between Russia and Vietnam was determined by commercial foundations. Vietnam needed new Russian weapons to protect its interests, first of all, in the South China Sea. For Moscow military-technical cooperation with Vietnam got economic significance. But later there was a rise of political dimension of cooperation in this sphere, influenced by some external factors. The period of the 2000-2010s was marked by growth of arms sales from Russia to Vietnam. It was mostly caused by the escalation of the South China Sea conflict, for which US-Chinese contradictions began to play an increasing role. Military-technical coopera-tion with Vietnam influenced some aspects of policy of Russia in the region. There was an increase of indi-rect involvement of Russia into the South China Sea conflict. Russian arms sales for Vietnam became one of problems in Russian-Chinese relations. But Russia and China could cope with these disputes, partly because of enlargement of their interaction in international relations, including the demonstration of similar position for some aspects of the South China Sea conflict. In the framework of development of defense cooperation with Vietnam, Russia could get special conditions of access to facilities of Cam Ranh Bay that strengthened its strategic positions in the region. Russian cooperation with Hanoi in military-technical field and general reinforcement of Russian positions in Vietnam might be also a reason for contradictions with the US.

  10. Bateman's principle is reversed in a cooperatively breeding bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apakupakul, Kathleen; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2015-04-01

    Bateman's principle is not only used to explain sex differences in mating behaviour, but also to determine which sex has the greater opportunity for sexual selection. It predicts that the relationship between the number of mates and the number of offspring produced should be stronger for males than for females. Yet, it is unclear whether Bateman's principle holds in cooperatively breeding systems where the strength of selection on traits used in intrasexual competition is high in both sexes. We tested Bateman's principle in the cooperatively breeding superb starling (Lamprotornis superbus), finding that only females showed a significant, positive Bateman gradient. We also found that the opportunity for selection was on average higher in females, but that its strength and direction oscillated through time. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that sexual selection underlies the female trait elaboration observed in superb starlings and other cooperative breeders. Even though the Bateman gradient was steeper for females than for males, the year-to-year oscillation in the strength and direction of the opportunity for selection likely explains why cooperative breeders do not exhibit sexual role reversal. Thus, Bateman's principle may not hold in cooperative breeders where both sexes appear to be under mutually strong sexual selection. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Adult sex ratios and their implications for cooperative breeding in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komdeur, Jan; Székely, Tamás; Long, Xiaoyan; Kingma, Sjouke A

    2017-09-19

    Cooperative breeding is a form of breeding system where in addition to a core breeding pair, one or more usually non-breeding individuals provide offspring care. Cooperative breeding is widespread in birds, but its origin and maintenance in contemporary populations are debated. Although deviations in adult sex ratio (ASR, the proportion of males in the adult population) have been hypothesized to influence the occurrence of cooperative breeding because of the resulting surplus of one sex and limited availability of breeding partners, this hypothesis has not been tested across a wide range of taxa. By using data from 188 bird species and phylogenetically controlled analyses, we show that cooperatively breeding species have more male-biased ASRs than non-cooperative species. Importantly, ASR predicts helper sex ratio: in species with more male-biased ASR, helper sex ratio is also more male biased. We also show that offspring sex ratios do not predict ASRs, so that the skewed ASRs emerge during the period when individuals aim to obtain a breeding position or later during adulthood. In line with this result, we found that ASR (among both cooperatively and non-cooperatively breeding species) is inversely related to sex bias in dispersal distance, suggesting that the cost of dispersal is more severe for the further-dispersing sex. As females usually disperse further in birds, this explains the generally male-biased ASR, and in combination with benefits of philopatry for males, this probably explains why ASR is more biased in cooperatively breeding species. Taken together, our results suggest that a sex bias in helping in cooperatively breeding species relates to biased ASRs. We propose that this relationship is driven by sex-specific costs and benefits of dispersal and helping, as well as other demographic factors. Future phylogenetic comparative and experimental work is needed to establish how this relationship emerges.This article is part of the themed issue 'Adult sex

  12. [Infection control team (ICT) in cooperation with microbiology laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Mitsuhiro

    2012-10-01

    Infection control as a medical safety measure is an important issue in all medical facilities. In order to tackle this measure, cooperation between the infection control team (ICT) and microbiological laboratory is indispensable. Multiple drug-resistant bacteria have shifted from Gram-positive bacteria to Gram-negative bacilli within the last ten years. There are also a variety of bacilli, complicating the examination method and test results further. Therefore, cooperation between the ICT and microbiological laboratory has become important to understand examination results and to use them. In order to maintain functional cooperation, explanatory and communicative ability between the microbiological laboratory and ICT is required every day. Such positive information exchange will develop into efficient and functional ICT activity.

  13. Quantifying the energetics of cooperativity in a ternary protein complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter S; Schuck, Peter; Sundberg, Eric J

    2002-01-01

    and mathematical modeling to describe the energetics of cooperativity in a trimolecular protein complex. As a model system for quantifying cooperativity, we studied the ternary complex formed by the simultaneous interaction of a superantigen with major histocompatibility complex and T cell receptor, for which...... a structural model is available. This system exhibits positive and negative cooperativity, as well as augmentation of the temperature dependence of binding kinetics upon the cooperative interaction of individual protein components in the complex. Our experimental and theoretical analysis may be applicable...... to other systems involving cooperativity....

  14. Tax cooperation among member states of European Union and Directive on administrative cooperation in the field of taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimovski Aleksandar G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries have possibility to choose between several alternatives for cooperation in international tax matters at global level. They can decide not to cooperate or provide some form of tax cooperation. Because of harmful tax competition among countries and efforts of international organizations, all countries in the world are oblidged to comply with one of multiple alternatives for tax cooperation. Situation in European Union (hereinafter EU is specific. EU is not country or classic international organization. By the reason of its successful functioning, EU has need for tax cooperation. EU has attempted to harmonise tax policies of member states, but member states did not approve that. Only indirect taxes are harmonized on EU level, direct taxes are harmonized only to the point necessarily for functioning of single market. That is why tax cooperation instruments are so important. Object of this paper are procedures and measures, stipulated by the most important instrument in the field of tax cooperation enacted by institutions of EU, its development and status in international tax law. Regulatives and directives in field of tax cooperation in the EU are 'pioneers' in tax matters. EU instruments provide standards which are subsequently accepted by several international organizations - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and United Nations (UN. Our purpose is to present positive and negative aspects of tax cooperation in the EU. In time of crisis efficient tax cooperation provides higher revenues for the member states, on the other hand, taxpayers and tax administrations have increased expenses as result of tax cooperation which are not fairly distributed.

  15. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    recent literature has highlighted that difficulties with employment are a feature of mental disorders, with high unemployment rates and short job tenure. Yet, success in employment for this population can be expected when they are provided with adequate support and opportunities. B-type social cooperatives in Italy are found to be very useful in order to help this disadvantaged category of workers find and keep a job. The work environment is more flexible and allows a better integration with less stigma and better work accommodations compared to the open labour market and/or other public/private organizations. Results from B-type Italian social cooperatives studies show that mentally ill workers value the importance of working, are highly satisfied with their job, are motivated to continue working, are engaged in their job and willing to work in the competitive labour market. Also, studies show that environmental characteristics of the social cooperative, such as the implementation of work accommodations and the possibility to work in an environment that is highly supportive, have an impact on increasing the likelihood of being highly satisfied with the job, which in turn is positively related to job tenure. In sum, this article shed light on the historical background that led to the development of social cooperatives in Italy. Furthermore, the features of B-type co-ops that play a central role in facilitating the work integration of people with mental disorders are described in this paper. In general, Italian B-type social cooperatives are found to provide a meaningful work experience to people with mental disorders, that help them increase not only vocational outcomes, but also psycho-social outcomes, and generally to help them better integrate into society. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Positive cooperativity of the specific binding between Hg2+ ion and T:T mismatched base pairs in duplex DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torigoe, Hidetaka; Miyakawa, Yukako; Ono, Akira; Kozasa, Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hg 2+ specifically bound with the T:T mismatched base pair at 1:1 molar ratio. ► The binding constant between Hg 2+ and the T:T mismatched base pair was 10 6 M −1 . ► The binding constant was larger than those for nonspecific metal–DNA interactions. ► The binding constant for the second Hg 2+ was larger than that for the first Hg 2+ . ► The positive cooperative binding was observed between Hg 2+ and multiple T:T. - Abstract: Metal-mediated base pairs by the interaction between metal ions and artificial bases in oligonucleotides have been developed for their potential applications in nanotechnology. We recently found that a natural T:T mismatched base pair bound with Hg 2+ ion to form a novel T–Hg–T base pair. Here, we examined the thermodynamic properties of the binding between Hg 2+ and each of the single and double T:T mismatched base pair duplex DNAs by isothermal titration calorimetry. Hg 2+ specifically bound with the T:T mismatched base pair at 1:1 molar ratio with 10 6 M −1 binding constant, which was significantly larger than those for nonspecific metal ion–DNA interactions. In the Hg 2+ –double T:T mismatched base pair interaction, the affinity for the second Hg 2+ binding was significantly larger than that for the first Hg 2+ binding. The positively cooperative binding may be favorable to align multiple Hg 2+ in duplex DNA for the application of the metal-mediated base pairs in nanotechnology.

  17. Partner Choice in Raven (Corvus corax) Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa-Haas, Kenji; Schiestl, Martina; Bugnyar, Thomas; Massen, Jorg J M

    2016-01-01

    Although social animals frequently make decisions about when or with whom to cooperate, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of partner choice. Most previous studies compared different dyads' performances, though did not allow an actual choice among partners. We tested eleven ravens, Corvus corax, in triads, giving them first the choice to cooperate with either a highly familiar or a rather unfamiliar partner and, second, with either a friend or a non-friend using a cooperative string-pulling task. In either test, the ravens had a second choice and could cooperate with the other partner, given that this one had not pulled the string in the meantime. We show that during the experiments, these partner ravens indeed learn to wait and inhibit pulling, respectively. Moreover, the results of these two experiments show that ravens' preferences for a specific cooperation partner are not based on familiarity. In contrast, the ravens did show a preference based on relationship quality, as they did choose to cooperate significantly more with friends than with non-friends and they were also more proficient when cooperating with a friend. In order to further identify the proximate mechanism of this preference, we designed an open-choice experiment for the whole group where all birds were free to cooperate on two separate apparatuses. This set-up allowed us to distinguish between preferences for close proximity and preferences to cooperate. The results revealed that friends preferred staying close to each other, but did not necessarily cooperate with one another, suggesting that tolerance of proximity and not relationship quality as a whole may be the driving force behind partner choice in raven cooperation. Consequently, we stress the importance of experiments that allow such titrations and, suggest that these results have important implications for the interpretations of cooperation studies that did not include open partner choice.

  18. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-08-04

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner's dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation.

  19. Evolution of Cooperation in Public Goods Games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Chengyi; Zhang Juanjuan; Wang Jinsong; Wang Yiling

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of cooperation with evolutionary public goods games based on finite populations, where four pure strategies: cooperators, defectors, punishers and loners who are unwilling to participate are considered. By adopting approximate best response dynamics, we show that the magnitude of rationality not only quantitatively explains the experiment results in [Nature (London) 425 (2003) 390], but also it will heavily influence the evolution of cooperation. Compared with previous results of infinite populations, which result in two equilibriums, we show that there merely exists a special equilibrium and the relevant high value of bounded rationality will sustain cooperation. In addition, we characterize that loner's payoff plays an active role in the maintenance of cooperation, which will only be warranted for the low and moderate values of loner's payoff. It thus indicates the effects of rationality and loner's payoff will influence the cooperation. Finally, we highlight the important result that the introduction of voluntary participation and punishment will facilitate cooperation greatly. (general)

  20. An information economic rationale for cooperatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter

    2005-01-01

    We consider how to organise the processing and marketing of an agricultural product when farming costs are known only by the individual farmers. We show that when marginal costs are uncorrelated, the market for final goods is competitive, and the market for processing is non-competitive, the soci......-competitive, the socially optimal production levels are sustained by a cooperative and a cooperative only. We show also that the cooperative form is particularly useful when the cost uncertainty is large and the net average revenue product is small....

  1. Learning Microbiology Through Cooperation: Designing Cooperative Learning Activities that Promote Interdependence, Interaction, and Accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine E. Trempy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A microbiology course and its corresponding learning activities have been structured according to the Cooperative Learning Model. This course, The World According to Microbes, integrates science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET majors and non-SMET majors into teams of students charged with problem solving activities that are microbial in origin. In this study we describe development of learning activities that utilize key components of Cooperative Learning—positive interdependence, promotive interaction, individual accountability, teamwork skills, and group processing. Assessments and evaluations over an 8-year period demonstrate high retention of key concepts in microbiology and high student satisfaction with the course.

  2. Pedagogic Effects of Cooperative Learning Assessment in the Chemistry I Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Jennifer

    Over the last 30 years, there has been ongoing research and debate concerning the implementation and effectiveness of cooperative learning in the classroom. The problem is determining the fair assignment of individual grades while using cooperative work. Teachers have limited time to compile, equate, and convert group grades for each student. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to examine the impact of cooperative learning assessment on student achievement. This study aimed to determine the relationship between teacher-assigned/group-elected laboratory positions (independent variable) and academic achievement (dependent variable) while using the cards on the table approach of cooperative learning assessment. Participants consisted of 2 classes of Chemistry I students enrolled in a small rural school system. Alternative assessment practices such as the cards on the table approach of cooperative learning assessment were examined and discussed. Results of ANCOVA analyses indicated no significance difference in the adjusted scores between teacher-assigned versus group-elected laboratory positions within structured laboratory groups on the academic achievement of Chemistry I students as measured by a standardized pretest/posttest while using the cooperative learning assessment. Conducting paired samples t tests revealed the group-assigned students improved significantly from pretest to posttest while the teacher-assigned students had no significant improvements. The study may affect positive social change by helping teachers develop guidelines for fair assessment of individual grades from cooperative learning activities and to enrich the academic repertoire of students, increasing their awareness of accountability and collaboration.

  3. Lane-Level Vehicle Trajectory Reckoning for Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinsong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a lane-level positioning method by trajectory reckoning without Global Positioning System (GPS equipment in the environment of Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System (CVIS. Firstly, the accuracy requirements of vehicle position in CVIS applications and the applicability of GPS positioning methods were analyzed. Then, a trajectory reckoning method based on speed and steering data from vehicle’s Control Area Network (CAN and roadside calibration facilities was proposed, which consists of three critical models, including real-time estimation of steering angle and vehicle direction, vehicle movement reckoning, and wireless calibration. Finally, the proposed method was validated through simulation and field tests under a variety of traffic conditions. Results show that the accuracy of the reckoned vehicle position can reach the lane level and match the requirements of common CVIS applications.

  4. The Emergence of Relationship-based Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Wang, Jianwei

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the emergence of relationship-based cooperation by coupling two simple mechanisms into the model: tie strength based investment preference and homophily assumption. We construct the model by categorizing game participants into four types: prosocialists (players who prefers to invest in their intimate friends), antisocialists (players who prefer to invest in strangers), egoists (players who never cooperate) and altruists (players who cooperate indifferently with anyone). We show that the relationship-based cooperation (prosocialists) is favored throughout the evolution if we assume players of the same type have stronger ties than different ones. Moreover, we discover that strengthening the internal bonds within the strategic clusters further promotes the competitiveness of prosocialists and therefore facilitates the emergence of relationship-based cooperation in our proposed scenarios. The robustness of the model is also tested under different strategy updating rules and network structures. The results show that this argument is robust against the variations of initial conditions and therefore can be considered as a fundamental theoretical framework to study relationship-based cooperation in reality.

  5. APPLICABILITY OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING TECHNIQUES IN DIFFERENT CLASSROOM CONTEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Issy Yuliasri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the results of pre-test post-test, feedback questionnaire and observation during a community service program entitled ―Training on English Teaching using Cooperative Learning Techniques for Elementary and Junior High School Teachers of Sekolah Alam Arridho Semarang‖. It was an English teaching training program intended to equip the teachers with the knowledge and skills of using the different cooperative learning techniques such as jigsaw, think-pair-share, three-step interview, roundrobin braistorming, three-minute review, numbered heads together, team-pair-solo, circle the sage, dan partners. This program was participated by 8 teachers of different subjects (not only English, but most of them had good mastery of English. The objectives of this program was to improve teachers‘ skills in using the different cooperative learning techniques to vary their teaching, so that students would be more motivated to learn and improve their English skill. Besides, the training also gave the teachers the knowledge and skills to adjust their techniques with the basic competence and learning objectives to be achieved as well as with the teaching materials to be used. This was also done through workshops using cooperative learning techniques, so that the participants had real experiences of using cooperative learning techniques (learning by doing. The participants were also encouraged to explore the applicability of the techniques in their classroom contexts, in different areas of their teaching. This community service program showed very positive results. The pre-test and post-test results showed that before the training program all the participants did not know the nine cooperative techniques to be trained, but after the program they mastered the techniques as shown from the teaching-learning scenarios they developed following the test instructions. In addition, the anonymous questionnaires showed that all the participants

  6. Positioning the Co-op Program for Maximum Marketing Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ronald R.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the concept of positioning, which is the way that individuals perceive and are made aware of a program and believe in its benefit to them and its application to cooperative education programs. Includes a five-step plan for assessing the position of cooperative programs and six ways to implement a positioning strategy. (JOW)

  7. Incentives and cooperation in firms: Field evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Johannes; Herbertz, Claus; Sliwka, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    We empirically investigate the impact of incentive scheme structure on the degree of cooperation in firms using a unique and representative data set. Combining employee survey data with detailed firm level information on the relative importance of individual, team, and company performance for compensation, we find a significant positive relation between the intensity of team incentives and several survey measures of cooperation. Moreover, higher powered team incentives are associated with low...

  8. The effect of wealth-based anti-expectation behaviors on public cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Chen, Tong; You, Xinshang; Wang, Yongjie

    2018-03-01

    Wealth difference is a common sense in our society. It is unreasonable to assume people have the same capability to donate money to the common pool in public goods game (PGG). Individuals have behavioral expectation towards their neighbors. In this paper, we introduce wealth-based anti-expectation mechanism to explore cooperation. Through numerical simulation results, we are glad to find that the anti-expectation mechanism could stimulate cooperation when the positive effects are equal to or larger than the negative effects from anti-expectation behaviors. Based on this mechanism, we propose propagation mechanism which aims to propagate the positive effects from the poor to inspire more people to choose cooperative strategies. When individuals are tolerant towards defectors, The fraction of cooperators increases with the increment of propagation distance. Enlarging the distance is not wise when individuals are harsh towards defectors. Additionally, we find that the more tolerant towards defectors we are, the higher the cooperation rate is in general. Therefore in PGG, we could consider one's anti-expectation towards others' behaviors and improve cooperation by propagating the poor's anti-expectation effects.

  9. The evolution of cooperation in spatial groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianlei; Zhang Chunyan; Chu Tianguang

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We propose a model of evolutionary games in which individuals are organized into networked groups. → We show that the social dilemma can be resolved and high cooperation levels are attained. → Larger average group size would lead to lower cooperation level but higher average payoffs. → The results show that higher expectations can bring the system with larger average payoffs. - Abstract: Much of human cooperation remains an evolutionary riddle. There is evidence that individuals are often organized into groups in many social situations. Inspired by this observation, we propose a simple model of evolutionary public goods games in which individuals are organized into networked groups. Here, nodes in the network represent groups; the edges, connecting the nodes, refer to the interactions between the groups. Individuals establish public goods games with partners in the same group and migrate among neighboring groups depending on their payoffs and expectations. We show that the paradigmatic public goods social dilemma can be resolved and high cooperation levels are attained in structured groups, even in relatively harsh conditions for cooperation. Further, by means of numerical simulations and mean-field analysis, we arrive at the result: larger average group size and milder cooperation environment would lead to lower cooperation level but higher average payoffs of the entire population. Altogether, these results emphasize that our understanding of cooperation can be enhanced by investigations of how spatial groups of individuals affect the evolution dynamics, which might help in explaining the emergence and evolution of cooperation.

  10. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  11. Do Coffee Farmers Benefit in Food Security from Participating in Coffee Cooperatives? Evidence from Southwest Ethiopia Coffee Cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumeta, Zekarias; D'Haese, Marijke

    2018-06-01

    Most coffee in Ethiopia is produced by smallholder farmers who face a daily struggle to get sufficient income but also to feed their families. At the same time, many smallholder coffee producers are members of cooperatives. Yet, literature has paid little attention to the effect of cooperatives on combating food insecurity among cash crop producers including coffee farmers. The objective of the study was to investigate how coffee cooperative membership may affect food security among coffee farm households in Southwest Ethiopia. The study used cross-sectional household data on income, expenditure on food, staple food production (maize and teff), and utilization of improved inputs (fertilizer and improved seed) collected from 256 randomly selected farm households (132 cooperative members and 124 nonmembers) and applied an inverse probability weighting (IPW) estimation to assess the impact of cooperative membership on food security. The result revealed that cooperative membership has a positive and significant effect on staple food production (maize and teff) and facilitated technological transformation via increased utilization of fertilizer and improved seeds. Nonetheless, the effect on food expenditure and income could not be confirmed. Findings suggest a trade-off between coffee marketing and input supply functions of the cooperatives, impairing their true food security impact from the pooled income and production effect.

  12. Some aspects of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera A, V.E.

    1984-01-01

    The present work deals with some aspects of International cooperation which are directly related with Science and Technology in general, but which have total validity in Nuclear Science and Technology. It is meant particularly for Latin-American countries as a whole. Some ideas meant to review the factors that act on the development of Science and Technology are briefly developed; the number of positive achievements reached in Sc. and T.; is recounted; the problems to be overcome in Sc. and T. are numbered and, finally, some propositions for increasing international cooperation in Science and Technology are exposed. (Author)

  13. Collaborative hierarchy maintains cooperation in asymmetric games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonioni, Alberto; Pereda, María; Cronin, Katherine A; Tomassini, Marco; Sánchez, Angel

    2018-03-29

    The interplay of social structure and cooperative behavior is under much scrutiny lately as behavior in social contexts becomes increasingly relevant for everyday life. Earlier experimental work showed that the existence of a social hierarchy, earned through competition, was detrimental for the evolution of cooperative behaviors. Here, we study the case in which individuals are ranked in a hierarchical structure based on their performance in a collective effort by having them play a Public Goods Game. In the first treatment, participants are ranked according to group earnings while, in the second treatment, their rankings are based on individual earnings. Subsequently, participants play asymmetric Prisoner's Dilemma games where higher-ranked players gain more than lower ones. Our experiments show that there are no detrimental effects of the hierarchy formed based on group performance, yet when ranking is assigned individually we observe a decrease in cooperation. Our results show that different levels of cooperation arise from the fact that subjects are interpreting rankings as a reputation which carries information about which subjects were cooperators in the previous phase. Our results demonstrate that noting the manner in which a hierarchy is established is essential for understanding its effects on cooperation.

  14. Cooperative newsvendor games : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montrucchio, L.; Norde, H.; Ozen, U.; Scarsini, M.; Slikker, M.; Choi, T.-M.

    2012-01-01

    In this survey, we review some of the main contributions to the cooperative approach of newsvendor situations. We show how newsvendor situations with several retailers can be modeled as a transferable-utility cooperative game and we concentrate on one solution concept: the core. First, we examine

  15. Ranking Features on Psychological Dynamics of Cooperative Team Work through Bayesian Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Fuster-Parra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to rank some features that characterize the psychological dynamics of cooperative team work in order to determine priorities for interventions and formation: leading positive feedback, cooperative manager and collaborative manager features. From a dataset of 20 cooperative sport teams (403 soccer players, the characteristics of the prototypical sports teams are studied using an average Bayesian network (BN and two special types of BNs, the Bayesian classifiers: naive Bayes (NB and tree augmented naive Bayes (TAN. BNs are selected as they are able to produce probability estimates rather than predictions. BN results show that the antecessors (the “top” features ranked are the team members’ expectations and their attraction to the social aspects of the task. The main node is formed by the cooperative behaviors, the consequences ranked at the BN bottom (ratified by the TAN trees and the instantiations made, the roles assigned to the members and their survival inside the same team. These results should help managers to determine contents and priorities when they have to face team-building actions.

  16. Cooperation and contagion in web-based, networked public goods experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Suri

    Full Text Available A longstanding idea in the literature on human cooperation is that cooperation should be reinforced when conditional cooperators are more likely to interact. In the context of social networks, this idea implies that cooperation should fare better in highly clustered networks such as cliques than in networks with low clustering such as random networks. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a series of web-based experiments, in which 24 individuals played a local public goods game arranged on one of five network topologies that varied between disconnected cliques and a random regular graph. In contrast with previous theoretical work, we found that network topology had no significant effect on average contributions. This result implies either that individuals are not conditional cooperators, or else that cooperation does not benefit from positive reinforcement between connected neighbors. We then tested both of these possibilities in two subsequent series of experiments in which artificial seed players were introduced, making either full or zero contributions. First, we found that although players did generally behave like conditional cooperators, they were as likely to decrease their contributions in response to low contributing neighbors as they were to increase their contributions in response to high contributing neighbors. Second, we found that positive effects of cooperation were contagious only to direct neighbors in the network. In total we report on 113 human subjects experiments, highlighting the speed, flexibility, and cost-effectiveness of web-based experiments over those conducted in physical labs.

  17. Coaction versus reciprocity in continuous-time models of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, G Sander; Riebli, Thomas; Taborsky, Michael

    2014-09-07

    Cooperating animals frequently show closely coordinated behaviours organized by a continuous flow of information between interacting partners. Such real-time coaction is not captured by the iterated prisoner's dilemma and other discrete-time reciprocal cooperation games, which inherently feature a delay in information exchange. Here, we study the evolution of cooperation when individuals can dynamically respond to each other's actions. We develop continuous-time analogues of iterated-game models and describe their dynamics in terms of two variables, the propensity of individuals to initiate cooperation (altruism) and their tendency to mirror their partner's actions (coordination). These components of cooperation stabilize at an evolutionary equilibrium or show oscillations, depending on the chosen payoff parameters. Unlike reciprocal altruism, cooperation by coaction does not require that those willing to initiate cooperation pay in advance for uncertain future benefits. Correspondingly, we show that introducing a delay to information transfer between players is equivalent to increasing the cost of cooperation. Cooperative coaction can therefore evolve much more easily than reciprocal cooperation. When delays entirely prevent coordination, we recover results from the discrete-time alternating prisoner's dilemma, indicating that coaction and reciprocity are connected by a continuum of opportunities for real-time information exchange. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Incentive Model Based on Cooperative Relationship in Sustainable Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangdong Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering the cooperative relationship between owners and contractors in sustainable construction projects, as well as the synergistic effects created by cooperative behaviors, a cooperative incentive model was developed using game theory. The model was formulated and analyzed under both non-moral hazard and moral hazard situations. Then, a numerical simulation and example were proposed to verify the conclusions derived from the model. The results showed that the synergistic effect increases the input intensity of one party’s resource transfer into the increase of marginal utility of the other party, thus the owner and contractor are willing to enhance their levels of effort. One party’s optimal benefit allocation coefficient is positively affected by its own output efficiency, and negatively affected by the other party’s output efficiency. The effort level and expected benefits of the owner and contractor can be improved by enhancing the cooperative relationship between the two parties, as well as enhancing the net benefits of a sustainable construction project. The synergistic effect cannot lower the negative effect of moral hazard behaviors during the implementation of sustainable construction projects. Conversely, the higher levels of the cooperative relationship, the wider the gaps amongst the optimal values under both non-moral hazard and moral hazard situations for the levels of effort, expected benefits and net project benefits. Since few studies to date have emphasized the effects of cooperative relationship on sustainable construction projects, this study constructed a game-based incentive model to bridge the gaps. This study contributes significant theoretical and practical insights into the management of cooperation amongst stakeholders, and into the enhancement of the overall benefits of sustainable construction projects.

  19. Kantian Optimization: An Approach to Cooperative Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    John E. Roemer

    2014-01-01

    Although evidence accrues in biology, anthropology and experimental economics that homo sapiens is a cooperative species, the reigning assumption in economic theory is that individuals optimize in an autarkic manner (as in Nash and Walrasian equilibrium). I here postulate a cooperative kind of optimizing behavior, called Kantian. It is shown that in simple economic models, when there are negative externalities (such as congestion effects from use of a commonly owned resource) or positive exte...

  20. Political Ideology, Trust, and Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliet, Daniel; Tybur, Joshua M.; Wu, Junhui; Antonellis, Christian; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Theories suggest that political ideology relates to cooperation, with conservatives being more likely to pursue selfish outcomes, and liberals more likely to pursue egalitarian outcomes. In study 1, we examine how political ideology and political party affiliation (Republican vs. Democrat) predict cooperation with a partner who self-identifies as Republican or Democrat in two samples before (n = 362) and after (n = 366) the 2012 US presidential election. Liberals show slightly more concern for their partners’ outcomes compared to conservatives (study 1), and in study 2 this relation is supported by a meta-analysis (r = .15). However, in study 1, political ideology did not relate to cooperation in general. Both Republicans and Democrats extend more cooperation to their in-group relative to the out-group, and this is explained by expectations of cooperation from in-group versus out-group members. We discuss the relation between political ideology and cooperation within and between groups. PMID:29593363

  1. Impact of self interaction on the evolution of cooperation in social spatial dilemmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Chenxi; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A self interaction mechanism is integrated into two classical game models (PDG and SDG). • An additional payoff will be awarded into the cooperative agents for the payoff calculation. • Beyond the fixed interaction strength, distributed interaction strength is considered. • The collective cooperation can be drastically elevated into a higher level. - Abstract: In this paper, a new self interaction mechanism is integrated into two typical pairwise models including the prisoner’s dilemma and snowdrift games, where an additional payoff will be awarded into the cooperative agents. In the prisoner’s dilemma game, we take three types of additional payoffs into account, to be a fixed constant, a random value situated within the positive unilateral interval and a random one uniformly distributed within a bilateral interval. Large quantities of numerical simulations indicate the promotion of cooperation can be very noticeable whether in the case of von Neumann neighborhood or Moore neighborhood. In the meantime, the self interaction will also be extended into the snowdrift game in which two equilibria exist, and the outcomes clearly show that the collective cooperation is still drastically elevated into a higher level. Current results demonstrate that the self interaction might become a potential and effective means to enhance the behavior of cooperation, and be helpful for us to deeply understand the widespread persistence and emergence of cooperation within many animal and human being societies.

  2. Effects of R&D Cooperation to Innovation Performance in Open Innovation Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Liang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic nonlinear characteristics of internal and external environment in modern organization shows up increasingly, which make innovative research breakthrough organizational boundaries and present a pattern of open mode, the traditional mode of innovation is facing huge challenges like increasing innovation cycle, huge R&D input and inefficient knowledge transfer. And cooperation with external organizations to implement R&D is definitely a possibility to solve the open innovation environment challenge. Since organizations often have multiple dimensions of cooperation with different types of organization for research and development for the influence of organizational innovation performance or for exploring cooperation at the same time in different areas, and in different types of institutions. This paper studied the innovation performance of relevant government agencies except such innovation organization as enterprises, universities, and research institutions for the first time. This paper tracked on a survey of China's national engineering technology research center in related situation from 2002 to 2011 and collected related data to research and development cooperation and innovation performance for empirical research. Study found that universities have advantages in richness, in knowledge itself and knowledge accessible extent, cooperation with university in R&D is the best choice to promote the innovation performance of the organization. While cooperating with domestic universities and domestic enterprises to carry out research and development has bad effect in organizational innovation performance; while cooperation with domestic institutions and foreign institutions in the research and development plays a positive role in promoting innovation.

  3. Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a novel optimization algorithm based on the social foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. This paper presents a variation on the original BFO algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization (CBFO, which significantly improve the original BFO in solving complex optimization problems. This significant improvement is achieved by applying two cooperative approaches to the original BFO, namely, the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the implicit space decomposition level and the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the hybrid space decomposition level. The experiments compare the performance of two CBFO variants with the original BFO, the standard PSO and a real-coded GA on four widely used benchmark functions. The new method shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  4. Dual-Model Reverse CKF Algorithm in Cooperative Navigation for USV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most promising research directions, cooperative location with high precision and low-cost IMU is becoming an emerging research topic in many positioning fields. Low-cost MEMS/DVL is a preferred solution for dead-reckoning in multi-USV cooperative network. However, large misalignment angles and large gyro drift coexist in low-cost MEMS that leads to the poor observability. Based on cubature Kalman filter (CKF algorithm that has access to high accuracy and relative small computation, dual-model filtering scheme is proposed. It divides the whole process into two subsections that cut off the coupling relations and improve the observability of MEMS errors: it first estimates large misalignment angle and then estimates the gyro drift. Furthermore, to improve the convergence speed of large misalignment angle estimated in the first subsection, “time reversion” concept is introduced. It uses a short period time to forward and backward several times to improve convergence speed effectively. Finally, simulation analysis and experimental verification is conducted. Simulation and experimental results show that the algorithm can effectively improve the cooperative navigation performance.

  5. Natural gas co-operation in the Baltic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    Co-operation between the gas companies in the Baltic Region has been in place for several years. The overview given in this paper shows that the co-operation has been developed in trade, investments, privatisation and participation in the restructuring process. Finally, through a broad technical co-operation, significant efforts are made to establish common operational practices, codes and standards and the integrity of gas transmission pipelines. The Baltic Region, from a resource and gas interconnection point of view, enjoys a strategic position in the future development of the gas industry in Europe. The Baltic gas sector represents an interesting and growing gas market with the significant gas storage capacity. The region is also located strategically for planned gas interconnections and could serve as a transit corridor for the future gas supplies from western Siberia or the North Sea. This co-operation in the region is being supported by international regulations and agreements such as the Energy Charter between the European Union and the central and east European countries. However, at present the gas industry in the Baltic Region seems to be ahead of these international agreements. It may well be seen that trade arrangements such as Third Party Access are implemented directly by market forces rather than through international agreements. The regional development may thus be a driving force for the implementation of the Internal Energy Market for the gas industry

  6. The Cooperative Classroom Environment Measure (CCEM): Refining a Measure That Assesses Factors Motivating Student Prosociality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Joshua; Cavagnetto, Andy; Lamb, Richard

    2018-01-01

    A classroom's social environment and student dispositions towards social interaction together exert a substantial influence on academic outcomes. The strength of this effect is highlighted by research showing the positive effect of cooperative learning on student achievement, but can also be seen in the contribution that student social…

  7. India's energy needs and areas of international cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wazir, S. N.

    1980-03-15

    India's energy position is poor because of relatively large imports of oil, and poor reserves. In the impending energy crisis, developing countries will suffer (whether or not it is oil-rich) unless international cooperation is forthcoming. Energy consumption patterns in India are shown in tables. Energy reserves are also analyzed, including nonconventional sources (geothermal, solar, etc.). Possible areas for international cooperation are explored. (DLC)

  8. International cooperation and shortage of doctors: an analysis of the interaction between Brazil, Angola and Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Sandra Mara Campos; Oliveira, Felipe Proenço de; Matos, Mateus Falcão Martins; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco; Delduque, Maria Celia

    2017-07-01

    The shortage of doctors, especially in remote areas, is a critical issue for the development of national health systems and has thus been the focus of a number of international cooperation projects. An exploratory and qualitative study was conducted to examine cooperation between Brazil, Angola and Cuba. A nonsystematic literature review was conducted of selected open access articles and official documents addressing relevant health cooperation initiatives. Previously selected characteristics of actions designed to redress the shortage of doctors were compared. It was concluded that the interactions between the three countries were fruitful and potentially beneficial for the health of the population of these countries. South-South cooperation between these countries showed positive results in the educational and regulatory dimensions and adopted a non-dependence perspective that seeks to strengthen endogenous capacity, which are important factors for evaluating the structural components of health systems.

  9. Effect of saccharin on metabolic cooperation between human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosser, D.D.; Bols, N.C.

    1983-01-01

    Autoradiography was used to study the effect of saccharin on metabolic cooperation between human diploid fibroblasts. When the donors, HGPRT+ cells, and recipients, HGPRT- cells, were plated together in the presence of saccharin, all the interactions that developed in 4 and 24 h were positive for metabolic cooperation. When saccharin was added after donor cells and recipient cells had made contact, the proportion of interactions that were positive for metabolic cooperation was unchanged but the number of grains over primary recipients was reduced. However, in donor cells saccharin caused a reduction in [ 3 H]hypoxanthine incorporation into both acid-soluble and acid-insoluble fractions, although the relative distribution of radioactivity between these two fractions and between the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated derivatives of [ 3 H]hypoxanthine was unchanged. Metabolic cooperation was studied under conditions in which the number of grains over the nuclei of both the primary recipient and the primary recipient's donor could be counted. The change in the number of grains over these two cell types in response to saccharin was compared and found to be the same. Thus in normal human fibroblasts saccharin does not appear to affect metabolic cooperation, which is a measure of cell-to-cell communication

  10. Cooperativeness and competitiveness as two distinct constructs: validating the Cooperative and Competitive Personality Scale in a social dilemma context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Su; Au, Wing-Tung; Jiang, Feng; Xie, Xiaofei; Yam, Paton

    2013-01-01

    The present research validated the construct and criterion validities of the Cooperative and Competitive Personality Scale (CCPS) in a social dilemma context. The results from three studies supported the notion that cooperativeness and competitiveness are two independent dimensions, challenging the traditional view that they are two ends of a single continuum. First, confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a two-factor structure fit the data significantly better than a one-factor structure. Moreover, cooperativeness and competitiveness were either not significantly correlated (Studies 1 and 3) or only moderately positively correlated (Study 2). Second, cooperativeness and competitiveness were differentially associated with Schwartz's Personal Values. These results further supported the idea that cooperativeness and competitiveness are two distinct constructs. Specifically, the individuals who were highly cooperative emphasized self-transcendent values (i.e., universalism and benevolence) more, whereas the individuals who were highly competitive emphasized self-enhancement values (i.e., power and achievement) more. Finally, the CCPS, which adheres to the trait perspective of personality, was found to be a useful supplement to more prevalent social motive measures (i.e., social value orientation) in predicting cooperative behaviors. Specifically, in Study 2, when social value orientation was controlled for, the CCPS significantly predicted cooperative behaviors in a public goods dilemma (individuals who score higher on cooperativeness scale contributed more to the public goods). In Study 3, when social value orientation was controlled for, the CCPS significantly predicted cooperative behaviors in commons dilemmas (individuals who score higher on cooperativeness scale requested fewer resources from the common resource pool). The practical implications of the CCPS in conflict resolution, as well as in recruitment and selection settings, are discussed.

  11. Modeling Misbehavior in Cooperative Diversity: A Dynamic Game Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnie, Sintayehu; Memon, Nasir

    2009-12-01

    Cooperative diversity protocols are designed with the assumption that terminals always help each other in a socially efficient manner. This assumption may not be valid in commercial wireless networks where terminals may misbehave for selfish or malicious intentions. The presence of misbehaving terminals creates a social-dilemma where terminals exhibit uncertainty about the cooperative behavior of other terminals in the network. Cooperation in social-dilemma is characterized by a suboptimal Nash equilibrium where wireless terminals opt out of cooperation. Hence, without establishing a mechanism to detect and mitigate effects of misbehavior, it is difficult to maintain a socially optimal cooperation. In this paper, we first examine effects of misbehavior assuming static game model and show that cooperation under existing cooperative protocols is characterized by a noncooperative Nash equilibrium. Using evolutionary game dynamics we show that a small number of mutants can successfully invade a population of cooperators, which indicates that misbehavior is an evolutionary stable strategy (ESS). Our main goal is to design a mechanism that would enable wireless terminals to select reliable partners in the presence of uncertainty. To this end, we formulate cooperative diversity as a dynamic game with incomplete information. We show that the proposed dynamic game formulation satisfied the conditions for the existence of perfect Bayesian equilibrium.

  12. Modeling Misbehavior in Cooperative Diversity: A Dynamic Game Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sintayehu Dehnie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative diversity protocols are designed with the assumption that terminals always help each other in a socially efficient manner. This assumption may not be valid in commercial wireless networks where terminals may misbehave for selfish or malicious intentions. The presence of misbehaving terminals creates a social-dilemma where terminals exhibit uncertainty about the cooperative behavior of other terminals in the network. Cooperation in social-dilemma is characterized by a suboptimal Nash equilibrium where wireless terminals opt out of cooperation. Hence, without establishing a mechanism to detect and mitigate effects of misbehavior, it is difficult to maintain a socially optimal cooperation. In this paper, we first examine effects of misbehavior assuming static game model and show that cooperation under existing cooperative protocols is characterized by a noncooperative Nash equilibrium. Using evolutionary game dynamics we show that a small number of mutants can successfully invade a population of cooperators, which indicates that misbehavior is an evolutionary stable strategy (ESS. Our main goal is to design a mechanism that would enable wireless terminals to select reliable partners in the presence of uncertainty. To this end, we formulate cooperative diversity as a dynamic game with incomplete information. We show that the proposed dynamic game formulation satisfied the conditions for the existence of perfect Bayesian equilibrium.

  13. Time pressure increases cooperation in competitively framed social dilemmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Cone

    Full Text Available What makes people willing to pay costs to benefit others? Does such cooperation require effortful self-control, or do automatic, intuitive processes favor cooperation? Time pressure has been shown to increase cooperative behavior in Public Goods Games, implying a predisposition towards cooperation. Consistent with the hypothesis that this predisposition results from the fact that cooperation is typically advantageous outside the lab, it has further been shown that the time pressure effect is undermined by prior experience playing lab games (where selfishness is the more advantageous strategy. Furthermore, a recent study found that time pressure increases cooperation even in a game framed as a competition, suggesting that the time pressure effect is not the result of social norm compliance. Here, we successfully replicate these findings, again observing a positive effect of time pressure on cooperation in a competitively framed game, but not when using the standard cooperative framing. These results suggest that participants' intuitions favor cooperation rather than norm compliance, and also that simply changing the framing of the Public Goods Game is enough to make it appear novel to participants and thus to restore the time pressure effect.

