Sample records for showed positive attitudes

  1. Attitudes towards disability showed by future physical education teachers

    Jorge Abellán Hernández


    The present paper aims to study the attitudes towards disability of future physical education teachers. For this purpose two questionnaires were administered and the results were compared by gender (male and female), the participants' experience in dealing with people with disabilities and the particants’ course level (third or fourth grade). The results show that students in the Minor in Physical Education have a very positive attitude towards disability. Men obtain a more positive attitude ...

  2. Attitudes towards disability showed by future physical education teachers

    Jorge Abellán Hernández


    Full Text Available The present paper aims to study the attitudes towards disability of future physical education teachers. For this purpose two questionnaires were administered and the results were compared by gender (male and female, the participants' experience in dealing with people with disabilities and the particants’ course level (third or fourth grade. The results show that students in the Minor in Physical Education have a very positive attitude towards disability. Men obtain a more positive attitude in RICE variable, also is observed the trend of the previous contact with people with disabilities positively affects attitudes towards disability. Finally higher values in CG variable will be obtained by students of fourth grade.

  3. Positive dissimilarity attitudes in multicultural organizations

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan


    attitudes, namely openness to linguistic, visible and informational diversity. Contradicting our predictions, language diversity had positive associations with all variables portraying positive dissimilarity attitudes. The implications of these findings are discussed in detail. Originality/value – Few prior......Purpose – The purpose of this study is to contribute to the field of diversity studies with novel insights on how language diversity and communication frequency influence dissimilarity attitudes. Design/methodology/approach – The authors examine language diversity and communication frequency...... as group-level antecedents for positive dissimilarity attitudes by use of questionnaire responses from 489 members of academic culturally diverse departments. Findings – The results showed that communication frequency has strong positive relationships with three variables depicting positive dissimilarity...

  4. Positional nystagmus showing neutral points.

    Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Numata, Tsutomu


    We encountered patients who had their static direction-changing positional nystagmus canceled at about 20-30 degrees yaw head rotation from the supine position. This nystagmus was also canceled when the head was rotated 180 degrees from this position. We call these head positions neutral points. At the neutral points, the cupula of the horizontal semicircular canal of the affected ear is positioned vertical to the gravitational plane and no deflection of the cupula occurs. The positional nystagmus observed (except the neutral points) was thought to occur due to a "heavy cupula" or "light cupula", which may be determined by the specific gravity of its endolymph.

  5. Open and Positive Attitudes toward Teaching

    Hsu, Chia-Fang


    This chapter argues that the most important thing for a nonnative English-speaking teacher is to have an open and positive attitude toward students. A teacher's willingness to work out problems with individual students, coupled with openness to students' ideas and criticism, should help improve students' negative attitudes toward…

  6. Positive Mood Risk Attitudes, and Investment Decisions

    Lepori, Gabriele

    Positive mood has been repeatedly shown to affect risk attitudes in laboratory settings, where subjects’ exposure to movie clips is among the most widely used and effective mood-induction procedures. Yet, conflicting lab results about the estimated sign of the mood effect have led researchers to ...

  7. Neuroscientists' classroom visits positively impact student attitudes.

    Fitzakerley, Janet L; Michlin, Michael L; Paton, John; Dubinsky, Janet M


    The primary recommendation of the 2010 President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology report on K-12 education was to inspire more students so that they are motivated to study science. Scientists' visits to classrooms are intended to inspire learners and increase their interest in science, but verifications of this impact are largely qualitative. Our primary goal was to evaluate the impact of a longstanding Brain Awareness classroom visit program focused on increasing learners understanding of their own brains. Educational psychologists have established that neuroscience training sessions can improve academic performance and shift attitudes of students from a fixed mindset to a growth mindset. Our secondary goal was to determine whether short interactive Brain Awareness scientist-in-the-classroom sessions could similarly alter learners' perceptions of their own potential to learn. Teacher and student surveys were administered in 4(th)-6(th) grade classrooms throughout Minnesota either before or after one-hour Brain Awareness sessions that engaged students in activities related to brain function. Teachers rated the Brain Awareness program as very valuable and said that the visits stimulated students' interest in the brain and in science. Student surveys probed general attitudes towards science and their knowledge of neuroscience concepts (particularly the ability of the brain to change). Significant favorable improvements were found on 10 of 18 survey statements. Factor analyses of 4805 responses demonstrated that Brain Awareness presentations increased positive attitudes toward science and improved agreement with statements related to growth mindset. Overall effect sizes were small, consistent with the short length of the presentations. Thus, the impact of Brain Awareness presentations was positive and proportional to the efforts expended, demonstrating that short, scientist-in-the-classroom visits can make a positive contribution to primary school

  8. Neuroscientists' classroom visits positively impact student attitudes.

    Janet L Fitzakerley

    Full Text Available The primary recommendation of the 2010 President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology report on K-12 education was to inspire more students so that they are motivated to study science. Scientists' visits to classrooms are intended to inspire learners and increase their interest in science, but verifications of this impact are largely qualitative. Our primary goal was to evaluate the impact of a longstanding Brain Awareness classroom visit program focused on increasing learners understanding of their own brains. Educational psychologists have established that neuroscience training sessions can improve academic performance and shift attitudes of students from a fixed mindset to a growth mindset. Our secondary goal was to determine whether short interactive Brain Awareness scientist-in-the-classroom sessions could similarly alter learners' perceptions of their own potential to learn. Teacher and student surveys were administered in 4(th-6(th grade classrooms throughout Minnesota either before or after one-hour Brain Awareness sessions that engaged students in activities related to brain function. Teachers rated the Brain Awareness program as very valuable and said that the visits stimulated students' interest in the brain and in science. Student surveys probed general attitudes towards science and their knowledge of neuroscience concepts (particularly the ability of the brain to change. Significant favorable improvements were found on 10 of 18 survey statements. Factor analyses of 4805 responses demonstrated that Brain Awareness presentations increased positive attitudes toward science and improved agreement with statements related to growth mindset. Overall effect sizes were small, consistent with the short length of the presentations. Thus, the impact of Brain Awareness presentations was positive and proportional to the efforts expended, demonstrating that short, scientist-in-the-classroom visits can make a positive contribution to

  9. Cuba shows jump in HIV positives.

    Cuba experienced a substantial increase in the number of HIV cases in 1996 due primarily to a growth of foreign tourism and an increase in prostitution, health officials said. The Juventud Rebelde newspaper said that since HIV/AIDS testing began in 1985, government-run hospitals and clinics have detected 1609 HIV-positive cases. In 1995 the total was reported at 1196, meaning that 413 new cases were detected in 1996. This compared with only 97 new cases reported during 1995. HIV infection among the island's 11 million inhabitants has remained relatively low due to a massive testing program and a public health infrastructure that provides universal and free medical treatment. Cuba was a pioneer in the use of interferon on those testing HIV-positive. Cuba produces its own interferon, which prolongs the life expectancy of patients, and also reagents for AIDS testing. There are special sanitariums for AIDS patients in most of Cuba's 12 provinces. Cuban adults who test HIV-positive are required to enter the sanitarium in a policy reminiscent of the way tuberculosis patients were tested in the US earlier in this century. Officials said the isolation of patients in sanitariums has been somewhat relaxed over past years by introducing greater flexibility in allowing persons who are considered reliable to live at home or make prolonged visits.

  10. Promoting Positive Attitudes among the Caregivers of the Elderly.

    Farley, Joanne K.; Fay, Patricia


    Outlines educational strategies that can help the nursing staff reduce the frustrations and stress often related to caring for the elderly. Shows how to help staff recognize their own feelings about the elderly, become aware of misconceptions, and develop positive attitudes. (JOW)

  11. Generalization of positive and negative attitudes towards individuals to outgroup attitudes

    Stark, Tobias; Flache, Andreas; Veenstra, René


    The generalization of attitudes toward individual outgroup members into attitudes toward the outgroup as a whole can affect intergroup relations. However, little is known about the relative strengths of the generalization of negative and positive interpersonal attitudes into attitudes about the outg

  12. Accent imitation positively affects language attitudes.

    Adank, Patti; Stewart, Andrew J; Connell, Louise; Wood, Jeffrey


    People in conversation tend to accommodate the way they speak. It has been assumed that this tendency to imitate each other's speech patterns serves to increase liking between partners in a conversation. Previous experiments examined the effect of perceived social attractiveness on the tendency to imitate someone else's speech and found that vocal imitation increased when perceived attractiveness was higher. The present experiment extends this research by examining the inverse relationship and examines how overt vocal imitation affects attitudes. Participants listened to sentences spoken by two speakers of a regional accent (Glaswegian) of English. They vocally repeated (speaking in their own accent without imitating) the sentences spoken by a Glaswegian speaker, and subsequently imitated sentences spoken by a second Glaswegian speaker (order counterbalanced across participants). After each repeating or imitation session, participants completed a questionnaire probing the speakers' perceived power, competence, and social attractiveness. Imitating had a positive effect on the perceived social attractiveness of the speaker compared to repeating. These results are interpreted in light of Communication Accommodation Theory.

  13. Positive expectations encourage generalization from a positive intergroup interaction to outgroup attitudes.

    Deegan, Matthew P; Hehman, Eric; Gaertner, Samuel L; Dovidio, John F


    The current research reveals that while positive expectations about an anticipated intergroup interaction encourage generalization of positive contact to outgroup attitudes, negative expectations restrict the effects of contact on outgroup attitudes. In Study 1, when Blacks and Whites interacted with positive expectations, interaction quality predicted outgroup attitudes to a greater degree than when groups interacted with negative expectations. When expectations (Studies 2 and 3) and the actual interaction quality (Study 4) were manipulated orthogonally, negative expectations about the interaction predicted negative outgroup attitudes, regardless of actual interaction quality. By contrast, participants holding positive expectations who experienced a positive interaction expressed positive outgroup attitudes, whereas when they experienced a negative interaction, they expressed outgroup attitudes as negative as those with negative expectations. Across all four studies, positive expectations encouraged developing outgroup attitudes consistent with interaction quality.

  14. Creating Positive Attitudes toward Reading in Public Schools and Homeschools.

    Gilmore, Deanna Peterschick

    Learning environments have an impact on acquiring skills in reading as well as developing positive attitudes toward reading. Another variable that affects attitudes and aptitude toward reading is the "climate" or "environment" in which children learn their skills. This paper concentrates on the phenomenon that is reaching epic proportions in the…

  15. Brain potentials show rapid activation of implicit attitudes towards young and old people.

    van der Lugt, Arie H; Banfield, Jane F; Osinsky, Roman; Münte, Thomas F


    While previous behavioural research suggests that attitudes, for example towards elderly people, may be activated automatically, this type of research does not provide information about the detailed time-course of such processing in the brain. We investigated the impact of age related attitude information in a Go/NoGo association task that paired photographs of elderly or young faces with positive or negative words. Event related brain potentials showed an N200 (NoGo) component, which appeared earlier in runs which required similar responses for congruent stimulus pairings (e.g. respond to pictures of elderly faces or negative words) than for incongruent pairings (e.g. respond to elderly faces or positive words). As information processing leading to a certain attitude must precede differential brain activity according to the congruence of the paired words and faces, we show that this type of information is activated almost immediately following the structural encoding of the face, between 170 and 230 ms after onset of the face.

  16. Understanding Positive Attitudes toward Helping Peers: The Role of Mastery Goals and Academic Self-Efficacy

    Poortvliet, P.M.; Darnon, C.


    The present research was designed to document the relationship between mastery and performance goals and attitudes toward helping others, and to test the mediating role of self-efficacy. Two experiments (Studies 1 and 2) showed that students with mastery goals hold stronger positive attitudes toward

  17. Position and attitude tracking control for a quadrotor UAV.

    Xiong, Jing-Jing; Zheng, En-Hui


    A synthesis control method is proposed to perform the position and attitude tracking control of the dynamical model of a small quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), where the dynamical model is underactuated, highly-coupled and nonlinear. Firstly, the dynamical model is divided into a fully actuated subsystem and an underactuated subsystem. Secondly, a controller of the fully actuated subsystem is designed through a novel robust terminal sliding mode control (TSMC) algorithm, which is utilized to guarantee all state variables converge to their desired values in short time, the convergence time is so small that the state variables are acted as time invariants in the underactuated subsystem, and, a controller of the underactuated subsystem is designed via sliding mode control (SMC), in addition, the stabilities of the subsystems are demonstrated by Lyapunov theory, respectively. Lastly, in order to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed control method, the aerodynamic forces and moments and air drag taken as external disturbances are taken into account, the obtained simulation results show that the synthesis control method has good performance in terms of position and attitude tracking when faced with external disturbances.

  18. Does positive youth development predict adolescent attitudes about sexuality?

    Chapman, Erin N; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay


    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome for youth. PYD philosophy and theory, bioecological theory (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998), and identity development theory (Erikson, 1983, 1968; Marcia, 1980, 1993) provided the foundation for this study and were used to make the connections between PYD, adolescent sexuality (including attitudes and behavior), and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship. Both self-esteem and sexual experience were significant predictors of attitudes regarding sex, but overall, parents contributed the most influence on the outcome variable. (It should be noted, however, that parental influence was the only factor that was a significant predictor.) Only one of the two involvements in activities variables was a significant predictor of attitudes regarding sex.

  19. An Analysis of George Eliot's Positive Attitude towards Feminism



    As a woman writer in Victorian England,George Eliot,who comes to us almost uncontested as one of the greatest English writers in the nineteenth century,has aroused great enthusiasm in the literary world to study her from a feminist perspective.This thesis attempts to explore George Eliot's positive attitude towards feminism presented through herself and her novels.

  20. Multi-platform Integrated Positioning and Attitude Determination using GNSS

    Buist, P.J.


    There is trend in spacecraft engineering toward distributed systems where a number of smaller spacecraft work as a larger satellite. However, in order to make the small satellites work together as a single large platform, the precise relative positions (baseline) and orientations (attitude) of the e

  1. Does Positive Youth Development Predict Adolescent Attitudes about Sexuality?

    Chapman, Erin N.; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay


    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome…

  2. The Midpoint as an Anchor: Another Look at Discrepancy of Position and Attitude Change

    Nemeth, Charlan; Endicott, Jeffrey


    The results show that subjects show more attitude change towards, and acceptance of, the positions on the same side of the issue than on the opposite side of the issue but that their preference is most marked where a high discrepancy exists between communicator and recipient of the opinion. (Author/DEP)

  3. Positive associations among interpersonal contact, motivation, and implicit and explicit attitudes toward gay men.

    Lemm, Kristi M


    A correlational study explored the role of intergroup contact and motivation to respond without prejudice on heterosexuals' expression of explicit and implicit (unconscious) bias against gay men. Participants who reported having more relationships and closer relationships with gay, lesbian, or bisexual people tended to exhibit more favorable attitudes toward gay men on implicit as well as explicit attitude measures. Attitudes were also related to self-reported motivation to be non-prejudiced, including motivation stemming from sources internal as well as external to the individual. Multiple regression analyses showed that contact and motivation explain unique variance in attitude but that motivation is a relatively stronger predictor. The results are interpreted to suggest that implicit and explicit prejudice may be reduced through motivation coupled with positive contact experiences.

  4. A vectorial bootstrapping approach for integrated GNSS-based relative positioning and attitude determination of spacecraft

    Buist, Peter J.; Teunissen, Peter J. G.; Verhagen, Sandra; Giorgi, Gabriele


    Traditionally in multi-spacecraft missions (e.g. formation flying, rendezvous) the GNSS-based relative positioning and attitude determination problem are treated as independent. In this contribution we will investigate the possibility to use multi-antenna data from each spacecraft, not only for attitude determination, but also to improve the relative positioning between spacecraft. Both for ambiguity resolution and accuracy of the baseline solution, we will show the theoretical improvement achievable as a function of the number of antennas on each platform. We concentrate on ambiguity resolution as the key to precise relative positioning and attitude determination and will show the theoretical limit of this kind of approach. We will use mission parameters of the European Proba-3 satellites in a software-based algorithm verification and a hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The software simulations indicated that this approach can improve single epoch ambiguity resolution up to 50% for relative positioning applying the typical antenna configurations for attitude determination. The hardware-in-the-loop simulations show that for the same antenna configurations, the accuracy of the relative positioning solution can improve up to 40%.

  5. IMU/GPS System Provides Position and Attitude Data

    Lin, Ching Fang


    A special navigation system is being developed to provide high-quality information on the position and attitude of a moving platform (an aircraft or spacecraft), for use in pointing and stabilization of a hyperspectral remote-sensing system carried aboard the platform. The system also serves to enable synchronization and interpretation of readouts of all onboard sensors. The heart of the system is a commercially available unit, small enough to be held in one hand, that contains an integral combination of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) of the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) type, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, a differential GPS subsystem, and ancillary data-processing subsystems. The system utilizes GPS carrier-phase measurements to generate time data plus highly accurate and continuous data on the position, attitude, rotation, and acceleration of the platform. Relative to prior navigation systems based on IMU and GPS subsystems, this system is smaller, is less expensive, and performs better. Optionally, the system can easily be connected to a laptop computer for demonstration and evaluation. In addition to airborne and spaceborne remote-sensing applications, there are numerous potential terrestrial sensing, measurement, and navigation applications in diverse endeavors that include forestry, environmental monitoring, agriculture, mining, and robotics.

  6. An Aerial Image Mosaic Method Based on UAV Position and Attitude Information

    CHENG Zhenggang; Zhang, Li


    As the existing methods for aerial image mosaic take high computational, a fast and effective algorithm based on the position and attitude information of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) is proposed. Firstly, the coordinates and attitude angles of UAV can be obtained by airborne GPS and inertial measurement unit (IMU), and each aerial image has a corresponding position and attitude information. The homography matrix between two aerial images with the positions and attitude information can be ca...

  7. Measuring risk attitudes in a natural experiment: Data from the television game show Lingo

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Schotman, P.C.


    We use data from a television game show involving elementary lotteries as a natural experiment to measure risk attitudes. Unique features of our data set are the substantial monetary stakes and the large sample size. CRRA and CARA utility specifications perform approximately equally well. We find ro

  8. Measuring risk attitudes in a natural experiment: Data from the television game show LINGO

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Schotman, P.C.


    We use data from a television game show, involving elementary lotteries and substantial prize money, as a natural experiment to measure risk attitudes. We find robust evidence of substantial risk aversion. As an extension, we estimate the various models using transformations of the 'true' probabilit

  9. Undergraduates' Attitudes Toward Science and Their Epistemological Beliefs: Positive Effects of Certainty and Authority Beliefs

    Fulmer, Gavin W.


    Attitudes toward science are an important aspect of students' persistence in school science and interest in pursuing future science careers, but students' attitudes typically decline over the course of formal schooling. This study examines relationships of students' attitudes toward science with their perceptions of science as inclusive or non-religious, and their epistemological beliefs about epistemic authority and certainty. Data were collected using an online survey system among undergraduates at a large, public US university (n = 582). Data were prepared using a Rasch rating scale model and then analyzed using multiple-regression analysis. Gender and number of science and mathematics courses were included as control variables, followed by perceptions of science, then epistemological beliefs. Findings show that respondents have more positive attitudes when they perceive science to be inclusive of women and minorities, and when they perceive science to be incompatible with religion. Respondents also have more positive attitudes toward science when they believe scientific knowledge is uncertain, and when they believe knowledge derives from authority. Interpretations of these findings and implications for future research are discussed.


    I. G. Galushko


    Full Text Available One of the new methods in the modern practical psychology  is  a  method  of  fairytale  therapy.  Fai rytale a method that uses a fabulous shape for the integration of the personality, development of creative abilities,  expansion of consciousness,  impro ving interactions with the outside world, as well as for the  development  of  preschool  children  the  correct and easy socialization. The moral q ualities that one must strive to instill  in  children:  honesty,  courage and ability to overcome difficulties inherent to the heroes of fairy tales. In the fairy tale, based on its morality,  it laid  a healthy start,  and  from  this pe rspective the behavior of its characters gets the correct determination. Truth consists in many folk tales, excites and  stirs the modern listener,  because  the tale presents the conviction of an art form vital truth. This is its great credibility.  Theoretical  analysis of the study showed that kindness, lack of aggression and fear, responsibility, teamwork and friendliness, diligence, empathy and compassion, generosity, patience, suppleness an integral part of the personality of the preschool  child,  as well  as comp onents that have a direct impact on the social development  of  children.  After  experimental  work,  we have shown that the use of the elements of fairytale therapy, games and other techniques of art therapy, the level of formation at preschool children a positive  attitude  to  the  world  rose  and  fairy tales  and games arouse children's interest and activity. In addition,  fairytale  therapy can  also  contribute  to  the normalization of relations in the family. The use of fairytale therapy methods allows to adjust the development   of   communicative   abilities   of   children, thereby creating favorable conditions that promote mental and personal growth of the child in a family environment.

  11. Neural correlates of attitude change following positive and negative advertisements.

    Kato, Junko; Ide, Hiroko; Kabashima, Ikuo; Kadota, Hiroshi; Takano, Kouji; Kansaku, Kenji


    Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward others that are linked to social cognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments have presented videos from previous electoral campaigns and television commercials for major cola brands and then used the subjects' self-rated affinity toward political candidates as behavioural indicators. After viewing negative campaign videos, subjects showing stronger fMRI activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lowered their ratings of the candidate they originally supported more than did those with smaller fMRI signal changes in the same region. Subjects showing stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex tended to increase their ratings more than did those with less activation. The same regions were not activated by viewing negative advertisements for cola. Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not) in the brain. This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour.


    Ashwini H. R.; Sony Kumari


    The Effectiveness of One Month Residential Yoga Program on Measuring the Positive and Negative Attitude among 50 participants was examined. The participants were divided into two groups -Yoga and Control group. Yoga Group comprising of both Male and Female attended one month Residential yoga program where they followed a strict schedule of 10 hours per day. Result indicated that Yoga Program contributed significantly in improving positive attitude and reducing in negative attitude in healthy ...

  13. Measuring implicit attitudes: A positive framing bias flaw in the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP).

    O'Shea, Brian; Watson, Derrick G; Brown, Gordon D A


    How can implicit attitudes best be measured? The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP), unlike the Implicit Association Test (IAT), claims to measure absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes. In the IRAP, participants make congruent (Fat Person-Active: false; Fat Person-Unhealthy: true) or incongruent (Fat Person-Active: true; Fat Person-Unhealthy: false) responses in different blocks of trials. IRAP experiments have reported positive or neutral implicit attitudes (e.g., neutral attitudes toward fat people) in cases in which negative attitudes are normally found on explicit or other implicit measures. It was hypothesized that these results might reflect a positive framing bias (PFB) that occurs when participants complete the IRAP. Implicit attitudes toward categories with varying prior associations (nonwords, social systems, flowers and insects, thin and fat people) were measured. Three conditions (standard, positive framing, and negative framing) were used to measure whether framing influenced estimates of implicit attitudes. It was found that IRAP scores were influenced by how the task was framed to the participants, that the framing effect was modulated by the strength of prior stimulus associations, and that a default PFB led to an overestimation of positive implicit attitudes when measured by the IRAP. Overall, the findings question the validity of the IRAP as a tool for the measurement of absolute implicit attitudes. A new tool (Simple Implicit Procedure:SIP) for measuring absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes is proposed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Facilitating positive attitudes towards an innovative programme for baccalaureate nursing education:

    O. Adejumo


    Full Text Available A survey of nurse ward leaders understanding of, and their attitude to, community/ problem based learning (CPBL approach adopted for the education of nursing students in the degree programme of the University of Natal in Durban (UND was conducted. This was with a view to intervening, if necessary, to ensure positive understanding and attitude among the nurse leaders towards the non-traditional CPBL of UND nursing students. It was hypothesised that focused discussions, between facilitators and nurse ward leaders, aimed at providing information and explanation about the advantages of changing from traditional to non-traditional educational programmes in nursing would enhance positive attitude towards the students and their education programme. Using a questionnaire developed for this study, quantitative and qualitative data were twice collected at intervals of 5-6 months from 54 nurse ward leaders who interacted with the CPBL students in 27 wards of 2 provincial hospitals. The data, collected in the early part of the students’ deployment and at 5-6 months after included information about the participants understanding of CPBL; their rating of CPBL students in terms of expected knowledge and practice; and their attitude towards CPBL nursing students in clinical settings. Contact sessions were held with the participants in between the measures for a discussion about the CPBL programme and the expectations of the learners. Analysis of the pre and post measures showed more favourable attitude, improved understanding, and tolerance towards the students by the nurse ward leaders in the post-measures than in the pre-measures. The writers concluded that if students in this type of programme must experience satisfaction with less intimidation, implementers of CPBL programmes in nursing should relentlessly involve the qualified nurses and other professionals working with the students in informative discussions about the purpose and the process of learning

  15. An experimental study of the effect of green positioning on brand attitude



    Full Text Available Reducing the environmental impact of a product or its manufacturing process not necessarily limits the company’s activities. In the context of a green branding strategy, it might as well open new business opportunities. Ecological positioning provides a strategic tool for the active implementation of green brands. The empirical study shows that more positive attitudes are developed towards a brand positioned by environmental attributes and that these effects vary as a result of the implementation of different types of ecological positioning strategies. Although most researchers in ecological marketing recommend rational persuasion strategies, in this study the effect of an ecological positioning by emotional brand benefits appears to be even stronger than effects of rational perceptions of functional benefits for the environment.

  16. Patterns of healthy lifestyle and positive health attitudes in older Europeans

    Kozlowska, Katarzyna; Szczecinka, A.; Roszkowski, Wojciech


    Objectives: To determine (i) the extent to which recommended lifestyle healthy behaviors are adopted and the existence of positive attitudes to health; (ii) the relative influence of socio-demographic variables on multiple healthy lifestyle behaviors and positive attitudes to health; (iii......) the association between healthy lifestyle behaviors and positive attitudes to health. Design: two distinct healthy behavioral measures were developed: (i) healthy lifestyles based on physical activity, no cigarette smoking, no/moderate alcohol drinking, maintaining a "healthy" weight and having no sleeping...... problems and (ii) positive health attitudes based on having positive emotional attitudes, such as: self-perceived good health status, being calm, peaceful and happy for most of the time, not expecting health to get worse and regular health check-ups. A composite healthy lifestyle index, ranging from 0...

  17. The effect of positive and negative movie alcohol portrayals on transportation and attitude toward the movie

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.


    Background: This study examined the effects of alcohol portrayals on transportation and attitude toward a movie. In addition, we examined whether positive and negative movie alcohol portrayals affect transportation into and attitude toward the movie. Methods: A within-subject design was used in whic

  18. Relative Group Position and Intergroup Attitudes in Russia

    Minescu, A.


    The studies in this book investigate the impact of structural arrangements of power on intergroup attitudes. The disintegration of the Soviet Union altered the political borders of the region and raised concerns about the quality of intergroup relationships between Russian and ethnically non-Russian

  19. Factors associated with positive attitude towards blood donation among medical students.

    Gazibara, Tatjana; Kovacevic, Nikolina; Maric, Gorica; Kurtagic, Ilma; Nurkovic, Selmina; Kisic-Tepavcevic, Darija; Pekmezovic, Tatjana


    The aim of this study was to assess attitudes and practice of blood donation among medical students. Medical students were recruited at Medical Faculty, University of Belgrade, Serbia. Of 973 students, 38.4% of freshmen and 41.4% of final year students have donated blood (χ(2) = 0.918, p = 0.186). Blood donors had significantly more positive attitude towards some aspects of blood donation. Being female, residing in a city other than the capital and previous blood donation experience were independent predictors of positive attitude towards being a blood donor to an unknown person. Efforts are required to augment blood donor pool among future physicians.

  20. An Aerial Image Mosaic Method Based on UAV Position and Attitude Information

    CHENG Zhenggang


    Full Text Available As the existing methods for aerial image mosaic take high computational, a fast and effective algorithm based on the position and attitude information of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV is proposed. Firstly, the coordinates and attitude angles of UAV can be obtained by airborne GPS and inertial measurement unit (IMU, and each aerial image has a corresponding position and attitude information. The homography matrix between two aerial images with the positions and attitude information can be calculated. Then the registration of the mosaic images is obtained by the operation of homography matrix. Finally, the multiple images can be stitched and the whole panorama got. A large number of experiments demonstrate this algorithm is efficient.

  1. Growing Plants and Scientists: Fostering Positive Attitudes toward Science among All Participants in an Afterschool Hydroponics Program

    Patchen, Amie K.; Zhang, Lin; Barnett, Michael


    This study examines an out-of-school time program targeting elementary-aged youth from populations that are typically underrepresented in science fields (primarily African-American, Hispanic, and/or English Language Learner participants). The program aimed to foster positive attitudes toward science among youth by engaging them in growing plants hydroponically (in water without soil). Participants' attitudes toward science, including anxiety, desire, and self-concept, were examined through pre-post survey data (n = 234) over the course of an afterschool program at three separate sites. Data showed that participants' anxiety decreased and desire increased for both male and female participants over the program. Self-concept increased for female participants at all three sites but did not change significantly for male participants. Participants' first language (English or Spanish) was not a factor in attitude outcomes. The primarily positive outcomes suggest that hydroponics can be a useful educational platform for engaging participants in garden-based programming year round, particularly for settings that do not have the physical space or climate to conduct outdoor gardening. Similarities in positive attitude outcomes at the three sites despite differences in format, implementation, and instructor background experience suggest that the program is resilient to variation in context. Understanding which aspects of the program facilitated positive outcomes in the varied contexts could be useful for the design of future programs.

  2. Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Puppet Shows on Attitudes toward and Knowledge of Individuals with Disabilities

    Dunst, Carl J.


    Findings from a meta-analysis of 26 studies investigating the effects of either the "Kids on the Block" or "Count Me In" puppet shows on changes in elementary students' attitudes toward and knowledge of individuals with disabilities are reported. The studies included 5,302 intervention group participants and 2,642…

  3. Engineering students’ instrumental motivation and positive attitude towards learning English in a trilingual tertiary setting

    Joseba González Ardeo


    Full Text Available This exploratory small-scale study focuses on the attitude towards learning English and levels of motivation of 132 engineering students from the University of the Basque Country (Spain. The extent to which they consider themselves competent in three languages (Basque/Spanish/English is also evaluated. For assessing these variables, a 35-item questionnaire is used. The participants were taking an ESP (English for Specific Purposes course and were familiar with English as a vehicular language through CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning and/or EMI (English Medium Instruction courses. The results demonstrate that their attitude is positive, and it has improved since 2003, despite certain historical events concerning the minority language (Basque. With regard to motivation, the students show a high level of instrumental orientation but a low level of extrinsic-integrative motivation. Relatively high levels of intrinsic motivation are also observed, not far from extrinsic-instrumental motivation levels. The students’ mother tongue (Basque vs. Spanish vs. Basque/Spanish does not affect results significantly. Finally, high levels of self-perceived confidence with respect to their command of English are observed.

  4. Fostering Positive Attitude in Probability Learning Using Graphing Calculator

    Tan, Choo-Kim; Harji, Madhubala Bava; Lau, Siong-Hoe


    Although a plethora of research evidence highlights positive and significant outcomes of the incorporation of the Graphing Calculator (GC) in mathematics education, its use in the teaching and learning process appears to be limited. The obvious need to revisit the teaching and learning of Probability has resulted in this study, i.e. to incorporate…

  5. Attitude Estimation and Position Control of VTOL UAVs using IMU and GPS Measurements

    Roberts, Andrew


    We address two fundamental problems associated with the control of vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs): attitude estimation and position control. We propose two velocity-aided attitude observers which utilize a global-positioning system (GPS) in addition to an inertial measurement unit (IMU). The `velocity-aided' class of observer uses an accelerometer to measure the system \\emph{apparent acceleration} (instead of the gravity vector), and is therefore better suited for applications where the rigid-body (aircraft) is subjected to significant linear accelerations (which is to be expected for VTOL UAVs). We also propose a position controller which utilizes the accelerometer in a similar fashion. More precisely, rather than using the system orientation (as is usually done in the existing position controllers), we use the vector measurements (accelerometer and magnetometer measurements) directly in the position control law. Consequently, the proposed position controller does not ...

  6. When need for closure leads to positive attitudes towards a negatively stereotyped outgroup.

    Kossowska, Małgorzata; Dragon, Piotr; Bukowski, Marcin

    The study examined the relationship between epistemic motivation, which is the need for closure (NFC), and positive attitudes towards a negatively stereotyped outgroup (i.e., Gypsies). Although extensive research has revealed that NFC is related to derogatory behavioural tendencies and negative emotions towards stereotyped groups, it is proposed that NFC may also be linked to positive attitudes towards outgroups. It is predicted, however, that this would be true only when NFC is accompanied by a low ability to achieve closure (AAC). It is argued that low AAC impairs the construction of schema and their effective application. Therefore, NFC in individuals with low AAC may lead them to correct their initial tendency to use stereotypes and, as a consequence, to evaluate a negatively stereotyped outgroup in a positive way. In this research, low AAC was assessed by a scale (Study 1) and experimentally induced (Study 2). In both studies, we measured positive attitudes towards Gypsies. The results of the studies supported our prediction that NFC is positively related to positive attitudes towards Gypsies when AAC is low.

  7. Instructional Integration of Disciplines for Promoting Children's Positive Attitudes towards Plants

    Çìl, Emine


    Plants are an integral part of nature. Many plant species in almost any part of the world are under serious threats due to various reasons such as deforestation, pollution--of air, water and soil--caused by industrialisation, overgrazing and rapid population growth. It is likely that people have strong positive attitudes towards conservation of…

  8. The Influence of Positive Attitudes and Motivation on Successful L2 learning



    As the development of the second language learning(L2),it becomes more significant to study the factors that influence the success in L2 learning.Positive attitudes and motivation definitely play vital role in L2 learning process. This paper briefly analyses how these two factors influence L2 learning.

  9. The Influence of Positive Attitudes and Motivation on Successful L2 learning



    As the development of the second language learning(L2),it becomes more significant to study the factors that influence the success in L2 learning.Positive attitudes and motivation definitely play vital role in L2 learning process.This paper briefly analyses how these two factors influence L2learning.

  10. Utility of Pamphlets in Promoting Knowledge and Positive Attitudes about Two Early Cancer Detection Procedures.

    Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    Informational pamphlets about breast self-examination (BSE) and testicular self-examination (TSE) are widely distributed in health care settings, but the pamphlets' effectiveness in promoting knowledge and positive attitudes about these early cancer detection procedures is largely unknown. A study compared pamphlets with alternative methods of…

  11. Integrated navigation fusion strategy of INS/UWB for indoor carrier attitude angle and position synchronous tracking.

    Fan, Qigao; Wu, Yaheng; Hui, Jing; Wu, Lei; Yu, Zhenzhong; Zhou, Lijuan


    In some GPS failure conditions, positioning for mobile target is difficult. This paper proposed a new method based on INS/UWB for attitude angle and position synchronous tracking of indoor carrier. Firstly, error model of INS/UWB integrated system is built, including error equation of INS and UWB. And combined filtering model of INS/UWB is researched. Simulation results show that the two subsystems are complementary. Secondly, integrated navigation data fusion strategy of INS/UWB based on Kalman filtering theory is proposed. Simulation results show that FAKF method is better than the conventional Kalman filtering. Finally, an indoor experiment platform is established to verify the integrated navigation theory of INS/UWB, which is geared to the needs of coal mine working environment. Static and dynamic positioning results show that the INS/UWB integrated navigation system is stable and real-time, positioning precision meets the requirements of working condition and is better than any independent subsystem.

  12. Effects of positive attitude toward giving a speech on cardiovascular and subjective fear responses during speech in anxious subjects.

    Hu, S; Romans-Kroll, J M


    40 speech-anxious subjects were asked to deliver four speeches during the experiment. The conditions varied according to whether the subjects maintained a positive or neutral attitude toward speech prior to each presentation. Heart rate and self-reports of fear were measured during the experiment. Maintaining a positive attitude prior to delivering a speech reduced both subjective anxiety and cardiovascular responses.

  13. Sibling Position and Risk Attitudes: Is Being an Only Child Associated with a Person’s Risk Tolerance?

    Jennifer M. Brown


    Full Text Available The influence of birth order on personality has been studied for several decades, but little research has been conducted on the association between sibling position and risk tolerance. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between being an only child and risk-taking attitudes. Data from the 2010 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 sample was used to test the hypotheses that only children and first borns are similar, only children exhibit a lower risk tolerance when compared to those with siblings, and only children exhibit a lower risk tolerance when compared to those with siblings when first borns are removed and only borns are compared with later borns. Results did show that only children are similar to first borns in nearly every domain of risk tolerance considered. Furthermore, they do not exhibit dramatically different risk attitudes than those with siblings when the variables of sex, locus of control, and net worth are controlled.


    Juan Pablo Román-Calderón


    Full Text Available Socially oriented ventures have provided livelihoods and social recognition to disadvantaged communities in different corners of the world. In some cases, these ventures are the result of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR programs. In Latin America, this type of undertaking has responded positively to unmet social needs. The social cause drives these organizations and their human resources and they give high value to organizational cause-fit. This paper presents empirical evidence of the effects of perceived cause-fit on several worker attitudes and behaviors. Psychological contract theory was adopted as theoretical background. Employees working in a hybrid (for-profit/socially oriented Colombian organization created by a CSR program participated in the survey. Data provided by 218 employees were analyzed using PLS structural equation modeling. The results suggest the ideological components of the employee-employer relationship predict positive attitudes and cooperative organizational behaviors towards hybrid organizations.

  15. Integrated GNSS attitude determination and positioning for direct geo-referencing.

    Nadarajah, Nandakumaran; Paffenholz, Jens-André; Teunissen, Peter J G


    Direct geo-referencing is an efficient methodology for the fast acquisition of 3D spatial data. It requires the fusion of spatial data acquisition sensors with navigation sensors, such as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In this contribution, we consider an integrated GNSS navigation system to provide estimates of the position and attitude (orientation) of a 3D laser scanner. The proposed multi-sensor system (MSS) consists of multiple GNSS antennas rigidly mounted on the frame of a rotating laser scanner and a reference GNSS station with known coordinates. Precise GNSS navigation requires the resolution of the carrier phase ambiguities. The proposed method uses the multivariate constrained integer least-squares (MC-LAMBDA) method for the estimation of rotating frame ambiguities and attitude angles. MC-LAMBDA makes use of the known antenna geometry to strengthen the underlying attitude model and, hence, to enhance the reliability of rotating frame ambiguity resolution and attitude determination. The reliable estimation of rotating frame ambiguities is consequently utilized to enhance the relative positioning of the rotating frame with respect to the reference station. This integrated (array-aided) method improves ambiguity resolution, as well as positioning accuracy between the rotating frame and the reference station. Numerical analyses of GNSS data from a real-data campaign confirm the improved performance of the proposed method over the existing method. In particular, the integrated method yields reliable ambiguity resolution and reduces position standard deviation by a factor of about 0:8, matching the theoretical gain of √ 3/4 for two antennas on the rotating frame and a single antenna at the reference station.

  16. Factors associated with a positive attitude towards change among employees during the early phase of a downsizing process.

    Svensen, Erling; Neset, Gunnar; Eriksen, Hege R


    Most research on organizational changes in working life, including downsizing, focuses on the negative attitudes and negative consequences of the change. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the employee's previous learning experience and characteristics of the working environment were associated with positive attitudes towards organizational change. The 467 employees (73.5% males) working in a global oil company in the early phases of a downsizing process were asked to answer a questionnaire with demographic variables, perception of the working environment, and attitude to change (93% response rate). Corporate social responsibility (CSR), involvement and participation, team leadership and team effectiveness were important factors related to positive attitudes towards organizational change. Non-leaders and older employees were positive to change. We conclude that employees' perceptions of their psychosocial working environment, in particular the CSR, were highly related to their attitude to organizational change.

  17. Developing positive attitudes toward geriatric nursing among Millennials and Generation Xers.

    Heise, Barbara A; Johnsen, Vickie; Himes, Deborah; Wing, Debra


    Despite the increase of the older adult population, there exists a shortage of health care professionals trained to help this population remain independent as long as possible. Ageism, common among younger adults, affects the capacity building of health care for older adults. Research has indicated that increased knowledge about older adults, as well as exposure to the elderly, may alter nursing students' attitudes regarding careers in gerontological nursing. However, questions remain as to what are the most effective ways to provide gerontological content in nursing programs and enhance attitudes toward older adults.With the understanding that younger adults see a need to balance work and play, a baccalaureate nursing program provides examples of ways to accomplish this through integration of courses, simulations, positive images of aging, and learning activities that enhance empathy for both frail and healthy older adults.

  18. The positive attitudes and perceptions of care managers about advance directives.

    Golden, Adam G; Tewary, Sweta; Qadri, Syeda; Zaw, Khin; Ruiz, Jorge G; Roos, Bernard A


    In a previous intervention, we found that reminders from care managers failed to increase the number of their homebound older adult clients with advance directives. Thus, in the current study, we looked at the perceptions and attitudes of care managers about the need to discuss advance directives with their clients. Ninety-five care managers serving community-based nursing home-eligible older adults completed an 18-question survey, which found that care managers overwhelmingly believe it is important to address advance directives. Only 3.2% reported that discussing advance directives is time consuming. No attitudinal barriers were identified. Given their positive attitudes about advance directives, care managers need educational interventions that will provide the knowledge and skills to interact effectively with clients who are resistant to addressing end-of-life issues.

  19. Anti-disturbance inverse optimal control for spacecraft position and attitude maneuvers with input saturation

    Chutiphon Pukdeboon


    Full Text Available In this article, a new anti-disturbance inverse optimal translation and rotation control scheme for a rigid spacecraft with external disturbances and actuator constraint is presented. An inverse optimal controller with input saturations is designed to achieve asymptotic convergence to the desired translation and attitude and avoid the unwinding phenomenon. The derived optimal control law can minimize a given cost functional and guarantee the stability of the closed-loop system. Later, a new sliding mode disturbance observer is also proposed to compensate for the total disturbances. A rigorous Lyapunov analysis is employed to ensure the finite-time convergence of observer error dynamics. A numerical simulation of position and attitude maneuvers is given to verify the performance of the developed controller.

  20. Visual evoked potentials show strong positive association with intracranial pressure in patients with cryptococcal meningitis

    Marcelo Adriano da Cunha Silva Vieira


    Full Text Available Objective : To verify the relationship between intracranial pressure and flash visual evoked potentials (F-VEP in patients with cryptococcal meningitis. Method The sample included adults diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis admitted at a reference hospital for infectious diseases. The patients were subjected to F-VEP tests shortly before lumbar puncture. The Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient was calculated and the linear regression analysis was performed. Results : Eighteen individuals were subjected to a total of 69 lumbar punctures preceded by F-VEP tests. At the first lumbar puncture performed in each patient, N2 latency exhibited a strong positive correlation with intracranial pressure (r = 0.83; CI = 0.60 - 0.94; p < 0.0001. The direction of this relationship was maintained in subsequent punctures. Conclusion : The intracranial pressure measured by spinal tap manometry showed strong positive association with the N2 latency F-VEP in patients with cryptococcal meningitis.

  1. Positive attitudes to pediatric HIV testing: findings from a nationally representative survey from Zimbabwe.

    Raluca Buzdugan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early HIV testing and diagnosis are paramount for increasing treatment initiation among children, necessary for their survival and improved health. However, uptake of pediatric HIV testing is low in high-prevalence areas. We present data on attitudes towards pediatric testing from a nationally representative survey in Zimbabwe. METHODS: All 18-24 year olds and a proportion of 25-49 year olds living in randomly selected enumeration areas from all ten Zimbabwe provinces were invited to self-complete an anonymous questionnaire on a personal digital assistant, and 16,719 people agreed to participate (75% of eligibles. RESULTS: Most people think children can benefit from HIV testing (91%, 81% of people who looked after children know how to access testing for their children and 92% would feel happier if their children were tested. Notably, 42% fear that, if tested, children may be discriminated against by some community members and 28% fear their children are HIV positive. People who fear discrimination against children who have tested for HIV are more likely than their counterparts to perceive their community as stigmatizing against HIV positive people (43% vs. 29%. They are also less likely to report positive attitudes to HIV themselves (49% vs. 74%. Only 28% think it is possible for children HIV-infected at birth to live into adolescence without treatment. Approximately 70% of people (irrespective of whether they are themselves parents think HIV-infected children in their communities can access testing and treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric HIV testing is the essential gateway to prevention and care services. Our data indicate positive attitudes to testing children, suggesting a conducive environment for increasing uptake of pediatric testing in Zimbabwe. However, there is a need to better understand the barriers to pediatric testing, such as stigma and discrimination, and address the gaps in knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS in children.

  2. The profit of textile industry showed a positive growth for the first time

    Zhong Xinzheng


      Recently, China textile economic situation in the 3rd quarter and future trends of industry released. According to the analysis, textile industry overall running into a warmer interval in the 3rd quarter. The scales of production and investment continued to expand; the scale of export picked up slightly; domestic market still maintained a certain degree of growth; the adjustment to industrial structure had been speeded up; the profit of textile industry showed a positive growth for the first time since this year.

  3. Development and Testing of a High-Precision Position and Attitude Measuring System for a Space Mechanism

    Khanenya, Nikolay; Paciotti, Gabriel; Forzani, Eugenio; Blecha, Luc


    This paper describes a high-precision optical metrology system - a unique ground test equipment which was designed and implemented for simultaneous precise contactless measurements of 6 degrees-of-freedom (3 translational + 3 rotational) of a space mechanism end-effector [1] in a thermally controlled ISO 5 clean environment. The developed contactless method reconstructs both position and attitude of the specimen from three cross-sections measured by 2D distance sensors [2]. The cleanliness is preserved by the hermetic test chamber filled with high purity nitrogen. The specimen's temperature is controlled by the thermostat [7]. The developed method excludes errors caused by the thermal deformations and manufacturing inaccuracies of the test jig. Tests and simulations show that the measurement accuracy of an object absolute position is of 20 micron in in-plane measurement (XY) and about 50 micron out of plane (Z). The typical absolute attitude is determined with an accuracy better than 3 arcmin in rotation around X and Y and better than 10 arcmin in Z. The metrology system is able to determine relative position and movement with an accuracy one order of magnitude lower than the absolute accuracy. Typical relative displacement measurement accuracies are better than 1 micron in X and Y and about 2 micron in Z. Finally, the relative rotation can be measured with accuracy better than 20 arcsec in any direction.

  4. A Three-Lesson Teaching Unit Significantly Increases High School Students’ Knowledge about Epilepsy and Positively Influences Their Attitude towards This Disease

    Simon, Uwe K.; Gesslbauer, Lisa; Fink, Andreas


    Epilepsy is not a regular topic in many countries’ schools. Thus many people harbor misconceptions about people suffering from this disease. It was our aim to a) examine what grade ten students know and believe about epilepsy, and b) to develop and test a teaching unit to improve their knowledge and attitude. The test group comprised eight grade ten classes from six different Austrian high schools (54 girls and 51 boys aged 14–17), the control group (no intervention) five grade ten classes from the same schools (26 girls and 37 boys aged 14–17). The teaching unit consisted of three 45-min lessons using different methods and material. Changes in knowledge about and attitude towards epilepsy as a result of the intervention were psychometrically assessed in a pre-test intervention post-test design (along with a follow-up assessment two months after the intervention) by means of a questionnaire capturing different facets of epilepsy-related knowledge and attitude. Across all knowledge/attitude domains, students of the test group had a significantly improved knowledge about and a more positive attitude towards epilepsy and people suffering from it after the teaching unit. However, starting levels were different between the five knowledge/attitude domains tested. Medical background knowledge was lowest and consequently associated with the highest increase after the intervention. This study shows that epilepsy-related knowledge of many grade ten high school students is fragmentary and that some harbor beliefs and attitudes which require improvement. Our comprehensive but concise teaching unit significantly increased knowledge about epilepsy and positively influenced attitude towards individuals with epilepsy. Thus we recommend implementing this unit into regular school curricula. PMID:26919557

  5. A Three-Lesson Teaching Unit Significantly Increases High School Students' Knowledge about Epilepsy and Positively Influences Their Attitude towards This Disease.