  14. Time pressure increases cooperation in competitively framed social dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Jeremy; Rand, David G

    2014-01-01

    What makes people willing to pay costs to benefit others? Does such cooperation require effortful self-control, or do automatic, intuitive processes favor cooperation? Time pressure has been shown to increase cooperative behavior in Public Goods Games, implying a predisposition towards cooperation. Consistent with the hypothesis that this predisposition results from the fact that cooperation is typically advantageous outside the lab, it has further been shown that the time pressure effect is undermined by prior experience playing lab games (where selfishness is the more advantageous strategy). Furthermore, a recent study found that time pressure increases cooperation even in a game framed as a competition, suggesting that the time pressure effect is not the result of social norm compliance. Here, we successfully replicate these findings, again observing a positive effect of time pressure on cooperation in a competitively framed game, but not when using the standard cooperative framing. These results suggest that participants' intuitions favor cooperation rather than norm compliance, and also that simply changing the framing of the Public Goods Game is enough to make it appear novel to participants and thus to restore the time pressure effect.

  15. Collaborative Assembly Operation between Two Modular Robots Based on the Optical Position Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Su

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the cooperation between two master-slave modular robots. A cooperative robot system is set up with two modular robots and a dynamic optical meter-Optotrak. With Optotrak, the positions of the end effectors are measured as the optical position feedback, which is used to adjust the robots' end positions. A tri-layered motion controller is designed for the two cooperative robots. The RMRC control method is adopted to adjust the master robot to the desired position. With the kinematics constraints of the two robots including position and pose, joint velocity, and acceleration constraints, the two robots can cooperate well. A bolt and nut assembly experiment is executed to verify the methods.

  16. Learning to Cooperate: The Evolution of Social Rewards in Repeated Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi, Slimane; Akçay, Erol

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the behavioral and psychological mechanisms underlying social behaviors is one of the major goals of social evolutionary theory. In particular, a persistent question about animal cooperation is to what extent it is supported by other-regarding preferences-the motivation to increase the welfare of others. In many situations, animals adjust their behaviors through learning by responding to the rewards they experience as a consequence of their actions. Therefore, we may ask whether learning in social situations can be driven by evolved other-regarding rewards. Here we develop a mathematical model in order to ask whether the mere act of cooperating with a social partner will evolve to be inherently rewarding. Individuals interact repeatedly in pairs and adjust their behaviors through reinforcement learning. We assume that individuals associate with each game outcome an internal reward value. These perceived rewards are genetically evolving traits. We find that conditionally cooperative rewards that value mutual cooperation positively but the sucker's outcome negatively tend to be evolutionarily stable. Purely other-regarding rewards can evolve only under special parameter combinations. On the other hand, selfish rewards that always lead to pure defection are also evolutionarily successful. These findings are consistent with empirical observations showing that humans tend to display conditionally cooperative behavior and also exhibit a diversity of preferences. Our model also demonstrates the need to further integrate multiple levels of biological causation of behavior.

  17. To cooperate or not to cooperate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed...... their livestock. But these often sustainable and ancient ways to make use of groundwater are in rapid decline worldwide. A research project started in 1999 to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels called "qanats"in Syria. To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results and outcomes...

  18. Assessing instructor intervention upon the perceptions, attitudes, and anxieties of community college biology students toward cooperative learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafford, Kenneth Allen

    The differences between two experimental groups using cooperative learning activities were examined during the initial eight weeks of a biology course. While both groups participated in the same cooperative learning activities, only one group received deliberate instructor interventions. These interventions were designed to help students think positively about working in cooperative learning groups while alleviating anxiety toward cooperative learning. Initially, all students were uncomfortable and reported trouble staying focused during cooperative learning. The final quantitative results indicated that the group who received the interventions had more positive perceptions toward cooperative learning but their attitudes and anxiety levels showed no significant difference from the non-intervention group; advantages occurred specifically for thinking on task, student engagement, perceptions of task importance, and best levels of challenge and skill. Intervention participants had a higher mean score on the class exam administered during the eight-week study but it was not significantly different. Qualitative data revealed that the intervention participants experienced greater overall consequence, mainly in the areas of engagement, believed skill, and self-worth. According to flow theory, when students are actively engaged, the probability of distraction by fears and unrelated ideas is reduced, for instance, how they are perceived by others. These findings corroborate constructivist theories, particularly the ones relative to students working in cooperative groups. Researchers should continue to use appropriate methods to further explore how students of various abilities and developmental levels are affected by their perceptions, attitudes, and anxieties relative to different instructional contexts. Given the highly contextual nature of students' learning and motivation, researchers need to examine a number of meaningful questions by comparing students' perceptions

  19. Canine-assisted therapy for children with ADHD: preliminary findings from the positive assertive cooperative kids study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Sabrina E B; Emmerson, Natasha A; Fine, Aubrey H; Lakes, Kimberley D

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to provide preliminary findings from an ongoing randomized clinical trial using a canine-assisted intervention (CAI) for 24 children with ADHD. Project Positive Assertive Cooperative Kids (P.A.C.K.) was designed to study a 12-week cognitive-behavioral intervention delivered with or without CAI. Children were randomly assigned to group therapy with or without CAI. Parents of children in both groups simultaneously participated in weekly parent group therapy sessions. Across both treatment groups, parents reported improvements in children's social skills, prosocial behaviors, and problematic behaviors. In both groups, the severity of ADHD symptoms declined during the course of treatment; however, children who received the CAI model exhibited greater reductions in the severity of ADHD symptoms than did children who received cognitive-behavioral therapy without CAI. Results suggest that CAI offers a novel therapeutic strategy that may enhance cognitive-behavioral interventions for children with ADHD. © 2013 SAGE Publications.

  20. Promote or hinder? The role of punishment in the emergence of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shiping; Wu, Te; Nie, Suli; Wang, Long

    2015-12-07

    Investigation of anti-social punishment has shaken the positive role of punishment in the evolution of cooperation. However, punishment is ubiquitous in nature, and the centralized, apposed to decentralized, punishment is more favored by certain modern societies in particular. To explore the underlying principle of such phenomenon, we study the evolution of cooperation in the context of pro- and anti-social punishments subject to two distinct patterns: costly centralized and decentralized punishments. The results suggest that the pattern of punishment has a great effect on the role of punishment in the evolution of cooperation. In the absence of anti-social punishment, the costly centralized punishment is more effective in promoting the emergence of cooperation. Anti-social punishment can subvert the positive role of punishment when anti- and pro-social punishments are in the same pattern. However, driven by centralized pro-social punishment, cooperation can be more advantageous than defection even in the presence of decentralized anti-social punishment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cooperative coparenting moderates the association between parenting practices and children's prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimgeour, Meghan B; Blandon, Alysia Y; Stifter, Cynthia A; Buss, Kristin A

    2013-06-01

    This study examined how aspects of the parenting and coparenting relationships relate to children's prosocial behavior in early childhood. Fifty-eight 2-parent families from a larger ongoing longitudinal study participated in this study. Mothers completed questionnaires that measured their use of inductive reasoning, as well as their children's prosocial behavior. Furthermore, parents and their children participated in 3 triadic interaction tasks that were coded to assess cooperative coparenting behavior. Results revealed that cooperative coparenting was positively associated with children's prosocial behavior. A significant interaction also emerged between maternal inductive reasoning and cooperative coparenting behavior. These findings underscore the important role of a cooperative coparenting subsystem in influencing children's emerging prosocial behavior, as well as highlight the association between positive parenting practices and children's prosocial development within the context of cooperative coparenting behaviors. This study demonstrates the utility of understanding family-level processes that contribute to children's prosocial development during early childhood. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Cooperative effects in (ethanol)3-water heterotetramers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia, Sol; Espinal, Juan F; Mondragon, Fanor

    2009-01-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT: B3LYP/6-31 + G(d)) was used for the optimization of clusters on the potential energy surface of (ethanol)3-water heterotetramers. The tetramerization energies can reach values up to -21.00 kcal/ mol. This energy can not be obtained by just considering the contributions from interactions between two cluster molecules, which suggests of the presence of global cooperative effects (positive). These effects are reflected in smaller hydrogen bond distances and smaller oxygen-oxygen distances, as well as in greater elongations of the O-H proton donor bond with a stronger red-shift in the heterotetramers compared to the ethanol-water heterodimers and the ethanol dimer. The largest cooperativity effect was observed in the four hydrogen bonds arranged in the largest possible cyclic geometric pattern, where all the molecules act as proton acceptor and donor simultaneously. A similar analysis to the characterization of (ethanol)3-water heterotetramers was carried out on (methanol)3-water heterotetramers, and ethanol and methanol tetramers, whose comparison showed a great similarity between all evaluated parameters for the clusters with equal geometric pattern.

  3. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...... tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... that it was possible to make a number of direct manipulation changes of prototypes in cooperation with the users, in interplay with their fluent work-like evaluation of these. However, breakdown occurred in the prototyping process when we reached the limits of the direct manipulation support for modification. From...

  4. Can Cooperative Learning Maximize the Effectiveness of WebQuest Used in Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitah Spian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate whether cooperative learning can maximize the effectiveness of webQuest used as a medium in teaching and learning in Islamic education. The present study also examined the perception of students towards WebQuest and cooperative learning method. Muslim students were selected from a rural school in Penang, Malaysia. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were used in this study. The results showed that WebQuest used in teaching and learning in Islamic education had positive impact on students’ learning'. However, cooperative learning method did not influence the students’ learning outcome. Nevertheless, students were interested in the medium of instruction used. Integration of ICT in class lesson in Islamic subject enables the creation of interactive and fun learning among students. Therefore, the application of WebQuest in lessons is suitable and should be applied by all teachers in their learning activities to increase students’ interest and performance in Islamic education.

  5. Man-machine cooperation in remote handling for fusion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinemann, K.

    1984-01-01

    Man-machine cooperation in remote handling for fusion plants comprises cooperation for design of equipment and planning of procedures using a CAD system, and cooperation during operation of the equipment with computer aided telemanipulation systems (CAT). This concept is presently being implemented for support of slave positioning, camera tracking, and camera alignment in the KfK manipulator test facility. The pilot implementation will be used to test various man-machine interface layouts, and to establish a set of basic buildings blocks for future implementations of advanced remote handling control systems. (author)

  6. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Smith, David; Reed-Tsochas, Felix

    2010-10-27

    Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating) does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  7. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Saavedra

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  8. Cooperative Learning and Interpersonal Synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Roy; Wijnants, Maarten L; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Bosman, Anna M T

    2017-04-01

    Cooperative learning has been shown to result in better task performance, compared to individual and competitive learning, and can lead to positive social effects. However, potential working mechanisms at a micro level remain unexplored. One potential working mechanism might be the level of interpersonal synchrony between cooperating individuals. It has been shown that increased levels of interpersonal synchrony are related to better cognitive performance (e.g., increased memory). Social factors also appear to be affected by the level of interpersonal synchrony, with more interpersonal synchrony leading to increased likeability. In the present study, interpersonal synchrony of postural sway and its relation to task performance and social factors (i.e., popularity, social acceptance, and likeability) was examined. To test this, 183 dyads performed a tangram task while each child stood on a Nintendo Wii Balance Board that recorded their postural sway. The results showed that lower levels of interpersonal synchrony were related to better task performance and those dyads who were on average more popular synchronized more. These results contradict previous findings. It is suggested that for task performance, a more loosely coupled system is better than a synchronized system. In terms of social competence, dyad popularity was associated with more interpersonal synchrony.

  9. Asparagine, valine, and threonine in the third extracellular loop of muscarinic receptor have essential roles in the positive cooperativity of strychnine-like allosteric modulators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakubík, Jan; Krejčí, Alena; Doležal, Vladimír

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 313, č. 2 (2005), s. 688-696 ISSN 0022-3565 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/02/1331; GA ČR(CZ) GP305/02/D090; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5011306; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : muscarinic receptors * positive cooperativity * mutation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.098, year: 2005

  10. Attraction and cooperative behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Donja Darai; Silvia Grätz

    2012-01-01

    Being good-looking seems to generate substantial benefits in many social interactions, making the "beauty premium" a not to be underrated economic factor. This paper investigates how physical attractiveness enables people to generate these benefits in the case of cooperation, using field data from a modified one-shot prisoner's dilemma played in a high-stakes television game show. While attractive contestants are not more or less cooperative than less attractive ones, facial attractiveness pr...

  11. GPs' experiences with out-of-hours GP cooperatives: a survey study from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Marleen; Keizer, Ellen; Huibers, Linda; Giesen, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Out-of-hours primary care has been provided by general practitioner (GP) cooperatives since the year 2000 in the Netherlands. Early studies in countries with similar organizational structures showed positive GP experiences. However, nowadays it is said that GPs experience a high workload at the cooperative and that they outsource a considerable part of their shifts. To examine positive and negative experiences of GPs providing out-of-hours primary care, and the frequency and reasons for outsourcing shifts. A cross-sectional observational survey among 688 GPs connected to six GP cooperatives in the Netherlands, using a web-based questionnaire. The response was 55% (n = 378). The main reasons for working in GP cooperatives were to retain registration as GP (79%) and remain experienced in acute care (74%). GPs considered the peak hours (81%) and the high number of patients (73%) as the most negative aspects. Most GPs chose to provide the out-of-hours shifts themselves: 85% outsourced maximally 25% of their shifts. The percentage of outsourced shifts increased with age. Main reasons for outsourcing were the desire to have more private time (76%); the high workload in daytime practice (71%); and less the workload during out-of-hours (46%). GPs are motivated to work in out-of-hours GP cooperatives, and they outsource few shifts. GPs consider the peak load and the large number of (non-urgent) help requests as the most negative aspects. To motivate and involve GPs for 7 × 24-h primary care, it is important to set limits on their workload.

  12. Creating conditions for cooperative learning: Basic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševkušić-Mandić Slavica G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a large number of research evidence speak out in favor of cooperative learning, its effectiveness in teaching does not depend only on teacher’s and students’ enthusiasm and willingness to work in such a manner. Creating cooperative situations in learning demands a serious preparation and engagement on the part of teacher who is structuring various aspects of work in the classroom. Although there exist a large number of models and techniques of cooperative learning, which vary in the way in which students work together, in the structure of learning tasks as well as in the degree to which cooperative efforts of students are coupled with competition among groups, some elements should be present in the structure of conditions irrespective of the type of group work in question. Potential effects of cooperation are not likely to emerge unless teachers apply five basic elements of cooperative structure: 1. structuring of the learning task and students’ positive interdependence, 2. individual responsibility, 3. upgrading of "face to face" interaction, 4. training of students’ social skills, and 5. evaluation of group processes. The paper discusses various strategies for establishing the mentioned elements and concrete examples for teaching practice are provided, which should be of assistance to teachers for as much successful cooperative learning application as possible in work with children.

  13. 75 FR 10319 - Cooper Tools-Sumter, Cooper Tools Divisions, a Subsidiary of Cooper Industries, Inc., Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-71,602] Cooper Tools--Sumter, Cooper Tools Divisions, a Subsidiary of Cooper Industries, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From... January 26, 2010, applicable to workers of Cooper Tools--Sumter, Cooper Tools Division, a subsidiary of...

  14. The Strategies of Tofu and Fermented Soybean Cake Cooperation in Facing China-Asean Free Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdarti Rusdarti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to identify the internal and external factor for encountering free trade China-Asean and to find some strategic model alternative that can be applied by Primkopti Semarang to develop their business. The analysis methods used were descriptive analysis method and SWOT analysis. The result of this research showed that internal factors for cooperation’s strength for encountering free trade including soybean distributor in form of cooperation in Semarang and experienced manager to carry out the business. The weakness one was the research and development of cooperation hasn’t been optimal and the management of information system hasn’t worked well. External factors for opportunity one including the soybean buyer or main customer was cooperation members having dual identity, as for the threat including no resistance for new competitor, increasing soybean import, soybean importer has strong bargain position. Compatible strategy for cooperation implementation in encountering free trade China-Asean was market penetration strategy and product development.

  15. Experiential learning implementation based on joint responsibility in women's cooperative development (Case study on Farmer Women Cooperative, Sumedang, West Java)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseno, Gijanto Purbo; Nataliningsih

    2017-09-01

    Cooperative extension is one form of non-formal education. The follow up of cooperative extension is a coaching that aims to cooperative boards and members apply the knowledge and skills acquired during extension. Learning from the experience (experience learning) of others combined with the concept of joint responsibility is expected to develop the participation of cooperative members as indicated by the repayment of loans on time. The research was conducted at Sumedang Farmer Women Cooperative of West Java with the stages of cooperative extension and coaching for 6 months so it can be evaluated its impact. The results showed that from 30 extension participants who stated willingness to be a member of joint responsibility group as many as 15 people (50%), which then divided into 3 groups of mutual responsibility with member of each group is 5 people. The result of impact evaluation showed the development of group dynamics of the joint liability shown by 9 people (60%) developing business, 3 people (20%) business stagnant and 3 (20%) less profitable business. Implementation of experiental learning based on the concept of mutual responsibility encourages the improvement of entrepreneurship and cooperative skills and the ability of members to pay loan installments on cooperatives in a timely manner.

  16. Importance and difficulties of cooperative learning application in class teaching from teachers' perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Marina Ž.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on previous knowledge of cooperative learning two approaches stand out in researching the importance of cooperative learning: a the first approach tries to examine the effects, conditions and mechanisms by which educational outcomes are realized in the application of cooperative learning; and b the second approach moves the focus towards attitudes and perceptions of teachers and students on the relevance of cooperative learning. By applying descriptive-analytical technique we conducted a research aimed at examining the opinions of teachers (N=305 about the importance and difficulties in application of cooperative learning in the context of class teaching. The results show that the teachers had positive attitudes towards the importance of cooperative learning for reaching various educational goals and socio-affective and cognitive development of students. It turned out that the opinions of the teachers were not determined by the level of their education or work experience. Additionally, it turned out that the teachers' opinions about the difficulties of application in class are due more to work organization and were not assessed from the aspect of knowledge, attitudes and convictions of the participants in the teaching process. The obtained results, although generally encouraging for teaching practice indicate a need for further advancement of this segment of the teacher's work in order to understand better the value of cooperative learning and consider more critically the difficulties for its application in classroom.

  17. Social norms and cooperation in real-life social dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis that injunctive and descriptive norms interact positively or synergistically to promote cooperation in social dilemmas is tested in the context of a survey study focusing on environmentally responsible behaviour. Measurement error and strong and positive correlations between the two...

  18. Brazil’s Soft-Power Strategy: The Political Aspirations of South–South Development Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bry, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    By trading upon the principles of South-South cooperation, Brazil is widely viewed as having gained a positive image worldwide. Brazil’s South-South development cooperation was one of the foreign policy instruments it used to raise this profile. However, studies of the generation of soft power...... are still lacking in the international relations literature,and where empirical research exists it focuses more on the results of soft power strategies than on how soft power is created. Therefore,this article explores how Brazil’s soft power strategy is conceptualized in Brazil’s development cooperation...... of its cooperation agency and guided it towards sectors and targets that contribute to the creation of positive outcomes. This article contributes to the debate on the state’s behavior in soft power, that is, the ‘behavior’ of the Brazilian government in the design of its cooperation agency’s activities...

  19. Analyzing Equity Capital Programs of Banks for Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Ahmad; Ken D. Duft; Ron C. Mittelhammer

    1986-01-01

    Characteristics of Banks for Cooperatives term loan and equity capital programs contribute toward complex intermittent exchanges of positive and negative cash flows between the cooperative lender and borrower and complicate the analysis of the net present value and effective interest of the financing project. A multiperiod linear program was developed to analyze the effect of variations in equity capital program components on the present value of the financing project. Furthermore, the concep...

  20. The profile of the international cooperation university manager in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Geremias Leal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of internationalization has been used in higher education as a measure of quality and resource for universities to respond to the challenges of a complex global context. Despite the dominant discourse that internationalization has transformed university structures, there are few studies that deal with internationalization management in academic institutions and international cooperation university managers. This paper contributes to the beginning of this discussion in Brazil by studying international cooperation managers of Brazilian federal universities. The sample included 46 universities associated with the Brazilian Association of International Education (Faubai. Documentary research was carried out using the websites of the offices for international affairs and the Lattes curriculums  of their managers. The results point to positive aspects, such as the positioning of these offices in university structures and the personal experience of current managers with international activities. They also indicated problems such as the turnover of managers; accumulation of tasks; education in areas not related to internationalization; and a lack of participation in education programs related to their responsibilities. In general, the scenario shows a need for investments in these universities so that institutional internationalization is more active.

  1. Cooperative networks overcoming defectors by social influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Portillo, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    We address the cooperation problem in structured populations by considering the prisoner’s dilemma game as a metaphor of the social interactions between individuals with imitation capacity. We present a new strategy update rule called democratic weighted update where the individual’s behavior is socially influenced by each one of their neighbors. In particular, the capacity of an individual to socially influence other ones is proportional to its accumulated payoff. When in a neighborhood there are cooperators and defectors, the focal player is contradictorily influenced by them and, therefore, the effective social influence is given by the difference of the accumulated payoff of each strategy in its neighborhood. First, by considering the growing process of the network and neglecting mutations, we show the evolution of highly cooperative systems. Then, we broadly show that the social influence allows to overcome the emergence of defectors into highly cooperative systems. In this way, we conclude that in a structured system formed by a growing process, the cooperation evolves if the individuals have an imitation capacity socially influenced by each one of their neighbors. Therefore, here we present a theoretical solution of the cooperation problem among genetically unrelated individuals.

  2. Teaching calculus using module based on cooperative learning strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbin, Norazman; Ghani, Sazelli Abdul; Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the research is to evaluate the effectiveness of a module which utilizes the cooperative learning for teaching Calculus for limit, derivative and integral. The sample consists of 50 semester 1 students from the Science Programme (AT 16) Sultan Idris Education University. A set of questions of related topics (pre and post) has been used as an instrument to collect data. The data is analyzed using inferential statistics involving the paired sample t-test and the independent t-test. The result shows that students have positive inclination towards the modulein terms of understanding.

  3. Cooperative effects for CYP2E1 differ between styrene and its metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Jessica H.; Boysen, Gunnar; Miller, Grover P.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative interactions are frequently observed in the metabolism of drugs and pollutants by cytochrome P450s; nevertheless, the molecular determinants for cooperativity remain elusive. Previously, we demonstrated that steady-state styrene metabolism by CYP2E1 exhibits positive cooperativity.We hypothesized that styrene metabolites have lower affinity than styrene toward CYP2E1 and limited ability to induce cooperative effects during metabolism. To test the hypothesis, we determined the potency and mechanism of inhibition for styrene and its metabolites toward oxidation of 4-nitrophenol using CYP2E1 Supersomes® and human liver microsomes.Styrene inhibited the reaction through a mixed cooperative mechanism with high affinity for the catalytic site (67 μM) and lower affinity for the cooperative site (1100 μM), while increasing substrate turnover at high concentrations. Styrene oxide and 4-vinylphenol possessed similar affinity for CYP2E1. Styrene oxide behaved cooperatively like styrene, but 4-vinylphenol decreased turnover at high concentrations. Styrene glycol was a very poor competitive inhibitor. Among all compounds, there was a positive correlation with binding and hydrophobicity.Taken together, these findings for CYP2E1 further validate contributions of cooperative mechanisms to metabolic processes, demonstrate the role of molecular structure on those mechanisms and underscore the potential for heterotropic cooperative effects between different compounds. PMID:23327532

  4. The bright and dark side of cooperation for regional innovation performance

    OpenAIRE

    Broekel, Tom; Meder, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Studies analyzing the importance of intra- and inter-regional cooperation for regional innovation performance are mainly of qualitative nature and focus strongly on the positive effects that high levels of cooperation can yield. For the case of the German labor market regions and the Electrics + Electronics industry the paper provides a quantitative-empirical analysis taking into account the possibility of negative effects related to regional lock-in, lock-out, and cooperation overload situat...

  5. Cooperative communications hardware, channel and PHY

    CERN Document Server

    Dohler, Mischa

    2010-01-01

    Facilitating Cooperation for Wireless Systems Cooperative Communications: Hardware, Channel & PHY focuses on issues pertaining to the PHY layer of wireless communication networks, offering a rigorous taxonomy of this dispersed field, along with a range of application scenarios for cooperative and distributed schemes, demonstrating how these techniques can be employed. The authors discuss hardware, complexity and power consumption issues, which are vital for understanding what can be realized at the PHY layer, showing how wireless channel models differ from more traditional

  6. The standard set game of a cooperative game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bumb, A.F.; Hoede, C.

    2003-01-01

    We show that for every cooperative game a corresponding set game can be defined, called the standard set game. Values for set games can be applied to this standard game and determine allocations for the cooperative game. On the other hand, notions for cooperative games, like the Shapley value, the

  7. Cooperation prevails when individuals adjust their social ties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco C Santos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional evolutionary game theory predicts that natural selection favours the selfish and strong even though cooperative interactions thrive at all levels of organization in living systems. Recent investigations demonstrated that a limiting factor for the evolution of cooperative interactions is the way in which they are organized, cooperators becoming evolutionarily competitive whenever individuals are constrained to interact with few others along the edges of networks with low average connectivity. Despite this insight, the conundrum of cooperation remains since recent empirical data shows that real networks exhibit typically high average connectivity and associated single-to-broad-scale heterogeneity. Here, a computational model is constructed in which individuals are able to self-organize both their strategy and their social ties throughout evolution, based exclusively on their self-interest. We show that the entangled evolution of individual strategy and network structure constitutes a key mechanism for the sustainability of cooperation in social networks. For a given average connectivity of the population, there is a critical value for the ratio W between the time scales associated with the evolution of strategy and of structure above which cooperators wipe out defectors. Moreover, the emerging social networks exhibit an overall heterogeneity that accounts very well for the diversity of patterns recently found in acquired data on social networks. Finally, heterogeneity is found to become maximal when W reaches its critical value. These results show that simple topological dynamics reflecting the individual capacity for self-organization of social ties can produce realistic networks of high average connectivity with associated single-to-broad-scale heterogeneity. On the other hand, they show that cooperation cannot evolve as a result of "social viscosity" alone in heterogeneous networks with high average connectivity, requiring the

  8. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  9. Is intuition really cooperative? Improved tests support the social heuristics hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isler, Ozan; Maule, John; Starmer, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Understanding human cooperation is a major scientific challenge. While cooperation is typically explained with reference to individual preferences, a recent cognitive process view hypothesized that cooperation is regulated by socially acquired heuristics. Evidence for the social heuristics hypothesis rests on experiments showing that time-pressure promotes cooperation, a result that can be interpreted as demonstrating that intuition promotes cooperation. This interpretation, however, is highly contested because of two potential confounds. First, in pivotal studies compliance with time-limits is low and, crucially, evidence shows intuitive cooperation only when noncompliant participants are excluded. The inconsistency of test results has led to the currently unresolved controversy regarding whether or not noncompliant subjects should be included in the analysis. Second, many studies show high levels of social dilemma misunderstanding, leading to speculation that asymmetries in understanding might explain patterns that are otherwise interpreted as intuitive cooperation. We present evidence from an experiment that employs an improved time-pressure protocol with new features designed to induce high levels of compliance and clear tests of understanding. Our study resolves the noncompliance issue, shows that misunderstanding does not confound tests of intuitive cooperation, and provides the first independent experimental evidence for intuitive cooperation in a social dilemma using time-pressure.

  10. Russian-Chinese Humanitarian Cooperation in 1990-s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E I Ganshina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to Russian-Chinese humanitarian cooperation in the 90-ies of XX century. The author emphasizes the special importance of humanitarian cooperation between Russia and China for the promotion of national interests and the expansion of Russia's presence in China after the collapse of the USSR, as well as creating a positive image of the Russian state in China by applying the mechanism of “soft power”. The author notes that the 90-ies of XX century were the starting point of cooperation between Russia and China in the humanitarian sphere, it laid the legal foundation of Russian-Chinese humanitarian cooperation, moreover, the main directions and priorities of cooperation between the two countries in the humanitarian field have been identified. However, the author stresses that the practical realization of the objectives of the signed intergovernmental documents was carried out in an insufficiently wide format. And the main reason is the deep socio-economic crisis, which Russia had faced after the collapse of the Soviet Union, and, as a consequence, the lack of funding for joint Russian-Chinese projects in the humanitarian field.

  11. Gossip and ostracism promote cooperation in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Matthew; Willer, Robb; Schultz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The widespread existence of cooperation is difficult to explain because individuals face strong incentives to exploit the cooperative tendencies of others. In the research reported here, we examined how the spread of reputational information through gossip promotes cooperation in mixed-motive settings. Results showed that individuals readily communicated reputational information about others, and recipients used this information to selectively interact with cooperative individuals and ostracize those who had behaved selfishly, which enabled group members to contribute to the public good with reduced threat of exploitation. Additionally, ostracized individuals responded to exclusion by subsequently cooperating at levels comparable to those who were not ostracized. These results suggest that the spread of reputational information through gossip can mitigate egoistic behavior by facilitating partner selection, thereby helping to solve the problem of cooperation even in noniterated interactions.

  12. Cooperative Coparenting Moderates the Association between Parenting Practices and Children’s Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimgeour, Meghan B.; Blandon, Alysia Y.; Stifter, Cynthia A.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined how aspects of the parenting and coparenting relationships relate to children’s prosocial behavior in early childhood. Fifty-eight two-parent families from a larger ongoing longitudinal study participated in this study. Mothers completed questionnaires that measured their use of inductive reasoning, as well as their children’s prosocial behavior. Furthermore, parents and their children participated in three triadic interaction tasks that were coded to assess cooperative coparenting behavior. Results revealed that cooperative coparenting was positively associated with children’s prosocial behavior. A significant interaction also emerged between maternal inductive reasoning and cooperative coparenting behavior. These findings underscore the important role of a cooperative coparenting subsystem in influencing children’s emerging prosocial behavior, as well as highlight the association between positive parenting practices and children’s prosocial development within the context of cooperative coparenting behaviors. This study demonstrates the utility of understanding family-level processes that contribute to children’s prosocial development during early childhood. PMID:23750531

  13. Technological Cooperation Networks at Bio-Manguinhos: the Role of Information and Communication Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Pereira de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies and discusses the contribution of information and communication technologies (ICTs to the technological cooperation projects of Bio-Manguinhos, a pharmaceutical manufacturer that belongs to Osvaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ, responsible for producing vaccines, reagents and biopharmaceuticals, with priority on meeting the needs of the Brazilian public health system. It is a case study with a qualitative approach for descriptive and explanatory purposes. The data were collected from 14 interviews conducted with managers of research and development (R&D projects with high relevance to the organization. The results allow concluding that the ICTs requiring greater interdependence between partners and two-way knowledge flows have not yet been used. They also show the importance of closer cooperation between the information technology (IT and R&D areas. A future positioning of Bio-Manguinhos as a technological center focused on discovery and sale of new active ingredients can favor the use of tools that promote greater integration between the partners of technology cooperation networks.

  14. Finland – Russia Business cooperation 2014 - 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Kononova, Polina

    2015-01-01

    During the years of 2014 and 2015 a lot of changes have happened in Russia’s and Fin-land’s foreign policy. It could really affect the business cooperation between those two countries, so in my thesis I want to take a look into this situation, since this is a really hot topic to-day. The purpose of this thesis was to analyze changes in cooperation between Finland and Russia during embargo on products and to find out how companies keep their positions on Russian market. Another purpose was...

  15. Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2017 year in review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, John F.; Thompson, John D.; Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.

    2018-02-08

    The Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program was involved in a number of notable events during 2017, many concerning our personnel. Dr. Barry Grand left his position as Leader of the Alabama Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit to become the Cooperative Units Program Supervisor for the South, replacing Dr. Kevin Whalen who took over as Supervisor for the West. We welcomed Dr. Sarah Converse who left the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to become Leader of the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit. Dr. Amanda Rosenberger joined the Tennessee Cooperative Fishery Research Unit as Assistant Leader, transferring from the Missouri Cooperative Unit. Dr. Scott Carleton left his position as Assistant Unit Leader in New Mexico to become Chief of the Region 2 Migratory Bird Program of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.We said farewell to many colleagues who retired. Their departure is bittersweet as we wish them health, happiness, and wellness in retirement. We will miss their companionship and the extraordinary contributions they have made to the Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program and conservation.The Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program has a record high number of vacant scientist positions due to a combination of retirements and base funding short-falls. These issues are affecting our ability to meet cooperator needs. Yet, we remain highly productive. For example, this year we released a report (https://doi.org/10.3133/cir1427) containing abstracts of nearly 600 of our research projects, covering thematic areas ranging from advanced technologies to wildlife diseases. We provided highly competent, trained scientists and natural resource managers for our cooperators’ workforce. We delivered technical training and guidance to professional practitioners. We provided critical information to cooperators for decisions on species status assessments and management of species of greatest conservation need

  16. Establishing cooperation in a mixed-motive social dilemma. An fMRI study investigating the role of social value orientation and dispositional trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emonds, Griet; Declerck, Carolyn H; Boone, Christophe; Seurinck, Ruth; Achten, Rik

    2014-02-01

    When people are confronted with social dilemmas, their decision-making strategies tend to be associated with individual social preferences; prosocials have an intrinsic willingness to cooperate, while proselfs need extrinsic motivators signaling personal gain. In this study, the biological roots for the proselfs/prosocials concept are explored by investigating the neural correlates of cooperative versus defect decisions when participants engage in a series of one-shot, anonymous prisoner's dilemma situations. Our data are in line with previous studies showing that prosocials activate several social cognition regions of the brain more than proselfs (here: medial prefrontal cortex, temporo-parietal junction, and precuneus BA 7 (Brodmann area 7), and that dispositional trust positively affects prosocials' decisions to cooperate. At the neural level, however, dispositional trust appears to exert a greater marginal effect on brain activity of proselfs in three social cognition regions, which does not translate into an increase in cooperation. An event-related analysis shows that cooperating prosocials show significantly more activation in the precuneus (BA 7) than proselfs. Based on previous research, we interpret this result to be consistent with prosocials' enhanced tendency to infer the intentions of others in social dilemma games, and the importance of establishing norm congruence when they decide to cooperate.

  17. Perception without self-matching in conditional tag based cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvity, David M; Bristow, Tristen; Bunker, Eric; Dreyer, Alex

    2013-09-21

    We consider a model for the evolution of cooperation in a population where individuals may have one of a number of different heritable and distinguishable markers or tags. Individuals interact with each of their neighbors on a square lattice by either cooperating by donating some benefit at a cost to themselves or defecting by doing nothing. The decision to cooperate or defect is contingent on each individual's perception of its interacting partner's tag. Unlike in other tag-based models individuals do not compare their own tag to that of their interaction partner. That is, there is no self-matching. When perception is perfect the cooperation rate is substantially higher than in the usual spatial prisoner's dilemma game when the cost of cooperation is high. The enhancement in cooperation is positively correlated with the number of different tags. The more diverse a population is the more cooperative it becomes. When individuals start with an inability to perceive tags the population evolves to a state where individuals gain at least partial perception. With some reproduction mechanisms perfect perception evolves, but with others the ability to perceive tags is imperfect. We find that perception of tags evolves to lower levels when the cost of cooperation is higher. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sibling cooperative and externalizing behaviors in families raising children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Christine; Roper, Susanne Olsen; Mandleco, Barbara; Freeborn, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Raising a child with a disability (CWD) in the home is increasing across the globe. Because of caregiver burden and the complexity of care, there is growing concern for typically developing sibling (TDS) outcomes. The aim of the study was to examine whether caregiver burden, parenting style, and sibling relationships in families raising a CWD are associated with cooperative and externalizing behaviors in TDS. This correlational study included 189 families raising both a CWD and a TDS. Multilevel modeling was used to identify which variables were most predictive of TDS outcomes and if there were parent gender effects. Authoritative parenting was positively associated with cooperative behaviors. Authoritarian parenting was positively associated with externalizing behaviors. Multilevel modeling revealed caregiver burden was a significant predictor of sibling behaviors in the first model. When parenting style was added as a predictor, it was also significant. When sibling relationships were added as predictors, they were significant predictors for both cooperative and externalizing TDS behaviors; however, caregiver burden was no longer significant. Authoritarian parenting significantly predicted externalizing behaviors, and authoritative parenting was significantly related to cooperative behaviors. In families raising a CWD, positive sibling relationships may help negate the effects of caregiver burden and are more predictive of TDS outcomes than some parenting practices.

  19. Amplify-and-Forward Cooperative Diversity for Green UWB-Based WBSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Shaban

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel green cooperative diversity technique based on suboptimal template-based ultra-wideband (UWB wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs using amplify-and-forward (AF relays. In addition, it analyzes the bit-error-rate (BER performance of the proposed nodes. The analysis is based on the moment-generating function (MGF of the total signal-to-noise ratio (SNR at the destination. It also provides an approximate value for the total SNR. The analysis studies the performance of equally correlated binary pulse position modulation (EC-BPPM assuming the sinusoidal and square suboptimal template pulses. Numerical results are provided for the performance evaluation of optimal and suboptimal template-based nodes with and without relay cooperation. Results show that one relay node provides ~23 dB performance enhancement at BER, which mitigates the effect of the nondesirable non-line-of-sight (NLOS links in WBSNs.

  20. Spurious cooperativity in alkylated succinic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, A.

    1998-03-01

    The proton-proton correlation, as measured by the ratio between the second and the first dissociation constants of dibasic acid, is sometimes very large and far beyond what could be explained by electrostatic theories. We propose a novel interpretation of this phenomenon based on the idea of spurious cooperativity. The general theoretical framework underlying the onset of spurious cooperativity is developed first. The basic result is that whenever a binding (or dissociating) two-site (or more) system splits into a mixture of noninterconverting isomers the binding isotherm (or the titration curve) behaves as if it is more negatively cooperative compared with the genuine cooperativities of the individual isomer. The theory is applied to a specific system of α-α' dialkyl succinic acid. It is known that the Meso form of these alkylated derivatives show a normal correlation of the same order of magnitude as in succinic acid. On the other hand, the Racemic form of these alkylated derivatives shows anomalous strong negative correlations when the alkyl groups become large (e.g., isopropyl and tert butyl). It is shown that the theory of spurious cooperativity can explain the different behavior of the Racemic and the Meso forms, as well as the onset of anomalous strong negative correlations when the alkyl groups become large.

  1. Kazakh Initiatives on Cooperation with European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem S. Kurmanguzhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of this article presents initiatives of the Republic of Kazakhstan to develop cooperation with the European Union that was initiated through 2000 - 2009. In 2000 the Republic of Kazakhstan proposed to EU Comment cooperation doctrine in Central Asia. The purpose of the doctrine lied in expanding cooperation in the areas of trade, economy and investment; in granting access to commodities and services from European markets; in developing collaboration in the areas of energy, transport, communication, finance and banking. In 2006 Kazakhstan introduced a new set of prepossess to the new European Union Strategy for Central Asian 2007-2013 that was developed under the chairmanship of Germany of the EU in the first half of 2007. The Strategy covered areas of cooperation such as regional integration, economic development, democratization, energy and security. In 2008 under the instructions of the President of Kazakhstan Ministry of Foreign Affairs in cooperation with other ministries developed a state programme "Path to Europe" for 2009 - 2011, which aided the priorities of cooperation between Kazakhstan and the European Union. "Path to Europe" has become a key initiative of the Kazakh foreign policy that was successfully implemented, as well as the most important document aimed at modernization of the national economy and the Kazakh society. In the beginning of2009 using the accumulated positive experience of cooperation with the EU and experience of a number of countries in Europe and Asia, Kazakhstan devised and submitted a concept of a new treaty which was supposed to replace the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement of 1995. The Republic of Kazakhstan's influence eventually persuaded the European Union to agree on the necessity of devising the Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement.

  2. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkoeijen, Peter P J L; Bouwmeester, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition) than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown), the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions) and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection). However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants) also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  3. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P J L Verkoeijen

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown, the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection. However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  4. New roads toward North-South cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpstra, E G

    1989-12-01

    A Netherlands Parliament member gives a European Perspective on population and development, problems in urban development, and methods of cooperation between industrialized and developing countries. On population and development, the relationship between population explosion and poverty, underdevelopment, environment, social infrastructure, and food shortages is pointed out. Most population growth in the years ahead will be in developing countries. Rampant population growth and burgeoning poverty strain the world's carrying capacity and environment, both in industrial and developing countries. Development policy and cooperation will fail in the absence of efforts to stem population growth. On this front, religious and political leaders have groundbreaking cooperative steps in supporting international family planning efforts through the global forum of Spiritual and Parliamentary Leaders on Human Survival. Economic development, environment, and population issues are inexorably tied together. The numerous problems faced by uncontrolled Third World urbanization are discussed with potential solutions for change. Incorporating women in the development process is strongly encouraged. The interdependent North-South relationship is discussed. All nations, the private sector, nongovernmental organizations, and women must cooperate to find solutions and effect positive change on a case-by-case basis.

  5. Promoting Cooperative Learning in the Classroom: Comparing Explicit and Implicit Training Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Elliott

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated whether providing 4th and 5th-grade students with explicit instruction in prerequisite cooperative-learning skills and techniques would enhance their academic performance and promote in them positive attitudes towards cooperative learning. Overall, students who received explicit training outperformed their peers on both the unit project and test and presented more favourable attitudes towards cooperative learning. The findings of this study support the use of explicitly instructing students about the components of cooperative learning prior to engaging in collaborative activities. Implications for teacher-education are discussed.

  6. A "Come-from-Behind" Victory for Cooperative Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedenberg, Jeffrey M.

    1990-01-01

    Survey of 105 cooperative education graduates (56 percent) and 276 non-co-op graduates (52 percent) of Lehman College tested theoretical model that showed cooperative education is valuable program in terms of monetary rewards to students. Results showed that co-op students received relative increase in wage rates, indicating that co-op brings…

  7. Motivation to cooperate in Organisations: The case of prototypical leadership and procedural fairness

    OpenAIRE

    David De Cremer; Marius van Dijke; Lieven Brebels; Niek Hoogervorst

    2008-01-01

    The present paper explores how leader prototypicality and procedural fairness connect in stimulating follower cooperation. We, first of all, argue that leader prototypicality (the extent to which a leader represents the group identity) enhances positive perceptions about the future. It does so by positively influencing perceptions of the leader's procedural fairness (at least among strongly identifying group members). Such perceptions of procedural fairness, in turn, stimulate follower cooper...

  8. Gender, abilities, cognitive style and students' achievement in cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirila Peklaj

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of cooperative learning on achievement in mathematics and native language and to analyze students' achievement in cooperative learning according to their gender, abilities and cognitive style. Three hundred and seventy three (170 in the experimental and 203 in the control group fifth grade students from nine different primary schools participated in the study. In experimental group, cooperative learning was introduced in one quarter of the hours dedicated to mathematics and Slovene language during the school year. Control group received the traditional way of teaching in both courses. The results were analyzed with ANOVA. Positive effects of cooperative learning were found in both courses. Results in cooperative learning group were further analyzed according to students' gender, abilities and cognitive style. No significant interaction between students' achievement and their gender or abilities were found. Statistically significant interactions between students' cognitive style and achievement were found in both courses. Field-dependent students benefited most from cooperative learning.

  9. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter international cooperation of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. is presented. Very important is cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. This cooperation has various forms - national and regional projects of technical cooperation, coordinated research activities, participation of our experts in preparation of the IAEA documentation etc.

  10. Cooperative Path Planning and Constraints Analysis for Master-Slave Industrial Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Gan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A strategy of cooperative path planning for a master-slave multiple robot system is presented in this paper. The path planning method is based on motion constraints between the end-effectors of cooperative robots. Cooperation motions have been classified into three types by relative motions between end-effectors of master and slave robots, which is concurrent cooperation, coupled synchronous cooperation and combined synchronous cooperation. Based on this classification, position /orientation constraints and joint velocity constraints are explored in-depth here. In order to validate the path planning method and the theoretical developments in motion constraints analysis, representative experiments based on two industrial robots, Motoman VA1400 and HP20, are provided at the end of the paper. The experimental results have proved both the effectiveness of the path planning method and the correctness of the constraints analysis.

  11. Cooperation between referees and authors increases peer review accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T Leek

    Full Text Available Peer review is fundamentally a cooperative process between scientists in a community who agree to review each other's work in an unbiased fashion. Peer review is the foundation for decisions concerning publication in journals, awarding of grants, and academic promotion. Here we perform a laboratory study of open and closed peer review based on an online game. We show that when reviewer behavior was made public under open review, reviewers were rewarded for refereeing and formed significantly more cooperative interactions (13% increase in cooperation, P = 0.018. We also show that referees and authors who participated in cooperative interactions had an 11% higher reviewing accuracy rate (P = 0.016. Our results suggest that increasing cooperation in the peer review process can lead to a decreased risk of reviewing errors.

  12. Motivation to cooperate in Organisations: The case of prototypical leadership and procedural fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David De Cremer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper explores how leader prototypicality and procedural fairness connect in stimulating follower cooperation. We, first of all, argue that leader prototypicality (the extent to which a leader represents the group identity enhances positive perceptions about the future. It does so by positively influencing perceptions of the leader's procedural fairness (at least among strongly identifying group members. Such perceptions of procedural fairness, in turn, stimulate follower cooperation. Secondly, we argue that leader prototypicality also facilitates the enactment of fair procedures by increasing the effectiveness that a procedurally fair treatment has on follower cooperation. We present an overview of very recent studies that support both arguments and conclude that group based dynamics, which determine the group prototype, have important influences on the effectiveness with which leaders can stimulate cooperation by means of procedural fairness.

  13. Sex differences in neural and behavioral signatures of cooperation revealed by fNIRS hyperscanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph M.; Liu, Ning; Cui, Xu; Vrticka, Pascal; Saggar, Manish; Hosseini, S. M. Hadi; Reiss, Allan L.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers from multiple fields have sought to understand how sex moderates human social behavior. While over 50 years of research has revealed differences in cooperation behavior of males and females, the underlying neural correlates of these sex differences have not been explained. A missing and fundamental element of this puzzle is an understanding of how the sex composition of an interacting dyad influences the brain and behavior during cooperation. Using fNIRS-based hyperscanning in 111 same- and mixed-sex dyads, we identified significant behavioral and neural sex-related differences in association with a computer-based cooperation task. Dyads containing at least one male demonstrated significantly higher behavioral performance than female/female dyads. Individual males and females showed significant activation in the right frontopolar and right inferior prefrontal cortices, although this activation was greater in females compared to males. Female/female dyad’s exhibited significant inter-brain coherence within the right temporal cortex, while significant coherence in male/male dyads occurred in the right inferior prefrontal cortex. Significant coherence was not observed in mixed-sex dyads. Finally, for same-sex dyads only, task-related inter-brain coherence was positively correlated with cooperation task performance. Our results highlight multiple important and previously undetected influences of sex on concurrent neural and behavioral signatures of cooperation. PMID:27270754

  14. Hotel Overbooking and Cooperation with Third-Party Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Dong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hotels cooperate with third-party websites to enhance their competitive position and attain sustainable development in the era of e-commerce. Furthermore, hotel managers overbook to hedge against last-minute cancellations and customer no-shows. This paper discusses pricing and overbooking strategies of a hotel in the context of cooperation with multiple third-party websites and analyzes how these strategies influence the cooperation process. The increase in profits resulting from the overbooking strategy is also examined. A model of a Stackelberg game between the hotel and third-party websites and a Nash game among the third-party websites are developed to analyze the process. Results indicate that the compensation coefficient has a slight influence on hotel pricing strategy, but causes a sharp decrease in overbooking level. As the hotel demands to lessen the probability of denying under higher compensation rate, the third-party websites would exert less sales effort to reduce the demand of online customers. Results also show that under a given market demand, hotel effort only serves to redistribute market shares among the hotel and third-party websites, without influencing hotel pricing and overbooking decisions. Specifically, the market shares of the third-party websites decrease in the effort level of the hotel resulting from an increase in the hotel market share. Finally, in the numerical example where one hotel and two websites are analyzed, hotel overbooking strategy improves hotel profit by 4.20%, whereas profit improvements for Websites 1 and 2 are as high as 5.26% and 5.21%, respectively. Managerial implications of the study are also provided.

  15. The Effect of Incentives and Meta-incentives on the Evolution of Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Okada, Isamu; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Toriumi, Fujio; Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Although positive incentives for cooperators and/or negative incentives for free-riders in social dilemmas play an important role in maintaining cooperation, there is still the outstanding issue of who should pay the cost of incentives. The second-order free-rider problem, in which players who do not provide the incentives dominate in a game, is a well-known academic challenge. In order to meet this challenge, we devise and analyze a meta-incentive game that integrates positive incentives (re...

  16. Upcrowding energy co-operatives - Evaluating the potential of crowdfunding for business model innovation of energy co-operatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilger, Mathias Georg; Jovanović, Tanja; Voigt, Kai-Ingo

    2017-08-01

    Practice and theory have proven the relevance of energy co-operatives for civic participation in the energy turnaround. However, due to a still low awareness and changing regulation, there seems an unexploited potential of utilizing the legal form 'co-operative' in this context. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the crowdfunding implementation in the business model of energy co-operatives in order to cope with the mentioned challenges. Based on a theoretical framework, we derive a Business Model Innovation (BMI) through crowdfunding including synergies and differences. A qualitative study design, particularly a multiple-case study of energy co-operatives, was chosen to prove the BMI and to reveal barriers. The results show that although most co-operatives are not familiar with crowdfunding, there is strong potential in opening up predominantly local structures to a broader group of members. Building on this, equity-based crowdfunding is revealed to be suitable for energy co-operatives as BMI and to accompany other challenges in the same way. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. ¿EXISTE UNA CULTURA COOPERATIVA ORGANIZACIONAL EN TRABAJADORES COOPERATIVISTAS Y NO COOPERATIVISTAS?/IS THERE A CULTURE IN ORGANIZATIONAL COOPERATIVE WORKERS COOPERATIVES AND NO COOPERATIVES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco DIAZ BRETONES

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se explora si el tipo de cultura cooperativa influye en la estructura de valores personales. Asumiendo que los valores son elementos cambiantes, hipotetizamos que aquellas personas que trabajan en cooperativas desarrollarán perfiles de valores más colectivistas que otros trabajadores de empresas no cooperativas, de manera que la cooperativa tendría una función formativa y de conformación en el desarrollo de valores más colectivistas hacia todos sus integrantes, frete a otro tipo de empresas. Para estudiar este problema de investigación, llevamos a cabo una investigación en dos empresas cooperativas y otras dos no cooperativas. En total se recogieron 148 cuestionarios (74 de trabajadores de cooperativas y 74 de no cooperativas. Los resultados muestran como ambos grupos poseen diferencias significativas aunque no el sentido esperado. /In this work it is explored if the type of cooperative culture influences the structure of personal values. Assuming that the values are changeable elements, suppose that those persons who are employed at cooperatives will develop profiles of more collectivist values than other workpeople of not cooperative companies, so that the cooperative would have a formative function in the development of the most collectivist values towards all his members, opposite to another type of companies. To study this investigation problem, we carry out an investigation in two cooperative companies and other two not co-operatives. In whole there were gathered 148 questionnaires (74 of workpeople of cooperatives and 74 of not cooperatives.The results show both groups possess significant differences although not the awaited ones.

  18. Manufacturer's pricing strategies in cooperative and non-cooperative advertising supply chain under retail competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Giri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the manufacturer's pricing strategy in a supply chain with a single manufacturer and two competing retailers. The manufacturer, as a Stackelberg leader specifies wholesale prices to two retailers who face advertisement dependent demand. Based on this gaming structure, two mathematical models are developed - the cooperative advertising model where manufacturer shares a fraction of retailers' advertising costs and the non-cooperative advertising model where manufacturer does not share any retailer's advertising expenses. The optimal strategies of the manufacturer and retailers are determined and a numerical example is taken to illustrate the theoretical results derived. We show that cooperative advertising policy is beneficial not only for the participating entities but also for the entire supply chain.

  19. Cooperation between territorial communities: theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    П. М. Любченко

    2015-05-01

    infrastructure. The fifth form – creations by cooperation parties joint body of management - complex, not properly regulated, so there is no example of this type of cooperation in Ukraine. The basic directions of improvement of legal regulation of relations in this area proposed by author. These are formation of associations (Union of Communities, public legal structures with significantly higher levels of integrated territorial cooperation to jointly address most or all local matters, however local communities united in an alliance should not lose their legal status. Conclusions. The inter-municipal cooperation relatively new direction of local government in Ukraine and therefore requires a broad coverage of positive practices and benefits of voluntary restrictions of their own local communities autonomy for improving the quality of life of citizens in the territory. Cooperation should be based on clear goals and desired by strengthening solidarity and partnership to achieve result.

  20. THE EFFECT OF COOPERATIVE AND INDIVIDUALISTIC GAMES ON WORD SPELLING: A STUDY OF YOUNG IRANIAN EFL LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokooh SHAHZADEH

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study builds on the instructional effectiveness and efficiency of two game approaches on word spelling of EFL beginners. The approaches under study were cooperative approach and individualistic approach. The participants of this study consisted of 59 fifth and sixth grade students from two elementary schools in the same district in Firoozeh, Neyshabur- Iran. They received 90 minutes instruction per week for a total of ten sessions in two groups of cooperative and individualistic. The results of the study indicated that there is not a significant difference between the performance of learners in cooperative and individualistic groups. A questionnaire was also given to the learners at the end in order to measure learners' attitude toward the games. The results showed that there is not a big difference between students' attitude toward learning spelling in cooperative group and individualistic group, and both groups have positive attitude toward the games. The researcher concluded that the combination of these two approaches seems more favorable.

  1. [Social network analysis of interdisciplinary cooperation and networking in early prevention and intervention. A pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künster, A K; Knorr, C; Fegert, J M; Ziegenhain, U

    2010-11-01

    Child protection can only be successfully solved by interdisciplinary cooperation and networking. The individual, heterogeneous, and complex needs of families cannot be met sufficiently by one profession alone. To guarantee efficient interdisciplinary cooperation, there should not be any gaps in the network. In addition, each actor in the network should be placed at an optimal position regarding function, responsibilities, and skills. Actors that serve as allocators, such as pediatricians or youth welfare officers, should be in key player positions within the network. Furthermore, successful child protection is preventive and starts early. Social network analysis is an adequate technique to assess network structures and to plan interventions to improve networking. In addition, it is very useful to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions like round tables. We present data from our pilot project which was part of "Guter Start ins Kinderleben" ("a good start into a child's life"). Exemplary network data from one community show that networking is already quite effective with a satisfactory mean density throughout the network. There is potential for improvement in cooperation, especially at the interface between the child welfare and health systems.

  2. Maximum Lateness Scheduling on Two-Person Cooperative Games with Variable Processing Times and Common Due Date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new maximum lateness scheduling model in which both cooperative games and variable processing times exist simultaneously is considered in this paper. The job variable processing time is described by an increasing or a decreasing function dependent on the position of a job in the sequence. Two persons have to cooperate in order to process a set of jobs. Each of them has a single machine and their processing cost is defined as the minimum value of maximum lateness. All jobs have a common due date. The objective is to maximize the multiplication of their rational positive cooperative profits. A division of those jobs should be negotiated to yield a reasonable cooperative profit allocation scheme acceptable to them. We propose the sufficient and necessary conditions for the problems to have positive integer solution.

  3. Interface technology based on human cognition and understanding for the operation and maintenance of advanced human cooperative plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numano, Masayoshi; Niwa, Yasuyuki; Itoh, Hiroko; Miyazaki, Keiko; Fukuto, Junji; Okazaki, Tadatsugi; Matsukura, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Liu, Qiao; Mitomo, Nobuo

    2006-01-01

    'Development of Intelligent Systems Technology for Advanced Human Cooperative Plants' was implemented as 'Nuclear Energy Fundamentals Crossover Research' by 3 institutes (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research; RIKEN, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology; AIST and National Maritime Research Institute; NMRI). Aiming at appropriate interaction between human and agents in Digital Maintenance Field which spreads widely in time and space, NMRI developed technologies on contraction of plant information, generalization and intuition of the information through visual presentation. Intuitive presentation gave on-site information for identifying the source of abnormalities to human operators. And a human-machine cooperation infrastructure for plant maintenance was proposed and developed, where an overview display was used to show position and state information of all the agents in the plant and each agent view was used to show the corresponding agent's information in detail. A part of this technology was implemented in a demonstration program. Two agents were developed to support human operators' plant maintenance activities in this program. This demonstration showed the effectiveness of human-agent cooperation for early plant abnormality detection. (author)

  4. Teamwork or interdepartmental cooperation: which is more important in the health care setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, K D; Carson, P P; Yallapragada, R; Roe, C W

    2001-06-01

    A survey of 75 nursing department employees was conducted to assess the relative importance of across-department and within-team cooperation on workplace outcomes. As compared with within-team cooperation, across-department cooperation is more positively associated with procedural justice, interpersonal justice, satisfaction with supervisor feedback, supervisory rating, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Across-department cooperation is more negatively associated with role ambiguity, role conflict, role overload, job tension, and job withdrawal intentions. No significant correlational differences are noted for either distributive justice or politics. Type of cooperation also was analyzed using hierarchical regression, and more variance was explained in across-department cooperation than within-team cooperation by organizational variables. Based on these results, it may be more important for the health care manager to attend to issues of interdepartmental cooperation rather than to internal team dynamics.

  5. Positive Noise Cross Correlation in a Copper Pair Splitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anindya; Ronen, Yuval; Heiblum, Moty; Shtrikman, Hadas; Mahalu, Diana

    2012-02-01

    Entanglement is in heart of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox, in which non-locality is a fundamental property. Up to date spin entanglement of electrons had not been demonstrated. Here, we provide direct evidence of such entanglement by measuring: non-local positive current correlation and positive cross correlation among current fluctuations, both of separated electrons born by a Cooper-pair-beam-splitter. The realization of the splitter is provided by injecting current from an Al superconductor contact into two, single channel, pure InAs nanowires - each intercepted by a Coulomb blockaded quantum dot (QD). The QDs impedes strongly the flow of Cooper pairs allowing easy single electron transport. The passage of electron in one wire enables the simultaneous passage of the other in the neighboring wire. The splitting efficiency of the Cooper pairs (relative to Cooper pairs actual current) was found to be ˜ 40%. The positive cross-correlations in the currents and their fluctuations (shot noise) are fully consistent with entangled electrons produced by the beam splitter.

  6. Closed-loop model identification of cooperative manipulators holding deformable objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkathiri, A. A.; Akmeliawati, R.; Azlan, N. Z.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents system identification to obtain the closed-loop models of a couple of cooperative manipulators in a system, which function to hold deformable objects. The system works using the master-slave principle. In other words, one of the manipulators is position-controlled through encoder feedback, while a force sensor gives feedback to the other force-controlled manipulator. Using the closed-loop input and output data, the closed-loop models, which are useful for model-based control design, are estimated. The criteria for model validation are a 95% fit between the measured and simulated output of the estimated models and residual analysis. The results show that for both position and force control respectively, the fits are 95.73% and 95.88%.

  7. Non-cooperative game theory in biology and cooperative reasoning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabalak, Alihan; Smirnova, Elena; Jost, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    The readiness for spontaneous cooperation together with the assumptions that others share this cooperativity has been identified as a fundamental feature that distinguishes humans from other animals, including the great apes. At the same time, cooperativity presents an evolutionary puzzle because non-cooperators do better in a group of cooperators. We develop here an analysis of the process leading to cooperation in terms of rationality concepts, game theory and epistemic logic. We are, however, not attempting to reconstruct the actual evolutionary process. We rather want to provide the logical structure underlying cooperation in order to understand why cooperation is possible and what kind of reasoning and beliefs would lead to cooperative decision-making. Game theory depends on an underlying common belief in non-cooperative rationality of the players, and cooperativity similarly can utilize a common belief in cooperative rationality as its basis. We suggest a weaker concept of rational decision-making in games that encompasses both types of decision-making. We build this up in stages, starting from simple optimization, then using anticipation of the reaction of others, to finally arrive at reflexive and cooperative reasoning. While each stage is more difficult than the preceding, importantly, we also identify a reduction of complexity achieved by the consistent application of higher stage reasoning.

  8. Cooperation or Silent Rivalry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    a gravitational pull which goes beyond economic problems. Furthermore, the EU has gradually built up a coherent policy on many fields. The EU has become the “reform anchor” and most important cooperation partner for Egypt. The progress towards increasing Egypt’s “Stake in the Internal Market” places cooperation......For decades the US has had a hegemonic position in the Middle East. A key country in this respect has been Egypt. However, in recent decades the EU has made itself increasingly felt in the region. Due to enlargements the EU came geographically much closer, and the Internal Market has generated...... to see the US and EU as rivals. Their roles are rather complementary. The article explores developments in a long-term perspective. Internal and structural developments have had a heavy impact, but at important junctions ideas and strategies for gaining political legitimacy were powerful factors too...

  9. Designing for cooperation - cooperating in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1991-01-01

    This article will discuss how to design computer applications that enhance the quality of work and products, and will relate the discussion to current themes in the field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Cooperation is a key element of computer use and work practice, yet here...... a specific "CSCW approach is not taken." Instead the focus is cooperation as an important aspect of work that should be integrated into most computer support efforts in order to develop successful computer support, however, other aspects such as power, conflict and control must also be considered....

  10. India's energy needs and areas of international cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wazir, S.N.

    1980-03-15

    India's energy position is poor because of relatively large imports of oil, and poor reserves. In the impending energy crisis, developing countries will suffer (whether or not it is oil-rich) unless international cooperation is forthcoming. Energy consumption patterns in India are shown in tables. Energy reserves are also analyzed, including nonconventional sources (geothermal, solar, etc.). Possible areas for international cooperation are explored. (DLC)

  11. Social networks and cooperation in hunter-gatherers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apicella, Coren L; Marlowe, Frank W; Fowler, James H; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2012-01-25

    Social networks show striking structural regularities, and both theory and evidence suggest that networks may have facilitated the development of large-scale cooperation in humans. Here, we characterize the social networks of the Hadza, a population of hunter-gatherers in Tanzania. We show that Hadza networks have important properties also seen in modernized social networks, including a skewed degree distribution, degree assortativity, transitivity, reciprocity, geographic decay and homophily. We demonstrate that Hadza camps exhibit high between-group and low within-group variation in public goods game donations. Network ties are also more likely between people who give the same amount, and the similarity in cooperative behaviour extends up to two degrees of separation. Social distance appears to be as important as genetic relatedness and physical proximity in explaining assortativity in cooperation. Our results suggest that certain elements of social network structure may have been present at an early point in human history. Also, early humans may have formed ties with both kin and non-kin, based in part on their tendency to cooperate. Social networks may thus have contributed to the emergence of cooperation.

  12. Distinguishing the opponents promotes cooperation in well-mixed populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardil, Lucas; da Silva, Jafferson K. L.

    2010-03-01

    Cooperation has been widely studied when an individual strategy is adopted against all coplayers. In this context, some extra mechanisms, such as punishment, reward, memory, and network reciprocity must be introduced in order to keep cooperators alive. Here, we adopt a different point of view. We study the adoption of different strategies against different opponents instead of adoption of the same strategy against all of them. In the context of the prisoner dilemma, we consider an evolutionary process in which strategies that provide more benefits are imitated and the players replace the strategy used in one of the interactions furnishing the worst payoff. Individuals are set in a well-mixed population, so that network reciprocity effect is excluded and both synchronous and asynchronous updates are analyzed. As a consequence of the replacement rule, we show that mutual cooperation is never destroyed and the initial fraction of mutual cooperation is a lower bound for the level of cooperation. We show by simulation and mean-field analysis that (i) cooperation dominates for synchronous update and (ii) only the initial mutual cooperation is maintained for asynchronous update. As a side effect of the replacement rule, an “implicit punishment” mechanism comes up in a way that exploitations are always neutralized providing evolutionary stability for cooperation.

  13. Reinforcement Learning Explains Conditional Cooperation and Its Moody Cousin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ezaki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct reciprocity, or repeated interaction, is a main mechanism to sustain cooperation under social dilemmas involving two individuals. For larger groups and networks, which are probably more relevant to understanding and engineering our society, experiments employing repeated multiplayer social dilemma games have suggested that humans often show conditional cooperation behavior and its moody variant. Mechanisms underlying these behaviors largely remain unclear. Here we provide a proximate account for this behavior by showing that individuals adopting a type of reinforcement learning, called aspiration learning, phenomenologically behave as conditional cooperator. By definition, individuals are satisfied if and only if the obtained payoff is larger than a fixed aspiration level. They reinforce actions that have resulted in satisfactory outcomes and anti-reinforce those yielding unsatisfactory outcomes. The results obtained in the present study are general in that they explain extant experimental results obtained for both so-called moody and non-moody conditional cooperation, prisoner's dilemma and public goods games, and well-mixed groups and networks. Different from the previous theory, individuals are assumed to have no access to information about what other individuals are doing such that they cannot explicitly use conditional cooperation rules. In this sense, myopic aspiration learning in which the unconditional propensity of cooperation is modulated in every discrete time step explains conditional behavior of humans. Aspiration learners showing (moody conditional cooperation obeyed a noisy GRIM-like strategy. This is different from the Pavlov, a reinforcement learning strategy promoting mutual cooperation in two-player situations.

  14. Evolution of cooperation under social pressure in multiplex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, María

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we aim to contribute to the understanding of human prosocial behavior by studying the influence that a particular form of social pressure, "being watched," has on the evolution of cooperative behavior. We study how cooperation emerges in multiplex complex topologies by analyzing a particular bidirectionally coupled dynamics on top of a two-layer multiplex network (duplex). The coupled dynamics appears between the prisoner's dilemma game in a network and a threshold cascade model in the other. The threshold model is intended to abstract the behavior of a network of vigilant nodes that impose the pressure of being observed altering hence the temptation to defect of the dilemma. Cooperation or defection in the game also affects the state of a node of being vigilant. We analyze these processes on different duplex networks structures and assess the influence of the topology, average degree and correlated multiplexity, on the outcome of cooperation. Interestingly, we find that the social pressure of vigilance may impact cooperation positively or negatively, depending on the duplex structure, specifically the degree correlations between layers is determinant. Our results give further quantitative insights in the promotion of cooperation under social pressure.

  15. Affective Synchrony and Autonomic Coupling during Cooperation: A Hyperscanning Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elide Vanutelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research highlighted that during social interactions people shape each other’s emotional states by resonance mechanisms and synchronized autonomic patterns. Starting from the idea that joint actions create shared emotional experiences, in the present study a social bond was experimentally induced by making subjects cooperate with each other. Participants’ autonomic system activity (electrodermal: skin conductance level and response: SCL, SCR; cardiovascular indices: heart rate: HR was continuously monitored during an attentional couple game. The cooperative motivation was induced by presenting feedback which reinforced the positive outcomes of the intersubjective exchange. 24 participants coupled in 12 dyads were recruited. Intrasubject analyses revealed higher HR in the first part of the task, connoted by increased cognitive demand and arousing social dynamic, while intersubject analysis showed increased synchrony in electrodermal activity after the feedback. Such results encourage the use of hyperscanning techniques to assess emotional coupling in ecological and real-time paradigms.

  16. Male and female breeding strategies in a cooperative primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Maria Emilia; Araujo, Arrilton; Arruda, Maria de Fatima; Lima, Ana Karinne Moreira; Siqueira, Jose de Oliveira; Hattori, Wallisen Tadashi

    2014-11-01

    Marmosets are cooperative breeders organized as extended family groups, but breeding is generally restricted to a single pair. Breeding competition is fierce in female marmosets; males, on the other hand, show low levels of intragroup aggression. We investigated male and female breeding strategies and the resulting reproductive output in 9 wild groups. Reproductive output, tenure of breeding animals, identification of the breeding system, breeding position replacements, migration and infanticide were recorded; also, we recorded grooming and aggression. Replacement of the breeding male or female was observed on nine occasions. On four occasions, the son of the breeding male inherited the breeding post, but we never observed inheritance of a breeding post by a daughter. Mostly, females attained a breeding post by immigrating to a group that had a breeding vacancy. Our results showed that Callithrix jacchus males and females use different strategies to attain a breeding position and maintain it for as long as possible. These strategies prolong the tenure of the breeding position, which is the best way to produce a large number of offspring. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The knowledge absorptive capacity to improve the cooperation and innovation in the firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Saiz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the absorptive capacity types in the knowledge management literature and aims to understand how companies can strength their contexts of cooperation in order to innovate. Design/methodology/approach: A balanced panel of 1,220 firms that respond to the Survey of Business Strategies for a three-year period was used, which represents a total of 3,660 observations.   Findings: The justification of absorptive capacity typology for an innovation efficiency process. The influence of the potential and realized absorptive capacity on new products is significant and causes effects on internal research and development in diverse way. The impact of the joint ventures, suppliers’ cooperation and customers’ cooperation are significant on absorptive capacity. Research limitations/implications: It would be interesting to extend the research to another innovation metrics as new organizational methods, new processes, new designs or new methods in the use of sales channels. Practical implications: The agreement of cooperation activities constitutes an important decision for the firm’s innovation. Companies must be conscious that while suppliers and customers’ cooperation are relevant cooperation actions to increase the internal research and development, joint ventures and customers’ cooperation are significant to the growth of the new products. Social implications: The types of absorptive capacity and internal research and development serve as mediating mechanisms between cooperative activities and innovative performance. Originality/value: This paper advances the literature on absorptive capacity by showing how firms use their positions of technological vigilance and management to form their capabilities, and subsequently, to enhance innovation outcomes. This study considers it is necessary to analyze the typology of the absorptive capacity that can allow managers to understand an innovation efficiency

  18. Assortment of encounters and evolution of cooperativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, I; Cavalli-Sforza, L L

    1982-02-01

    The method of evolutionary stable strategies (ESS), in its current form, is confronted with a difficulty when it tries to explain how some social behaviors initiate their evolution. We show that this difficulty may be removed by changing the assumption made tacitly in game theory (and in ESS) of randomness of meetings or encounters. In reality, such randomness seems to be rare in nature. Family, population and social structure, customs, and habits impose various types of deviation from randomness. Introducing nonrandomness of meeting in a way formally similar to assortative mating, we show that the bar to initial increase of inherited cooperative or altruistic behaviors can be removed, provided there is sufficient assortment of meetings. Family structure may cause contacts predominantly between certain types of relatives, and one can reconstruct some results of classical kin selection in terms of evolutionary stable strategy with assortative meetings. Neighbor effects and group selection might be similarly treated. Assortment need not be a passive consequence of population and social structure, but it can also be actively pursued. Behaviors favoring the choice of cooperative companions will have the effect of favoring the evolution of cooperativeness. It can be shown that discrimination in the choice of companions, especially if combined with assortment, can favor the development of cooperativeness, making initial increase of cooperative behavior possible even at levels of assortment passively imposed which would not be adequate, per se, to guarantee the increase of cooperativeness. It is possible that, in some cases, cooperativeness and behavior favoring some type of assortment are coselected.

  19. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazi, Pouria; Hessel, Jop; Cao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.

  20. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Ramazi

    Full Text Available For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.

  1. Cooperatives as a social enterprise in Italy: a place for social integration and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savio, M; Righetti, A

    1993-10-01

    This article analyses the history and development of an integrated cooperative established in 1981 in northern Italy. Integrated cooperatives, otherwise known as social enterprises, are among the most interesting activities developed in the area of social assistance and rehabilitation in recent years in Italy. In particular, they acquired relevance in the care of mentally disordered people by providing them with job opportunities, which is an important rehabilitative and integrative factor. The aim of social enterprises is two-fold. They have the economic goal of offering remunerative work just as any other commercial enterprise, as well as the social mandate of promoting the physical, social, and mental health of their members. A positive coexistence between market competition and rehabilitation is therefore constantly pursued. This research aimed at analysing the working and social experience of people employed by the cooperative during its 10-year life. The study was limited to those who had a social or health problem when entering the cooperative. The investigation was promoted by cooperative members, who felt the need to document their experience and to undertake initiatives towards evaluating the rehabilitative value of the social enterprise. The results show that cooperative members come from different marginalized areas of social and health distress, of which the two largest are social service users and psychiatric service users. There is a noticeable turn-over rate, which underlines one function of the cooperative as being a transitional working context from which users can gain access to other more rewarding job opportunities in the labour market.

  2. Reliable electricity. The effects of system integration and cooperative measures to make it work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagspiel, Simeon [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics

    2017-12-15

    We investigate the effects of system integration for reliability of supply in regional electricity systems along with cooperative measures to support it. Specifically, we set up a model to contrast the benefits from integration through statistical balancing (i.e., a positive externality) with the risk of cascading outages (a negative externality). The model is calibrated with a comprehensive dataset comprising 28 European countries on a high spatial and temporal resolution. We find that positive externalities from system integration prevail, and that cooperation is key to meet reliability targets efficiently. To enable efficient solutions in a non-marketed environment, we formulate the problem as a cooperative game and study different rules to allocate the positive and negative effects to individual countries. Strikingly, we find that without a mechanism, the integrated solution is unstable. In contrast, proper transfer payments can be found to make all countries better off in full integration, and the Nucleolus is identified as a particularly promising candidate. The rule could be used as a basis for compensation payments to support the successful integration and cooperation of electricity systems.

  3. Reliable electricity. The effects of system integration and cooperative measures to make it work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagspiel, Simeon; Koeln Univ.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effects of system integration for reliability of supply in regional electricity systems along with cooperative measures to support it. Specifically, we set up a model to contrast the benefits from integration through statistical balancing (i.e., a positive externality) with the risk of cascading outages (a negative externality). The model is calibrated with a comprehensive dataset comprising 28 European countries on a high spatial and temporal resolution. We find that positive externalities from system integration prevail, and that cooperation is key to meet reliability targets efficiently. To enable efficient solutions in a non-marketed environment, we formulate the problem as a cooperative game and study different rules to allocate the positive and negative effects to individual countries. Strikingly, we find that without a mechanism, the integrated solution is unstable. In contrast, proper transfer payments can be found to make all countries better off in full integration, and the Nucleolus is identified as a particularly promising candidate. The rule could be used as a basis for compensation payments to support the successful integration and cooperation of electricity systems.

  4. Social rank and social cooperation: Impact of social comparison processes on cooperative decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Gong

    Full Text Available Successful navigation of our complex social world requires the capability to recognize and judge the relative status of others. Hence, social comparison processes are of great importance in our interactions, informing us of our relative standing and in turn potentially motivating our behavior. However, so far few studies have examined in detail how social comparison can influence interpersonal decision-making. One aspect of social decision-making that is of particular importance is cooperative behavior, and identifying means of maintaining and promoting cooperation in the provision of public goods is of vital interest to society. Here, we manipulated social comparison by grading performance rankings on a reaction time task, and then measured cooperative decisions via a modified Public Goods Game (PGG. Findings revealed that individuals ranked highest tended to be more cooperative as compared to those who placed in the bottom rank. Interestingly, this effect was regardless of whether the comparison group members were the subsequent players in the PGG or not, and this effect was stronger in those with higher social orientation. In summary, the present research shows how different social comparison processes (assessed via social rankings can operate in our daily interaction with others, demonstrating an important effect on cooperative behavior.

  5. Energy policy in the EU and in Russia. Positions, potential conflicts, approaches for cooperation.; Energiepolitik in der EU und Russland. Interessenlagen, Konfliktpotenziale, Kooperationsansaetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebing, Stefan

    2010-06-01

    The paper under the above mentioned title tries to develop an understanding of the question why energy relations and cooperation between the European Union and Russia in energy matters haven't been very successful over the last decade and why relations are affected by crises frequently. In order to answer these questions meaningfully, several steps need to be made: First, the paper offers a summary of recent policy debate on energy questions on the EU side. It identifies relevant participants in the ''political arena'' and describes their positioning and interaction, based on a multi-level-governance approach. Following a look at history of European energy policy developments, the paper concludes that a complex European policy field has developed recently, although there is no direct responsibility for energy matters with European institutions so far, but that the justification for any law-making in the said areas is deducted from secondary EU level responsibilities such as common market, competition law or environmental matters. However, there is a huge bandwidth of positions between political actors, civil service, parliaments, industry associations, consumers - organizations etc as well as between community and national level organizations. Not only a battle for power and competence between these levels hinders a straight and consistent energy policy across the EU, there is also significantly different focus with different players on where to put effort between conflicting objectives of the ''European Energy Triangle'', demanding (1) secure and reliable, (2) cheap and competitive as well as (3) environmentally friendly energy supplies. Despite all these differences, within the EU, a strong and well-regarded new area of policy debate has developed in the energy sector and a lot has been achieved. Observers frequently demand the EU to ''speak with one voice'' towards third parties, eg gas producing

  6. The Evolution of Reputation-Based Cooperation in Regular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Sasaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in reputation technologies, it is not clear how reputation systems can affect human cooperation in social networks. Although it is known that two of the major mechanisms in the evolution of cooperation are spatial selection and reputation-based reciprocity, theoretical study of the interplay between both mechanisms remains almost uncharted. Here, we present a new individual-based model for the evolution of reciprocal cooperation between reputation and networks. We comparatively analyze four of the leading moral assessment rules—shunning, image scoring, stern judging, and simple standing—and base the model on the giving game in regular networks for Cooperators, Defectors, and Discriminators. Discriminators rely on a proper moral assessment rule. By using individual-based models, we show that the four assessment rules are differently characterized in terms of how cooperation evolves, depending on the benefit-to-cost ratio, the network-node degree, and the observation and error conditions. Our findings show that the most tolerant rule—simple standing—is the most robust among the four assessment rules in promoting cooperation in regular networks.

  7. Construct validation of supply chain management in cooperative

    OpenAIRE

    Idris, Nurjihan; Arshad, Fatimah Mohamed; Radam, Alias; Ali, Noor Azman

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to analyze construct in supply chain and to determine which construct contribute to performance of agricultural cooperatives in Malaysia. The primary data is collected via questionnaire from top level management of agricultural cooperatives using 5-item Likert scale. Factor analysis and structural equations modeling were used to analyze the data. Findings show that cooperatives places importance on quality and technology, logistic, supplier and governance. As a whole, supp...

  8. Promotion of technical cooperation in the field of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jung Kyung; Jung, Duk Yung; Suh, Seong Seog; Park, Myung Nam; Kim, Young Mi; Cho, Moo Kyung [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This study aims to improve the quality of human resources and the capability of research and development through the promotion of technical cooperation with foreign energy organizations possessing advanced technologies, and at the same time to contribute to internationalizing energy technology through the active involvement in multilateral technical cooperation programs with international organizations. To attain these aims, practical cooperative relations has been strengthened with 34 organizations from 11 countries including 6 organizations with which new cooperative agreements has been concluded in 1995 from the USA, Australia, China, and Russia, through the promotion of the continuous exchange of information and personnel, and international joint projects. And also the positive participation in technical cooperation programs and research projects organized or sponsored by APEC, IEA, UNDP, UNESCO, WEC has been made. In addition, for the improvement in research capability, 200 researchers has been dispatched abroad for the presentation of papers, of for the discussion of joint research projects, and 30 foreign experts through diverse overseas personnel exchange programs including Brain Pool Program were invited for the contribution of advancing research projects. (author). 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Cooperative Learning in the Advanced Algebra and Trigonometry Mathematics High School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozsa, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Over the past three decades, researchers have found cooperative learning to have positive effects on student achievement in various subject areas and levels in education. However, there are limited studies on the impact of cooperative learning on student achievement in the area of high school mathematics. This study examined the impact of…

  10. A Comparative Study on Cooperative Learning in Multimedia and Network Environment Used by English Majors between China Mainland and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Xue

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper first based on the theory of cooperative learning research. It analyses the characteristics and advantages of cooperative learning under the multimedia network environment.And then take China Three Gorges University and Taiwan I-Shou University English major students for example, using questionnaires and interviews to investigate the students's cooperative learning in the network environment. Survey results showed that cooperative learning teaching mode has been widely used in English classrooms across the Taiwan Strait. Students think highly of cooperative learning in the multimedia-aided, and it can have a positive effect on learning; but on cooperative learning ability and the specific learning process, students still have some problems.Nowadays,cooperative learning in the network environment has various ways, but there exist certain differences in the learning styles across the Strait. Taiwan students rely more on teachers’ help and teachers feedback, while students in mainland depend mainly on networking and panel discussion. On qualitative analysis of interview is a supplement to the questionnaire and further explore its deeper causes, which provide valuable evidence for the study and learning practice. Finally, according to the comparative analysis ,the author puts forward some constructive suggestions.

  11. Application of cooperative and non-cooperative games in large-scale water quantity and quality management: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjouri, Najmeh; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, two cooperative and non-cooperative methodologies are developed for a large-scale water allocation problem in Southern Iran. The water shares of the water users and their net benefits are determined using optimization models having economic objectives with respect to the physical and environmental constraints of the system. The results of the two methodologies are compared based on the total obtained economic benefit, and the role of cooperation in utilizing a shared water resource is demonstrated. In both cases, the water quality in rivers satisfies the standards. Comparing the results of the two mentioned approaches shows the importance of acting cooperatively to achieve maximum revenue in utilizing a surface water resource while the river water quantity and quality issues are addressed.

  12. Heuristics guide cooperative behaviors in public goods game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjie; Chen, Tong

    2015-12-01

    In public goods game (PGG), player's cooperative behavior is not pure economical rationality, but social preference and prosocial intuition play extremely important roles as well. Social preference and prosocial intuition can be guided by heuristics from one's neighbors in daily life. To better investigate the impacts of heuristics on the evolution of cooperation, four types of agents are introduced into our spatial PGG. Through numerical simulations, results show that the larger percentages of cooperators with independent thought, the easier emergence and maintenance of collective cooperative behaviors. Additionally, we find that differentia heuristic capability has great effect on the equilibrium of PGG. Cooperation can be obviously promoted, when heuristic capability of cooperators with independent thought is stronger than that of defectors with independent thought. Finally, we observe that cooperators with independent thought and defectors with independent thought are favorable for the formation of some high quality clusters, which can resist the invasion between each other. Our work may help us understand more clearly the mechanism of cooperation in real world.

  13. A study on the international cooperation through the NSG-DMTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae, Jaewoong; Lee, Youngwook; Choi, Sundo; Kim, Jongsook

    2013-01-01

    A final agreement for a total of seven areas will be drawn up in June 2013. The purpose of reviewing the control list is to harmonize NSG guidelines with the current level of nuclear technology. However, unnecessary control of items is likely to cause negative impacts on the development of the domestic nuclear power industry according to results of the revision. Therefore, the revision of the control list should be carried out carefully by thorough consideration. It is need to minimize the negative impact on domestic nuclear industries and research institutes due to strengthened export control regime. There is also a need to promote a solid foothold of Korea in NSG through the appropriate response such as new suggestion for the revision. The following measures to strengthen international cooperation were derived based on negotiation processes. Suggesting proposals PGs which suggested proposals in DMTE have many opportunities to have comments on revisions and occupy an advantageous position to dominate discussion. The active intervention in the fundamental review will invigorate future cooperation activities with many countries. Building bilateral communication channel It is difficult to grasp the practical position of each country in formal meetings. Sometimes, some proposals are related to some states' national policy and political issues even if the amendments are based on technical reviews. Unofficial diplomatic channels will contribute to build the communication and cooperation with many countries. Cooperation with like-minded states Joint suggestions of proposals, joint opposition to proposals establish cooperation channels between like-minded states, which may help to manage other proposals. Cooperation with like-minded states can exert a big influence to build consensus considering the decision system of NSG

  14. Cooperation enhanced by habitat destruction in Prisoner's Dilemma Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiqing; Wang, Wanxiong; Zhang, Feng; Qiao, Hongqiang

    2017-11-01

    The emergence and maintenance of cooperation is a fundamental problem within groups of selfish individuals, whereby we introduce a model of replicator equations based on the Prisoner's Dilemma game. In the present work, the effect of habitat destruction on the evolution of cooperation will be taken into account. Our results show that cooperators can receive the biggest boost for a moderate value of habitat destruction, and more serious habitat destruction will lead to lower levels of cooperation until zero. Moreover, we also reach the conclusion that the cooperation level decreases monotonously with the increasing of the ratio of cooperative cost to benefit but increases monotonously with the increasing of the encounter probability. Our findings can help to further understand the evolution of cooperation under the harsh external environment.