    Simon, Uwe K; Gesslbauer, Lisa; Fink, Andreas


    Epilepsy is not a regular topic in many countries' schools. Thus many people harbor misconceptions about people suffering from this disease. It was our aim to a) examine what grade ten students know and believe about epilepsy, and b) to develop and test a teaching unit to improve their knowledge and attitude. The test group comprised eight grade ten classes from six different Austrian high schools (54 girls and 51 boys aged 14-17), the control group (no intervention) five grade ten classes from the same schools (26 girls and 37 boys aged 14-17). The teaching unit consisted of three 45-min lessons using different methods and material. Changes in knowledge about and attitude towards epilepsy as a result of the intervention were psychometrically assessed in a pre-test intervention post-test design (along with a follow-up assessment two months after the intervention) by means of a questionnaire capturing different facets of epilepsy-related knowledge and attitude. Across all knowledge/attitude domains, students of the test group had a significantly improved knowledge about and a more positive attitude towards epilepsy and people suffering from it after the teaching unit. However, starting levels were different between the five knowledge/attitude domains tested. Medical background knowledge was lowest and consequently associated with the highest increase after the intervention. This study shows that epilepsy-related knowledge of many grade ten high school students is fragmentary and that some harbor beliefs and attitudes which require improvement. Our comprehensive but concise teaching unit significantly increased knowledge about epilepsy and positively influenced attitude towards individuals with epilepsy. Thus we recommend implementing this unit into regular school curricula.

  6. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders show reduced specificity and less positive events in mental time travel

    Xing-jie Chen


    Full Text Available Mental time travel refers to the ability to recall past events and to imagine possible future events. Schizophrenia patients have problems in remembering specific personal experiences in the past and imagining what will happen in the future. This study aimed to examine episodic past and future thinking in schizophrenia spectrum disorders including schizophrenia patients and individuals with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD proneness who are at risk for developing schizophrenia. Thirty-two schizophrenia patients, 30 SPD proneness individuals, and 33 healthy controls participated in the study. The Sentence Completion for Events from the Past Test (SCEPT and the Sentence Completion for Events in the Future Test (SCEFT were used to measure past and future thinking abilities. Results showed that schizophrenia patients showed significantly reduced specificity in recalling past and imagining future events, they generated less proportion of specific and extended events compared to healthy controls. SPD proneness individuals only generated less extended events compared to healthy controls. The reduced specificity was mainly manifested in imagining future events. Both schizophrenia patients and SPD proneness individuals generated less positive events than controls. These results suggest that mental time travel impairments in schizophrenia spectrum disorders and have implications for understanding their cognitive and emotional deficits.

  7. Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Show Reduced Specificity and Less Positive Events in Mental Time Travel

    Chen, Xing-jie; Liu, Lu-lu; Cui, Ji-fang; Wang, Ya; Chen, An-tao; Li, Feng-hua; Wang, Wei-hong; Zheng, Han-feng; Gan, Ming-yuan; Li, Chun-qiu; Shum, David H. K.; Chan, Raymond C. K.


    Mental time travel refers to the ability to recall past events and to imagine possible future events. Schizophrenia (SCZ) patients have problems in remembering specific personal experiences in the past and imagining what will happen in the future. This study aimed to examine episodic past and future thinking in SCZ spectrum disorders including SCZ patients and individuals with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) proneness who are at risk for developing SCZ. Thirty-two SCZ patients, 30 SPD proneness individuals, and 33 healthy controls participated in the study. The Sentence Completion for Events from the Past Test (SCEPT) and the Sentence Completion for Events in the Future Test were used to measure past and future thinking abilities. Results showed that SCZ patients showed significantly reduced specificity in recalling past and imagining future events, they generated less proportion of specific and extended events compared to healthy controls. SPD proneness individuals only generated less extended events compared to healthy controls. The reduced specificity was mainly manifested in imagining future events. Both SCZ patients and SPD proneness individuals generated less positive events than controls. These results suggest that mental time travel impairments in SCZ spectrum disorders and have implications for understanding their cognitive and emotional deficits. PMID:27507958

  8. Young women's attitudes toward continuous use of oral contraceptives: the effect of priming positive attitudes toward menstruation on women's willingness to suppress menstruation.

    Rose, Jennifer Gorman; Chrisler, Joan C; Couture, Samantha


    The present study investigated American women's attitudes toward menstrual suppression and the effect of priming attitudes toward menstruation on women's willingness to suppress menstruation. One hundred college women randomly were assigned to either a positive priming group or a negative priming group. The positive priming group first completed the menstrual joy questionnaire (MJQ) followed by a willingness to suppress menstruation (WSM) questionnaire, the beliefs and attitudes toward menstruation (BATM) questionnaire, the menstrual distress questionnaire (MDQ), and a demographic questionnaire. The negative priming group completed, in the following order: the MDQ, WSM, BATM, MJQ, and demographics. Priming affected women's reports of positive cycle-related changes on the MDQ, but not women's willingness to suppress menstruation. Higher scores on the MJQ, positive attitudes toward menstrual suppression, and previous oral contraceptive (OC) use were predictors of women's willingness to suppress menstruation. Women's primary source of information about menstrual suppression was "media," and their primary concern was "safety." Thus, researchers should continue to investigate the long-term effects of continuous OC use and to analyze information about menstrual suppression in the popular press.

  9. Fast Kalman Filtering for Relative Spacecraft Position and Attitude Estimation for the Raven ISS Hosted Payload

    Galante, Joseph M.; Van Eepoel, John; D'Souza, Chris; Patrick, Bryan


    The Raven ISS Hosted Payload will feature several pose measurement sensors on a pan/tilt gimbal which will be used to autonomously track resupply vehicles as they approach and depart the International Space Station. This paper discusses the derivation of a Relative Navigation Filter (RNF) to fuse measurements from the different pose measurement sensors to produce relative position and attitude estimates. The RNF relies on relative translation and orientation kinematics and careful pose sensor modeling to eliminate dependence on orbital position information and associated orbital dynamics models. The filter state is augmented with sensor biases to provide a mechanism for the filter to estimate and mitigate the offset between the measurements from different pose sensors

  10. Predicting whether multiculturalism positively or negatively influences White Americans' intergroup attitudes: the role of ethnic identification.

    Morrison, Kimberly Rios; Plaut, Victoria C; Ybarra, Oscar


    Multiculturalism, or the belief that racial and ethnic differences should be acknowledged and appreciated, has been met with both positive reactions (e.g., decreased prejudice) and negative reactions (e.g., perceptions of threat) from dominant group members. The present research proposes that multiculturalism can either positively or negatively influence White Americans' intergroup attitudes depending on their degree of ethnic identification. In Studies 1 and 2, White Americans primed with multiculturalism exhibited higher social dominance orientation (Study 1) and greater prejudice (Study 2), especially when they identified strongly with their ethnicity. In Study 3, perceptions of threat to group values were found to mediate the relation between multiculturalism, ethnic identification, and prejudice among White Americans. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for threat perceptions, ethnic identification, and conceptions of diversity.

  11. Nonlinear control of marine vehicles using only position and attitude measurements

    Paulsen, Marit Johanne


    This thesis presents new results on the design and analysis of nonlinear output feedback controllers for auto pilots and dynamic positioning systems for ships and underwater vehicles. Only position and attitude measurements of the vehicle are used in the control design. The underlying idea of the work is to use certain structural properties of the equations of motion in the controller design and analysis. New controllers for regulation and tracking have been developed and the stability of the resulting closed-loop systems has been rigorously established. The results are supported by simulations. The following problems have been investigated covering design of passive controller for regulation, comparison of two auto pilots, nonlinear damping compensation for tracking, tracking control for nonlinear ships, and output tracking control with wave filtering for multivariable models of possibly unstable vehicles. 97 refs., 32 figs.

  12. Developing Training Programs to Enhance Positive Attitude toward the ASEAN Community and Self-responsibility For Students in the 6th Grade Naku Distric Kalasin

    Siriporn Chooarerom


    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to ; 1 Study the status and problem of an through attitude the ASEAN community for grade 6 students. 2 Develop training programs to enhance their positive attitude towards the ASEAN community and self-responsibility for grade 6 students. 3 Experiment training program to enhance their positive attitude towards the ASEAN community and self-responsibility for grade 6 students. The samples of this study were 21 students. They were selected though cluster random sampling method. The research instruments used in the study were the Training programs to enhance their positive attitude towards the ASEAN community and self-responsibility. Surveys of problems from the event ASEAN week. Lenarning ASEAN. Measuring a positive attitude towards the ASEAN community scale with discriminating power ranging 0.375 – 0.793 and Measuring self-responsibility scale with discriminating power ranging 0.411 – 0.893 and a reliability of 0.973. The statistics used for analyzing the collected data were mean, standard deviation, and One-way repeated measure MANOVA The study showed that 1 Study of the attitude of the ASEAN community condition survey found that teachers have trouble understanding, Interested to attend the event and have admired and awareness in preparation the ASEAN community, the levels are minimal. The students realized in preparation, understanding about . Attention to participation and appreciation the ASEAN community, the levels are minimal 2 Training programs to enhance their positive attitude toward the ASEAN community and self-responsibility for grade 6 students was created by. Activities focus on the students involved and take action. Remove group activities used in the event. Stage one consists of two steps leading to the involvement step 3 step 4 step by step analysis and application of the five-stage process and evaluation. By 5 experts have evaluated the overall level more appropriate. 3 Students attend their

  13. The Refugees: Threatening or Beneficial? Exploring the Effects of Positive and Negative Attitudes and Communication on Hostile Media Perceptions

    Dorothee Arlt; Jens Wolling


    In the actual debate on refugees in Germany the media’s role was heavily disputed. To understand this controversy, this study examines hostile media perceptions from the audience perspective. Building up on previous research on the hostile media phenomenon and considering literature on pro- and anti-immigrant attitudes, this study explores the effect of positive and negative attitudes towards refugees as well as of mainstream media, social media and interpersonal communication on hostile medi...

  14. The Effects of a Second-Grade Social Studies Curriculum Infused with Positive Aging Concepts on Children's Attitudes towards Aging

    Hembacher, Diane; Cruise, Mary J.


    As the number of elderly people in our society increases, it becomes especially important for children to develop positive attitudes towards elders and towards their own aging. The American Association for Health Education has recommended the infusion of positive aging concepts in the K-12 curriculum. This qualitative study investigated the…

  15. Creating a Positive Attitude towards e-learning at Work Posts

    Julija Lapuh Bele


    Full Text Available Establishing e-learning in an organization represents a challenge, especially if most members do not have much knowledge about e-learning. The project should be carefully planned and run in order to create a positive attitude towards e-learning. As the objective of e-learning in the workplace is qualifying employees, focus should be made on the learners’ satisfaction and learning results. These can be achieved with appropriate use of web 2.0 technologies, usable e-learning system and constructivist approaches in e-learning, where efficient e-course and well-skilled mentors have an important role. This article describes the model of introducing e-learning in an organization, and its realization in praxis.

  16. Undergraduates' Attitudes toward Science and Their Epistemological Beliefs: Positive Effects of Certainty and Authority Beliefs

    Fulmer, Gavin W.


    Attitudes toward science are an important aspect of students' persistence in school science and interest in pursuing future science careers, but students' attitudes typically decline over the course of formal schooling. This study examines relationships of students' attitudes toward science with their perceptions of science as inclusive or…

  17. Challenging stereotypes and changing attitudes: Improving quality of care for people with hepatitis C through Positive Speakers programs.

    Brener, Loren; Wilson, Hannah; Rose, Grenville; Mackenzie, Althea; de Wit, John


    Positive Speakers programs consist of people who are trained to speak publicly about their illness. The focus of these programs, especially with stigmatised illnesses such as hepatitis C (HCV), is to inform others of the speakers' experiences, thereby humanising the illness and reducing ignorance associated with the disease. This qualitative research aimed to understand the perceived impact of Positive Speakers programs on changing audience members' attitudes towards people with HCV. Interviews were conducted with nine Positive Speakers and 16 of their audience members to assess the way in which these sessions were perceived by both speakers and the audience to challenge stereotypes and stigma associated with HCV and promote positive attitude change amongst the audience. Data were analysed using Intergroup Contact Theory to frame the analysis with a focus on whether the program met the optimal conditions to promote attitude change. Findings suggest that there are a number of vital components to this Positive Speakers program which ensures that the program meets the requirements for successful and equitable intergroup contact. This Positive Speakers program thereby helps to deconstruct stereotypes about people with HCV, while simultaneously increasing positive attitudes among audience members with the ultimate aim of improving quality of health care and treatment for people with HCV.

  18. Suture Granuloma Showing False-Positive Findings on FDG-PET

    Kohei Takahara


    Full Text Available We report a case of a 33-year-old male with a mixed germ-cell testicular tumor. Postoperative follow-up FDG-PET revealed concentration of FDG in the left inguinal area which is not tumor metastasis or local recurrence but suture reactivity granuloma. In this paper, we reviewed suture granulomas associated with false-positive findings on FDG-PET after surgery. If FDG-PET will be used more frequently in the future, it will be necessary to refrain from using silk thread in order to prevent any unnecessary surgery.

  19. Tourists and Local Stakeholders Attitudes Towards Offer and Market Position of Tourist Destination Budva

    Marković Ana Tripković


    Full Text Available There are various definitions of tourist destination. All of them define tourist destination as an area with specific tourist facilities and attractions, (primary and secondary elements which tourists choose as their journey goal. Budva individually represents the largest tourist destination due to number of arrivals and overnight stays. During its life cycle Budva has gone through different phases as a tourist destination. This thesis implies that it is not enough to use only common quantitative indicator of visitor number to define proper the position of tourist destination and predict further development. This text is based on a comparative analysis of the attitudes of tourists and local stakeholders in the three field researches, conducted in the period between 2015 and 2016. The thesis comes to the conclusion that the actual growth is based on meeting the needs of existing markets and tourists. On the other side, aspect of desired market position disagrees with scores of tourist offer elements- which should be input for improvement and preparation for the next stage in the destination development.

  20. Attitudes of practicing nurses as predictors of intended care behavior with persons who are HIV positive: testing the Ajzen-Fishbein Theory of Reasoned Action.

    Laschinger, H K; Goldenberg, D


    The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to examine practicing nurses' attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions to care for HIV positive patients, using the Theory of Reasoned Action. One hundred and forty-one subjects completed a questionnaire developed according to guidelines described by Ajzen and Fishbein (1980). Consistent with the theory, nurses' attitudes and subjective norms were found to be significant predictors of intentions to care for persons who are HIV positive (R2 = 0.27). Personal beliefs found to discriminate between intenders and nonintenders were those related to possible consequences for self, family, and friends, but not job-related consequences. Normative beliefs which discriminated between groups were also related to nonprofessional referents' expectations. In addition, qualitative data showed persistent concerns about occupational risk for contracting AIDS. Based on the results of this research, it is recommended that nurse educators in both clinical and academic settings, target specific educational/training interventions to include transmission, prevention, as well as exploration of feelings, attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions about HIV-related topics. Further theory-based research and testing of interventions to change practicing nurses' attitudes and beliefs about HIV disease are advocated.

  1. The Relative Effects of Positive Interdependence and Group Processing on Student Achievement and Attitude in Online Cooperative Learning

    Nam, Chang Woo; Zellner, Ronald D.


    This study investigated the effects of positive interdependence and group processing on student achievement and attitude in online learning. Students in three university courses received initial instruction about teamwork skills and cooperative learning and were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups in each course. The "positive…

  2. Sleep Duration, Positive Attitude toward Life, and Academic Achievement: The Role of Daytime Tiredness, Behavioral Persistence, and School Start Times

    Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Lemola, Sakari; Grob, Alexander


    Sleep timing undergoes profound changes during adolescence, often resulting in inadequate sleep duration. The present study examines the relationship of sleep duration with positive attitude toward life and academic achievement in a sample of 2716 adolescents in Switzerland (mean age: 15.4 years, SD = 0.8), and whether this relationship is…

  3. Mortality Salience and Positive Affect Influence Adolescents' Attitudes toward Peers with Physical Disabilities: Terror Management and Broaden and Build Theories

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Eherenfreund-Hager, Ahinoam; Findler, Liora


    Attitudes toward teenagers with and without physical disabilities, and their social acceptance, were examined from the perspective of terror management theory and the broaden and build theory. Participants (n = 390, aged 13-17) were divided into 3 experimental conditions: positive emotions, mortality salience, and control. Then, they were shown…

  4. Cerebellopontine angle epidermoid showing a positive enhancement upon metrizamide CT cisternography

    Hasegawa, Takeshi; Wakamatsu, Koichi; Fujii, Toshiharu; Ito, Haruhide; Yamamoto, Shinjiro; Nagata, Izumi


    A case of epidermoid tumor in the left cerebellopontine angle cistern is reported in a 43-year-old woman with left trigeminal neuralgia. Plain CT scan revealed a low density area at the left cerebellopontine angle and left ambient cisterns, which could not be differentiated from their enlargement. Metrizamide CT cisternography showed an irregular, high density pattern in the low density filling defect which was extending into the suprasellar and interpeduncular cisterns. The developmental mechanism of this specific finding in the metrizamide CT cisternography was discussed on the basis of morphological characteristics of epidermoid tumor.

  5. Attitudes and attitude change

    Scholderer, Joachim


    An attitude can be defined as the evaluation of an object as positive or negative. The term "object" in this definition should be understood in a broad sense; an attitude object may be any concrete or abstract entity that is in some way represented in our thoughts and memory. In other words......, attitude objects are simply the things we like or dislike. Consumer researchers are mainly interested in attitude objects of two classes, products and services, including the attributes, issues, persons, communications, situations, and behaviours related to them. Research on consumer attitudes takes two...... perspectives: Understanding attitude structure: how is an attitude cognitively represented in a consumer's mind, including its components (intra-attitudinal structure) and its associations with other psychological variables (inter-attitudinal structure)? Understanding information processing: what...

  6. Positive Attitude Change toward Psychiatry in Pharmacy Students Following an Active Learning Psychopharmacology Course

    Einat, Haim; George, Angela


    Objective: Psychiatric care in many rural communities has been demonstrated to be less adequate compared with urban environments partially because of attitudes and stigmatization issues. Educated pharmacists with professional attitudes can have a major impact in helping mental health patients receive more accurate diagnostic assessments and safe…

  7. Do Inquiring Minds Have Positive Attitudes? The Science Education of Preservice Elementary Teachers

    Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Morton, Karisma; Moore, Chelsea; Chimonidou, Antonia; LaBrake, Cynthis; Kopp, Sacha


    Owing to their potential impact on students' cognitive and noncognitive outcomes, the negative attitudes toward science held by many elementary teachers are a critical issue that needs to be addressed. This study focuses on the science education of preservice elementary teachers with the goal of improving their attitudes "before" they…

  8. Bias in medicine: a survey of medical student attitudes towards HIV-positive and marginalized patients in Russia, 2010

    Damir A Bikmukhametov


    Full Text Available Background: Russia has a substantial HIV epidemic which is poised to escalate in the coming years. The increases in prevalence of HIV will result in increased healthcare needs by a medical system with limited experience with HIV. A healthcare provider's attitude towards a patient plays a significant role in determining the patient's health-related behaviours and medical outcomes. Previous studies have identified negative attitudes of medical students towards people living with HIV. Studying the prevalence of such attitudes is of particular interest, as medical students represent the future workforce and also as the schooling years present a unique opportunity to nurture bias-free healthcare providers. The study measures prevalence of prejudicial attitudes towards HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients who belong to marginalized subgroups. Methods: The cross-sectional survey was conducted among medical students of a Russian medical university. Of 500 students surveyed, 436 provided sufficient data to be included in the analysis. Prejudicial attitudes were defined as reluctance to provide medical care to a specified hypothetical patient. Nine hypothetical HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients were proposed: physicians, injecting drug users, commercial sex workers, men who have sex with men and a patient HIV-positive due to blood transfusion. A log-binomial regression solved using generalized estimating equations was utilized to identify factors associated with reluctance to treat. Results: Prevalence of reluctance to provide medical care to HIV-positive patients in marginalized subgroups was high (ranging from 26.4% up to 71.9%, compared to a maximum of 7.5% if a patient was an HIV-negative physician. Students in their clinical years reported more negative attitudes than preclinical students. In general, female students were less willing to provide care than their male counterparts. Conclusions: Prejudicial attitudes about HIV-positive patients

  9. Evaluation of GPS position and attitude determination for automated rendezvous and docking missions. M.S. Thesis

    Diprinzio, Marc D.; Tolson, Robert H.


    The use of the Global Positioning System for position and attitude determination is evaluated for an automated rendezvous and docking mission. The typical mission scenario involves the chaser docking with the target for resupply or repair purposes, and is divided into three sections. During the homing phase, the chaser utilizes coarse acquisition pseudorange data to approach the target; guidance laws for this stage are investigated. In the second phase, differential carrier phase positioning is utilized. The chaser must maintain a quasiconstant distance from the target, in order to resolve the initial integer ambiguities. Once the ambiguities are determined, the terminal phase is entered, and the rendezvous is completed with continuous carrier phase tracking. Attitude knowledge is maintained in all phases through the use of the carrier phase observable. A Kalman filter is utilized to estimate all states from the noisy measurement data. The effects of selective availability and cycle slips are also investigated.

  10. Age and Skin Tone as Predictors of Positive and Negative Racial Attitudes in Hispanic Children

    Stokes-Guinan, Katie


    Past research suggests that both White children and minority children, including Hispanics, hold pro-White biases. Although doll studies have been a popular way of assessing racial attitudes among children, several methodological issues have made it challenging to interpret the results from these studies. Furthermore, past research has failed to…

  11. Alcohol makes others dislike you: reducing the positivity of teens’ beliefs and attitudes toward alcohol use

    de Graaf, A.


    This study tests the effects of the portrayal of negative consequences of alcohol use on beliefs and attitudes toward alcohol consumption. In a between-subjects experiment (N = 108), participants were randomly assigned to watch one of three conditions. One group of participants watched a version of

  12. Using Actual Patients in the Classroom To Develop Positive Student Attitudes Toward Pharmaceutical Care.

    Chisholm, Marie A.; Wade, William E.


    Evaluates the use of actual patients in a required clinical applications course at the University of Georgia College of Pharmacy. Patients discuss their illness and how it affects their lives with the first-year students. On 12 of 13 items, students scored significantly higher on an attitude survey following the first patient presentation than…

  13. Predicting factors of positive orientation and attitudes towards nursing : A quantitative cross-sectional study

    Ten Hoeve, Yvonne; Castelein, Stynke; Jansen, Wiebren; Jansen, Gerard; Roodbol, Petrie


    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have identified various reasons for students to choose a career in nursing. Students at the start of their programme hold a great variety of images and perceptions of nursing which can affect their orientation and attitudes towards their future profession. OBJECTIVES: Th

  14. The association between Colombian medical students' healthy personal habits and a positive attitude toward preventive counseling: cross-sectional analyses

    Sarmiento Francisco


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physician-delivered preventive counseling is important for the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Data from the U.S. indicates that medical students with healthy personal habits have a better attitude towards preventive counseling. However, this association and its correlates have not been addressed in rapidly urbanized settings where chronic disease prevention strategies constitute a top public health priority. This study examines the association between personal health practices and attitudes toward preventive counseling among first and fifth-year students from 8 medical schools in Bogotá, Colombia. Methods During 2006, a total of 661 first- and fifth-year medical students completed a culturally adapted Spanish version of the "Healthy Doctor = Healthy Patient" survey (response rate = 78%. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between overall personal practices on physical activity, nutrition, weight control, smoking, alcohol use (main exposure variable and student attitudes toward preventive counseling on these issues (main outcome variable, stratified by year of training and adjusting by gender and medical training-related factors (basic knowledge, perceived adequacy of training and perception of the school's promotion on each healthy habit. Results The median age and percentage of females for the first- and fifth-year students were 21 years and 59.5% and 25 years and 65%, respectively. After controlling for gender and medical training-related factors, consumption of ≥ 5 daily servings of fruits and/or vegetables, not being a smoker or binge drinker were associated with a positive attitude toward counseling on nutrition (OR = 4.71; CI = 1.6–14.1; p = 0.006 smoking (OR = 2.62; CI = 1.1–5.9; p = 0.022, and alcohol consumption (OR = 2.61; CI = 1.3–5.4; p = 0.009, respectively. Conclusion As for U.S. physician and medical students, a positive association was found between the

  15. Farmer's attitudes affect piglet production parameters

    Kauppinen, T; Valros, A.; Vesala, K.M.


    Our results show that farmers' attitudes count: treating the animals humanely, investing in a favourable environment, and having a positive attitude towards new information and scientific research is associated with an above-average productivity on piglet farms. These attitudes, when implemented and concretized in practice, also benefit the animals through a higher standard of welfare.

  16. Guidance and Control of Position and Attitude for Rendezvous and Dock/Berthing with a Noncooperative/Target Spacecraft

    Gilberto Arantes


    Full Text Available Noncooperative target spacecrafts are those assets in orbit that cannot convey any information about their states (position, attitude, and velocities or facilitate rendezvous and docking/berthing (RVD/B process. Designing a guidance, navigation, and control (GNC module for the chaser in a RVD/B mission with noncooperative target should be inevitably solved for on-orbit servicing technologies. The proximity operations and the guidance for achieving rendezvous problems are addressed in this paper. The out-of-plane maneuvers of proximity operations are explored with distinct subphases, including a chaser far approach in the target’s orbit to the first hold point and a closer approach to the final berthing location. Accordingly, guidance solutions are chosen for each subphase from the standard Hill based Closhessy-Willtshire (CW solution, elliptical fly-around, and Glideslope algorithms. The control is based on a linear quadratic regulator approach (LQR. At the final berthing location, attitude tracker based on a proportional derivative (PD form is tested to synchronize the chaser and target attitudes. The paper analyzes the performance of both controllers in terms of the tracking ability and the robustness. Finally, it prescribes any restrictions that may be imposed on the guidance during any subphase which can help to improve the controllers tracking ability.

  17. HPV vaccine information in the blogosphere: how positive and negative blogs influence vaccine-related risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intentions.

    Nan, Xiaoli; Madden, Kelly


    This research examines the impact of exposure to online blogs about the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on vaccine-related risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. In a controlled experiment (N = 341), college students were exposed to either a negative blog post about the HPV vaccine or a positive one. Compared to the control group, participants who had viewed the negative blog perceived the vaccine as less safe, held more negative attitudes toward the vaccine, and had reduced intentions to receive the vaccine. In contrast, exposure to the positive blog did not alter any vaccine-related risk perceptions, attitudes, or intentions. Implications of the findings for online vaccine risk communication are discussed.

  18. The Effectiveness of the Training of Problem-Solving and Decision-Making Skills on the Reduction of Addicts’ Positive Attitudes to Narcotics

    Farxaneh Bahrami


    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the training of problem-solving and decision-making skills on the reduction of addicts’ positive attitudes to narcotics. Method: The design of this study was experimental design namely: pre and post test with control group. The population included all addicts referring to Sanandaj self-report centers (500 addicts. By random sampling, 60 addicts were selected and completed the attitude questionnaire to narcotics use. Each of experimental groups was under problem-solving and decision-making skills training for ten 90 minute sessions. No training given to control group. Results: After training, two experimental groups significantly had lower levels of positive attitude to narcotics use. No difference was observed between two experimental groups. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the training of problem-solving and decision-making skills can reduce the addicts’ positive attitudes to narcotics.

  19. Genome wide nucleosome mapping for HSV-1 shows nucleosomes are deposited at preferred positions during lytic infection.

    Oh, Jaewook; Sanders, Iryna F; Chen, Eric Z; Li, Hongzhe; Tobias, John W; Isett, R Benjamin; Penubarthi, Sindura; Sun, Hao; Baldwin, Don A; Fraser, Nigel W


    HSV is a large double stranded DNA virus, capable of causing a variety of diseases from the common cold sore to devastating encephalitis. Although DNA within the HSV virion does not contain any histone protein, within 1 h of infecting a cell and entering its nucleus the viral genome acquires some histone protein (nucleosomes). During lytic infection, partial micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion does not give the classic ladder band pattern, seen on digestion of cell DNA or latent viral DNA. However, complete digestion does give a mono-nucleosome band, strongly suggesting that there are some nucleosomes present on the viral genome during the lytic infection, but that they are not evenly positioned, with a 200 bp repeat pattern, like cell DNA. Where then are the nucleosomes positioned? Here we perform HSV-1 genome wide nucleosome mapping, at a time when viral replication is in full swing (6 hr PI), using a microarray consisting of 50mer oligonucleotides, covering the whole viral genome (152 kb). Arrays were probed with MNase-protected fragments of DNA from infected cells. Cells were not treated with crosslinking agents, thus we are only mapping tightly bound nucleosomes. The data show that nucleosome deposition is not random. The distribution of signal on the arrays suggest that nucleosomes are located at preferred positions on the genome, and that there are some positions that are not occupied (nucleosome free regions -NFR or Nucleosome depleted regions -NDR), or occupied at frequency below our limit of detection in the population of genomes. Occupancy of only a fraction of the possible sites may explain the lack of a typical MNase partial digestion band ladder pattern for HSV DNA during lytic infection. On average, DNA encoding Immediate Early (IE), Early (E) and Late (L) genes appear to have a similar density of nucleosomes.

  20. Novel Luminex Assay for Telomere Repeat Mass Does Not Show Well Position Effects Like qPCR.

    Muhammad G Kibriya

    Full Text Available Telomere length is a potential biomarker of aging and risk for age-related diseases. For measurement of relative telomere repeat mass (TRM, qPCR is typically used primarily due to its low cost and low DNA input. But the position of the sample on a plate often impacts the qPCR-based TRM measurement. Recently we developed a novel, probe-based Luminex assay for TRM that requires ~50ng DNA and involves no DNA amplification. Here we report, for the first time, a comparison among TRM measurements obtained from (a two singleplex qPCR assays (using two different primer sets, (b a multiplex qPCR assay, and (c our novel Luminex assay. Our comparison is focused on characterizing the effects of sample positioning on TRM measurement. For qPCR, DNA samples from two individuals (K and F were placed in 48 wells of a 96-well plate. For each singleplex qPCR assay, we used two plates (one for Telomere and one for Reference gene. For the multiplex qPCR and the Luminex assay, the telomere and the reference genes were assayed from the same well. The coefficient of variation (CV of the TRM for Luminex (7.2 to 8.4% was consistently lower than singleplex qPCR (11.4 to 14.9% and multiplex qPCR (19.7 to 24.3%. In all three qPCR assays the DNA samples in the left- and right-most columns showed significantly lower TRM than the samples towards the center, which was not the case for the Luminex assay (p = 0.83. For singleplex qPCR, 30.5% of the variation in TL was explained by column-to-column variation and 0.82 to 27.9% was explained by sample-to-sample variation. In contrast, only 5.8% of the variation in TRM for the Luminex assay was explained by column-to column variation and 50.4% was explained by sample-to-sample variation. Our novel Luminex assay for TRM had good precision and did not show the well position effects of the sample that were seen in all three of the qPCR assays that were tested.

  1. Positive Attitudes towards Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT in a Swedish Cohort of 1,003 Pregnant Women.

    Ellika Sahlin

    Full Text Available The clinical utilization of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT for identification of fetal aneuploidies is expanding worldwide. The aim of this study was to gain an increased understanding of pregnant women's awareness, attitudes, preferences for risk information and decision-making concerning prenatal examinations with emphasis on NIPT, before its introduction into Swedish healthcare.Pregnant women were recruited to fill in a questionnaire, including multiple-choice questions and Likert scales, at nine maternity clinics located in different areas of Stockholm, Sweden.In total, 1,003 women participated in the study (86% consent rate. The vast majority (90.7% considered examinations aiming to detect fetal abnormalities to be good. Regarding NIPT, 59.8% stated that they had heard about the method previously, yet 74.0% would like to use the test if available. The main factor affecting the women's decision to undergo prenatal chromosomal screening was worry about the baby's health (82.5%, followed by the urge to have as much information as possible about the fetus (54.5%. Most women (79.9% preferred to receive NIPT information orally.The overwhelming majority of a cohort of 1,003 pregnant women considered prenatal examinations good. Moreover, the majority had a positive attitude towards NIPT and would like to use the test if available.

  2. Bacterial vaginosis and inflammatory response showed association with severity of cervical neoplasia in HPV-positive women.

    de Castro-Sobrinho, Juçara Maria; Rabelo-Santos, Silvia Helena; Fugueiredo-Alves, Rosane Ribeiro; Derchain, Sophie; Sarian, Luis Otávio Z; Pitta, Denise R; Campos, Elisabete A; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos


    Vaginal infections may affect susceptibility to and clearance of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and chronic inflammation has been linked to carcinogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate the association between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and inflammatory response (IR) with the severity of cervical neoplasia in HPV-infected women. HPV DNA was amplified using PGMY09/11 primers and genotyping was performed using a reverse line blot hybridization assay in 211 cervical samples from women submitted to excision of the transformation zone. The bacterial flora was assessed in Papanicolaou stained smears, and positivity for BV was defined as ≥ 20% of clue cells. Present inflammatory response was defined as ≥ 30 neutrophils per field at 1000× magnification. Age higher than 29 years (OR:1.91 95% CI 1.06-3.45), infections by the types 16 and/or 18 (OR:1.92 95% CI 1.06-3.47), single or multiple infections associated with types 16 and/or 18 (OR: 1.92 CI 95% 1.06-3.47), BV (OR: 3.54 95% CI 1.62-7.73) and IR (OR: 6.33 95% CI 3.06-13.07) were associated with severity of cervical neoplasia (CIN 2 or worse diagnoses), while not smoking showed a protective effect (OR: 0.51 95% CI 0.26-0.98). After controlling for confounding factors, BV(OR: 3.90 95% CI 1.64-9.29) and IR (OR: 6.43 95% CI 2.92-14.15) maintained their association with the severity of cervical neoplasia. Bacterial vaginosis and inflammatory response were independently associated with severity of cervical neoplasia in HPV-positive women, which seems to suggest that the microenvironment would relate to the natural history of cervical neoplasia.

  3. Promoting Positive Attitudes towards Science "and" Religion among Sixth-Form Pupils: Dealing with Scientism and Creationism

    Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.


    A sample of 187 female students, attending a sixth-form study day on religious studies, completed a questionnaire containing four scales concerned with assessing: attitude towards theistic religion, attitude towards science, scientism and creationism. The data demonstrated a negative correlation between attitude towards religion and attitude…

  4. Staff Training in Positive Behaviour Support: Impact on Attitudes and Knowledge

    Lowe, Kathy; Jones, Edwin; Allen, David; Davies, Dee; James, Wendy; Doyle, Tony; Andrew, Jock; Kaye, Neil; Jones, Sian; Brophy, Sam; Moore, Kate


    Background: Positive behavioural support is increasingly viewed as the preferred service approach for people who challenge, but skills are insufficiently widespread. The need for effective staff training has been highlighted as a key factor in high quality service provision, with investigators recommending a multidimensional approach to increase…

  5. Thoughts, Attitudes, and Feelings of HIV-Positive MSM Associated with High Transmission-Risk Sex

    Skinta, Matthew D.; Murphy, Jessie L.; Paul, Jay P.; Schwarcz, Sandra K.; Dilley, James W.


    This study presents survey data collected from a sample of HIV-positive men (N = 182) who had high transmission-risk sex, defined as unprotected anal intercourse with a man whose HIV-status was negative or unknown, in the previous 6 months. Despite the tremendous changes in HIV treatment and their impact on people living with HIV, little recent…

  6. Implementation of Boussignac continuous positive airway pressure in the coronary care unit : Experiences and attitudes

    Dieperink, Willem; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.; van de Stadt, Mark; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Aarts, Leon P. H. J.; Zijlstra, Felix; Jaarsma, Tiny


    OBJECTIVE: Boussignac continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP) delivered by face mask is useful for patients with acute cardiogenic Pulmonary edema (ACPE). Although BCPAP is medically effective, we observed that not 611 suitable patients received it. In this descriptive, prospective, cohort study

  7. Pick a Book, Any Book: Using Children's Books to Support Positive Attitudes toward Peers with Disabilities

    Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Mouzourou, Chryso; Dorsey, Emily A.; Favazza, Paddy C.; Leboeuf, Lisa M.


    The Division for Early Childhood/National Association for the Education of Young Children's (2009) joint position statement on inclusion stresses the importance of (a) developing practices that support young children of diverse abilities in inclusive learning environments, (b) being part of supportive school communities, and (c) engaging in…

  8. Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Positive Psychological Capital on Employee Attitudes, Behaviors, and Performance

    Avey, James B.; Reichard, Rebecca J.; Luthans, Fred; Mhatre, Ketan H.


    The positive core construct of psychological capital (or simply PsyCap), consisting of the psychological resources of hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism, has recently been demonstrated to be open to human resource development (HRD) and performance management. The research stream on PsyCap has now grown to the point that a quantitative…

  9. A Paradigm to Assess Implicit Attitudes towards God: The Positive/Negative God Associations Task.

    Pirutinsky, Steven; Carp, Sean; Rosmarin, David H


    Psychological research on the relationship between spirituality/religion and mental health has grown considerably over the past several decades and now constitutes a sizable body of scholarship. Among dimensions of S/R, positive beliefs about God have been significantly related to better mental health outcomes, and conversely negative beliefs about God are generally associated with more distress. However, prior research on this topic has relied heavily upon self-report Likert-type scales, which are vulnerable to self-report biases and measure only explicit cognitive processes. In this study, we developed and validated an implicit social cognition task, the Positive/Negative God Go/No-go Association Task (PNG-GNAT), for use in psychological research on spirituality and religion (S/R). Preliminary evidence in a large sample (N = 381) suggests that the PNG-GNAT demonstrates internal consistency, test-retest and split-half reliability, and concurrent evidence of validity. Further, our results suggest that PNG-GNAT scores represent different underlying dimensions of S/R than explicit self-report measures, and incrementally predict mental health above and beyond self-report assessment. The PNG-GNAT appears to be an effective tool for measuring implicit positive/negative beliefs about God.

  10. Women's position and attitudes towards female genital mutilation in Egypt: A secondary analysis of the Egypt demographic and health surveys, 1995-2014

    Van Rossem, Ronan; Meekers, Dominique; Gage, Anastasia J.


    Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is still widespread in Egyptian society. It is strongly entrenched in local tradition and culture and has a strong link to the position of women. To eradicate the practice a major attitudinal change is a required for which an improvement in the social position of women is a prerequisite. This study examines the relationship between Egyptian women's social positions and their attitudes towards FGM, and investigates whether the spread of anti-FGM atti...

  11. An examination of key experiences which contribute to a positive change in attitude toward science in two elementary education teacher candidates at the University of Wyoming

    Cason, Maggie A.

    This investigation utilized life history methodology (Armstrong, 1987; Bogdan & Biklen, 1998; Lawrence-Lightfoot, 1977; Marshall & Rossman, 1995; Patton, 1987; Taylor & Bogdan; 1984) to examine lifelong science experiences of two elementary education teacher candidates at a land grant institution with a large, undergraduate teacher education program. Purposive sampling techniques (Bogdan & Biklen, 1998) led to the selection of two teacher candidates who reported high science anxiety when they began university coursework. The investigation focused on five broad questions: (a) What were key experiences in the elementary teacher education program which contributed to a positive change in attitude toward science? (b) What science experiences, in and out of school, did the teacher candidates encounter while they were in elementary school, junior high school, high school, and college? (c) How did the elementary education program's science course structure, professors, and field experiences contribute to the change in attitude toward science? (d) How much time was involved in the change in attitude toward science? and (e) What were the effects of the change in attitude on the teaching of science in the elementary classroom? Each candidate completed approximately twenty hours of interviews yielding rich descriptions of their lifelong science experiences. Data also included interviews with science and science education professors, journaling, and observations of student teaching experiences. Data analysis revealed four over-arching themes with implications for teacher educators. First, data showed the importance of relationship building between professors and teacher candidates. Professors must know and work with teacher candidates, and provide a structure that encourages question asking. Second, course structure including hands-on teaching strategies and students working in small groups over an extended period of time was vital. Third, integrating language arts with

  12. Combination of pedCAT® for 3D Imaging in Standing Position With Pedography Shows No Statistical Correlation of Bone Position With Force/Pressure Distribution.

    Richter, Martinus; Zech, Stefan; Hahn, Sarah; Naef, Issam; Merschin, David


    pedCAT(®) (CurveBeam, Warrington, PA) is a technology for 3-dimensional (3D) imaging with full weightbearing that has been proved to exactly visualize the 3D bone position. For the present study, a customized pedography sensor (Pliance; Novel, Munich, Germany) was inserted into the pedCAT(®). The aim of our study was to analyze the correlation of the bone position and force/pressure distribution. A prospective consecutive study of 50 patients was performed, starting July 28, 2014. All patients underwent a pedCAT(®) scan and simultaneous pedography with full weightbearing in the standing position. The following parameters were measured on the pedCAT(®) image for the right foot by 3 different investigators 3 times: lateral talo-first metatarsal angle, calcaneal pitch angle, and minimum height of the fifth metatarsal base, second to fifth metatarsal heads, and medial sesamoid. From the pedography data, the following parameters were defined using the standardized software algorithm: midfoot contact area, maximum force of midfoot, maximum force of midfoot lateral, maximum force of entire foot, and maximum pressure of first to fifth metatarsal. The values of the corresponding pedCAT(®) and pedographic parameters were correlated (Pearson). The intra- and interobserver reliability of the pedCAT(®) measurements were sufficient (analysis of variance, p > .8 for each, power >0.8). No sufficient correlation was found between the pedCAT(®) and pedographic parameters (r -0.38).3D bone position did not correlate with the force and pressure distribution under the foot sole during simultaneous pedCAT(®) scanning and pedography. Thus, the bone positions measured with pedCAT(®) do not allow conclusions about the force and pressure distribution. However, the static pedographic parameters also do not allow conclusions about the 3D bone position and force/pressure distribution are important parameters for diagnostics, planning, and follow-up examinations in foot

  13. MIVIS image geocoding experience on merging position attitude system data and public domain GPS stream (ASI-GeoDAF

    S. Pignatti


    Full Text Available The use of airborne scanners involves geo-referencing problems, which are difficult because of the need to know the exact platform position and attitude for each scan line. The errors of the onboard navigation system are normally corrected using ground control point on the image. This post-processing correction procedure is too long in case of multiple flight campaigns, and besides it implies the need to have available 1:10000 orthophotoimages or maps in digital format. To optimize the above procedure a new method to correct MIVIS navigational data in the post-processing phase has been implemented. The procedure takes into consideration the GPS stream in Rinex format of common knowledge and findable on the web, acquired at the ground stations of the Geodetic Data Archiving Facilities provided by ASI. The application of this correction entails the assumption that the environmental variables affecting both onboard and geodetic GPS equally affect the position measurements. The airborne data correction was carried out merging the two data sets (onboard and ground station GPS to achieve a more precise aircraft trajectory. The present study compares the geo-coded images obtained by means of the two post-processing methods.

  14. Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 cultured from Swedish sheep showing serologically false-positive reactions for Brucella melitensis.

    Chenais, Erika; Bagge, Elisabeth; Lambertz, Susanne Thisted; Artursson, Karin


    In a herd of 20 sheep in Sweden, a country where brucellosis has never been diagnosed in sheep or goats, a total of six sheep were found serologically positive to Brucella melitensis in two different rounds of sampling. Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 could at the time of the second sampling be isolated from four sheep, one of them at the same time serologically positive for B. melitensis. The article describes the case and gives some background information on brucellosis and Y. enterocolitica in general as well as a more specific description of the Swedish surveillance program for B. melitensis and the test procedures used. The problem with false-positive reactions, in particular its implications for surveillance programs in low prevalence or officially brucellosis-free countries, is discussed.

  15. The Interrelationship of Science Experiences, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy: A Case Study of a Pre-Service Teacher with Positive Science Attitude and High Science Teaching Self-Efficacy

    Mahsa Kazempour


    Full Text Available This qualitative case study aimed to focus on the experiences and subsequent science and science teaching beliefs, attitudes, and self-efficacy of an elementary pre-service teacher, Heather, with extremely positive attitude and high self-efficacy. For this particular population of pre-service teachers, possessing a high science teaching self-efficacy alone is not sufficient to assume reform-based beliefs and teaching practices. This study was unique in that it concurrently explored the relationship between attitude, beliefs, and self-efficacy before and after the course. Initially, Heather’s attitude and self-efficacy with respect to science and science teaching were closely interrelated and a product of her own intrinsic interest in science and her unique K-12 experiences. Her beliefs appeared to have been shaped by both her actual science experiences and what she had witnessed in the classrooms. Heather’s course experiences shaped her post beliefs about science and science teaching, which consequently altered her attitude and confidence.

  16. Relationship between Leadership Styles of High School Teachers, Principals, and Assistant Principals and Their Attitudes toward School Wide Positive Behavior and Support Implementation

    Lampton-Holmes, Geneva Cosweler


    The purpose of this study was to determine if seventh through twelfth grade educators' attitudes towards School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) are affected based on their gender, years of experience, school discipline policy, leadership style, and knowledge of SWPBS. Through an online survey, an analysis of the leadership style and…

  17. "Challenging Disabling Attitudes, Building an Inclusive Society": Considering the Role of Education in Encouraging Non-Disabled Children to Develop Positive Attitudes towards Disabled People

    Beckett, Angharad E.


    In the United Kingdom, the introduction of the Disability Equality Duty 2006 has provided a new window of opportunity to promote the idea that education has a role to play in changing non-disabled children/young people's attitudes towards disabled people. This article explores the issues raised by the application of the Disability Equality Duty to…

  18. Relative Attitude and Position Estimation for Spacecraft from Multiple Geometric Features

    Jianying Wang; Haizhao Liang; Hui Liu; Dong Ye; Zhaowei Sun


    This paper investigates the pose and motion estimation problem using single camera measurement for spacecraft. The leader spacecraft of three⁃dimensional shape is observed by a calibrated camera fixed on the follower spacecraft. Based on dual numbers, an integrated observation model is proposed based on a combination of multiple geometric features including points, lines and circles, which can improve the robustness and accuracy of the estimation algorithm. A six⁃degree⁃of⁃freedom relative motion model is proposed by using the dual quaternion representation, in which the rotation⁃translation coupling effect due to the points deviating from the center of the mass is described. Employing the proposed observation model and dynamics model, an Extended Kalman Filter is presented to estimate the relative state between the two spacecraft. Numerical simulations are performed to evaluate the proposed approaches, showing the convergence of relative estimation errors and superior estimation performance.