  15. Why mussels stick together: spatial self-organization affects the evolution of cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, M.; Weissing, F.J.; van de Koppel, J.

    2017-01-01

    Cooperation with neighbours may be crucial for the persistence of populations instressful environments. Yet, cooperation is often not evolutionarily stable, since noncooperativeindividuals can reap the benefits of cooperation without having to pay the costsassociated with cooperation. Here we show

  16. The evolution of cooperation by the Hankshaw effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarlund, Sarah P; Connelly, Brian D; Dickinson, Katherine J; Kerr, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of cooperation-costly behavior that benefits others-faces one clear obstacle. Namely, cooperators are always at a competitive disadvantage relative to defectors, individuals that reap the benefits, but evade the cost of cooperation. One solution to this problem involves genetic hitchhiking, where the allele encoding cooperation becomes linked to a beneficial mutation, allowing cooperation to rise in abundance. Here, we explore hitchhiking in the context of adaptation to a stressful environment by cooperators and defectors with spatially limited dispersal. Under such conditions, clustered cooperators reach higher local densities, thereby experiencing more mutational opportunities than defectors. Thus, the allele encoding cooperation has a greater probability of hitchhiking with alleles conferring stress adaptation. We label this probabilistic enhancement the "Hankshaw effect" after the character Sissy Hankshaw, whose anomalously large thumbs made her a singularly effective hitchhiker. Using an agent-based model, we reveal a broad set of conditions that allow the evolution of cooperation through this effect. Additionally, we show that spite, a costly behavior that harms others, can evolve by the Hankshaw effect. While in an unchanging environment these costly social behaviors have transient success, in a dynamic environment, cooperation and spite can persist indefinitely. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. The Spreading of Social Energy: How Exposure to Positive and Negative Social News Affects Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqing Yao

    Full Text Available Social news, unlike video games or TV programs, conveys real-life interactions. Theoretically, social news in which people help or harm each other and violate rules should influence both prosocial and violation behaviors. In two experiments, we demonstrated the spreading effects of social news in a social interaction context emphasizing social conventions and a nonsocial interaction context emphasizing moral norms. Across the two studies, the results showed that positive social news increased cooperation (decreased defection but had no effect on cheating, whereas negative social news increased cheating but with no change in cooperation (or defection. We conclude that there is a spreading impact of positive social news in the conventional norm domain and of negative social news in the moral norm domain.

  18. The Spreading of Social Energy: How Exposure to Positive and Negative Social News Affects Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ziqing; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Social news, unlike video games or TV programs, conveys real-life interactions. Theoretically, social news in which people help or harm each other and violate rules should influence both prosocial and violation behaviors. In two experiments, we demonstrated the spreading effects of social news in a social interaction context emphasizing social conventions and a nonsocial interaction context emphasizing moral norms. Across the two studies, the results showed that positive social news increased cooperation (decreased defection) but had no effect on cheating, whereas negative social news increased cheating but with no change in cooperation (or defection). We conclude that there is a spreading impact of positive social news in the conventional norm domain and of negative social news in the moral norm domain.

  19. The cooperation between family and school in cooperative education of children and youth in the Second Polish Republic (1918-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELŻBIETA MAGIERA

    2017-10-01

    environment, showing the benefits yielding from mutual cooperative work based on joint-action.

  20. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured foreign cooperation particularly in the frame of the Slovak Republic is membership in the IAEA, as well as cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD NEA), cooperation with European Union in the frame of PHARE programmes, and intergovernmental cooperation and cooperation among nuclear regulatory authorities. With respect to an international importance, prestige and a wide-scope possibilities of a technical assistance , either a direct one (expert assessments, technology supplies, work placement, scientific trips, training courses) or indirect one (participation at various conferences, seminars, technical committees, etc), the most important cooperation with the IAEA in Vienna. In 1994, the Slovak Republic, was elected to the Board Governors, the represent the group of Eastern European countries. The Slovak Government entrusted the NRA SR's Chairman with representing the Slovak Republic in the Board of Governors. Owing to a good name of Slovakia was elected to the one of two Vice-Chairmen of the Board of Governors at the 882-nd session on the Board. IAEA approved and developed 8 national projects for Slovakia in 1995. Generally, IAEA is contracting scientific contracts with research institutes, nuclear power plants and other organizations. Slovak organizations used these contracts as complementary funding of their tasks. In 1995, there were 12 scientific contracts in progress, or approved respectively. Other international activities of the NRA SR, international co-operations as well as foreign affairs are reported

  1. Using Cooperative Structures to Promote Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    The author explores concrete ways to help students learn more and have fun doing it while they support each other's learning. The article specifically shows the relationships between cooperative learning and deep learning. Readers will become familiar with the tenets of cooperative learning and its power to enhance learning--even more so when…

  2. Intergroup Cooperation in Common Pool Resource Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Jathan; Spierre, Susan G; Selinger, Evan; Seager, Thomas P; Adams, Elizabeth A; Berardy, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Fundamental problems of environmental sustainability, including climate change and fisheries management, require collective action on a scale that transcends the political and cultural boundaries of the nation-state. Rational, self-interested neoclassical economic theories of human behavior predict tragedy in the absence of third party enforcement of agreements and practical difficulties that prevent privatization. Evolutionary biology offers a theory of cooperation, but more often than not in a context of discrimination against other groups. That is, in-group boundaries are necessarily defined by those excluded as members of out-groups. However, in some settings human's exhibit behavior that is inconsistent with both rational economic and group driven cooperation of evolutionary biological theory. This paper reports the results of a non-cooperative game-theoretic exercise that models a tragedy of the commons problem in which groups of players may advance their own positions only at the expense of other groups. Students enrolled from multiple universities and assigned to different multi-university identity groups participated in experiments that repeatedly resulted in cooperative outcomes despite intergroup conflicts and expressions of group identity. We offer three possible explanations: (1) students were cooperative because they were in an academic setting; (2) students may have viewed their instructors as the out-group; or (3) the emergence of a small number of influential, ethical leaders is sufficient to ensure cooperation amongst the larger groups. From our data and analysis, we draw out lessons that may help to inform approaches for institutional design and policy negotiations, particularly in climate change management.

  3. Ulysses - An ESA/NASA cooperative programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, W.; Eaton, D.

    1990-01-01

    Cooperation between ESA and NASA is discussed, noting that the Memorandum of Understanding lays the framework for this relationship, defining the responsibilities of ESA and NASA and providing for appointment of leadership and managers for the project. Members of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and ESA's ESTEC staff have been appointed to leadership positions within the project and ultimate control of the project rests with the Joint Working Group consisting of two project managers and two project scientists, equally representing both organizations. Coordination of time scales and overall mission design is discussed, including launch cooperation, public relations, and funding of scientific investigations such as Ulysses. Practical difficulties of managing an international project are discussed such as differing documentation requirements and communication techniques, and assurance of equality on projects.

  4. The effect of uncertainty and cooperative behavior on operational performance: Evidence from Brazilian firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Pereira Zamith Brito

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the effect of managers’ uncertainty on cooperative behavior in interorganizational relationships, and how this affects operational performance. We conducted a survey with 225 Brazilian managers, and analyzed data using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Results present: a a negative influence of uncertainty of state on operational performance; b a positive influence of uncertainty of effect on uncertainty of response; c a significant influence of uncertainty of response on cooperative behavior; and d a positive influence of cooperative behavior on performance. The results indicated that cooperation and uncertainty accounted for 18.8% of the variability of operational performance. Considering the uncertainty that plagues Latin societies, this study can help to create more efficient ways to deal with the phenomenon. Rather than turning a blind eye to uncertainty, our study underscores it and treats it like another business environment issue.

  5. Cooperative learning in industrial-sized biology classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Norris; Chang, Shu-Mei; Brickman, Marguerite

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of cooperative learning activities on student achievement and attitudes in large-enrollment (>250) introductory biology classes. We found that students taught using a cooperative learning approach showed greater improvement in their knowledge of course material compared with students taught using a traditional lecture format. In addition, students viewed cooperative learning activities highly favorably. These findings suggest that encouraging students to work in small groups and improving feedback between the instructor and the students can help to improve student outcomes even in very large classes. These results should be viewed cautiously, however, until this experiment can be replicated with additional faculty. Strategies for potentially improving the impact of cooperative learning on student achievement in large courses are discussed.

  6. Spatial modes of cooperation based on bounded rationality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qiuhui; Wang, Lingxiao; Shi, Rongrong; Wang, Huan; He, Mingfeng

    2014-12-01

    Social factors, such as public opinion, values, ethics, moral standards, could guide people’s behavior to some degree. In this paper, we introduce social orientation as a motivator factor into the Nowak model, and discuss the variation of cooperation proportion under the function of motivator factor and betrayal temptation. Results show that motivator factors can promote cooperation proportion, and there is a motivator factor threshold. And a jump point is present in the value, on each side of which cooperation proportion has a small change. Reduction of betrayal temptation can also promote cooperation proportion, and there is a betrayal temptation threshold. And the value is corresponding with a jump point. And cooperation proportion changes very little on each side of the value. In addition, when betrayal temptation and motivator factor both play a role in a system, there are always cooperators and defectors in coexistence.

  7. Cooperation and the evolution of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Luke; Brown, Sam P; Jackson, Andrew L

    2012-08-07

    The high levels of intelligence seen in humans, other primates, certain cetaceans and birds remain a major puzzle for evolutionary biologists, anthropologists and psychologists. It has long been held that social interactions provide the selection pressures necessary for the evolution of advanced cognitive abilities (the 'social intelligence hypothesis'), and in recent years decision-making in the context of cooperative social interactions has been conjectured to be of particular importance. Here we use an artificial neural network model to show that selection for efficient decision-making in cooperative dilemmas can give rise to selection pressures for greater cognitive abilities, and that intelligent strategies can themselves select for greater intelligence, leading to a Machiavellian arms race. Our results provide mechanistic support for the social intelligence hypothesis, highlight the potential importance of cooperative behaviour in the evolution of intelligence and may help us to explain the distribution of cooperation with intelligence across taxa.

  8. Working dogs cooperate among one another by generalised reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfrerer, Nastassja; Taborsky, Michael

    2017-03-06

    Cooperation by generalised reciprocity implies that individuals apply the decision rule "help anyone if helped by someone". This mechanism has been shown to generate evolutionarily stable levels of cooperation, but as yet it is unclear how widely this cooperation mechanism is applied among animals. Dogs (Canis familiaris) are highly social animals with considerable cognitive potential and the ability to differentiate between individual social partners. But although dogs can solve complex problems, they may use simple rules for behavioural decisions. Here we show that dogs trained in an instrumental cooperative task to provide food to a social partner help conspecifics more often after receiving help from a dog before. Remarkably, in so doing they show no distinction between partners that had helped them before and completely unfamiliar conspecifics. Apparently, dogs use the simple decision rule characterizing generalised reciprocity, although they are probably capable of using the more complex decision rule of direct reciprocity: "help someone who has helped you". However, generalized reciprocity involves lower information processing costs and is therefore a cheaper cooperation strategy. Our results imply that generalised reciprocity might be applied more commonly than direct reciprocity also in other mutually cooperating animals.

  9. Organizational choices for international cooperation: East-West European cooperation on regional environmental problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Barbara Mary

    relations affects outcomes of cooperation, by influencing the bargains states make and how well those bargains stick. This research shows that patterns of interdependence and sunk costs in cooperative relationships with particular states strongly condition the choices states make between these institutional structures to facilitate mutually beneficial international cooperation while protecting against opportunism.

  10. The Effect of Incentives and Meta-incentives on the Evolution of Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Okada

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although positive incentives for cooperators and/or negative incentives for free-riders in social dilemmas play an important role in maintaining cooperation, there is still the outstanding issue of who should pay the cost of incentives. The second-order free-rider problem, in which players who do not provide the incentives dominate in a game, is a well-known academic challenge. In order to meet this challenge, we devise and analyze a meta-incentive game that integrates positive incentives (rewards and negative incentives (punishments with second-order incentives, which are incentives for other players' incentives. The critical assumption of our model is that players who tend to provide incentives to other players for their cooperative or non-cooperative behavior also tend to provide incentives to their incentive behaviors. In this paper, we solve the replicator dynamics for a simple version of the game and analytically categorize the game types into four groups. We find that the second-order free-rider problem is completely resolved without any third-order or higher (meta incentive under the assumption. To do so, a second-order costly incentive, which is given individually (peer-to-peer after playing donation games, is needed. The paper concludes that (1 second-order incentives for first-order reward are necessary for cooperative regimes, (2 a system without first-order rewards cannot maintain a cooperative regime, (3 a system with first-order rewards and no incentives for rewards is the worst because it never reaches cooperation, and (4 a system with rewards for incentives is more likely to be a cooperative regime than a system with punishments for incentives when the cost-effect ratio of incentives is sufficiently large. This solution is general and strong in the sense that the game does not need any centralized institution or proactive system for incentives.

  11. The Effect of Incentives and Meta-incentives on the Evolution of Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Isamu; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Toriumi, Fujio; Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2015-05-01

    Although positive incentives for cooperators and/or negative incentives for free-riders in social dilemmas play an important role in maintaining cooperation, there is still the outstanding issue of who should pay the cost of incentives. The second-order free-rider problem, in which players who do not provide the incentives dominate in a game, is a well-known academic challenge. In order to meet this challenge, we devise and analyze a meta-incentive game that integrates positive incentives (rewards) and negative incentives (punishments) with second-order incentives, which are incentives for other players' incentives. The critical assumption of our model is that players who tend to provide incentives to other players for their cooperative or non-cooperative behavior also tend to provide incentives to their incentive behaviors. In this paper, we solve the replicator dynamics for a simple version of the game and analytically categorize the game types into four groups. We find that the second-order free-rider problem is completely resolved without any third-order or higher (meta) incentive under the assumption. To do so, a second-order costly incentive, which is given individually (peer-to-peer) after playing donation games, is needed. The paper concludes that (1) second-order incentives for first-order reward are necessary for cooperative regimes, (2) a system without first-order rewards cannot maintain a cooperative regime, (3) a system with first-order rewards and no incentives for rewards is the worst because it never reaches cooperation, and (4) a system with rewards for incentives is more likely to be a cooperative regime than a system with punishments for incentives when the cost-effect ratio of incentives is sufficiently large. This solution is general and strong in the sense that the game does not need any centralized institution or proactive system for incentives.

  12. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    It looks doubtless that the need for an international cooperation to solve the worldwide energy problems is already a concern of individuals, institutions, and governments. This is an improvement. But there is something lacking. The author refers to the Atoms for Peace speech, the origin of the IAEA and of the subsequent spreading of the nuclear option. He also refers back to the call made by the Mexican government for a worldwide energy cooperation. He stresses the need for governments to cooperate, so that this international cooperation on energy can be put into operation for the benefit of mankind

  13. The Neural Responses to Social Cooperation in Gain and Loss Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Sun

    Full Text Available Cooperation is pervasive and constitutes the core behavioral principle of human social life. Previous studies have revealed that mutual cooperation was reliably correlated with two reward-related brain regions, the ventral striatum and the orbitofrontal cortex. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, this study sought to investigate how the loss and gain contexts modulated the neural responses to mutual cooperation. Twenty-five female participants were scanned when they played a series of one-shot prisoner's dilemma games in the loss and gain contexts. Specifically, participants and partners independently chose to either cooperate with each other or not, and each was awarded or deprived of (in the gain context or the loss context, respectively a sum of money which depended upon the interaction of their choices. Behavioral results indicated that participants cooperated in nearly half of the experiment trials and reported higher level of positive emotions for mutual cooperation in both contexts, but they cooperated more in the gain than in the loss context. At the neural level, stronger activities in the orbitofrontal cortex were observed for mutual cooperation compared with the other three outcomes in both contexts, while stronger activation in ventral striatum associated with mutual cooperation was observed in the gain context only. Together, our data indicated that, even in the one-shot interaction under loss context, participants still exhibited preference for cooperation and the rewarding experience from a mutually cooperative social interaction activated the ventral striatum and the orbitofrontal cortex, but the loss context weakened the association between the ventral striatum activation and mutual cooperation.

  14. How the workload impacts on cognitive cooperation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciaraffa, Nicolina; Borghini, Gianluca; Arico, Pietro; Di Flumeri, Gianluca; Toppi, Jlenia; Colosimo, Alfredo; Bezerianos, Anastatios; Thakor, Nitish V; Babiloni, Fabio

    2017-07-01

    Cooperation degradation can be seen as one of the main causes of human errors. Poor cooperation could arise from aberrant mental processes, such as mental overload, that negatively affect the user's performance. Using different levels of difficulty in a cooperative task, we combined behavioural, subjective and neurophysiological data with the aim to i) quantify the mental workload under which the crew was operating, ii) evaluate the degree of their cooperation, and iii) assess the impact of the workload demands on the cooperation levels. The combination of such data showed that high workload demand impacted significantly on the performance, workload perception, and degree of cooperation.

  15. Choosing the cooperative option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, G. (National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (United States))

    1999-06-01

    Cooperatives do not ask to be exempted from the law. They do ask that laws and regulations be designed to allow them to meet the needs of their consumer-owners in accordance with cooperative principles, at a time that the marginal consumers being abandoned by for-profit utilities may be ready to gravitate toward cooperatives. The cooperative principles are worth reviewing because they explain the focus on the consumer and the cooperative concept of service: cooperatives are voluntary organizations, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of membership; cooperatives are democratic organizations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting policies and making decisions, the elected representatives are accountable to the membership; members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their cooperative; cooperatives are autonomous, self-help organizations controlled by their members, if they enter into agreements with other organizations, including governments, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and maintain their cooperative autonomy; cooperatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers, and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their cooperatives, they inform the general public, particularly young people and opinion leaders, about the nature and benefits of cooperation; cooperatives serve their members most effectively and strength the cooperative movement by working together through local, national, regional, and international structures; and while focusing on member needs, cooperatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies accepted by their members.

  16. Cooperation, framing and political attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Wengström, Erik Roland

    This paper shows that political attitudes are linked to cooperative behavior in an incentivized experiment with a large sample randomly drawn from the Danish population. However, this relationship depends on the way the experiment is framed. In the standard game in which subjects give to a public...... good, contributions are the same regardless of political attitudes. In an economically equivalent version, in which subjects take from a public good, left-wingers cooperate significantly more than subjects in the middle or to the right of the political spectrum. Through simulation techniques we find...

  17. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this part the are reviewed: Co-operation with IAEA; Participation of the Slovakia on the 41 st session of the General Conference; The comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization; Co-operation with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development; co-operation with the European Commission; Fulfillment of obligations resulting from the international contracting documents

  18. Evolutionary dynamics of cooperation in neutral populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2018-01-01

    Cooperation is a difficult proposition in the face of Darwinian selection. Those that defect have an evolutionary advantage over cooperators who should therefore die out. However, spatial structure enables cooperators to survive through the formation of homogeneous clusters, which is the hallmark of network reciprocity. Here we go beyond this traditional setup and study the spatiotemporal dynamics of cooperation in a population of populations. We use the prisoner's dilemma game as the mathematical model and show that considering several populations simultaneously gives rise to fascinating spatiotemporal dynamics and pattern formation. Even the simplest assumption that strategies between different populations are payoff-neutral with one another results in the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance, where defectors of one population become prey of cooperators in the other population, and vice versa. Moreover, if social interactions within different populations are characterized by significantly different temptations to defect, we observe that defectors in the population with the largest temptation counterintuitively vanish the fastest, while cooperators that hang on eventually take over the whole available space. Our results reveal that considering the simultaneous presence of different populations significantly expands the complexity of evolutionary dynamics in structured populations, and it allows us to understand the stability of cooperation under adverse conditions that could never be bridged by network reciprocity alone.

  19. Cooperative Handover Management in Dense Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Arshad, Rabe; Elsawy, Hesham; Sorour, Sameh; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    Network densification has always been an important factor to cope with the ever increasing capacity demand. Deploying more base stations (BSs) improves the spatial frequency utilization, which increases the network capacity. However, such improvement comes at the expense of shrinking the BSs' footprints, which increases the handover (HO) rate and may diminish the foreseen capacity gains. In this paper, we propose a cooperative HO management scheme to mitigate the HO effect on throughput gains achieved via cellular network densification. The proposed HO scheme relies on skipping HO to the nearest BS at some instances along the user's trajectory while enabling cooperative BS service during HO execution at other instances. To this end, we develop a mathematical model, via stochastic geometry, to quantify the performance of the proposed HO scheme in terms of coverage probability and user throughput. The results show that the proposed cooperative HO scheme outperforms the always best connected based association at high mobility. Also, the value of BS cooperation along with handover skipping is quantified with respect to the HO skipping only that has recently appeared in the literature. Particularly, the proposed cooperative HO scheme shows throughput gains of 12% to 27% and 17% on average, when compared to the always best connected and HO skipping only schemes at user velocity ranging from 80 km/h to 160 Km/h, respectively.

  20. Cooperative Handover Management in Dense Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Arshad, Rabe

    2017-02-07

    Network densification has always been an important factor to cope with the ever increasing capacity demand. Deploying more base stations (BSs) improves the spatial frequency utilization, which increases the network capacity. However, such improvement comes at the expense of shrinking the BSs\\' footprints, which increases the handover (HO) rate and may diminish the foreseen capacity gains. In this paper, we propose a cooperative HO management scheme to mitigate the HO effect on throughput gains achieved via cellular network densification. The proposed HO scheme relies on skipping HO to the nearest BS at some instances along the user\\'s trajectory while enabling cooperative BS service during HO execution at other instances. To this end, we develop a mathematical model, via stochastic geometry, to quantify the performance of the proposed HO scheme in terms of coverage probability and user throughput. The results show that the proposed cooperative HO scheme outperforms the always best connected based association at high mobility. Also, the value of BS cooperation along with handover skipping is quantified with respect to the HO skipping only that has recently appeared in the literature. Particularly, the proposed cooperative HO scheme shows throughput gains of 12% to 27% and 17% on average, when compared to the always best connected and HO skipping only schemes at user velocity ranging from 80 km/h to 160 Km/h, respectively.

  1. Ignorance Is Bliss, But for Whom? The Persistent Effect of Good Will on Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Farjam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Who benefits from the ignorance of others? We address this question from the point of view of a policy maker who can induce some ignorance into a system of agents competing for resources. Evolutionary game theory shows that when unconditional cooperators or ignorant agents compete with defectors in two-strategy settings, unconditional cooperators get exploited and are rendered extinct. In contrast, conditional cooperators, by utilizing some kind of reciprocity, are able to survive and sustain cooperation when competing with defectors. We study how cooperation thrives in a three-strategy setting where there are unconditional cooperators, conditional cooperators and defectors. By means of simulation on various kinds of graphs, we show that conditional cooperators benefit from the existence of unconditional cooperators in the majority of cases. However, in worlds that make cooperation hard to evolve, defectors benefit.

  2. Environmental influences on cooperation in social dilemmas on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yunya; Chang, Shuhua; Yan, Ming; Zhang, Zhipeng; Wang, Xinyu

    2018-02-01

    Environmental influence on cooperation is a classical topic that is widely applicable to social interactions. Here, we introduce a realistic model which depends on both the payoff and the strategy of the environment. As the strategy of the environment rather than the neighbor is imitated with a probability, the model takes more attention on the comprehensive influence of the nearby neighbors. The simulation results show that the cooperation level can be widely enhanced for the prisoner's dilemma game and the snowdrift game with this environment factor. In this environmental model, the mechanism of the survival of cooperators is deeply studied, and the corresponding results can be derived. Although the survival of cooperators also depends on the formation of the cooperator clusters, the enhancement of the cooperation level can be interpreted as the accumulation effect of the transformation of defection into cooperation. Interestingly, there exists a threshold of the initial fraction of the cooperators, and the cooperation increases significantly when this threshold is reached Moreover, the square cooperative cluster is stable, and robust against different levels of the noise parameter and temptation in the strategy adoption process. This work may shed light on the mechanism of cooperation in the real world.

  3. Building a platform for scientific-research cooperation under circumstances of realized asymmetry of potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiśniowski Witold

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing complexity of the environment arising both from the processes of globalization in world economy and from the development processes in Poland has become a strategic challenge for the Institute of Aviation. Significant disproportions of the potential of Poland, compared to Germany, United States, or China (especially in terms of the economic dimension and the adopted model for financing scientific research, as well as distant position of Polish universities on the scientific map of the world lead to the necessity to create a model for managing the Institute of Aviation based on internationalization of research and cooperation with leading scientific and (Ohio State University – OSU technological centres (General Electric – GE. The experiences of the Institute of Aviation show that what should be the basis of international competitiveness of research institutes is well educated scientific personnel, modern research infrastructure and competences of cooperation. A proof of this is 16-year-long strategic alliance (private-public partnership of the Institute and GE, cooperation with OSU and activities in European research consortia. The innovative dimension of scientific cooperation with OSU (2+2 formula, research internships, commission for predicting new directions of scientific research and other foreign partners allows the Institute of Aviation to achieve success in competition of international character.

  4. Emergence of cooperation in non-scale-free networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yichao; Aziz-Alaoui, M A; Bertelle, Cyrille; Zhou, Shi; Wang, Wenting

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory is one of the key paradigms behind many scientific disciplines from science to engineering. Previous studies proposed a strategy updating mechanism, which successfully demonstrated that the scale-free network can provide a framework for the emergence of cooperation. Instead, individuals in random graphs and small-world networks do not favor cooperation under this updating rule. However, a recent empirical result shows the heterogeneous networks do not promote cooperation when humans play a prisoner’s dilemma. In this paper, we propose a strategy updating rule with payoff memory. We observe that the random graphs and small-world networks can provide even better frameworks for cooperation than the scale-free networks in this scenario. Our observations suggest that the degree heterogeneity may be neither a sufficient condition nor a necessary condition for the widespread cooperation in complex networks. Also, the topological structures are not sufficed to determine the level of cooperation in complex networks. (paper)

  5. Broad Prospect for Sino-US Clean Energy Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ It is in both China and the US's best interest to collaborate and have strategic alliance in developing clean energy.China and the US can result in a positive outcome for both countries if they decide to agree and cooperate on global energy-related concerns.

  6. Strengthening Institutions and Enterprises of Cooperative and Their Impact on Members’ Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Widiyati Soemodipoero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Revitalization of Cooperative interpreted as a series of activities undertaken to reorganize the institutional and strengthen cooperative efforts in accordance with the values and principles of cooperatives. Cooperative serves as a tool to equalize the concentration of control of economic assets so that the weak economy may have opportunities to enhance economic independence. The purpose of this study is to explore the link between the level of member participation and human resource competencies to the strengthening of the institutional and cooperative efforts as well as its impact on member assets. This research used logistic regression analysis and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. The results showed that the level of participation of members and managers of Human Resources competencies significantly affect institutional strengthening and cooperative efforts. Different test shows that there is a difference between financial capital and human capital before and after become a member of the cooperative.

  7. Collaboration for cooperative work experience programs in biomedical engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Shankar

    2010-01-01

    Incorporating cooperative education modules as a segment of the undergraduate educational program is aimed to assist students in gaining real-life experience in the field of their choice. The cooperative work modules facilitate the students in exploring different realistic aspects of work processes in the field. The track records for cooperative learning modules are very positive. However, it is indeed a challenge for the faculty developing Biomedical Engineering (BME) curriculum to include cooperative work experience or internship requirements coupled with a heavy course load through the entire program. The objective of the present work is to develop a scheme for collaborative co-op work experience for the undergraduate training in the fast-growing BME programs. A few co-op/internship models are developed for the students pursuing undergraduate BME degree. The salient features of one co-op model are described. The results obtained support the proposed scheme. In conclusion, the cooperative work experience will be an invaluable segment in biomedical engineering education and an appropriate model has to be selected to blend with the overall training program.

  8. A Trust-Based Model for Security Cooperating in Vehicular Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available VCC is a computing paradigm which consists of vehicles cooperating with each other to realize a lot of practical applications, such as delivering packages. Security cooperation is a fundamental research topic in Vehicular Cloud Computing (VCC. Because of the existence of malicious vehicles, the security cooperation has become a challenging issue in VCC. In this paper, a trust-based model for security cooperating, named DBTEC, is proposed to promote vehicles’ security cooperation in VCC. DBTEC combines the indirect trust estimation in Public board and the direct trust estimation in Private board to compute the trust value of vehicles when choosing cooperative partners; a trustworthy cooperation path generating scheme is proposed to ensure the safety of cooperation and increase the cooperation completion rates in VCC. Extensive experiments show that our scheme improves the overall cooperation completion rates by 6~7%.

  9. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen (Peter); S. Bouwmeester (Samantha)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRecently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more

  10. Helpers increase the reproductive potential of offspring in cooperative meerkats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, A.F; Young, A.J; Spong, G; Jordan, N.R; Clutton-Brock, T.H

    2006-01-01

    In both animal and human societies, individuals may forego personal reproduction and provide care to the offspring of others. Studies aimed at investigating the adaptive nature of such cooperative breeding systems in vertebrates typically calculate helper ‘fitness’ from relationships of helper numbers and offspring survival to independence. The aim of this study is to use observations and supplemental feeding experiments in cooperatively breeding meerkats, Suricata suricatta, to investigate whether helpers influence the long-term reproductive potential of offspring during adulthood. We show that helpers have a significant and positive influence on the probability that offspring gain direct reproductive success in their lifetimes. This effect arises because helpers both reduce the age at which offspring begin to reproduce as subordinates and increase the probability that they will compete successfully for alpha rank. Supplemental feeding experiments confirm the causality of these results. Our results suggest that one can neither discount the significance of helper effects when none is found nor necessarily estimate accurately the fitness benefit that helpers accrue, unless their effects on offspring are considered in the long term. PMID:17476771

  11. Intelligent Cooperative MAC Protocol for Balancing Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.; Liu, K.; Huang, B.; Liu, F.

    To extend the lifetime of wireless sensor networks, we proposed an intelligent balanced energy consumption cooperative MAC protocol (IBEC-CMAC) based on the multi-node cooperative transmission model. The protocol has priority to access high-quality channels for reducing energy consumption of each transmission. It can also balance the energy consumption among cooperative nodes by using high residual energy nodes instead of excessively consuming some node's energy. Simulation results show that IBEC-CMAC can obtain longer network lifetime and higher energy utilization than direct transmission.

  12. Correlated-Data Fusion and Cooperative Aiding in GNSS-Stressed or Denied Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarzadeh, Hamid

    , and BCInf filter measurement update equations. Furthermore, characteristics important to the proper implementation of CI and BCInf in practice are discussed. A new covariance normalization step is proposed as necessary to properly apply CI or BCInf. Lastly, both centralized and decentralized implementations of cooperative aiding are analyzed and evaluated using experimental data in the three applications. In the commercial aviation study aircraft are simulated to use their Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) and Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) systems to cooperatively aid their on board INS during a 60 min GPS outage in the national airspace. An availability study of cooperative navigation as proposed in this work around representative United States airports is performed. Availabilities between 70-100% were common at major airports like LGA and MSP in a 30 nmi radius around the airport during morning to evening hours. A GPS-denied navigation system for small UAVs based on cooperative information sharing is described. Experimentally collected flight data from 7 small UAV flights are played-back to evaluate the performance of the navigation system. The results show that the most effective of the architectures can lead to 5+ minutes of navigation without GPS maintaining position errors less than 200 m (1-sigma). The automotive case study considers 15 minutes of automotive traffic (2,000 + vehicles) driving through a half-mile stretch of highway without access to GPS. Automotive radar coupled with Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) protocol are used to implement cooperative aiding to a low-cost 2-D INS on board each vehicle. The centralized system achieves an order of magnitude reduction in uncertainty by aggressively aiding the INS on board each vehicle. The proposed CI-based decentralized estimator is demonstrated to be conservative and maintain consistency. A quantitative analysis of bandwidth requirements shows that the proposed

  13. The effect of phorbols on metabolic cooperation between human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosser, D.D.; Bols, N.C.

    1982-01-01

    Autoradiography has been used to study the effect of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), 4-O-methyl TPA, and phorbol on metabolic cooperation between human diploid fibroblasts. When the donors, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase+ (HGPRT+) cells, and recipients, HGPRT- cells, were plated together in the presence of [ 3 H]hypoxanthine and either 4-O-methyl TPA or phorbol, nearly all interactions that developed in 4 h were positive for metabolic cooperation whereas when high concentrations of TPA were used, the number of positive interactions was significantly less than the control. If the phorbol analogs were added after the donors and recipients had made contact, the number of positive interactions was the same as the control in all cases. However, although primary recipients in the cultures that had been treated with phorbol had the same number of grains as those in the control, primary recipients in cultures that had been treated with TPA or high concentrations of 4-O-methyl TPA had significantly fewer grains than those in the control. TPA treatment for 4 h had no effect on total [ 3 H]hypoxanthine incorporation or incorporation into acid-soluble and acid-insoluble fractions. Thus, the effect of TPA on metabolic cooperation is interpreted as a reduction in the transfer of [ 3 H]nucleotides and is an indication of an interference with intercellular communication

  14. "I Owe It to My Group Members…who Critically Commented on My Conducting"--Cooperative Learning in Choral Conducting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvarigou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This article explores cooperative learning in choral conducting education. The five characteristics of cooperative learning identified by Adams and Hamm ((1996). "Cooperative learning: Critical thinking and collaboration across the curriculum" (2nd ed.). Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas Publishers): positive interdependence; face-to-face…

  15. Cooperation during cultural group formation promotes trust towards members of out-groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaofei Sophia; Houser, Daniel

    2013-07-07

    People often cooperate with members of their own group, and discriminate against members of other groups. Previous research establishes that cultural groups can form endogenously, and that these groups demonstrate in-group favouritism. Given the presence of cultural groups, the previous literature argues that cultural evolution selects for groups that exhibit parochial altruism. The source of initial variation in these traits, however, remains uninformed. We show here that a group's economic production environment may substantially influence parochial tendencies, with groups formed around more cooperative production (CP) displaying less parochialism than groups formed around more independent production (IP) processes. Participants randomized into CP and IP production tasks formed cultural groups, and subsequently played hidden-action trust games with in-group and out-group trustees. We found CP to be associated with significantly greater sharing and exchanging behaviours than IP. In trust games, significant parochial altruism (in-group favouritism combined with out-group discrimination) was displayed by members of IP groups. By contrast, members of CP groups did not engage in either in-group favouritism or out-group discrimination. Further, we found the absence of out-group discrimination in CP to persist even following 'betrayal'. Finally, belief data suggest that members of CP are not more intrinsically generous than IP members, but rather more likely to believe that out-group trustees will positively reciprocate. Our results have important implications for anyone interested in building cooperative teams, and shed new light on connections between culture and cooperation.

  16. Percolation and cooperation with mobile agents: geometric and strategy clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainstein, Mendeli H; Brito, Carolina; Arenzon, Jeferson J

    2014-08-01

    We study the conditions for persistent cooperation in an off-lattice model of mobile agents playing the Prisoner's Dilemma game with pure, unconditional strategies. Each agent has an exclusion radius r(P), which accounts for the population viscosity, and an interaction radius r(int), which defines the instantaneous contact network for the game dynamics. We show that, differently from the r(P)=0 case, the model with finite-sized agents presents a coexistence phase with both cooperators and defectors, besides the two absorbing phases, in which either cooperators or defectors dominate. We provide, in addition, a geometric interpretation of the transitions between phases. In analogy with lattice models, the geometric percolation of the contact network (i.e., irrespective of the strategy) enhances cooperation. More importantly, we show that the percolation of defectors is an essential condition for their survival. Differently from compact clusters of cooperators, isolated groups of defectors will eventually become extinct if not percolating, independently of their size.

  17. Telemanipulation of cooperative robots: a case of study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliego-Jiménez, Javier; Arteaga-Pérez, Marco

    2018-06-01

    This article addresses the problem of dexterous robotic grasping by means of a telemanipulation system composed of a single master and two slave robot manipulators. The slave robots are analysed as a cooperative system where it is assumed that the robots can push but not pull the object. In order to achieve a stable rigid grasp, a centralised adaptive position-force control algorithm for the slave robots is proposed. On the other hand, a linear velocity observer for the master robot is developed to avoid numerical differentiation. A set of experiments with different human operators were carried out to show the good performance and capabilities of the proposed control-observer algorithm. In addition, the dynamic model and closed-loop dynamics of the telemanipulation is presented.

  18. Cooperative learning of neutron diffusion and transport theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    A cooperative group instructional strategy is being used to teach a unit on neutron transport and diffusion theory in a first-year-graduate level, Reactor Theory course that was formerly presented in the traditional lecture/discussion style. Students are divided into groups of two or three for the duration of the unit. Class meetings are divided into traditional lecture/discussion segments punctuated by cooperative group exercises. The group exercises were designed to require the students to elaborate, summarize, or practice the material presented in the lecture/discussion segments. Both positive interdependence and individual accountability are fostered by adjusting individual grades on the unit exam by a factor dependent upon group achievement. Group collaboration was also encouraged on homework assignments by assigning each group a single grade on each assignment. The results of the unit exam have been above average in the two classes in which the cooperative group method was employed. In particular, the problem solving ability of the students has shown particular improvement. Further,the students felt that the cooperative group format was both more educationally effective and more enjoyable than the lecture/discussion format

  19. Determinants of public cooperation in multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Federico; Perc, Matjaž; Latora, Vito

    2017-07-01

    Synergies between evolutionary game theory and statistical physics have significantly improved our understanding of public cooperation in structured populations. Multiplex networks, in particular, provide the theoretical framework within network science that allows us to mathematically describe the rich structure of interactions characterizing human societies. While research has shown that multiplex networks may enhance the resilience of cooperation, the interplay between the overlap in the structure of the layers and the control parameters of the corresponding games has not yet been investigated. With this aim, we consider here the public goods game on a multiplex network, and we unveil the role of the number of layers and the overlap of links, as well as the impact of different synergy factors in different layers, on the onset of cooperation. We show that enhanced public cooperation emerges only when a significant edge overlap is combined with at least one layer being able to sustain some cooperation by means of a sufficiently high synergy factor. In the absence of either of these conditions, the evolution of cooperation in multiplex networks is determined by the bounds of traditional network reciprocity with no enhanced resilience. These results caution against overly optimistic predictions that the presence of multiple social domains may in itself promote cooperation, and they help us better understand the complexity behind prosocial behavior in layered social systems.

  20. Pledges of Commitment and Cooperation in Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan Deer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We use experimental methods to investigate whether pledges of commitment can improve cooperation in endogenously-formed partnerships facing a social dilemma. Treatments vary in terms of the individual’s: (1 opportunity to commit to their partner; (2 the cost of dissolving committed partnerships; and (3 the distribution of these dissolution costs between partners. Our findings show that pledges of commitment alone can increase cooperation and welfare in committed partnerships. The introduction of relatively large and equally split costs yields similar gains. In contrast, when costs to dissolve committed partnerships fall solely on the individual choosing to break up, pledges of commitment fail to improve cooperation and welfare.

  1. Cooperatives as Entrants

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Sexton; Terri A. Sexton

    1987-01-01

    A potential shortcoming of game-theoretic models in industrial organization is their failure to consider consumers as players. We introduce a customer coalition --- a cooperative -- as a potential entrant and compare the cooperative entry threat with that posed by the usual for-profit entrant. We identify four fundamental distinctions between cooperative and for-profit entrants and demonstrate that the strategic interplay between a cooperative and an incumbent firm may differ markedly from th...

  2. Does cooperation mean kinship between spatially discrete ant nests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Duncan S; Cottrell, Joan E; Watts, Kevin; A'Hara, Stuart W; Hofreiter, Michael; Robinson, Elva J H

    2016-12-01

    Eusociality is one of the most complex forms of social organization, characterized by cooperative and reproductive units termed colonies. Altruistic behavior of workers within colonies is explained by inclusive fitness, with indirect fitness benefits accrued by helping kin. Members of a social insect colony are expected to be more closely related to one another than they are to other conspecifics. In many social insects, the colony can extend to multiple socially connected but spatially separate nests (polydomy). Social connections, such as trails between nests, promote cooperation and resource exchange, and we predict that workers from socially connected nests will have higher internest relatedness than those from socially unconnected, and noncooperating, nests. We measure social connections, resource exchange, and internest genetic relatedness in the polydomous wood ant Formica lugubris to test whether (1) socially connected but spatially separate nests cooperate, and (2) high internest relatedness is the underlying driver of this cooperation. Our results show that socially connected nests exhibit movement of workers and resources, which suggests they do cooperate, whereas unconnected nests do not. However, we find no difference in internest genetic relatedness between socially connected and unconnected nest pairs, both show high kinship. Our results suggest that neighboring pairs of connected nests show a social and cooperative distinction, but no genetic distinction. We hypothesize that the loss of a social connection may initiate ecological divergence within colonies. Genetic divergence between neighboring nests may build up only later, as a consequence rather than a cause of colony separation.

  3. Intermunicipal cooperation, privatization and waste management costs: Evidence from rural municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel, Germa; Mur, Melania

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the effects of intermunicipal cooperation and privatization on the delivery costs of urban solid waste services in rural environments. The results of our empirical analysis, which we conducted among a sample of very small municipalities, indicate that small towns that cooperate incur lower costs for their waste collection service. Cooperation also raises collection frequency and improves the quality of the service in small towns. By contrast, the form of production, whether it is public or private, does not result in systematic differences in costs. Interestingly, the degree of population dispersion, that is, the number of population units within the municipal jurisdiction, has a significant positive relation with service costs. No evidence of scale economies is found because small municipalities have likely exploited them by means of intermunicipal cooperation.

  4. Biochemical characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana starch branching enzyme 2.2 reveals an enzymatic positive cooperativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wychowski, A; Bompard, C; Grimaud, F; Potocki-Véronèse, G; D'Hulst, C; Wattebled, F; Roussel, X

    2017-09-01

    Starch Branching Enzymes (SBE) catalyze the formation of α(1 → 6) branching points on starch polymers: amylopectin and amylose. SBEs are classified in two groups named type 1 and 2. Both types are present in the entire plant kingdom except in some species such as Arabidopsis thaliana that expresses two type 2 SBEs: BE2.1 and BE2.2. The present work describes in vitro enzymatic characterization of the recombinant BE2.2. The function of recombinant BE2.2 was characterized in vitro using spectrophotometry assay, native PAGE and HPAEC-PAD analysis. Size Exclusion Chromatography separation and SAXS experiments were used to identify the oligomeric state and for structural analysis of this enzyme. Optimal pH and temperature for BE2.2 activity were determined to be pH 7 and 25 °C. A glucosyl donor of at least 12 residues is required for BE2.2 activity. The reaction results in the transfer in an α(1 → 6) position of a glucan preferentially composed of 6 glucosyl units. In addition, BE2.2, which has been shown to be monomeric in absence of substrate, is able to adopt different active forms in presence of branched substrates, which affect the kinetic parameters. BE2.2 has substrate specificity similar to those of the other type-2 BEs. We propose that the different conformations of the enzyme displaying more or less affinity toward its substrates would explain the adjustment of the kinetic data to the Hill equation. This work describes the enzymatic parameters of Arabidopsis BE2.2. It reveals for the first time conformational changes for a branching enzyme, leading to a positive cooperative binding process of this enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  5. Multiagent cooperation and competition with deep reinforcement learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardi Tampuu

    Full Text Available Evolution of cooperation and competition can appear when multiple adaptive agents share a biological, social, or technological niche. In the present work we study how cooperation and competition emerge between autonomous agents that learn by reinforcement while using only their raw visual input as the state representation. In particular, we extend the Deep Q-Learning framework to multiagent environments to investigate the interaction between two learning agents in the well-known video game Pong. By manipulating the classical rewarding scheme of Pong we show how competitive and collaborative behaviors emerge. We also describe the progression from competitive to collaborative behavior when the incentive to cooperate is increased. Finally we show how learning by playing against another adaptive agent, instead of against a hard-wired algorithm, results in more robust strategies. The present work shows that Deep Q-Networks can become a useful tool for studying decentralized learning of multiagent systems coping with high-dimensional environments.

  6. Multiagent cooperation and competition with deep reinforcement learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodelja, Dorian; Kuzovkin, Ilya; Korjus, Kristjan; Aru, Juhan; Aru, Jaan; Vicente, Raul

    2017-01-01

    Evolution of cooperation and competition can appear when multiple adaptive agents share a biological, social, or technological niche. In the present work we study how cooperation and competition emerge between autonomous agents that learn by reinforcement while using only their raw visual input as the state representation. In particular, we extend the Deep Q-Learning framework to multiagent environments to investigate the interaction between two learning agents in the well-known video game Pong. By manipulating the classical rewarding scheme of Pong we show how competitive and collaborative behaviors emerge. We also describe the progression from competitive to collaborative behavior when the incentive to cooperate is increased. Finally we show how learning by playing against another adaptive agent, instead of against a hard-wired algorithm, results in more robust strategies. The present work shows that Deep Q-Networks can become a useful tool for studying decentralized learning of multiagent systems coping with high-dimensional environments. PMID:28380078

  7. Multiagent cooperation and competition with deep reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampuu, Ardi; Matiisen, Tambet; Kodelja, Dorian; Kuzovkin, Ilya; Korjus, Kristjan; Aru, Juhan; Aru, Jaan; Vicente, Raul

    2017-01-01

    Evolution of cooperation and competition can appear when multiple adaptive agents share a biological, social, or technological niche. In the present work we study how cooperation and competition emerge between autonomous agents that learn by reinforcement while using only their raw visual input as the state representation. In particular, we extend the Deep Q-Learning framework to multiagent environments to investigate the interaction between two learning agents in the well-known video game Pong. By manipulating the classical rewarding scheme of Pong we show how competitive and collaborative behaviors emerge. We also describe the progression from competitive to collaborative behavior when the incentive to cooperate is increased. Finally we show how learning by playing against another adaptive agent, instead of against a hard-wired algorithm, results in more robust strategies. The present work shows that Deep Q-Networks can become a useful tool for studying decentralized learning of multiagent systems coping with high-dimensional environments.

  8. Missing Fragments: Detecting Cooperative Binding in Fragment-Based Drug Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The aim of fragment-based drug design (FBDD) is to identify molecular fragments that bind to alternate subsites within a given binding pocket leading to cooperative binding when linked. In this study, the binding of fragments to human phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase is used to illustrate how (a) current protocols may fail to detect fragments that bind cooperatively, (b) theoretical approaches can be used to validate potential hits, and (c) apparent false positives obtained when screening against cocktails of fragments may in fact indicate promising leads. PMID:24900472

  9. Cooperation and perception specifics of working students by employers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Fedorenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes that competition for attractive working position is actively growing up between categories of employees which are different in age, experience and educational level. The severity of this competition is also increasing for the account of students. Further the author describes results of personal research regarding cooperation and perception specifics of working students with the relation to employers. The main trends of employers attitude toward working students are defined and described: interest in cooperation, underlying factors that redound to cooperation between employers and students, employers suggestions toward reasons that lead students to work, particularities in perception of students as employees by employers, job usually offered students by employers, concessions on the needs of students employers are ready to fit. The research presents items of formal relationships between employers and students. Respondent’s answers also allow to analyze particularities in perception of working students by employers and draw up hierarchy of positive and negative qualities of working students according to the viewpoint of employers. The conclusions of the article summarize particularities in perception and relationships between students and employers and indicate whether students are able to realize themselves in additional employment and to form necessary professional skills and abilities.

  10. Pledges of commitment and cooperation in partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Lachlan Deer; Ralph-C. Bayer

    2015-01-01

    We use experimental methods to investigate whether pledges of commitment can improve cooperation in endogenously-formed partnerships facing a social dilemma. Treatments vary in terms of the individual's: (1) opportunity to commit to their partner; (2) the cost of dissolving committed partnerships; and (3) the distribution of these dissolution costs between partners. Our findings show that pledges of commitment alone can increase cooperation and welfare in committed partnerships. The introduct...

  11. Adolescents' responses to marital conflict: The role of cooperative marital conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Buehler, Cheryl

    2017-10-01

    Not all youth exposed to hostile marital interactions develop negative responses to marital conflict. Cooperative marital conflict has long been considered as an important way of managing conflict and may serve as an important context in which hostility might convey during marital interactions. In light of little prior attention placed on the positive side of conflict processes, the main and moderating effects of cooperative marital conflict on youth responses to marital conflict were examined in a sample of 416 2-parent families using a multimethod, 2-year prospective design. Cooperative marital conflict was associated with decreases in youth emotional dysregulation, perceived threat, and behavioral dysregulation, and increases in constructive family representations and coping efficacy. As a specific dimension of cooperation, effective conflict resolution was associated uniquely with elevated youth coping efficacy, and decreased emotional and behavioral dysregulation; marital warmth was associated uniquely with increased constructive family representations. Significant interactions between marital hostility and marital cooperation also were found. These findings highlight the importance of examining cooperation above and beyond hostility in studies of marital conflict in order to better understand youth development during early adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Electron Waiting Times of a Cooper Pair Splitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walldorf, Nicklas; Padurariu, Ciprian; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Flindt, Christian

    2018-02-01

    Electron waiting times are an important concept in the analysis of quantum transport in nanoscale conductors. Here we show that the statistics of electron waiting times can be used to characterize Cooper pair splitters that create spatially separated spin-entangled electrons. A short waiting time between electrons tunneling into different leads is associated with the fast emission of a split Cooper pair, while long waiting times are governed by the slow injection of Cooper pairs from a superconductor. Experimentally, the waiting time distributions can be measured using real-time single-electron detectors in the regime of slow tunneling, where conventional current measurements are demanding. Our work is important for understanding the fundamental transport processes in Cooper pair splitters and the predictions may be verified using current technology.

  13. Electron Waiting Times of a Cooper Pair Splitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walldorf, Nicklas; Padurariu, Ciprian; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2018-01-01

    Electron waiting times are an important concept in the analysis of quantum transport in nanoscale conductors. Here we show that the statistics of electron waiting times can be used to characterize Cooper pair splitters that create spatially separated spin-entangled electrons. A short waiting time...... between electrons tunneling into different leads is associated with the fast emission of a split Cooper pair, while long waiting times are governed by the slow injection of Cooper pairs from a superconductor. Experimentally, the waiting time distributions can be measured using real-time single......-electron detectors in the regime of slow tunneling, where conventional current measurements are demanding. Our work is important for understanding the fundamental transport processes in Cooper pair splitters and the predictions may be verified using current technology....

  14. Competitive debate classroom as a cooperative learning technique for the human resources subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. SANCHEZ PRIETO

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows an academic debate model as a cooperative learning technique for teaching human resources at University. The general objective of this paper is to conclude if academic debate can be included in the category of cooperative learning. The Specific objective it is presenting a model to implement this technique. Thus the first part of the paper shows the concept of cooperative learning and its main characteristics. The second part presents the debate model believed to be labelled as cooperative learning. Last part concludes with the characteristics of the model that match different aspects or not of the cooperative learning.

  15. Cooperate! A paradigm shift for health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Ching; Fraser, Joy H

    2017-02-21

    The role of competition and cooperation in relation to the goal of health equity is examined in this paper. The authors explain why the win-lose mentality associated with avoidable competition is ethically questionable and less effective than cooperation in achieving positive outcomes, particularly as it relates to health and health equity. Competition, which differentiates winners from losers, often with the winner-takes-all reward system, inevitably leads to a few winners and many losers, resulting in social inequality, which, in turn, engenders and perpetuates health inequity.Competitive market-driven approaches to healthcare-brought about by capitalism, neo-liberalization, and globalization, based primarily on a competitive framework-are shown to have contributed to growing inequities with respect to the social determinants of health, and have undermined equal opportunity to access health care and achieve health equity. It is possible to redistribute income and wealth to reduce social inequality, but globalization poses increasing challenges to policy makers. John Stuart Mill provided a passionate, philosophical defense of cooperatives, followed by Karl Polanyi who offered an insightful critique of both state socialism and especially the self-regulating market, thereby opening up the cooperative way of shaping the future. We cite Hannah Arendt's "the banality of evil" to characterize the tragic concept of "ethical fading" witnessed in business and everyday life all over the world, often committed (without thinking and reflecting) by ordinary people under competitive pressures.To promote equity in health for all, we recommend the adoption of a radically new cooperation paradigm, applied whenever possible, to everything in our daily lives.

  16. Health Information Technology Continues to Show Positive Effect on Medical Outcomes: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Clemens Scott; Beane, Amanda

    2018-02-05

    Health information technology (HIT) has been introduced into the health care industry since the 1960s when mainframes assisted with financial transactions, but questions remained about HIT's contribution to medical outcomes. Several systematic reviews since the 1990s have focused on this relationship. This review updates the literature. The purpose of this review was to analyze the current literature for the impact of HIT on medical outcomes. We hypothesized that there is a positive association between the adoption of HIT and medical outcomes. We queried the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) by PubMed databases for peer-reviewed publications in the last 5 years that defined an HIT intervention and an effect on medical outcomes in terms of efficiency or effectiveness. We structured the review from the Primary Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA), and we conducted the review in accordance with the Assessment for Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR). We narrowed our search from 3636 papers to 37 for final analysis. At least one improved medical outcome as a result of HIT adoption was identified in 81% (25/37) of research studies that met inclusion criteria, thus strongly supporting our hypothesis. No statistical difference in outcomes was identified as a result of HIT in 19% of included studies. Twelve categories of HIT and three categories of outcomes occurred 38 and 65 times, respectively. A strong majority of the literature shows positive effects of HIT on the effectiveness of medical outcomes, which positively supports efforts that prepare for stage 3 of meaningful use. This aligns with previous reviews in other time frames. ©Clemens Scott Kruse, Amanda Beane. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 05.02.2018.

  17. Combining evolutionary game theory and network theory to analyze human cooperation patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scatà, Marialisa; Di Stefano, Alessandro; La Corte, Aurelio; Liò, Pietro; Catania, Emanuele; Guardo, Ermanno; Pagano, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate the evolutionary dynamics of human cooperation in a social network. • We introduce the concepts of “Critical Mass”, centrality measure and homophily. • The emergence of cooperation is affected by the spatial choice of the “Critical Mass”. • Our findings show that homophily speeds up the convergence towards cooperation. • Centrality and “Critical Mass” spatial choice partially offset the impact of homophily. - Abstract: As natural systems continuously evolve, the human cooperation dilemma represents an increasingly more challenging question. Humans cooperate in natural and social systems, but how it happens and what are the mechanisms which rule the emergence of cooperation, represent an open and fascinating issue. In this work, we investigate the evolution of cooperation through the analysis of the evolutionary dynamics of behaviours within the social network, where nodes can choose to cooperate or defect following the classical social dilemmas represented by Prisoner’s Dilemma and Snowdrift games. To this aim, we introduce a sociological concept and statistical estimator, “Critical Mass”, to detect the minimum initial seed of cooperators able to trigger the diffusion process, and the centrality measure to select within the social network. Selecting different spatial configurations of the Critical Mass nodes, we highlight how the emergence of cooperation can be influenced by this spatial choice of the initial core in the network. Moreover, we target to shed light how the concept of homophily, a social shaping factor for which “birds of a feather flock together”, can affect the evolutionary process. Our findings show that homophily allows speeding up the diffusion process and make quicker the convergence towards human cooperation, while centrality measure and thus the Critical Mass selection, play a key role in the evolution showing how the spatial configurations can create some hidden patterns, partially

  18. Small groups and long memories promote cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alexander J; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2016-06-01

    Complex social behaviors lie at the heart of many of the challenges facing evolutionary biology, sociology, economics, and beyond. For evolutionary biologists the question is often how group behaviors such as collective action, or decision making that accounts for memories of past experience, can emerge and persist in an evolving system. Evolutionary game theory provides a framework for formalizing these questions and admitting them to rigorous study. Here we develop such a framework to study the evolution of sustained collective action in multi-player public-goods games, in which players have arbitrarily long memories of prior rounds of play and can react to their experience in an arbitrary way. We construct a coordinate system for memory-m strategies in iterated n-player games that permits us to characterize all cooperative strategies that resist invasion by any mutant strategy, and stabilize cooperative behavior. We show that, especially when groups are small, longer-memory strategies make cooperation easier to evolve, by increasing the number of ways to stabilize cooperation. We also explore the co-evolution of behavior and memory. We find that even when memory has a cost, longer-memory strategies often evolve, which in turn drives the evolution of cooperation, even when the benefits for cooperation are low.

  19. The roles of incentives and voluntary cooperation for contractual compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Gächter, Simon; Kessler, Esther; Königstein, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    Efficiency under contractual incompleteness often requires voluntary cooperation in situations where self-regarding incentives for contractual compliance are present as well. Here we provide a comprehensive experimental analysis based on the gift-exchange game of how explicit and implicit incentives affect cooperation. We first show that there is substantial cooperation under non-incentive compatible contracts. Incentive-compatible contracts induce best-reply effort and crowd out any voluntar...

  20. Broken Squares: A Simulation Exploring Cooperation and Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This simulation activity introduces the concepts of cooperation and competition and exploring positive models for problem solving. The activity can be used with elementary and secondary school participants, as well as with adults. Suggestions for adapting discussion for younger participants are provided. The group task is to form five equal-sized…

  1. Evolution of cooperation driven by social-welfare-based migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Ye, Hang; Zhang, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Individuals' migration behavior may play a significant role in the evolution of cooperation. In reality, individuals' migration behavior may depend on their perceptions of social welfare. To study the relationship between social-welfare-based migration and the evolution of cooperation, we consider an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) in which an individual's migration depends on social welfare but not on the individual's own payoff. By introducing three important social welfare functions (SWFs) that are commonly studied in social science, we find that social-welfare-based migration can promote cooperation under a wide range of parameter values. In addition, these three SWFs have different effects on cooperation, especially through the different spatial patterns formed by migration. Because the relative efficiency of the three SWFs will change if the parameter values are changed, we cannot determine which SWF is optimal for supporting cooperation. We also show that memory capacity, which is needed to evaluate individual welfare, may affect cooperation levels in opposite directions under different SWFs. Our work should be helpful for understanding the evolution of human cooperation and bridging the chasm between studies of social preferences and studies of social cooperation.

  2. Detecting nonlocal Cooper pair entanglement by optical Bell inequality violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigg, Simon E.; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Walter, Stefan; Schmidt, Thomas L. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, 4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    Based on the Bardeen Cooper Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity, the coherent splitting of Cooper pairs from a superconductor to two spatially separated quantum dots has been predicted to generate nonlocal pairs of entangled electrons. In order to test this hypothesis, we propose a scheme to transfer the spin state of a split Cooper pair onto the polarization state of a pair of optical photons. We show that the produced photon pairs can be used to violate a Bell inequality, unambiguously demonstrating the entanglement of the split Cooper pairs.

  3. Detecting nonlocal Cooper pair entanglement by optical Bell inequality violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Simon E.; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Walter, Stefan; Schmidt, Thomas L.

    2015-03-01

    Based on the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity, the coherent splitting of Cooper pairs from a superconductor to two spatially separated quantum dots has been predicted to generate nonlocal pairs of entangled electrons. In order to test this hypothesis, we propose a scheme to transfer the spin state of a split Cooper pair onto the polarization state of a pair of optical photons. We show that the photon pairs produced can be used to violate a Bell inequality, unambiguously demonstrating the entanglement of the split Cooper pairs.

  4. An example o French - Italian cooperation in the area of energy: ENEL in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremieux, M.

    2010-01-01

    The electricity market liberalization also allows to renew European industrial cooperation. As a symbol of such cooperation, Enel, the first both Italian and Spanish operator, develops an integrated position in France where industrial cooperation with Electricite de France in the EPR project goes with a business activity competing with the historical operator. Such industrial cooperation allows Enel to benefit by experience in all available technologies and is of crucial importance in light of the Italian government's choice to develop nuclear energy in Italy. Those industrial agreements, beneficial both for consumers and for the European development, cannot develop unless a number of economic properties are complied with. (author)

  5. Effect of initial fraction of cooperators on cooperative behavior in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keizo Shigaki

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of initial fraction of cooperators on the evolution of cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma games. Compared with the results of heterogeneous networks, we find that there is a relatively low initial fraction of cooperators to guarantee higher equilibrium cooperative level. While this interesting phenomenon is contrary to the commonly shared knowledge that higher initial fraction of cooperators can provide better environment for the evolution of cooperation. To support our outcome, we explore the time courses of cooperation and find that the whole course can be divided into two sequent stages: enduring (END and expanding (EXP periods. At the end of END period, thought there is a limited number of cooperator clusters left for the case of low initial setup, these clusters can smoothly expand to hold the whole system in the EXP period. However, for high initial fraction of cooperators, superfluous cooperator clusters hinder their effective expansion, which induces many remaining defectors surrounding the cooperator clusters. Moreover, through intensive analysis, we also demonstrate that when the tendency of three cooperation cluster characteristics (cluster size, cluster number and cluster shape are consistent within END and EXP periods, the state that maximizes cooperation can be favored.

  6. Suture Granuloma Showing False-Positive Findings on FDG-PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Takahara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 33-year-old male with a mixed germ-cell testicular tumor. Postoperative follow-up FDG-PET revealed concentration of FDG in the left inguinal area which is not tumor metastasis or local recurrence but suture reactivity granuloma. In this paper, we reviewed suture granulomas associated with false-positive findings on FDG-PET after surgery. If FDG-PET will be used more frequently in the future, it will be necessary to refrain from using silk thread in order to prevent any unnecessary surgery.

  7. Special Agents Can Promote Cooperation in the Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Han, Jing; Han, Huawei

    2011-01-01

    Cooperation is ubiquitous in our real life but everyone would like to maximize her own profits. How does cooperation occur in the group of self-interested agents without centralized control? Furthermore, in a hostile scenario, for example, cooperation is unlikely to emerge. Is there any mechanism to promote cooperation if populations are given and play rules are not allowed to change? In this paper, numerical experiments show that complete population interaction is unfriendly to cooperation in the finite but end-unknown Repeated Prisoner's Dilemma (RPD). Then a mechanism called soft control is proposed to promote cooperation. According to the basic idea of soft control, a number of special agents are introduced to intervene in the evolution of cooperation. They comply with play rules in the original group so that they are always treated as normal agents. For our purpose, these special agents have their own strategies and share knowledge. The capability of the mechanism is studied under different settings. We find that soft control can promote cooperation and is robust to noise. Meanwhile simulation results demonstrate the applicability of the mechanism in other scenarios. Besides, the analytical proof also illustrates the effectiveness of soft control and validates simulation results. As a way of intervention in collective behaviors, soft control provides a possible direction for the study of reciprocal behaviors. PMID:22216202

  8. Outage analysis of blind cooperative diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    Mobile users with single antennas can still take advantage of spatial diversity through cooperative space-time-encoded transmission. In this paper, we considered a scheme in which a relay chooses to cooperate only if its source-relay channel is of an acceptable quality, and we evaluate the usefulness of relaying when the source acts blindly and ignores the decision of the relays whether they may cooperate or not. In our study, we consider the regenerative relays in which the decisions to cooperate are based on a targeted end-to-end data rate R. We derived the end-to-end outage probability for a transmission rate R and a code rate ρ and look at a power allocation strategy between the source and the relays in order to minimize the end-to-end outage probability at the destination for high signal-to-noise ratio, by using the golden section search method. Performance results show that the computer simulations-based results coincide with our analytical results. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Outage analysis of blind cooperative diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2011-06-06

    Mobile users with single antennas can still take advantage of spatial diversity through cooperative space-time-encoded transmission. In this paper, we considered a scheme in which a relay chooses to cooperate only if its source-relay channel is of an acceptable quality, and we evaluate the usefulness of relaying when the source acts blindly and ignores the decision of the relays whether they may cooperate or not. In our study, we consider the regenerative relays in which the decisions to cooperate are based on a targeted end-to-end data rate R. We derived the end-to-end outage probability for a transmission rate R and a code rate ρ and look at a power allocation strategy between the source and the relays in order to minimize the end-to-end outage probability at the destination for high signal-to-noise ratio, by using the golden section search method. Performance results show that the computer simulations-based results coincide with our analytical results. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Correlates of cooperation in a one-shot high-stakes televised prisoners' dilemma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell N Burton-Chellew

    Full Text Available Explaining cooperation between non-relatives is a puzzle for both evolutionary biology and the social sciences. In humans, cooperation is often studied in a laboratory setting using economic games such as the prisoners' dilemma. However, such experiments are sometimes criticized for being played for low stakes and by misrepresentative student samples. Golden balls is a televised game show that uses the prisoners' dilemma, with a diverse range of participants, often playing for very large stakes. We use this non-experimental dataset to investigate the factors that influence cooperation when "playing" for considerably larger stakes than found in economic experiments. The game show has earlier stages that allow for an analysis of lying and voting decisions. We found that contestants were sensitive to the stakes involved, cooperating less when the stakes were larger in both absolute and relative terms. We also found that older contestants were more likely to cooperate, that liars received less cooperative behavior, but only if they told a certain type of lie, and that physical contact was associated with reduced cooperation, whereas laughter and promises were reliable signals or cues of cooperation, but were not necessarily detected.

  11. Determinants of positive cooperativity between strychnine-like allosteric modulators and N-methylscopolamine at muscarinic receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakubík, Jan; Doležal, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1-2 (2006), s. 111-112 ISSN 0895-8696 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/05/0452; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : muscarinic receptors * strychnine -like allosteric modulators * cooperativity Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.965, year: 2006

  12. Case Study on the Forestry Cooperation Model from Game Structure Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hao; Cai, Zhijian; Xie, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Take Chinese yew cooperative organization for example,different game structures of forestry cooperation model were analyzed,the elative merit and applicable occasion was discussed combined with empirical investigation,and some suggestions were given also.The results showed that depending entirely on normal forest farmers cooperate spontaneously is difficult. Policies should be designed from the perspective of promoted village cadres and influential family salons to cooperation. When m...

  13. Cooperate without Looking in a Non-Repeated Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hilbe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a simple model for why we have more trust in people who cooperate without calculating the associated costs. Intuitively, by not looking at the payoffs, people indicate that they will not be swayed by high temptations to defect, which makes them more attractive as interaction partners. We capture this intuition using a simple four-stage game. In the first stage, nature draws the costs and benefits of cooperation according to a commonly-known distribution. In the second stage, Player 1 chooses whether or not to look at the realized payoffs. In the third stage, Player 2 decides whether to exit or let Player 1 choose whether or not to cooperate in the fourth stage. Using backward induction, we provide a complete characterization for when we expect Player 1 to cooperate without looking. Moreover, we show with numerical simulations how cooperating without looking can emerge through simple evolutionary processes.

  14. The evolution of cooperation on geographical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixiao; Wang, Yi; Sheng, Jichuan

    2017-11-01

    We study evolutionary public goods game on geographical networks, i.e., complex networks which are located on a geographical plane. The geographical feature effects in two ways: In one way, the geographically-induced network structure influences the overall evolutionary dynamics, and, in the other way, the geographical length of an edge influences the cost when the two players at the two ends interact. For the latter effect, we design a new cost function of cooperators, which simply assumes that the longer the distance between two players, the higher cost the cooperator(s) of them have to pay. In this study, network substrates are generated by a previous spatial network model with a cost-benefit parameter controlling the network topology. Our simulations show that the greatest promotion of cooperation is achieved in the intermediate regime of the parameter, in which empirical estimates of various railway networks fall. Further, we investigate how the distribution of edges' geographical costs influences the evolutionary dynamics and consider three patterns of the distribution: an approximately-equal distribution, a diverse distribution, and a polarized distribution. For normal geographical networks which are generated using intermediate values of the cost-benefit parameter, a diverse distribution hinders the evolution of cooperation, whereas a polarized distribution lowers the threshold value of the amplification factor for cooperation in public goods game. These results are helpful for understanding the evolution of cooperation on real-world geographical networks.

  15. Reliability Improved Cooperative Communication over Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuangbin Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the development of smart devices and connection technologies, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are becoming increasingly intelligent. New or special functions can be obtained by receiving new versions of program codes to upgrade their software systems, forming the so-called smart Internet of Things (IoT. Due to the lossy property of wireless channels, data collection in WSNs still suffers from a long delay, high energy consumption, and many retransmissions. Thanks to wireless software-defined networks (WSDNs, software in sensors can now be updated to help them transmit data cooperatively, thereby achieving more reliable communication. In this paper, a Reliability Improved Cooperative Communication (RICC data collection scheme is proposed to improve the reliability of random-network-coding-based cooperative communications in multi-hop relay WSNs without reducing the network lifetime. In WSNs, sensors in different positions can have different numbers of packets to handle, resulting in the unbalanced energy consumption of the network. In particular, nodes in non-hotspot areas have up to 90% of their original energy remaining when the network dies. To efficiently use the residual energy, in RICC, high data transmission power is adopted in non-hotspot areas to achieve a higher reliability at the cost of large energy consumption, and relatively low transmission power is adopted in hotspot areas to maintain the long network lifetime. Therefore, high reliability and a long network lifetime can be obtained simultaneously. The simulation results show that compared with other scheme, RICC can reduce the end-to-end Message Fail delivering Ratio (MFR by 59.4%–62.8% under the same lifetime with a more balanced energy utilization.

  16. Biological interactions and cooperative management of multiple species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinwei; Min, Yong; Chang, Jie; Ge, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Coordinated decision making and actions have become the primary solution for the overexploitation of interacting resources within ecosystems. However, the success of coordinated management is highly sensitive to biological, economic, and social conditions. Here, using a game theoretic framework and a 2-species model that considers various biological relationships (competition, predation, and mutualism), we compute cooperative (or joint) and non-cooperative (or separate) management equilibrium outcomes of the model and investigate the effects of the type and strength of the relationships. We find that cooperation does not always show superiority to non-cooperation in all biological interactions: (1) if and only if resources are involved in high-intensity predation relationships, cooperation can achieve a win-win scenario for ecosystem services and resource diversity; (2) for competitive resources, cooperation realizes higher ecosystem services by sacrificing resource diversity; and (3) for mutual resources, cooperation has no obvious advantage for either ecosystem services or resource evenness but can slightly improve resource abundance. Furthermore, by using a fishery model of the North California Current Marine Ecosystem with 63 species and seven fleets, we demonstrate that the theoretical results can be reproduced in real ecosystems. Therefore, effective ecosystem management should consider the interconnection between stakeholders' social relationship and resources' biological relationships.

  17. The NATO and Russia: is the Antiterrorist Cooperation Possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Надежда Викторовна Шуленина

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the questions of the NATO-Russia antiterrorist cooperation organization. Problems which partners face organizing it are considered by authors. The sight is given not only from Russia's point of view, but also from the position of NATO.

  18. Cooperation is fleeting in the world of transposable elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wagner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Composite transposons are key vehicles for the worldwide spreading of genes that allow bacteria to survive toxic compounds. Composite transposons consist of two smaller transposable elements called insertion sequences (ISs, which flank the genes that permit such survival. Each IS in a composite transposon can either transpose alone, selfishly, or it can transpose cooperatively, jointly with the other IS. Cooperative transposition can enhance an IS's chance of survival, but it also carries the risk of transposon destruction. I use game theory to show that the conditions under which cooperative transposition is an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS are not biologically realistic. I then analyze the distribution of thousands of ISs in more than 200 bacterial genomes to test the following prediction of the game-theoretical model: if cooperative transposition was an ESS, then the closely spaced ISs that characterize composite transposons should be more abundant in genomes than expected by chance. The data show that this is not the case. Cooperativity can only be maintained in a transitional, far-from-equilibrium state shortly after a selection pressure first arises. This is the case in the spreading of antibiotic resistance, where we are witnessing a fleeting moment in evolution, a moment in which cooperation among selfish DNA molecules has provided a means of survival. Because such cooperation does not pay in the long run, the vehicles of such survival will eventually disappear again. My analysis demonstrates that game theory can help explain behavioral strategies even for mobile DNA.

  19. Fashion, Cooperation, and Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhigang; Gao, Haoyu; Qu, Xinglong; Yang, Mingmin; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2013-01-01

    Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks). This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination) simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels) meet, they play the (anti-) coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic). We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people’s cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed. PMID:23382799

  20. Paternity of subordinates raises cooperative effort in cichlids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Bruintjes

    Full Text Available In cooperative breeders, subordinates generally help a dominant breeding pair to raise offspring. Parentage studies have shown that in several species subordinates can participate in reproduction. This suggests an important role of direct fitness benefits for cooperation, particularly where groups contain unrelated subordinates. In this situation parentage should influence levels of cooperation. Here we combine parentage analyses and detailed behavioural observations in the field to study whether in the highly social cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher subordinates participate in reproduction and if so, whether and how this affects their cooperative care, controlling for the effect of kinship.We show that: (i male subordinates gained paternity in 27.8% of all clutches and (ii if they participated in reproduction, they sired on average 11.8% of young. Subordinate males sharing in reproduction showed more defence against experimentally presented egg predators compared to subordinates not participating in reproduction, and they tended to stay closer to the breeding shelter. No effects of relatedness between subordinates and dominants (to mid-parent, dominant female or dominant male were detected on parentage and on helping behaviour.This is the first evidence in a cooperatively breeding fish species that the helping effort of male subordinates may depend on obtained paternity, which stresses the need to consider direct fitness benefits in evolutionary studies of helping behaviour.

  1. An Experimental Study of Career Development in Cooperative and Non-Cooperative Education Liberal Arts Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martello, John S.; Shelton, Paul D.

    1980-01-01

    A study comparing cooperative and noncooperative education students across time on several variables related to career maturity, career choice, and major certainty showed that co-op students rate higher in career maturity, career planning and problem-solving abilities. (JOW)

  2. Idea Sharing: Assessment in a Cooperative Learning Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamah, Siti Mina

    2014-01-01

    With the trend to incorporate cooperative learning in the classroom practices, another mode of assessing students is required. In other words, how can a teacher enforce Individual Accountability and Positive Interdependence in assessing his or her students? This paper is intended to provide a model of assessing students who are accustomed to…

  3. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Within the Union Nations (UN) framework, the Slovak Republic participated in following activities on environment protection co-operation: UN European Economic Commission, UN Industrial Development Organization, UN Development Programme, UN Human Habitat Organization, UN Environment Programme, and UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Relevant activities of the Slovak Republic in these co-operations as well as in European Union and OECD activities are reviewed. International conventions and other forms of multilateral co-operation, bilateral co-operation, and international programmes and projects in which the Slovak Republic took participate are presented

  4. Coordination vs. voluntarism and enforcement in sustaining international environmental cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Scott

    2016-12-20

    The fates of "transboundary" environmental systems depend on how nation states interact with one another. In the absence of a hegemon willing and able to coerce other states into avoiding a "tragedy of the commons," shared environments will be safeguarded if international cooperation succeeds and degraded or even destroyed if it fails. Treaties and related institutions of international law give form to these efforts to cooperate. Often, they implore states to act in their collective (as opposed to their national) interests. Sometimes, they impel cooperating states to punish free riders. A few agreements coordinate states' behavior. Here, I present simple game-theoretic models showing whether and how treaties and related institutions can change incentives, aligning states' self-interests with their collective interests. I show that, as a general matter, states struggle to cooperate voluntarily and enforce agreements to cooperate but that they find it relatively easy to coordinate actions. In some cases, the need for coordination is manifest. In other cases, it requires strategic thinking. Coordination may fall short of supporting an ideal outcome, but it nearly always works better than the alternatives.

  5. Visual evoked potentials show strong positive association with intracranial pressure in patients with cryptococcal meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Adriano da Cunha Silva Vieira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To verify the relationship between intracranial pressure and flash visual evoked potentials (F-VEP in patients with cryptococcal meningitis. Method The sample included adults diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis admitted at a reference hospital for infectious diseases. The patients were subjected to F-VEP tests shortly before lumbar puncture. The Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient was calculated and the linear regression analysis was performed. Results : Eighteen individuals were subjected to a total of 69 lumbar punctures preceded by F-VEP tests. At the first lumbar puncture performed in each patient, N2 latency exhibited a strong positive correlation with intracranial pressure (r = 0.83; CI = 0.60 - 0.94; p < 0.0001. The direction of this relationship was maintained in subsequent punctures. Conclusion : The intracranial pressure measured by spinal tap manometry showed strong positive association with the N2 latency F-VEP in patients with cryptococcal meningitis.

  6. Unsaturated fatty acids show clear elicitation responses in a modified local lymph node assay with an elicitation phase, and test positive in the direct peptide reactivity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kunihiko; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Hagiwara, Saori; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guidelines (TG) adopted the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) as stand-alone skin sensitization test methods. However, unsaturated carbon-carbon double-bond and/or lipid acids afforded false-positive results more frequently in the LLNA compared to those in the GPMT and/or in human subjects. In the current study, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, fumaric, maleic, and succinic acid and squalene were tested in a modified LLNA with an elicitation phase (LLNA:DAE), and in a direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) to evaluate their skin-sensitizing potential. Oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic and maleic acid were positive in the LLNA:DAE, of which three, linoleic, linolenic, and maleic acid were positive in the DPRA. Furthermore, the results of the cross-sensitizing tests using four LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals were negative, indicating a chemical-specific elicitation response. In a previous report, the estimated concentration needed to produce a stimulation index of 3 (EC3) of linolenic acid, squalene, and maleic acid in the LLNA was LLNA. However, the skin-sensitizing potential of all LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals was estimated as weak. These results suggested that oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, and maleic acid had skin-sensitizing potential, and that the LLNA overestimated the skin-sensitizing potential compared to that estimated by the LLNA:DAE.

  7. Cooperatives between truth and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Krueger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current declaration of the International Cooperative Alliance on cooperative identity since its 1995 Centennial Conference (which was held in Manchester makes no distinction between cooperation and cooperative. The lack of distinction between cooperation and cooperative has caused the Decennial Cooperative Action Plan to define cooperatives as a form, while their materiality is regarded as managerial: a business (activity under a cooperative form. An identity that is close to us cannot be reduced to form, without this being a problem. Therefore, the value underlying this identity —cooperation— must have a substantial basis, even if it is idealised, if it is to affect us.Received: 27.03.2014Accepted: 12.05.2014

  8. Cooperative Lamb shift and the cooperative decay rate for an initially detuned phased state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedberg, Richard; Manassah, Jamal T.

    2010-01-01

    The cooperative Lamb shift (CLS) is hard to measure because in samples much larger than a resonant wavelength it is much smaller, for an initially prepared resonantly phased state, than the cooperative decay rate (CDR). We show, however, that if the phasing of the initial state is detuned so that the spatial wave vector is k 1 congruent with k 0 ±O((1/R)) (where k 0 =ω 0 /c is the resonant frequency), the CLS grows to 'giant' magnitudes making it comparable to the CDR. Moreover, for certain controlled values of detuning, the initial CDR becomes small so that the dynamical Lamb shift (DLS) can be measured over a considerable period of time.

  9. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    , cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...

  10. Pricing, Carbon Emission Reduction, Low-Carbon Promotion and Returning Decision in a Closed-Loop Supply Chain under Vertical and Horizontal Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Chuanxu; Shang, Meng; Ou, Wei

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we examine the influences of vertical and horizontal cooperation models on the optimal decisions and performance of a low-carbon closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) with a manufacturer and two retailers, and study optimal operation in the competitive pricing, competitive the low-carbon promotion, the carbon emission reduction, the used-products collection and the profits. We consider the completely decentralized model, M-R vertical cooperation model, R-R horizontal cooperation model, M-R-R vertical and horizontal cooperation model and completely centralized model, and also identify the optimal decision results and profits. It can be observed from a systematic comparison and numerical analysis that the completely centralized model is best in all optimal decision results among all models. In semi-cooperation, the M-R vertical cooperation model is positive, the R-R horizontal cooperation model is passive, and the positivity of the M-R-R vertical and horizontal cooperation model decreases with competitive intensity increasing in the used-products returning, carbon emissions reduction level, low-carbon promotion effort and the profits of the manufacturer and the entire supply chain.

  11. Cooperative Detection for Primary User in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Jia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose two novel cooperative detection schemes based on the AF (Amplify and Forward and DF (Decode and Forward protocols to achieve spatial diversity gains for cognitive radio networks, which are referred to as the AF-CDS, (AF-based Cooperative Detection Scheme and DF-CDS (DF-based Cooperative Detection Scheme, respectively. Closed-form expressions of detection probabilities for the noncooperation scheme, AND-CDS (AND-based Cooperative Detection Scheme, AF-CDS and DF-CDS, are derived over Rayleigh fading channels. Also, we analyze the overall agility for the proposed cooperative detection schemes and show that our schemes can further reduce the detection time. In addition, we compare the DF-CDS with the AF-CDS in terms of detection probability and agility gain, depicting the advantage of DF-CDS at low SNR region and high false alarm probability region.

  12. Multi-robot Cooperation Behavior Decision Based on Psychological Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian JIANG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The method based on psychology concept has been proved to be a successful tool used for human-robot interaction. But its related research in multi-robot cooperation has remained scarce until recent studies. To solve the problem, a decision-making mechanism based on psychological values is presented to be regarded as the basis of the multi-robot cooperation. Robots give birth to psychological values based on the estimations of environment, teammates and themselves. The mapping relationship between psychological values and cooperation tendency threshold values is set up with artificial neural network. Robots can make decision on the bases of these threshold values in cooperation scenes. Experiments show that the multi-robot cooperation method presented in the paper not only can ensure the rationality of robots’ decision-making, but also can ensure the speediness of robots’ decision-making.

  13. Forgetting constrains the emergence of cooperative decision strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Stevens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical studies of cooperative behavior have focused on decision strategies that depend on a partner's last choices. The findings from this work assume that players accurately remember past actions. The kind of memory that these strategies employ, however, does not reflect what we know about memory. Here, we show that human memory may not meet the requirements needed to use these strategies. When asked to recall the previous behavior of simulated partners in a cooperative memory task, participants performed poorly, making errors in 10-24% of the trials. Participants made more errors when required to track more partners. We conducted agent-based simulations to evaluate how well cooperative strategies cope with error. These simulations suggest that, even with few errors, cooperation could not be maintained at the error rates demonstrated by our participants. Our results indicate that the strategies typically used in the study of cooperation likely do not reflect the underlying cognitive capacities used by humans and other animals in social interactions. By including unrealistic assumptions about cognition, theoretical models may have overestimated the robustness of the existing cooperative strategies. To remedy this, future models should incorporate what we know about cognition.

  14. Social Norms of Cooperation in Small-Scale Societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando P Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity, besides providing a convenient framework to address the evolution of moral systems, offers a simple and plausible explanation for the prevalence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. By helping someone, an individual may increase her/his reputation, which may change the pre-disposition of others to help her/him in the future. This, however, depends on what is reckoned as a good or a bad action, i.e., on the adopted social norm responsible for raising or damaging a reputation. In particular, it remains an open question which social norms are able to foster cooperation in small-scale societies, while enduring the wide plethora of stochastic affects inherent to finite populations. Here we address this problem by studying the stochastic dynamics of cooperation under distinct social norms, showing that the leading norms capable of promoting cooperation depend on the community size. However, only a single norm systematically leads to the highest cooperative standards in small communities. That simple norm dictates that only whoever cooperates with good individuals, and defects against bad ones, deserves a good reputation, a pattern that proves robust to errors, mutations and variations in the intensity of selection.