  19. The Status of Hispanic American Students in Science: Attitudes.

    Walker, Constance L.; Rakow, Steven J.


    Examines attitudes toward science classes and teachers; science as a career; and value of science among elementary, junior and senior high Hispanic students in participating National Assessment of Educational Progress schools over three years. Compares attitudes of White and Black students. Results show increase in positive attitudes of minority…

  20. The Relationship between Young Males’Positive Mental Characters and Their Suicide Attitude%青年男性积极心理品质与自杀态度的关系

    陈海燕; 雷美英; 李红政


    目的:探讨青年男性的积极心理品质与自杀态度的关系。方法采用积极心理品质评估问卷和自杀态度问卷,对某社区的972名青年男性进行测试。结果青年男性的积极心理品质处于中高等水平,受教育程度越高的个体其积极心理品质水平越高,独生子女和非独生子女在积极心理品质方面差异无统计学意义,城市青年男性仅在智慧维度上得分高于农村青年男性;9.7%的青年男性对自杀行为持肯定、认可、理解和宽容的态度;青年男性的积极心理品质与自杀态度得分呈显著相关。结论青年男性的积极心理品质与自杀态度密切相关。%Objectives To explore young males’positive mental characters and its relationship with their suicide attitude.Methods 972 young males were investigated with the positive mental character scale and questionnaire of suicide attitude.Results The young males’positive mental characters were above the middle level,and the individ-uals with higher educational level showed higher positive mental characters scores.There was no significant differ-ences on the scores of positive mental characters between the only child and non-only child,and the wisdom scores of urban young males were higher than rural young males.9.7% young males had positive attitude to suicide.The young males’positive mental characters were correlated with the suicide attitude scores significantly.Conclusions The young males’positive mental characters are closely related with their suicide attitude.

  1. A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador

    Sara De Meyer


    Full Text Available Background: It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective: The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design: In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador. Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results: The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions: Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender

  2. The positive correlation between DJ-1 and β-catenin expression shows prognostic value for patients with glioma.

    Wang, Chao; Fang, Mao; Zhang, Meng; Li, Weiping; Guan, Hong; Sun, Yanhua; Xie, Siming; Zhong, Xueyun


    The relationship between DJ-1 and β-catenin, and its impact on the prognosis for glioma patients has not been fully understood. This study determined the effect of DJ-1 on β-catenin and the prognostic significance of this interaction in glioma patients. We collected tumor specimens from 88 glioma patients and determined the expression of DJ-1, β-catenin and PTEN by using immunohistochemical staining. The involvement of DJ-1 and β-catenin in glioma cell lines was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. High DJ-1 expression (37.5%) and high β-catenin expression (34.1%) in glioma specimens were significantly associated with high grade and poor prognosis in glioma patients. However, only high levels of DJ-1 (P = 0.014) was a strong independent prognostic factor, correlated with a reduced overall survival time. In vitro DJ-1 expression was positively correlated with the expression levels of β-catenin and p-Akt, and negatively correlated with PTEN expression in U87, U251 MG, SWO-38 and SHG44 human glioma cell lines. After the knockdown of DJ-1, Akt, p-Akt or β-catenin expression levels were not affected in the PTEN-null cell lines (U87 and U251 MG). However, in the SWO-38 cell line, which has wild-type PTEN protein, the level of PTEN increased while Akt/p-Akt and β-catenin levels were reduced. Furthermore, β-catenin staining weakened in SWO-38 cells after DJ-1 levels decreased according to immunocytochemical analysis. In conclusion, DJ-1 and β-catenin may contribute to the development and recurrence of glioma and are valuable prognostic factors for glioma patients. DJ-1 may regulate β-catenin expression via PTEN and p-Akt.

  3. Entrepreneurial Attitudes among Potential Entrepreneurs

    Akhtar Ali (Corresponding author


    Full Text Available This article explores entrepreneurial attitudes among potential entrepreneurs in Pakistan. Multi-stage sampling maximized representation. Four hundred and eighty masters of business administration (MBA students (potential entrepreneurs from six public sector Pakistani universities returned completed questionnaires. Three factors emerged: entrepreneurial acceptability, entrepreneurial intentions and personal factors. Moreover, the perceptions of the potential entrepreneurs on locus of control, self efficacy, subjective norms and instrumental readiness were also analyzed. The majority of students showed generally positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship at all six universities. Overall there was a significant difference between negative and positive attitudes (negative mean 184, positive mean 284. There was also some impact of demographic variables, such as university, parental income and profession. Both genders exhibited similar attitudes at most of the sample institutions. The implications for practice and policy are discussed.

  4. The central nervous system of sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea shows positive immunostaining for a chordate glial secretion

    Grondona Jesus M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echinoderms and chordates belong to the same monophyletic taxon, the Deuterostomia. In spite of significant differences in body plan organization, the two phyla may share more common traits than was thought previously. Of particular interest are the common features in the organization of the central nervous system. The present study employs two polyclonal antisera raised against bovine Reissner's substance (RS, a secretory product produced by glial cells of the subcomissural organ, to study RS-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of sea cucumbers. Results In the ectoneural division of the nervous system, both antisera recognize the content of secretory vacuoles in the apical cytoplasm of the radial glia-like cells of the neuroepithelium and in the flattened glial cells of the non-neural epineural roof epithelium. The secreted immunopositive material seems to form a thin layer covering the cell apices. There is no accumulation of the immunoreactive material on the apical surface of the hyponeural neuroepithelium or the hyponeural roof epithelium. Besides labelling the supporting cells and flattened glial cells of the epineural roof epithelium, both anti-RS antisera reveal a previously unknown putative glial cell type within the neural parenchyma of the holothurian nervous system. Conclusion Our results show that: a the glial cells of the holothurian tubular nervous system produce a material similar to Reissner's substance known to be synthesized by secretory glial cells in all chordates studied so far; b the nervous system of sea cucumbers shows a previously unrealized complexity of glial organization. Our findings also provide significant clues for interpretation of the evolution of the nervous system in the Deuterostomia. It is suggested that echinoderms and chordates might have inherited the RS-producing radial glial cell type from the central nervous system of their common ancestor, i.e., the last common

  5. Bias in medicine: a survey of medical student attitudes towards HIV-positive and marginalized patients in Russia, 2010

    Damir A Bikmukhametov; Vladimir A. Anokhin; Anna N Vinogradova; Triner, Wayne R; Louise-Anne McNutt*


    Background: Russia has a substantial HIV epidemic which is poised to escalate in the coming years. The increases in prevalence of HIV will result in increased healthcare needs by a medical system with limited experience with HIV. A healthcare provider's attitude towards a patient plays a significant role in determining the patient's health-related behaviours and medical outcomes. Previous studies have identified negative attitudes of medical students towards people living with H...

  6. New Zealand Medical Students Have Positive Attitudes and Moderate Confidence in Providing Nutrition Care: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Jennifer Crowley; Lauren Ball; Dug Yeo Han; Bruce Arroll; Michael Leveritt; Clare Wall


    Throughout the world, medical students and doctors report inadequate nutrition education and subsequently lack of knowledge, attitude, and skills to include nutrition in patient care. This study described New Zealand’s students’ attitudes to and self-perceived skills in providing nutrition care in practice as well as perceived quantity and quality of nutrition education received in training. 183 medical students from New Zealand’s largest medical school (response rate 52%) completed a 65-item...

  7. Effectiveness of a school-based intervention for enhancing adolescents’ positive attitudes towards people with mental illness

    John Tsiantis


    Full Text Available High school students are a common target group in initiatives addressing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, these initiatives are rarely evaluated and documented. The aim of our paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based educational intervention for improving adolescents’ attitudes and reducing the desire for social distance from people with mental illness living in their community. A total of 161 students aged 16-18 years old were questioned at baseline assessment and 86 of them received a three-workshop educational intervention while 75 students comprised the control group. A follow-up assessment 1 month post intervention evaluated its impact. Attitudes and the social distance were assessed through the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale and a 10-statement questionnaire based on the Self-report Inventory of Fear and Behavioural Intentions, respectively. Data from 140 subjects were analyzed. All attitude dimensions and half of the measured social distance statements were significantly improved in the intervention group at follow up assessment compared to controls. However, the statements measuring more intimate types of social relationships did not change significantly post intervention. In conclusion, short educational interventions can be effective to some extent in reducing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, effective interventions to address deeply held negative stereotypes will require further research.

  8. "Disgusting" Animals: Primary School Children's Attitudes and Myths of Bats and Spiders

    Prokop, Pavol; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale


    Knowledge of animals may influence children's beliefs and behaviour toward them, thus building positive attitudes toward animals is one of main goals of environmental education programmes. Although keeping animals contributes to the increase of children's positive attitudes toward wild animals, pet owners show similar negative attitudes toward…

  9. Training Changes Professionals’ Attitudes Towards Dual Diagnosis

    Pinderup, Pernille


    Studies have shown that mental health professionals in many cases have counterproductive attitudes towards patients with mental illnesses and comorbid substance use disorders (dual diagnosis). This is problematic because professionals’ attitudes are important for both the therapeutic alliance...... and treatment outcome. This study tested whether providing training in dual diagnosis treatment to mental health professionals will affect their attitudes positively. Twenty-one professionals completed a questionnaire on attitudes towards working with dual diagnosis (Comorbidity Problems Perceptions...... Questionnaire, CMPPQ) pre-training and post-training. Results showed that there was a significant positive change in total CMPPQ scores and a positive change in all six subscales of the CMPPQ following training, indicating that the training resulted in more positive attitudes. The study suggests that training...

  10. The Role of Playful Science in Developing Positive Attitudes toward Teaching Science in a Science Teacher Preparation Program

    Bulunuz, Mizrap


    Problem Statement: Research studies indicate that teachers with negative attitudes toward science tend to use didactic approaches rather than approaches based on students' active participation. However, the reviews of the national academic literature in Turkey located a few research studies on the relationship between playful science experiences…

  11. The Role of Playful Science in Developing Positive Attitudes toward Teaching Science in a Science Teacher Preparation Program

    BULUNUZ, Mızrap


    Problem Statement: Research studies indicate that teachers with negativeattitudes toward science tend to use didactic approaches rather thanapproaches based on students’ active participation. However, the reviewsof the national academic literature in Turkey located a few researchstudies on the relationship between playful science experiences andattitudes toward science. This study examines the following componentsof attitudes: a) enjoyment of learning science and b) interest andmotivation tow...

  12. Using Drama for Learning to Foster Positive Attitudes and Increase Motivation: Global Simulation in French Second Language Classes

    Dicks, Joseph E.; Le Blanc, Barbara


    Drama has been effectively used in many learning contexts including English as a second language classes. However, it has received less attention in foreign/second contexts. This article explores how drama for learning can impact upon the relationships among attitudes, motivation and learning in French second language (FSL) classrooms. The authors…

  13. Peer Instruction in Introductory Physics: A Method to Bring about Positive Changes in Students' Attitudes and Beliefs

    Zhang, Ping; Ding, Lin; Mazur, Eric


    This paper analyzes pre-post matched gains in the epistemological views of science students taking the introductory physics course at Beijing Normal University (BNU) in China. In this study we examined the attitudes and beliefs of science majors (n = 441) in four classes, one taught using traditional (lecture) teaching methods, and the other three…

  14. The Climate Change Attitude Survey: Measuring Middle School Student Beliefs and Intentions to Enact Positive Environmental Change

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald


    The Climate Change Attitude Survey is composed of 15 Likert-type attitudinal items selected to measure students' beliefs and intentions toward the environment with a focus on climate change. This paper describes the development of the instrument and psychometric performance characteristics including reliability and validity. Data were gathered…

  15. Positive-Themed Suicide Prevention Messages Delivered by Adolescent Peer Leaders: Proximal Impact on Classmates' Coping Attitudes and Perceptions of Adult Support.

    Petrova, Mariya; Wyman, Peter A; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Pisani, Anthony R


    Developing science-based communication guidance and positive-themed messages for suicide prevention are important priorities. Drawing on social learning and elaboration likelihood models, we designed and tested two positive-focused presentations by high school peer leaders delivered in the context of a suicide prevention program (Sources of Strength). Thirty-six classrooms in four schools (N = 706 students) were randomized to (1) peer leader modeling of healthy coping, (2) peer leader modeling plus audience involvement to identify trusted adults, or (3) control condition. Students' attitudes and norms were assessed by immediate post-only assessments. Exposure to either presentation enhanced positive coping attitudes and perceptions of adult support. Students who reported suicide ideation in the past 12 months benefited more than nonsuicidal students. Beyond modeling alone, audience involvement modestly enhanced expectations of adult support, congruent with the elaboration likelihood model. Positive peer modeling is a promising alternative to communications focused on negative consequences and directives and may enhance social-interpersonal factors linked to reduced suicidal behaviors.

  16. 基于预测滤波的卫星交会对接相对位姿确定方法%Predictive Filter-Based Relative Attitude and Position Determination for Rendezvous and Docking between Spacecrafts

    杨少东; 汶德胜; 马军勇; 孙静


    A predictive filtering algorithm for real-time attitude and position determination with high accuracy and strong robustness is proposed in this paper. Based the line-of-sight measurement of Vision-based Navigation, a system errors model is established to predict the angular rate and linear rate one step and then the relative attitude and position between spacecrafts are accurately estimated. What is more, the predicted attitude and position are modified and updated by using Kalman gain and performance of algorithm is improved. Results of simulation based rendezvous and docking show that predictive filtering can accurately estimate the relative attitude and position, and the modified algorithm give a better result. The accuracy meets the requirement for rendezvous and docking. It has an important reference value for in-orbit experiment.%基于视频制导系统提供的视线测量,引入一种高精度、高鲁棒性的、实时的预测滤波算法,建立系统的误差模型,对角速度和位移速度进行一步预测,从而精确地估计卫星的相对位置和相对姿态.此外提出修正方案,通过卡尔曼增益对相对姿态和相对位移进行修正和更新,估计性能得到改进优化.通过卫星交会对接仿真实验验证算法的有效性,结果表明,预测滤波算法高精确估计相对姿态和相对位置,修正后算法得到了更高的精度结果,满足卫星交会对接要求,对在轨实验有重要参考价值.

  17. A Tree-Ring Based Reconstruction (1725-present) of the Position of the Summer North Atlantic Jet Shows a 20th Century Northward Shift

    Trouet, V.; Babst, F.


    The position and strength of the Northern Hemisphere polar jet are important modulators of mid-latitude weather extremes and the societal, ecosystem, and economic damage related to them. The position of the North Atlantic jet (NAJ) controls the location of the Atlantic storm track and anomalies in the NAJ position have been related to temperature and precipitation extremes over Europe. In summer, a southern NAJ regime can result in floods in the British Isles (BRIT) and increasing odds of heat waves in the northeastern Mediterranean (NEMED). Variability in the amplitude and speed of the Northern Hemisphere jet stream is hotly debated as a potential mechanism linking recent mid-latitude weather extremes to anthropogenic warming. However, the hypothesis of jet stream variability as a possible mechanism linking Arctic amplification to mid-latitude weather extremes is largely based on data sets with limited temporal extent that do not warrant robust results from a statistical significance perspective. Here, we combined two summer temperature-sensitive tree-ring records from BRIT and NEMED to reconstruct interannual variability in the latitudinal position of the summer NAJ back to 1725. The two well-replicated temperature proxies counter-correlate significantly over the full period and thus illustrate the temperature dipole generated by anomalous NAJ positions. Positive extremes in the NAJ reconstruction correspond to heatwaves recorded in the historical Central England temperature record and negative extremes correspond to reconstructed fire years in Greece. The reconstruction shows a northward shift in the latitudinal NAJ position since the 1930s that is most pronounced in the northern NAJ extremes, suggesting a more frequent occurrence of BRIT hot summers in the 20th century compared to previous centuries.

  18. School climate and teachers' beliefs and attitudes associated with implementation of the positive action program: a diffusion of innovations model.

    Beets, Michael W; Flay, Brian R; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan C; Li, Kin-Kit; Allred, Carol


    Teacher- and school-level factors influence the fidelity of implementation of school-based prevention and social character and development (SACD) programs. Using a diffusion of innovations framework, the relationships among teacher beliefs and attitudes towards a prevention/SACD program and the influence of a school's administrative support and perceptions of school connectedness, characteristics of a school's climate, were specified in two cross-sectional mediation models of program implementation. Implementation was defined as the amount of the programs' curriculum delivered (e.g., lessons taught), and use of program-specific materials in the classroom (e.g., ICU boxes and notes) and in relation to school-wide activities (e.g., participation in assemblies). Teachers from 10 elementary schools completed year-end process evaluation reports for year 2 (N = 171) and 3 (N = 191) of a multi-year trial. Classroom and school-wide material usage were each favorably associated with the amount of the curriculum delivered, which were associated with teachers' attitudes toward the program which, in turn, were related to teachers' beliefs about SACD. These, in turn, were associated with teachers' perceptions of school climate. Perceptions of school climate were indirectly related to classroom material usage and both indirectly and directly related to the use of school-wide activities. Program developers need to consider the importance of a supportive environment on program implementation and attempt to incorporate models of successful school leadership and collaboration among teachers that foster a climate promoting cohesiveness, shared visions, and support.

  19. Attitudes and attitude change.

    Bohner, Gerd; Dickel, Nina


    Attitudes and attitude change remain core topics of contemporary social psychology. This selective review emphasizes work published from 2005 to 2009. It addresses constructionist and stable-entity conceptualizations of attitude, the distinction between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and implications of the foregoing for attitude change. Associative and propositional processes in attitude change are considered at a general level and in relation to evaluative conditioning. The role of bodily states and physical perceptions in attitude change is reviewed. This is followed by an integrative perspective on processing models of persuasion and the consideration of meta-cognitions in persuasion. Finally, effects of attitudes on information processing, social memory, and behavior are highlighted. Core themes cutting across the areas reviewed are attempts at integrative theorizing bringing together formerly disparate phenomena and viewpoints.

  20. Actitud positiva: estrategia para superar el cáncer de mama: Relato de una superviente Positive attitude: a strategy for overcoming breast cancer: Story of a survivor

    Diego Carrera Martínez


    Full Text Available El cáncer de mama puede considerarse una de las enfermedades más agresivas para las mujeres, tanto por la afectación física como por la afectación psicológica que conllevan la enfermedad y sus tratamientos. La realización de este relato biográfico nos ha permitido compartir con la participante sus vivencias en relación con la superación de la enfermedad, su actitud ante este reto vital y la visión que tiene de la vida tras dejarlo atrás. A través del relato, nos transmite su actitud de superación, fuerza de voluntad y actitud positiva frente a la enfermedad, algo que para ella es tan importante como el seguimiento de las consultas médicas o la administración de tratamientos. El deseo de continuar con su vida habitual y cuidar a sus seres queridos hace que asuma los efectos secundarios de los tratamientos como algo de menor importancia.Breast cancer can be considered as one of the most aggressive diseases for women because of the physical and psychological affectation that disease and its treatments cause. The accomplishment of this biographical story has permitted us to share with the participant her experiences about overcoming the disease, her attitude before this vital challenge and the vision that she has of life after leaving it behind. By the speech, we are transmitted her attitude to get over her illness, her willpower and positive attitude towards the disease, something that is so important for her as the follow-up of the medical consultations or the administration of treatments. The desire to continue with her habitual life and to take care of her beloved people make her assumes the side effects of the treatments as something less important.

  1. 应用EKF平滑算法提高GPS/INS定位定姿精度%Improving Position and Attitude Precision of GPS/INS by Applying EKF Smoothing Algorithm

    石波; 卢秀山; 陈允芳


    为了提高城市遮挡环境下GPS较长时间(60 s)无法单独定位情况下GPS/INS组合定位定姿精度,研究了扩展卡尔曼滤波及其RTS(Rauch Tung Striebel)平滑算法;同时给出了基于ψ角惯导误差模型的GPS/INS组合系统状态方程和基于位置、速度更新的量测方程.实验中模拟GPS信号失锁60 s,应用RTS后处理算法进行了GPS/INS组合数据处理.结果表明,扩展卡尔曼滤波EKF平滑算法可以有效地提高城市遮挡环境下GPS/INS组合定位定姿精度,特别是对GPS失锁的情况.从而很大程度上降低对高成本惯导的依赖.%Extended Kalman Filter(EKF)and RTS smoothing algorithm was studied in order to improve GPS/ INS integrated position and attitude accuracy in the case that GPS failed to position independently for a long time(60 s)due to the occlusion in the city, meanwhile, GPS/INS integrated system state equation based on INS error model and measurement equation based on position, speed update were put forward. In the experiment, GPS outage for 60 seconds was simulated and GPS/INS integrated data were processed with RTS post processing algorithm. The experiment showed that extended Kalman smoothing algorithm can efficiently improve GPS/INS integrated positioning and attitude accuracy under the circumstance of occlusion in the city, especially in the case of GPS outage, thus reducing dependence on costly INS to a great extent.

  2. 基于GPS/电子罗盘的测姿定位系统%Attitude-measuring and Positioning System Based on Electronic Compass and GPS

    刘宇; 陈箫; 李锦明; 谭秋林


    For the background of MEMS-IMU/GPS / electronic compass integrated navigation system, proposing and designing an attitude-measuring and positioning system based on GPS / electronic compass. Aiming at that those Gyro may start after a long time to be stable, and high-speed gyro ball, wear, and gyro ball always comes with high rotation-speed, large abrasion, short life-span, high price and many failures and so on, this design combines GPS with electronic compass, so that we can make full use of a variety of sources of information to complement each other, which constitutes a redundant and high-precision navigation and positioning system with the characters such as high accuracy, stability, small size, easy to operate and so on. The system uses micro-C8051F021 single chip as a CPU, low power iTrax03-02 as GPS receivers. HMR3300 digital compass to provide attitude information, through the serial communications, so that it can achieve real-time attitude-measuring and positioning.%以MEMS-IMU/GPS/电子罗盘组合导航系统研究为背景,提出并设计了一种基于电子罗盘/GPS的测姿定位系统;针对电罗经启动后要较长时间才能稳定,而陀螺球转速高、磨损大、寿命短等问题,将GPS与电子罗盘组合,利用多种信息源相互补充,构成了一种有多余度和高精度的导航定位系统,具有高精度、稳定、小型化、易操作等特点;该系统利用微型单片机C8051F021作为中央处理器,功耗极低的iTrax03-02作为GPS接收机,数字罗盘HMR3300提供姿态信息,通过串口通信,从而实现实时测姿定位功能.

  3. Creating effective environmental education: A case study utilizing an integrative teaching methodology to develop positive environmental attitudes and behaviors in the secondary general science curriculum

    O'Connor, Teresa M.

    Many years of teaching environmental issues years has revealed that giving students only "the facts" frequently leaves them with a sense of hopelessness about the future of life on this planet. Problems of the environment often seem large and complex, and student's feel there is nothing "they" can do. In response, a curriculum was developed that permits students to learn about action strategies they can partake in that would make a small contribution towards a solution, as well as exploring their own values and attitudes about environmental issues. The curriculum also attempts to foster positive attitudes and beliefs about the natural world. The curriculum contains three distinct units, focusing on energy, atmospheric issues, and the loss of habitat and rainforest. It was taught in sixty-one sessions over a fourteen week period in a standard level ninth grade General Science class of twenty-four students, at Harriton High School in the Lower Merion School District in the suburbs of Philadelphia. The dissertation is presented as a case study that is the author's construction of the actual experience, developed from audio tapes of the classroom sessions, personal logs, and data collected from the students. The dissertation presents an in-depth case study of the development, the actual implementation, and subsequent evaluation of this environmental curriculum, and gives an in-depth view of life in this class.

  4. Community-Based Health Education has Positive Influence on the Attitude to Cervical Cancer Screening among Women in Rural Nepal.

    Shakya, Sunila; Karmacharya, Biraj Man; Afset, Jan Egil; Bofin, Anna; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Syversen, Unni; Tingulstad, Solveig


    The main purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of cervical cancer among women in rural Nepal and explore the feasibility and impact of a community-based awareness program on cervical cancer. Community-based educational meetings on cervical cancer and its prevention were conducted among women's groups in rural Nepal. Through a questionnaire, the women's baseline knowledge of risk factors, symptoms, and perceived risk of cervical cancer were identified. The willingness to participate in cervical cancer screening was compared before and after the educational meeting. The meetings were followed by a cervical cancer screening program. Among the 122 participants at the educational meeting, only 6 % had heard of cervical cancer. Their baseline knowledge of risk factors and symptoms was poor. The proportion of women willing to participate in cervical screening increased from 15.6 to 100 % after attending the educational meeting. All the study subjects participated in the screening program. Additionally, the study participants recruited a further 222 of their peers for screening. Poor knowledge of cervical cancer among women in rural Nepal highlights the urgency of public awareness programs for cervical cancer at a national level. A community-based awareness program can change women's attitude to cervical screening, and women's groups can play a major role in promoting participation in cervical cancer screening programs.

  5. Pedestrian self-reported use of smart phones: Positive attitudes and high exposure influence intentions to cross the road while distracted.

    Lennon, Alexia; Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Matthews, Sarah


    Pedestrian crashes are an important issue globally as pedestrians are a highly vulnerable road user group, accounting for approximately 35% of road deaths worldwide each year. In highly motorised countries, pedestrian distraction by hand held technological devices appears to be an increasing factor in such crashes. An online survey (N=363) was conducted to 1) obtain prevalence information regarding the extent to which people cross the road while simultaneously using mobile phones for potentially distracting activities; 2) identify whether younger adult pedestrians are more exposed to/at risk of injury due to this cause than older adults; and 3) explore whether the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) might provide insight into the factors influencing the target behaviours. Self-reported frequency of using a smart phone for three levels of distraction (visual and cognitive-texting/internet; cognitive only- voice calls; audio only-listening to music) while crossing the road was collected. Results indicated that about 20% of the sample had high exposure to smart phone use while crossing, especially 18-30year olds who were significantly more likely than other age groups to report frequent exposure. TPB constructs of Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioural Control significantly predicted intentions to use a smart phone while crossing the road, accounting for 62% of variance in Intentions for the entire sample, and 54% of the variance for 18-30year olds. Additional variables of Mobile Phone Involvement and Group Norms provided an additional significant 6% of the variance explained for both groups. Attitude was by far the strongest predictor for both the whole sample and for 18-30year olds, accounting for 38% and 41% explained variance, respectively. This suggests that pedestrians with positive attitudes towards using their smart phones while crossing the road have stronger intentions to do so. Moreover, high exposure was associated with stronger intentions to

  6. Implicit attitudes in sexuality: gender differences.

    Geer, James H; Robertson, Gloria G


    This study examined the role of gender in both implicit and explicit attitudes toward sexuality. Implicit attitudes are judgments or evaluations of social objects that are automatically activated, often without the individual's conscious awareness of the causation. In contrast, explicit attitudes are judgments or evaluations that are well established in awareness. As described in Oliver and Hyde's (1993) meta-analysis of self-report (explicit) data, women report greater negative attitudes toward sexuality than do men. In the current study, we used the Sexual Opinion Survey (SOS) developed by Fisher, Byrne, White, and Kelley (1988) to index explicit attitudes and the Implicit Association Test (IAT) developed by Greenwald, McGhee, and Schwartz (1998) to index implicit attitudes. Research has demonstrated that the IAT reveals attitudes that participants may be reluctant to express. Independent variables examined were participant gender, social acceptability of sexual words, and order of associated evaluations in the IAT (switching from positive to negative evaluations or the reverse). The IAT data revealed a significant Order x Gender interaction that showed that women had more negative implicit attitudes toward sexuality than did men. There was also a significant Order x Acceptability interaction, indicating that implicit attitudes were more strongly revealed when the sexual words used in the IAT were more socially unacceptable. As expected, on the SOS, women had more negative explicit attitudes toward sexuality. There was no significant correlation between explicit and implicit attitudes. These data suggest that at both automatic (implicit) and controlled (explicit) levels of attitudes, women harbor more negative feelings toward sex than do men.

  7. The Impact of School Political Systems on Student Political Attitudes

    Metzger, Devon J.; Barr, Robert D.


    Describes a study of the effects of student participation in school policy-making upon student attitudes. Data were collected from students in a comprehensive high school and a small alternative school within the comprehensive school. Students in the alternative school participated more in policy-making and also showed more positive attitudes.…

  8. Malaysian Chinese Speakers' Attitudes Towards Foochow, Hokkien and Mandarin

    Puah, Yann-Yann; Ting, Su-Hie


    The study examines the influence of gender, age and socio-economic status on attitudes of Foochow and Hokkien towards their ethnic language and Mandarin. The matched guise test results of 120 Foochow and 120 Hokkien participants in Kuching, Malaysia, showed positive attitudes towards Mandarin on all the 15 traits. The Hokkien participants were…

  9. 18,000 displacement vectors and 44 positions surveys of RFID tracers show a normal diffusion of the bedload in a proglacial stream (Bossons glacier, France)

    Guillon, Hervé; Mugnier, Jean-Louis; Buoncristiani, Jean-François


    Bedload transport is a stochastic process during which each particle hops for a random length then rests for a random duration. In recent years, this probabilistic approach was investigated by theoretical models, numerical simulations and laboratory experiments. These experiments are generally carried out on short time scales with sand, but underline the diffusive behaviour of the bedload. Conversely, marked pebbles in natural streams have mainly be used to infer about transport processes and transport time of the bedload. In this study, the stochastic characteristics of bedload transport are inferred from the radio-frequency identification (RFID) of pebbles. In particular, we provide insights for answering the following question : is the bedload transport sub-diffusive, normally diffusive or super-diffusive at the long time scale (i.e. global range)? Experiments designed to investigate the phenomenology of bedload transport have been carried out in the proglacial area of Bossons glacier. This 350 m long alluvial plain exhibits daily flood from the glacial system and is still redistributing material from catastrophic events pre-dating our investigations. From 2011 to 2014, the position of the ˜ 1000 RFID tracers have been measured by a mobile antenna and a differential GPS during 44 surveys providing ˜ 2500 tracer positions. Additionnaly, in 2014, 650 new tracers were seeded upstream from a static RFID antenna located at the outlet of the study area. For the 1 to 32 cm fraction surveyed, both mobile and static antenna results show no evidence for a significant export outside of the surveyed zone. Initial data have been maximized by using each possible campaign pairs leading to ˜700 campaign pairs and more than 18,000 displacement vectors. To our knowledge, this is one of the most extensive dataset of tracers positions measured in a natural stream using the RFID methodology. Using 152 campaigns pairs with at least 20 retrieved tracers,r standard probability

  10. Attitudes of university precalculus students toward mathematics.

    Alkhateeb, Haitham M; Mji, Andile


    To investigate the attitudes of 200 university students (83% freshmen) toward mathematics, a questionnaire was administered to report on their attitudes toward mathematics. Analysis indicated that students studying precalculus had a somewhat positive attitude toward mathematics.

  11. A survey of healthcare workers' attitude towards their HIV positive coworkers in A- level hospitals in Beijing%北京市三甲医院医务人员对感染HIV的医务人员的态度

    邬娜; 钮文异


    目的 调查分析北京市三甲医院医务人员,对于感染艾滋病病毒(HIV)的医务人员的态度.方法 采用方便抽样的方法,对北京市三甲医院的医务人员进行自填式问卷调查,并做描述性分析.结果 共调查医务人员392名,69.6%的人从未接受过HIV抗体检测,56.4%的人同意应该对医务人员强制进行HIV抗体检测,68.4%的人同意感染HIV的医务人员不能进行侵入性操作,40.8%的人同意感染HIV的医务人员在进行侵入性操作前,应该向病人说明自己的病情.以上四部分的态度与HIV暴露防护知识的相关系数没有统计学意义.结论 大部分医务人员从未接受过HIV抗体检测,是否在医务人员中进行HIV抗体检测、对感染HIV的医务人员的从业规范做出相关规定,还需要进一步的研究论证.%Objective To investigate the healthcare workers' (HCWs) attitude towards their HIV positive co-workers in A-level hospitals in Beijing. Methods Information was collected from HCWs who were selected by convenience sampling in two A-level hospitals in Beijing. The questionnaires covered the experience of having HIV antibody test, the attitude towards other HIV positive HCWs, universal HIV test among HCWs, restrictions on performing clinical procedures and disclosure of their health conditions to patients. Descriptive analysis was used. Results Among the 392 HCWs respondents, 69. 6% never tested their HIV conditions; 56. 4% agreed that mandatory HIV testing for HCWs was necessary; 68. 4% agreed that invasive procedures should not be performed by infected HCWs ; 40. 8% of respondents agreed that HIV positive conditions should be disclosed to the patients before invasive procedures were performed. The above attitudes showed no correlation with the knowledge of HIV protection. Conclusions Most of the HCWs have never tested their HIV conditions before. Whether universal HIV testing among HCWs is necessary and whether working guideline is to be

  12. 培养学生学专业英语的积极心态%Cultivate students' positive mental attitude to learn professional English



    The secondary vocational school students are not interested in learning English, and cultivate students' positive learning attitude, to make them interested in English learning, clear their own learning goals, better realize their employment opportunity, better service to the society and the country.%中等职业学校的学生普遍对学习专业英语不感兴趣,如和培养学生积极的学习心态,重新让他们对英语学习感兴趣,明确自己的学习目标,更好的实现自己的就业机会,更好的为社会和国家服务。

  13. Student attitudes toward teaching English with technology

    Jenset, Gard B.


    The present study investigates attitudes among student teachers toward using electronic resources in teaching. Two groups of student teachers, one composed of students in their first semester and the other composed of students in their third or fourth year, were asked to assess their skills and attitudes, before being shown an example of how opensource, Web-based data and software can be used in teaching English culture and history. The results show that student teachers are positive toward u...

  14. Relationship between the stockperson's attitudes and dairy productivity in Japan.

    Fukasawa, Michiru; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Higashiyama, Yumi; Komatsu, Tokushi


    The aim of this study is to identify the factors that comprise farmer attitudes toward dairy cows and jobs in Japan, and examine the relationship between these attitudes and dairy productivity. At first, we executed a questionnaire survey to determine factors that comprise attitudes of farmers toward their jobs and dairy cows, and three factors were extracted. These were named as 'Positive beliefs to cows', 'Negative beliefs to cows' and 'Job satisfaction', respectively. Second, we examined the relationships between attitude and dairy productivity in 35 dairy farms. The positive beliefs scores correlated positively both with milk yield and milk urea nitrogen concentration. We found there to be three farm groups by cluster analysis using three attitude score. The group B farms showed significantly higher positive beliefs scores and job satisfaction scores; on the other hand, the group C farms showed significantly lower positive beliefs scores and higher negative belief scores. The milk yield in group B was significantly higher than that in group C. This study showed that Japanese farmers' attitudes toward cows considerably resemble those seen in previous studies in Western cultures. Positive attitudes toward cows could enhance stockmanship, and could improving animal welfare and productivity.

  15. Adolescents with obstructive sleep apnea adhere poorly to positive airway pressure (PAP, but PAP users show improved attention and school performance.

    Dean W Beebe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA is associated with medical and neurobehavioral morbidity across the lifespan. Positive airway pressure (PAP treatment has demonstrated efficacy in treating OSA and has been shown to improve daytime functioning in adults, but treatment adherence can be problematic. There are nearly no published studies examining functional outcomes such as academic functioning in adolescents treated with PAP. This study was conducted as an initial step towards determining whether PAP treatment improves daytime functioning among adolescents with OSA. METHODS: Self-reported academic grades, self- and parent-reported academic quality of life, and objectively-measured attention were assessed before and after PAP was clinically initiated in a sample of 13 obese adolescents with OSA, as well as 15 untreated obese Controls without OSA. Based on adherence data, the treated group was divided into PAP Users (n = 6 and Non-Adherent participants (n = 7. RESULTS: Though demographically similar, the three groups significantly differed in how their academic performance and attention scores changed from baseline to follow-up. Non-Adherent participants showed worsening functioning over time, while PAP Users showed stable or improved functioning, similar to controls. CONCLUSION: Although many adolescents prescribed PAP for OSA are non-adherent to the treatment, those who adhere to treatment can display improved attention and academic functioning.

  16. Consumer attitudes toward and intentions to accept mobile advertising

    Abednego Feehi Okoe


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the drivers of consumers’ attitudes towards mobile advertisement. It also sought the relationship between consumers’ attitudes towards mobile advertisement and their willingness to accept mobile advertising. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the measurement model while structural equation was conducted to assess the goodness-fit of the overall model. The findings indicate that entertainment, credibility and personalization had positive effects on consumers’ attitudes toward mobile advertising. Furthermore, the results show that, consumers’ attitude determines their willingness to accept mobile advertising.

  17. Attitudes toward same-sex marriage: the case of Scandinavia.

    Jakobsson, Niklas; Kotsadam, Andreas; Jakobsson, Siri Støre


    The purpose of this study was to examine the variables that explain attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Using recently collected Scandinavian data (from Norway and Sweden) with a high response rate, this study shows that gender, regular participation in religious activities, political ideology, education, whether the respondent lived in the capital city, and attitudes toward gender equality were important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Age and income were not important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Although both Norwegians and Swedes clearly favor same-sex marriage, Swedes are significantly more positive than Norwegians.

  18. Attitudes Toward Older Workers and Human Resource Practices

    Kluge, Annette; Krings, Franciska


    This study investigated attitudes towards older employees, perceived age discrimination, and HR practices (personnel development and reward) in 240 employees. Attitudes toward older employees were largely positive, thus supporting the notion that attitudes toward older employees are becoming increasingly positive. Older employees' attitudes towards older employees were more positive, but younger employees' attitudes were still favorable. Moreover, older and younger employees reported benefiti...

  19. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D.; de Ángeles Granados-Silvestre, Ma; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M.; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P.; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S.; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M.; Knowler, William C.; Bortolini, M. Cátira; Hayden, Michael R.; Baier, Leslie J.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel


    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 × 10−11) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations. PMID:20418488

  20. "Positive Attitude": A multilevel model analysis of the effectiveness of a Social and Emotional Learning Program for Portuguese middle school students.

    Coelho, Vítor Alexandre; Marchante, Marta; Sousa, Vanda


    This study investigated the impact, reported by students and their teachers, of a universal, school-based, social-emotional learning program, implemented in three school years on the social-emotional competencies of middle school students (7th to 9th grade). It also analyzes, at post-test and follow-up, the differential results by gender and among students with lower levels of competence. There were 1091 participants, 855 students received the treatment condition (i.e., Project Attitude) and 236 students the control condition. Self-reports identified positive intervention results in social awareness, self-control, self-esteem, social isolation and social anxiety, teachers reported gains in all dimensions. These positive effects were stably effective along the three cohorts. Self-reports also identified bigger gains for girls in social awareness and for boys in social anxiety, self-esteem and leadership. Students with initial lower levels of competence benefited more from the intervention, especially at follow-up. These results support the effectiveness of social-emotional learning programs.

  1. The tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism gene shows locus homogeneity on chromosome 15q11-q13 and evidence of multiple mutations in southern African negroids

    Kedda, M.A.; Stevens, G.; Manga, P.; Viljoen, C.; Jenkins, T.; Ramsay, M. (South African Institute for Medical Research, Johannesburg (South Africa) Univ. of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa))


    Tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism (ty-pos OCA) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the melanin pigmentary system. South African ty-pos OCA individuals occur with two distinct phenotypes, with or without darkly pigmented patches (ephelides, or dendritic freckles) on exposed areas of the skin. These phenotypes are concordant within families, suggesting that there may be more than one mutation at the ty-pos OCA locus. Linkage studies carried out in 41 families have shown linkage between markers in the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome (PWS/AS) region on chromosome 15q11-q13 and ty-pos OCA. Analysis showed no obligatory crossovers between the alleles at the D15S12 locus and ty-pos OCA, suggesting that the D15S12 locus is very close to or part of the disease locus, which is postulated to be the human homologue, P, of the mouse pink-eyed dilution gene, p. Unlike caucasoid [open quotes]ty-pos OCA[close quotes] individuals, negroid ty-pos OCA individuals do not show any evidence of locus heterogeneity. Studies of allelic association between the polymorphic alleles detected at the D15S12 locus and ephelus status suggest that there was a single major mutation giving rise to ty-pos OCA without ephelides. There may, however, be two major mutations causing ty-pos OCA with ephelides, one associated with D15S12 allele 1 and the other associated with D15S12 allele 2. The two loci, GABRA5 and D15S24, flanking D15S12, are both hypervariable, and many different haplotypes were observed with the alleles at the three loci on both ty-pos OCA-associated chromosomes and [open quotes]normal[close quotes] chromosomes. No haplotype showed statistically significant association with ty-pos OCA, and thus none could be used to predict the origins of the ty-pos OCA mutations. On the basis of the D15S12 results, there is evidence for multiple ty-pos OCA mutations in southern African negroids. 31 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. Field experiments of Controlled Drainage of agricultural clay soils show positive effects on water quantity (retention, runoff) and water quality (nitrate leaching).

    schipper, peter; stuyt, lodewijk; straat, van der, andre; schans, van der, martin


    Despite best management practices, agriculture is still facing major challenges to reduce nutrients leaching to the aquatic environment. In deltas, most of total nutrient losses from artificially drained agricultural soils are discharged via drains. Controlled drainage is a promising measure to prevent drainage of valuable nutrients, improve water quality and agricultural yield and adapt to climate change (reduce peak runoff, manage water scarcity and drought). In The Netherlands, this technique has attracted much attention by water managers and farmers alike, yet field studies to determine the expected (positive) effects for Dutch conditions were scarce. Recently, a field experiment was set up on clay soils. Research questions were: how does controlled, subsurface drainage perform on clay soils? Will deeper tile drains function just as well? What are the effects on drain water quality (especially with respect to nitrogen and salt) and crop yield? An agricultural field on clay soils was used to test different tile drainage configurations. Four types of tile drainage systems were installed, all in duplicate: eight plots in total. Each plot has its own outlet to a control box, where equipment was installed to control drain discharge and to measure the flow, concentrations of macro-ions, pH, nitrogen, N-isotopes and heavy metals. In each plot, groundwater observation wells and suction cups are installed in the saturated and vadose zones, at different depths, and crop yield is determined. Four plots discharge into a hydrologic isolated ditch, enabling the determination of water- and nutrient balances. Automatic drain water samplers and innovative nitrate sensors were installed in four plots. These enable identification and unravelling so-called first flush effects (changes in concentrations after a storm event). Water-, chloride- and nitrogen balances have been set up, and the interaction between groundwater and surface water has been quantified. The hydrological

  3. Plasma bile acids show a positive correlation with body mass index and are negatively associated with cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients

    Prinz, Philip; Hofmann, Tobias; Ahnis, Anne; Elbelt, Ulf; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Klapp, Burghard F.; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas


    Bile acids may be involved in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of plasma bile acids with body mass index (BMI) and the possible involvement of circulating bile acids in the modulation of physical activity and eating behavior. Blood was obtained in a group of hospitalized patients with normal weight (BMI 18.5–25 kg/m2), underweight (anorexia nervosa, BMI 50 kg/m2, n = 14–15/group) and plasma bile acid concentrations assessed. Physical activity and plasma bile acids were measured in a group of patients with anorexia nervosa (BMI 14.6 ± 0.3 kg/m2, n = 43). Lastly, in a population of obese patients (BMI 48.5 ± 0.9 kg/m2, n = 85), psychometric parameters related to disordered eating and plasma bile acids were assessed. Plasma bile acids showed a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.26, p = 0.03) in the population of patients with broad range of BMI (9–85 kg/m2, n = 74). No associations were observed between plasma bile acids and different parameters of physical activity in anorexic patients (p > 0.05). Plasma bile acids were negatively correlated with cognitive restraint of eating (r = −0.30, p = 0.008), while no associations were observed with other psychometric eating behavior-related parameters (p > 0.05) in obese patients. In conclusion, these data may point toward a role of bile acids in the regulation of body weight. Since plasma bile acids are negatively correlated with the cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients, this may represent a compensatory adaptation to prevent further overeating. PMID:26089773

  4. Plasma bile acids show a positive correlation with body mass index and are negatively associated with cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients

    Philip ePrinz


    Full Text Available Bile acids may be involved in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of plasma bile acids with body mass index (BMI and the possible involvement of circulating bile acids in the modulation of physical activity and eating behavior. Blood was obtained in a group of hospitalized patients with normal weight (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2, underweight (anorexia nervosa, BMI 50 kg/m2, n=14-15/group and plasma bile acid concentrations assessed. Physical activity and plasma bile acids were measured in a group of patients with anorexia nervosa (BMI 14.6±0.3 kg/m2, n=43. Lastly, in a population of obese patients (BMI 48.5±0.9 kg/m2, n=85, psychometric parameters related to disordered eating and plasma bile acids were assessed. Plasma bile acids showed a positive correlation with BMI (r=0.26, p=0.03 in the population of patients with broad range of BMI (9-85 kg/m2, n=74. No associations were observed between plasma bile acids and different parameters of physical activity in anorexic patients (p>0.05. Plasma bile acids were negatively correlated with cognitive restraint of eating (r=-0.30, p=0.008, while no associations were observed with other psychometric eating behavior-related parameters (p>0.05 in obese patients. In conclusion, these data may point towards a role of bile acids in the regulation of body weight. Since plasma bile acids are negatively correlated with the cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients, this may represent a compensatory adaptation to prevent further overeating.

  5. Attitude and Trajectory Estimation Using Earth Magnetic Field Data

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.


    The magnetometer has long been a reliable, inexpensive sensor used in spacecraft momentum management and attitude estimation. Recent studies show an increased accuracy potential for magnetometer-only attitude estimation systems. Since the Earth's magnetic field is a function of time and position, and since time is known quite precisely, the differences between the computer and measured magnetic field components, as measured by the magnetometers throughout the entire spacecraft orbit, are a function of both the spacecraft trajectory and attitude errors. Therefore, these errors can be used to estimate both trajectory and attitude. Traditionally, satellite attitude and trajectory have been estimated with completely separate system, using different measurement data. Recently, trajectory estimation for low earth orbit satellites was successfully demonstrated in ground software using only magnetometer data. This work proposes a single augmented extended Kalman Filter to simultaneously and autonomously estimate both spacecraft trajectory and attitude with data from a magnetometer and either dynamically determined rates or gyro-measured body rates.

  6. Food and the relation between values and attitude characteristics.

    Dreezens, Ellen; Martijn, Carolien; Tenbült, Petra; Kok, Gerjo; de Vries, Nanne K


    This survey showed that the values power (dominance over nature and resources) and universalism (respect for people and for nature) are related to attitudes toward genetically modified food (GMF) and organically grown food (OGF). Furthermore, these values have an influence on the centrality, commitment and ambivalence of these attitudes. Values that are positively related to an attitude influence how central this attitude is to a person. However, values that are negatively related to an attitude have a larger effect on the commitment of this attitude. No such pattern of effects was found for the relationship between ambivalence and values. These data suggest that centrality, commitment, and ambivalence are structurally different constructs that have a distinct relationship with specific values.

  7. Does a Well-Informed Employee Have a More Positive Attitude Toward Change? The Mediating Role of Psychological Contract Fulfillment, Trust, and Perceived Need for Change

    van den Heuvel, Sjoerd; Schalk, René; van Assen, Marcel A L M


    This study examined the mediating role of psychological contract fulfillment, trust, and perceived need for change in the relationship between change information and employee attitude toward organizational change. As one of the first studies in organizational change research, attitude toward change

  8. Children's Attitudes toward the Elderly

    Jantz, Richard K.; And Others


    A study measured children's attitudes toward and knowledge of older people in American society. Findings indicate that children have little general knowledge of the elderly and very complex, mixed attitudes toward older persons. Ways are suggested in which schools can inculcate positive attitudes toward all people, including the elderly.…

  9. College Students' Attitudes toward Computers.

    Leite, Pedro T.