  15. Social Norms of Cooperation in Small-Scale Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fernando P; Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity, besides providing a convenient framework to address the evolution of moral systems, offers a simple and plausible explanation for the prevalence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. By helping someone, an individual may increase her/his reputation, which may change the pre-disposition of others to help her/him in the future. This, however, depends on what is reckoned as a good or a bad action, i.e., on the adopted social norm responsible for raising or damaging a reputation. In particular, it remains an open question which social norms are able to foster cooperation in small-scale societies, while enduring the wide plethora of stochastic affects inherent to finite populations. Here we address this problem by studying the stochastic dynamics of cooperation under distinct social norms, showing that the leading norms capable of promoting cooperation depend on the community size. However, only a single norm systematically leads to the highest cooperative standards in small communities. That simple norm dictates that only whoever cooperates with good individuals, and defects against bad ones, deserves a good reputation, a pattern that proves robust to errors, mutations and variations in the intensity of selection.

  16. The increased risk of joint venture promotes social cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te Wu

    Full Text Available The joint venture of many members is common both in animal world and human society. In these public enterprizes, highly cooperative groups are more likely to while low cooperative groups are still possible but not probable to succeed. Existent literature mostly focuses on the traditional public goods game, in which cooperators create public wealth unconditionally and benefit all group members unbiasedly. We here institute a model addressing this public goods dilemma with incorporating the public resource foraging failure risk. Risk-averse individuals tend to lead a autarkic life, while risk-preferential ones tend to participate in the risky public goods game. For participants, group's success relies on its cooperativeness, with increasing contribution leading to increasing success likelihood. We introduce a function with one tunable parameter to describe the risk removal pattern and study in detail three representative classes. Analytical results show that the widely replicated population dynamics of cyclical dominance of loner, cooperator and defector disappear, while most of the time loners act as savors while eventually they also disappear. Depending on the way that group's success relies on its cooperativeness, either cooperators pervade the entire population or they coexist with defectors. Even in the later case, cooperators still hold salient superiority in number as some defectors also survive by parasitizing. The harder the joint venture succeeds, the higher level of cooperation once cooperators can win the evolutionary race. Our work may enrich the literature concerning the risky public goods games.

  17. The increased risk of joint venture promotes social cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Long

    2013-01-01

    The joint venture of many members is common both in animal world and human society. In these public enterprizes, highly cooperative groups are more likely to while low cooperative groups are still possible but not probable to succeed. Existent literature mostly focuses on the traditional public goods game, in which cooperators create public wealth unconditionally and benefit all group members unbiasedly. We here institute a model addressing this public goods dilemma with incorporating the public resource foraging failure risk. Risk-averse individuals tend to lead a autarkic life, while risk-preferential ones tend to participate in the risky public goods game. For participants, group's success relies on its cooperativeness, with increasing contribution leading to increasing success likelihood. We introduce a function with one tunable parameter to describe the risk removal pattern and study in detail three representative classes. Analytical results show that the widely replicated population dynamics of cyclical dominance of loner, cooperator and defector disappear, while most of the time loners act as savors while eventually they also disappear. Depending on the way that group's success relies on its cooperativeness, either cooperators pervade the entire population or they coexist with defectors. Even in the later case, cooperators still hold salient superiority in number as some defectors also survive by parasitizing. The harder the joint venture succeeds, the higher level of cooperation once cooperators can win the evolutionary race. Our work may enrich the literature concerning the risky public goods games.

  18. Developing a typology of organisational forms of cooperative purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo; Telgen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops a typology for purchasing groups. In the typology, five main forms of cooperative purchasing are distinguished based on seven main dimensions. The forms are positioned in a matrix according to two distinguishing dimensions. These two dimensions are the ‘influence by all members

  19. Relay Selection for Cooperative Relaying in Wireless Energy Harvesting Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kaiyan; Wang, Fei; Li, Songsong; Jiang, Fengjiao; Cao, Lijie

    2018-01-01

    Energy harvesting from the surroundings is a promising solution to provide energy supply and extend the life of wireless sensor networks. Recently, energy harvesting has been shown as an attractive solution to prolong the operation of cooperative networks. In this paper, we propose a relay selection scheme to optimize the amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative transmission in wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks. The harvesting energy and channel conditions are considered to select the optimal relay as cooperative relay to minimize the outage probability of the system. Simulation results show that our proposed relay selection scheme achieves better outage performance than other strategies.

  20. Ingroup favoritism and intergroup cooperation under indirect reciprocity based on group reputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki

    2012-10-21

    Indirect reciprocity in which players cooperate with unacquainted other players having good reputations is a mechanism for cooperation in relatively large populations subjected to social dilemma situations. When the population has group structure, as is often found in social networks, players in experiments are considered to show behavior that deviates from existing theoretical models of indirect reciprocity. First, players often show ingroup favoritism (i.e., cooperation only within the group) rather than full cooperation (i.e., cooperation within and across groups), even though the latter is Pareto efficient. Second, in general, humans approximate outgroup members' personal characteristics, presumably including the reputation used for indirect reciprocity, by a single value attached to the group. Humans use such a stereotypic approximation, a phenomenon known as outgroup homogeneity in social psychology. I propose a model of indirect reciprocity in populations with group structure to examine the possibility of ingroup favoritism and full cooperation. In accordance with outgroup homogeneity, I assume that players approximate outgroup members' personal reputations by a single reputation value attached to the group. I show that ingroup favoritism and full cooperation are stable under different social norms (i.e., rules for assigning reputations) such that they do not coexist in a single model. If players are forced to consistently use the same social norm for assessing different types of interactions (i.e., ingroup versus outgroup interactions), only full cooperation survives. The discovered mechanism is distinct from any form of group selection. The results also suggest potential methods for reducing ingroup bias to shift the equilibrium from ingroup favoritism to full cooperation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A localized cooperative wideband spectrum sensing for dynamic access of TV bands using RF sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Mirza, Mohammed

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we address and simulate a Radio Frequency (RF) sensor network for a cooperative spectrum sensing and localization scheme. The proposed method integrates a Wavelet based Multi-Resolution Spectrum Sensing (MRSS), an N-bit hard combination technique for cooperative decision making and a Received Signal Strength (RSS) based localization algorithm to detect the availability of frequency bands and the location of the usable base station. We develop an N-bit hard combination technique and compare its performance to a traditionally used 2-bit hard combination for cooperative sensing. The key idea is to design a novel RF sensor network based cooperative wideband spectrum sensing and localization scheme by using a wavelet based Multi-Resolution Spectrum Sensing (MRSS) and Received Signal Strength (RSS) Localization techniques which were originally proposed for cognitive radio applications. The performance evaluations are also done to show the different detection accuracies for varying parameters such as number of sensor nodes, Signal to Noise Ratios (SNR) and number of averaged Power Spectral Densities (PSD). The proposed scheme improves the problems of shadowing, fading and noise. In addition, the RSS based localization technique was shown to be an acceptable means of estimating the position of the available transmitter. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Correlated pay-offs are key to cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommen, Joachim G.; Riehl, Christina

    2016-01-01

    The general belief that cooperation and altruism in social groups result primarily from kin selection has recently been challenged, not least because results from cooperatively breeding insects and vertebrates have shown that groups may be composed mainly of non-relatives. This allows testing predictions of reciprocity theory without the confounding effect of relatedness. Here, we review complementary and alternative evolutionary mechanisms to kin selection theory and provide empirical examples of cooperative behaviour among unrelated individuals in a wide range of taxa. In particular, we focus on the different forms of reciprocity and on their underlying decision rules, asking about evolutionary stability, the conditions selecting for reciprocity and the factors constraining reciprocal cooperation. We find that neither the cognitive requirements of reciprocal cooperation nor the often sequential nature of interactions are insuperable stumbling blocks for the evolution of reciprocity. We argue that simple decision rules such as ‘help anyone if helped by someone’ should get more attention in future research, because empirical studies show that animals apply such rules, and theoretical models find that they can create stable levels of cooperation under a wide range of conditions. Owing to its simplicity, behaviour based on such a heuristic may in fact be ubiquitous. Finally, we argue that the evolution of exchange and trading of service and commodities among social partners needs greater scientific focus. PMID:26729924

  3. Characterization and management trends of negative and positive impacts of tourism in show caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heros Augusto Santos Lobo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Caves are one of the most fragile environments on Earth ’s surface, in function of physical, atmospheric and biological specificities. The natural characteristics associated with cultural aspects of local people are the reasons to tourist potential of caves. However, the tourist use of caves can generate negative impacts on the environment. This consequence happens when inappropriate procedures of planning and management of tourism are used. Negative impacts are described in this review, as also indications of management techniques to avoid, decrease or eliminate the negative consequences of tourism in caves. Positive impacts are also presented, in order to achieve a sustainable tourism in show caves. The conclusion argues that the negative impacts should not be considered as impediments to tourism in caves. It is important to know these impacts and use it as a key to get previous answers which allow to raise the sustainability of show caves.

  4. Evolving and Strengthening the Cooperative Approach for Agroforestry Farmers in Bangladesh: Lessons Learned from the Shimogo Cooperative in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Kamrul Islam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although an agro-based country, the farmers of Bangladesh do not receive significant returns from their products, due to some obstacles blocking the achievement of this ultimate goal. This study tries to identify the major challenges of the agroforestry product supply chains in Bangladesh, and offer an alternative solution through the involvement and experiences of farmer cooperatives within a Japanese cooperative model. The objectives were outfitted by two case studies, and the Bangladesh case clearly showed that the involvement of many intermediaries in agroforestry product supply chains was one of the main obstacles that stunted the outcomes of the agroforestry programs. The intermediaries have maximized their profit by buying the farmer products at low prices and selling them back at higher prices, which resulted in high marketing margins. Meanwhile, the Japanese case study had articulated that the farmer-driven cooperative approach, with its good marketing strategies and service functions, could successfully eliminate the intermediaries’ involvement in farmer products, and make a cooperative a strong economic organization. Despite a few challenges, the farmer-driven Japanese cooperative approach would be a good solution that could tackle the middleman problem, and make agroforestry a sustainable production system in Bangladesh.

  5. Results, advantages, cost effectivity and installation potential of cooperation wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenbach, J.; De Vries, J.

    1990-01-01

    September 1987 a cooperation of small electricity consumers installed the first cooperative wind turbine in Delft, Netherlands. At present there are 25 such cooperatives with more than 4000 members. In February 1990 14 cooperative wind turbines were in operation with a total capacity of 1,030 kWh. An extension to 23 wind turbines with a total capacity of circa 1.8 MW and a total investment of 3.8 million Dutch guilders is expected for 1990. In 1989 1.1 million kWh has been generated, and in 1990 a production of more than 2 million kWh is expected. The most important advantages of cooperative exploitation of wind turbines are the positive public opinion, extensive possibilities to install the wind turbines, the free choice of location, and cost effectivity. At the present level of investment subsidies and kWh compensations the installed capacity can increase to a maximum of 10 MW in 1995. If a national regulation for cooperative exploitation will be implemented, the kWh compensations increase to DFl 0.17-0.20 and the investment subsidies gradually decrease to zero, the total capacity can mount to 40 MW in 1995 and 125 MW in the year 2000. 1 fig., 3 tabs., 3 refs

  6. Developmental Aspects of Reaction to Positive Inducements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindskold, Svenn; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Probes children's behavioral sensitivity to variation in reward probability and magnitude (bribes) and suggests that preadolescent children do respond to promises of positive inducements for cooperation in a mixed-motive situation. (WY)

  7. Moderate intra-group bias maximizes cooperation on interdependent populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbing Tang

    Full Text Available Evolutionary game theory on spatial structures has received increasing attention during the past decades. However, the majority of these achievements focuses on single and static population structures, which is not fully consistent with the fact that real structures are composed of many interactive groups. These groups are interdependent on each other and present dynamical features, in which individuals mimic the strategy of neighbors and switch their partnerships continually. It is however unclear how the dynamical and interdependent interactions among groups affect the evolution of collective behaviors. In this work, we employ the prisoner's dilemma game to investigate how the dynamics of structure influences cooperation on interdependent populations, where populations are represented by group structures. It is found that the more robust the links between cooperators (or the more fragile the links between cooperators and defectors, the more prevalent of cooperation. Furthermore, theoretical analysis shows that the intra-group bias can favor cooperation, which is only possible when individuals are likely to attach neighbors within the same group. Yet, interestingly, cooperation can be even inhibited for large intra-group bias, allowing the moderate intra-group bias maximizes the cooperation level.

  8. Competition, cooperation, and corporate culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosfeld, M.; von Siemens, F.A.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperation between workers can be of substantial value to a firm, yet its level often varies substantially between firms. We show that these differences can unfold in a competitive labor market if workers have heterogeneous social preferences and preferences are private information. In our model,

  9. COOPERATION AND SUSTAINABILITY CASE STUDY OF A SOCIETY OF SOCIAL SOLIDARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Carrillo González

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability studies have been addressed from an economic, social, cultural, and environmental point of view. They have exceeded dimensions and developed mechanisms, which have involved various elements to establish cooperation and social networks. The aim of this paper is to analyze cooperation and establishment of farmers' organizations as critical factors in achieving sustainable local projects oriented to reforestation and land recovery, illustrating with the case of a triple S (Society of Social Solidarity, in the town of Zapotitlan Lagunas in the State of Oaxaca. Positive effects derived from these kinds of societies are reforestation in the area, land recovery, consolidation of social relationships and job creations. Therefore, thinking and acting locally is a condition to positively impact on the environment and add a social and economic vision can contribute to sustainability.

  10. Effect of playing violent video games cooperatively or competitively on subsequent cooperative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewoldsen, David R; Eno, Cassie A; Okdie, Bradley M; Velez, John A; Guadagno, Rosanna E; DeCoster, Jamie

    2012-05-01

    Research on video games has yielded consistent findings that violent video games increase aggression and decrease prosocial behavior. However, these studies typically examined single-player games. Of interest is the effect of cooperative play in a violent video game on subsequent cooperative or competitive behavior. Participants played Halo II (a first-person shooter game) cooperatively or competitively and then completed a modified prisoner's dilemma task to assess competitive and cooperative behavior. Compared with the competitive play conditions, players in the cooperative condition engaged in more tit-for-tat behaviors-a pattern of behavior that typically precedes cooperative behavior. The social context of game play influenced subsequent behavior more than the content of the game that was played.

  11. The Effect of Kagan's Cooperative Structures on Speaking Skill of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Soleimani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Speaking is an important skill in language learning and EFL learners sometimes face difficulties when they want to speak. This study attempted to measure the effect of Kagan’s cooperative structures on speaking skill of Iranian EFL learners. The participants were selected from EFL learners studying at Ideal Language Institute. The Cambridge English Language Assessment was administered in order to select homogenous participants. Forty eight adult female EFL learners were selected as intermediate learners based on their results of the language proficiency test. They were divided into two groups, 24 as the control group and 24 as the experimental group. A pre-test was administered to both groups at the beginning of the experiment then, the students participated in 90 minute classes two times a week for eight sessions. At the end of the experiment, a post-test was assigned to both groups to determine whether the Kagan’s cooperative structures had positively affected the students’ speaking skills. The normality of data was tested through Skewness, Kurtosis, and K-S. To make sure the participants were homogenous, the parametric statistical technique of independent -samples t-test was calculated between the pre-tests of both groups and they were homogenous. Independent-samples t-test between the posttests of the experimental group and the control group was calculated and it showed that the participants of the experimental group outperformed the subjects of the control group. Moreover, paired-samples ttest between the pre-test and post-test of the experimental group was calculated and it was shown that the experimental participants progressed from the pre-test to the post-test. The study revealed that: (1 Kagan’s cooperative structures had a positive effect on the students’ speaking skills, (2 the experimental group obtained higher scores in the post-test than in the pre-test, making the difference between the pre-test and post-test scores

  12. Cooperative learning as applied to resident instruction in radiology reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Donald; Georges, Alexandra; Vaslow, Dale

    2007-12-01

    The study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an active form of resident instruction, cooperative learning, and the residents' response to that form of instruction. The residents dictated three sets of reports both before and after instruction in radiology reporting using the cooperative learning method. The reports were evaluated for word count, Flesch-Kincaid grade level, advancement on clinical spectrum, clarity, and comparison to prior reports. The reports were evaluated for changes in performance characteristics between the pre- and postinstruction dictations. The residents' response to this form of instruction was evaluated by means of a questionnaire. The instruction was effective in changing the resident dictations. The results became shorter (Pcooperative learning activities. The least positive responses related to the amount of time devoted to the project. Sixty-three percent of respondents stated that the time devoted to the project was appropriate. Cooperative learning can be an effective tool in the setting of the radiology residency. Instructional time requirements must be strongly considered in designing a cooperative learning program.

  13. Chaos and unpredictability in evolution of cooperation in continuous time

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Taekho; Kwon, Minji; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Jung, Woo-Sung; Baek, Seung Ki

    2017-12-01

    Cooperators benefit others with paying costs. Evolution of cooperation crucially depends on the cost-benefit ratio of cooperation, denoted as c . In this work, we investigate the infinitely repeated prisoner's dilemma for various values of c with four of the representative memory-one strategies, i.e., unconditional cooperation, unconditional defection, tit-for-tat, and win-stay-lose-shift. We consider replicator dynamics which deterministically describes how the fraction of each strategy evolves over time in an infinite-sized well-mixed population in the presence of implementation error and mutation among the four strategies. Our finding is that this three-dimensional continuous-time dynamics exhibits chaos through a bifurcation sequence similar to that of a logistic map as c varies. If mutation occurs with rate μ ≪1 , the position of the bifurcation sequence on the c axis is numerically found to scale as μ0.1, and such sensitivity to μ suggests that mutation may have nonperturbative effects on evolutionary paths. It demonstrates how the microscopic randomness of the mutation process can be amplified to macroscopic unpredictability by evolutionary dynamics.

  14. Who benefits from cooperation? A numerical analysis of redistribution effects resulting from cooperation in European RES-E support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unteutsch, Michaela

    2014-01-15

    This paper numerically analyzes redistribution effects resulting from cooperation among European countries in achieving the 2020 targets for electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES-E). The quanti cation of redistribution effects builds on the theoretical analysis by Unteutsch (2014), who shows that cooperation in RES-E support increases overall welfare but is not beneficial for all groups. In this paper, we use a dynamic investment and dispatch optimization model of the European electricity system to investigate which groups potentially benefit from cooperation and which groups would be worse off compared to a situation in which national RES-E targets are reached solely by domestic RES-E production. In the analysis, cooperation in RES-E support is implemented as a European-wide green certificate trading scheme. Main findings of the analysis include that in the European electricity system, effects of the change in the certificate price in most countries would overcompensate for the effects of the change in the wholesale electricity price. Thus, in most countries with comparatively high (low) generation costs for renewable energies, consumer rents increase (decrease) due to cooperation and producers yield lower (higher) profits. In addition, it is found that the magnitude of redistribution effects between the individual groups is quite large: In some countries, the change in consumer rents or producer profits resulting from cooperation is nearly twice as high as the overall welfare effect of cooperation in the whole European electricity system. Moreover, we find that the sign, but not always the magnitude, of redistribution effects is quite robust to different developments of interconnector extensions, the CO{sub 2} price and RES-E investment costs.

  15. Who benefits from cooperation? A numerical analysis of redistribution effects resulting from cooperation in European RES-E support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unteutsch, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    This paper numerically analyzes redistribution effects resulting from cooperation among European countries in achieving the 2020 targets for electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES-E). The quanti cation of redistribution effects builds on the theoretical analysis by Unteutsch (2014), who shows that cooperation in RES-E support increases overall welfare but is not beneficial for all groups. In this paper, we use a dynamic investment and dispatch optimization model of the European electricity system to investigate which groups potentially benefit from cooperation and which groups would be worse off compared to a situation in which national RES-E targets are reached solely by domestic RES-E production. In the analysis, cooperation in RES-E support is implemented as a European-wide green certificate trading scheme. Main findings of the analysis include that in the European electricity system, effects of the change in the certificate price in most countries would overcompensate for the effects of the change in the wholesale electricity price. Thus, in most countries with comparatively high (low) generation costs for renewable energies, consumer rents increase (decrease) due to cooperation and producers yield lower (higher) profits. In addition, it is found that the magnitude of redistribution effects between the individual groups is quite large: In some countries, the change in consumer rents or producer profits resulting from cooperation is nearly twice as high as the overall welfare effect of cooperation in the whole European electricity system. Moreover, we find that the sign, but not always the magnitude, of redistribution effects is quite robust to different developments of interconnector extensions, the CO 2 price and RES-E investment costs.

  16. Cooperative decoding in femtocell networks: Performance-complexity tradeoff

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2012-06-01

    Femtocells, which are low cost low power, stand alone cellular access points, are a potential solution to provide good indoor coverage with high data rate. However, the femtocell deployment may also increase the co-channel interference (CCI) by reducing the distance reuse of the spectrum. In this paper, we introduce methods to cancel out the interference among the femtocells while considering that macrocells operate orthogonally to the femtocells. The femtocells may also cooperate through joint detection of the received signal and improve the overall error performance at the expense of an increased computational complexity. In this paper, the performance-complexity tradeoff of cooperative detection is investigated for uplink transmissions. Numerical results show that the cooperative detection gain may reach 10 dB at a Bit-Error Rate (BER) of 10 -2 when compared to the case without cooperation. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. Cooperative decoding in femtocell networks: Performance-complexity tradeoff

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    Femtocells, which are low cost low power, stand alone cellular access points, are a potential solution to provide good indoor coverage with high data rate. However, the femtocell deployment may also increase the co-channel interference (CCI) by reducing the distance reuse of the spectrum. In this paper, we introduce methods to cancel out the interference among the femtocells while considering that macrocells operate orthogonally to the femtocells. The femtocells may also cooperate through joint detection of the received signal and improve the overall error performance at the expense of an increased computational complexity. In this paper, the performance-complexity tradeoff of cooperative detection is investigated for uplink transmissions. Numerical results show that the cooperative detection gain may reach 10 dB at a Bit-Error Rate (BER) of 10 -2 when compared to the case without cooperation. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. The Use of Cooperative Learning Through Tai (Team Assisted Individualization In Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermawati Zulikhatin Nuroh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative Learning is a teaching arrangement that refers to small, heterogeneous groups of students working together to achieve a common goal (Kagan, 1994. This research is done to know the response of students used cooperative learning in reading comprehension. The data of this study analyzed qualitatively without applying statistical calculations. The subject of the study were the students of the first semester in Midwifery faculty of Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo . There researcher used one class which consist 29 students. The students gave the positive responses and dominantly agreed to the implementation of cooperative learning type Team Assisted Individualization (TAI in reading comprehension. From the questionnaire, the researcher concludes that are 40% students are agreed, 50% students strongly agree, and 10% less agree  with cooperative learning type Team Assisted Individualization (TAI in reading comprehension. The conclusion is students respond well to cooperative learning model type Team Assisted Individualization (TAI to improve students' reading comprehension. This cooperative learning type Team Assisted Individualization (TAI can be the one of the model to teach reading comprehension.

  19. Cooperation, networks and emotions: Three essays in behavioral economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, B.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis contains three essays that study how people behave in a social context. The first two essays are on cooperation and networks. Chapter 2 investigates a mechanism to facilitate public good provision in networks. It relies on the idea that people compete for attractive network positions (or

  20. Status and strategy for technical cooperation between Korea and nuclear advanced countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Noh, In Young

    1998-12-01

    As part of its efforts to promote peaceful used of nuclear energy as well as achieve self-reliance in nuclear technology on a national level, 7 nuclear joint coordination committees and consultation meeting are in operation. These committees include. The R.O.K./U.K. Nuclear Energy Consultation Meeting, the Korea-France Joint Coordination Committee, the Korea-Russia coordination committee and the Korea/Australia nuclear policy consultation. As a means not only to enhance the status of Korea in the international community, but also to effectively and positively cope with rapidly changing international nuclear developments, the current status of nuclear power programs in nuclear advanced countries, including United Kingdom, France and Russia and of technical cooperation with Australia, were covered in this report. This report can be also help in setting up our position and discussion plans for each item to be discussed in bilateral cooperation meetings through an understanding background and results of technical cooperation implemented so far with KAERI and reviewing the agreed items. (author). 9 tabs., 6 figs

  1. Application of marginal calculation in managing a cooperative company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Mierzwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the market economy the basic subject is a private enterprise dealing with the production of goods and services in order to maximize profit. The neoclassical microeconomics focuses on examining only these enterprises on the market, which strive to maximize profit within certain limitations in a rational way. Acc. to the act of September 1982 on the co-operative law (The Journal of Laws 1982, no 30, pos. 2010, a cooperative company belongs to a group of private enterprises. However, it is called a non-profit enterprise. Nevertheless, cooperative companies on the market are seldom confronted with capital companies. In the market economy it is a rare situation for a company not to be threatened by competition. And even if such a situation does happen, it is always connected with limited demand. Thus the following question may be asked: can a co-operative company, if it wants to become rational, utilize the marginalization theory in order to determine its general balance? The author is trying to answer this question in her article, selecting an agricultural supply co-operative for her analysis. Using the graphical method, she determines various types of optimums, at the same time stating what importance it has for the members and what position the co-perative holds on the market. In the conclusion she emphasizes that the difficulties with applying the marginalization theory in the co-operative companies are brought about by the way decisions are taken and these subjects are managed, and may be the reason why many of these enterprises are closed down.

  2. Coping with the worrying complexity of cooperative driver assistance systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, F.C. den; Papp, Z.; Zoutendijk, A.M.; Netten, B.D.; Agovic, K.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years a clear trend became visible towards vehicles equipped with intelligent driver assistance systems based on cooperation between vehicle and infrastructure. The main reason for this is the high potential cooperative systems show to increase traffic throughput and safety and to decrease

  3. Cooperative Learning for Distributed In-Network Traffic Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, S. B.; Loo, H. R.; Ismail, I.; Andromeda, T.; Marsono, M. N.

    2017-04-01

    Inspired by the concept of autonomic distributed/decentralized network management schemes, we consider the issue of information exchange among distributed network nodes to network performance and promote scalability for in-network monitoring. In this paper, we propose a cooperative learning algorithm for propagation and synchronization of network information among autonomic distributed network nodes for online traffic classification. The results show that network nodes with sharing capability perform better with a higher average accuracy of 89.21% (sharing data) and 88.37% (sharing clusters) compared to 88.06% for nodes without cooperative learning capability. The overall performance indicates that cooperative learning is promising for distributed in-network traffic classification.

  4. Proto-cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Read, James E; Romanczuk, Pawel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    beneficial if the cost of attacking is high, and only then when waiting times are short. Our findings provide evidence that cooperative benefits can be realized through the facilitative effects of individuals' hunting actions without spatial coordination of attacks. Such 'proto-cooperation' may be the pre...

  5. Cooperating to learn teaching to cooperate: adviser processes for program implement CA/AC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón LAGO

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is present some results of advise strategy to introduce cooperative learning from the «Cooperating to Learn/ Learning to Cooperate» CL/LC Programme. The first part situates the research project and the research objective focused on how introduction of CL/LC program through a process of advice facilitates permanent improvements to the inclusion of students. In the second we analyzed the phases and tasks of an adviser process for the introduction of cooperative learning and three stages to build on cooperative learning in school: the introduction, generalization and consolidation. The third part is the central part. We describe five process of adviser to implement cooperative learning which we can observe different degrees and modalities of collaboration between teachers and counselors and between teachers. Is possible the first step of a network centers to work cooperatively.

  6. Cooperative Evolutionary Game and Applications in Construction Supplier Tendency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Shi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Major construction projects have a great influence on the national economy and society, wherein cooperative relationship between construction suppliers plays an increasingly significant role in the overall supply chain system. However, the relationships between suppliers are noncontractual, multistage, dynamic, and complicated. To gain a deeper insight into the suppliers’ cooperative relationships, an evolutionary game model is developed to explore the cooperation tendency of multisuppliers. A replicator dynamic system is further formulated to investigate the evolutionary stable strategies of multisuppliers. Then, fourteen “when-then” type scenarios are concluded and classified into six different evolutionary tracks. Meanwhile, the critical influencing factors are identified. The results show that the suppliers’ production capacity, owner-supplier contract, and the owner’s incentive mechanism influence the cooperation tendency of suppliers directly. The managerial implications contribute to insightful references for a more stable cooperative relationship between the owner and suppliers.

  7. Transient nature of cooperation by pay-it-forward reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Yutaka; Takezawa, Masanori; Kinjo, Takuji; Nakawake, Yo; Masuda, Naoki

    2016-01-20

    Humans often forward kindness received from others to strangers, a phenomenon called the upstream or pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity. Some field observations and laboratory experiments found evidence of pay-it-forward reciprocity in which chains of cooperative acts persist in social dilemma situations. Theoretically, however, cooperation based on pay-it-forward reciprocity is not sustainable. We carried out laboratory experiments of a pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity game (i.e., chained gift-giving game) on a large scale in terms of group size and time. We found that cooperation consistent with pay-it-forward reciprocity occurred only in a first few decisions per participant and that cooperation originated from inherent pro-sociality of individuals. In contrast, the same groups of participants showed persisting chains of cooperation in a different indirect reciprocity game in which participants earned reputation by cooperating. Our experimental results suggest that pay-it-forward reciprocity is transient and disappears when a person makes decisions repeatedly, whereas the reputation-based reciprocity is stable in the same situation.

  8. Non-cooperative and cooperative solutions of government subsidy on public transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husniah Hennie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with two models of government subsidy given to a public transport operator: (i the subsidy for buying bus from an appointed public transport manufacturer, and (ii the subsidy for reimbursing reduced ticket price for passengers. The models are developed to determine the maximum profit for both the public transport operator and the manufacturer. Since we consider two parties – the public transport operator and the manufacturer of the bus, then we use game theoretical approach by considering non-cooperative and cooperative solutions. Furthermore, since the bus is repairable we consider virtual age to model the preventive maintenance and we consider minimal repair to model the corrective maintenance. We analyse both type of subsidy models and give some numerical examples which show the effects of different subsidies to the profit of operator and manufacturer. The result of the numerical examples indicates that reducing ticket price would give a higher profit both to the operator and the manufacturer.

  9. Cooperative Trust Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    the more widely recognized competitive (non-cooperative) game theory. Cooperative game theory focuses on what groups of self-interested agents can...provides immediate justification for using non-cooperative game theory as the basis for modeling the purely competitive agents. 2.4. Superadditive...the competitive and altruistic contributions of the subset team. Definition: Given a payoff function ( ) in a subset team game , the total marginal

  10. Optional contributions have positive effects for volunteering public goods games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qi-Qing; Li, Zhen-Peng; Fu, Chang-He; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2011-11-01

    Public goods (PG) games with the volunteering mechanism are referred to as volunteering public goods (VPG) games, in which loners are introduced to the PG games, and a loner obtains a constant payoff but not participating the game. Considering that small contributions may have positive effects to encourage more players with bounded rationality to contribute, this paper introduces optional contributions (high value or low value) to these typical VPG games-a cooperator can contribute a high or low payoff to the public pools. With the low contribution, the logit dynamics show that cooperation can be promoted in a well mixed population comparing to the typical VPG games, furthermore, as the multiplication factor is greater than a threshold, the average payoff of the population is also enhanced. In spatial VPG games, we introduce a new adjusting mechanism that is an approximation to best response. Some results in agreement with the prediction of the logit dynamics are found. These simulation results reveal that for VPG games the option of low contributions may be a better method to stimulate the growth of cooperation frequency and the average payoff of the population.

  11. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  12. Deciphering the Sox-Oct partner code by quantitative cooperativity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Calista K L; Li, Noel X; Chee, Sheena; Prabhakar, Shyam; Kolatkar, Prasanna R; Jauch, Ralf

    2012-06-01

    Several Sox-Oct transcription factor (TF) combinations have been shown to cooperate on diverse enhancers to determine cell fates. Here, we developed a method to quantify biochemically the Sox-Oct cooperation and assessed the pairing of the high-mobility group (HMG) domains of 11 Sox TFs with Oct4 on a series of composite DNA elements. This way, we clustered Sox proteins according to their dimerization preferences illustrating that Sox HMG domains evolved different propensities to cooperate with Oct4. Sox2, Sox14, Sox21 and Sox15 strongly cooperate on the canonical element but compete with Oct4 on a recently discovered compressed element. Sry also cooperates on the canonical element but binds additively to the compressed element. In contrast, Sox17 and Sox4 cooperate more strongly on the compressed than on the canonical element. Sox5 and Sox18 show some cooperation on both elements, whereas Sox8 and Sox9 compete on both elements. Testing rationally mutated Sox proteins combined with structural modeling highlights critical amino acids for differential Sox-Oct4 partnerships and demonstrates that the cooperativity correlates with the efficiency in producing induced pluripotent stem cells. Our results suggest selective Sox-Oct partnerships in genome regulation and provide a toolset to study protein cooperation on DNA.

  13. How getting noticed helps getting on: successful attention capture doubles children's cooperative play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuill, Nicola; Hinske, Steve; Williams, Sophie E.; Leith, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative social interaction is a complex skill that involves maintaining shared attention and continually negotiating a common frame of reference. Privileged in human evolution, cooperation provides support for the development of social-cognitive skills. We hypothesize that providing audio support for capturing playmates' attention will increase cooperative play in groups of young children. Attention capture was manipulated via an audio-augmented toy to boost children's attention bids. Study 1 (48 6- to 11-year-olds) showed that the augmented toy yielded significantly more cooperative play in triads compared to the same toy without augmentation. In Study 2 (33 7- to 9-year-olds) the augmented toy supported greater success of attention bids, which were associated with longer cooperative play, associated in turn with better group narratives. The results show how cooperation requires moment-by-moment coordination of attention and how we can manipulate environments to reveal and support mechanisms of social interaction. Our findings have implications for understanding the role of joint attention in the development of cooperative action and shared understanding. PMID:24904453

  14. Partner choice cooperation in prisoner's dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Xu, Zhaojin; Zhang, Lianzhong

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we investigated the cooperative behavior in prisoner's dilemma when the individual behaviors and interaction structures could coevolve. Here, we study the model that the individuals can imitate the strategy of their neighbors and rewire their social ties throughout evolution, based exclusively on a fitness comparison. We find that the cooperation can be achieved if the time scale of network adaptation is large enough, even when the social dilemma strength is very strong. Detailed investigation shows that the presence or absence of the network adaptation has a profound impact on the collective behavior in the system.

  15. Cooperatives management evaluation of four Savings and Credit Cooperatives of Quito, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Joel Alba Caluguillin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The administrative management in cooperative enterprises develops in each of the stages of the administrative process of the traditional companies, which are planning, organization, direction and control, with the only difference that the savings and credit cooperatives comply with cooperative principles and values such as mutual aid, social responsibility, democracy, equality, equity and solidarity. The objective of this research was to evaluate the process of administrative management in four selected savings and credit cooperatives from Quito city, Ecuador, were applied theoretical and empirical methods of research. From the empirical point of view, a survey was applied getting results from this process. In general, in the cooperatives evaluated, it was recognized the importance of comprehensive management, strategic planning, motivation as a key element for good job performance, the effectiveness of formal communication channels and other aspects inherent in administrative management, although there are certain deficiencies that limit the results of the cooperative activity.

  16. How mutation alters the evolutionary dynamics of cooperation on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Genki; Satotani, Yoshiki; Sayama, Hiroki

    2018-05-01

    Cooperation is ubiquitous at every level of living organisms. It is known that spatial (network) structure is a viable mechanism for cooperation to evolve. A recently proposed numerical metric, average gradient of selection (AGoS), a useful tool for interpreting and visualizing evolutionary dynamics on networks, allows simulation results to be visualized on a one-dimensional phase space. However, stochastic mutation of strategies was not considered in the analysis of AGoS. Here we extend AGoS so that it can analyze the evolution of cooperation where mutation may alter strategies of individuals on networks. We show that our extended AGoS correctly visualizes the final states of cooperation with mutation in the individual-based simulations. Our analyses revealed that mutation always has a negative effect on the evolution of cooperation regardless of the payoff functions, fraction of cooperators, and network structures. Moreover, we found that scale-free networks are the most vulnerable to mutation and thus the dynamics of cooperation are altered from bistability to coexistence on those networks, undergoing an imperfect pitchfork bifurcation.

  17. Greed and Fear in Network Reciprocity: Implications for Cooperation among Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, James A.; Leal, Diego F.; Felps, Will; Jones, Thomas M.; Berman, Shawn L.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive interdisciplinary literatures have built on the seminal spatial dilemmas model, which depicts the evolution of cooperation on regular lattices, with strategies propagating locally by relative fitness. In this model agents may cooperate with neighbors, paying an individual cost to enhance their collective welfare, or they may exploit cooperative neighbors and diminish collective welfare. Recent research has extended the model in numerous ways, incorporating behavioral noise, implementing other network topologies or adaptive networks, and employing alternative dynamics of replication. Although the underlying dilemma arises from two distinct dimensions—the gains for exploiting cooperative partners (Greed) and the cost of cooperating with exploitative partners (Fear)–most work following from the spatial dilemmas model has argued or assumed that the dilemma can be represented with a single parameter: This research has typically examined Greed or Fear in isolation, or a composite such as the K-index of Cooperation or the ratio of the benefit to cost of cooperation. We challenge this claim on theoretical grounds—showing that embedding interaction in networks generally leads Greed and Fear to have divergent, interactive, and highly nonlinear effects on cooperation at the macro level, even when individuals respond identically to Greed and Fear. Using computational experiments, we characterize both dynamic local behavior and long run outcomes across regions of this space. We also simulate interventions to investigate changes of Greed and Fear over time, showing how model behavior changes asymmetrically as boundaries in payoff space are crossed, leading some interventions to have irreversible effects on cooperation. We then replicate our experiments on inter-organizational network data derived from links through shared directors among 2,400 large US corporations, thus demonstrating our findings for Greed and Fear on a naturally-occurring network. In closing

  18. Inertia in Cooperative Remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Jerker

    1997-01-01

    Which organization model is appropriate for a cooperative enterprise depends on the prerequisites in its business environment. When conditions are changing, the firm must adapt itself. The entry of Sweden, Finland, and Austria into the European Union led to radical changes for agricultural cooperation, especially for Swedish cooperatives since agricultural policy was not allowed a transitional period. After two years, Swedish cooperatives have still not adapted their organization model despit...

  19. The Impact of HIV/AIDS on the Socio-Economic Development in Kenya's Cooperative Sector: An Empirical Analysis of Cooperatives in Nairobi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyongesa, D.J.W.; M'mboyi, F.

    2002-01-01

    A lot of stigma is attached to HIV/AIDS pandemic in Kenya. Many organizations have tried and continue trying to educate the public on this scourge. However, none of these organizations has thought of the cooperative sector. This research is unique because it examines the Impact of HIV/AIDS on the Socio-economic Development of Kenya's Cooperative sector. It is an empirical analysis of Cooperatives in Nairobi Province with special reference to the Savings and Credit Cooperatives (SACCOS). It was a joint research that examined HIV/AIDS from a multidisciplinary approach. The general objective was to identify and quantify the effects of HIV/AIDS on the performance of cooperative societies, particularly the impact of HIV/AIDS on savings, share capital, age groups and gender. Questionnaires were administered to a randomly selected sample of cooperative societies in the province. PCGIVE computer package was used to run regressions on simultaneous and recursive models. The findings clearly show that between 1991 and 2000 cooperatives in Nairobi province lost approximately USD 479 million due to HIV/AIDS pandemic. Besides, though savings, share capital and assets increased significantly, the scourge was negative the gains. Of the dead and the infected, females and ages between 18-48 were more affected by the epidemic. Policy specify recommendations vital for containment of HIV/AIDS in the cooperative sub sector of the Kenyan economy are made. These are with a view to classifying the appropriate roles of both public and private sectors in fighting the HIV/AIDS pandemic within the cooperative sector. Last but not least further areas of research are suggested

  20. Town gas business and international cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Eiji (Japan Gas Association, Tokyo, (Japan))

    1989-07-01

    It is effective to exchange marketing know-how between gas undertakers beyond the frame of countries and to hold technically developed results such as fuel cells and gas engine heat pump in common. The papers which were presented by Japan in the international conference of the World Gas Union, increased step by step and arrived at 25% of all in 1989. About 2/3 of raw materials utilized by Japanese gas industry is LNG, of which total amount is imported. Further, 90% or more LNG is imported from Asian district. Therefore, it ia very important to make the positive correspondence by building-up the basic conditions such as stable supply of raw materials through forming excellent social and human relations exceeding the simple commercial transaction via the international cooperation with these countries. For this reason, it is firstly important to cooperate the upbringing of capable men who have powerful and wide knowledge and technique required to promote gas business with Asian countries. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Stakeholder cooperation in implementation of the sustainable development concept: Montenegrin tourist destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Pjerotic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of involving diverse stakeholders in tourism planning is receiving growing recognition. Tourism destination planning is a complex process, due to the existence of a wide variety of stakeholders with a wide range of opinions, multiple problem visions and different interests. Despite the complexity of the planning process one feature acknowledged for successful destination management planning is high level of stakeholder cooperation. The paper examines the level of stakeholder cooperation on the specific example of the sustainable development concept implementation in Montenegrin tourism. It starts with two hypotheses: first, the development level of instruments for managing tourist destination depends on stakeholder cooperation level in a particular destination, and second, implementation of the sustainable development concept is positively correlated with the development of instruments for managing tourist destination. The results have indicated poor implementation of tourism development plans and low level of stakeholder cooperation.