    This paper reports a survey conducted at a private midwestern university to investigate 143 undergraduate students' attitudes toward computers. The study used a 10-item questionnaire called General Attitudes toward Computers. Results indicated that students had positive attitudes toward computers. There were no significant differences in attitudes…

  10. Faculty attitudes about interprofessional education

    Gary L. Beck Dallaghan


    Full Text Available Background: Interprofessional education (IPE is an important component to training health care professionals. Research is limited in exploring the attitudes that faculty hold regarding IPE and what barriers they perceive to participating in IPE. The purpose of this study was to identify faculty attitudes about IPE and to identify barriers to participating in campus-wide IPE activities. Methods: A locally used questionnaire called the Nebraska Interprofessional Education Attitudes Scale (NIPEAS was used to assess attitudes related to interprofessional collaboration. Questions regarding perceived barriers were included at the end of the questionnaire. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were used to analyze the results in aggregate as well as by college. In addition, open-ended questions were analyzed using an immersion/crystallization framework to identify themes. Results: The results showed that faculty had positive attitudes of IPE, indicating that is not a barrier to participating in IPE activities. Most common barriers to participation were scheduling conflicts (x24,285=19.17, p=0.001, lack of department support (4,285=10.09, p=0.039, and lack of awareness of events (x24,285=26.38, p=0.000. Narrative comments corroborated that scheduling conflicts are an issue because of other priorities. Those who commented also added to the list of barriers, including relevance of the activities, location, and prior negative experiences. Discussion: With faculty attitudes being positive, the exploration of faculty's perceived barriers to IPE was considered even more important. Identifying these barriers will allow us to modify our IPE activities from large, campus-wide events to smaller activities that are longitudinal in nature, embedded within current curriculum and involving more authentic experiences.

  11. The relationship between attitudes towards menarche and current attitudes towards menstruation of women: A comparative study

    Nülüfer Erbil


    Full Text Available Purpose: The study was conducted to determine affecting factors and to investigate relationship  between  attitudes towards menarche and current attitudes towards menstruation of women and to compare characteristics of menarche and menstruation of women who were born and raised in the northeastern and western of Turkey.  Method and Materials: This descriptive and comparative study was participated totally 400 volunteer women. The data were collected using a questionnaire containing defined closed and open-ended questions. Results: The study results showed that women living in Ordu province than women living in Aydın province expressed positive attitudes toward menarche, and the difference was found significant. Nevertheless, attitudes towards current menstruation were similar in both provinces. When the data of 400 women were evaluated together; women’s attitudes towards menarche were compared with the current attitudes towards menstruation, and the difference was found statistically significant. Although attitudes of the women towards menarche varied according to where they lived, their current attitudes towards menstruation were similar. In addition, depending upon the province, there were statistically significant differences in women’s age at menarche, recollection of menarche, and feelings of shame or happiness at menarche, source and adequacy of information about menstruation, and regularity of their menstrual cycle.   Conclusions: Early menstrual experiences may be related to menstrual experiences later in life and women’s attitudes towards menstruation were not affected by geographical locations. In order to develop positive attitudes towards menarche and a woman’s future years of menstrual cycles, it is very important that accurate and adequate information for young girls be provided before menarche.

  12. An Outstanding Head Teacher with a Positive Attitude%以积极的心态做优秀班主任



    The incidents of middle school students hurting their teachers appear from time to time ,which is worth thinking deeply .Teach-ers ,especially the teachers in charge of the class ,need to re-examine the students in this new information age .At the same time head teachers should explore an appropriate way to train students by knowing their psychological characteristics .In this paper ,a teacher ,who is in charge of a class ,shares his idea about how to become an excellent and happy head teacher under the new relationship between teachers and students dur-ing educating students in a scientific way while facing the pressure and unexpected challenges .The teacher then illustrates his idea of teaching from the following four aspects :welcome the new students with positive attitudes ;build a“lucky network”with optimistic attitudes ;take students as the main body to build an action system ;wait for the development of students with patience in an appreciative way .%中学生伤害教师的事情时有发生,值得人们深思。教师特别是班主任要重新审视信息时代的学生,在了解师生心理特征的基础上探寻教育学生的良好途径。文章通过一位中学班主任的切身经历,从以“幸运儿”的积极心态迎接新生、以积极的态度构建“幸运关系网”、以学生为主体建立行动体系、以欣赏的心态“静待花开”四个方面分析中学班主任在面对重重压力、意外挑战时,如何才能具备适应时代发展的教育观、学生观和质量观,建立新型师生关系下的和谐班级,科学育人,以积极的心态做一个优秀且幸福的班主任。

  13. Attitudes towards wind power development in Denmark

    Ladenburg, Jacob

    The present paper analyses the attitudes towards existing and future land-based turbines and off-shore wind farms. The analysis is carried out using a probit model to elicit systematic characteristics determining the attitude of the population. The analyses show that off-shore development...... is preferred to land based development, which indicates that the wind power development should be taken off-shore. But, the results also point out that the land-based opportunities for wind power development are not exhausted. On a more detailed level, the results denote that the attitude towards both land...... based and off-shore wind power vary with age of the respondents and experience with wind turbines. Younger respondents are more positive towards wind power than older respondents, pointing towards an increase in acceptance in the future. The attitude was also found to covariate negatively...

  14. Attitudes towards wind power development in Denmark

    Ladenburg, Jacob

    is preferred to land based development, which indicates that the wind power development should be taken off-shore. But, the results also point out that the land-based opportunities for wind power development are not exhausted. On a more detailed level, the results denote that the attitude towards both land...... based and off-shore wind power vary with age of the respondents and experience with wind turbines. Younger respondents are more positive towards wind power than older respondents, pointing towards an increase in acceptance in the future. The attitude was also found to covariate negatively......The present paper analyses the attitudes towards existing and future land-based turbines and off-shore wind farms. The analysis is carried out using a probit model to elicit systematic characteristics determining the attitude of the population. The analyses show that off-shore development...

  15. Positive Control Mutations in the MyoD Basic Region Fail to Show Cooperative DNA Binding and Transcriptional Activation in vitro

    Bengal, Eyal; Flores, Osvaldo; Rangarajan, Pundi N.; Chen, Amy; Weintraub, Harold; Verma, Inder M.


    An in vitro transcription system from HeLa cells has been established in which MyoD and E47 proteins activate transcription both as homodimers and heterodimers. However, heterodimers activate transcription more efficiently than homodimers, and function synergistically from multiple binding sites. Positive control mutants in the basic region of MyoD that have previously been shown to be defective in initiating the myogenic program, can bind DNA but have lost their ability to function as transcriptional activators in vitro. Additionally, positive control mutants, unlike wild-type MyoD, fail to bind cooperatively to DNA. We propose that binding of MyoD complexes to high affinity MyoD binding sites induces conformational changes that facilitate cooperative binding to multiple sites and promote transcriptional activation.

  16. Mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD and depression

    Thomas Maier


    Full Text Available Background: To date, mental health professionals’ attitudes toward posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, compared to other psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or depression, have rarely been studied. Objective: We assessed mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD compared to patients suffering from depression. Method: Case vignettes of a patient with either PTSD or depression were presented to two samples of mental health professionals: attendees of a conference on posttraumatic stress (N=226 or of a lecture for psychiatry residents (N=112. Participants subsequently completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitude reactions to the presented case. Results: Participants showed similarly positive attitudes toward depression and PTSD. PTSD elicited a more favorable attitude with regard to prosocial reactions, estimated dependency, attributed responsibility, and interest in the case, particularly in mental health professionals specializing in psychotraumatology. Across diagnoses, higher age and longer professional experience were associated with more positive attitudes toward patients. Conclusions: Mental health professionals’ positive attitudes toward patients with depression and PTSD correlate with their specific knowledge about the disorder, their level of professional training, and their years of professional experience. Limitations: The instruments used, although based on established theoretical concepts in attitude research, were not validated in their present versions.

  17. Bi-satellite formation relative position and attitude measurement based on Dual quaternion%基于对偶四元数的双星编队相对位姿测量

    李静; 王惠南; 付世勇; 刘海颖


    为了描述编队卫星中主从星的相对位置和姿态信息,提出了基于对偶四元数的编队卫星相对位姿测量算法.以双星编队飞行的位姿运动为主线,运用对偶四元数工具,充分发挥其能以最简洁的形式表示一般性刚体运动的优点,对卫星轨道和姿态进行分析并建立了对偶四元数位姿模型.同时设计类GPS测量技术来测量编队卫星的相对位置和姿态,该技术载波相位波长和伪码码元比GPS的更短,可获得更高精度的相对测量信号.由于状态方程和观测方程的非线性特征,使用UKF滤波来消除随机噪声对量测过程的干扰.实验结果表明,所设计的算法能够有效估计系统误差,卫星的位置误差为10-3 m左右,四元教误差为10-15左右,验证了该算法的有效性.%In order to describe relative position and attitude information of formation flying satellites, a novel dual quaternion based satellite formation flying position and attitude measurement technique is put forward. Guided by bi-satellite formation flying position and attitude movement, and under the help of dual quaternion, the complex satellite formation flying position and attitude measurement model is constructed which has such merits as simple form of rigid body movement expression. Then a GPS-like measurement modal is put forward, and the observation equation is constructed for the position and attitude measurement, which owns shorter carrier phase wavelength and pseudo code symbol than those of GPS. At last, a refined UKF filter is applied to eliminate the system noise during the measurement process. Simulation is added to further improve its correctness and efficiency in solving formation flying satellite relative position and attitude measurement problem, in which the relative position error and the quaternion error are 10~3mand 10-15.

  18. High School Students' Attitudes Toward Homosexuality.

    Price, James H.


    A review of research concerning attitudes toward homosexuality and a study of 278 high school students' attitudes toward homosexuality show that males have significantly greater negative attitudes toward homosexuality. Tables display results of the study. (CJ)

  19. Analysing lawyers’ attitude towards knowledge sharing

    Wole M. Olatokun


    Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes to knowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated the relationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’, and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA in the knowledge sharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection. Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. Principal Component Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression was applied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the major determinants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was not significantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitude towards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge, although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positive knowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also found to significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more IT infrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers. 

  20. Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.


    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

  1. Nutrition label use mediates the positive relationship between nutrition knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating with dietary quality among university students in the UK.

    Cooke, Rachel; Papadaki, Angeliki


    The aim of this study was to investigate whether nutrition knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating are predictors of nutrition label use (NLU) and dietary quality in a diverse sample of university students in the UK. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 among 500 students (mean age 24.9 years; 75% females) in 37 UK universities. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, NLU and dietary quality were assessed using previously validated questionnaires. The majority of participants met dietary recommendations for fat, added sugar and fast food intake, and failed to meet recommendations for calcium, fibre, fruit and vegetable and dairy product intake, resulting in a median dietary quality score of 2.0 (score range = 0-8). Nutrition knowledge differed according to gender, age, body mass index (BMI), nationality and NLU. Attitudes towards healthy eating differed according to BMI and NLU and dietary quality differed according to gender. Nutrition knowledge and attitudes were significant predictors of NLU and dietary quality, with NLU mediating the latter relationship, whereas NLU, when controlled for knowledge and attitudes, negatively predicted dietary quality but did not have a significant independent relationship with diet. Future nutrition interventions to improve dietary quality in this sample of UK university students should focus on improving nutrition knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating.

  2. Snobbish Show



    @@ The State Administration of Radio,Film and Television (SARFT),China's media watchdog,issued a new set of mles on June 9 that strictly regulate TV match-making shows,which have been sweeping the country's primetime programming. "Improper social and love values such as money worship should not be presented in these shows.Humiliation,verbal attacks and sex-implied vulgar content are not allowed" the new roles said.

  3. Show Time


    <正> Story: Show Time!The whole class presents the story"Under the Sea".Everyone is so excited and happy.Both Leo and Kathy show their parentsthe characters of the play."Who’s he?"asks Kathy’s mom."He’s the prince."Kathy replies."Who’s she?"asks Leo’s dad."She’s the queen."Leo replieswith a smile.

  4. Consumer attitudes to enzymes in food production

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim


    The use of enzymes in food production has potential benefits for both food manufacturers and consumers. A central question is how consumers react to new ways of producing foods with enzymes. This study investigates the formation of consumer attitudes to different enzyme production methods in three...... European countries. Results show that consumers are most positive towards non-GM enzyme production methods. The enzyme production method is by far the most important factor for the formation of buying intentions compared to price and benefits. Results also show that environmental concern and attitudes...



    Visitors look at plane models of the Commercial Aircraft Corp. of China, developer of the count,s first homegrown large passenger jet C919, during the Singapore Airshow on February 16. The biennial event is the largest airshow in Asia and one of the most important aviation and defense shows worldwide. A number of Chinese companies took part in the event during which Okay Airways, the first privately owned aidine in China, signed a deal to acquire 12 Boeing 737 jets.

  6. Multidimensional Attitudes of Emergency Medicine Residents Toward Older Adults

    Teresita M. Hogan


    Full Text Available Introduction: The demands of our rapidly expanding older population strain many emergency departments (EDs, and older patients experience disproportionately high adverse health outcomes. Trainee attitude is key in improving care for older adults. There is negligible knowledge of baseline emergency medicine (EM resident attitudes regarding elder patients. Awareness of baseline attitudes can serve to better structure training for improved care of older adults. The objective of the study is to identify baseline EM resident attitudes toward older adults using a validated attitude scale and multidimensional analysis. Methods: Six EM residencies participated in a voluntary anonymous survey delivered in summer and fall 2009. We used factor analysis using the principal components method and Varimax rotation, to analyze attitude interdependence, translating the 21 survey questions into 6 independent dimensions. We adapted this survey from a validated instrument by the addition of 7 EM-specific questions to measures attitudes relevant to emergency care of elders and the training of EM residents in the geriatric competencies. Scoring was performed on a 5-point Likert scale. We compared factor scores using student t and ANOVA. Results: 173 EM residents participated showing an overall positive attitude toward older adults, with a factor score of 3.79 (3.0 being a neutral score. Attitudes trended to more negative in successive post-graduate year (PGY levels. Conclusion: EM residents demonstrate an overall positive attitude towards the care of older adults. We noted a longitudinal hardening of attitude in social values, which are more negative in successive PGY-year levels. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(4:511–517.

  7. How and when do personal values guide our attitudes and sociality? Explaining cross-cultural variability in attitude-value linkages.

    Boer, Diana; Fischer, Ronald


    This article examines how and when personal values relate to social attitudes. Considering values as motivational orientations, we propose an attitude-value taxonomy based on Moral Foundation Theory (Haidt & Joseph, 2007) and Schwartz's (1992) basic human values theory allowing predictions of (a) how social attitudes are related to personal values, and (b) when macro-contextual factors have an impact on attitude-value links. In a meta-analysis based on the Schwartz Value Survey (Schwartz, 1992) and the Portrait Value Questionnaire (Schwartz et al., 2001; k = 91, N = 30,357 from 31 countries), we found that self-transcendence (vs. self-enhancement) values relate positively to fairness/proenvironmental and care/prosocial attitudes, and conservation (vs. openness-to-change) values relate to purity/religious and authority/political attitudes, whereas ingroup/identity attitudes are not consistently associated with value dimensions. Additionally, we hypothesize that the ecological, economic, and cultural context moderates the extent to which values guide social attitudes. Results of the multi-level meta-analysis show that ecological and cultural factors inhibit or foster attitude-value associations: Disease stress is associated with lower attitude-value associations for conservation (vs. openness-to-change) values; collectivism is associated with stronger attitude-value links for conservation values; individualism is associated with stronger attitude-value links for self-transcendence (vs. self-enhancement) values; and uncertainty avoidance is associated with stronger attitude-values links, particularly for conservation values. These findings challenge universalistic claims about context-independent attitude-value relations and contribute to refined future value and social attitude theories.

  8. Performance Information, Blame Avoidance, and Politicians’ Attitudes to Spending and Reform: Evidence From an Experiment

    Nielsen, Poul Aaes; Bækgaard, Martin


    information on politicians’ attitudes to spending and reform. To isolate the causal effect of performance information, we conducted a randomized survey experiment among 844 Danish city councilors. Information treatments showing high and low performance had a positive effect on attitudes to spending, whereas...

  9. The investigation of the reading attitudes of second grade students

    Kamil İşeri


    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to examine the reading attitudes of 6th, 7th and 8th level primary school students in respect to several variables using the “Reading Attitude Scale towards Primary School Second Grade Students” which is developed by Özbay and Uyar (2009. Study group consists of 508 students studying in the 6th, 7th and 8th levels of state primary schools in Niğde city centre. Thus, the reading attitudes of 6th, 7th and 8th level students in accordance with gender and school variables are intended to be defined. At the end of the study, the reading attitude levels of the second grade students are seen positive. It is concluded that the reading attitude score averages of second grade students show a significant difference with regard to genders, schools and classes at which they study.

  10. Attitudes toward older adults: A matter of cultural values or personal values?

    Zhang, Xin; Xing, Cai; Guan, Yanjun; Song, Xuan; Melloy, Robert; Wang, Fei; Jin, Xiaoyu


    The current research aimed to address the inconsistent findings regarding cultural differences in attitudes toward older adults by differentiating the effects of personal and cultural values. In Study 1, we used data from the sixth wave of the World Values Survey to examine attitudes toward older adults across cultures, and how different personal values (i.e., communal vs. agentic) and cultural values (i.e., individualism) predicted these attitudes. The results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that after controlling for potential covariates, personal communal values positively correlated with positive attitudes toward older adults; however, cultural individualistic values did not. To further examine the causal effects of personal values (vs. cultural values), we conducted an experimental study and confirmed that priming personal values rather than cultural values had significant effects on ageism attitudes. The present studies help to reconcile conflicting results on cultural differences in attitudes toward older adults.

  11. 岗位竞聘护士的竞争态度、自尊水平与心理健康%Self-esteem,Competitive Attitude and Psychological Health of Position Competition Nurses

    陈圣霞; 马洪霞; 张丽; 陈景清; 詹来英


    Objective To explore the relationship among self-esteem,competitive attitude and psychological health of position com-petition nurses ,and improve their healthy competition and psychosomatic health .Methods A total of 296 position competition nurses were investigated with the Self-esteem scale,Competitive Attitude Scale -Chinese version and Symptom Checklist 90.Results The mean scores of self-esteem and competitive attitude were 27.48 ±6.65,46.63 ±9.89 respectively.There were statistically significant differences in SCL-90 score among different level of self-esteem,competitive attitude groups .The SCL-90 score was negatively correla-ted with healthy competition and self-esteem respectively .Conclusion Competitive attitude and self-esteem can affect psychological health level, for position competition nurses ,the development of competitive attitude can be improved by increasing their self -esteem, which maybe result in more psychological health level .%目的:研究岗位竞聘护士的竞争态度、自尊水平与心理健康的关系,为促进护士身心健康及良性竞争提供依据。方法采用自尊量表、竞争态度量表、症状自评量表对296名在岗注册护士进行横断面调查。结果自尊量表平均分为(27.48±6.65)分,竞争态度量表平均分为(46.63±9.89)分,不同自尊、竞争态度组别的SCL-90的评分差异有统计学意义,良性竞争与SCL-90各因子评分呈负相关( r=-0.121~-0.224),自尊与SCL-90各因子均呈负相关( r=-0.136~-0.236)。结论竞争态度、自尊影响心理健康水平,提高竞聘护士的自尊,有助于促进良性竞争态度的形成,有利于心理健康。

  12. Epistemics and attitudes

    Pranav Anand


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the distribution of epistemic modals in attitude contexts in three Romance languages, as well as their potential interaction with mood selection. We show that epistemics can appear in complements of attitudes of acceptance (Stalnaker 1984, but not desideratives or directives; in addition, emotive doxastics (hope, fear and dubitatives (doubt permit epistemic possibility modals, but not their necessity counterparts. We argue that the embedding differences across attitudes indicate that epistemics are sensitive to the type of attitude an attitude predicate reports. We show that this sensitivity can be derived by adopting two types of proposals from the literature on epistemic modality and on attitude verbs: First, we assume that epistemics do not target knowledge uniformly, but rather quantify over an information state determined by the content of the embedding attitude (Hacquard 2006, 2010, Yalcin 2007. In turn, we adopt a fundamental split in the semantics of attitude verbs between ‘representational’ and ‘non-representational’ attitudes (Bolinger 1968: representational attitudes quantify over an information state (e.g., a set of beliefs for believe, which, we argue, epistemic modals can be anaphoric to. Non-representational attitudes do not quantify over an information state; instead, they combine with their complement via a comparison with contextually-provided alternatives using a logic of preference (cf. Bolinger 1968, Stalnaker 1984, Farkas 1985, Heim 1992, Villalta 2000, 2008. Finally, we argue that emotive doxastics and dubitatives have a hybrid semantics, which combines a representational component (responsible for licensing epistemic possibility modals, and a preference component (responsible for disallowing epistemic necessity modals. BibTeX info

  13. Attitudes without objects: evidence for a dispositional attitude, its measurement, and its consequences.

    Hepler, Justin; Albarracín, Dolores


    We hypothesized that individuals may differ in the dispositional tendency to have positive vs. negative attitudes, a trait termed the dispositional attitude. Across 4 studies, we developed a 16-item Dispositional Attitude Measure (DAM) and investigated its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and predictive validity. DAM scores were (a) positively correlated with positive affect traits, curiosity-related traits, and individual preexisting attitudes; (b) negatively correlated with negative affect traits; and (c) uncorrelated with theoretically unrelated traits. Dispositional attitudes also significantly predicted the valence of novel attitudes while controlling for theoretically relevant traits (such as the Big 5 and optimism). The dispositional attitude construct represents a new perspective in which attitudes are not simply a function of the properties of the stimuli under consideration, but are also a function of the properties of the evaluator. We discuss the intriguing implications of dispositional attitudes for many areas of research, including attitude formation, persuasion, and behavior prediction.

  14. Soldiers’ employment attitude and employability: An exploratory study

    Peng Gao


    Full Text Available Purpose: Nowadays it is very difficult for Chinese retired soldiers to find proper jobs, and the primary reason is the significant gap between job requirements and soldiers owned job skills. Therefore, it is very important to improve the soldiers’ job skills and enhance their understanding of employment.Design/methodology/approach: This paper expands the study scope from the soldiers’ job skills to the employability, initiatively introduces the employment attitude which has obvious impact on the employment of soldiers, and analyses the influence that employment attitude can play on employability. At last, this paper develops statistical method to find the relationship between soldiers’ employment attitude and employability.Findings: The empirical analysis shows that soldiers’ employment attitude has the positive linkage with employability, which makes the employment attitude a measurable variable for the employability rather than an absolute standard.Research limitations/implications: According to the research purpose, more variables should be considered in the model, consequently, there are only three indicators to describe solders’ employment attitude and four indicators to describe solders’ employability.Originality/value: This paper takes research on soldiers’ employability in a new perspective. The soldiers’ employment attitude is served as the entry point, showing the influence that soldiers’ employment attitude has on employability.

  15. Oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among health professionals in King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh

    Mohammad Abdul Baseer


    Conclusion: Oral health knowledge among the health professionals working in KFMC, Riyadh was lower than what would be expected of these groups, which had higher literacy levels in health care, but they showed a positive attitude toward professional dental care.

  16. The Effects of History of Mathematics on Attitudes Toward Mathematics of College Algebra Students

    McBride, Cecil; Rollins, James H.


    Two college algebra classes were exposed to items from mathematics history in their classroom instruction, while two other college algebra classes received no such exposure. Results showed a significant positive attitude change of the mathematics history group. (DT)

  17. GEANT4 simulation diagram showing the architecture of the ATLAS test line: the detectors are positioned to receive the beam from the SPS. A muon particle which enters the magnet and crosses all detectors is shown (blue line).


    GEANT4 simulation diagram showing the architecture of the ATLAS test line: the detectors are positioned to receive the beam from the SPS. A muon particle which enters the magnet and crosses all detectors is shown (blue line).

  18. Attitudes and persuasion.

    Crano, William D; Prislin, Radmila


    Study of attitudes and persuasion remains a defining characteristic of contemporary social psychology. This review outlines recent advances, with emphasis on the relevance of today's work for perennial issues. We reiterate the distinction between attitude formation and change, and show its relevance for persuasion. Single- and dual-process models are discussed, as are current views on dissonance theory. Majority and minority influence are scrutinized, with special emphasis on integrative theoretical innovations. Attitude strength is considered, and its relevance to ambivalence and resistance documented. Affect, mood, and emotion effects are reviewed, especially as they pertain to fear arousal and (un)certainty. Finally, we discuss attitude-behavior consistency, perhaps the reason for our interest in attitudes in the first place, with emphasis on self-interest and the theory of planned behavior. Our review reflects the dynamism and the reach of the area, and suggests a sure and sometimes rapid accumulation of knowledge and understanding.

  19. Consumers’ attitude towards fish meat

    Francesca Conte


    Full Text Available The overall aim of this paper is to show the factors that may affect consumers’ attitude towards farmed fish products. Consumers ask new products on the basis of different quality attributes: stability, safety, composition, better health effects, environment protection, etc. Different and controversial opinions on farmed and wild fish are also explored by literature review. The authors pay attention also to fish welfare as an emerging issue and effective information about fish products as a factor exerting a positive influence on consumers’ decision of purchase. Some relevant legislative notes on the paper’s topics are also cited. The qualitative aspects of aquaculture fish and the consumers’ demand and choice need further studies, according to some factors, such as the changing consumers’ attitudes towards fish products, the different fish quality perception and the development in the aquaculture systems.

  20. The Study of Attitude Tendency Catchwords from the Perspective of Positive Discourse Analysis%积极话语分析视角下的态度倾向流行语研究



    Catchwords record people ’s emotion, will and spirit while reflecting the social change, part of which has obvious tendency of attitude. Catchwords of positive attitude tendency convey positive energy of the society in people ’s life while catchwords of negative attitude tendency reflect people ’s dissatisfaction with neg⁃ative events and phenomena, which is also a way to express their deep desire of changing the current situation. Attitude tendency catchwords load the current social public opinion, and they are also the language products of multiple contemporary social values and the multiple communication channels.%流行语在反映社会变迁的过程中也记录下了民众的情感、意愿及精神风貌,部分流行语具有鲜明的态度倾向。具有正面态度倾向的流行语在民众生活中传递着社会的正能量,具有负面态度倾向的流行语反映了人们对社会负面事件和现象的不满,但也是希望改变现状这一深层愿望的表达。态度倾向流行语负载了当下的社会舆情,也是当下多元的社会价值观和多元传播渠道下的语言产物。

  1. Nursing student attitudes toward statistics.

    Mathew, Lizy; Aktan, Nadine M


    Nursing is guided by evidence-based practice. To understand and apply research to practice, nurses must be knowledgeable in statistics; therefore, it is crucial to promote a positive attitude toward statistics among nursing students. The purpose of this quantitative cross-sectional study was to assess differences in attitudes toward statistics among undergraduate nursing, graduate nursing, and undergraduate non-nursing students. The Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics Scale-36 (SATS-36) was used to measure student attitudes, with higher scores denoting more positive attitudes. The convenience sample was composed of 175 students from a public university in the northeastern United States. Statistically significant relationships were found among some of the key demographic variables. Graduate nursing students had a significantly lower score on the SATS-36, compared with baccalaureate nursing and non-nursing students. Therefore, an innovative nursing curriculum that incorporates knowledge of student attitudes and key demographic variables may result in favorable outcomes.

  2. Students attitude towards calculus subject: Bumiputera case-study

    Awang, Noorehan; Ilias, Mohd Rijal; Che Hussain, Wan Siti Esah; Mokhtar, Siti Fairus


    Mathematics has always become the most dislike subject among other subjects in school. Study showed that attitudes of students in science subjects such as mathematics were closely related to how they solve problems, accessing ideas and making a right decision. According to another study on mathematics achievement of eighth grade students in Malaysia, mathematics grades among bumiputera students was lower when compared to other races such as Chinese and Indians. The poor performance was due to their attitude and pre-conceived ideas towards the subject. Therefore, this study was designed todetermine the criteria and subcriteria that were considered important in measuring students' attitude toward mathematics among the bumiputeras. Factor analysis was carried out to identify the groups among criterion. Instrument used to measure mathematics attitude was Test of Mathematics Related Attitude (TOMRA) which measured student attitudes in four criteria: normality of mathematics, attitudes towards mathematics inquiry, adoption of mathematics attitude and enjoyment of mathematics lessons. The target population of this study was all computer science and quantitative science students who enrolled Calculus subject in UiTM Kedah. Findings shows that there are two criteria that influenced students attitude toward mathematics namely normality of mathematics with eleven subcriteria and enjoyment of mathematics with eight subcriteria. From the analysis it shows that the total percentage of variation explained is 35.071% with 0.837 Cronbach's alpha reliability test. The findings will help the lecturers, parents and society to consider what action should be taken to install interest and positive attitude of bumiputera students towards mathematics and thus improve their achievement.

  3. Using cognitive dissonance to enhance faculty members' attitudes toward teaching online courses.

    Chiou, Wen-Bin


    Adopting a reward strategy for inducing college faculty to teach online courses is expected to cause a positive shift of their attitudes. Based upon dissonance theory, a smaller reward will lead to greater attitude change, and this effect will be more pronounced in individualists. The results of an experimental study showed that individualist teachers exhibited greater attitude change under low reward than under high reward, but the reward effect was not prominent in collectivist teachers. Implications for enhancing college teachers' attitudes toward teaching online courses are discussed.

  4. Attitudes Towards Immigration

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Roland Munch, Jakob; Schroll, Sanne


    In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people's attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternativeand more direct test of whether economic self-interest mattersfor people's attitudes towards immigration. We find that whilethe...... "original" relationship between education and attitudes found in the literature is unlikely to reflect economic self-interest, there is considerable evidence of economic self-interest when using the more directtest....

  5. Attitudes Towards Immigration

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne

    In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people’s attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternative and more direct test of whether economic self-interest matters for people’s attitudes towards immigration. We find that while...... the "original" relationship between education and attitudes found in the literature is unlikely to reflect economic self-interest, there is considerable evidence of economic self-interest when using the more direct test...

  6. Counselor Trainee Attitudes toward Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse

    Davis, Sharon J.; Sneed, Zachery B.; Koch, D. Shane


    Using the Counselor Trainee Attitudes Measure (CTAM) to assess student attitudes toward alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA), results indicated that students had more positive attitudes toward AODA when they were in recovery or had a family member in recovery. Furthermore, completion of AODA related courses predicted more positive attitudes toward…

  7. Attitude Exploration Using Factor Analysis Technique

    Monika Raghuvanshi


    Full Text Available Attitude is a psychological variable that contains positive or negative evaluation about people or an environment. The growing generation possesses learning skills, so if positive attitude is inculcated at the right age, it might therefore become habitual. Students in the age group 14-20 years from the city of Bikaner, India, are the target population for this study. An inventory of 30Likert-type scale statements was prepared in order to measure attitude towards the environment and matters related to conservation. The primary data is collected though a structured questionnaire, using cluster sampling technique and analyzed using the IBM SPSS 23 statistical tool. Factor analysis is used to reduce 30 variables to a smaller number of more identifiable groups of variables. Results show that students “need more regulation and voluntary participation to protect the environment”, “need conservation of water and electricity”, “are concerned for undue wastage of water”, “need visible actions to protect the environment”, “need strengthening of the public transport system”, “are a little bit ignorant about the consequences of global warming”, “want prevention of water pollution by industries”, “need changing of personal habits to protect the environment”, and “don’t have firsthand experience of global warming”. Analysis revealed that nine factors obtained could explain about 58.5% variance in the attitude of secondary school students towards the environment in the city of Bikaner, India. The remaining 39.6% variance is attributed to other elements not explained by this analysis. A global campaign for improvement in attitude about environmental issues and its utility in daily lives may boost positive youth attitudes, potentially impacting worldwide. A cross-disciplinary approach may be developed by teaching along with other related disciplines such as science, economics, and social studies etc.

  8. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    that more negative attitudes against immigrants has a positive impact on education in one case and a negative impact in the other and has no impact on natives. Immigration improves employment perspectives for immigrants and thereby increases immigrant education whereas endogenous negative attitudes lead......We consider the impact of negative attitudes against immigrants and immigration on educational choice in a search and wage bargaining model including networking. We consider two cases in terms of the importance of negative attitudes againts immigrants for high and low educated individuals and find...

  9. Agricultural experts’ attitude towards precision agriculture: Evidence from Guilan Agricultural Organization, Northern Iran

    Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari


    Full Text Available Identifying factors that influence the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding precision agriculture plays an important role in developing, promoting and establishing precision agriculture. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding the implementation of precision agriculture. A descriptive research design was employed as the research method. A research-made questionnaire was used to examine the agricultural experts’ attitude toward precision agriculture. Internal consistency was demonstrated with a coefficient alpha of 0.87, and the content and face validity of the instrument was confirmed by a panel of experts. The results show that technical, economic and accessibility factors accounted for 55% of the changes in attitudes towards precision agriculture. The findings revealed that there were no significant differences between participants in terms of gender, field of study, extension education, age, experience, organizational position and attitudes, while education levels had a significant effect on the respondent’s attitudes.

  10. [Explicit and implicit attitudes toward standard-Japanese and Osaka-dialect language use].

    Watanabe, Takumi; Karasawa, Kaori


    This article examines the effects of language use on explicit and implicit attitudes. We employed the matched-guise technique to measure participants' impressions of standard-Japanese and Osaka-dialect speakers. Implicit attitudes were assessed by the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The Osaka-dialect speaker was evaluated as warmer than the standard-Japanese speaker, suggesting that explicit attitudes toward the Osaka dialect have changed positively. On the other hand, the results for the impression of intelligence were consistent with the previous literature that the standard-Japanese speaker was seen as more intelligent than the Osaka-dialect speaker. Compared with explicit attitudes, the analyses of implicit attitudes revealed that participants showed a consistent implicit bias favoring standard-Japanese language use. The changing processes and relationships of explicit and implicit attitudes were discussed.

  11. Neuroticism and attitudes toward action in 19 countries.

    Ireland, Molly E; Hepler, Justin; Li, Hong; Albarracín, Dolores


    Although individuals scoring high on Neuroticism tend to avoid taking action when faced with challenges, Neuroticism is also characterized by impulsivity. To explore cognitive biases related to this costly behavior pattern, we tested whether individuals who rated themselves as higher in Neuroticism would evaluate the general concepts of action and inaction as, respectively, more negative and positive. We further investigated whether anxiety and depression would mediate and individualism-collectivism would moderate these relations in a large international sample. Participants (N = 3,827 college students; 69% female) from 19 countries completed surveys measuring Neuroticism, attitudes toward action and inaction, depression, anxiety, and individualism-collectivism. Hierarchical linear models tested the above predictions. Neuroticism negatively correlated with attitudes toward action and positively correlated with attitudes toward inaction. Furthermore, anxiety was primarily responsible for emotionally unstable individuals' less positive attitudes toward action, and individuals who endorsed more collectivistic than individualistic beliefs showed a stronger negative association between Neuroticism and attitudes toward action. Researchers and practitioners interested in understanding and remediating the negative consequences of Neuroticism should pay greater attention to attitudes toward action and inaction, particularly focusing on their links with anxiety and individualism-collectivism.

  12. Research findings can change attitudes about corporal punishment.

    Holden, George W; Brown, Alan S; Baldwin, Austin S; Croft Caderao, Kathryn


    Positive attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment (CP) predict subsequent spanking behavior. Given that CP has frequently been associated with behavior problems in children and child maltreatment, this prevention work was designed to test whether adults' attitudes could be changed by informing participants about the research findings on problematic behaviors associated with CP. Two random assignment studies are reported. In Study 1, we tested whether an active reading condition would result in more attitude change than a passive condition. With a sample of 118 non-parent adults, we found that after reading very brief research summaries on the problems associated with CP, there was a significant decrease in favorable attitudes toward CP. Contrary to expectations, the magnitude of the change was comparable for active and passive processing conditions. In Study 2, we extended our approach to a sample of 520 parents and included a control group. A significant decrease in positive attitudes toward spanking was observed in the intervention group, but no change for the control group. Parents who were unaware of the research showed more change after reading the summaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate that a brief and cost-effective approach to raise awareness of research findings can reduce positive attitudes toward CP. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed.

  13. Attitudes towards recreational hunting

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard


    points of view, but it has also been commended as an activity which allows us to take responsibility for procuring our own food. The paper reports a national survey of the general public using an Internet-based questionnaire sent to a representative sample of the Danish public in 2012 (n=1001). Attitudes...... towards recreational hunting among the adult general public were examined in relation to gender, age, education, income and residence, association with hunters, hunting conditions, and wildlife value orientations. 43% of the general public had a positive attitude, 31% were indifferent, and 26% had...... levels of public support for recreational hunting is important if we are to gauge whether hunting as a recreational and socio-cultural activity can be sustained. A rethink of hunting as part of the leisure industry should be considered, because the least positive attitudes were found in relation...

  14. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    Andersen, Steffen; Lau, Morten I.; Rutström, E. Elisabet


    , and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  15. 基于多节点到达时间差的相对位姿测量系统%Relative position and attitude measurement system based on multiple TDOA

    赵慎; 乔纯捷; 王跃科


    在AUV对接逼近阶段,光学成像敏感器位姿测量性能受水下杂散光干扰和姿态角增加而降低.针对这个问题,提出一种新的基于多节点信号到达时间差的相对位姿测量方法.对接平台配置多个声发射换能器,同步发射具有多址能力的声信号;AUV配置多接收换能器,利用测量的到达时间差结合换能器节点的几何位置关系,通过线性迭代直接解算AUV与对接平台之间的相对位姿,保证定位精度,节省运算开销.仿真结果表明,所提出测量算法精度高,能够满足水下对接逼近阶段的相对位姿测量需求.%In approaching phase of AUV underwater docking, the measurement performance of relative position and attitude, which is obtained by optical image sensor, decreases with the increase of miscellaneous light interference and attitude angle. To solve this problem, a novel system is proposed, which is based on TDOA (time differences of arrival) measurement of multi-node. Multiple transmitting transducers are deployed on the docking, which will transmit acoustic signals with multiple access ability synchronously. AUV is configured with multiple receiving transducers which measures the TDOAs of the acoustic signals. The relative position and attitude is achieved based on the TDOAs and geometrical distribution of the transducers, through linear iteration, to guarantee the precision and decrease the calculation burden. The simulation indicates that the proposed method has higher accuracy, and can satisfy the requirement of the position and attitude in approaching phase of underwater docking.

  16. Reported Experiences Enhance Favourable Attitudes toward Toads

    Tomazic, Iztok


    There are many factors that influence the formation of attitudes, one of the most crucial ones being education. Positive attitudes toward animals can be effectively accomplished principally by enabling students to directly experience organisms and their environments. The following study presents the development of a Toad Attitude Questionnaire…

  17. [Autonomous National University of Mexico (UNAM) medical students' attitudes to research and learning: 1984-1994].

    Nobigrot-Kleinman, D; Nobigrot-Streimbleinsky, M; Galván-Huerta, S C


    This study evaluates, after a 10-year period, the attitudes of medical students towards research and learning at the National University of Mexico (UNAM), and tries to determine the role that experiences obtained during academic years could play in orienting these attitudes. Results indicate that all four groups of participant students,--1st and 4th-5th grades, in 1984 and in 1994--show slightly positive attitudes towards research and learning. No significant attitude changes were observed after the 10-year period in students who enter medical school nor in those who begin clinical practice. Besides, it was found a significant correlation between these two attitudinal factors. Some possible explanations for these results are discussed, as well as some steps that could help to promote positive attitudes towards research and learning.

  18. Parental Attitudes and the Effects of Ethnicity: How They Influence Children's Attitudes toward Science Education

    Alrehaly, Essa D.


    The purpose of this study was to explore the manner in which parents' attitudes toward science learning influences their children's attitudes and the effect of ethnicity on attitudes toward science learning. The results of this study show that parental attitudes toward science learning were influenced by both parents' early life experiences and…


    Rie Adachi


    Full Text Available This paper describes how gender and age affect Japanese pupils’ motivation for learning English and their attitudes to communication with people from different cultures. A new foreign language curriculum was introduced to Japanese elementary schools in 2011. Although each school can officially choose any foreign language in its own right, most elementary schools are now conducting English activity. However, as most homeroom teachers lack both experiences and qualifications for teaching English, this activity puts them under pressure. In addition, the number of foreign assistant language teachers (ALTs is not sufficient in most elementary schools. The writer surveyed fifth and sixth grade pupils’ motivation and their communicative attitudes in Japan during 2010, before the new course program, “foreign language activities,” began in 2011. The data were collected from three elementary schools in Japan via a questionnaire. The items on the questionnaire are related to motivational attitudes, orientations (reasons for studying a foreign language, communicative attitudes and some other variables relevant to learning foreign languages. The main focus of this study is to examine motivational and attitudinal variables among the pupils with regard to learning English, especially gender and age effects on these variables. The results show that girls generally have higher scores on motivation and communicative attitudes. Most previous studies have also shown that girls generally have a positive attitude toward learning a foreign language. This study argues that the reason behind this positive attitude toward learning English is due to their positive attitude toward communication in general. With regard to the age, there are a few differences between two school grades. As there is only one year difference in age between fifth and sixth grade pupils, the result is to be expected. The study suggests that Japanese elementary schools face a number of

  20. 基于滚动优化的模块航天器姿轨协同控制%Relative Cooperative Attitude and Position Control of Fractioned Spacecraft Based on Iterative Optimization

    朱志斌; 李果; 何英姿; 魏春岭


    In short range guidance stage, eccentric low-level continuous vector thruster and transformed torque equipment were used to maintain the close approaching and circling of specific object, and complete simultaneously orbit control and light of sight (LOS) stabilization.Relative coupling attitude and orbit dynamic model was established based on T-H equation and error quaternion.Expected relative position gaits were designed respectively for close approaching phase and circling phase.Expected attitude was computed based on LOS angles.Traditional θ-D method can only linearize dynamic equation at start point which hold limited neighbor stable area that can not cover large alteration of relative states during the process.Piecewise linearized θ-D suboptimal controller was proposed based on iterative optimal theory and utilized in relative attitude and orbit control, in which vector part of error quaternion was directly used for state feedback.Decent dimension alternation was made for coupling attitude and position state equation.Simulation results demonstrate that this method are effective.%在近程导引段,采用偏心连续小推力矢量推进器和力矩输出装置,实现对特定目标的直线逼近、绕飞,同时完成轨道控制和视线姿态稳定.基于T-H方程和误差四元数建立相对姿轨耦合动力学模型,分别对直线逼近段和绕飞段设计相对位置期望轨线,期望姿态由视线方向计算得到.经典θ-D方法仅在起点处线性化动力学方程,稳定邻域范围有限,不能满足逼近和绕飞相对状态大范围变化的要求.因此基于滚动优化思想,提出分段线性化θ-D次优控制器设计方法,实现相对运动姿轨协同控制.其中姿态直接采用误差四元数矢量部分作状态反馈,降维处理姿轨耦合状态方程.仿真结果表明了该方法的有效性和实用性.

  1. Multimedia Instruction & Language Learning Attitudes: A Study with University Students

    Jesús Izquierdo


    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of two types of Multimedia Instruction (MI and learners’ second language (L2 proficiency on language learning attitudes. During four weeks, university learners of French received MI on the distinctive use of the perfective and the imperfective past in one of the four following conditions: learners with low L2 proficiency level exposed to MI with (n=17 or without language awareness tasks (n=17, and learners with intermediate L2 proficiency level exposed to MI with (n=14 or without language awareness tasks (n=28. Before and after the experiment, participants completed the Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB. Non-parametric analyses revealed a positive enhancement of classroom-related attitudes only among intermediate learners exposed to MI without Language Awareness Tasks. Nevertheless, the results showed similar as well as stable attitudes towards language learning in all the experimental conditions.

  2. [Attitudes toward psychotherapy in the general population].

    Petrowski, Katja; Hessel, Aike; Körner, Annett; Weidner, Kerstin; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas


    Attitudes towards psychotherapy are important predictors for the acceptance and usage of psychotherapy. A survey examined attitudes towards psychotherapy in a sample representative of the German population including 2089 persons between 14 to 92 years of age. Two thirds of the sample indicated a positive attitude towards psychotherapy. Men as well as individuals with lower education reported a more negative attitude towards psychotherapy than women and persons with higher educational level. Education had a medium effect size (d=0.44). Individuals with somatoform symptoms did not indicate a more negative attitude towards psychotherapy than the general population. Even though the majority of the population has a more positive attitude towards psychotherapy, this positive attitude does not apply for all groups of the -population.

  3. A cluster analysis to investigating nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and skills regarding the clinical management system.

    Chan, M F


    Nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and skills regarding the Clinical Management System are explored by identifying profiles of nurses working in Hong Kong. A total of 282 nurses from four hospitals completed a self-reported questionnaire during the period from December 2004 to May 2005. Two-step cluster analysis yielded two clusters. The first cluster (n = 159, 56.4%) was labeled "negative attitudes, less skillful, and average knowledge" group. The second cluster (n = 123, 43.6%) was labeled "positive attitudes, good knowledge, but less skillful." There was a positive correlation in cluster 1 for nurses' knowledge and attitudes (rs = 0.28) and in cluster 2 for nurses' skills and attitudes (rs = 0.25) toward computerization. The study showed that senior and more highly educated nurses generally held more positive attitudes to computerization, whereas the attitudes among younger and less well educated nurses generally were more negative. Such findings should be used to formulate strategies to encourage nurses to resolve actual problems following computer training and to increase the depth and breadth of nurses' computer knowledge and skills and improve their attitudes toward computerization.


    Rastogi, C. K.


    SUMMARY Parents of 50 mentally retarded children were investigated for their attitudes towards their retarded children. Both the parents showed more negative attitudes toward their severely retarded child. In general mothers exhibited more negative attitude than the fathers.

  5. Children's Intergroup Relations and Attitudes.

    Bigler, Rebecca S; Rohrbach, John M; Sanchez, Kiara L


    The existence of warm, intimate, supportive, and egalitarian relationships between members of differing social outgroups is likely, at the societal level, to facilitate cooperation and cohesion, and at the individual level, to promote positive social, educational, and occupational outcomes. The developmental pathway from intergroup contact to intergroup attitudes as it operates among children is not, however, well understood. In our chapter, we review and integrate selected social and developmental science related to intergroup relations and attitudes with the goal of proposing a conceptual model of the pathway from intergroup contact to positive intergroup attitudes among youth.

  6. Children’s Attitudes and Stereotype Content Toward Thin, Average-Weight, and Overweight Peers

    Federica Durante


    Full Text Available Six- to 11-year-old children’s attitudes toward thin, average-weight, and overweight targets were investigated with associated warmth and competence stereotypes. The results showed positive attitudes toward average-weight targets and negative attitudes toward overweight peers: Both attitudes decreased as a function of children’s age. Thin targets were perceived more positively than overweight ones but less positively than average-weight targets. Notably, social desirability concerns predicted the decline of anti-fat bias in older children. Finally, the results showed ambivalent stereotypes toward thin and overweight targets—particularly among older children—mirroring the stereotypes observed in adults. This result suggests that by the end of elementary school, children manage the two fundamental dimensions of social judgment similar to adults.

  7. Combinators for Paraconsistent Attitudes

    Villadsen, Jørgen


    In order to analyse the semantics of natural language sentences a translation into a partial type logic using lexical and logical combinators is presented. The sentences cover a fragment of English with propositional attitudes like knowledge, belief and assertion. A combinator is a closed term...... used for embedded sentences expressing propositional attitudes, thereby allowing for inconsistency without explosion (also called paraconsistency), and is based on a few key equalities for the connectives giving four truth values (truth, falsehood, and undefinedness with negative and positive polarity...

  8. Gaining control over responses to implicit attitude tests: Implementation intentions engender fast responses on attitude-incongruent trials.

    Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal; Pepper, John


    The present research investigated whether forming implementation intentions could promote fast responses to attitude-incongruent associations (e.g., woman-manager) and thereby modify scores on popular implicit measures of attitude. Expt 1 used the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure associations between gender and science versus liberal arts. Planning to associate women with science engendered fast responses to this category-attribute pairing and rendered summary scores more neutral compared to standard IAT instructions. Expt 2 demonstrated that forming egalitarian goal intentions is not sufficient to produce these effects. Expt 3 extended these findings to a different measure of implicit attitude (the Go/No-Go Association Task) and a different stereotypical association (Muslims-terrorism). In Expt 4, managers who planned to associate women with superordinate positions showed more neutral IAT scores relative to non-planners and effects were maintained 3 weeks later. In sum, implementation intentions enable people to gain control over implicit attitude responses.

  9. Students' attitudes towards science and science learning in an introductory undergraduate biology course

    Floro, Nicole

    Science education strives to cultivate individuals who understand scientific concepts as well as the nature of science and science learning. This study focused on the potential benefits of the flipped classroom on students' attitudes towards science and science learning. Our study investigated changes in and effects of students' attitudes towards science and science learning in a flipped introductory biology course at the University of Massachusetts Boston. We used The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Biology to assess students' attitudes at pre and post-instruction. We investigated the effect of a flipped classroom on students' attitudes towards science and science learning by measuring the impact of different teaching approaches (flipped vs. traditional lecture). Following the prior literature, we hypothesized that there would be a negative shift in students' attitudes over the semester in the traditional classroom and that this negative shift would not occur in the flipped. Our results showed there was no significant difference in the shift of students' attitudes between the traditional and flipped sections. We also examined the relationship between students' attitudes and academic performance. We hypothesized there would be a positive correlation between students' attitudes and their academic performance, as measured by exam average. In support of the prior literature, we found a significant positive correlation. Finally, we examined whether the relationship between students' attitudes and performance was mediated by learning behavior. Specifically, we considered if students with more favorable attitudes solved more on-line problems correctly and whether this aspect of problem solving was associated with greater achievement. We hypothesized there would be a positive correlation between attitudes and problem solving behavior as well as problem solving behavior and achievement. We did not find a significant correlation between attitudes and

  10. An Examination of Democratic Attitudes of Primary School Teachers

    S. Gulec


    Full Text Available As democracy can develop better in a society of democratic people, democracy education can also get its intended goals better in a democratic school environment. As the most influential people in a school environment were teachers, this study, too, aimed to determine their levels of democratic attitudes. In the present study, 60 primary school teachers working in the schools attached to the Bursa Metropolitan Municipality were surveyed. The relationships between their attitudes and some variables were studied. These variables included school they work, age, gender, marital status, number of children they have, education level, teaching experience and number of broth-ers or sisters. The questionnaire used for this study was validated by Aydogan & Kukul (2003 based on previous studies made by Gomleksiz (1988, Yildirim (1994 and Atasoy (1997. For the validity of the questionnaire, Cronbach Alpha coefficient (0.829 was calculated. The results suggest that teachers show very positive attitude with a score of 103. When the items were examined individually, some significant relationships were found with the variables. Teachers should have positive democratic attitudes in order to give lessons of democracy to their students. An appropriate and encouraging environment should be prepared in order for students to gain desired democratic outcomes. In a democratic environment, teachers’ positive attitudes will help their students to gain critical thinking skills, effective discussion skills, capability for fighting against inequity, cooperation and collaboration skills, and showing empathy and respect for diversity.

  11. Love attitudes and attachment

    María Elena Brenlla


    Full Text Available Love styles described by Lee are Eros (passionate love, Ludus (game-pla- ying love, Storge (friendship love, Mania (possessive, dependent love, Pragma (logical, “shopping list” love and Agape (all-giving, selfless love. Based on those types, Hendrick and Hendrick developed a 42-ítem rating questionnaire with 7 items measuring each love style (Love Attitudes Scale. Beside, inform about frequency in love relationships and attachment style. The purpose of this study was analyze the reliability and factor structure of the Love Attitudes Scale and to investigate the association between love attitudes and the attachment style. The results (N=280 participants indicate adequate internal consistency (alfa = 0,73. The items were intercorrelated and factored. The best solution extracted six factors using varimax rotation and all six factors accounted 41% of the total variance. Secure attachment was related positively to eros. 


    I. VERMEIR; W. Verbeke


    Although public interest in sustainability increases and consumer attitudes are mainly positive, behavioural patterns are not univocally consistent with attitudes. The presumed gap between favourable attitude towards sustainable behaviour and behavioural intention to purchase sustainable food products is investigated in this study. The impact of involvement, perceived availability, certainty, perceived consumer effectiveness (PCE), values, and social norms on consumers’ attitudes and intentio...

  13. Variables Affecting Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    Ahmmed, Masud; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne


    Inclusive education is a worldwide reform strategy intended to include students with different abilities in mainstream regular schools. Evidence from previous research shows that success in implementing effective inclusive teaching practices in the school is contingent on teachers' positive attitudes towards inclusive education. This study was…

  14. Predicting Intention to Take Protective Measures During Haze: The Roles of Efficacy, Threat, Media Trust, and Affective Attitude.

    Lin, Trisha T C; Bautista, John Robert


    The annual Southeast Asian haze pollution raises public health concerns in this region. Based on a modified extended parallel process model, this study examines efficacy (self-efficacy and response efficacy) and perceived threat (susceptibility and severity) and incorporates new constructs of media trust and affective attitude. Results from a Web survey of 410 undergraduate students in Singapore show that response efficacy to seek haze-related information mediates the association between perceived self-efficacy and intention to take protective measures during haze. Moreover, self-efficacy is negatively associated with affective attitude (e.g., fear and worry) toward haze-related health problems. Next, perceived severity and perceived susceptibility are positively associated with response efficacy and affective attitude. Affective attitude toward haze is a stronger predictor than response efficacy for behavioral intention. Finally, trust in new media is positively associated with young Singaporeans' affective attitude, which positively affects their behavioral intention to take protective measures.

  15. The Potential Positive Impact of Sup-ported Employment on the Oral Health Status, Attitudes and Behavior of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Vasileios Margaritis


    Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (ID con-stitute a unique but heterogeneous population, which includes a great variety of mental and developmental disorders, as well as congenital syndromes. Nowadays, many persons with mild or moderate ID, with specific training, can make considerable efforts to improve their lives, by having a job in either open or supported employment. On the other hand, since dental caries and periodontal diseases are among the most common secondary conditions affecting people with ID, oral diseases may detract the quality of life from disabled persons.The hypothesis: Employment (sheltered workshop, open or supported employment of persons with ID, may enable these individuals to improve their oral health status, attitudes and behavior, compared to the ID individuals who are not working, due to the development of specific socio-emotional characteristics and dexterities.Evaluation of the hypothesis: According to previous reports, employed people with ID demonstrated better self-esteem and greater autonomy, more satisfaction with their vocational/non-vocational ac-tivities and higher quality of life.

  16. The role of media and peer influences in Australian women's attitudes towards cosmetic surgery.

    Sharp, Gemma; Tiggemann, Marika; Mattiske, Julie


    The study aimed to examine the influence of media and peers on attitudes towards cosmetic surgery using a sociocultural framework. A sample of 351 Australian women aged 18-69 years completed measures of media exposure, friend conversations, internalisation of appearance ideals, appearance comparison, body dissatisfaction, and attitudes towards cosmetic surgery. Correlational analysis showed that almost all media and friend variables were significantly correlated with positive attitudes towards cosmetic surgery. A structural equation model based on the sociocultural model showed a good level of fit to the data. The effects of media exposure and friend conversations on body dissatisfaction and attitudes towards cosmetic surgery were mediated by internalisation. We concluded that media exposure and friend conversations affected attitudes towards cosmetic surgery both directly and indirectly. Our results contribute to the understanding of the sociocultural mechanisms underlying women's motivations for cosmetic surgery.

  17. Do Attitudes toward School Influence the Underachievement of Turkish and Moroccan Minority Students in Flanders? The Attitude-Achievement Paradox Revisited

    D'hondt, Fanny; Van Praag, Lore; Stevens, Peter A. J.; Van Houtte, Mieke


    While many ethnic minority students underachieve compared with their ethnic majority peers, they often hold very positive school attitudes. Mickelson (1990) explained this attitude-achievement paradox by the existence of a double set of attitudes. Abstract attitudes reflect the dominant ideas about schooling, while concrete attitudes refer to a…

  18. Mexican beliefs and attitudes toward hysterectomy and gender-role ideology in marriage.

    Marván, Ma Luisa; Quiros, Vanessa; López-Vázquez, Esperanza; Ehrenzweig, Yamilet


    One hundred and sixty-one Mexican respondents completed a questionnaire that measured beliefs and attitudes toward hysterectomy and another that measured gender-role ideology in marriage (GRIMQ). The participants were divided into two groups according to the GRIMQ: "high machismo/marianismo" and "low machismo/marianismo" groups. The participants belonging to the first group showed the most negative attitudes toward hysterectomy. In this group, men showed more negative attitudes toward hysterctomy and were less likely than women to believe that hysterectomy has positive aspects. The findings are discussed in light of male dominance and female subordination that prevail in certain cultural groups of Mexico.xs.

  19. Inclusive education. Attitudes and strategies of teachers

    Paula Garzón Castro


    Full Text Available Inclusive education serves the entire population of students at schools independent of their diverse characteristics and needs. This situation has required methodological, curricular and attitudinal changes among teachers.The objectives of this study are to evaluate teachers´ attitudes towards inclusion and the strategies used in the classroom. Furthermore this study pretends to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic variables and variables related to professional practice on these attitudes and strategies. A quantitative methodology, which included the application of the questionnaire Attitudes and practices of teachers related to inclusion, was used.The sample is formed by 82 teachers. The results indicate the presence of positive attitudes towards inclusion and a frequent use of inclusive strategies. There is a correlation between the attitudes and the use of inclusive strategies: the more positive the attitudes the more use of inclusive strategies. Professional variables have a greater impact on the attitudes and the strategies than sociodemographic variables.

  20. The Gaia Attitude Star Catalog

    Smart, R. L.


    We describe the Attitude Star Catalog produced for the Gaia mission. This catalog is being used by Gaia for the first on-ground attitude reconstruction. Originally it was simply a subset of the Initial Gaia Source List but this subset did not meet the isolation requirements and it contained a significant number of double entries. As a result during the commissioning phase of Gaia a new generation of this catalog, that better fulfills the attitude reconstruction requirements, was requested. Here we describe the production and properties of this new Attitude Star Catalog. The Attitude Star Catalog was made by combining 7 all sky catalogs and selecting entries based on magnitude, isolation and astrometric precision criteria. The catalog has 8173331 entries with estimates of the positions at 2000, proper motions and magnitudes (Gaia G, Gaia Grvs, red RF & blue BJ) in the magnitude range 7.0 publically available from the CDS Strasbourg and the IGSL web-site.

  1. Attitude Exploration Using Factor Analysis Technique


    Attitude is a psychological variable that contains positive or negative evaluation about people or an environment. The growing generation possesses learning skills, so if positive attitude is inculcated at the right age, it might therefore become habitual. Students in the age group 14-20 years from the city of Bikaner, India, are the target population for this study. An inventory of 30Likert-type scale statements was prepared in order to measure attitude towards the environment and matters re...

  2. From Memory to Attitude: The Neurocognitive Process beyond Euthanasia Acceptance.

    Martin Enke

    Full Text Available Numerous questionnaire studies on attitudes towards euthanasia produced conflicting results, precluding any general conclusion. This might be due to the fact that human behavior can be influenced by automatically triggered attitudes, which represent ingrained associations in memory and cannot be assessed by standard questionnaires, but require indirect measures such as reaction times (RT or electroencephalographic recording (EEG. Event related potentials (ERPs of the EEG and RT during an affective priming task were assessed to investigate the impact of automatically triggered attitudes and were compared to results of an explicit questionnaire. Explicit attitudes were ambivalent. Reaction time data showed neither positive nor negative associations towards euthanasia. ERP analyses revealed an N400 priming effect with lower mean amplitudes when euthanasia was associated with negative words. The euthanasia-related modulation of the N400 component shows an integration of the euthanasia object in negatively valenced associative neural networks. The integration of all measures suggests a bottom-up process of attitude activation, where automatically triggered negative euthanasia-relevant associations can become more ambiguous with increasing time in order to regulate the bias arising from automatic processes. These data suggest that implicit measures may make an important contribution to the understanding of euthanasia-related attitudes.

  3. From Memory to Attitude: The Neurocognitive Process beyond Euthanasia Acceptance.

    Enke, Martin; Meyer, Patric; Flor, Herta


    Numerous questionnaire studies on attitudes towards euthanasia produced conflicting results, precluding any general conclusion. This might be due to the fact that human behavior can be influenced by automatically triggered attitudes, which represent ingrained associations in memory and cannot be assessed by standard questionnaires, but require indirect measures such as reaction times (RT) or electroencephalographic recording (EEG). Event related potentials (ERPs) of the EEG and RT during an affective priming task were assessed to investigate the impact of automatically triggered attitudes and were compared to results of an explicit questionnaire. Explicit attitudes were ambivalent. Reaction time data showed neither positive nor negative associations towards euthanasia. ERP analyses revealed an N400 priming effect with lower mean amplitudes when euthanasia was associated with negative words. The euthanasia-related modulation of the N400 component shows an integration of the euthanasia object in negatively valenced associative neural networks. The integration of all measures suggests a bottom-up process of attitude activation, where automatically triggered negative euthanasia-relevant associations can become more ambiguous with increasing time in order to regulate the bias arising from automatic processes. These data suggest that implicit measures may make an important contribution to the understanding of euthanasia-related attitudes.

  4. The complexity and ambivalence of immigration attitudes: ambivalent stereotypes predict conflicting attitudes toward immigration policies.

    Reyna, Christine; Dobria, Ovidiu; Wetherell, Geoffrey


    Americans' conflicted attitudes toward immigrants and immigration has stymied immigration reform for decades. In this article, we explore the nuanced nature of stereotypes about immigrants and how they relate to ambivalent attitudes toward immigrant groups and the disparate array of immigration policies that affect them. Using item response theory and multiple regression analysis, we identified and related stereotypes of different immigrant groups to group-based and policy attitudes. Results demonstrate that ambivalent stereotypes mapped onto ambivalent group-based and immigration policy attitudes. Specifically, stereotypes that portray groups in positive or sympathetic ways predicted positive attitudes toward the group and more supportive attitudes toward policies that facilitate their immigration to the United States. Conversely, negative qualities predicted negative attitudes toward the same group and support for policies that prevent the group from immigrating. Results are discussed in light of current theory related to stereotype content, complementarity of stereotypes, and broader implications for immigration attitudes and policy.

  5. Changing attitudes and beliefs towards a woman's right to protect against HIV risk in Malawi.

    Fedor, Theresa M; Kohler, Hans-Peter; McMahon, James M


    Female empowerment and positive attitudes towards women's rights in sexual relationships have been found to be key elements of successful behaviour-based HIV prevention programmes. However, HIV prevention programmes that do not specifically engage with gender issues may also affect attitudes and beliefs towards women's rights within sexual relationships. Using data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health we compare measures of female empowerment and changing gender norms between intervention participants and non-participants. Results suggest that female intervention participants were more likely than non-participants to believe that: (1) women have more rights within sexual relationships in general and (2) women have the right to protect themselves against HIV risk (indicating possible increases in female self-efficacy in making HIV prevention decisions). Male intervention participants showed no substantial positive change in attitudes towards women's rights. These results highlight an important positive effect of HIV prevention programmes on women's attitudes towards their own rights.

  6. Reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance and food behaviours, attitudes, knowledge and environments associated with healthy eating

    Magarey Anthea M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire assessing all of these parameters, used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention project. Methods The development of the 14-item questionnaire was informed by the aims of the obesity prevention project. A sub-sample of children aged 10–12 years from primary schools involved in the intervention was recruited at the project's baseline data collection (Test 1. Questionnaires were readministered (Test 2 following which students completed a 7-day food diary designed to reflect the questionnaire. Twelve scores were derived to assess consumption of fruit, vegetables, water, noncore foods and sweetened beverages plus food knowledge, behaviours, attitudes and environments. Reliability was assessed using (a the intra class correlation coefficient (ICC and 95% confidence intervals to compare scores from Tests 1 and 2 (test-retest reliability and (b Cronbach's alpha (internal consistency. Validity was assessed with Spearman correlations, bias and limits of agreement between scores from Test 1 and the 7-day diaries. The Wilcoxon signed rank test checked for significant differences between mean scores. Results One hundred and forty one students consented to the study. Test 2 (n = 134 occurred between eight and 36 days after Test 1. For 10/12 scores ICCs ranged from 0.47–0.66 (p 0.05 for 10/12 (test-retest reliability and 3/7 (validity scores. Conclusion This child nutrition questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance, and food behaviours, attitudes and environments in

  7. An exploratory study to assess the computer knowledge, attitude and skill among nurses in health care setting of a selected hospital in Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

    Raja, Emans Evangel Joel; Mahal, Rajinder; Masih, Veena Barkat


    Explorative study conducted to assess and identify deficit areas of computer knowledge, attitudes and skills among nurses working in the hospital and to examine the relationship among these factors. 120 staff nurses were surveyed by systematic random sampling. Computer knowledge, attitudes and skills were measured by a self-structured computer knowledge questionnaire, computer attitude and skill scale respectively. Data analysis showed that the majority 75% staff nurses had good computer knowledge. 100% of nurses had positive attitudes towards computer utilization. 50.8% and 30.8% had average and fair computer skills respectively. No significant correlation was found between nurses' computer knowledge, attitude and skills. The relationships of computer knowledge, attitude and skill were analyzed among nurses with the selected variables like age, sex, designation, years of nursing service, professional qualification, area of nursing service, type of computer training received, frequency of computer usage and monthly family income. Strategies to enhance nurses' computer knowledge, attitudes and skills were proposed.

  8. Attitudes towards nuclear power: a comparison between three nations


    The attitudes toward the use of nuclear energy of three student samples of roughly equal size (N=150) from FR Germany, Japan and the Philippines were elicited and compared by means of a questionnaire. Concerning their overall attitudinal positions the Japanese students were predominantly in favour of nuclear energy, the German students were less unanimous while the Philippine students showed the most anti-nuclear resentment. These positions were equally influenced by considerations about...

  9. Evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention program to influence attitudes of students towards peers with disabilities.

    de Boer, Anke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Minnaert, Alexander; Post, Wendy


    In this study we examine the effectiveness of an intervention program to influence attitudes of elementary school students towards peers with intellectual, physical and severe physical and intellectual disabilities. A quasi-experimental longitudinal study was designed with an experimental group and a control group, both comprising two rural schools. An intervention program was developed for kindergarten (n(experimental) = 22, n(control) = 31) and elementary school students without disabilities (n(experimental) = 91, n(control) = 127) (age range 4-12 years old). This intervention consisted of a 3 weeks education project comprising six lessons about disabilities. The Acceptance Scale for Kindergarten-revised and the Attitude Survey to Inclusive Education were used to measure attitudes at three moments: prior to the start of the intervention, after the intervention and 1 year later. The outcomes of the multilevel analysis showed positive, immediate effects on attitudes of kindergarten students, but limited effects on elementary school students' attitudes.

  10. Inferring attitudes from mindwandering.

    Critcher, Clayton R; Gilovich, Thomas


    Self-perception theory posits that people understand their own attitudes and preferences much as they understand others', by interpreting the meaning of their behavior in light of the context in which it occurs. Four studies tested whether people also rely on unobservable "behavior," their mindwandering, when making such inferences. It is proposed here that people rely on the content of their mindwandering to decide whether it reflects boredom with an ongoing task or a reverie's irresistible pull. Having the mind wander to positive events, to concurrent as opposed to past activities, and to many events rather than just one tends to be attributed to boredom and therefore leads to perceived dissatisfaction with an ongoing task. Participants appeared to rely spontaneously on the content of their wandering minds as a cue to their attitudes, but not when an alternative cause for their mindwandering was made salient.

  11. Individual and Community Perspectives, Attitudes, and Practices to Mother-to-Child-Transmission and Infant Feeding among HIV-Positive Mothers in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Literature Review

    Alexander Suuk Laar, MPH


    Full Text Available Objectives: International guidelines on infant feeding for HIV-positive mothers promote Exclusive Replacement Feeding (ERF (infant formula or animal milk or exclusive breastfeeding (with no supplements of any kind. A mixed feeding pattern, where breastfeeding is combined with other milks, liquid foods or solids, has been shown to increase the risk of transmission of HIV and is strongly discouraged. However, little is known about the ability of women to adhere to recommended feeding strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV from breast milk. The objective of this study was to assess the individual and community-level factors that affect perspectives, attitudes and practices of HIV-positive mothers on MTCT and infant feeding in sub-Saharan Africa as documented in peer-reviewed and grey literature. Methods: This work is based on an extensive review of peer-reviewed articles and grey literature from the period 2000-2012. The literature search was carried out using electronic databases like, Medline Ovid, Google scholar, Pubmed and EBSCOhost. Both quantitative and qualitative studies written in English language on HIV and infant feeding with particular emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa were included. Results: The review found low adherence to the chosen infant feeding method by HIV-positive mothers. The following factors emerged as influencing infant feeding decisions: cultural and social norms; economic conditions; inadequate counselling; and mother’s level of education. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Unless local beliefs and customs surrounding infant feeding is understood by policy makers and program implementers, Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT programs will only be partially successful in influencing feeding practices of HIV-positive women. Hence programs should provide affordable, acceptable, feasible, safe and sustainable feeding recommendations that do not erode strong cultural practices

  12. Measuring Attitudes Toward Inclusion

    André Kunz


    Full Text Available The considerable worldwide demand for an inclusive education system has driven Switzerland to reconsider the approach of segregated schooling for children with Special Educational Needs (SEN. Recently, an agreement was signed among the states with the intention to adopt a more inclusive practice in school. There is evidence suggesting that an inclusive practice established at policy level is not enough, as many times it becomes teacher’s effort to translate the policies in classroom setting. The effectiveness of inclusive practices can be tightly related to the attitude of teachers, parents and students to inclusion of children with SEN in mainstreaming classes. Attitude towards inclusion is an observable construct but it presents difficulties in terms of measurement. For this purpose, in order to evaluate the attitude to inclusion of teachers, parents and students, an American Scale, the 11-items Parent Attitude to Inclusion (Palmer et al., 1998a, 1998b, 2001 and the version for teachers (Stanley, Grimbeek, Bryer, Beamisch, 2003; Bryer, Grimbeek, Beamish, Stanley, 2004, has been slightly modified and translated into German language. The resulting scales have been used to collect data in Switzerland in two regions. Results show that the German version of the scale can be potentially used for reliable measurement of attitudes toward inclusion in German speaking countries.

  13. Attitudes and Behavior of Ajman University of Science and Technology Students Towards the Environment

    Rasha Abdel Raman


    Full Text Available This study examined the attitudes and behavior of Ajman University of Science and Technology (AUST students towards the environment according to their gender and college. The research was based on a descriptive approach. The sample consisted of (375 students (230 males and 145 females from different colleges (Law, Information Technology, Mass Communication and Humanities, Engineering, Dentistry and Pharmacy. The Attitudes and Behavior Scale Towards the Environment (ABSTE was used to investigate students’ attitudes and behavior Towards the environment, and a questionnaire was used to evaluate the environmental sciences course. Results revealed wide differences in the environmental attitudes and behaviors between the undergraduate students enrolled in environmental sciences course and others who did not study the course yet. Findings also showed that females have higher positive environmental attitudes and behaviors than males. Students of Dentistry and Pharmacy colleges have higher positive environmental attitudes and behaviors than students of Law and Information Technology or Mass Communication and Humanities colleges. Engineering students have the least positive environmental attitudes and behaviors. The results generally assert the importance of environmental education in university.

  14. Nonlinear Robust Control for Spacecraft Attitude

    Wang Lina


    Full Text Available Nonlinear robust control of the spacecraft attitude with the existence of external disturbances is considered. A robust attitude controller is designed based on the passivity approach the quaternion representation, which introduces the suppression vector of external disturbance into the control law and does not need angular velocity measurement. Stability conditions of the robust attitude controller are given. And the numerical simulation results show the effectiveness of the attitude controller.

  15. Neuroanatomical correlates of attitudes toward suicide in a large healthy sample: A voxel-based morphometric analysis.

    Liu, Huijuan; Wang, Yongchao; Liu, Wei; Wei, Dongtao; Yang, Junyi; Du, Xue; Tian, Xue; Qiu, Jiang


    Previous studies have indicated that permissive attitudes toward suicide are positively associated with mental illness (e.g., depression and loneliness). Evidence suggests that there are abnormalities in the cognitive and brain functioning of suicidal patients. Nevertheless, there has been no evidence of the correlation between attitudes toward suicide and abnormal brain structure variations in healthy people. Therefore, in this study, we seek to investigate the neuroanatomical differences in healthy participants with regard to attitudes toward suicide. The results show that permissive attitudes toward suicide were significantly correlated with gray matter volume (GMV) in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the left cerebellum in the large sample (n=405), which may be related to inefficient inhibitory control of negative emotion. Then, in a subset of healthy individuals with permissive attitudes (n=113), we also observed that stronger permissive attitudes toward suicide were positively related to the larger GMV in the left DLPFC and the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG), which may be associated with sensitivity of emotional feeling. Furthermore, loneliness had a mediating effect on the relation between the DLPFC volume and attitudes toward suicide. Taken together, neuroanatomical differences in healthy participants with permissive attitudes toward suicide may provide a better understanding of permissive attitudes toward suicide as a likely risk factor for suicidal behavior.

  16. Ambiguity attitudes

    Trautmann, Stefan; van de Kuilen, Gijs; Keren, Gideon; Wu, George


    This chapter reviews the experimental literature on ambiguity attitudes, focusing on three topics. First, it considers various approaches to operationalize ambiguity in experiments. Second, the chapter reviews basic findings in the field regarding the prevalence of ambiguity aversion and ambiguity s


    WANG Xiao-liang; SHAN Xue-xiong


    The attitude tracking control problem for an airship with parameter uncertainties and external disturbances was considered in this paper. The mathematical model of the airship attitude is a multi-input/multi-output uncertain nonlinear system. Based on the characteristics of this system, a design method of robust output tracking controllers was adopted based on the upper-bounds of the uncertainties. Using the input/output feedback linearization approach and Liapunov method, a control law was designed, which guarantees that the system output exponentially tracks the given desired output. The controller is easy to compute and complement. Simulation results show that, in the closed-loop system, precise attitude control is accomplished in spite of the uncertainties and external disturbances in the system.

  18. Resistance to agricultural biotechnology: the importance of distinguishing between weak and strong public attitudes.

    Aerni, Philipp


    Empirical research shows that European governments and retailers are unlikely to be directly punished by taxpayers and consumers if they move away from their anti-GMO positions and policies. However, it is ultimately not the weak attitudes of taxpayers and consumers that matter to governments and retailers but the strong attitudes of the noisy anti-biotech movement. (Image: Highway signs: ©maxmitzu -; woman and balance: ©lassedesignen -

  19. An analysis of factors affecting attitudes toward same-sex marriage: do the media matter?

    Lee, Tien-Tsung; Hicks, Gary R


    Using a survey of more than 5,000 American consumers, this study examines connections between attitudes toward same-sex marriage and media consumption. A positive attitude is predicted by being liberal and less religious, supporting gender and racial equality, willing to try anything once, considering television the primary form of entertainment, watching political talk shows, and reading blogs. The theoretical and methodological contributions and real-world implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Supermarkets in Portugal: corporate social responsibility image, attitude towards the brand and purchase intention

    Pereira, Inês Veiga


    Recently, companies developed strategies which may influence their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) image. This paper discusses the image of four different supermarkets with stores in Portugal. The research compares CSR image and brand attitude of the four supermarkets. Empirical evidence shows that different supermarkets belonging to the same company have different CSR image and brand attitude. The research also confirms that there is positive correlation between CSR imag...

  1. Attitude toward Visionary Leadership.

    Lesourd, Sandra J.; And Others


    Formulates descriptive research findings into a utilitarian tool for principal leadership development programs. An instrument measuring attitude toward a (visionary) leadership ideal was developed, administered, and analyzed. Previous research findings were summarized. Results showed that the instrument would help assess individual acceptance of…

  2. Survey and Study on Contemporary College Students' Attitudes to Dating Show%关于大学生对相亲节目态度的调查研究

    李海燕; 赵婷; 赵玉婷


    The study of the self-design questionnaire to survey 236 college students on the dating show displays that college students generally have concern about dating shows,but the mainstream manner takes it as an entertainment only.students are substantially able to take a objective and rational look at dating shows,such programs make students understand the reality more clearly;the attention and the acceptance of students to the programs,which have great otherness,are influenced by demographic variables,such as gender;students identify with the values of honored guests to fame and wealth,which shows that they hold different views to values with a utilitarian.%用自编问卷调查236名在校大学生对相亲节目的态度,结果显示:大学生普遍对相亲节目有一定的关注,但主流态度仅把它当作一项娱乐而已;大学生基本上能客观理智地看待相亲节目现象,此类节目使大学生们对现实认识得更清楚;大学生对节目的关注度和认可度受性别等人口学变量的影响,表现出较大的差异性;大学生对嘉宾重名利的价值观表示认同,表明他们的价值观呈现多样化,且带有功利性。

  3. The impact of a gerontology course and a service-learning program on college students' attitudes toward people with dementia.

    Yamashita, Takashi; Kinney, Jennifer M; Lokon, Elizabeth J


    We examined the effects of a gerontology course and an intergenerational service-learning project for people with dementia (PWD) on three dimensions of students' attitudes including attitudes toward older people, community service for older people, and working with PWD. Data consisted of a combination of pretest/posttest survey and review of journals that students maintained during the service-learning project. Results indicated that students who completed the gerontology course, and those who completed both the course and the service-learning project, reported significantly more positive attitudes toward older adults, whereas students in the course only had significantly less positive attitudes about working with PWD, and those in the other courses (sociology) showed no change in their attitudes. Students' journals are replete with reports of the satisfaction they derived from their experiences. The findings highlight opportunities and challenges that should be considered in future intergenerational service-learning programs and gerontological education.

  4. A Study of Women’s Attitude towards Sport Participation and its Effective Socio-Psychological Factors

    Siroos Ahmadi


    Occupation .39\t.03\t.42\t.68 On the basis of the figures shown in Table 1, we can say that there is a positive significant relationship between social trust and age with attitude towards sport participation and there is no significant relationship between instrumental personality, self-esteem, marital status, having children or not, education and occupation with attitude toward sport participation. The results also show that social trust and age are able to explain about .09% of the variance of the attitude towards sport participation. Although a positive and significant relationship between social trust and women’s attitude toward sport participation is compatible with theoretical framework, lack of significant relationship between instrumental personality and self-esteem with the attitude towards sport participation is not compatible with theoretical framework. Therefore, it should be considered and justified in terms of socio-cultural situation of women in Iran.

  5. The effects of dysphoria and personality on negative self-referent attitudes and perceptions of the attitudes of others.

    Beshai, Shadi; Prentice, Jennifer L; Swan, Jennifer L; Dobson, Keith S


    The cognitive model of depression posits that depressed individuals harbor more dysfunctional self-referent attitudes, but little is known about how depressed individuals perceive the attitudes and perceptions of others in their social arena. This study examined whether dysphoric individuals perceive others to hold equally negative attitudes about themselves, and whether such perceptions depend on sociotropic (i.e., highly invested in social approval and relationship success) and autonomous (i.e., highly invested in vocational or academic achievement and goal attainment) personality styles. A sample of undergraduate students (N = 197) was recruited, and after the assessment of their depression symptoms and personality style, participants read vignettes that described negative scenarios, and imagined that these scenarios occurred to themselves or the general university student. After reading each vignette, participants also rated their agreement with a number of statements that assessed dysfunctional attitudes. Results indicated that elevated dysphoria (i.e., showing signs of depression) scores were positively associated with dysfunctional self-referent attitudes. Further, moderational analyses examining the interaction of sociotropy and dysphoria did not support the hypothesis that individuals higher on dysphoria and sociotropy were less likely to perceive others as harboring negative attitudes about themselves in comparison to those with elevated dysphoria and lower levels of sociotropy. Last, individuals showing elevated dysphoria and higher scores on subdomains of autonomy were more likely to perceive others as exhibiting negative attitudes about themselves than those with low levels of the trait. These findings, their implications, and strengths and limitations of the current investigation are further discussed.

  6. 浅析媒体暴力对观众行为态度的正负面影响%Positive and Negative Impacts of Media Violence to Audience Behavior and Attitude



    当今社会,媒体暴力对观众行为态度的影响已经俨然成为一个值得讨论的话题。国内外的许多专家学者也都对此做了无数的研究,并通过这些研究肯定了受众的行为态度是会受到媒体暴力所影响的。在本文中,我们基于任何事物都有其两面性的特点,客观的去认识媒体暴力的影响力,并阐述如何去避免其负面影响以及如何把负面影响降到最低,从而促进其积极面的发展。%Today's society,media violence on behavior and attitude of the audience already has become a topic worthy of discus-sion.Many domestic and foreign experts and scholars also have done numerous studies,and through these studies confirmed the audience's behavior and attitude will be affected by media violence.In this paper,we have everything on the characteristics of its two sides,the objective to understand the influence of media violence,and explains how to avoid its negative effects and to mini-mize the negative impact,so as to promote the positive aspects of development.

  7. Fulltime employees' attitudes towards working culture in Serbia

    Kordić Ljiljana


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to explore the employees' attitudes towards working culture in Serbia in order to contribute to the efforts for positive changes in the Serbian economy. Qualitative survey of attitudes was realized through the use of focus groups. Participants were fulltime employees from five developed and underdeveloped locations in Serbia. The results showed that the main obstacle to improving the working culture of employees is massive failure of the labour inspections and unfavorable political environment. Until the state does not ensure effective implementation of ratified ILO Conventions and labour related adopted legislative, there are no conditions for developing quality working culture and economic progress in Serbia.

  8. Attitudes of potential providers toward preconceptual cystic fibrosis carrier screening.

    Poppelaars, F.; Ader, H.J.; Cornel, M.C.; Henneman, L.; Hermens, R.P.M.G.; Wal, G. van der; Kate, L. ten


    To determine the attitudes of potential providers (general practitioners and Community Health Service workers) towards preconceptual cystic fibrosis (CF) carrier screening and to determine which factors are associated with a positive attitude. A survey was conducted among 200 general practitioners (

  9. Religiosity, attitude and the demand for socially responsible products

    Graafland, Johan


    In this paper, we examine the relationship between various Christian denominations and attitude and behavior regarding consumption of socially responsible (SR) products. Literature on the relationship between religiosity and pro-social behavior has shown that religiosity strengthens positive attitud

  10. Attitudes towards genetically modified and organic foods.

    Saher, Marieke; Lindeman, Marjaana; Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto


    Finnish students (N=3261) filled out a questionnaire on attitudes towards genetically modified and organic food, plus the rational-experiential inventory, the magical thinking about food and health scale, Schwartz's value survey and the behavioural inhibition scale. In addition, they reported their eating of meat. Structural equation modelling of these measures had greater explanatory power for attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods than for attitudes towards organic foods (OF). GM attitudes were best predicted by natural science education and magical food and health beliefs, which mediated the influence of thinking styles. Positive attitudes towards organic food, on the other hand, were more directly related to such individual differences as thinking styles and set of values. The results of the study indicate that OF attitudes are rooted in more fundamental personal attributes than GM attitudes, which are embedded in a more complex but also in a more modifiable network of characteristics.

  11. Modelling Local Attitudes to Protected Areas in Developing Countries

    Chiara Bragagnolo


    Full Text Available During a time of intensifying competition for land, Protected Areas (PAs are coming under increasing pressure to justify their status. Positive local attitudes to a PA are a potentially important component of any such justification, especially in the developing world where human pressure on natural resources is often high. However, despite numerous studies our understanding of what drives positive attitudes to PAs is still exceedingly limited. Here, we review the literature on local attitudes towards PAs in developing countries. Our survey reveals a highly fragmented research area where studies typically lack an explicit conceptual basis, and where there is wide variation in choice of statistical approach, explanatory and response variables, and incorporation of contextual information. Nevertheless, there is a relatively high degree of concordance between studies, with certain variables showing strong associations with attitudes. We recommend that PA attitude researchers in developing countries adopt a more rigorous model building approach based on a clear conceptual framework and drawing on the extensive empirical literature. Such an approach would improve the quality of research, increase comparability, and provide a stronger basis to support conservation decision-making.

  12. Analysis of Consumer Attitude Using Fishbein Multi-Attributes Approach

    Abdullah Ramdhani


    Full Text Available The development of today's economy growing rapidly, accompanied by increasingly sophisticated technological advances that led to the emergence of competition among firms.Increasing number of motorcycle brand in circulation led to a very tight competition in the motorcycle market, particularly in the type of motorcycle. This makes the consumer faced with various choices of brands, so the motorcycle manufacturers need to know the tastes and desires of consumers to create and sell a motorcycle can be favored by consumers. The purpose of this study were to determine what attributes are considered important by consumers to the product brand motorcycle Honda, Yamaha, and Suzuki, and to assess consumer attitudes toward product attributes motorcycle Honda, Yamaha, and Suzuki, The model used is multi-attribute attitude model of Fishbein Attitude Toward To Object Model and the Theory Of Reasoned Action. The results of this study indicate that (1 that are considered important attributes are attached to the product brand motorcycle Honda, Yamaha, and Suzuki is the attribute Price has the highest positive score compared * with a score of other attributes for each of the Honda brand motorcycle , Yamaha, and Suzuki. (2 consumer attitudes showed a positive attitude in which the score for the Honda is +60.03, +56.14 Yamaha, and Suzuki is +55.00. (3 the dominant factor influencing purchasing decisions motorcycle products for the Honda brand is a member of the family, while for the brand Yamaha, and Suzuki are the others

  13. The Iranian physicians attitude toward the do not resuscitate order

    Fallahi M


    Full Text Available Masood Fallahi,1 Homayion Banaderakhshan,1 Alireza Abdi,1 Fariba Borhani,2 Rasool Kaviannezhad,3 Hassan Ali Karimpour4 1School of Nursing and Midwifery, 2Medical Ethics and Law Research Center, Medical Surgical Nursing Department, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 3Department of Anesthesia, Paramedical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 4Critical Care, School of Medicine, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran Background: Physicians are responsible for making decisions about the do not resuscitate (DNR order of patients; however, most of them are faced with some uncertainty in decision making and ethical aspects. Moreover, there are differences on decision making related to the DNR order among physicians, which may be related to the different attitudes toward this issue. Considering the lack of information, this study was performed to investigate doctors’ attitude about DNR order for patients in their final phases of life. Methods: In a descriptive–analytical study, 152 physicians were enrolled as quota sampling subjects from educational hospitals affiliated to the Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. The tool used was a researcher-developed questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software by descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The mean of attitude toward DNR was 3.22, for which the univariate t-test showed a significant positive attitude toward DNR (P=0.002; the mean of attitude number toward DNR was higher in physicians with higher education level (P=0.002. But this difference was not found in terms of age group, sex, and experiences in participating in DNR decisions. Conclusion: Due to the positive attitude of doctors toward DNR orders and lack of identified guidance, clear guidelines that comply with the Iranian Islamic culture are necessary to be established. Implementing this directive requires

  14. Consumer versus dentist attitudes toward dental services advertising.

    Hite, R E; Bellizzi, J A; Andrus, D M


    The authors report the findings of a consumer survey and a dentist survey that were used to examine attitudes toward the advertising of dental services. The results clearly indicate positive consumer attitudes and negative dentist attitudes toward such advertising. Relatively few consumer demographic differences are noted, though younger dentists appear to have more positive attitudes toward dental services advertising than their older colleagues. The results suggest significant opportunities for dentists in dental services advertising.

  15. Trust in social actors and attitudes towards genetically modified organisms in Slovenia

    Karmen Erjavec


    Full Text Available This article tries to fulfil the research gap left by the fact that no study to date has examined how trust in social actors affects attitudes towards genetically modified organisms (GMOs. Therefore, two key hypotheses were posited: a trust in social actors is a more important factor of attitudes towards GMOs than knowledge about GMOs; and b trust in certain social actors is a more important factor than trust in other social actors. Telephone survey data of adult Slovenians were used. The analyses show that: a general trust in social actors has a positive effect on attitudes towards GMOs; b trust in various social actors has different effects; and c trust in social actors has a stronger effect on attitudes towards GMOs than knowledge about GMOs.

  16. Free the animals? Investigating attitudes toward animal testing in Britain and the United States.

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Christopher, Andrew N


    In this study, 185 British and 143 American undergraduates completed a battery of tests that measured attitudes toward animal testing and various individual difference variables. Attitudes toward animal testing factored into two interpretable factors: general attitudes toward animal testing, and animal welfare and conditions of testing. Overall, there was support for animal testing under the right conditions, although there was also concern for the welfare of animals and the conditions under which testing takes place. There were small but significant national difference on both factors (with Americans more positive about testing and less positive about animal welfare), and a significant sex difference on the first factor (women were more negative about testing). Correlation and regression analyses showed that there were few significant individual difference predictors of both factors. These results are discussed in relation to past and future work on attitudes toward animal testing.

  17. The Relationship between Commitment to School, Attitude toward Narcotics, and Drug Abuse among Students

    Fahimeh Golpayegani


    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of current research was the study of relationship between commitment to school, attitude toward narcotics, and drug abuse among high school third grade students. Method: The research method was correlational design. 200 males and females students in grade three of high school were selected randomly by use of cluster sampling method in the educational year of 1389-90. Three questionnaires namely: hazardous behaviors, attitude toward narcotics, and commitment to school were administered among selected sample. Results: The results showed that positive attitudes toward narcotics and lack of commitment to school were correlated to students’ drug abuse positively. Conclusion: Designing student-centered programs in order to change in students' knowledge and attitudes must be taken into account by program-designers for preventing of drug abuse.

  18. Support, Inclusion, and Special Education Teachers’ Attitudes toward the Education of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Isabel R. Rodríguez


    Full Text Available This study is aimed at assessing special education teachers' attitudes toward teaching pupils with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs and at determining the role of variables associated with a positive attitude towards the children and their education. Sixty-nine special education teachers were interviewed. The interview included two multiple-choice Likert-type questionnaires, one about teachers’ attitude, and another about teachers’ perceived needs in relation to the specific education of the pupil with ASD. The study shows a positive view of teachers’ expectations regarding the education of pupils with ASD. A direct logistic regression analysis was performed testing for experience with the child, school relationship with an ASD network and type of school (mainstream or special as potential predictors. Although all three variables are useful in predicting special education teachers' attitudes, the most relevant was the relationship with an ASD network. Need for information and social support are the relatively highest needs expressed by teachers.

  19. Support, Inclusion, and Special Education Teachers' Attitudes toward the Education of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Rodríguez, Isabel R; Saldaña, David; Moreno, F Javier


    This study is aimed at assessing special education teachers' attitudes toward teaching pupils with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and at determining the role of variables associated with a positive attitude towards the children and their education. Sixty-nine special education teachers were interviewed. The interview included two multiple-choice Likert-type questionnaires, one about teachers' attitude, and another about teachers' perceived needs in relation to the specific education of the pupil with ASD. The study shows a positive view of teachers' expectations regarding the education of pupils with ASD. A direct logistic regression analysis was performed testing for experience with the child, school relationship with an ASD network and type of school (mainstream or special) as potential predictors. Although all three variables are useful in predicting special education teachers' attitudes, the most relevant was the relationship with an ASD network. Need for information and social support are the relatively highest needs expressed by teachers.

  20. The Impact of Parents’ Involvement in and Attitude toward Their Children’s Foreign Language Programs for Learning English

    Vida Hosseinpour


    Full Text Available Since parents and their involvement and attitude have a crucial role in children’s achievement in learning English, the present study is to explore and evaluate the impact of Iranian parents’ involvement in and attitude toward their children’s foreign language programs for learning English. In other words, the effectiveness of their high level of involvement and strength of attitude will be evaluated. Besides, this study is to explore whether some factors such as parents’ gender, knowledge of English, income, and educational background are related in the parents’ involvement and attitude or not. To this end, first of all, a reliable questionnaire, checked through a pilot study, was distributed among 140 parents to find out the level of their involvement in and attitude toward the programs. Based on the normal curve and the Z score, the parents were divided into two groups, one with a higher level of involvement and more positive attitude and the other with a lower level of involvement and less positive attitude. By using a standard final achievement test of the course book among 70 primary school student in third grade and Independent T-test analysis, the impact of parents’ involvement and attitude were checked. As the results revealed those parents who have high level of involvement in and positive attitude toward their children’s English language programs made their children’s higher level of achievement in the language program. Besides, the further outcomes showed that there are significant differences between the parents’ knowledge of English, income, and educational background and their level of involvement and attitude. The aforementioned factors affect children’s achievement test scores as well. Keywords: Involvement, Attitude, and Language program

  1. Perspective Taking Explains Gender Differences in Late Adolescents' Attitudes Toward Disadvantaged Groups.

    Smith, Colin Tucker; Shepperd, James A; Miller, Wendi A; Graber, Julia A


    Adolescents' attitudes toward disadvantaged groups are surprisingly understudied. What we know from these few studies is that adolescents' attitudes tend to become more favorable over time and that adolescent girls display more favorable attitudes than do adolescent boys. However, researchers have not offered explanations for why these effects occur. We proposed that changes in social-cognitive abilities that accompany adolescent development increase perspective taking and that the increased perspective taking facilitates more favorable attitudes toward disadvantaged groups. Because girls develop social-cognitive abilities earlier than boys, girls should show greater perspective taking and thus more positive attitudes toward disadvantaged groups than should boys. Importantly, we propose that these more positive attitudes are explained better by perspective taking than by gender. Participants were late adolescents (n = 803, 53.3 % female, ages 15-19) from high schools in north-central Florida (United States) participating in an ongoing, multi-wave study. Participants completed a measure of perspective-taking and reported their attitudes toward three disadvantaged groups (Black, gay, and poor people) during their third year of high school and, again, 6 months later during their fourth year of high school. Our findings provided strong support for our theorizing. Girls generally reported warmer attitudes than did boys toward disadvantaged groups, with the gender differences in warmth tending to diminish across time. Similarly, girls were higher than boys in perspective-taking abilities at both time points, although boys increased over time whereas girls did not. Crucially, perspective taking mediated observed gender differences in attitudes, suggesting that perspective taking is a mechanism for improving attitudes toward disadvantaged groups during late adolescence.