  2. Pricing, Carbon Emission Reduction, Low-Carbon Promotion and Returning Decision in a Closed-Loop Supply Chain under Vertical and Horizontal Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Chuanxu; Shang, Meng; Ou, Wei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the influences of vertical and horizontal cooperation models on the optimal decisions and performance of a low-carbon closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) with a manufacturer and two retailers, and study optimal operation in the competitive pricing, competitive the low-carbon promotion, the carbon emission reduction, the used-products collection and the profits. We consider the completely decentralized model, M-R vertical cooperation model, R-R horizontal cooperation model, M-R-R vertical and horizontal cooperation model and completely centralized model, and also identify the optimal decision results and profits. It can be observed from a systematic comparison and numerical analysis that the completely centralized model is best in all optimal decision results among all models. In semi-cooperation, the M-R vertical cooperation model is positive, the R-R horizontal cooperation model is passive, and the positivity of the M-R-R vertical and horizontal cooperation model decreases with competitive intensity increasing in the used-products returning, carbon emissions reduction level, low-carbon promotion effort and the profits of the manufacturer and the entire supply chain. PMID:29104268

  3. Pricing, Carbon Emission Reduction, Low-Carbon Promotion and Returning Decision in a Closed-Loop Supply Chain under Vertical and Horizontal Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the influences of vertical and horizontal cooperation models on the optimal decisions and performance of a low-carbon closed-loop supply chain (CLSC with a manufacturer and two retailers, and study optimal operation in the competitive pricing, competitive the low-carbon promotion, the carbon emission reduction, the used-products collection and the profits. We consider the completely decentralized model, M-R vertical cooperation model, R-R horizontal cooperation model, M-R-R vertical and horizontal cooperation model and completely centralized model, and also identify the optimal decision results and profits. It can be observed from a systematic comparison and numerical analysis that the completely centralized model is best in all optimal decision results among all models. In semi-cooperation, the M-R vertical cooperation model is positive, the R-R horizontal cooperation model is passive, and the positivity of the M-R-R vertical and horizontal cooperation model decreases with competitive intensity increasing in the used-products returning, carbon emissions reduction level, low-carbon promotion effort and the profits of the manufacturer and the entire supply chain.

  4. Cooperation and cheating in microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the cooperative and competitive dynamics within and between species is a central challenge in evolutionary biology. Microbial model systems represent a unique opportunity to experimentally test fundamental theories regarding the evolution of cooperative behaviors. In this talk I will describe our experiments probing cooperation in microbes. In particular, I will compare the cooperative growth of yeast in sucrose and the cooperative inactivation of antibiotics by bacteria. In both cases we find that cheater strains---which don't contribute to the public welfare---are able to take advantage of the cooperator strains. However, this ability of cheaters to out-compete cooperators occurs only when cheaters are present at low frequency, thus leading to steady-state coexistence. These microbial experiments provide fresh insight into the evolutionary origin of cooperation.

  5. Effects of cooperative learning strategy on undergraduate kinesiology students' learning styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwsen, Harry J; King, George A; Pederson, Rockie

    2005-10-01

    A growing body of research supports cooperative learning as an effective teaching strategy. A specific cooperative learning strategy, Team-based Learning, was applied to a convenience sample of four undergraduate sophomore-level motor behavior courses over four semesters from Fall 2002 to Spring 2004 to examine whether this strategy would affect students' learning styles. The data from the Grasha-Reichmann Student Learning Style Scales indicated that this teaching strategy was associated with a significant decrease in the negative Avoidant and Dependent learning styles and an improvement in the positive Participant learning style.

  6. Multiple Vehicle Cooperative Localization with Spatial Registration Based on a Probability Hypothesis Density Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feihu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the problem of multiple vehicle cooperative localization with spatial registration in the formulation of the probability hypothesis density (PHD filter. Assuming vehicles are equipped with proprioceptive and exteroceptive sensors (with biases to cooperatively localize positions, a simultaneous solution for joint spatial registration and state estimation is proposed. For this, we rely on the sequential Monte Carlo implementation of the PHD filtering. Compared to other methods, the concept of multiple vehicle cooperative localization with spatial registration is first proposed under Random Finite Set Theory. In addition, the proposed solution also addresses the challenges for multiple vehicle cooperative localization, e.g., the communication bandwidth issue and data association uncertainty. The simulation result demonstrates its reliability and feasibility in large-scale environments.

  7. Self-regulated learning and conceptions of students in Cooperative Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calixto Gutiérrez Braojos

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this exploratory study was to analyze the relationship between conceptions and self-regulation learning in the cooperative learning. The participants were 71 students enrolled in higher education. We used a survey method and transversal design to analyze the relationship between the study variables. We use two questionnaires: a questionnaire about self-regulation learning in group cooperative learning; b questionnaire about interdependence social conceptions. Thus, we have followed classic validation procedures accepted by the scientific community (expert point of view and stadistical tests. The results showed on one hand a relationship between conceptions, self-regulation learning, and other hand, two type of student´s profiles respect to conceptions: a cooperative learners and individualist learners. Solely, cooperative learners obtained benefits of the didactic strategy to facilitate cooperative learning. Thus, results were significantly higher in the cooperative students than individualist students respect to use of selfregulation strategies and communicative skills to generate shared knowledge.

  8. Detecting nonlocal Cooper pair entanglement by optical Bell inequality violation

    OpenAIRE

    Nigg, Simon E.; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Walter, Stefan; Schmidt, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the Bardeen Cooper Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity, the coherent splitting of Cooper pairs from a superconductor to two spatially separated quantum dots has been predicted to generate nonlocal pairs of entangled electrons. In order to test this hypothesis, we propose a scheme to transfer the spin state of a split Cooper pair onto the polarization state of a pair of optical photons. We show that the produced photon pairs can be used to violate a Bell inequality, unambiguo...

  9. Split or Steal? Cooperative Behavior When the Stakes Are Large

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van den Assem (Martijn); D. van Dolder (Dennie); R.H. Thaler (Richard)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe examine cooperative behavior when large sums of money are at stake, using data from the television game show Golden Balls. At the end of each episode, contestants play a variant on the classic prisoner's dilemma for large and widely ranging stakes averaging over $20,000. Cooperation

  10. Students' views of cooperative learning and group testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Today's radiologic technology students must learn to collaborate and communicate to function as part of the health care team. Innovative educational techniques such as cooperative learning (working collectively in small groups) and group testing (collaborating on tests) can foster these skills. Assess students' familiarity with and opinions about cooperative learning and group testing before and after participation in a semester-long course incorporating these methods. Twenty-eight students enrolled in a baccalaureate-level radiologic technology program in Louisiana were surveyed at the beginning and end of the semester. Results showed that students were more knowledgeable about and more accepting of cooperative learning and group testing after participating in the course. However, some students continued to prefer independent learning. Students are open to new learning methods such as cooperative learning and group testing. These techniques can help them develop the skills they will need to function collaboratively in the workplace.

  11. Bi-cooperative games in bipolar fuzzy settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Pankaj; Borkotokey, Surajit; Mesiar, Radko

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the notion of a bi-cooperative game with Bipolar Fuzzy Bi-coalitions and discuss the related properties. In many decision-making situations, players show bipolar motives while cooperating among themselves. This is modelled in both crisp and fuzzy environments. Bi-cooperative games with fuzzy bi-coalitions have already been proposed under the product order of bi-coalitions where one had memberships in [0, 1]. In the present paper, we adopt the alternative ordering: ordering by monotonicity and account for players' memberships in ?, a break from the previous formulation. This simplifies the model to a great extent. The corresponding Shapley axioms are proposed. An explicit form of the Shapley value to a particular class of such games is also obtained. Our study is supplemented with an illustrative example.

  12. Comparison effectiveness of cooperative learning type STAD with cooperative learning type TPS in terms of mathematical method of Junior High School students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, A.

    2018-05-01

    This research is aimed to find out whether the model of cooperative learning type Student Team Achievement Division (STAD) is more effective than cooperative learning type Think-Pair-Share in SMP Negeri 7 Yogyakarta. This research was a quasi-experimental research, using two experimental groups. The population of research was all students of 7thclass in SMP Negeri 7 Yogyakarta that consists of 5 Classes. From the population were taken 2 classes randomly which used as sample. The instrument to collect data was a description test. Measurement of instrument validity use content validity and construct validity, while measuring instrument reliability use Cronbach Alpha formula. To investigate the effectiveness of cooperative learning type STAD and cooperative learning type TPS on the aspect of student’s mathematical method, the datas were analyzed by one sample test. Comparing the effectiveness of cooperative learning type STAD and TPS in terms of mathematical communication skills by using t-test. Normality test was not conducted because the sample of research more than 30 students, while homogeneity tested by using Kolmogorov Smirnov test. The analysis was performed at 5% confidence level.The results show as follows : 1) The model of cooperative learning type STAD and TPS are effective in terms of mathematical method of junior high school students. 2). STAD type cooperative learning model is more effective than TPS type cooperative learning model in terms of mathematical methods of junior high school students.

  13. Education, ethics, and solidarity in international cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Janete Lima de; Vilar, Rosana Lucia Alves de; Germano, Raimunda Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes an experience in technical cooperation between Brazil and Andean countries in the form of the International Course in the Management of Human Resource Policies in Health. This exploratory documental study encompassed a number of Latin American countries whose institutions of higher education had partnerships with the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, mediated by the Pan American Health Organization Representation in Brazil. The course experience shows that fundamental values like ethics and solidarity are determinant to the success of technical cooperation processes.

  14. Global Organization of Innovation and Cooperability in Brazilian Multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Rezende da Costa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dissipation of innovations is necessary to develop them, as a company on its own does not have all the capabilities that it needs. On the contrary, they are increasingly spread over internal and external contexts, and are not developed in isolation. Most of the time, they depend on interactive, innovative processes in a global context. The aim of this study is to evaluate how the global organizational structure of innovation affects the dynamic capability of cooperation (cooperability in Brazilian multinationals (BMNs. To achieve this goal, we conducted a survey of BMNs, and a final sample of 60 companies answered a structured questionnaire. We performed statistical tests such as Factor Analysis, Cronbach's Alpha, Multiple Regression and Hierarchical Cluster, and cross-analysis of quantitative results that enabled us to create a Cooperability Model, that is, a model of local, international and global development for a dynamic capability of cooperation in BMNs. The results show that technological strengths of foreign subsidiaries and the reverse transfer of their capabilities to the parent company and technology partners affect the dynamics of cooperation in BMNs (inputs and results of cooperability. Furthermore, we detected an inverse relationship between the autonomy of foreign subsidiaries and the dynamic of cooperation in BMNs.

  15. Mutually cooperative epidemics on power-law networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peng-Bi; Colaiori, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio

    2017-08-01

    The spread of an infectious disease can, in some cases, promote the propagation of other pathogens favoring violent outbreaks, which cause a discontinuous transition to an endemic state. The topology of the contact network plays a crucial role in these cooperative dynamics. We consider a susceptible-infected-removed-type model with two mutually cooperative pathogens: An individual already infected with one disease has an increased probability of getting infected by the other. We present a heterogeneous mean-field theoretical approach to the coinfection dynamics on generic uncorrelated power-law degree-distributed networks and validate its results by means of numerical simulations. We show that, when the second moment of the degree distribution is finite, the epidemic transition is continuous for low cooperativity, while it is discontinuous when cooperativity is sufficiently high. For scale-free networks, i.e., topologies with diverging second moment, the transition is instead always continuous. In this way we clarify the effect of heterogeneity and system size on the nature of the transition, and we validate the physical interpretation about the origin of the discontinuity.

  16. Cooperating for assisting intelligently operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezillon, P.; Cases, E.; CEA Centre d'Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule

    1995-01-01

    We are in the process of an intelligent cooperative system in a nuclear plant application. The system must cooperate with an operator who accomplishes a task of supervision of a real-world process. We point out in the paper that a cooperation between a cooperative system and an operator has two modes: a waking state and a participating state. During the waking state, the system observes the operator's behavior and the consequences on the process. During the participation state, the cooperative system builds jointly with the user a solution to the problem. In our approach, the cooperation depends on the system capabilities to explain, to incrementally acquire knowledge and to make explicit the context of the cooperation. We develop these ideas in the framework of the design of the cooperative system in the nuclear plant. (authors). 22 refs., 1 fig

  17. Cooperation Dynamics on Mobile Crowd Networks of Device-to-Device Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Deng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The explosive use of smart devices enabled the emergence of collective resource sharing among mobile individuals. Mobile users need to cooperate with each other to improve the whole network’s quality of service. By modeling the cooperative behaviors in a mobile crowd into an evolutionary Prisoner’s dilemma game, we investigate the relationships between cooperation rate and some main influence factors, including crowd density, communication range, temptation to defect, and mobility attributes. Using evolutionary game theory, our analysis on the cooperative behaviors of mobile takes a deep insight into the cooperation promotion in a dynamical network with selfish autonomous users. The experiment results show that mobile user’s features, including speed, moving probability, and reaction radius, have an obvious influence on the formation of a cooperative mobile social network. We also found some optimal status when the crowd’s cooperation rate reaches the best. These findings are important if we want to establish a mobile social network with a good performance.

  18. Cooperative Spectrum Sensing over Non-Identical Nakagami Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Anlei

    2012-09-08

    Previous works in cooperative spectrum sensing assumed that the channels for sensing and reporting are independent identical distributed (i.i.d). A more practical and appropriate assumption, however, should be that the sensing channels and reporting channels are independent but not necessarily identically distributed (i.n.i.d). In this paper, we derive the false-alarm probability and the detection probability of cooperative spectrum sensing with energy fusion over i.n.i.d Nakagami fading channels. Selected numerical results show that cooperative spectrum sensing still gives considerably better performance results even over i.n.i.d fading channels.

  19. Evolution of group-wise cooperation: Is direct reciprocity insufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun; Ihara, Yasuo

    2017-02-21

    Group-wise cooperation, or cooperation among three or more individuals, is an integral part of human societies. It is likely that group-wise cooperation also played a crucial role in the survival of early hominins, who were confronted with novel environmental challenges, long before the emergence of Homo sapiens. However, previous theoretical and empirical studies, focusing mainly on modern humans, have tended to suggest that evolution of cooperation in sizable groups cannot be explained by simple direct reciprocity and requires some additional mechanisms (reputation, punishment, etc.), which are cognitively too demanding for early hominins. As a partial resolution of the paradox, our recent analysis of a stochastic evolutionary model, which considers the effect of random drift, has revealed that evolution of group-wise cooperation is more likely to occur in larger groups when an individual's share of the benefit produced by one cooperator does not decrease with increasing group size (i.e., goods are non-rivalrous). In this paper, we further extend our previous analysis to explore possible consequences of introducing rare mistakes in behavior or imperfect information about behavior of others on the model outcome. Analyses of the extended models show that evolution of group-wise cooperation can be facilitated by large group size even when individuals intending to cooperate sometimes fail to do so or when all the information about the past behavior of group members is not available. We argue, therefore, that evolution of cooperation in sizable groups does not necessarily require other mechanisms than direct reciprocity if the goods to be produced via group-wise cooperation are non-rivalrous. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Shape of Cooper pairs in a norma.-metal/superconductors junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanaka, Yukio; Asano, Yasuhiro; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch

    2008-01-01

    In s-wave superconductors the Cooper pair wave function is isotropic in momentum space. This property may also be expected for Cooper pairs entering a normal metal from a superconductor due to the proximity effect. We show, however, that such a deduction is incorrect and the pairing function in a

  1. Cooperative CEO Identity and Efficient Governance: Member or Outside CEO?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Q.X. Liang (Qiao Xin); G.W.J. Hendrikse (George)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractA principal-agent model is formulated to capture the efficiency of cooperatives with a member CEO and cooperatives with an employed outsider as CEO. Results of the model show that the incentive strength regarding the member CEO is stronger compared to that of the outside CEO in order to

  2. Cooperation in wireless networks principles and applications : real egoistic behavior is to cooperate!

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzek, Frank HP

    2006-01-01

    Covers the underlying principles of cooperative techniques as well as several applications demonstrating the use of such techniques in practical systems. This book also summarizes the strength of cooperation for wireless communication systems, motivating the use of cooperative techniques.

  3. No place to hide: when shame causes proselfs to cooperate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declerck, Carolyn Henriette; Boone, Christophe; Kiyonari, Toko

    2014-01-01

    Shame is considered a social emotion with action tendencies that elicit socially beneficial behavior. Yet, unlike other social emotions, prior experimental studies do not indicate that incidental shame boosts prosocial behavior. Based on the affect as information theory, we hypothesize that incidental feelings of shame can increase cooperation, but only for self-interested individuals, and only in a context where shame is relevant with regards to its action tendency. To test this hypothesis, cooperation levels are compared between a simultaneous prisoner's dilemma (where "defect" may result from multiple motives) and a sequential prisoner's dilemma (where "second player defect" is the result of intentional greediness). As hypothesized, shame positively affected proselfs in a sequential prisoner's dilemma. Hence ashamed proselfs become inclined to cooperate when they believe they have no way to hide their greediness, and not necessarily because they want to make up for earlier wrong-doing.

  4. Future direction for implementing the multilateral cooperation with the IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Hong, Young Don

    1999-03-01

    Korea has achieved remarkable results in the development of nuclear technology over the past years. Nuclear R and D programs have been actively pursued with the aim of enhancing nuclear technological capability to the level of nuclear advanced countries by early 2000. Worth noting is the fact that the IAEA has played an important role in facilitating Korea's acquisition of advanced nuclear technologies by participating in IAEA technical cooperation programmes, and technical cooperation with the IAEA has laid a firm groundwork for Korea to achieve self-reliance in nuclear technology. Technical cooperation with the IAEA should be steadily pursued so that Korea can play a leading role in the international nuclear arena in the years to come. Up to now, the study of major programmes and of the current status of overall technical cooperation projects, which have been implemented by the IAEA, has been insufficient. It should be noted that analysis of the assistance provided by the IAEA leaves something to be desired. In this regard, analyzing the current status of technical cooperation projects as well as recommending policy direction is required in a bid to implement IAEA technical cooperation projects systematically. Korea's status within the IAEA, including activities in the Advisory Committee and the current status of its participation in Coordinated Research Programmes (CRP) and other major programmes underway, is presented in this report. The policy direction for and implementation status of IAEA technical cooperation programmes are explained at length. The current status of technical cooperation programmes carried out in the 1997-1998 cycle and those to be implemented in the 1992-2000 cycle are also described in this report. Strategies for upgrading Korea's status within the IAEA as well as directions for nuclear cooperation through the IAEA were presented in this study to positively deal with rapid changes in the international nuclear arena and to

  5. Future direction for implementing the multilateral cooperation with the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Hong, Young Don

    1999-03-01

    Korea has achieved remarkable results in the development of nuclear technology over the past years. Nuclear R and D programs have been actively pursued with the aim of enhancing nuclear technological capability to the level of nuclear advanced countries by early 2000. Worth noting is the fact that the IAEA has played an important role in facilitating Korea's acquisition of advanced nuclear technologies by participating in IAEA technical cooperation programmes, and technical cooperation with the IAEA has laid a firm groundwork for Korea to achieve self-reliance in nuclear technology. Technical cooperation with the IAEA should be steadily pursued so that Korea can play a leading role in the international nuclear arena in the years to come. Up to now, the study of major programmes and of the current status of overall technical cooperation projects, which have been implemented by the IAEA, has been insufficient. It should be noted that analysis of the assistance provided by the IAEA leaves something to be desired. In this regard, analyzing the current status of technical cooperation projects as well as recommending policy direction is required in a bid to implement IAEA technical cooperation projects systematically. Korea's status within the IAEA, including activities in the Advisory Committee and the current status of its participation in Coordinated Research Programmes (CRP) and other major programmes underway, is presented in this report. The policy direction for and implementation status of IAEA technical cooperation programmes are explained at length. The current status of technical cooperation programmes carried out in the 1997-1998 cycle and those to be implemented in the 1992-2000 cycle are also described in this report. Strategies for upgrading Korea's status within the IAEA as well as directions for nuclear cooperation through the IAEA were presented in this study to positively deal with rapid changes in the international nuclear arena and to efficiently

  6. Cooperative games and network structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, Marieke

    2017-01-01

    This thesis covers various research topics involving cooperative game theory, a mathematical tool to analyze the cooperative behavior within a group of players. The focus is mainly on interrelations between operations research and cooperative game theory by analyzing specific types of cooperative

  7. Capital Accumulation in a Region. Cooperatives Versus Foreign Direct Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimnoch Krystyna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to demonstrate the ability of cooperatives to create internal resources of a region through foreign direct investments and the creation of financial, physical, human, and social capital. It concerns the comparing and emphasizing of the stability of resources created in a region by these forms of action. In order to demonstrate the stability of internal resources of a region, generated through foreign direct investment, a research was conducted involving the analysis of the rankings of the largest foreign investors in Poland, statistical data from the Central Statistical Office and the NBP, showing the inflow and outflow of FDIs, the number of companies with foreign capital participation, and the number of people working in them. In addition, a case study was used for the regions where the investments have been withdrawn, showing the importance of cooperatives for the stabilization of the potential of the regions. The study shows that the transfer of FDIs is always guided by the maximization of profit, tax optimization of a location, and the native currency exchange rate fluctuations. The following consequences of withdrawal have no significance to foreign investors but affect the regions: the increase in the unemployment rate, the reduction in the income of local residents, the increase in debt, the acquisition of real estate purchased on credit. The case study shows that cooperative enterprises can replace foreign capital in the region, ensuring the stability and durability of its internal resources. The concepts and strategies for regional development should focus on cooperatives as a way to create the internal resources of a region, which are seen as the current development source. Co-operatives can prevent the leaching of resources and backwash effects. The economic policy must ensure the equal treatment of all of the entities investing in the region. Currently, Poland gives the priority to foreign investors

  8. Conditional imitation might promote cooperation under high temptations to defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qionglin; Li, Haihong; Cheng, Hongyan; Qian, Xiaolan; Zhang, Mei; Yang, Junzhong

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we introduce a conditional imitation rule into an evolutionary game, in which the imitation probabilities of individuals are determined by a function of payoff difference and two crucial parameters μ and σ. The parameter μ characterizes the most adequate goal for individuals and the parameter σ characterizes the tolerance of individuals. By using the pair approximation method and numerical simulations, we find an anomalous cooperation enhancement in which the cooperation level shows a nonmonotonic variation with the increase of temptation. The parameter μ affects the regime of the payoff parameter which supports the anomalous cooperation enhancement, whereas the parameter σ plays a decisive role on the appearance of the nonmonotonic variation of the cooperation level. Furthermore, to give explicit implications for the parameters μ and σ we present an alterative form of the conditional imitation rule based on the benefit and the cost incurred to individuals during strategy updates. In this way, we also provide a phenomenological interpretation for the nonmonotonic behavior of cooperation with the increase of temptation. The results give a clue that a higher cooperation level could be obtained under adverse environments for cooperation by applying the conditional imitation rule, which is possible to be manipulated in real life. More generally, the results in this work might point out an efficient way to maintain cooperation in the risky environments to cooperators.

  9. Gossip Versus Punishment: The Efficiency of Reputation to Promote and Maintain Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junhui; Balliet, Daniel; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Prior theory suggests that reputation spreading (e.g., gossip) and punishment are two key mechanisms to promote cooperation in groups, but no behavioral research has yet examined their relative effectiveness and efficiency in promoting and maintaining cooperation. To examine these issues, we observed participants interacting in a four-round public goods game (PGG) with or without gossip and punishment options, and a subsequent two-round trust game (TG). We manipulated gossip as the option to send notes about other group members to these members’ future partners, and punishment as the option to assign deduction points to reduce other group members’ outcomes with a fee-to-fine ratio of 1:3. Findings revealed that in the four-round PGG, the option to gossip increased both cooperation and individual earnings, whereas the option to punish had no overall effect on cooperation (but a positive effect on cooperation in the last two rounds of the PGG) and significantly decreased individual earnings. Importantly, the initial option to gossip made people more trusting and trustworthy in the subsequent TG when gossip was no longer possible, compared to the no-gossip condition. Thus, we provide some initial evidence that gossip may be more effective and efficient than punishment to promote and maintain cooperation. PMID:27039896

  10. Gossip Versus Punishment: The Efficiency of Reputation to Promote and Maintain Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junhui; Balliet, Daniel; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2016-04-04

    Prior theory suggests that reputation spreading (e.g., gossip) and punishment are two key mechanisms to promote cooperation in groups, but no behavioral research has yet examined their relative effectiveness and efficiency in promoting and maintaining cooperation. To examine these issues, we observed participants interacting in a four-round public goods game (PGG) with or without gossip and punishment options, and a subsequent two-round trust game (TG). We manipulated gossip as the option to send notes about other group members to these members' future partners, and punishment as the option to assign deduction points to reduce other group members' outcomes with a fee-to-fine ratio of 1:3. Findings revealed that in the four-round PGG, the option to gossip increased both cooperation and individual earnings, whereas the option to punish had no overall effect on cooperation (but a positive effect on cooperation in the last two rounds of the PGG) and significantly decreased individual earnings. Importantly, the initial option to gossip made people more trusting and trustworthy in the subsequent TG when gossip was no longer possible, compared to the no-gossip condition. Thus, we provide some initial evidence that gossip may be more effective and efficient than punishment to promote and maintain cooperation.

  11. Oscillation of Critical Current by Gate Voltage in Cooper Pair Transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, N.; Cheong, Y.; Song, W.

    2010-01-01

    We measured the critical current of a Cooper pair transistor consisting of two Josephson junctions and a gate electrode. The Cooper pair transistors were fabricated by using electron-beam lithography and double-angle evaporation technique. The Gate voltage dependence of critical current was measured by observing voltage jumps at various gate voltages while sweeping bias current. The observed oscillation was 2e-periodic, which shows the Cooper pair transistor had low level of quasiparticle poisoning.

  12. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  13. Cooperative learning in the first year of undergraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthan Rani

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite extensive research data indicating that cooperative learning promotes higher achievement, the creation of positive relationships, and greater psychological health for students at all levels in their education, cooperative learning as a teaching strategy is still underutilized in undergraduate medical education. Methods A cooperative learning task was introduced as part of the mandatory first Year undergraduate Pathology course. The task was to create an 8.5" × 11" poster summary of pre-assigned content in self-chosen groups of four or five students. On the designated "Poster Day," the posters were displayed and evaluated by the students using a group product evaluation. Students also completed an individual group process reflection survey. An objective evaluation of their understanding was gauged at the midterm examination by specific content-related questions. Results Majority (91–96% of students judged the group products to be relevant, effective, easy-to-understand, and clearly communicated. The majority of the students (90–100% agreed that their group process skills of time management, task collaboration, decision-making and task execution were effective in completing this exercise. This activity created a dynamic learning environment as was reflected in the students' positive, professional discussion, and evaluation of their posters. The content-related questions on the midterm examination were answered correctly by 70–92% of the students. This was a mutually enriching experience for the instructor and students. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that cooperative learning as a teaching strategy can be effectively incorporated to address both content and interpersonal skill development in the early years of undergraduate medical education.

  14. Cooperation in Construction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Peter; Storgaard, Kresten

    2016-01-01

    The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed the communic......The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed...... the companies in the case can be understood as possessing a social capital which is enforced and united by initiatives of the main contractor. The social capital was built up and maintained through the actual constitution of cooperation already in the initial phase of bidding before the building process....... The management logic of the main contractor is interpreted as based on a sociology-inspired understanding focusing on norms and social values rather than on contractual (law) and functional (engineering) logic, which had hitherto been prevalent in Danish construction management....

  15. Cooperation agreement between the Technical University Dresden and AREVA NP GmbH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado, A.; Hansen, V.; Druschel, R.; Heyer, J.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of the complete refurbishment of the Technical University Dresden (TUD) training reactor AKR and its equipment with the digital safety system TELEPERM XS by AREVA NP it is actually the most advanced facility in this category in Germany. Following the positive experience gained during project execution an agreement between AREVA NP and TUD was signed to bundle each organizations competence's in the interest of new recruits in the field of nuclear technology in 2006. The content and the experience with the cooperation are described in this paper. Conclusions show that both parties found an attractive way to support fellow young nuclear engineers. (authors)

  16. Education, ethics, and solidarity in international cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Lima de Castro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes an experience in technical cooperation between Brazil and Andean countries in the form of the International Course in the Management of Human Resource Policies in Health. This exploratory documental study encompassed a number of Latin American countries whose institutions of higher education had partnerships with the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, mediated by the Pan American Health Organization Representation in Brazil. The course experience shows that fundamental values like ethics and solidarity are determinant to the success of technical cooperation processes.

  17. Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Sarah; Boyd, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors and participants are not kin or day-to-day interactants. Warriors incur substantial risk of death and produce collective benefits. Cowardice and desertions occur, and are punished by community-imposed sanctions, including collective corporal punishment and fines. Furthermore, Turkana norms governing warfare benefit the ethnolinguistic group, a population of a half-million people, at the expense of smaller social groupings. These results challenge current views that punishment is unimportant in small-scale societies and that human cooperation evolved in small groups of kin and familiar individuals. Instead, these results suggest that cooperation at the larger scale of ethnolinguistic units enforced by third-party sanctions could have a deep evolutionary history in the human species. PMID:21670285

  18. Transnational Research Co-operation: Opportunities and Challenges for transnational research co-operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the NGOs have a lot of international experience (mainly in Denmark and Germany) as partners in different co-operation projects. Almost all the NGOs have recognized the important role of the scientific information in their activity. NGOs also feel the need for an easy access to required information...... for transnational co-operation like: an investigation/project concerning the driving forces behind urban development,or a co-operation in the field of wastewater reuse and minimization of wastewater loads and discharge, or a service page (internet) to search for potential partners. The governmental institutions...... in order to improve transnational cooperation are identified to be: • Search for national/international project partners • Access to existent co-operation projects or networks • Develop in common project proposals on themes requested by community groups • Exchange information/good operational practices...

  19. Conditional cooperation and confusion in public-goods experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton-Chellew, Maxwell N; El Mouden, Claire; West, Stuart A

    2016-02-02

    Economic experiments are often used to study if humans altruistically value the welfare of others. A canonical result from public-good games is that humans vary in how they value the welfare of others, dividing into fair-minded conditional cooperators, who match the cooperation of others, and selfish noncooperators. However, an alternative explanation for the data are that individuals vary in their understanding of how to maximize income, with misunderstanding leading to the appearance of cooperation. We show that (i) individuals divide into the same behavioral types when playing with computers, whom they cannot be concerned with the welfare of; (ii) behavior across games with computers and humans is correlated and can be explained by variation in understanding of how to maximize income; (iii) misunderstanding correlates with higher levels of cooperation; and (iv) standard control questions do not guarantee understanding. These results cast doubt on certain experimental methods and demonstrate that a common assumption in behavioral economics experiments, that choices reveal motivations, will not necessarily hold.

  20. Cooperative Path-Planning for Multi-Vehicle Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qichen Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a collision avoidance algorithm for multi-vehicle systems, which is a common problem in many areas, including navigation and robotics. In dynamic environments, vehicles may become involved in potential collisions with each other, particularly when the vehicle density is high and the direction of travel is unrestricted. Cooperatively planning vehicle movement can effectively reduce and fairly distribute the detour inconvenience before subsequently returning vehicles to their intended paths. We present a novel method of cooperative path planning for multi-vehicle systems based on reinforcement learning to address this problem as a decision process. A dynamic system is described as a multi-dimensional space formed by vectors as states to represent all participating vehicles’ position and orientation, whilst considering the kinematic constraints of the vehicles. Actions are defined for the system to transit from one state to another. In order to select appropriate actions whilst satisfying the constraints of path smoothness, constant speed and complying with a minimum distance between vehicles, an approximate value function is iteratively developed to indicate the desirability of every state-action pair from the continuous state space and action space. The proposed scheme comprises two phases. The convergence of the value function takes place in the former learning phase, and it is then used as a path planning guideline in the subsequent action phase. This paper summarizes the concept and methodologies used to implement this online cooperative collision avoidance algorithm and presents results and analysis regarding how this cooperative scheme improves upon two baseline schemes where vehicles make movement decisions independently.

  1. Emotional decisions in structured populations for the evolution of public cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjie; Chen, Tong; Chen, Qiao; Si, Guangrun

    2017-02-01

    The behaviors of humans are not always profit-driven in public goods games (PGG). In addition, social preference and decision-making might be influenced, even changed by heuristics and conformity in the real life. Motivated by the facts, we would like to investigate the role of emotional system in cooperative behaviors of structured population in PGG. Meantime, the effects of diffusion of influence are studied in structured population. Numerical simulation results are indicated that emotions play very significant role indeed in emergence and maintenance of cooperation in structured populations in PGG. However, the influences of emotions on others are limited due to diminishing of influence diffusion and the existence of pure defectors. What is more, conformity, to some extent, could drive potentially more people to accept cooperative strategy with higher probability. Higher-level cooperation could be promoted as increasing values of synergy factors, but while the effects might diminish gradually as increasing number of positive heuristic players and conformist. Our work may be beneficial to address the social dilemmas in PGG.

  2. Modulation of the Extent of Cooperative Structural Change During Protein Folding by Chemical Denaturant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethva, Prashant N; Udgaonkar, Jayant B

    2017-09-07

    Protein folding and unfolding reactions invariably appear to be highly cooperative reactions, but the structural and sequence determinants of cooperativity are poorly understood. Importantly, it is not known whether cooperative structural change occurs throughout the protein, or whether some parts change cooperatively and other parts change noncooperatively. In the current study, hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry has been used to show that the mechanism of unfolding of the PI3K SH3 domain is similar in the absence and presence of 5 M urea. The data are well described by a four state N ↔ I N ↔ I 2 ↔ U model, in which structural changes occur noncooperatively during the N ↔ I N and I N ↔ I 2 transitions, and occur cooperatively during the I 2 ↔ U transition. The nSrc-loop and RT-loop, as well as β strands 4 and 5 undergo noncooperative unfolding, while β strands 1, 2, and 3 unfold cooperatively in the absence of urea. However, in the presence of 5 M urea, the unfolding of β strand 4 switches to become cooperative, leading to an increase in the extent of cooperative structural change. The current study highlights the relationship between protein stability and cooperativity, by showing how the extent of cooperativity can be varied, using chemical denaturant to alter protein stability.

  3. R&D Cooperation Between Firms---A Perceived Transaction Cost Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Brockhoff

    1992-01-01

    Transaction cost is considered as an explanatory variable for the choice between markets and various organizational arrangements for performing some predefined tasks, such as engaging in private R&D. With respect to R&D cooperation between firms, we show that the perception of high transaction cost is related to certain characteristics of the firm and to the type of R&D task. We also show a relationship between the perception of transaction cost and the perceived success of the cooperation. T...

  4. Relationship quality, cooperation and performance: The specific case of Portuguese companies operating in Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Maria Maia Alves

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research encompasses the main concepts of relationship marketing in order to develop a model that explains the different factors preceding the export performance of Portuguese companies operating in Angola; it particularly seeks to understand the relationship between exporters and their local intermediaries from a relationship point of view. This study is particularly relevant because studies on emergent markets are scarce. The conceptual model presented is based on the relationship marketing literature, specifically the Morgan-Hunt Model (1994, named KMV (Key Mediating Variables. It intends to analyse how trust influences both commitment and cooperation. Similarly, it examines how commitment influences cooperation. Finally, this study aims to analyse the association between cooperation and export performance based on the last and next three years. Concerning the methodology adopted questionnaire and interviews that have been chosen. The study sampled 102 Portuguese companies at FILDA (International Fair of Luanda. Thirty questionnaires were fully completed and the data was analysed through SPSS. Meanwhile, some Portuguese companies’ managers were interviewed so that questions related to «how» and «why» could be clarified. All in all, it was possible to acknowledge a positive association amongst trust, commitment and cooperation. Likewise, it was confirmed that there is also a positive association between cooperation and export performance. Suggestion for future research is analysis of matched pairs, that is, the Portuguese exporting companies and their distributors in Angola.

  5. Oxytocin promotes intuitive rather than deliberated cooperation with the in-group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Velden, F.S.; Daughters, K.; De Dreu, C.K.W.

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. In intergroup settings, individuals prefer cooperating with their in-group, and sometimes derogate and punish out-groups. Here we replicate earlier work showing that such in-group bounded cooperation is conditioned by oxytocin and

  6. Cooperative SIS epidemics can lead to abrupt outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarnejad, Fakhteh; Chen, Li; Cai, Weiran; Grassberger, Peter

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we study spreading of two cooperative SIS epidemics in mean field approximations and also within an agent based framework. Therefore we investigate dynamics on different topologies like Erdos-Renyi networks and regular lattices. We show that cooperativity of two diseases can lead to strongly first order outbreaks, while the dynamics still might present some scaling laws typical for second order phase transitions. We argue how topological network features might be related to this interesting hybrid behaviors.

  7. On-orbit real-time robust cooperative target identification in complex background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhuoman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative target identification is the prerequisite for the relative position and orientation measurement between the space robot arm and the to-be-arrested object. We propose an on-orbit real-time robust algorithm for cooperative target identification in complex background using the features of circle and lines. It first extracts only the interested edges in the target image using an adaptive threshold and refines them to about single-pixel-width with improved non-maximum suppression. Adapting a novel tracking approach, edge segments changing smoothly in tangential directions are obtained. With a small amount of calculation, large numbers of invalid edges are removed. From the few remained edges, valid circular arcs are extracted and reassembled to obtain circles according to a reliable criterion. Finally, the target is identified if there are certain numbers of straight lines whose relative positions with the circle match the known target pattern. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm accurately identifies the cooperative target within the range of 0.3–1.5 m under complex background at the speed of 8 frames per second, regardless of lighting condition and target attitude. The proposed algorithm is very suitable for real-time visual measurement of space robot arm because of its robustness and small memory requirement.

  8. How Getting Noticed Helps Getting On: Successful Attention Capture Doubles Children’s Cooperative Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola eYuill

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative social interaction is a complex skill that involves maintaining shared attention and continually negotiating a common frame of reference. Privileged in human evolution, cooperation provides support for the development of social-cognitive skills. We hypothesise that providing audio support for capturing playmates’ attention will increase cooperative play in groups of young children. Attention capture was manipulated via an audio-augmented toy to boost children’s attention bids. Study 1 (48 6- to 11-year-olds showed that the augmented toy yielded significantly more cooperative play in triads compared to the same toy without augmentation. In Study 2 (33 7- to 9-year-olds the augmented toy supported greater success of attention bids which were associated with longer cooperative play, associated in turn with better group narratives. The results show how cooperation requires moment-by-moment coordination of attention and how we can manipulate environments to reveal and support mechanisms of social interaction. Our findings have implications for understanding the role of joint attention in the development of cooperative action and shared understanding.

  9. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/8: Cooperative Border Security for Jordan: Assessment and Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qojas, M.

    1999-03-01

    This document is an analysis of options for unilateral and cooperative action to improve the security of Jordan's borders. Sections describe the current political, economic, and social interactions along Jordan's borders. Next, the document discusses border security strategy for cooperation among neighboring countries and the adoption of confidence-building measures. A practical cooperative monitoring system would consist of hardware for early warning, command and control, communications, and transportation. Technical solutions can expand opportunities for the detection and identification of intruders. Sensors (such as seismic, break-wire, pressure-sensing, etc.) can warn border security forces of intrusion and contribute to the identification of the intrusion and help formulate the response. This document describes conceptual options for cooperation, offering three scenarios that relate to three hypothetical levels (low, medium, and high) of cooperation. Potential cooperative efforts under a low cooperation scenario could include information exchanges on military equipment and schedules to prevent misunderstandings and the establishment of protocols for handling emergency situations or unusual circumstances. Measures under a medium cooperation scenario could include establishing joint monitoring groups for better communications, with hot lines and scheduled meetings. The high cooperation scenario describes coordinated responses, joint border patrols, and sharing border intrusion information. Finally, the document lists recommendations for organizational, technical, and operational initiatives that could be applicable to the current situation.

  10. Energy-efficient cooperative protocols for full-duplex relay channels

    KAUST Repository

    Khafagy, Mohammad Galal

    2013-12-01

    In this work, energy-efficient cooperative protocols are studied for full-duplex relaying (FDR) with loopback interference. In these protocols, relay assistance is only sought under certain conditions on the different link outages to ensure effective cooperation. Recently, an energy-efficient selective decode-And-forward protocol was proposed for FDR, and was shown to outperform existing schemes in terms of outage. Here, we propose an incremental selective decode-And-forward protocol that offers additional power savings, while keeping the same outage performance. We compare the performance of the two protocols in terms of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio cumulative distribution function via closed-form expressions. Finally, we corroborate our theoretical results with simulation, and show the relative relay power savings in comparison to non-selective cooperation in which the relay cooperates regardless of channel conditions. © 2013 IEEE.

  11. Energy-efficient cooperative protocols for full-duplex relay channels

    KAUST Repository

    Khafagy, Mohammad Galal; Ismail, Amr; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Aï ssa, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    In this work, energy-efficient cooperative protocols are studied for full-duplex relaying (FDR) with loopback interference. In these protocols, relay assistance is only sought under certain conditions on the different link outages to ensure effective cooperation. Recently, an energy-efficient selective decode-And-forward protocol was proposed for FDR, and was shown to outperform existing schemes in terms of outage. Here, we propose an incremental selective decode-And-forward protocol that offers additional power savings, while keeping the same outage performance. We compare the performance of the two protocols in terms of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio cumulative distribution function via closed-form expressions. Finally, we corroborate our theoretical results with simulation, and show the relative relay power savings in comparison to non-selective cooperation in which the relay cooperates regardless of channel conditions. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Network flow of mobile agents enhances the evolution of cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, G.; Satotani, Y.; Nagatani, T.

    2018-01-01

    We study the effect of contingent movement on the persistence of cooperation on complex networks with empty nodes. Each agent plays the Prisoner's Dilemma game with its neighbors and then it either updates the strategy depending on the payoff difference with neighbors or it moves to another empty node if not satisfied with its own payoff. If no neighboring node is empty, each agent stays at the same site. By extensive evolutionary simulations, we show that the medium density of agents enhances cooperation where the network flow of mobile agents is also medium. Moreover, if the movements of agents are more frequent than the strategy updating, cooperation is further promoted. In scale-free networks, the optimal density for cooperation is lower than other networks because agents get stuck at hubs. Our study suggests that keeping a smooth network flow is significant for the persistence of cooperation in ever-changing societies.