  2. Children's Attitudes toward Peers with Disabilities: Supporting Positive Attitude Development

    Han, Jihee; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Diamond, Karen E.


    Inclusive programs and community settings are important contexts to help foster acceptance and understanding among all children. Research has shown that children enrolled in inclusive programs become more accepting of people who are different from them. Inclusion of children with disabilities in classroom activities requires the involvement of…

  3. European attitudes to water pricing

    Jensen, Anne Kejser


    Efficient use of the water resource requires internalization of all costs in the price of water, including environmental and resource costs. However, water resource management tends to be highly political and increasing water prices are a sensitive and complicated policy matter. Hence......, there is a need for increased understanding of the implementation process and the attitudes towards implementation among the general public. This paper explores the spatial heterogeneity in the public attitude towards internalizing environmental and resource costs in the price of water across the EU regions....... Within an extensive spatial dataset constructed for the purpose, we estimate the effect of individual information levels and affordability concerns on the attitude towards environmental water pricing. Information about water problems is found to have a significant and positive effect on attitudes...

  4. Students' attitudes towards learning statistics

    Ghulami, Hassan Rahnaward; Hamid, Mohd Rashid Ab; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah


    Positive attitude towards learning is vital in order to master the core content of the subject matters under study. This is unexceptional in learning statistics course especially at the university level. Therefore, this study investigates the students' attitude towards learning statistics. Six variables or constructs have been identified such as affect, cognitive competence, value, difficulty, interest, and effort. The instrument used for the study is questionnaire that was adopted and adapted from the reliable instrument of Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics(SATS©). This study is conducted to engineering undergraduate students in one of the university in the East Coast of Malaysia. The respondents consist of students who were taking the applied statistics course from different faculties. The results are analysed in terms of descriptive analysis and it contributes to the descriptive understanding of students' attitude towards the teaching and learning process of statistics.

  5. The Students\\' Knowledge, Attitude and Performance about Prevention of Using of Ecstasy

    Mitra Zolfaghari


    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent decades because of stimulant and hallucinogenic properties of ecstasy, it has been found so many users among adolescent and youth people. The aim of present study was the study of students' knowledge, attitude and performance related to prevention of using of ecstasy. Method: This descriptive – analytic study has done in 400 female students of government schools of zone no. 17. The sample selected by clustering random sampling and their knowledge, attitude, and performance measured by using of researchers developed questionnaire which shown sufficient level of validity and reliability. Results: The results showed that the majority of students (41% had low knowledge, 56% had positive attitude, and 55.1% had good performance related to prevention of using of ecstasy. Also, there was positive relationship between students' knowledge and attitude also attitude and performance. There was also positive relationship between some of the demographic characteristics and the students' knowledge, attitude and performance related to prevention of using of ecstasy. Conclusion: Finding of the research showed that the students' knowledge related to use of ecstasy is low, therefore appropriate instructional intervention in order to promote the students' knowledge is necessary.

  6. The Impact of Balanced Risk-Benefit Information and Initial Attitudes on Post-Information Attitudes

    Dijk, van H.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Jonge, de J.; Rowe, G.; Frewer, L.J.


    In a realistic social context, people are confronted with both positive and negative information, yet research on this topic is relatively scarce. We present 2 studies examining the role of initial attitudes on the impact of one-sided vs. balanced positive and negative information on attitudes towar

  7. Abuse of disabled parking: Reforming public's attitude through persuasive multimedia strategy

    Yahaya, W. A. J. W.; Zain, M. Z. M.


    Attitude is one of the factors that contribute to the abuse of disabled parking. The attitude's components are affective, cognitive and behavioral and may be formed in various ways including learning and persuasion. Using learning and persuasion approach, this study has produced a persuasive multimedia aiming to form a positive attitude toward disabled persons in order to minimize the rate of disabled parking abuse. The persuasive multimedia was developed using Principle of Social Learning draws from Persuasive Technology as learning strategy at macro persuasion level, and modality and redundancy principles draw from Multimedia Learning Principles as design strategy at micro persuasion level. In order to measure the effectiveness of the persuasive multimedia, 93 respondents were selected in a 2 × 2 quasi experimental research design for experiment. Attitude components of affective, cognitive and behavioral were measured using adapted instrument from the Multi Dimensional Attitudes Scale toward Persons With Disabilities (MAS). Result of the study shows that the persuasive multimedia which designed based on Social Learning Theory at macro persuasion level is capable of forming positive attitude toward disabled person. The cognitive component of the attitude found to be the most responsive component. In term of design strategy at the micro persuasion level, modality found to be the most significant strategy compare to redundancy. While males are more responsive to the persuasive multimedia compare to females.

  8. Knowledge levels and attitudes of health care professionals toward patients with hepatitis C infection

    Farahnaz Joukar; Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei; Fatemeh Soati; Panah Meskinkhoda


    AIM:To study knowledge levels and attitudes of health care providers toward patients with hepatitis C virus infection in Guilan,a northern province of Iran.METHODS:This cross-sectional study was performed on 239 health care professionals from the Razi Hospital,including doctors,nurses,and operating room technicians.The questionnaires consisted of questions on demographic characteristics,knowledge levels,and attitudes toward hepatitis C patients.The questionnaire was tested in a pilot study and validated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient.Data were analyzed using SPSS16 software.RESULTS:The mean ± SD knowledge score was 17.43 ± 2.65 (from a total of 22).51.9% of the participants achieved scores higher than the mean.There was a significant relationship between knowledge score and age (P =0.001),gender (P =0.0001),occupational history (P =0.0001),and educational history (P =0.027).There was also a significant relationship between attitude level and age (P =0.002),gender (P =0.0001),occupational history (P =0.0001),and educational history (P =0.035).Physicians were significantly more knowledgeable and showed more positive attitudes.There was a positive correlation between knowledge and attitude scores (P =0.02).CONCLUSION:Discriminatory attitudes are common among health care providers toward hepatitis C patients.It is therefore necessary to improve their knowledge level and attitude toward this disease.

  9. Effects of Agricultural Brand Crisis on Consumers’ Brand Attitude

    Bixia LUO; Chong GONG; Licong CAO


    In this paper,the concept of perceived trust was adopted to investigate the relationship between brand crisis type and brand attitude; what’s more,the paper considered the moderating effect of consistency of negative word of mouth on the relationship between the aforementioned two. Empirical study results showed that compared with values-related brand crisis,performance-related brand crisis had a more significant effect on consumers’ perceived competence-based trust and there were no significant differences in the negative effects of two types of brand crisises on consumers’ perceived benevolence-based trust. In addition,consumers’ perceived competence-based and benevolence-based trust had a positive effect on brand attitude and consistency of negative word of mouth played a moderating role in the relationship between brand crisis type and brand attitude.

  10. Development of Attitudes Towards Homosexuality Scale for Indians (AHSI).

    Ahuja, Kanika K


    Attitudes towards homosexuality vary across cultures, with the legal and societal position being rather complicated in India. This study describes the process of developing and validating a Likert-type scale to assess attitudes toward homosexuality amongst heterosexuals. Phase 1 describes the development of the scale. Items were written based on thematic analysis of narratives generated from 50 college students and reviewing existing scales. After administering the 70-item scale to 68 participants, item analysis yielded 20 statements with item-total correlations over .70. Cronbach alpha was .97. In Phase 2, the 20-item Attitudes Towards Homosexuality Scale for Indians (AHSI) was administered to 142 participants. Analysis yielded a corrected split-half correlation of .91. Further, AHSI discriminated between women and men; between liberal arts and STEM/business students; and those who reported interpersonal contact with gay men and lesbian women and those who did not. The scale has satisfactory reliability and shows promising construct validity.

  11. SDRE Based Attitude Control Using Modified Rodriguez Parameters

    Doruk, R Ozgur


    The purpose of this paper is to present an application of the State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) method to satellite attitude control where the satellite kinematics is modeled by Modified Rodriguez Parameters (MRP). The SDRE methodology is applicable on special forms of nonlinear systems where satellite model is one of the candidates. It is not easy to find an analytical solution from the SDRE. Thus point wise solutions are interpolated with respect to the operating conditions. The point wise solutions are obtained from the MATLAB algorithms which are derived from the positive definite solutions of the SDRE. The global stability analysis is difficult due to the nature of the methodology. The resultant attitude controllers outside the breakpoints (the selected operating conditions for interpolation) are suboptimal. The performance of the designs is examined by simulations on MATLAB - Simulink environment. The simulation results show that, the designed attitude controllers are working satisfactorily even i...

  12. Belief and Investing: Preferences and Attitudes of the Faithful

    Mark Brimble1


    Full Text Available This Australian study seeks to better understand the disparity between the positive attitudes towards Socially Responsible Investing (SRI and the level of investment in SRI (Saulwick &Associates 2001; Watmore & Bradley 2001; Williams 2007; Arjalies 2010, by examining both the attitudes to SRI and the investment choices that are made. It is hypothesised that those who are more committed to religious belief principles are more likely to invest in SRI.To test this 322 people from two large Queensland organisations were surveyed in relation to their investment attitudes and preferences. Results show that those who are more religious are no more likely to invest in SRI, and that the level of importance placed on SRI and financial criteria are similar in most instances for the more and less religious. In addition, women who are religious place more importance on conservative general investment criteria than less ornon-religious women.

  13. Extending positive C-LASS results across multiple instructors and multiple classes of Modeling Instruction

    Brewe, Eric; de la Garza, Jorge; Kramer, Laird H


    We report on a multi year study of student attitudes measured with the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (C-LASS) in calculus-based introductory physics taught with the Modeling Instruction curriculum. We find that five of six instructors and eight of nine sections using Modeling Instruction showed improved attitudes from pre to post course. Cohen's d effect sizes range from 0.08 to 0.95 for individual instructors. The average effect was d = 0.45, with a 95% confidence interval of (0.26 to 0.64). These results build on previously published results showing positive shifts in attitudes from Modeling Instruction classes. We interpret these data in light of other published positive attitudinal shifts and explore mechanistic explanations for similarities and differences with other published positive shifts.

  14. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-producing undifferentiated carcinoma of the colon mimicking a pulmonary giant cell carcinoma: a case showing overexpression of CD44 along with highly proliferating nestin-positive tumor vessels.

    Tajima, Shogo; Waki, Michihiko; Tsuchiya, Tomonori; Hoshi, Shoji


    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-producing tumors are known for their aggressive behavior. Only four cases of G-CSF-producing colorectal carcinoma have been previously reported. Herein, we present a case of an undifferentiated carcinoma of the descending colon showing G-CSF production and giant cell carcinoma morphology in a 93-year-old woman. A tumor with a diameter of 80 mm was identified in the descending colon via computed tomography. Descending colectomy was performed involving the abdominal wall where tumor invasion was observed. The white blood cell count, which was elevated before resection, decreased to normal levels after intervention. However, local recurrence at the resected site was detected 39 days after surgery. Upon recurrence, increased white blood cell counts and serum G-CSF were seen. The patient died because of respiratory failure 98 days after colectomy. By using immunohistochemistry, G-CSF expression was detected in tumor cells in the resected specimen, along with overexpression of CD44 and highly proliferating nestin-positive tumor vessels. The poor clinical outcome of this patient is consistent with previous reports that the expression of these three molecules predict poor prognosis. While G-CSF can be a therapeutic target considering its auto/paracrine function to induce tumor growth via the G-CSF receptor, CD44 and nestin may also be possible candidate therapeutic targets. Further studies are required to assess the efficacy of treatments targeting these three molecules.

  15. Affect and Cognition in Attitude Formation toward Familiar and Unfamiliar Attitude Objects

    van Giesen, Roxanne I.


    At large attitudes are built on earlier experience with the attitude object. If earlier experiences are not available, as is the case for unfamiliar attitude objects such as new technologies, no stored evaluations exist. Yet, people are still somehow able to construct attitudes on the spot. Depending on the familiarity of the attitude object, attitudes may find their basis more in affect or cognition. The current paper investigates differences in reliance on affect or cognition in attitude formation toward familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. In addition, individual differences in reliance on affect (high faith in intuition) or cognition (high need for cognition) are taken into account. In an experimental survey among Dutch consumers (N = 1870), we show that, for unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, people rely more on affect than cognition. For familiar attitude objects where both affective and cognitive evaluations are available, high need for cognition leads to more reliance on cognition, and high faith in intuition leads to more reliance on affect, reflecting the influence of individually preferred thinking style. For people with high need for cognition, cognition has a higher influence on overall attitude for both familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. On the other hand, affect is important for people with high faith in intuition for both familiar and unfamiliar attitude objects and for people with low faith in intuition for unfamiliar attitude objects; this shows that preferred thinking style is less influential for unfamiliar objects. By comparing attitude formation for familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, this research contributes to understanding situations in which affect or cognition is the better predictor of overall attitudes. PMID:26517876

  16. Affect and Cognition in Attitude Formation toward Familiar and Unfamiliar Attitude Objects.

    van Giesen, Roxanne I; Fischer, Arnout R H; van Dijk, Heleen; van Trijp, Hans C M


    At large attitudes are built on earlier experience with the attitude object. If earlier experiences are not available, as is the case for unfamiliar attitude objects such as new technologies, no stored evaluations exist. Yet, people are still somehow able to construct attitudes on the spot. Depending on the familiarity of the attitude object, attitudes may find their basis more in affect or cognition. The current paper investigates differences in reliance on affect or cognition in attitude formation toward familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. In addition, individual differences in reliance on affect (high faith in intuition) or cognition (high need for cognition) are taken into account. In an experimental survey among Dutch consumers (N = 1870), we show that, for unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, people rely more on affect than cognition. For familiar attitude objects where both affective and cognitive evaluations are available, high need for cognition leads to more reliance on cognition, and high faith in intuition leads to more reliance on affect, reflecting the influence of individually preferred thinking style. For people with high need for cognition, cognition has a higher influence on overall attitude for both familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. On the other hand, affect is important for people with high faith in intuition for both familiar and unfamiliar attitude objects and for people with low faith in intuition for unfamiliar attitude objects; this shows that preferred thinking style is less influential for unfamiliar objects. By comparing attitude formation for familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, this research contributes to understanding situations in which affect or cognition is the better predictor of overall attitudes.

  17. Attitudes and Achievement: A Complex Relationship.

    Robinson, Mary L.

    This paper investigates the popular belief that children's attitudes toward school and particular subjects have a positive relationship with their school and subject achievement. Definitions of attitude by L. L. Thurstone, L. W. Doob, and M. Fishbein are presented as a basis for the investigation. The difficulties involved in assessing attitudes…

  18. Albinism: A Survey of Attitudes and Behavior.

    Vander Kolk, Charles J.; Bright, Bobra C.


    Attitudes of tenth graders were more positive after receiving information about and exposure to albinism, an inherited condition affecting skin and hair color as well as visual functioning. Attitude difficulties are compounded by poor self-concept and racial factors. Albinic persons frequently know very little about the condition. (CL)

  19. International Tourism, Ethnic Contact, and Attitude Change.

    Amir, Yehuda; Ben-Ari, Rachel


    Evaluates a book about Egypt, designed to improve the ethnic attitudes of Israel tourists who were about to visit that country as a cognitive intervention. Reports that the intervention was successful only in moderating negative attitudinal changes, and that the intergroup contact provided by tourism does not guarantee positive attitude change.…

  20. Pornography and attitudes supporting violence against women: revisiting the relationship in nonexperimental studies

    Hald, Gert Martin; Malamuth, Neil M; Yuen, Carlin


    with the use of sexually violent pornography than with the use of nonviolent pornography, although the latter relationship was also found to be significant. The study resolves what appeared to be a troubling discordance in the literature on pornography and aggressive attitudes by showing that the conclusions......A meta-analysis was conducted to determine whether nonexperimental studies revealed an association between men's pornography consumption and their attitudes supporting violence against women. The meta-analysis corrected problems with a previously published meta-analysis and added more recent...... findings. In contrast to the earlier meta-analysis, the current results showed an overall significant positive association between pornography use and attitudes supporting violence against women in nonexperimental studies. In addition, such attitudes were found to correlate significantly higher...

  1. Implicit and Explicit Sexual Attitudes: How Are They Related to Sexual Desire and Sexual Satisfaction in Men and Women?

    Dosch, Alessandra; Belayachi, Sanaâ; Van der Linden, Martial


    This article examines individual variability in sexual desire and sexual satisfaction by exploring the relation between these sexual aspects and sexual attitudes (implicit and explicit) and by taking gender into account, as this has been shown to be an influential factor. A total of 28 men and 33 women living in heterosexual relationships completed questionnaires assessing sexual desire (dyadic, solitary), sexual satisfaction, and explicit sexual attitudes. An adapted version of the Affect Misattribution Procedure was used to assess implicit sexual attitudes. Results showed higher levels of dyadic and solitary sexual desire in men than in women. No gender differences were found regarding sexual satisfaction or sexual attitudes. High dyadic sexual desire was associated with positive implicit and explicit sexual attitudes, regardless of gender. However, solitary sexual desire was significantly higher in men than women and was associated, in women only, with positive implicit sexual attitudes, suggesting that solitary sexual desire may fulfill different functions in men and women. Finally, sexual satisfaction depended on the combination of explicit and implicit sexual attitudes in both men and women. This study highlights the importance of considering both implicit and explicit sexual attitudes to better understand the mechanisms underlying individual variability in sexual desire and satisfaction.

  2. Atitudes de alunos e enfermeiros frente ao diagnóstico de enfermagem: attitudes of nurses and nursing students Actitudes de alumnos y enfermeros frente al diagnóstico de enfermería Positions on nursing diagnosis

    Ana Paula Vilcinski Oliva


    de Paraná. DISCUSIÓN: El análisis de las respuestas mostró que el grupo de los alumnos obtuvo mejores escores en actitudes que el grupo de enfermeros y, el grupo con media de mayor contacto presentó mejores escores en actitudes que el grupo con medias de menor contacto. CONCLUSIÓN: La mayor intensidad de contacto con el DE y el ser estudiante están asociados a mejores actitudes frente al DE cuando se comparó con enfermeros.BACKGROUND: In the nursing process proposed by Wanda Horta in the 1960s, the term nursing diagnosis was replaced by the term nursing problems. The term nursing diagnosis returned to the Brazilian literature at the end of the 1980's. Since then, nurses are becoming more and more familiar with the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA classification of nursing diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: To describe the attitudes of professional nurses and nursing students regarding nursing diagnoses, as well as to evaluated the association between professional nurses and nursing students' attitudes regarding their knowledge and use of nursing diagnoses to improve patient care. METHODS: A descriptive and correlational design was used. Data were collected from 81 subjects from three universities in Parana State, Brazil, using the Positions on Nursing Diagnosis (PND Portuguese version. RESULTS: Nursing students had higher scores on the PND than professional nurses. Higher scores on the knowledge and use of nursing diagnoses were associated with higher scores on PND. Nursing students also had more favorable attitudes toward nursing diagnosis than professional nurses. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that nursing students had a better attitude, more knowledge, and used nursing diagnoses more often than professional nurses.

  3. Attitude influence on performance in technical skill acquisition among formal technical trainees

    Adinife Patrick Azodo


    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study analyzed attitude influence on performance in technical skill involved in a specific trade chosen among all the formal technical trainees of Don Bosco Technical Institute (DBTI, Onitsha, Nigeria. This study was carried out between May and July, 2013. The 24-item questionnaire, designed after critical examination and revision of some related studies and a combination of individual technical projects, sequence of job operation prepared by the students and written tests which cumulatively made up the school academic performance record in technical work were used to assess students’ attitude and performance respectively. Analysis of the data showed that majority of the students have positive attitudes towards technical skill involved in technical education. There is also positive relationships between students’ attitude in technical skill acquisition and their performance. This was evident from the overall attitude and performance mean scores of 4.3333 and 69.8376 representing 86.67% and 69.84% respectively. Pearson correlation coefficient (r of relationship between attitude and performance in technical skill involved in technical education gave an ‘r’ value of 0.366 which was a positive correlation. However, the good performance and knowledge of the usefulness of technical skills in life did not stimulate the students to continue their careers in a related technical profession. This demands serious attention.

  4. Role of attitudes and intentions in predicting adherence to oral diabetes medications

    Emmanuel K Fai


    Full Text Available The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the extent to which patient attitudes and intentions predict adherence to the use of oral antihyperglycemic regimens in African Americans. This cross-sectional study of 115 participants used correlation analysis to establish relationships among patient attitudes, intentions and adherence. Data analyses showed significant correlations between the variables. Multiple regression analysis was used to establish predictions between the variables. A prediction model containing attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control (PBC explained 37% of the variance to behavioral intention. Intentions accounted for 8.5% of the variance to adherence. Attitudes predicted behavioral intentions. The findings support the theory of planned behavior model and identify important correlations between attitudes, intentions and behaviors. In addition, the results underscore the need for promoting positive attitudes and positive intentions in effective adherence to the use of oral antihyperglycemic regimens. Achieving adequate adherence through behavioral counseling can effect positive social change by reducing the mortality and morbidity that are associated with inadequate adherence to the use of oral diabetic agents.

  5. Validity of the Eating Attitude Test among Exercisers.

    Lane, Helen J; Lane, Andrew M; Matheson, Hilary


    Theory testing and construct measurement are inextricably linked. To date, no published research has looked at the factorial validity of an existing eating attitude inventory for use with exercisers. The Eating Attitude Test (EAT) is a 26-item measure that yields a single index of disordered eating attitudes. The original factor analysis showed three interrelated factors: Dieting behavior (13-items), oral control (7-items), and bulimia nervosa-food preoccupation (6-items). The primary purpose of the study was to examine the factorial validity of the EAT among a sample of exercisers. The second purpose was to investigate relationships between eating attitudes scores and selected psychological constructs. In stage one, 598 regular exercisers completed the EAT. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the single-factor, a three-factor model, and a four-factor model, which distinguished bulimia from food pre-occupation. CFA of the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.66, RMSEA = 0.10), the three-factor-model (RCFI = 0.74; RMSEA = 0.09) showed poor model fit. There was marginal fit for the 4-factor model (RCFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.06). Results indicated five-items showed poor factor loadings. After these 5-items were discarded, the three models were re-analyzed. CFA results indicated that the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.76, RMSEA = 0.10) and three-factor model (RCFI = 0.82, RMSEA = 0.08) showed poor fit. CFA results for the four-factor model showed acceptable fit indices (RCFI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.06). Stage two explored relationships between EAT scores, mood, self-esteem, and motivational indices toward exercise in terms of self-determination, enjoyment and competence. Correlation results indicated that depressed mood scores positively correlated with bulimia and dieting scores. Further, dieting was inversely related with self-determination toward exercising. Collectively, findings suggest that a 21-item four-factor model shows promising validity coefficients among

  6. Attitude and acceptance of offshore wind farms

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Möller, B.


    Generally people are more positive towards offshore wind farms compared to on-land wind farms. However, the attitudes are commonly assumed to be independent of experience with wind farms. Important relations between attitude and experience might therefore be disregarded. The present paper gives...... a novel contribution to this field. First of all, we give a thorough review of the studies that have analysed the relation between experience with wind turbines and attitude. In addition, we supplement the review by analysing the effect of travel distance to the nearest offshore wind farm and the wind...... farms attributes on attitude towards offshore wind farms. The results point towards that the travel time and the attributes of the nearest offshore wind farm influence the attitude significantly. Travel time has mixed effects on the attitude, whilst offshore wind farms with many turbines generate more...

  7. Positive Mood Risk Attitudes, and Investment Decisions

    Lepori, Gabriele

    moodshifting mechanism commonly employed in lab studies. More specifically, I exploit the time-series variation in the domestic theatrical release of comedy movies as a natural experiment for testing the impact that happy mood (proxied by weekend comedy movie attendance) has on investment in risky assets...

  8. Attitudes, social representations and social attitudes

    Farr, Robert, M.


    This paper plays the role of the devil's advocate in relation to Colin Fraser's paper "attitudes, social representations and widespread beliefs". It argues for the alternative perspective which Colin identifies that social representations and social attitudes are epistemologically incompatible theories.

  9. This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’ simultaneously. The analysis also showed that partially labor has positive and significant influence on the business success, yet innovation and promotion have insignificant and positive influence on the business success.

    Nasution, Inggrita Gusti Sari; Muchtar, Yasmin Chairunnisa


    This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small busine...




    Full Text Available This article intended to reveal the results of a survey study in which the students’ attitudes toward online communication in open and distance learning were investigated. In the study, affects of the students’ gender and computer experience on their attitudes were also examined. A total of 626 subjects participated in the study and ‘Online Communication Attitude Scale’, developed by Ledbetter, was adapted as the data collection instrument. Mean, standard deviation, independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests were used to analyze the data gathered. The results of the study indicated that students have in general positive attitudes toward online communication in ODL. Also, it showed that there is a significant difference in ‘miscommunication’, ‘social connection’ and ‘ease’ dimensions of online communication between the males and the female students. The female students see online environments as open to communication errors. On the other hand, the study supported the literature about the affect of the students’ computer experience and their attitudes toward online communication in ODL.

  11. Measurement of spatial object's exterior attitude based on linear CCD


    It is difficult to realize real-time measurement of exterior attitude by the traditional systems based on the area image sensor which have conflict between speed and accuracy.The subsystem for three-dimensional (3D) coordinate rcconstruction of point target (S3DCRPT) which is composed of three one-dimensional (1D) cameras based on linear charge-coupled device (CCD) can determine the distant light spots' spatial position. The attitude angle of the measured object is determined by the spatial solution while the coordinate reconstruction is separately carried on by the S3DCRPT with some point cooperation targets (PCTs) on the measured object. A new optical system is designed to solve the interference problem with one-to-one relationship between the PCTs and the S3DCRPT optical subsystems,which improves the measurement accuracy and saves space. The mathematical model of the attitude measurement is established,and partial and global calibrations are realized for the multi-camera attitude measurement system.The test results show the feasibility of the exterior attitude measurement based on linear CCD.

  12. Expressed Attitudes of Adolescents toward Marriage and Family Life.

    Martin, Paige D.; Specter, Gerald; Martin, Don; Martin, Maggie


    Study examined attitudes of adolescents toward aspects of marriage and family life. The majority expressed negative attitudes toward divorce and viewed marriage as a lifelong commitment. While about one third expressed positive attitudes toward premarital sex, a majority indicated they would engage or had engaged in sex. The adolescents…

  13. Attitudes of Swazi Teacher Trainees towards First Official Language.

    Mordaunt, Owen Glen


    Teachers' attitudes toward a second or foreign language may filter down to students and may aid or hinder student's acquisition of that language. Therefore, prospective teachers of English in Swaziland were studied to determine their attitudes toward English. The teachers evidenced positive attitudes toward English and English teaching…

  14. The Effects Of Grade Level, Gender, And Ethnicity On Attitude And Learning Environment In Mathematics In High School

    Thienhuong N. Hoang


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate different factors (grade level, gender, and ethnicity that might affect the attitudes and learning environment perceptions of high school mathematics students in Los Angeles County, California, USA. The study involved the administration of the administration of the What Is Happening In This Class? (WIHIC questionnaire and an attitude questionnaire based on the Test of Mathematics-Related Attitude (TOMRA to 600 Grades 9 and 10 mathematics students in 30 classes in one high school. Quantitative research method was used in collecting information from the sample. The quantitative data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results showed that male consistently reported slightly more positive perceptions of classroom environment and attitudes than did females. Anglo students’ scores consistently are a little higher than Hispanic students’ scores. There is strong evidence of associations between students’ attitudes and the learning environment.

  15. Attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. Structure and causes; Attityd till slutfoervar av anvaent kaernbraensle. Struktur och orsaker

    Sjoeberg, Lennart (Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden). Center for Risk Research)


    more positive than in the rest of the country, which was probably due to the availability of information but also to the fact that many people in these municipalities worked in the nuclear industry. Despite the positive attitude, there had been some decrease in positivity since 2005, especially among young people, perhaps due to the incidents in Forsmark in the summer of 2006 and in February 2007. It is interesting that there does not seem to have been a corresponding decrease in positivity in attitudes towards nuclear power in the country as a whole. When it came to nuclear power, the results showed that people had a fairly positive attitude towards the Swedish nuclear power programme, whose benefit was the most important component of this attitude. There was, however, some concern, and attitudes had become less positive in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar since 2005. Men were more positive than women, and older people more than young. Risk played a less important role, but a factor of great importance for attitudes was whether the person believed that a substitute could be found for nuclear power or not. Emotional reactions were important, but general values were less important for the attitude towards nuclear power. Social aspects seemed to play an important role for both the attitude towards a final repository and the attitude towards nuclear power: those who spoke with people who were negatively disposed tended to share that attitude, and the same was true of those who were positive. This factor may be part of the explanation for the gender differences in the attitude towards nuclear power, as well as the attitude towards a final repository

  16. The morality of attitudes toward nanotechnology: about God, techno-scientific progress, and interfering with nature

    Vandermoere, Frederic, E-mail: Frederic_Vandermoere@hks.harvard.ed [Program on Science, Technology and Society, Harvard Kennedy School (United States); Blanchemanche, Sandrine [INRA Paris, Metarisk Department (France); Bieberstein, Andrea [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Marketing und Konsumforschung (Germany); Marette, Stephan [INRA, UMR Economie publique (France); Roosen, Jutta [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer BWL - Marketing und Konsumforschung (Germany)


    Using survey data, we examine public attitudes toward and awareness of nanotechnology in Germany (N = 750). First, it is shown that a majority of the people are still not familiar with nanotechnology. In addition, diffusion of information about nanotechnology thus far mostly seems to reach men and people with a relative higher educational background. Also, pro-science and technology views are positively related with nanotech familiarity. Results further show that a majority of the people have an indifferent, ambiguous, or non-attitude toward nanotechnology. Multinomial logit analyses further reveal that nanotech familiarity is positively related with people's attitudes. In addition, it is shown that traditional religiosity is unrelated to attitudes and that individual religiosity is weakly related to nanotechnology attitudes. However, moral covariates other than religiosity seem of major importance. In particular, our results show that more negative views on technological and scientific progress as well as more holistic views about the relation between people and the environment increase the likelihood of having a negative attitude toward nanotechnology.

  17. [Attitude of hemophilic adult individuals towards their disease].

    Carruyo-Vizcaíno, Cecilia; Vizcaíno, Gilberto; Carrizo, Edgardo; Arteaga-Vizcaíno, Melvis; Sarmiento, Sandra; Vizcaíno-Carruyo, Jennifer


    The mental health of hemophilic individuals and their families play an important role on the integral treatment of the disease. The knowledge of the beliefs and attitudes perceived by the patients toward their disease will make possible a positive influence in their clinical improvement, their response to the treatment, as well as their quality of life. On the basis of the Azjen and Fishbein's Theory of Reasoned Action, a questionnaire was applied to 43 adult hemophilics to determine the salient beliefs about their disease. These beliefs permitted to elaborate a main structured questionnaire named Attitude Model in Patients with Hemophilia (Modelo de Actitud en Pacientes con Hemofilia, MAPACHE, in spanish), which was administered to the individuals and thus, the attitude toward their disease was obtained. Seventy two percent (72%) gave a major importance to the clinical aspects of the disease (hemorrhage, joint discomfort and trauma), 40% knew the general concepts of hemophilia (heredity, care and seriousness of the disease), 20% mentioned the implications of the psychosocial factors and only 18% had knowledge concerning the coagulation factors deficiency and the appropriate treatment. The MAPACHE showed a slightly positive score attitude (4.44 +/- 1.12 SEM) towards the disease in the majority of the groups (74.5%); with 26% of the hemophilics with a negative attitude. There were no significant differences between attitude and clinical parameters. It is recommended that a multidisciplinary team of caregivers should focus their efforts toward education and preventive measures in order to avoid the complications and consequences of the disease, to make possible a better quality of life in individuals with hemophilia.

  18. Japanese Attitudes toward English Accents.

    Chiba, Reiko; And Others


    Examined the attitudes of 169 Japanese university students toward varieties of spoken English. Results found that the students with more instrumental motivation were more positive toward nonnative English accents than those with less instrumental motivation, and that the students' familiarity with accents had an influence on their acceptance of…

  19. Towards a different attitude to uncertainty

    Guy Pe'er


    Full Text Available The ecological literature deals with uncertainty primarily from the perspective of how to reduce it to acceptable levels. However, the current rapid and ubiquitous environmental changes, as well as anticipated rates of change, pose novel conditions and complex dynamics due to which many sources of uncertainty are difficult or even impossible to reduce. These include both uncertainty in knowledge (epistemic uncertainty and societal responses to it. Under these conditions, an increasing number of studies ask how one can deal with uncertainty as it is. Here, we explore the question how to adopt an overall alternative attitude to uncertainty, which accepts or even embraces it. First, we show that seeking to reduce uncertainty may be counterproductive under some circumstances. It may yield overconfidence, ignoring early warning signs, policy- and societal stagnation, or irresponsible behaviour if personal certainty is offered by externalization of environmental costs. We then demonstrate that uncertainty can have positive impacts by driving improvements in knowledge, promoting cautious action, contributing to keeping societies flexible and adaptable, enhancing awareness, support and involvement of the public in nature conservation, and enhancing cooperation and communication. We discuss the risks of employing a certainty paradigm on uncertain knowledge, the potential benefits of adopting an alternative attitude to uncertainty, and the need to implement such an attitude across scales – from adaptive management at the local scale, to the evolving Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES at the global level.

  20. Attitudes of Consumers Towards the Green Plastic

    Gabriela Elnecave Kruter


    Full Text Available The demands regarding sustainable production and consumption are growing increasingly, the market is opening doors for companies to innovate in products and processes that present themselves as a solution to social and environmental problems facing society today. To this end, in 2010, a Brazilian company began producing the "green" polyethylene, or green plastic, which differs from conventional polyethylene because it is produced from the ethanol from cane sugar and not from naphtha oil. Because it is a new product on the market and little known, this study aims to understand consumer attitudes towards green plastic. Environmental concerns, ecologically conscious consumer behavior, purchase intention and previous knowledge of green plastic were also assessed. Were conducted initially in-depth interviews, which helped quantitative stage, an online survey, applied to a sample of 300 individuals. Results indicate that surveyed consumers have positive attitudes towards green plastic and intention to purchase products made ​​with this material. Despite exhibiting a high degree of environmental awareness, they show only moderate attitudes in relation to sustainable consumption in practice. We can conclude that there is still much to be done by companies and society so that a greater degree of maturity and respect for the environment can be achieved.

  1. Evaluation of relationship between metacognition components and dysfunctional attitudes in outpatients with bipolar mood disorder II

    H Kazemi


    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between metacognitive components and dysfunctional attitudes in outpatients with bipolar mood disorder II. Methods: Thirty-six young adult outpatients with current diagnoses of BMD II(20 females and 16 males were recruited from Esfahan Counseling Center. Diagnoses were based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorder-Clinical Version(SCID-CV. A battery of questionnaires including Metacognition Questionnaire and Dysfunctional Attitude Scale(DAS were self-assessed by patients before medical therapy. Results: Pearson's correlation analysis showed that the components of metacognition and its relationship with dysfunctional attitudes is positive and significant(r= 28/0, p<0/05. Multiple regression analysis showed that two of the metacognitive components emerged as potentially useful in prediction of dysfunctional attitudes(negative beliefs about uncontrollability, danger and thoughts control. Also, results indicated that those two components have a significant positive relationship with vulnerability, perfectionism and effectivenessR²= 0/29, 0/35; p<0/05. Components of positive beliefs about worry and beliefs about cognitive self-consciousness related to cognitive confidence in predicting the criterion variable and its components showed no significant contribution. Conclusion: Study findings suggest that DSM-IV BMD II outpatients with metacognitive distortions have shown higher levels of dysfunctional attitudes.

  2. Importance of perceived similarity in improving children's attitudes toward mentally retarded peers.

    Siperstein, G N; Chatillon, A C


    Effects of perceived similarity on fifth- and sixth-grade children's attitudes toward mentally retarded peers were examined. Children were selected from schools that contained segregated classes of retarded pupils (exposed setting) and schools that had no retarded pupils enrolled (nonexposed). Attitudes were defined in terms of children's affective feelings and behavioral intentions. Results showed that children responded more positively toward a retarded target who was depicted as similar to them than toward one who was not. Unexpectedly, the positive effects of perceived similarity were observed only among children in the exposed schools. Also, girls were more positive toward a female target than boys were to a male target, regardless of whether the target was perceived as similar. The importance of developing strategies based on theories of interpersonal attraction to improve children's attitudes toward their retarded peers was discussed.

  3. Vision-Based Attitude and Formation Determination System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To determine pointing and position vectors in both local and inertial coordinate frames, multi-spacecraft missions typically utilize separate attitude determination...

  4. Can singular examples change implicit racial attitudes in the real-world?

    Leslie E. Roos


    Full Text Available Implicit attitudes about social groups persist independently of explicit beliefs and can influence not only social behavior, but also medical and legal practices. Although examples presented in the laboratory can alter such implicit attitudes, it is unclear whether the same influence is exerted by real-world exemplars. Following the 2008 US election, Plant et al. reported that the Implicit Association Test or IAT revealed a decrease in negative implicit attitudes towards African-Americans. However, a large-scale study also employing the IAT found little evidence for a change in implicit attitudes pre- and post-election. Here we present evidence that the 2008 US election may have facilitated at least a temporary change in implicit racial attitudes in the US. Our results rely on the Affective Lexical Priming Score or ALPS and pre- and post-election measurements for both US and non-US participants. US students who, pre-election, exhibited negative associations with black faces, post-election showed positive associations with black faces. Canadian students pre- and post-election did not show a similar shift. To account for these findings, we posit that the socio-cognitive processes underlying ALPS are different from those underlying the IAT. Acknowledging that we cannot form a causal link between an intervening real-world event and laboratory-measured implicit attitudes, we speculate that our findings may be driven by the fact that the 2008 election campaign included extremely positive media coverage of President Obama and prominently featured his face in association with positive words – similar to the structure of ALPS. Even so, our real-world finding adds to the literature demonstrating the malleability of implicit attitudes and has implications for how we understand the socio-cognitive mechanisms underlying stereotypes.


    Mehmet A. OCAK


    Full Text Available This correlation study examined the relationship between gender and the students’ attitude and prior knowledge of using one of the mathematical software programs (MATLAB. Participants were selected from one community college, one state university and one private college. Students were volunteers from three Calculus I classrooms (one class from each school in which MATLAB was used extensively. A survey regarding students’ attitude and experience on using the MATLAB program was administered to classes. The findings of the study indicated that gender differences are not related to students’ attitude and experience on the program. The results revealed slightly positive correlation between and students’ attitude and experience on the program. The implications of this study shows that teachers who use MATLAB in their instruction and classroom practices must pay attention on how much students use it, the obstacles students had to overcome to succeed in its use, and their general issues and concerns regarding MATLAB use.

  6. Knowledge, attitude and practice of premarital counseling for sickle cell disease among youth in Yaba, Nigeria.

    Oludarei, Gabriel O; Ogili, Matthew C


    Nigeria accounts for 50% of sickle cell disease (SCD) births worldwide and about 2.3% of her population suffers from SCD with 25% of Nigerians being healthy carriers. This study determined the knowledge, attitude and practice of youths in Yaba, Nigeria towards pre-marital genetic counseling. Data was collected using a questionnaire containing both open ended and closed ended questions. The questionnaires (n= 280) were analyzed by frequency counts, percentages and chi-square. The study shows that 80% of youths had knowledge, 86% had positive attitude and 65% had practiced things related to SCD and premarital counseling. There was a significant association between respondents' educational qualification and knowledge, attitude and practices related to SCD and SCD premarital counseling, and between age and attitude and practices related to SCD premarital counseling. In conclusion, public education on the role of premarital genetic counseling should continue and avenues to allow individuals carry out genotype test should still be encouraged.

  7. Organizational Culture and Climate and Mental Health Provider Attitudes Toward Evidence-Based Practice.

    Aarons, Gregory A; Sawitzky, Angelina C


    Mental health provider attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practice (EBP) are associated with organizational context and provider individual differences. Organizational culture and climate are contextual factors that can affect staff acceptance of innovation. This study examined the association of organizational culture and climate with attitudes toward adopting EBP. Participants were 301 public sector mental health service providers from 49 programs providing mental health services for youths and families. Correlation analyses and multilevel hierarchical regressions, controlling for effects of provider characteristics, showed that constructive culture was associated with more positive attitudes toward adoption of EBP and poor organizational climates with perceived divergence of usual practice and EBP. Behavioral health organizations may benefit from consideration of how culture and climate affect staff attitudes toward change in practice.

  8. Religion insulates ingroup evaluations: the development of intergroup attitudes in India.

    Dunham, Yarrow; Srinivasan, Mahesh; Dotsch, Ron; Barner, David


    Research on the development of implicit intergroup attitudes has placed heavy emphasis on race, leaving open how social categories that are prominent in other cultures might operate. We investigate two of India's primary means of social distinction, caste and religion, and explore the development of implicit and explicit attitudes towards these groups in minority-status Muslim children and majority-status Hindu children, the latter drawn from various positions in the Hindu caste system. Results from two tests of implicit attitudes find that caste attitudes parallel previous findings for race: higher-caste children as well as lower-caste children have robust high-caste preferences. However, results for religion were strikingly different: both lower-status Muslim children and higher-status Hindu children show strong implicit ingroup preferences. We suggest that religion may play a protective role in insulating children from the internalization of stigma.

  9. Assessing attitude toward same-sex marriage: scale development and validation.

    Lannutti, Pamela J; Lachlan, Kenneth A


    This paper reports the results of three studies conducted to develop, refine, and validate a scale which assessed heterosexual adults' attitudes toward same-sex marriage, the Attitude Toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ASSMS). The need for such a scale is evidenced in the increasing importance of same-sex marriage in the political arena of the United States and other nations, as well as the growing body of empirical research examining same-sex marriage and related issues (e.g., Lannutti, 2005; Solomon, Rothblum, & Balsam, 2004). The results demonstrate strong reliability, convergent validity, and predictive validity for the ASSMS and suggest that the ASSMS may be adapted to measure attitudes toward civil unions and other forms of relational recognition for same-sex couples. Gender comparisons using the validated scale showed that in college and non-college samples, women had a significantly more positive attitude toward same-sex marriage than did men.

  10. The Relationship between Motivational Structure, Mental Health and Attitude to Opiate Substances in University Students

    Ali akbar Soliemanian


    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the relationship between motivational structure, mental health and attitude to opiate substances in a sample of North-Khorasan's university students. Method: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 400 participants (200 males and 200 females were selected by stratified random sampling of three universities of north khorasan. All participants completed the SCL-90-R, Personal Concerns Inventory and Attitude to Opiate Substances questionnaire. Findings: The results revealed that there was a significant difference between participants with maladaptive motivational structure and adaptive motivational structure on GSI and subscales of SCL-90-R. In addition, the comparison of two groups showed that participants with maladaptive motivational structure had significant more positive attitude to opiate Substances than participants with adaptive motivational structure. Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between motivational structure, mental health and attitude to opiate substances.


    Tan Yao Sua


    Full Text Available This study examines the policy of teaching science and mathematics in English in the Malaysian educational system by focusing on the attitudes and achievement orientations of secondary school students towards the learning of these two subjects. Attitudes and achievement are two important outcomes of learning that will determine the effectiveness of an education policy. This study is based on a sample of 400 secondary school students selected from four non-premier schools. It looks into the students’ general attitudes and achievement orientations towards learning of science and mathematics as well as their variations according to four background variables, i.e., gender, ethnicity, types of feeder school and English achievement grades. It also examines the inter-correlations between the students’ attitudes and achievement orientations. Findings from statistical analyses of collected data were supplemented by more in-depth interviews. This study shows that the students’ general attitudes and achievement orientations towards learning of science and mathematics in English do not indicate that the policy has achieved its objective. However, their attitudes and achievement motivations vary according to the four background variables. The significant and positive inter-correlations between attitudes and achievement orientations towards learning of science and mathematics further confirm the causal relationship between these two important dimensions of learning.

  12. Attitude Determination with Magnetometers and Accelerometers to Use in Satellite Simulator

    Helio Koiti Kuga


    Full Text Available Attitude control of artificial satellites is dependent on information provided by its attitude determination process. This paper presents the implementation and tests of a fully self-contained algorithm for the attitude determination using magnetometers and accelerometers, for application on a satellite simulator based on frictionless air bearing tables. However, it is known that magnetometers and accelerometers need to be calibrated so as to allow that measurements are used to their ultimate accuracy. A calibration method is implemented which proves to be essential for improving attitude determination accuracy. For the stepwise real-time attitude determination, it was used the well-known QUEST algorithm which yields quick response with reduced computer resources. The algorithms are tested and qualified with actual data collected on the streets under controlled situations. For such street runaways, the experiment employs a solid-state magnetoresistive magnetometer and an IMU navigation block consisting of triads of accelerometers and gyros, with MEMS technology. A GPS receiver is used to record positional information. The collected measurements are processed through the developed algorithms, and comparisons are made for attitude determination using calibrated and noncalibrated data. The results show that the attitude accuracy reaches the requirements for real-time operation for satellite simulator platforms.

  13. It's all in the attitude: The role of job attitude strength in job attitude-outcome relationships.

    Schleicher, Deidra J; Smith, Troy A; Casper, Wendy J; Watt, John D; Greguras, Gary J


    Integrating attitude theory with the job attitudes literature, we position job attitude strength (JAS) as a missing yet important theoretical concept in the study of job attitudes. We examine JAS as a moderator of the relationship between job satisfaction and several criteria of interest to organizational scholars (job performance, organizational citizenship behavior, withdrawal). We also examine multiple relevant indicators of JAS (i.e., attitude certainty, attitude extremity, latitude of rejection, and structural consistency), both to shed light on its conceptual nature and to provide meaningful practical direction to researchers interested in incorporating JAS into job attitude research. Data were collected in five field samples (total N = 816). Results support our hypotheses: JAS moderates the relationships between job satisfaction and performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and turnover intentions; in each case, these relationships are significantly stronger for employees with stronger job satisfaction attitudes. However, as expected, not all JAS indicators are equally effective as moderators. We discuss our findings in terms of their theoretical, empirical, and practical implications for the future study of job attitudes.

  14. Attitude Estimation in Fractionated Spacecraft Cluster Systems

    Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Blackmore, James C.


    An attitude estimation was examined in fractioned free-flying spacecraft. Instead of a single, monolithic spacecraft, a fractionated free-flying spacecraft uses multiple spacecraft modules. These modules are connected only through wireless communication links and, potentially, wireless power links. The key advantage of this concept is the ability to respond to uncertainty. For example, if a single spacecraft module in the cluster fails, a new one can be launched at a lower cost and risk than would be incurred with onorbit servicing or replacement of the monolithic spacecraft. In order to create such a system, however, it is essential to know what the navigation capabilities of the fractionated system are as a function of the capabilities of the individual modules, and to have an algorithm that can perform estimation of the attitudes and relative positions of the modules with fractionated sensing capabilities. Looking specifically at fractionated attitude estimation with startrackers and optical relative attitude sensors, a set of mathematical tools has been developed that specify the set of sensors necessary to ensure that the attitude of the entire cluster ( cluster attitude ) can be observed. Also developed was a navigation filter that can estimate the cluster attitude if these conditions are satisfied. Each module in the cluster may have either a startracker, a relative attitude sensor, or both. An extended Kalman filter can be used to estimate the attitude of all modules. A range of estimation performances can be achieved depending on the sensors used and the topology of the sensing network.

  15. Attitudes to genetically modified food over time: How trust in organizations and the media cycle predict support.

    Marques, Mathew D; Critchley, Christine R; Walshe, Jarrod


    This research examined public opinion toward genetically modified plants and animals for food, and how trust in organizations and media coverage explained attitudes toward these organisms. Nationally representative samples (N=8821) over 10 years showed Australians were less positive toward genetically modified animals compared to genetically modified plants for food, especially in years where media coverage was high. Structural equation modeling found that positive attitudes toward different genetically modified organisms for food were significantly associated with higher trust in scientists and regulators (e.g. governments), and with lower trust in watchdogs (e.g. environmental movement). Public trust in scientists and watchdogs was a stronger predictor of attitudes toward the use of genetically modified plants for food than animals, but only when media coverage was low. Results are discussed regarding the moral acceptability of genetically modified organisms for food, the media's role in shaping public opinion, and the role public trust in organizations has on attitudes toward genetically modified organisms.

  16. Attitudes vs. Purchase Behaviors as Experienced Dissonance: The Roles of Knowledge and Consumer Orientations in Organic Market.

    Hidalgo-Baz, María; Martos-Partal, Mercedes; González-Benito, Óscar


    This research focuses on the incongruity between positive attitudinal responses but a lack of purchase behavior in organic markets. According to cognitive dissonance theory, consumer orientations toward the benefits attributed to organic products (environmental protection, health, hedonic) relieve the dissonance that results from this attitude-behavior incongruity. Knowledge also functions as a transmitter, from positive attitudes to purchase behaviors, thereby reducing the incongruity. Using quota sampling in a survey study, this paper tests the hypotheses from linear regression models. The results show that orientations and knowledge improve the congruity between attitudes and purchase behaviors toward organic products. Moreover, interaction effects arise between the environmental protection orientation and knowledge and between the hedonic orientation and knowledge. Increasing knowledge mitigates the difference between attitudes and purchase behaviors, especially for consumers with environmental protection or hedonic orientations. These findings have several important implications for research and practice.

  17. I Like You More if I Think You Like Me: The Effect of Metastereotypes on Attitudes Toward People With Deafness.

    Matera, Camilla; Dalla Verde, Sara; Meringolo, Patrizia


    In the present article we aimed at investigating the role of metastereotypes and gender on hearing people's attitudes towards people with deafness. Ninety-six Italian hearing adults participated in a 2 × 2 experimental study. Participants were presented with the results of a fictitious but apparently real survey concerning the opinions people with deafness have of hearing people. Metastereotypes (positive vs. negative) were manipulated through this presentation. Results showed that metastereotypes interacted with participants' gender in determining their attitudes towards people with deafness: when positive metastereotypes were activated, women's attitudes appeared more favorable toward people with deafness if compared to the negative metastereotypes condition. No effect of metastereotypes was observed among male participants. In conclusion, the activation of metastereotypes can be a useful means in intervening to improve attitudes toward people with deafness.

  18. Effects of Beliefs and Concerns on User Attitudes toward Online Social Network Advertising and Their Ad Clicking Behavior

    Imran Mir


    Full Text Available Since last few years social network sites (SNSs have rapidly grown in popularity and user acceptance globally. They have become the main place for social interaction, discussion and communication. Today, many businesses advertise their products on SNSs. The current study aims to assess the effects of SNSs consumers/users’ beliefs and concerns of social network advertising (SNA on their attitudes toward SNA and SNS banner ad-clicking behavior. Data was collected from a sample of 397 university students of Pakistan. Results show the beliefs of SNA as informative and entertaining have positive effects on user attitudes toward SNA and their ad-clicking behavior. Similarly, user concern of SNA as irritating has negative effects on both their attitudes toward SNA and ad-clicking behavior. Good for economy is an important socioeconomic belief which affects user attitudes toward SNA positively. The overall results indicate that utilitarian and hedonic aspects of SNA make SNS banner ads effective.

  19. Design and application of single-antenna GPS/accelerometers attitude determination system

    He Jie; Huang Xianlin; Wang Guofeng


    In view of the problem that the current single-antenna GPS attitude determination system can only determine the body attitude when the sideslip angle is zero and the multiantenna GPS/SINS integrated navigation system is of large volume, high cost, and complex structure, this approach is presented to determine the attitude based on vector space with single-antenna GPS and accelerometers in the micro inertial measurement unit (MIMU).It can provide real-time and accurate attitude information. Subsequently, the single-antenna GPS/SINS integrated navigation system is designed based on the combination of position, velocity, and attitude. Finally the semi-physical simulations of single-antenna GPS attitude determination system and single-antenna GPS/SINS integrated navigation system are carried out. The simulation results, based on measured data, show that the single-antenna GPS/SINS system can provide more accurate navigation information compared to the GPS/SINS system, based on the combination of position and velocity. Furthermore, the single-antenna GPS/SINS system is characteristic of lower cost and simpler structure. It provides the basis for the application of a single-antenna GPS/SINS integrated navigation system in a micro aerial vehicle (MAV).

  20. The Environment Makes a Difference: The Impact of Explicit and Implicit Attitudes as Precursors in Different Food Choice Tasks

    König, Laura M.; Giese, Helge; Schupp, Harald T.; Renner, Britta


    Studies show that implicit and explicit attitudes influence food choice. However, precursors of food choice often are investigated using tasks offering a very limited number of options despite the comparably complex environment surrounding real life food choice. In the present study, we investigated how the assortment impacts the relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes and food choice (confectionery and fruit), assuming that a more complex choice architecture is more taxing on cognitive resources. Specifically, a binary and a multiple option choice task based on the same stimulus set (fake food items) were presented to ninety-seven participants. Path modeling revealed that both explicit and implicit attitudes were associated with relative food choice (confectionery vs. fruit) in both tasks. In the binary option choice task, both explicit and implicit attitudes were significant precursors of food choice, with explicit attitudes having a greater impact. Conversely, in the multiple option choice task, the additive impact of explicit and implicit attitudes was qualified by an interaction indicating that, even if explicit and implicit attitudes toward confectionery were inconsistent, more confectionery was chosen than fruit if either was positive. This compensatory ‘one is sufficient’-effect indicates that the structure of the choice environment modulates the relationship between attitudes and choice. The study highlights that environmental constraints, such as the number of choice options, are an important boundary condition that need to be included when investigating the relationship between psychological precursors and behavior. PMID:27621719

  1. Convergent and divergent processing of majority and minority arguments: effects on focal and related attitudes

    de Dreu, C.; de Vries, N.K.; Gordijn, E.H.; Schuurman, M.S.


    This research concerned attitude change towards a majority or minority position as a function of convergent and divergent message processing. Results of a 2 (majority/minority support for persuasive arguments)×3(convergent/divergent/no-processing instructions) experiment showed that recipients ident

  2. Convergent and divergent processing of majority and minority arguments : effects on focal and related attitudes

    De Dreu, CKW; De Vries, NK; Gordijn, EH; Schuurman, MS


    This research concerned attitude change towards a majority or minority position as a function of convergent and divergent message processing. Results of a 2 (majority/minority support for persuasive arguments) x 3 (convergent/divergent/no-processing instructions) experiment showed that recipients id

  3. Student Teacher Attitudes regarding Their Experiences in Student Teaching: A Survey.

    Hanes, Edward C.; And Others

    A survey was made of student teachers in the Secondary Education Program at Western Kentucky University to determine their attitudes regarding their student teaching experience. Responses to a 25 item questionnaire were obtained from 123 students. The findings showed that: (1) Most student teachers were highly positive in their rating of the…

  4. 52例影像学病灶稳定痰菌阳性肺部结核分析%52 cases shows the of Analysis of 52 cases of sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis with lesion stability in iconography



    目的 探讨影像学肺部病灶提示稳定而痰菌阳性肺部结核患者的原因.方法 对52例影像学(胸部CT、胸片)提示肺部无结核病灶或结核病灶稳定而痰找结核菌两次阳性或一次涂阳合并培养阳性的病例进行临床分析.结果 影像学表现肺部无病灶或提示肺部病灶稳定的患者仍有可能痰找结核菌阳性,为活动性的肺部结核病患者.结论 肺部影像学表现对判断结核病活动与否有一定的局限性,支气管内膜结核肺部影像无异常表现.对肺部表现为陈旧性病灶的患者和有临床表现而无病灶的患者一定要反复多次痰找结核菌,以防误诊.%Objective To explore the etiological fart or of sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis with lesion stability in iconogra phy. Methods Clinical data in 52 cases of sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis with lesion stability in iconography were analyzed. Results Some sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis with lesion stability in iconography may be activitive pulmonary TB. Conclusion Lung imaging findings to judge whether or not TB activities has some limitations. Patients with old lesions, and with pulmonary manifesta tions, but without lesions must be repeated for sputum finding Mycobacterium tuberculosis to prevent misdiagnosis.

  5. Relationship of constructivist learning environment to student attitudes and achievement in high school mathematics and science

    Dethlefs, Theresa Marie

    This study investigated the relationship of constructivist learning environment and standards-based teaching practices to student achievement and attitudes (self-efficacy, intrinsic value, and learning strategies) in Algebra and Biology. Further, these relationships were examined as a function of student gender and prior achievement. A purposive sample of 804 high school students enrolled in Biology I, Algebra I, or Advanced Algebra was selected for inclusion in this study. Although the dimensions of constructivist learning environment that contributed to predicting student achievement and attitudes varied by content area and criterion, the results of the present study generally provide strong support for a positive relationship between constructivist learning environment and student attitudes, but little support for a direct relationship to student achievement. Teacher reports of overall constructivist learning environment were not correlated with achievement or attitudes. Observer reports of constructivist learning environment were correlated with student intrinsic value and learning strategies. Student reports of constructivist learning environment were correlated with all three attitude measures. Multiple regression findings showed that neither overall constructivist learning environment nor standards-based teaching practices predicted achievement in any of the content areas. Overall constructivist learning environment and standards-based teaching practices were significant positive predictors of student intrinsic value and learning strategies in all three content areas, after controlling for student and classroom demographic variables. Overall constructivist learning environment and standards-based teaching practices were also significant positive predictors of self-efficacy in Algebra 1. In addition, standards-based teaching practices was a significant positive predictor of student self-efficacy in Biology. No specific dimensions of constructivist learning

  6. Public attitudes and beliefs about genetics.

    Condit, Celeste M


    The existing research base on public attitudes about genetics shows that people's attitudes vary according to the specific technologies and purposes to which genetic knowledge is applied. Genetic testing is viewed highly favorably, genetically modified food is viewed with ambivalence, and cloning is viewed negatively. Attitudes are favorable for uses that maintain a perceived natural order and unfavorable for uses that are perceived to change it. Public concerns about control of genetic information and eugenics are evident, but their strength and relevance to policy preference are unclear. The pattern of attitudes can be explained by theories of attitude formation, and the existing base of information can be deepened and given more explanatory and predictive power by integrating future research into the various traditions that theorize attitude formation.

  7. Remembering gay/lesbian media characters: can Ellen and Will improve attitudes toward homosexuals?.

    Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M; Cady, Elizabeth T; Schlegel, Rebecca; Harris, Richard J; Firebaugh, Lindsey


    The purpose of the current research was twofold. First, a pilot study was conducted in which participants were asked to recall any memorable gay or lesbian television or film character and complete a survey about their perceptions of the character. Results indicated that over two-thirds of heterosexual participants recalled either Ellen or Will, and evaluative ratings for these characters were generally positive. The second purpose of this research was to examine the priming effects of remembering portrayals of homosexual characters in the media. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to directly assess the effects of thinking about either a positive or negative homosexual character on general heterosexuals' attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. Results indicated that those recalling a positive portrayal later showed a more positive attitude toward gay men than those recalling a negative portrayal, and women had a more positive attitude overall than men toward gay men and lesbians. Such findings illustrate the importance of positive role models in entertainment media as potential primes of social attitudes.

  8. Meta-analysis of attitudes toward damage-causing mammalian wildlife.

    Kansky, Ruth; Kidd, Martin; Knight, Andrew T


    Many populations of threatened mammals persist outside formally protected areas, and their survival depends on the willingness of communities to coexist with them. An understanding of the attitudes, and specifically the tolerance, of individuals and communities and the factors that determine these is therefore fundamental to designing strategies to alleviate human-wildlife conflict. We conducted a meta-analysis to identify factors that affected attitudes toward 4 groups of terrestrial mammals. Elephants (65%) elicited the most positive attitudes, followed by primates (55%), ungulates (53%), and carnivores (44%). Urban residents presented the most positive attitudes (80%), followed by commercial farmers (51%) and communal farmers (26%). A tolerance to damage index showed that human tolerance of ungulates and primates was proportional to the probability of experiencing damage while elephants elicited tolerance levels higher than anticipated and carnivores elicited tolerance levels lower than anticipated. Contrary to conventional wisdom, experiencing damage was not always the dominant factor determining attitudes. Communal farmers had a lower probability of being positive toward carnivores irrespective of probability of experiencing damage, while commercial farmers and urban residents were more likely to be positive toward carnivores irrespective of damage. Urban residents were more likely to be positive toward ungulates, elephants, and primates when probability of damage was low, but not when it was high. Commercial and communal farmers had a higher probability of being positive toward ungulates, primates, and elephants irrespective of probability of experiencing damage. Taxonomic bias may therefore be important. Identifying the distinct factors explaining these attitudes and the specific contexts in which they operate, inclusive of the species causing damage, will be essential for prioritizing conservation investments.

  9. Robust Adaptive Attitude Control for Airbreathing Hypersonic Vehicle with Attitude Constraints and Propulsive Disturbance

    Jian Fu


    Full Text Available A robust adaptive backstepping attitude control scheme, combined with invariant-set-based sliding mode control and fast-nonlinear disturbance observer, is proposed for the airbreathing hypersonic vehicle with attitude constraints and propulsive disturbance. Based on the positive invariant set and backstepping method, an innovative sliding surface is firstly developed for the attitude constraints. And the propulsive disturbance of airbreathing hypersonic vehicle is described as a differential equation which is motivated by attitude angles in this paper. Then, an adaptive fast-nonlinear disturbance observer for the proposed sliding surface is designed to estimate this kind of disturbance. The convergence of all closed-loop signals is rigorously proved via Lyapunov analysis method under the developed robust attitude control scheme. Finally, simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed attitude control scheme.

  10. Understanding Positive Play: An Exploration of Playing Experiences and Responsible Gambling Practices


    This study is one of the first to explore in detail the behaviors, attitudes and motivations of players that show no signs of at-risk or problem gambling behavior (so-called ‘positive players’). Via an online survey, 1484 positive players were compared with 209 problem players identified using the Lie/Bet screen. The study identified two distinct groups of positive players defined according to their motivations to play and their engagement with responsible gambling practices. Those positive p...

  11. Associations between pedagogues attitudes, praxis and policy in relation to physical activity of children in kindergarten

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg


    This paper reports on associations between physical activity, pedagogue ’ s attitudes towards promoting physical activity and the physical activity policies (PAP) in kindergarten. The paper deals with data on physical activity of 3 – 6 year olds in kindergarten which originates from a cross...... and 693 integrated institutions returned the survey. The results show a relation between pedagogue ’ s attitudes towards promoting children ’ s physical activity and the number of children having moderately intense physical activity for at least one hour a day. The study also shows a positive association...

  12. Analyzing online game players: from materialism and motivation to attitude.

    Chang, Ju-Hui; Zhang, Hongxia


    The online game market has been growing rapidly and has received an increasing amount of attention in recent years. The results of a survey conducted in China to explore online game players' attitude formation reveal that (a) the online game player's level of materialism positively influences the motivation for playing, (b) motivation positively influences attitude toward online games, and (c) motivation fully mediates the effects of materialism on attitude.

  13. Self-esteem, political efficacy, and perceived parental attitudes

    Okçu, Tuba Nur; Okcu, Tuba Nur


    This thesis proposes to test the following three hypotheses: perceived political efficacy positively correlates with self-esteem; self-esteem positively correlates with perceived democratic parental attitude; and, lastly, self-esteem negatively correlates with perceived protective-demanding and perceived authoritarian parental attitudes. Two questionnaires (Q1 and Q2), each measure perceived political efficacy, selfesteem,and perceived parental attitudes. In Q2, the items of self-esteem and p...

  14. A longitudınal study on the effect of tailored training and counseling on the professional attitude of nursing students.

    Karadağ, Ayise; Hisar, Filiz; Göçmen Baykara, Zehra; Çalışkan, Nurcan; Karabulut, Hatice; Öztürk, Deniz


    The development of professional attitudes in nursing students is influenced by their learning experiences (knowledge, skills, and attitudes) and instructors' professional behaviors. Instructors can enhance students' professional attitude by organizing the training environment, being a role model, and providing counseling. This study was conducted as a tailoring intervention study over 4 years (2010-2013) examining 73 nursing students (34 intervention, 39 control) to determine the effect of training and counseling on nursing students' professional attitudes. Data were collected utilizing the Introductory Characteristics Form and the Instrument of Professional Attitude for Student Nurses. Intervention group students were provided training and counseling complementing their current education to develop their professional attitudes. Controls proceeded with their current education. Instrument for Professional Attitude for Student Nurses posttest scores of the intervention group were significantly higher than those of control group students. Furthermore, intervention group scores on all subscales other than "competence and continuous education" significantly increased after training. Controls showed no growth in professional attitudes, other than in "contribution to scientific knowledge." The training and counseling program had a positive influence on the professional attitudes of nursing students. Thus, providing tailored training and counseling associated to professionalism throughout the educational process at schools providing nursing training is recommended.

  15. Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology of Elementary Education Preservice Teachers: The first Spanish experience

    Casanoves, Marina; González, Ángel; Salvadó, Zoel; Haro, Juan; Novo, Maite


    Due to the important impact that biotechnology has on current Western societies, well-informed critical citizens are needed. People prepared to make conscious decisions about aspects of biotechnology that relate to their own lives. Teachers play a central role in all education systems. Thus, the biotechnological literacy of preservice teachers is an important consideration as they will become an influential collective as future teachers of the next generation of children. The attitudes toward science (and biotechnology) that teachers have affect their behavior and influence the way they implement their daily practice of science teaching in school. This study analyzes the attitudes and knowledge of Spanish preservice teachers toward biotechnology. We designed a new survey instrument that was completed by 407 university students who were taking official degree programs in preschool and primary education. Our results point out that although they are aware of biotechnology applications, topics concerning the structure of DNA, management of genetic information inside the cell, genetically modified organism technology and the use of microorganisms as biotechnological tools were not correctly answered. According to our attitude analysis, Spanish preservice teachers could be defined as opponents of genetically modified product acquisition, supporters of biotechnology for medical purposes and highly interested in increasing their knowledge about biotechnology and other scientific advances. Our results show a positive correlation between better knowledge and more positive attitudes toward biotechnology. A Spanish preservice teacher with positive attitudes toward biotechnology tends to be a student with a strong biology background who scored good marks in our knowledge test.

  16. Framing the EU as Common Project vs. Common Heritage: Effects on Attitudes Towards the EU Deepening and Widening.

    La Barbera, Francesco


    The present study investigated the effects of framing the European Union (EU) as a common project vs. a common heritage on participants' attitude towards EU integration (Experiment 1) and EU enlargement (Experiment 2). An additional aim was exploring whether the different frames affected the strength of identification with the EU, and if the framing effect on attitudes was mediated by participants' identification with the EU and/or by their message evaluation (Experiment 3). Results showed that a common project-based frame was more effective than a common heritage-based frame in promoting positive attitude toward EU integration and enlargement, as well as participants' identification with the EU, which mediated the framing effect on both attitudes; the mediation of participants' message evaluation was not significant. The procedure of the last experiment was replicated on a British sample (Experiment 4), showing a similar pattern of results.

  17. Attitudes toward Embodied Old Age among Swedes

    Oberg, Peter; Tornstam, Lars


    Messages in the consumer culture are often youth oriented, aiming at the prevention of the bodily decay associated with biological aging. In gerontological discourses, this has been hypothesized to generate negative attitudes toward embodied aging and old age. Studies about general attitudes toward old age show that younger respondents have more…

  18. 论交友类真人秀节目在我国电视审美文化地位的凸显%On Position Highlight of Dating Reality Show Program in Our TV Aesthetic Culture



    Dating reality show program is spread into our country from Euro-American countries. At the background of global culture, it is a new program form which takes visual turn as the premise. At the same time, it is different from the western dating reality show programs. It contains our traditional cultural thought, shows our program character with Chinese characteristics, and is a typical representative of the present TV aesthetic culture.%交友类真人秀节目由欧美国家传入我国,它是在文化全球化的大背景下,以视觉转向为前提的一种新的节目形式。同时,它又区别于西方的交友类真人秀节目,蕴含着我国的传统文化思想,昭示出具有中国特色的节目品格,是当代电视审美文化中的典型代袁。

  19. Combating Ageism: Change in Student Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Aging

    Cottle, Nate R.; Glover, Rebecca J.


    This study examined the ability of a lifespan course to create positive change in both knowledge of, and attitudes toward, aging of undergraduate students. Additionally, we questioned whether students define the point at which one is considered to be old in similar ways. Findings indicated positive change in both knowledge and attitudes, but…

  20. Influence of Item Direction on Student Responses in Attitude Assessment.

    Campbell, Noma Jo; Grissom, Stephen

    To investigate the effects of wording in attitude test items, a five-point Likert-type rating scale was administered to 173 undergraduate education majors. The test measured attitudes toward college and self, and contained 38 positively-worded items. Thirty-eight negatively-worded items were also written to parallel the positive statements.…

  1. Values, attitudes, and frequency of meat consumption. Predicting meat-reduced diet in Australians.

    Hayley, Alexa; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Hardiman, Kate


    Reduced consumption of meat, particularly red meat, is associated with numerous health benefits. While past research has examined demographic and cognitive correlates of meat-related diet identity and meat consumption behaviour, the predictive influence of personal values on meat-consumption attitudes and behaviour, as well as gender differences therein, has not been explicitly examined, nor has past research focusing on 'meat' generally addressed 'white meat' and 'fish/seafood' as distinct categories of interest. Two hundred and two Australians (59.9% female, 39.1% male, 1% unknown), aged 18 to 91 years (M = 31.42, SD = 16.18), completed an online questionnaire including the Schwartz Values Survey, and measures of diet identity, attitude towards reduced consumption of each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, as well as self-reported estimates of frequency of consumption of each meat type. Results showed that higher valuing of Universalism predicted more positive attitudes towards reducing, and less frequent consumption of, each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, while higher Power predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption of, these meats. Higher Security predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption, of white meat and fish/seafood, while Conformity produced this latter effect for fish/seafood only. Despite men valuing Power more highly than women, women valuing Universalism more highly than men, and men eating red meat more frequently than women, gender was not a significant moderator of the value-attitude-behaviour mediations described, suggesting that gender's effects on meat consumption may not be robust once entered into a multivariate model of MRD attitudes and behaviour. Results support past findings associating Universalism, Power, and Security values with meat-eating preferences, and extend these findings by articulating how these values relate specifically

  2. Saudi high school students' attitudes and barriers toward the use of computer technologies in learning English.

    Sabti, Ahmed Abdulateef; Chaichan, Rasha Sami


    This study examines the attitudes of Saudi Arabian high school students toward the use of computer technologies in learning English. The study also discusses the possible barriers that affect and limit the actual usage of computers. Quantitative approach is applied in this research, which involved 30 Saudi Arabia students of a high school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The respondents comprised 15 males and 15 females with ages between 16 years and 18 years. Two instruments, namely, Scale of Attitude toward Computer Technologies (SACT) and Barriers affecting Students' Attitudes and Use (BSAU) were used to collect data. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) of Davis (1989) was utilized. The analysis of the study revealed gender differences in attitudes toward the use of computer technologies in learning English. Female students showed high and positive attitudes towards the use of computer technologies in learning English than males. Both male and female participants demonstrated high and positive perception of Usefulness and perceived Ease of Use of computer technologies in learning English. Three barriers that affected and limited the use of computer technologies in learning English were identified by the participants. These barriers are skill, equipment, and motivation. Among these barriers, skill had the highest effect, whereas motivation showed the least effect.

  3. Employee’s Job Performance: The Effect of Attitude toward Works, Organizational Commitment, and Job Satisfaction

    Aries Susanty


    Full Text Available Job satisfaction is a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job and job experiences. The happier the individual, the higher is level of job satisfaction. It is assumed that positive attitude towards work and greater organizational commit­ment increases job satisfaction which in return enhances performance of the individual. Based on this phenomenon, this study is aimed to explain and empirically test the effect of attitude toward work, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment to the employee’s job performance at PT. Intech Anugrah Indonesia (PT. Intech. Data used in this study was primary data which were collected through closed questionnaires with 1-5 Likert scale. A sample of this study was 200 managerial and non-managerial staff of PT. Intech. Research carried out by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM which was run by AMOS 20.0 program. The results of this study showed that attitude towards work have positive but not significant effect to job satis­faction and employee performance. Different with attitude towards work, the organization's commitment has positive and significant effect on job satisfaction and employee performance at PT. Intech. It means every improvement in organization’s commitment has a positive effect toward job satisfaction and employee performance at PT. Intech.

  4. Analysis of Attitude in Advertising English



    Using authentic texts as data, the study mainly explores attitude from the aspects of affect, judgment and appreciation in advertising English under the framework of systemic functional theory. Attitude is an important part of evaluation, and evaluation is regarded as a central part of the meaning of any text, which is especially true of advertising texts. Through the discussion about Attitude, it is shown that many English advertisements contain information that expresses attitudinal meanings, which makes advertising more convincing and able to evoke affinity, and that the values of affect, judgment and appreciation all occur predominantly as positive categories.

  5. Antifat attitudes in a sample of women with eating disorders

    Alejandro Magallares


    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the main problems of patients with eating disorders is their body dissatisfaction. Although these individuals usually are not satisfied with their bodies there are not many investigations that focus on how these patients see people with real weight problems. For this reason, in this study it is analyzed how women with eating disorders see obese people. Methods: A total of 104 participants (35 with anorexia nervosa, 28 with bulimia nervosa, 16 with eating disorder not otherwise specified and 25 controls were selected to conduct the study. To measure antifat attitudes the Spanish version of the Antifat Attitudes Questionnaire was used. To measure if participants had body dissatisfaction it was used the Spanish versions of the Body Shape Questionnaire. Finally, anthropometric measures (height and weight were taken in order to calculate the BMI (kg/m², as well as some socio-demographic information. Results: It was found that participants with bulimia nervosa showed scores higher on antifat attitudes than the rest of the participants. Additionally, it was found that this result was influenced by the body dissatisfaction of the participants. Discussion: These results suggest that negative attitudes toward obese people may influence an individual's body image. One way of maintaining a positive body image (especially, the subjective dimension, body satisfaction is to compare oneself with those perceived as physically inferior (people with weight problems, a strategy that is especially relevant when the mass media insists in depict extreme thin women.

  6. An Investigation of Students’ Attitudes and Motivations Toward Online Learning

    Dennis Kerkman


    Full Text Available This study investigated students’ attitudes and motivations toward online learning. Students in the online course, Introduction to the Visual Arts, were asked to complete questionnaires administered during the first and last week of the online course. A group of questions on Attitude was asked on both surveys. Questions on Interest, Self-management, and Locus of Control were asked only at the beginning of the course. The end of class survey included questions on Study Process Approach. Students in the study were found to have a strong internal Locus of Control. A significant correlation was found between a more internal locus of control and relying on surface strategies for learning. Another significant result was found on the Attitude pre- and post-course comparison regarding missing interaction with other students and getting more information through an online course. Generally, students’ attitude toward online learning was more positive during the last week of the course than in the first week. The study showed that this online course provided a sufficient amount of student to instructor interaction, a high amount of student to material interaction, and a low amount of student to student interaction.

  7. Attitude toward money modulates outcome processing: an ERP study.

    Jia, Shiwei; Zhang, Wenxin; Li, Peng; Feng, Tingyong; Li, Hong


    Love of money (LOM) is concerned with the attitude toward money, which can be measured by the LOM scale through affective, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions. Research has observed that monetary attitude was tightly related to reward processing and could affect economic behavior. This study examined how monetary attitude modulated risky behavior and the underlying neural mechanisms of reward processing using event-related potential (ERP) technique. We compared both the risk level and brain responses of a high-level LOM (HLOM) group to a low-level LOM (LLOM) group using a simple gambling task. The behavioral results showed that the HLOM group was more risky than the LLOM group, particularly after loss. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) was measured as the difference wave (gain-related ERP was subtracted from loss-related ERP). The FRN difference wave was larger in the HLOM group than that in the LLOM group. The P3 in the HLOM group was more positive than that in the LLOM group. These results suggest that monetary attitude can modulate both the underlying neural mechanisms and behavioral performance in a reward-related task. The HLOM participants are more sensitive to gain/loss than the LLOM participants.

  8. Attitudes and Stereotypes in Lung Cancer versus Breast Cancer.

    N Sriram

    Full Text Available Societal perceptions may factor into the high rates of nontreatment in patients with lung cancer. To determine whether bias exists toward lung cancer, a study using the Implicit Association Test method of inferring subconscious attitudes and stereotypes from participant reaction times to visual cues was initiated. Participants were primarily recruited from an online survey panel based on US census data. Explicit attitudes regarding lung and breast cancer were derived from participants' ratings (n = 1778 regarding what they thought patients experienced in terms of guilt, shame, and hope (descriptive statements and from participants' opinions regarding whether patients ought to experience such feelings (normative statements. Participants' responses to descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer were compared with responses to statements about breast cancer. Analyses of responses revealed that the participants were more likely to agree with negative descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer than breast cancer (P<0.001. Furthermore, participants had significantly stronger implicit negative associations with lung cancer compared with breast cancer; mean response times in the lung cancer/negative conditions were significantly shorter than in the lung cancer/positive conditions (P<0.001. Patients, caregivers, healthcare providers, and members of the general public had comparable levels of negative implicit attitudes toward lung cancer. These results show that lung cancer was stigmatized by patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals, and the general public. Further research is needed to investigate whether implicit and explicit attitudes and stereotypes affect patient care.

  9. Benevolent Sexism, Attitudes Toward Motherhood, and Reproductive Rights: A Multi-Study Longitudinal Examination of Abortion Attitudes.

    Huang, Yanshu; Davies, Paul G; Sibley, Chris G; Osborne, Danny


    Although Benevolent Sexism (BS)-an ideology that highly reveres women who conform to traditional gender roles-is cloaked in a superficially positive tone, being placed upon a pedestal is inherently restrictive. Accordingly, because the paternalistic beliefs associated with BS are based on the idealization of traditional gender roles (which include motherhood), BS should predict people's attitudes toward women's reproductive rights. Using data from a nationwide longitudinal panel study (N = 12,299), Study 1 showed that BS (but not Hostile Sexism) had cross-lagged effects on opposition to both elective and traumatic abortion. Study 2 (N = 309) extended these findings by showing that the relationship between BS and support for abortion was fully mediated by attitudes toward motherhood. These results highlight the pernicious nature of BS by demonstrating that the idealization of women-and motherhood, in particular-comes at a substantial cost (namely, the restriction of women's reproductive rights).

  10. Attitude of Medical Students towards Occupational Safety and Health: A Multi-National Study

    M Bhardwaj


    Full Text Available Background: Work-related diseases contribute immensely to the global burden of diseases. Better understanding of attitudes of health care workers towards occupational safety and health (OSH is important for planning.Objective: To assess the attitude of medical students towards OSH around the globe.Methods: A questionnaire assessing the attitude towards OSH was administered to medical and paramedical students of 21 Medical Universities across the globe. In the current study 1895 students, aged 18–36 years, from 17 countries were included. After having performed a principal components analysis, the associations of interest between the identified components and other socio demographic characteristics were assessed by multivariate linear regression.Results: Principal component analysis revealed 3 components. Students from lower and lower-middle-income countries had a more positive attitude towards OSH, but the importance of OSH was still rated higher by students from upper-income countries. Although students from Asian and African continents showed high interest for OSH, European and South-Central American students comparatively rated importance of OSH to be higher. Paramedical students had more positive attitude towards OSH than medical students.Conclusion: The attitude of students from lower-income and lower-middle-income countries towards importance of OSH is negative. This attitude could be changed by recommending modifications to OSH courses that reflect the importance of OSH. Since paramedical students showed more interest in OSH than medical students, modifications in existing health care system with major role of paramedics in OSH service delivery is recommended.

  11. Physicians' attitudes about their professional appearance.

    Gjerdingen, D K; Simpson, D E


    Thirty-five residents and 77 staff physicians from three residency programs in Minnesota and Wisconsin completed questionnaires about their attitudes toward various components of the physician's appearance. Most participants showed positive responses to traditional physician attire such as white coat, name tag, shirt and tie, dress pants, skirt or dress, nylons, and dress shoes. Negative responses were associated with casual items such as sandals, clogs, athletic shoes, scrub suits, and blue jeans. Cronbach's alpha analysis identified four cohesive appearance scales: traditional male appearance, casual male appearance, traditional female appearance, and casual female appearance. Older physician participants favored a more traditional appearance than did younger physicians, and of the physicians who were 35 years and younger, staff physicians tended to show more conservative views toward professional appearance than did residents.

  12. Perfectionism and attitudes towards doping in junior athletes.

    Madigan, Daniel J; Stoeber, Joachim; Passfield, Louis


    Recent theory and research suggest that perfectionism is a personal factor contributing to athletes' vulnerability to doping (using banned substances/drugs to enhance sporting performance). So far, however, no study has examined what aspects of perfectionism suggest a vulnerability in junior athletes. Employing a cross-sectional design, this study examined perfectionism and attitudes towards doping in 129 male junior athletes (mean age 17.3 years) differentiating four aspects of perfectionism: perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, parental pressure to be perfect, and coach pressure to be perfect. In the bivariate correlations, only parental pressure showed a positive relationship with positive doping attitudes. In a multiple regression analysis controlling for the overlap between the four aspects, perfectionistic strivings additionally showed a negative relationship. Moreover, a structural equation model examining the relationships between all variables suggested that coach pressure had a negative indirect effect on attitudes towards doping via perfectionistic strivings. The findings indicate that perceived parental pressure to be perfect may be a factor contributing to junior athletes' vulnerability to doping, whereas perfectionistic strivings may be a protective factor.

  13. Gender differences in tenth-grade students' attitudes toward science: The effect of school type

    Ndakwah, Ernestine Ajame

    The focus of this mixed methods study was on 10th grade students' attitudes towards science. Its purpose was to examine the effect of gender and school-type on attitudes toward science. Research on attitudes toward science has focused on gender, school level, and classroom environment. Relatively little has been done on the effect of school type. In the present study, school type refers to the following variables; private vs. public, single-sex vs. coeducational and high vs. low-achieving schools. The quantitative component of the study allowed the researcher to determine whether there are gender differences in attitudes toward science based on the school type variables being investigated. The Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was the instrument used to provide quantitative data for this aspect of the study. TOSRA is a Likert scale consisting of seven subscales measuring different aspects of science attitudes. The qualitative component, on the other hand, explored students' perspectives on the factors, which were influential in the development of the attitudes that they hold. The events and experiences of their lives in and out-of-school, with respect to science, and the meanings that they make of these provided the data from which their attitudes toward science could be gleaned. Data for this component of the study was gathered by means of in-depth focus group interviews. The method of constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the interview transcripts. Statistical treatment of the questionnaire data involved the use of t tests and ANOVA. Findings did not reveal any gender differences on the total attitude scores although there were some differences on some of the subscales. School type did not appear to be a significant variable in students' attitudes to science. The results of both quantitative and qualitative components show that instructional strategy and teacher characteristics, both of which are components of the classroom environment are

  14. Public attitudes to the promotion of genomic crop studies in Japan: correlations between genomic literacy, trust, and favourable attitude.

    Ishiyama, Izumi; Tanzawa, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Maiko; Maeda, Tadahiko; Muto, Kaori; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Nagai, Akiko; Yamagata, Zentaro


    This study aimed to assess public attitudes in Japan to the promotion of genomic selection in crop studies and to examine associated factors. We analysed data from a nationwide opinion survey. A total of 4,000 people were selected from the Japanese general population by a stratified two-phase sampling method, and 2,171 people participated by post; this survey asked about the pros and cons of crop-related genomic studies promotion, examined people's scientific literacy in genomics, and investigated factors thought to be related to genomic literacy and attitude. The relationships were examined using logistic regression models stratified by gender. Survey results showed that 50.0% of respondents approved of the promotion of crop-related genomic studies, while 6.7% disapproved. No correlation was found between literacy and attitude towards promotion. Trust in experts, belief in science, an interest in genomic studies and willingness to purchase new products correlated with a positive attitude towards crop-related genomic studies.

  15. An Analysis of Social Factors Influencing Students’ Environmental Attitudes and Performance

    Sadegh Salehi


    The results of this research showed that 53 percent of the surveyed students used public media as the main source of environmental information. Urban student’ attitudes were more favorable to the environment. Environmental attitudes and behaviors of the sample students were not different in terms of gender. There was a weak relationship between environmental attitudes and behavior. Also, environmental attitudes and behaviors were different by the family ‘environmental performance, and informational resources related with environmental attitude and behavior. In conclusion, it can be said that based on the descriptive and inferential findings while students attitudes toward the environment seem to be positive, their environmental performance is not and should be changed, if we want to achieve to a sustainable development. Therefore, in any major decision and national policy aiming at sustainable development, we should consider the factors that reinforce environmental responsible behavior. By helping students to recognize the importance of environment, we can boost the spirit of protection of the environment and increase a sense of responsibility among them.

  16. The Media and Technology Usage and Attitudes Scale: An empirical investigation.

    Rosen, L D; Whaling, K; Carrier, L M; Cheever, N A; Rokkum, J


    Current approaches to measuring people's everyday usage of technology-based media and other computer-related activities have proved to be problematic as they use varied outcome measures, fail to measure behavior in a broad range of technology-related domains and do not take into account recently developed types of technology including smartphones. In the present study, a wide variety of items, covering a range of up-to-date technology and media usage behaviors. Sixty-six items concerning technology and media usage, along with 18 additional items assessing attitudes toward technology, were administered to two independent samples of individuals, comprising 942 participants. Factor analyses were used to create 11 usage subscales representing smartphone usage, general social media usage, Internet searching, e-mailing, media sharing, text messaging, video gaming, online friendships, Facebook friendships, phone calling, and watching television in addition to four attitude-based subscales: positive attitudes, negative attitudes, technological anxiety/dependence, and attitudes toward task-switching. All subscales showed strong reliabilities and relationships between the subscales and pre-existing measures of daily media usage and Internet addiction were as predicted. Given the reliability and validity results, the new Media and Technology Usage and Attitudes Scale was suggested as a method of measuring media and technology involvement across a variety of types of research studies either as a single 60-item scale or any subset of the 15 subscales.

  17. Beliefs, attitudes and phobias among Mexican medical and psychology students towards people with obesity

    Lucero Soto


    Full Text Available Background: A high prevalence of stigmatizing attitude among healthcare personnel towards obese people has been reported. Objective: To evaluate the beliefs, attitudes and phobias that Mexican medical and psychology students have towards obese people. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 528 students enrolled at the Autonomous University of Baja California in psychology and medical schools. Weight, height and waist circumference were evaluated. Beliefs about obesity were assessed with the BAOP scale, attitudes towards obese people by the ATOP scale and obesity phobias by the F-scale. Results: Participants achieved a mean F-scale score of 3.4. Only seven per cent showed neutral or positive attitudes towards obesity (≤ 2.5. Less fat phobia was associated with beliefs that obesity was not a result of the person's self-control (p = 0.0001 and had better attitudes towards obese people (p = 0.0001. Men had higher risk of fat phobia (OR = 1.5. Conclusions: High prevalence of phobias and negative attitudes towards obesity was observed. Men had higher stigma.

  18. A Study on Attitude of Urban and Rural College Student Teachers Towards Science

    Srinivasan, Prakash; Xavier, Amaladoss


    There is a great need to identify and develop positive attitude towards science subject of student teachers. The time has come to increase our efforts to develop positive attitude towards science subject among teachers, student teachers and school children. This is an immediate requirement of the present day. This paper reports on attitude of…

  19. Knowledge and Attitudes of Selected Home Economists toward Irradiation in Food Preservation.

    Johnson, Faye C. Stucy


    A survey of the knowledge and attitudes of 485 California home economists toward the use of irradiation to preserve food revealed that they lacked the knowledge although they had a positive attitude toward it. An interactive teleconference on irradiation increased positive attitudes and improved knowledge. (JOW)

  20. The influence of parents' martial dissolutions on children's attitudes toward family formation.

    Axinn, W G; Thornton, A


    We investigate the influence of parents' martial dissolutions on their children's attitudes toward several dimensions of family formation. Hypotheses focus on the role of patients' attitudes as a mechanism linking parents' behavior to their children's attitudes. We test these hypotheses using intergenerational panel data that include measures of children's attitudes taken directly from children. Results demonstrate strong effects of parental divorce, remarriage, and widowhood on children's attitudes toward premarital sex, cohabitation, marriage, childbearing, and divorce. The results also show that parents' own attitudes link their behavior to their children's attitudes, although substantial effects of parental behavior remain after controlling for parents' attitudes.

  1. Time, Attitude, and User Participation

    Pries-Heje, Lene


    be that the perception of usefulness of the system in any given phase of the implementation is heavily dependent on preceding events—the process. A process model analysis identifies eight episodes and nine encounters in the case showing that the user’s attitude towards the ERP system changes between acceptance...

  2. Satellite Attitude Control System Simulator

    G.T. Conti


    Full Text Available Future space missions will involve satellites with great autonomy and stringent pointing precision, requiring of the Attitude Control Systems (ACS with better performance than before, which is function of the control algorithms implemented on board computers. The difficulties for developing experimental ACS test is to obtain zero gravity and torque free conditions similar to the SCA operate in space. However, prototypes for control algorithms experimental verification are fundamental for space mission success. This paper presents the parameters estimation such as inertia matrix and position of mass centre of a Satellite Attitude Control System Simulator (SACSS, using algorithms based on least square regression and least square recursive methods. Simulations have shown that both methods have estimated the system parameters with small error. However, the least square recursive methods have performance more adequate for the SACSS objectives. The SACSS platform model will be used to do experimental verification of fundamental aspects of the satellite attitude dynamics and design of different attitude control algorithm.

  3. Acceptability of Partner Violence in 51 Societies: The Role of Sexism and Attitudes Toward Violence in Social Relationships.

    Herrero, Juan; Rodríguez, Francisco J; Torres, Andrea


    Sexist attitudes have been claimed to play an important role in acceptability of intimate partner violence (IPV). Empirical evidence suggests that sexist individuals are also more accepting of violence in social relationships than non-sexist individuals. Results from multilevel regression models of data from 72,730 respondents of 51 countries around the world showed that (a) both sexism and acceptability of general violence in social relationships were positively related to acceptability of IPV and (b) the highest levels of acceptability of IPV were found among those sexist individuals who also present positive attitudes toward the use of violence in social relationships.

  4. Bad Attitudes: Why Design Students Dislike Teamwork

    Tucker, Richard; Abbasi, Neda


    Positive experiences of teamwork in design contexts significantly improve students' satisfaction with teaching and their attitudes towards future teamwork. Thus, an understanding of the factors leading to negative and positive team experiences can inform strategies to support effective teamwork. This paper examines design students' perceptions and…

  5. Attitudes of Jordanian Students Towards Using Group Work in EFL Classrooms

    Sana' Ababneh


    Full Text Available This paper addresses itself to the outcomes of a field study which was carried out to identify Jordanian EFL students' attitudes towards using group work in EFL classrooms. The study sample consisted of 179 students enrolled in English 101, an elementary language skills course taught at Al- Huson University College, Al -Balqa' Applied University, Jordan. A questionnaire was used to investigate the subjects' attitudes. The findings show that approximately two-thirds of the participants are either very extrovert or somewhat extrovert, i.e. they have positive attitudes towards participating in group work in EFL classes. In contrast, only a third are either somewhat introvert or very introvert, i.e., they do not like to take part in group work in EFL classes. Moreover, the data show that neither the subjects' gender nor their secondary school stream (vocational, scientific, or literary has any significant effect on their preferences.

  6. Consumers' values and attitudes and their relation to the consumption of pork products

    de Barcellos, M.D; Perin, Marcelo G.; Pérez-Cueto, F.J.A


    Consumers' attitudes and personal values were assessed, investigating if those constructs affect the consumption of pork products. Empirical data was collected through a survey performed with 482 consumers in Brazil, according to Q-PorkChains project definitions. Attitudes towards the environment...... and nature are quite positive, although ethnocentrism is also present. Industrial food production seems to be an accepted system, but consumers are showing that environmental sustainability must not be forgotten. Consumers with more ‘traditionalist’ values prefer fresh, whilst those with ‘adventurous’ values...

  7. Consumer knowledge and attitudes about genetically modified food products and labelling policy.

    Vecchione, Melissa; Feldman, Charles; Wunderlich, Shahla


    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between consumer knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards foods containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the prevalence of GMO labelling in northern New Jersey supermarkets. This cross-sectional study surveyed 331 adults, New Jersey supermarket customers (mean age 26 years old, 79.8% women). The results show a strong, positive correlation between consumer attitudes towards foods not containing GMOs and purchasing behaviour (Pearson's r = 0.701, p GMO labelling would assist consumers in making informed purchase decisions.

  8. Macroeconomic adjustment shows government resolve



    In the last week of April, the Chinese government unexpectedly announced a set of administrative contracting polices to curb overheating investment. These policies seriously changed market expectation on central government's attitude towards the macroeconomic adiustment.

  9. A painful reminder: the role of level and salience of attitude importance in cognitive dissonance.

    Starzyk, Katherine B; Fabrigar, Leandre R; Soryal, Ashley S; Fanning, Jessie J


    In his seminal book, L. Festinger (1957) emphasized the role of attitude importance in cognitive dissonance. This study (N = 308) explored whether people's use of dissonance reduction strategies differs as a function of level of attitude importance and whether the personal importance of an attitude is salient. Results showed that level and salience of attitude importance interacted to affect high-choice (HC) participants' tendency to use attitude change and trivialization to reduce dissonance. When HC participants were not reminded of the personal importance of their attitude (i.e., it was not salient), they changed their attitudes equally irrespective of attitude importance, but engaged in greater trivialization with increasing levels of importance. In contrast, when attitude importance was salient, HC participants changed their attitudes less with increasing attitude importance and showed no evidence of trivializing under any level of importance.

  10. Intensive care unit physician's attitudes on do not resuscitate order in palestine

    Fatima S Abdallah


    Conclusion: There was a positive attitude towards the legalization of the DNR order in Palestine, and culture and religion did not have any affect towards their attitudes regarding the legalization in Palestine.