  13. The story of technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yang Taek

    1989-09-01

    This book gives descriptions of technical cooperation, which is about why does technology transfer?, process of technology transfer with model, decisive cause and cooperation of technology transfer, cost and effect of technology transfer, historical experience of technology transfer, cases of technology transfer by field such as rubber tire, medicine and computer industry and automobile industry, technology transfer process and present condition of technical cooperation, and strategy for rising of technical cooperation : selection of technology for object of cooperation and development of human resources.

  14. Cooperative relay-based multicasting for energy and delay minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2012-08-01

    Relay-based multicasting for the purpose of cooperative content distribution is studied. Optimized relay selection is performed with the objective of minimizing the energy consumption or the content distribution delay within a cluster of cooperating mobiles. Two schemes are investigated. The first consists of the BS sending the data only to the relay, and the second scheme considers the scenario of threshold-based multicasting by the BS, where a relay is selected to transmit the data to the mobiles that were not able to receive the multicast data. Both schemes show significant superiority compared to the non-cooperative scenarios, in terms of energy consumption and delay reduction. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. An interprovincial cooperative game model for air pollution control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jian; Zhao, Laijun; Fan, Longzhen; Qian, Ying

    2015-07-01

    The noncooperative air pollution reduction model (NCRM) that is currently adopted in China to manage air pollution reduction of each individual province has inherent drawbacks. In this paper, we propose a cooperative air pollution reduction game model (CRM) that consists of two parts: (1) an optimization model that calculates the optimal pollution reduction quantity for each participating province to meet the joint pollution reduction goal; and (2) a model that distribute the economic benefit of the cooperation (i.e., pollution reduction cost saving) among the provinces in the cooperation based on the Shapley value method. We applied the CRM to the case of SO2 reduction in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in China. The results, based on the data from 2003-2009, show that cooperation helps lower the overall SO2 pollution reduction cost from 4.58% to 11.29%. Distributed across the participating provinces, such a cost saving from interprovincial cooperation brings significant benefits to each local government and stimulates them for further cooperation in pollution reduction. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed using the year 2009 data to test the parameters' effects on the pollution reduction cost savings. China is increasingly facing unprecedented pressure for immediate air pollution control. The current air pollution reduction policy does not allow cooperation and is less efficient. In this paper we developed a cooperative air pollution reduction game model that consists of two parts: (1) an optimization model that calculates the optimal pollution reduction quantity for each participating province to meet the joint pollution reduction goal; and (2) a model that distributes the cooperation gains (i.e., cost reduction) among the provinces in the cooperation based on the Shapley value method. The empirical case shows that such a model can help improve efficiency in air pollution reduction. The result of the model can serve as a reference for Chinese government

  16. Pim2 cooperates with PML-RARalpha to induce acute myeloid leukemia in a bone marrow transplantation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrawal-Singh, Shuchi; Koschmieder, Steffen; Gelsing, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Although the potential role of Pim2 as a cooperative oncogene has been well described in lymphoma, its role in leukemia has remained largely unexplored. Here we show that high expression of Pim2 is observed in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). To further characterize the cooperative...... role of Pim2 with promyelocytic leukemia/retinoic acid receptor alpha (PML/RARalpha), we used a well-established PML-RARalpha (PRalpha) mouse model. Pim2 coexpression in PRalpha-positive hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) induces leukemia in recipient mice after a short latency. Pim2-PRalpha cells...... were able to repopulate mice in serial transplantations and to induce disease in all recipients. Neither Pim2 nor PRalpha alone was sufficient to induce leukemia upon transplantation in this model. The disease induced by Pim2 overexpression in PRalpha cells contained a slightly higher fraction...

  17. From rationality to cooperativeness: The totally mixed Nash equilibrium in Markov strategies in the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan S Menshikov

    Full Text Available In this research, the social behavior of the participants in a Prisoner's Dilemma laboratory game is explained on the basis of the quantal response equilibrium concept and the representation of the game in Markov strategies. In previous research, we demonstrated that social interaction during the experiment has a positive influence on cooperation, trust, and gratefulness. This research shows that the quantal response equilibrium concept agrees only with the results of experiments on cooperation in Prisoner's Dilemma prior to social interaction. However, quantal response equilibrium does not explain of participants' behavior after social interaction. As an alternative theoretical approach, an examination was conducted of iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game in Markov strategies. We built a totally mixed Nash equilibrium in this game; the equilibrium agrees with the results of the experiments both before and after social interaction.

  18. Cooperative institutions for sustainable common pool resource management: Application to groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Kaveh; Dinar, Ariel

    2012-09-01

    Beneficiaries of common pool resources (CPRs) may select available noncooperative and regulatory exogenous institutions for managing the resource, as well as cooperative management institutions. All these institutions may increase the long-term gains, prolong the life of the resource, and help to escape the tragedy of the commons trap. Cooperative game theory approaches can serve as the backbone of cooperative CPR management institutions. This paper formulates and applies several commonly used cooperative game theoretic solution concepts, namely, the core, Nash-Harsanyi, Shapley, and nucleolus. Through a numerical groundwater example, we show how CPR users can share the gains obtained from cooperation in a fair and efficient manner based on these cooperative solution concepts (management institutions). Although, based on their fairness rationales, various cooperative management institutions may suggest different allocations that are potentially acceptable to the users, these allocation solutions may not be stable as some users may find them unfair. This paper discusses how different methods, such as application of the plurality rule and power index, stability index, and propensity to disrupt concepts, can help identify the most stable and likely solutions for enforcing cooperation among the CPR beneficiaries. Furthermore, how the noncooperative managerial characteristics of the CPR users can affect the stability and acceptability of the different cooperative CPR management institutions is discussed, providing valuable policy insights for cooperative CPR management at community levels.

  19. MOTION PLANNING OF MULTIPLE MOBILE ROBOTS COOPERATIVELY TRANSPORTING A COMMON OBJECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Many applications above the capability of a single robot need the cooperation of multiple mobile robots, but effective cooperation is hard to achieve. In this paper, a master-slave method is proposed to control the motions of multiple mobile robots that cooperatively transport a common object from a start point to a goal point. A noholonomic kinematic model to constrain the motions of multiple mobile robots is built in order to achieve cooperative motions of them, and a "Dynamic Coordinator" strategy is used to deal with the collision-avoidance of the master robot and slave robot individually. Simulation results show the robustness and effectiveness of the method.

  20. RELATION BETWEEN COOPERATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING WITH THE COMPETITIVENESS IN AN INTERORGANIZATIONAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Zonta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the relationship between cooperation and organizational learning with competitiveness in a small and medium enterprises (SME network, with business of the groups of the Commercial and Industrial Association of Chapecó (ACIC. The methodology used was quantitative, with the factorial analysis. Currently, ACIC has 14 groups and 236 SME´s nucleated, developing joint activities of economic and social sustainability in Chapecó. The theoretical study raised concepts already endorsed by the scientific community on interorganizational networks, competitiveness, cooperation and organizational learning. The results demonstrated that indicators related to cooperation and learning in horizontal networks are characterized as antecedents of competitiveness in organizational networks, and that there is a positive correlation between the constructs cooperation and organizational learning with competitiveness construct. The study confirms the belief that small businesses associated in networks can increase their competitiveness, thus contributing to regional development.

  1. Bargaining babblers: vocal negotiation of cooperative behaviour in a social bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M. B. V.; Radford, A. N.; Smith, R. A.; Thompson, A. M.; Ridley, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    Wherever individuals perform cooperative behaviours, each should be selected to adjust their own current contributions in relation to the likely future contributions of their collaborators. Here, we use the sentinel system of pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor) to show that individuals anticipate contributions by group mates, adjusting their own contribution in response to information about internal state broadcast by others. Specifically, we show that (i) short-term changes in state influence contributions to a cooperative behaviour, (ii) individuals communicate short-term changes in state, and (iii) individuals use information about the state of group mates to adjust their own investment in sentinel behaviour. Our results demonstrate that individual decisions about contributions to a cooperative effort can be influenced by information about the likely future contribution of others. We suggest that similar pre-emptive adjustments based on information obtained from collaborators will be a common feature of cooperative behaviour, and may play an important role in the development of complex communication in social species. PMID:20519221

  2. Incipient cognition solves the spatial reciprocity conundrum of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeromos Vukov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From the simplest living organisms to human societies, cooperation among individuals emerges as a paradox difficult to explain and describe mathematically, although very often observed in reality. Evolutionary game theory offers an excellent toolbar to investigate this issue. Spatial structure has been one of the first mechanisms promoting cooperation; however, alone it only opens a narrow window of viability. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we equip individuals with incipient cognitive abilities, and investigate the evolution of cooperation in a spatial world where retaliation, forgiveness, treason and mutualism may coexist, as individuals engage in Prisoner's Dilemma games. In the model, individuals are able to distinguish their partners and act towards them based on previous interactions. We show how the simplest level of cognition, alone, can lead to the emergence of cooperation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the incipient nature of the individuals' cognitive abilities, cooperation emerges for unprecedented values of the temptation to cheat, being also robust to invasion by cheaters, errors in decision making and inaccuracy of imitation, features akin to many species, including humans.

  3. Coevolution of network structure and cooperation in the public goods game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lei; Xia Chengyi; Wang Juan

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the emergence of cooperation has become a central topic in the evolutionary game field, and coevolution of game dynamics and network topology structure can give us a fresh viewpoint of how the network evolves and cooperation arises. In this paper, we show in detail a picture of the co-evolutionary behaviors between the microscopic structure of the network and cooperation promotion in the public goods game (PGG). Based on a mechanism named after evolutionary preferential attachment (EPA), in which the growth of the network depends on the outcome of PGG dynamics, we explore the structural properties of networks and cooperative behaviors taking place on the networks created by EPA rules. Extensive simulation results indicate that the structure of the resulting networks displays a transition from homogeneous to heterogeneous properties as the selection strength ϵ increases, and the cooperative behaviors have a non-trivial state in which cooperators and defectors can simultaneously occupy the hub nodes in the network. Current results are of interest for us to further understand the cooperation persistence and structure evolution in many natural, social and economical systems. (paper)

  4. Optimal cooperation-trap strategies for the iterated rock-paper-scissors game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zedong Bi

    Full Text Available In an iterated non-cooperative game, if all the players act to maximize their individual accumulated payoff, the system as a whole usually converges to a Nash equilibrium that poorly benefits any player. Here we show that such an undesirable destiny is avoidable in an iterated Rock-Paper-Scissors (RPS game involving two rational players, X and Y. Player X has the option of proactively adopting a cooperation-trap strategy, which enforces complete cooperation from the rational player Y and leads to a highly beneficial and maximally fair situation to both players. That maximal degree of cooperation is achievable in such a competitive system with cyclic dominance of actions may stimulate further theoretical and empirical studies on how to resolve conflicts and enhance cooperation in human societies.

  5. What is a cooperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly Zeuli

    2006-01-01

    Groups of individuals throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. The earliest forms of hunting and agriculture required a great deal of cooperation among humans. Although the word "cooperative" can be applied to many different types of group activities, in this publication it refers to a formal business model. Cooperative businesses are...

  6. Improving students’ creativity using cooperative learning with virtual media on static fluida concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan; Harjono, A.; Sahidu, H.; Nisrina

    2018-04-01

    Creativity is an important component of global competition in the 21st century. Therefore, learning innovation is needed to make students more creative. This research was conducted to improve students' creativity through cooperative learning using virtual media for the static fluid concept. This study was a quasi-experiment through a pre-test post-test design. The samples were chosen using cluster random sampling technique to obtain two groups, namely experimental group and control group. Data were collected using a creativity test in the form of an essay consisting of verbal and figural tests. The data were analyzed using t-test and N-gain test to determine the improvement of creativity in both groups. The results showed that the improvement of students' creativity in the experimental group was higher than the control group. The difference in the improvement of students’ creativity in both group is significant. Students become more creative especially related to indicators of fluency and elaboration. We conclude that the application of cooperative learning model using virtual media has a positive effect on students’ creativity.

  7. Comprensive-cooperative learning of handball in physical education: Effect on the motivational climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Valls Castillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The comprehensive-cooperative learning hybrid model in sport increases the effects of both strategies separately and promotes a more comprehensive and meaningful learning for students. However is still little used in Physical Education (PE and handball teaching. The participants in this study were 96 students, 31 in the experimental group and 65 in the control group, of 4th in Secondary Education. A quasi-experimental design was used with non-equivalent control group and pre-test and post-test measures to analyze the motivational climate variable. We used the perceived motivational climate in sport questionnaire-2 (PMCSQ-2. Non-parametric tests were applied (Wilcoxon and U of Mannwithney for related and for independent samples respectively.The results show significant differences (z = 2.88, p = 0.004 in the perceived motivational climate in experimental group versus control group, with similar records in the different elements of this variable. These data suggest that the hybrid model comprehensive-cooperative positively modifies student motivation and behavior towards PE classes and handball practice.

  8. Fundamental properties of cooperative contagion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Ghanbarnejad, Fakhteh; Brockmann, Dirk

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the effects of cooperativity between contagion processes that spread and persist in a host population. We propose and analyze a dynamical model in which individuals that are affected by one transmissible agent A exhibit a higher than baseline propensity of being affected by a second agent B and vice versa. The model is a natural extension of the traditional susceptible-infected-susceptible model used for modeling single contagion processes. We show that cooperativity changes the dynamics of the system considerably when cooperativity is strong. The system exhibits discontinuous phase transitions not observed in single agent contagion, multi-stability, a separation of the traditional epidemic threshold into different thresholds for inception and extinction as well as hysteresis. These properties are robust and are corroborated by stochastic simulations on lattices and generic network topologies. Finally, we investigate wave propagation and transients in a spatially extended version of the model and show that especially for intermediate values of baseline reproduction ratios the system is characterized by various types of wave-front speeds. The system can exhibit spatially heterogeneous stationary states for some parameters and negative front speeds (receding wave fronts). The two agent model can be employed as a starting point for more complex contagion processes, involving several interacting agents, a model framework particularly suitable for modeling the spread and dynamics of microbiological ecosystems in host populations.

  9. Fundamental properties of cooperative contagion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Li; Ghanbarnejad, Fakhteh; Brockmann, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effects of cooperativity between contagion processes that spread and persist in a host population. We propose and analyze a dynamical model in which individuals that are affected by one transmissible agent A exhibit a higher than baseline propensity of being affected by a second agent B and vice versa. The model is a natural extension of the traditional susceptible-infected-susceptible model used for modeling single contagion processes. We show that cooperativity changes the dynamics of the system considerably when cooperativity is strong. The system exhibits discontinuous phase transitions not observed in single agent contagion, multi-stability, a separation of the traditional epidemic threshold into different thresholds for inception and extinction as well as hysteresis. These properties are robust and are corroborated by stochastic simulations on lattices and generic network topologies. Finally, we investigate wave propagation and transients in a spatially extended version of the model and show that especially for intermediate values of baseline reproduction ratios the system is characterized by various types of wave-front speeds. The system can exhibit spatially heterogeneous stationary states for some parameters and negative front speeds (receding wave fronts). The two agent model can be employed as a starting point for more complex contagion processes, involving several interacting agents, a model framework particularly suitable for modeling the spread and dynamics of microbiological ecosystems in host populations. (paper)

  10. Soft cooperative spectrum sensing performance under imperfect and non identical reporting channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Ghorbel, Mahdi

    2015-02-01

    Cooperation among cognitive radio users improves the spectrum sensing performance by combining local decisions measured over independent sensing channels, allowing reduction of miss-detection and false alarm probabilities. While most of the works in cooperative spectrum sensing techniques assume perfect channels between the cooperating users, this paper studies the effect of imperfect channels when local users report their sensed information to the fusion center. Cooperative detection and false-alarm probabilities are derived for a general scheme of imperfect reporting channels under non necessarily identical sensing and reporting channels. Numerical simulations show that imperfect reporting channels should be considered to optimize the cooperative sensing in terms of consumed energy and probability of error.

  11. The collective actions in the form of cooperatives and the relevance in the soy production chain in Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lediany Freitas de Campos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to discuss the influence of collective actions, with a focus on cooperatives located on the soy production chain. It was noted that rural producers organize themselves in groups aiming to preserve their common interests, when they know they would succeed to act individually. The actions are performed by latent groups, through economic incentives, and there is strong influence of institutional environment. Collective cooperation results in benefits to all involved, in addition to generating positive externalities upstream and downstream on the chain. Cooperatives have had intense influence on the soy production in the State of Paraná, being responsible for a significant portion of the production, processing and distribution. By means of cooperatives, the state has maintained second position at national level in relation to the production of soy, with revealed comparative advantage, has gotten improvements in productivity and conquest of foreign markets.

  12. Reliability-Aware Cooperative Node Sleeping and Clustering in Duty-Cycled Sensors Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeungeun Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Duty-cycled sensor networks provide a new perspective for improvement of energy efficiency and reliability assurance of multi-hop cooperative sensor networks. In this paper, we consider the energy-efficient cooperative node sleeping and clustering problems in cooperative sensor networks where clusters of relay nodes jointly transmit sensory data to the next hop. Our key idea for guaranteeing reliability is to exploit the on-demand number of cooperative nodes, facilitating the prediction of personalized end-to-end (ETE reliability. Namely, a novel reliability-aware cooperative routing (RCR scheme is proposed to select k-cooperative nodes at every hop (RCR-selection. After selecting k cooperative nodes at every hop, all of the non-cooperative nodes will go into sleep status. In order to solve the cooperative node clustering problem, we propose the RCR-based optimal relay assignment and cooperative data delivery (RCR-delivery scheme to provide a low-communication-overhead data transmission and an optimal duty cycle for a given number of cooperative nodes when the network is dynamic, which enables part of cooperative nodes to switch into idle status for further energy saving. Through the extensive OPNET-based simulations, we show that the proposed scheme significantly outperforms the existing geographic routing schemes and beaconless geographic routings in wireless sensor networks with a highly dynamic wireless channel and controls energy consumption, while ETE reliability is effectively guaranteed.

  13. Evolution of cooperation in a hierarchical society with corruption control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Chen, Xiaojie; Wang, Long

    2018-07-14

    Punishment is widely recognized as a potential promoter in sustaining or even enhancing public cooperation, but it meanwhile induces the problem of second-order free-riders. Particularly, recent evidence shows that costly punishment can be maintained if punishers may engage in corruption. However, how to reduce or eliminate incidents of corruption has been the enduring conundrum in human society. As power asymmetries are associated with hierarchies, we investigate how costly punishment affects the evolution of cooperation in the cases without and with corruption control. In the absence of corruption control, altruistic punishers are incapable of punishing corrupt punishers. Corrupt punishment maintains civilian cooperation but undermines the evolution of altruistic punishment. Otherwise, altruistic punishers can enforce symmetrical or asymmetrical punishment on both corrupt punishers and civilian defectors. In this case, both civilian cooperation and altruistic punishment can be promoted. And as an instrument of corruption control, the policy of asymmetrical punishment is more effective in fostering public cooperation and improving social welfare than symmetrical punishment. Moreover, no matter whether corruption control is considered or not, spiteful corruption that non-cooperative punishers penalize defectors is a more effective form for enhancing cooperation compared with bribery. Our work may thus offer an insight into the effects of corruption on public cooperation and the policy of anti-corruption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....

  15. Hard Decision Fusion based Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Armi N.M. Saad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative spectrum sensing was proposed to combat fading, noise uncertainty, shadowing, and even hidden node problem due to primary users (PUs activity that is not spatially localized. It improves the probability of detection by collaborating to detect PUs signal in cognitive radio (CR system as well. This paper studies cooperative spectrum sensing and signal detection in CR system by implementing hard decision combining in data fusion centre. Through computer simulation, we evaluate the performances of cooperative spectrum sensing and signal detection by employing OR and AND rules as decision combining. Energy detector is used to observe the presence of primary user (PU signal. Those results are compared to non-cooperative signal detection for evaluation. They show that cooperative technique has better performance than non-cooperative. Moreover, signal to noise ratio (SNR with greater than or equal 10 dB and 15 collaborated users in CR system has optimal value for probability of detection.

  16. Milk marketing under cooperative and non-cooperative marketing channels: Evidence from west Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker Debnarayan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to empirically investigate the price spread, marketing costs, marketing margins, marketing efficiency, and profit efficiency among market middlemen under cooperative and non-cooperative marketing channels in the domestic trade market of liquid milk in West Bengal. One of the important findings of this study is that, although the inter-market (and intramarket price variation for liquid milk under the cooperative marketing agency in not far from uniformity, and all marketing agencies under cooperative channels receive much lower abnormal profit per unit of milk as compared with non-cooperative channels, the former fails to provide much economic benefit, either to the producer or to the consumer, because of the burden of much higher fixed cost per unit of liquid milk.

  17. A strategy study on international nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hong Rae; Kim, Kyung Pyo; Kim, Young Min; Shin, Kyung Hye; Yoon, Sung Won; Lee, Myung Ho; Lee, Jong Hee; Hong Young Don

    1995-12-01

    The implementing methodologies suggested from this study cover the following: 1) strategies for the promotion of the nation's leading roles in such international organizations as the IAEA and OECD/NEA; 2) strategies for the implementation of national nuclear policy, positively coping with international nuclear trends; 3) strategies for the promotion of technical cooperation with the Russian Federation to introduce essential nuclear technology by utilizing its new environment of science and technology. 39 tabs., 28 figs., 64 refs. (Author)

  18. The Romanian Agriculture Cooperative Movement, from the Beginning to the Threshold of the Second World War. Briefly Historic Argument or Argument for History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Popescu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In the philosophical meaning, the cooperative is a result of the knowing experimentallydevelopment and includes the interaction between: persons of consequence – through ideas and attitudes,state – through laws and institutes, experiences – through structures and effects.In Romania, in the first half of the XIXth century, and to the threshold of the Second World War, areremarked numerous persons of consequence who promote and support the cooperative movement, suchas P.S. Aurelian, Spiru Haret, Ion Raducanu, Virgil Madgearu, Mitita Constantinescu and NicolaeCornateanu.The state has accepted the cooperative as an instrument of the democratization of the capital andprofit. The cooperative movement had fight continuously towards promotion of the collaboration principlebetween cooperative companies, principle by virtue of which the organizations can manifest independencein confrontation with the state.The experiences had been substantiated mostly on the ideology of modern cooperative systems:Rochdale, Raiffaisen and Schulttze.The Romanian cooperative movement appeared, just like in the majority of European states, on abackground of some restrictions in the agricultural field, generated by a complex of factors among whichthe main position in a constant way had been hold by the contest between the big and small agriculturalfarms.In Romania, during the period before and after-war, cooperatives’ organization worked successfullyas credit cooperatives or economical cooperatives (consumption cooperatives, supply and sale cooperatives,forestry cooperatives, purchase community, leasing community, etc..The various shapes of the cooperative movements shows the potential which those have had in thepurpose of their economical development and social situation improvement of the farmers. The potentialwas narrowed not only by the legislative and institutional instability, but more by the agriculturalmarket size and intensity. The cooperatives activities

  19. Communicating in Collectivistic Culture: Relationship between Interdependent Self-Construal and Cooperative Communication in Cross-Cultural Communication Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoo Pin Lick Soo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This concept paper proposes that when companies have expanded their business and operation throughout the Asian countries, the success or failure of a company abroad depends on how effectively its business negotiators can apply their cross-cultural communication skills in a new cultural environment. At the forefront of this change is interdependent self-construal, which stands as communication medium on interaction goals (international business negotiation outcome in collectivistic culture. The international trade may bring about a lot in terms of cross-cultural communication and international business negotiation, but adopting cooperative communication in the international business negotiations will create more integrative agreements between the international business negotiators. Many scholars believe that if both parties have similarities in communication styles, it will lead to positive interaction (cooperative communication that contributes to cooperation and influences the interaction goals (negotiation outcome. This paper offers critical insight into the theoretical link between interdependent selfconstrual and interaction goals. The proposed cross-cultural communication model uses interdependent self-construal and cooperative communication to understand when collectivistic business negotiators develop relationships that promotes positive interaction goals (negotiation outcome.

  20. Excited cooper pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Arrietea, M. G.; Solis, M. A.; De Llano, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    Excited cooper pairs formed in a many-fermion system are those with nonzero total center-of mass momentum (CMM). They are normally neglected in the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity for being too few compared with zero CMM pairs. However, a Bose-Einstein condensation picture requires both zero and nonzero CMM pairs. Assuming a BCS model interaction between fermions we determine the populations for all CMM values of Cooper pairs by actually calculating the number of nonzero-CMM pairs relative to that of zero-CMM ones in both 2D and 3D. Although this ratio decreases rapidly with CMM, the number of Cooper pairs for any specific CMM less than the maximum (or breakup of the pair) momentum turns out to be typically larger than about 95% of those with zero-CMM at zero temperature T. Even at T {approx}100 K this fraction en 2D is still as large as about 70% for typical quasi-2D cuprate superconductor parameters. [Spanish] Los pares de cooper excitados formados en un sistema de muchos electrones, son aquellos con momentos de centro de masa (CMM) diferente de cero. Normalmente estos no son tomados en cuenta en la teoria estandar de la superconductividad de Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) al suponer que su numero es muy pequeno comparados con los pares de centro de masa igual a cero. Sin embargo, un esquema de condensacion Bose-Einstein requiere de ambos pares, con CMM cero y diferente de cero. Asumiendo una interaccion modelo BCS entre los fermiones, determinamos la poblacion de pares cooper con cada uno de todos los posibles valores del CMM calculando el numero de pares con momentos de centro de masa diferente de cero relativo a los pares de CMM igual a cero, en 2D y 3D. Aunque esta razon decrece rapidamente con el CMM, el numero de pares de cooper para cualquier CMM especifico menor que el momento maximo (o rompimiento de par) es tipicamente mas grande que el 95% de aquellos con CMM cero. Aun a T {approx}100 K esta fraccion en 2D es

  1. Present state and future planning on research cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Atsushi

    1997-01-01

    NUCEF is a comprehensive large scale research facility to conduct from critical safety study to study on nuclear fuel cycle back end, and aims to be a kerneled research place by intending its effective application through common application due to colaboration and others. Therefore, NUCEF hopes to promote active research cooperation with various research institutes in or out of Japan and wide development. NUCEF held the 1st International Symposium NUCEF'95 in 1995, to discuss the engineering safety of nuclear fuel recycle facility. Subsequently, NUCEF'98 will hold next year, to intend to promote studies relating to nuclear fuel recycle from an international view. And also, it will intend to promote positively cooperation in response to needs with relating institutes, and private companies as well as to expect some innovative studies to create new techniques through colaboration with universities. (G.K.)

  2. Power Asymmetries and Punishment in a Prisoner's Dilemma with Variable Cooperative Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Jonathan E; Wallace, Brian; Bshary, Redouan; Raihani, Nichola J

    2016-01-01

    In many two-player games, players that invest in punishment finish with lower payoffs than those who abstain from punishing. These results question the effectiveness of punishment at promoting cooperation, especially when retaliation is possible. It has been suggested that these findings may stem from the unrealistic assumption that all players are equal in terms of power. However, a previous empirical study which incorporated power asymmetries into an iterated prisoner's dilemma (IPD) game failed to show that power asymmetries stabilize cooperation when punishment is possible. Instead, players cooperated in response to their partner cooperating, and punishment did not yield any additional increase in tendency to cooperate. Nevertheless, this previous study only allowed an all-or-nothing-rather than a variable-cooperation investment. It is possible that power asymmetries increase the effectiveness of punishment from strong players only when players are able to vary their investment in cooperation. We tested this hypothesis using a modified IPD game which allowed players to vary their investment in cooperation in response to being punished. As in the previous study, punishment from strong players did not increase cooperation under any circumstances. Thus, in two-player games with symmetric strategy sets, punishment does not appear to increase cooperation.

  3. Power Asymmetries and Punishment in a Prisoner's Dilemma with Variable Cooperative Investment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Bone

    Full Text Available In many two-player games, players that invest in punishment finish with lower payoffs than those who abstain from punishing. These results question the effectiveness of punishment at promoting cooperation, especially when retaliation is possible. It has been suggested that these findings may stem from the unrealistic assumption that all players are equal in terms of power. However, a previous empirical study which incorporated power asymmetries into an iterated prisoner's dilemma (IPD game failed to show that power asymmetries stabilize cooperation when punishment is possible. Instead, players cooperated in response to their partner cooperating, and punishment did not yield any additional increase in tendency to cooperate. Nevertheless, this previous study only allowed an all-or-nothing-rather than a variable-cooperation investment. It is possible that power asymmetries increase the effectiveness of punishment from strong players only when players are able to vary their investment in cooperation. We tested this hypothesis using a modified IPD game which allowed players to vary their investment in cooperation in response to being punished. As in the previous study, punishment from strong players did not increase cooperation under any circumstances. Thus, in two-player games with symmetric strategy sets, punishment does not appear to increase cooperation.

  4. Chaos and crises in a model for cooperative hunting: a symbolic dynamics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jorge; Januário, Cristina; Martins, Nuno; Sardanyés, Josep

    2009-12-01

    In this work we investigate the population dynamics of cooperative hunting extending the McCann and Yodzis model for a three-species food chain system with a predator, a prey, and a resource species. The new model considers that a given fraction sigma of predators cooperates in prey's hunting, while the rest of the population 1-sigma hunts without cooperation. We use the theory of symbolic dynamics to study the topological entropy and the parameter space ordering of the kneading sequences associated with one-dimensional maps that reproduce significant aspects of the dynamics of the species under several degrees of cooperative hunting. Our model also allows us to investigate the so-called deterministic extinction via chaotic crisis and transient chaos in the framework of cooperative hunting. The symbolic sequences allow us to identify a critical boundary in the parameter spaces (K,C(0)) and (K,sigma) which separates two scenarios: (i) all-species coexistence and (ii) predator's extinction via chaotic crisis. We show that the crisis value of the carrying capacity K(c) decreases at increasing sigma, indicating that predator's populations with high degree of cooperative hunting are more sensitive to the chaotic crises. We also show that the control method of Dhamala and Lai [Phys. Rev. E 59, 1646 (1999)] can sustain the chaotic behavior after the crisis for systems with cooperative hunting. We finally analyze and quantify the inner structure of the target regions obtained with this control method for wider parameter values beyond the crisis, showing a power law dependence of the extinction transients on such critical parameters.

  5. Analysis on IAEA 2006-2007 Programme and Cooperation Directions between Korea and IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, H. M.; Yang, M. H.; Lee, B. W.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, K. P.

    2004-12-01

    In this study, the structure of the IAEA programme and the major changes in 2004/2005 programme cycle are analyzed. Also renewed programming process and major issues in 2006/2007 programme and budget are analyzed. Based on the analyses, the detailed proposal to strengthen cooperation with IAEA is prepared in the fields of nuclear power, nuclear application, nuclear safety and nuclear cooperation. As a result, the following 9 themes are identified to strengthen the relation between Korea and the IAEA. - Nuclear Production of Hydrogen - Sea Water Desalination - Nuclear Knowledge Management - Application of Food Irradiation - Cancer Treatment using Cyclotron - Global Nuclear Safety Network; - Management of Radiation Source by Global Positioning System (GPS) - Global Network for Radiological Emergency Response - Enhanced relationship between Regional Cooperation Frameworks

  6. Research and development at ORNL/CESAR towards cooperating robotic systems for hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.C.; Fujimura, K.; Unseren, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    One of the frontiers in intelligent machine research is the understanding of how constructive cooperation among multiple autonomous agents can be effected. The effort at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR)at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) focuses on two problem areas: (1) cooperation by multiple mobile robots in dynamic, incompletely known environments; and (2) cooperating robotic manipulators. Particular emphasis is placed on experimental evaluation of research and developments using the CESAR robot system testbeds, including three mobile robots, and a seven-axis, kinematically redundant mobile manipulator. This paper summarizes initial results of research addressing the decoupling of position and force control for two manipulators holding a common object, and the path planning for multiple robots in a common workspace. 15 refs., 3 figs

  7. Critical cooperation range to improve spatial network robustness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor H P Louzada

    Full Text Available A robust worldwide air-transportation network (WAN is one that minimizes the number of stranded passengers under a sequence of airport closures. Building on top of this realistic example, here we address how spatial network robustness can profit from cooperation between local actors. We swap a series of links within a certain distance, a cooperation range, while following typical constraints of spatially embedded networks. We find that the network robustness is only improved above a critical cooperation range. Such improvement can be described in the framework of a continuum transition, where the critical exponents depend on the spatial correlation of connected nodes. For the WAN we show that, except for Australia, all continental networks fall into the same universality class. Practical implications of this result are also discussed.

  8. Temperament and self-based correlates of cooperative, competitive and individualistic learning preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocłowska, Małgorzata A; Aldhobaiban, Nawal; Elliot, Andrew J; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Abdelaziz, Ashraf

    2017-06-01

    People vary in the extent to which they prefer cooperative, competitive or individualistic achievement tasks. In this research, we conducted two studies designed to investigate correlates and possible roots of these social interdependence orientations, namely approach and avoidance temperament, general self-efficacy, implicit theories of intelligence, and contingencies of self-worth based in others' approval, competition and academic competence. The results indicated that approach temperament, general self-efficacy and incremental theory were positively related, and entity theory was negatively related to cooperative preferences (|r| range from .11 to .41); approach temperament, general self-efficacy, competition contingencies and academic competence contingencies were positively related to competitive preferences (|r| range from .16 to .46); and avoidance temperament, entity theory, competitive contingencies and academic competence contingencies were positively related, and incremental theory was negatively related to individualistic preferences (|r| range from .09 to .15). The findings are discussed with regard to the meaning of each of the three social interdependence orientations, cultural differences among the observed relations and implications for practitioners. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  9. The exploration of Halley's comet - An example of international cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahe, Jurgen H.; Newburn, Ray L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The history of international cooperation in studies of comets started with observations in 1577 and 1680, when Tycho Brahe and Newton, respectively, collected position measurements made in different countries to determine the paths of the comets observed. In the fall of 1979, a worldwide Comet Halley watch was proposed. As a result of international cooperation, Comet Halley was explored during its recent appearance from the ground, earth orbit, Venus orbit, interplanetary space, and from within the comet itself. The various activities in space were coordinated by the ESA, the USSR Intercosmos, the Japanese ISAS, and NASA, through the Inter-Agency Consultative Group. The activities of the ground-based observers were coordinated by the International Halley Watch.

  10. Increasing Inter-Parliamentary Cooperation in the European Union : Current Trends and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fromage, D.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370195086

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the blossoming of the initiatives for inter-parliamentary cooperation currently observable in the European Union from a democratic legitimacy perspective. It shows that there exists numerous forms and settings for the cooperation among national parliaments (NPs) and with the

  11. Network public goods with asymmetric information about cooperation preferences and network degree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob; van Assen, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    We propose a game theoretical model of one-shot network public goods formalizing the 'closure argument' that cooperation is more frequent in denser groups or networks. Equilibrium analyses show that (i) an 'inefficiency problem' exists: players all preferring mutual cooperation need not all

  12. Wnt ligands signal in a cooperative manner to promote foregut organogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Mayumi F.; Cohen, Ethan David; Baggs, Julie E.; Lu, Min Min; Hogenesch, John B.; Morrisey, Edward E.

    2012-01-01

    Endoderm-mesenchyme cross-talk is a central process in the development of foregut-derived organs. How signaling pathways integrate the activity of multiple ligands to guide organ development is poorly understood. We show that two Wnt ligands, Wnt2 and Wnt7b, cooperatively induce Wnt signaling without affecting the stabilization of the Wnt canonical effector β-catenin despite it being necessary for Wnt2–Wnt7b cooperativity. Wnt2–Wnt7b cooperation is specific for mesenchymal cell lineages and t...

  13. An active cooperation-aware spectrum allocation mechanism for body sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fu; Guo, Ying; Peng, Jun; Hu, Jiankun

    2015-01-28

    A cognitive radio-based spectrum allocation scheme using an active cooperative-aware mechanism is proposed in this paper. The scheme ensures that the primary user and secondary users cooperate actively for their own benefits. The primary user releases some spectrum resources to secondary users to actively stimulate them to actively join the cooperative transmission of the primary user, and secondary users help the primary user to relay data in return, as well as its self-data transmission at the same time. The Stackelberg game is used to evenly and jointly optimize the utilities of both the primary and secondary users. Simulation results show that the proposed active cooperation-aware mechanism could improve the body sensor network performance.

  14. Cooperation and the evolution of hunter-gatherer storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel; Schlaepfer, Philip; Major, Katie; Dyble, Mark; Page, Abigail E; Thompson, James; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Salali, Gul Deniz; Mace, Ruth; Astete, Leonora; Ngales, Marilyn; Vinicius, Lucio; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2017-12-05

    Storytelling is a human universal. From gathering around the camp-fire telling tales of ancestors to watching the latest television box-set, humans are inveterate producers and consumers of stories. Despite its ubiquity, little attention has been given to understanding the function and evolution of storytelling. Here we explore the impact of storytelling on hunter-gatherer cooperative behaviour and the individual-level fitness benefits to being a skilled storyteller. Stories told by the Agta, a Filipino hunter-gatherer population, convey messages relevant to coordinating behaviour in a foraging ecology, such as cooperation, sex equality and egalitarianism. These themes are present in narratives from other foraging societies. We also show that the presence of good storytellers is associated with increased cooperation. In return, skilled storytellers are preferred social partners and have greater reproductive success, providing a pathway by which group-beneficial behaviours, such as storytelling, can evolve via individual-level selection. We conclude that one of the adaptive functions of storytelling among hunter gatherers may be to organise cooperation.

  15. Selective Cooperation in Early Childhood - How to Choose Models and Partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Hermes

    Full Text Available Cooperation is essential for human society, and children engage in cooperation from early on. It is unclear, however, how children select their partners for cooperation. We know that children choose selectively whom to learn from (e.g. preferring reliable over unreliable models on a rational basis. The present study investigated whether children (and adults also choose their cooperative partners selectively and what model characteristics they regard as important for cooperative partners and for informants about novel words. Three- and four-year-old children (N = 64 and adults (N = 14 saw contrasting pairs of models differing either in physical strength or in accuracy (in labeling known objects. Participants then performed different tasks (cooperative problem solving and word learning requiring the choice of a partner or informant. Both children and adults chose their cooperative partners selectively. Moreover they showed the same pattern of selective model choice, regarding a wide range of model characteristics as important for cooperation (preferring both the strong and the accurate model for a strength-requiring cooperation tasks, but only prior knowledge as important for word learning (preferring the knowledgeable but not the strong model for word learning tasks. Young children's selective model choice thus reveals an early rational competence: They infer characteristics from past behavior and flexibly consider what characteristics are relevant for certain tasks.

  16. Team Learning: Through the Relational Dynamics of Co-operation and Rivalry in Team Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Lotz, Maja

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I explore the constructive links between co-operation, rivalry, and learning within the structure of team communities. Drawing upon social learning theory, the main purpose of this paper is to argue that both co-operation and rivalry are important triggers for mobilizing learning processes within and between teams. However, social learning theory tends to disregard the positive aspects of rivalry. Consequently, this paper will argue for the need to extend social learning theory ...

  17. Regional cooperation in nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.; Muntzing, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    In November 1985, PBNCC (the Pacific Basin Nuclear Cooperation Committee) was formally established. Currently six Pacific Basin members have been participating in PBNCC: Canada, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Taiwan of Chian, and the United States of America. The People's Republic of China has sent observes to the PBNCC meetings. The technical contents of PBWCC working groups are as follows: 1. Regional cooperative for pooled spare parts of nuclear power plants and inventory management; 2. Regional cooperation in nuclear training; 3. Regional cooperation on nuclear safety; 4. Regional cooperation in Codes and Standards; 5. Regional Cooperation in public acceptance; 6. Regional cooperation on radwaste management. (Liu)

  18. International cooperation workshop. Regional workshop for CTBTO international cooperation: Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    Pursuant to the 1999 programme of work, and following the International Cooperation Workshop held in Vienna, Austria, in 1998, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission for the CTBTO (Prep Com) held a regional Workshop for CTBTO International Cooperation in Cairo. The purpose of the workshop was to identify how and by what means the Africa region can promote international cooperation in CTBT verification related technologies, and how the region can benefit from and contribute to Prep Com activity. PTS staff briefed the 40 participants from 22 African States who attended the Workshop on general aspects, including costs, of the establishment and operation of the CTBT verification system, including its four monitoring technologies. Participants were informed on opportunities for local institutions in the establishment of monitoring stations and on possible support for national and regional data centres. National experts presented their research and development activities and reviewed existing experiences on bi/multi-lateral cooperation. The main points of the discussion focused on the need to engage governments to advance signature/ratification, and further training opportunities for African states

  19. Constrained core solutions for totally positive games with ordered players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, J.R.; van der Laan, G.; Vasil'ev, V.

    2014-01-01

    In many applications of cooperative game theory to economic allocation problems, such as river-, polluted river- and sequencing games, the game is totally positive (i.e., all dividends are nonnegative), and there is some ordering on the set of the players. A totally positive game has a nonempty

  20. Collective punishment is more effective than collective reward for promoting cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Wang, Zhen; Pansini, Riccardo; Li, Yao-Tang; Wang, Rui-Wu

    2015-12-01

    Collective punishment and reward are usually regarded as two potential mechanisms to explain the evolution of cooperation. Both scenarios, however, seem problematic to understand cooperative behavior, because they can raise the second-order free-rider problem and many organisms are not able to discriminate less cooperating individuals. Even though they have been proved to increase cooperation, there has been a debate about which one being more effective. To address this issue, we resort to the N-player evolutionary snowdrift game (NESG), where a collective punishment/reward mechanism is added by allowing some players to display punishment/reward towards all remaining players. By means of numerous simulations and analyses, we find that collective punishment is more effective in promoting cooperation for a relatively high initial frequency of cooperation or for a relatively small group. When the intensity of punishment exceeds a certain threshold, a stable state of full cooperation emerges for both small and large groups. In contrast, such state does not appear for large groups playing a NESG with reward mechanism. In the case of mutualistic interactions, finally, our results show the new payoff with collective punishment/reward can lead to the coexistence of cooperators and defectors when discrimination between these two is not possible.