    Full Text Available In Romania, the number of environmental education studies on young children is not sufficient. This is mainly because scales for measuring the pro-environmental behaviour of young children are quite limited and are not quite common. This small-scale empirical study aims to supplement scarce research on children’s attitudes to the environment. The research included 51 children aged 9-10, receiving elementary education in Romanian urban area. The study was carried out in September 2012. Results show that in general children have developed proenvironmental attitudes, with girls displaying slightly higher means on all the scales, but with no significant differences computed. The most positive attitudes are in the area of nature appreciation, recycling and animal rights and protection. Although limited in its conclusions, the present study provides a significant contribution to the field for further studies to be conducted in Romania on the proenvironmental attitudes and potential behaviours of elementary school children.

  12. Knowledge and Attitude about AndropauseAmong General Physicians in Shiraz, Iran 2014

    Maliheh Abootalebi


    Full Text Available Background:Andropause in men refers to the clinical and biochemical syndrome associated with advanced age and characterized by a deficiency in serum testosterone levels. With the increase in aging male population and life span in Iran and focus on quality of life, andropause will become a major health issue that needs to be addressed in order to prevent disability. The results of some research have shown that there is still low level of knowledge and attitude toward andropause among health professionals. This study aimed at assessing the level of knowledge and attitude of general physicians regarding andropause in 2014. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 402 general physicians in Shiraz. A researcher-made questionnaire was developed for assessing the level of knowledge and attitude of general physicians about andropause. SPSS 18 was used to analyze the data, and descriptive statistics, ANOVA and Pearson correlation were applied for data analysis. Results: The mean score of knowledge and attitude about andropause was 29.4 out of 76 and 35.1 out of 45, respectively. The findings showed a poor level of knowledge and positive attitude toward andropause among general physicians. There was a significant relationship between occupational status and knowledge about andropause (P<0.001. There was a statistically significant relationship between attitude and demographic characteristics (P<0.05.The correlation between knowledge and attitude toward andropause was not statistically significant (P=0.548. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicate the need for designing educational interventions to improve the knowledge and attitude of andropause among general physicians.

  13. An investigation of the English Language Needs, Motivations, and Attitudes of Saudi Police Cadets

    Mohammed Nasser Alhuqbani


    Full Text Available This study investigated the English language needs, motivations and attitudes of a random sample of 223 police cadets studying at King Fahd Security College in Saudi Arabia. The analysis of the questionnaire results showed that only cadets with degrees in humanities received English instructions. The cadets selected speaking and listening as the most important skills and studying English for security purposes. As regards their motivations, the significant correlation between almost all the instrumental and integrative variables provided evidence to the integration of the two types of motivations which substantiates the importance of both types in English learning.  Statements describing negative attitudes toward the English culture did not statistically correlate with the other statements that constitute the cadets’ positive attitudes toward English learning, which confirmed their positive attitudes toward both English learning and its culture. The significant correlations between the cadets’ English perceived needs and their instrumental motivations supported the argument that ESP learners study English for utilitarian purposes.   Keywords: ESP, needs analysis, attitudes, motivation, Saudi police cadets

  14. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Diabetic Patients in the United Arab Emirates

    Al-Maskari, Fatma; El-Sadig, Mohamed; Al-Kaabi, Juma M.; Afandi, Bachar; Nagelkerke, Nicolas; Yeatts, Karin B.


    Introduction Diabetes self-management education is a cornerstone of diabetes care. However, many diabetics in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) lack sufficient knowledge about their disease due to illiteracy. Thus, before considering any possible intervention it was imperative to assess present knowledge, attitudes, and practices of patients towards the management of diabetes. Methods A random sample of 575 DM patients was selected from diabetes outpatient's clinics of Tawam and Al-Ain hospitals in Al-Ain city (UAE) during 2006–2007, and their knowledge attitude and practice assessed using a questionnaire modified from the Michigan Diabetes Research Training Center instrument. Results Thirty-one percent of patients had poor knowledge of diabetes. Seventy-two had negative attitudes towards having the disease and 57% had HbA1c levels reflecting poor glycemic control. Only seventeen percent reported having adequate blood sugar control, while 10% admitted non-compliance with their medications. Knowledge, practice and attitude scores were all statistically significantly positively, but rather weakly, associated, but none of these scores was significantly correlated with HbA1c. Conclusions The study showed low levels of diabetes awareness but positive attitudes towards the importance of DM care and satisfactory diabetes practices in the UAE. Programs to increase patients' awareness about DM are essential for all diabetics in the UAE in order to improve their understanding, compliance and management and, thereby, their ability to cope with the disease. PMID:23341913

  15. Knowledge, attitude and practices of diabetic patients in the United Arab Emirates.

    Fatma Al-Maskari

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diabetes self-management education is a cornerstone of diabetes care. However, many diabetics in the United Arab Emirates (UAE lack sufficient knowledge about their disease due to illiteracy. Thus, before considering any possible intervention it was imperative to assess present knowledge, attitudes, and practices of patients towards the management of diabetes. METHODS: A random sample of 575 DM patients was selected from diabetes outpatient's clinics of Tawam and Al-Ain hospitals in Al-Ain city (UAE during 2006-2007, and their knowledge attitude and practice assessed using a questionnaire modified from the Michigan Diabetes Research Training Center instrument. RESULTS: Thirty-one percent of patients had poor knowledge of diabetes. Seventy-two had negative attitudes towards having the disease and 57% had HbA(1c levels reflecting poor glycemic control. Only seventeen percent reported having adequate blood sugar control, while 10% admitted non-compliance with their medications. Knowledge, practice and attitude scores were all statistically significantly positively, but rather weakly, associated, but none of these scores was significantly correlated with HbA(1c. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed low levels of diabetes awareness but positive attitudes towards the importance of DM care and satisfactory diabetes practices in the UAE. Programs to increase patients' awareness about DM are essential for all diabetics in the UAE in order to improve their understanding, compliance and management and, thereby, their ability to cope with the disease.

  16. The Analysis of Credit Using and Rationing under Farmer ’s Risk Attitudes Difference

    Xinjun; PANG; Yunwu; KUANG; Xiaohong; GONG


    This paper conducts a survey of 237 rural households in Zhangjiagang City,identifies farmers’ risk attitude through ELCE method and problem design and empirically studies the relationship between risk attitudes and credit rationing by utilizing Probit and Logit model. The results show that farmers’ risk attitude and credit rationing are in a significant positive correlation. The stronger farmers’ risk aversion is,the more serious the demanded credit rationing becomes. Such risk attitude determines the risk cost and risk premium,thus affecting the credit behavior and credit rationing degree. In addition,distance between farmers’ residence far the city and their land amount have a positive significant influence on credit rationing,while farmers’ education level,income,family labor force have a negative significant effect on credit rationing. Based on these findings,the paper further analyzes the relationship between farmers’ credit using and credit rationing as to farmers with different risk attitudes. Measures to relieve the farmer’s credit rationing must be taken from government,financial institutions and farmers,respectively.

  17. Team climate and attitudes toward information and communication technology among nurses on acute psychiatric wards.

    Koivunen, Marita; Anttila, Minna; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Katajisto, Jouko; Välimäki, Maritta


    Objectives: To describe the association of team climate with attitudes toward information and communication technology among nursing staff working on acute psychiatric wards. Background: Implementation of ICT applications in nursing practice brings new operating models to work environments, which may affect experienced team climate on hospital wards. Method: Descriptive survey was used as a study design. Team climate was measured by the Finnish modification of the Team Climate Inventory, and attitudes toward ICT by Burkes' questionnaire. The nursing staff (N = 181, n = 146) on nine acute psychiatric wards participated in the study. Results: It is not self-evident that experienced team climate associates with attitudes toward ICT, but there are some positive relationships between perceived team climate and ICT attitudes. The study showed that nurses' motivation to use ICT had statistically significant connections with experienced team climate, participative safety (p = 0.021), support for innovation (p = 0.042) and task orientation (p = 0.042). Conclusion: The results suggest that asserting team climate and supporting innovative operations may lead to more positive attitudes toward ICT. It is, in particular, possible to influence nurses' motivation to use ICT. More attention should be paid to psychosocial factors such as group education and co-operation at work when ICT applications are implemented in nursing.

  18. Attitudes toward people with HIV/AIDS among medical practitioners and nonmedical specialists in Ukraine

    Zhabenko, Nataliya


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: AIDS is the disease that has been stigmatized since its development; stigmatization of people living with HIV is an important barrier to using HIV testing and treatment. It is well known, that stigma is associated with mental disorders including depression and anxiety. Ukraine is a country with one of the highest number of annual HIV infection cases. GOALS: The goal of this study was to evaluate medical practitioners’ (surgeons, psychiatrists, therapists and students and nonmedical specialists’ attitude toward people with HIV/AIDS.METHODS: A total of 180 individuals participated in the study. Acceptance of people who have AIDS or are infected with HIV was assessed with the help of the “Attitudes toward people with HIV or AIDS”. Total scores range from 50 to 10, higher scores indicate high acceptance of persons with HIV/AIDS.RESULTS: Younger participants reported higher acceptance of persons with HIV or AIDS (p.05. Medical practitioners showed greater total score, compare to nonmedical specialists (38.0 ± 6.0 vs. 34.0 ± 5.5, respectively, p<.05. A one-way between-groups analysis of variance was conducted to explore the impact of medical specialty on levels of positive attitudes toward people with HIV or AIDS. The actual difference in mean scores between the 4 groups was moderate (.06. Students and psychiatrists reported more positive attitudes (higher acceptance toward people with HIV and AIDS, but analyses showed, that there was not a statistically significant difference at the level in total score for the groups.CONCLUSION: In this study we evaluated the level of attitudes toward people with HIV or AIDS in Ukraine. Young age and medical education were significantly associated with the positive attitudes toward people with HIV and AIDS. Our findings are important for the programs reducing the stigma and discrimination that should be addressed to the wide layers of the society.

  19. Sexuality attitudes: the impact of trauma.

    Broman, Clifford L


    This study examines the relationship between traumatic events and attitudes toward sexuality. Our results show that suffering trauma is related to more accepting attitudes concerning sexuality. Generally, people who suffer negative events, many of which are traumatic, are more likely to see both pornography and having a homosexual friend or family member as acceptable. Traumatic events that are sex-related or related to other physical assault proved to be most significant in the prediction of sexuality attitudes for women only. The results are specified by gender: Trauma predicts attitudes toward pornography for women but not for men, and traumatic events are associated with attitudes concerning homosexuality for women. These results are discussed in light of the previous research, and suggestions for future research made.

  20. Exploring the structure of attitudes toward genetically modified food.

    Poortinga, Wouter; Pidgeon, Nick F


    Although it is often thought that the British public is opposed to genetically modified (GM) food, recent qualitative work suggests that most people are ambivalent about GM food and crops. In this article we explore the structure of attitudes in order to examine whether attitudinal ambivalence can be captured by more quantitative methods. Based on the finding that the perceived risks and benefits of GM food can be treated as independent dimensions, we propose a four-way typology of attitudes, consisting of a positive, negative, indifferent, and ambivalent group. This study showed that the differences between the four groups could best be described by three main dimensions: (1) a general evaluative dimension, (2) an involvement dimension, and (3) an attitudinal certainty dimension. While these different attitudinal dimensions have generally been studied in isolation, we argue that they should be studied collectively.

  1. Attitudes of pre-service teachers about computer supported education

    Serkan Yıldırım


    Full Text Available A lot of technologies can be used in education environment. Computer has an important place in these technologies. The aim of this study is to investigate the attitude of the students of Computer and Instructional Technologies Education Department towards computer supported education in terms of class level, income level, and gender. 120 pre-service teachers from the Department of Computer and Instructional Technologies Education at Kazim Karabekir Educational Faculty participated in the survey. The results showed that the participants have a high level positive attitude about Computer Supported Education (CSE. No significant differences obtained depending on class level, income level, and gender. However, differences among groups obtained in terms of the questionnaire items which are creativity skills, preferring traditional teaching CSE, encouraging computer usage, using computer actively, reconciled computer with education, educational addition of CSE according to spent work; and enjoying.

  2. Public attitudes to financial incentive models for organs

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Schicktanz, Silke; Deleuran, Ida


    Waiting lists for organs have stimulated interest in the use of financial incentives for organ donation (FIs), but the literature does not contain an adequate overview of studies of public attitudes toward this mode of procurement. We conducted a literature review of international peer......-reviewed research published between 2002 and 2012 on how members of the public position themselves toward FIs. We identified and analyzed 23 studies using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts and cross-reference search. The search included whole organs, donation, quantitative and empirical qualitative social...... scientific studies on, public attitudes (excluding professionals and medical students). The review reveals a broad divergence of public opinions on financial incentives. However, quantitative studies showed a low overall level of acceptance of payment for organs in living donation (LD); only a slightly...

  3. Do Online Comments Influence the Public's Attitudes Toward an Organization? Effects of Online Comments Based on Individuals' Prior Attitudes.

    Sung, Kang Hoon; Lee, Moon J


    The authors investigated the effects of reading different types of online comments about a company on people's attitude change based on individual's prior attitude toward the company. Based on Social Judgment Theory, several hypotheses were tested. The results showed that the effects of online comments interact with individuals' prior attitudes toward a corporation. People with a strong negative attitude toward a corporation were less influenced by other's online comments than people with a neutral attitude in general. However, people with a prior negative attitude were more affected by refutational two-sided comments than one-sided comments. The results suggest that the effects of user generated content should be studied in a holistic manner, not only by investigating the effects of online content itself, but also by examining how others' responses to the content shape or change individuals' attitudes based on their prior attitudes.

  4. Attitudes Regarding HPV Vaccinations of Children among Mothers with Adolescent Daughters in Korea


    The aim of this study, carried out before the beginning of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations as a National Immunization Program (NIP) in Korea in 2016, is to assess the ranges of perceptions and personal experience and their influences on attitudes regarding HPV vaccinations of children, among mothers of adolescent (9–14 years of age) daughters in Korea. From November 2015 to February 2016, we distributed a written questionnaire to mothers who had daughters aged 9–14 years. The questionnaire consisted of several questions, related to knowledge of HPV, personal experiences of HPV vaccination, and attitudes toward HPV vaccinations of their adolescent daughters. Of the 260 questionnaires distributed, 140 participants returned answered ones. And although only 51% of participants were aware that cervical cancer is highly related with HPV infection, 70% said they were willing to vaccinate their daughters, showing that awareness does not coincide with intention to vaccinate. Among the participants showing negative attitudes, 50% were concerned about the vaccination side effects. The more the participants’ pre-knowledge about HPV infection, and about the relationship of HPV to cervical cancer, the more positive their attitudes (P = 0.002, P < 0.001). Our study showed that, as the level of education rose, the proportion of mothers with negative attitudes toward vaccinating their adolescent daughters rose as well. Thus, the provision of correct education by health care providers and accurate information through active advertising may play an important role in increasing the vaccination rate among adolescent girls in Korea. PMID:27914142

  5. The relationship between adolescent attitudes towards authority, self-concept, and delinquency.

    Levy, K S


    Attitudes towards authority of youth and adults have been investigated in recent years in a number of Western countries. The present research focused on attitudes towards institutional authority among three groups of adolescents: nondelinquents, noninstitutionalized delinquents, and institutionalized delinquents. Relationships with self-concept were also investigated. It was found that attitudes towards parents, teachers, police, and the law were, in general, positive. Nondelinquents' attitudes were more positive than those of delinquents.

  6. Stereotypes and Welfare Attitudes

    Hedegaard, Troels Fage


    recipients lacking both the financial incentives and the will to work. According to theories of the impact of media on welfare attitudes, this had the potential to undermine public support. A two-wave panel survey, however, showed only a small drop in public support for spending on social assistance......What is the impact of a predominantly negative debate about social assistance on public and individual support for the social benefit? Over the course of a year the public debate about social assistance flared up twice in Denmark. The debates drew on classic stereotypes of the social assistance...... with their values and self-interest. The article thus shows that people when faced with public debates on welfare policies will seek to confirm their personal biases and this limits the possibility for overall changes in public support....

  7. Attitudes toward the capabilities of deaf and hard of hearing adults: insights from the parents of deaf and hard of hearing children.

    Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne; McKinnon, David H; Ching, Teresa Y C


    Children who are d/Deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) grow up in environments influenced by their parents' attitudes, which may facilitate or impede these children's development and participation (World Health Organization, 2007). The attitudes of 152 Australian parents of DHH children ages 3 years 7 months to 9 years 5 months (M = 6 years 5 months) were investigated with the Opinions About Deaf People Scale (Berkay, Gardner, & Smith, 1995a). The parents' responses showed very positive attitudes toward the capabilities of DHH adults, particularly on items describing their intellectual and vocational capabilities. Parents' responses to most of the items on the scale were positively skewed, raising questions about its validity as a research tool when used with parents of DHH children. The study findings suggest that for these children, parents' attitudes may facilitate rather than present an environmental barrier to their development.

  8. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population.

    Schofield, Timothy P; Butterworth, Peter


    The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243). Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent's personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes.

  9. Analyzing students' attitudes towards science during inquiry-based lessons

    Kostenbader, Tracy C.

    Due to the logistics of guided-inquiry lesson, students learn to problem solve and develop critical thinking skills. This mixed-methods study analyzed the students' attitudes towards science during inquiry lessons. My quantitative results from a repeated measures survey showed no significant difference between student attitudes when taught with either structured-inquiry or guided-inquiry lessons. The qualitative results analyzed through a constant-comparative method did show that students generate positive interest, critical thinking and low level stress during guided-inquiry lessons. The qualitative research also gave insight into a teacher's transition to guided-inquiry. This study showed that with my students, their attitudes did not change during this transition according to the qualitative data however, the qualitative data did how high levels of excitement. The results imply that students like guided-inquiry laboratories, even though they require more work, just as much as they like traditional laboratories with less work and less opportunity for creativity.

  10. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and attitudes towards people living with HIV among the general staff of a public university in Malaysia.

    Tee, Yvonne; Huang, Mary


    Stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV have been widely documented, and have extended their impact into the workplace. Stigmatising attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the workplace significantly hinder HIV prevention efforts and indirectly affect national development. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the level of knowledge about HIV and AIDS and assess attitudes towards PLHIV among the general staff of Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), as well as to identify factors that are associated with it. Self-administered questionnaires were posted to a total of 344 general staff from six randomly selected faculties, and they were a given a week to return the questionnaires. The response rate was 38%. Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation, independent t-test and multiple linear regression. The respondents showed a considerably high level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS (mean knowledge score of 15.57+/-1.93 out of 18 points) although there were some misconceptions (N=129). Likert scale responses to 20 attitude statements revealed that respondents generally had moderately positive attitudes toward PLHIV (average score of 69.65+/-10.08 out of 100 points). Attitudes were inconsistent when it involved direct contact and interaction with PLHIV. Factors significantly associated with level of knowledge and attitudes included age, education and income. There was no difference in mean score for knowledge and attitudes by gender. Further efforts are necessary to improve attitudes of the general staff towards PLHIV, particularly in areas of direct contact with PLHIV.

  11. Relationships of Attitudes toward Homework and Time Spent on Homework to Course Outcomes: The Case of Foreign Language Learning

    Chang, Charles B.; Wall, Daniel; Tare, Medha; Golonka, Ewa; Vatz, Karen


    In previous studies of homework in core academic subjects, positive student attitudes toward homework were linked to higher achievement, whereas time spent on homework showed an inconsistent relationship with achievement. This study examined the generalizability of these findings to foreign language learning by analyzing 2,342 adult students'…

  12. The Influence of Science Applications in Agriculture Courses on Attitudes of Illinois Guidance Counselors at Model Student-Teaching Centers.

    Dyer, James E.; Osborne, Edward W.


    A survey of 16 guidance counselors in schools serving as agricultural education student teaching sites showed they had positive attitudes about agriculture and agricultural sciences but believed agricultural education was too vocational. Those in schools with applied sciences in agriculture gave high ratings to the quality of agriculture programs.…

  13. The Association of Attitude to Reading and Reading Achievement among a Representative Sample of Nine Year Olds in Ireland

    Fives, Allyn


    This study explored the association between reading self-belief and reading achievement among a representative sample of nine year old children in the Republic of Ireland. Results from analysis of variance and simple effects analysis showed a positive linear association between reading achievement and "attitude to reading." The…

  14. Examining Implicit Attitudes towards Exercisers with a Physical Disability

    Cassandra D. Dionne


    Full Text Available Background. Using measures of explicit attitudes, physical activity status has been established as a factor that reduces the stigma able-bodied people hold towards people with physical disabilities. This phenomenon is called the exerciser stereotype. However, whether the exerciser stereotype exists when using measures of implicit attitudes remains unknown. Objective. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of negative implicit attitudes towards people with physical disabilities and determine whether implicit attitudes towards people with physical disabilities were influenced by the exerciser stereotype. Methods. One hundred able-bodied participants (82 females, 18 males completed two implicit association tests (IATs: the Disability-Attitudes IAT and the Disability-Activity IAT. The Disability-Attitudes IAT measured implicit attitudes towards people who were not disabled relative to disabled; the Disability-Activity IAT measured attitudes towards people with a physical disability who were active relative to inactive. Results. Results revealed that 83.8% of participants had negative implicit attitudes towards people with a disability. Participants held more positive attitudes towards active versus inactive people with a physical disability. Conclusions. The study findings indicate that the exerciser stereotype exists implicitly and may undermine negative attitudes towards people with physical disabilities.

  15. Affect and cognition in attitude formation towards familiar and unfamiliar attitude objects: the case of nanotechnology

    Giesen, van R.I.


    Together, the chapters in this thesis show that although the default is to rely on affect, in attitude formation toward unfamiliar attitude objects, people are able to draw on cognitive inferences provided that there are enough cues available (e.g. product context, high Need for Cognition, or being

  16. The Sociocultural Mechanism of the Formation of Young People's Attitudes toward Education

    Zubok, Iu. A.; Chuprov, V. I.


    Research shows that traditional Russian attitudes coexist with attitudes resulting from current Russian society. It is argued that this more recent set of attitudes is too instrumental, and that more traditional attitudes to the acquisition of knowledge need to be strengthened.

  17. Attitudes among nurse educators toward homosexuality.

    Sirota, Theodora


    Homosexual populations have unique and specific cultures, psychosocial characteristics, health issues, and health care disparities that are currently ignored or insufficiently addressed in nursing education. To understand the reasons for these omissions, this descriptive study explores the attitudes of nurse educators (N = 1,282) toward homosexuality and the extent to which demographic, educational, and occupational factors are related to their attitudes. Responding to a direct online survey solicitation, self-selected participants completed the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale (ATLG) and a supplementary data questionnaire. Results indicate that the majority of participants have positive attitudes toward homosexuality, which is consistent with prior findings. Most participants believe it is important to teach nursing students about homosexuality, but they consider themselves unprepared to teach this content. Effects of various demographic and occupational factors on participants' ATLG scores and implications of the findings for nursing education and nursing health care policy are discussed.

  18. Anaesthetists' attitudes to teamwork and safety.

    Flin, R; Fletcher, G; McGeorge, P; Sutherland, A; Patey, R


    A questionnaire survey was conducted with 222 anaesthetists from 11 Scottish hospitals to measure their attitudes towards human and organisational factors that can have an impact on effective team performance and consequently on patient safety. A customised version of the Operating Room Management Attitude Questionnaire (ORMAQ) was used. This measures attitudes to leadership, communication, teamwork, stress and fatigue, work values, human error and organisational climate. The respondents generally demonstrated positive attitudes towards the interpersonal aspects of their work, such as team behaviours and they recognised the importance of communication skills, such as assertiveness. However, the results suggest that some anaesthetists do not fully appreciate the debilitating effects of stress and fatigue on performance. Their responses were comparable with (and slightly more favourable than) those reported in previous ORMAQ surveys of anaesthetists and surgeons in other countries.

  19. Attitudes of preservice physical educators toward individuals with disabilities at University Parthenope of Napoli

    Marco Di Nardo


    Full Text Available Background: Inclusion refers to the notion that all students, regardless of disability (mild or severe, will be taught in regular education classes even if special resources are needed. Attitudes about inclusion are extremely complex and vary from country to country and school to school. One of the factors influencing the effective implementation of inclusion is the teacher's attitudes. The latest results from literature show that attitudes toward people with disabilities are changing in a positive direction over the last few decades. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an undergraduate adapted physical education course on the attitudes of pre-service physical educators toward individuals with disabilities. Methods: The Attitudes Towards Individuals with Physical Disabilities in Physical Education (ATIPDPE instrument, based upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991 was used to measure the attitudes of pre-service teachers within three groups of students of the Department of Sport Science at the Università Degli Studi di Napoli "Parthenope" (Italy enrolled in the 1st and 3rd year of Bachelor's studies in the Department of Sport Science, and students enrolled in the last year of a Master degree in Motor Activities and Preventive for Health. The software package SPSS 19.0 was used to analyze results via a Mann-Whitney U test and multiple regression analysis. Results: Although no significant differences between the groups were found in relation to group year or subject major, results found positive attitudes of pre-service teachers towards inclusion (Physical Education (PE 1st year attitude (ATT mean = 58.93; PE 3rd year ATT mean = 61.11; Postgraduate 2nd year mean = 59.80, as well as very high intentions. Attitudes were found to account for 30% of variance of intentions (R2 = .30. Conclusion: This research concluded that it is necessary to further improve and develop attitudes and intentions

  20. Internal medicine specialists' attitudes towards working part-time: a comparison between 1996 and 2004

    de Jong Judith D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although medical specialists traditionally hold negative views towards working part-time, the practice of medicine has evolved. Given the trend towards more part-time work and that there is no evidence that it compromises the quality of care, attitudes towards part-time work may have changed as well in recent years. The aim of this paper was to examine the possible changes in attitudes towards part-time work among specialists in internal medicine between 1996 and 2004. Moreover, we wanted to determine whether these attitudes were associated with individual characteristics (age, gender, investments in work and whether attitudes of specialists within a partnership showed more resemblance than specialists' attitudes from different partnerships. Methods Two samples were used in this study: data of a survey conducted in 1996 and in 2004. After selecting internal medicine specialists working in general hospitals in The Netherlands, the sample consisted of 219 specialists in 1996 and 363 specialists in 2004. They were sent a questionnaire, including topics on the attitudes towards part-time work. Results Internal medicine specialists' attitudes towards working part-time became slightly more positive between 1996 and 2004. Full-time working specialists in 2004 still expressed concerns regarding the investments of part-timers in overhead tasks, the flexibility of task division, efficiency, communication and continuity of care. In 1996 gender was the only predictor of the attitude, in 2004 being a full- or a part-timer, age and the time invested in work were associated with this attitude. Furthermore, specialists' attitudes were not found to cluster much within partnerships. Conclusion In spite of the increasing number of specialists working or preferring to work part-time, part-time practice among internal medicine specialists seems not to be fully accepted. The results indicate that the attitudes are no longer gender based, but are

  1. Perceived relationship with God fosters positive body image in college women.

    Homan, Kristin J; Cavanaugh, Brianna N


    Positive body image is defined as healthy body-related attitudes that go beyond the absence of distressful symptoms. A warm and secure relationship with an important other person has been linked with attitudes of acceptance and appreciation toward one's body as well as adaptive eating patterns. This study tested whether a warm and secure relationship with God was similarly related to positive body image. Undergraduate women completed self-report measures of religiosity, life satisfaction, body appreciation, body acceptance by others, functional orientation, and intuitive eating. Multiple regression analyses showed that relationship with God contributed variance to most of the well-being variables.

  2. Patients' attitudes towards animal testing

    Masterton, Malin; Renberg, Tobias; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia


    (Pcritical than men regarding which species are used for what purposes (PResearchers need to be aware that their more positive attitude towards animal testing is not shared to an equal degree with patients, who are the intended end-users and beneficiaries of medical......A strong argument for the practice of animal testing in medical research is the potential benefit to patients in getting improved pain relief, minimising morbidity and mortality. However, patients’ opinions on the ethics of animal testing are seldom sought, despite their role as principal...... stakeholders. This study compared the attitudes of patients and researchers on animal testing. Focus-group interviews were held with patients suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases, resulting in a questionnaire that was distributed January–May 2011. The questionnaire was posted to patient members...

  3. The inertial attitude augmentation for ambiguity resolution in SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination.

    Zhu, Jiancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Wu, Meiping


    The Unaided Single Frequency/Single Epoch Global Navigation Satellite System (SF/SE GNSS) model is the most challenging scenario for ambiguity resolution in the GNSS attitude determination application. To improve the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution without excessive cost, the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS-IMU) is a proper choice for the auxiliary sensor that carries out the inertial attitude augmentation. Firstly, based on the SF/SE-GNSS compass model, the Inertial Derived Baseline Vector (IDBV) is defined to connect the MEMS-IMU attitude measurement with the SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity search space, and the mechanism of inertial attitude augmentation is revealed from the perspective of geometry. Then, through the quantitative description of model strength by Ambiguity Dilution of Precision (ADOP), two ADOPs are specified for the unaided SF/SE-GNSS compass model and its inertial attitude augmentation counterparts, respectively, and a sufficient condition is proposed for augmenting the SF/SE-GNSS model strength with inertial attitude measurement. Finally, in the framework of an integer aperture estimator with fixed failure rate, the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation is analyzed when the model strength is varying from strong to weak. The simulation results show that, in the SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination application, MEMS-IMU can satisfy the requirements of ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation.

  4. Lateral Attitude Change.

    Glaser, Tina; Dickel, Nina; Liersch, Benjamin; Rees, Jonas; Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd


    The authors propose a framework distinguishing two types of lateral attitude change (LAC): (a) generalization effects, where attitude change toward a focal object transfers to related objects, and (b) displacement effects, where only related attitudes change but the focal attitude does not change. They bring together examples of LAC from various domains of research, outline the conditions and underlying processes of each type of LAC, and develop a theoretical framework that enables researchers to study LAC more systematically in the future. Compared with established theories of attitude change, the LAC framework focuses on lateral instead of focal attitude change and encompasses both generalization and displacement. Novel predictions and designs for studying LAC are presented.

  5. Pharmacists’ Attitudes and Perceived Barriers about Community Pharmacy-Based Cardiovascular Risk Screening Services

    Zahra Jahangard-Rafsanjani


    Full Text Available  Background: Community pharmacies are considered as ideal settings to provide cardiovascular risk screening (CRS. However, little is known about pharmacists’ views on providing such services in developing countries including Iran. In the present study, we evaluated the pharmacists’ attitudes and perceived barriers to providing CRS services. Methods:In a cross-sectional study, a questionnaire in three sections was developed by the investigators (attitudes, perceived barriers, and demographics. Five likert items (5 points bipolar scale were designed to evaluate pharmacists’ attitudes about their professional role in providing CRS services in community pharmacies. Seven likert items were designed to assess the pharmacists’ perceived importance of possible barriers to providing the services. The study tool was distributed among a convenient sample of 500 pharmacists, who had participated in a national continuing education event. Results:The response rate was 44% and descriptive statistics and Chi squared test were used to analyze data. Results showed that 70.4% participants had an overall positive attitude to providing CRS services. Pharmacists who were pharmacy owner and pharmacist-in-charge simultaneously were more positive about providing CRS services. Lack of regulatory policy and compensation mechanism, limited physical space in pharmacy and time limitation were reported to be the most important barriers to providing CRS services (> 50% rated as highly important. Low human resource and time limitation were significantly associated with negative attitudes (P: 0.02 and 0.001, respectively.Conclusion:The Iranian pharmacists’ attitudes seem to be positive about providing CRS services; however, their perceived barriers should be addressed prior to CRS service implementation.

  6. Cockpit management attitudes.

    Helmreich, R L


    Distinctions are drawn between personality traits and attitudes. The stability of the personality and the malleability of attitudes are stressed. These concepts are related to pilot performance, especially in the areas of crew coordination and cockpit resource management. Airline pilots were administered a Cockpit Management Attitudes questionnaire; empirical data from that survey are reported and implications of the data for training in crew coordination are discussed.

  7. Attitude measurements and determination

    Foliard, J.

    Satellite attitude determination using an inertial reference system is explained. The utility of being able to determine attitude is outlined. Construction of an attitude matrix from the Euler and Cardan angles of the satellite-Earth system is illustrated. Static and dynamic analysis methods are shown. The sensors employed when using the Sun, Earth's magnetic field, the Earth, and the stars as reference direction are described.

  8. Assessment of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and behaviours among students in higher education in Tanzania.

    Mkumbo, Kitila


    There is a paucity of studies that have systematically and comprehensively investigated the knowledge level, attitudes and the pattern of sexual behaviours related to HIV and AIDS in higher education settings in sub-Saharan Africa in general and Tanzania in particular. This study attempted to fill a void in knowledge. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used, employing a self-administered questionnaire as the main data collection tool. More than 400 higher education students completed a questionnaire assessing their knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to HIV and AIDS. About three quarters of respondents demonstrated comprehensive knowledge about HIV and AIDS, and the majority of respondents expressed positive attitudes towards people living with HIV and AIDS. Despite demonstrating high knowledge level about HIV and AIDS, the results show that sexual behaviours among students in higher education are characteristically risky, and do not significantly differ from youth in the general population.

  9. Women Knowledge, Attitude, Approval of Family Planning and Contraceptive Use in Bangladesh.

    Shahidul Islam


    Full Text Available This paper attempted to examine the effects of women knowledge on attitude and family planning approval on contraceptive use of married women. The primary data was collected from Narsingdi municipality and the cluster sampling techniques had been adopted for collecting the data. Path analysis was used to determine the effects of factors that haveinfluence on contraceptive use. The result showed that the attitude and knowledge on contraception, and family planningapproval has significant effects on the use of contraceptive. The study also revealed that media exposure significantly effects on family planning approval, increase the positive attitude on contraceptive, and significantly increase the knowledge on contraception and STDs diseases. Women education and mass media can also be considered as potential factors to influence the contraceptive use.

  10. Country of Origin Effect and Animosity on The Attitude and Purchase Intention of Foreign Products



    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine COO effect and Animosity on the attitude and purchase intention of foreign products in ethnic subculture within a country. This research is tested in Malay and Chinese ethnic subculture in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. The categories of product are foods from Malaysia. Sample in this study is 435 respondents, consists of 218 Malay respondents from Ma-lay and 217 Chinese respondents. The collection of data was using non probability sampling method by combining accidental and snowball sampling. Data analysis uses structural equation modeling (SEM Multi-group.The results show that, there is a positive influence of COO on attitudes of foreign products for both Malay and Chinese ethnic. This study also show that, the influence of COO on the purchase intentions of foreign products can only be proven in Chinese ethnic. Furthermore, the results show that animosity have a negative influence on attitude toward foreign products. In addition, attitude also have a positive influence on the intention to purchase. However, this study fails to prove the influence of animosity on the intention to purchase of foreign products. These results indicate that there are differences in consumer behavior between Malay and Chinese ethnic in the evaluation of foreign products.

  11. A Fashion Show


    <正>Story: The yearly fashion show day.The children take turns to walk on the stage and show the class their favorite clothes.Now it’s Joe’s and Phoebe’s turn.Joe walks on the stage and says,“My shorts are blue.Do you like my blue shorts?”On the other side of the stage, Phoebe is wearing her favorite pink skirt.“My skirt is pink.Do you like my pink skirt?”asks

  12. A Visionary Show


    Seduction. Distinction. Relax. Pulsation. These are the "style universes" on display at Première Vision, heralded as "The World’s Premiere Fabric Show." Started more than 35 years ago by 15 French weavers, Première Vision has expanded beyond its

  13. Violence and TV Shows

    ÖZTÜRK, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Şinasi


    This study aims to discuss theories on theviolent effects of TV shows on viewers, especiallyon children. Therefore, this study includes a briefdiscussion of definitions of violence, discussionof violence theories, main results of researcheson televised violence, measuring TV violence,perception of televised violence, individualdifferences and reactions to TV violence,aggressiveness and preferences for TV violence.

  14. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Ratte, Kathy


    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  15. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation knowledge and attitude among general dentists in Kuwait

    Alkandari, Sarah A.; Alyahya, Lolwa; Abdulwahab, Mohammed


    BACKGROUND: Dentists as health care providers should maintain a competence in resuscitation. This cannot be overemphasized by the fact that the population in our country is living longer with an increasing proportion of medically compromised persons in the general population. This preliminary study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude of general dentists towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 250 licensed general dental practitioners working in ministry of health. Data were obtained through electronic self-administered questionnaire consisting of demographic data of general dentists, and their experience, attitude and knowledge about CPR based on the 2010 American Heart Association guidelines update for CPR. RESULTS: Totally 208 general dentists took part in the present study giving a response rate of 83.2%. Only 36% of the participants demonstrated high knowledge on CPR, while 64% demonstrated low knowledge. Participants’ age, gender, nationality, years of experience, career hierarchy, and formal CPR training were associated significantly with CPR knowledge. Almost all the participants (99%) felt that dentists needed to be competent in basic resuscitation skills and showed a positive attitude towards attending continuing dental educational programs on CPR. CONCLUSION: This study showed that majority of general dental practitioners in Kuwait had inadequate knowledge on CPR. It was also found that CPR training significantly influenced the CPR knowledge of the participants. Therefore, training courses on CPR should be regularly provided to general dentists in the country. PMID:28123615

  16. Anaesthesiologists H attitude towards preoperative patients education needs in 2005

    R. Esmaeeli


    Full Text Available Background and purpose: lack of information about anaesthisia and fear of post operation contiousness, pain, nausea and vomiting increases the patientsH anxiety. There are various reports about patiensH desire for preoperation information in Iran and other countries. However, there is no study related to anaesthesiologistsH view about patientsH needs before anaesthesia and operation in the literature.Materials and Methods: This descriptive (cross- sectional study was done in 2005 on 110 anaesthesiologists working in hospitals of Mazandaran province. Questionnaire containing 4 questions about demographic and 18 questions related to anaesthesia was prepared. Attitude of the anaesthesiologists was divided into 5 categories based on Likert rating scale as follows: completely agreed, agreed, partially agreed, not agreed, completely not agreed. Chi-square test was used for the statistical analysis of the data.Results: Results of this study showed that the most positive attitude of anaesthesiologists about patient teaching was related to the proper explanation about duration of N.P.O before operation (%97.3. %52.7 of anaes the siologists were against giving explanation of the duration of N.P.O and post operation possible problems. In this regard no significant difference was observed between educational and non educational hospitals (P<0.018. No significant difference in terms of attitude was observed between anaesthesiologists at different level of education (P<0.07.Conclusion: Considering the positive attitude of the anaesthesiologists towards education and preoperation of the patients, it is recommended that such education be implemented and the patients be charged for preoperation consultation in order to give explanation about anaesthesia at proper time, when needed.

  17. Integrated Curriculum and Subject-based Curriculum: Achievement and Attitudes

    Casady, Victoria

    The research conducted for this mixed-method study, qualitative and quantitative, analyzed the results of an academic year-long study to determine whether the use of an integrated fourth grade curriculum would benefit student achievement in the areas of English language arts, social studies, and science more than a subject-based traditional curriculum. The research was conducted based on the international, national, and state test scores, which show a slowing or lack of growth. Through pre- and post-assessments, student questionnaires, and administrative interviews, the researcher analyzed the phenomenological experiences of the students to determine if the integrated curriculum was a beneficial restructuring of the curriculum. The research questions for this study focused on the achievement and attitudes of the students in the study and whether the curriculum they were taught impacted their achievement and attitudes over the course of one school year. The curricula for the study were organized to cover the current standards, where the integrated curriculum focused on connections between subject areas to help students make connections to what they are learning and the world beyond the classroom. The findings of this study indicated that utilizing the integrated curriculum could increase achievement as well as students' attitudes toward specific content areas. The ANOVA analysis for English language arts was not determined to be significant; although, greater growth in the students from the integrated curriculum setting was recorded. The ANOVA for social studies (0.05) and the paired t-tests (0.001) for science both determined significant positive differences. The qualitative analysis led to the discovery that the experiences of the students from the integrated curriculum setting were more positive. The evaluation of the data from this study led the researcher to determine that the integrated curriculum was a worthwhile endeavor to increase achievement and attitudes

  18. Spacecraft Attitude Tracking and Maneuver Using Combined Magnetic Actuators

    Zhou, Zhiqiang


    A paper describes attitude-control algorithms using the combination of magnetic actuators with reaction wheel assemblies (RWAs) or other types of actuators such as thrusters. The combination of magnetic actuators with one or two RWAs aligned with different body axis expands the two-dimensional control torque to three-dimensional. The algorithms can guarantee the spacecraft attitude and rates to track the commanded attitude precisely. A design example is presented for nadir-pointing, pitch, and yaw maneuvers. The results show that precise attitude tracking can be reached and the attitude- control accuracy is comparable with RWA-based attitude control. When there are only one or two workable RWAs due to RWA failures, the attitude-control system can switch to the control algorithms for the combined magnetic actuators with the RWAs without going to the safe mode, and the control accuracy can be maintained. The attitude-control algorithms of the combined actuators are derived, which can guarantee the spacecraft attitude and rates to track the commanded values precisely. Results show that precise attitude tracking can be reached, and the attitude-control accuracy is comparable with 3-axis wheel control.

  19. Influencing University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes toward Breastfeeding

    Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.


    Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…

  20. Attitudes of the Macedonian Preschool Teachers toward Students with Disabilities

    Dimitrova-Radojichikj, Daniela Blagoj; Chichevska-Jovanova, Natasha; Rashikj-Canevska, Olivera


    Preschool teachers are seen as key persons to implement inclusive education. Positive attitudes are therefore argued as playing a considerable role in implementing this educational change successfully. The aim of this study was to examine what attitudes Macedonian preschool teachers hold towards early inclusive education; which variables are…

  1. Computer Use, Confidence, Attitudes, and Knowledge: A Causal Analysis.

    Levine, Tamar; Donitsa-Schmidt, Smadar


    Introduces a causal model which links measures of computer experience, computer-related attitudes, computer-related confidence, and perceived computer-based knowledge. The causal model suggests that computer use has a positive effect on perceived computer self-confidence, as well as on computer-related attitudes. Questionnaires were administered…

  2. Religious Outlook and Students' Attitudes toward the Environment

    Ontakharai, Sunanchai; Koul, Ravinder; Neanchaleay, Jariya


    This paper reports the results of a survey study on attitudes towards religion and the environment, carried out with 1000 undergraduate students enrolled in two universities in Bangkok and Chiangmai, Thailand. There is a positive relationship between students' religious outlook and their attitudes towards the environment, a finding that underlines…

  3. Quechua Language Attitudes and Maintenance in Cuzco, Peru

    Manley, Marilyn S.


    This article qualitatively and quantitatively investigates the Quechua language attitudes and maintenance practices of the members of two non-profit, non-governmental agencies in Cuzco, Peru. Within their respective agency/community contexts, the members of both groups claim to have significantly more positive attitudes toward Quechua and exhibit…

  4. Alternative Lifestyle Clients: Therapists' Attitudes and Clinical Experiences.

    Hymer, Sharon M.; Rubin, Arline M.


    Examined therapists' attitudes and fantasies toward clients involved in extramarital sex, sexually open marriages, and swinging. Therapists (N=57) responded to a 17-item questionnaire. The prediction that therapists would have more negative then positive attitudes toward alternative lifestyle clients was supported. (RC)

  5. Exploring Aging Attitudes through a Puppet Making Research Study

    Whiteland, Susan R.


    Intergenerational programs often reduce ageism and stereotypical thinking. This author uses a mixed methods case study to investigate how attitudes may change when older adults and children participate in an intergenerational art project. The research question, "Is there a positive correlation in children's attitudes toward older adults and…

  6. Inverse optimal sliding mode control of spacecraft with coupled translation and attitude dynamics

    Pukdeboon, Chutiphon


    This paper proposes two robust inverse optimal control schemes for spacecraft with coupled translation and attitude dynamics in the presence of external disturbances. For the first controller, an inverse optimal control law is designed based on Sontag-type formula and the control Lyapunov function. Then a robust inverse optimal position and attitude controller is designed by using a new second-order integral sliding mode control method to combine a sliding mode control with the derived inverse optimal control. The global asymptotic stability of the proposed control law is proved by using the second method of Lyapunov. For the other control law, a nonlinear H∞ inverse optimal controller for spacecraft position and attitude tracking motion is developed to achieve the design conditions of controller gains that the control law becomes suboptimal H∞ state feedback control. The ultimate boundedness of system state is proved by using the Lyapunov stability theory. Both developed robust inverse optimal controllers can minimise a performance index and ensure the stability of the closed-loop system and external disturbance attenuation. An example of position and attitude tracking manoeuvres is presented and simulation results are included to show the performance of the proposed controllers.

  7. Shanghai Shows Its Heart


    The city known as China’s economic powerhouse showed a more caring face as host of the Special Olympic Games Between October 2 and 11,the Special Olympics Summer Games were hosted in Shanghai,the first time the 40-year-old athletic com- petition for people with intellectual disabilities came to a developing country. This Special Olympics was also larger than all previous games in temps of the number of athletes.

  8. Attitudes vs. Purchase Behaviors as Experienced Dissonance: The Roles of Knowledge and Consumer Orientations in Organic Market

    Hidalgo-Baz, María; Martos-Partal, Mercedes; González-Benito, Óscar


    This research focuses on the incongruity between positive attitudinal responses but a lack of purchase behavior in organic markets. According to cognitive dissonance theory, consumer orientations toward the benefits attributed to organic products (environmental protection, health, hedonic) relieve the dissonance that results from this attitude–behavior incongruity. Knowledge also functions as a transmitter, from positive attitudes to purchase behaviors, thereby reducing the incongruity. Using quota sampling in a survey study, this paper tests the hypotheses from linear regression models. The results show that orientations and knowledge improve the congruity between attitudes and purchase behaviors toward organic products. Moreover, interaction effects arise between the environmental protection orientation and knowledge and between the hedonic orientation and knowledge. Increasing knowledge mitigates the difference between attitudes and purchase behaviors, especially for consumers with environmental protection or hedonic orientations. These findings have several important implications for research and practice. PMID:28286489

  9. Self-perceived origins of attitudes toward homosexuality.

    Hans, Jason D; Kersey, Megan; Kimberly, Claire


    Undergraduate students (N = 417) at a large southern university responded to open-ended questions designed to assess self-perceived origins of attitudes toward homosexuality and circumstances that may prompt a shift in attitudes. Inductively coded responses pointed to a positive correlation between attitudes toward homosexuality and experience interacting with gay men or lesbians; this is discussed in the context of Allport's (1954 ) contact hypothesis and Herek's (1984 , 1986 ) theory of functional attitudes. Implications are discussed for education and intervention efforts aimed at facilitating understanding and tolerance of gay men and lesbians.

  10. Attitudes towards prisoners, as reported by prison inmates, prison employees and college students

    Rustad Aase-Bente


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive attitudes towards prisoners are important in securing the effectiveness of various correctional rehabilitation programs and the successful reintegration of prisoners after release. We wanted to investigate the attitudes towards prisoners among prison inmates, prison employees and college students. Methods The Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale was completed by 298 inmates in 4 Norwegian prisons, 387 employees working in the same prisons, and 183 college students. In addition, all respondents were asked a number of general questions about prisoners, crime and punishment. Results The study groups differed significantly in their attitudes towards prisoners, as measured by the Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale, with prison inmates holding the most positive attitudes. Prison officers held more negative attitudes than other prison employees. Prison employees working in female-only facilities held more positive attitudes than those working in male-only facilities. Students differed significantly in their attitudes, with those studying business economics holding more negative attitudes than those studying nursing. A number of strong correlations emerged between negative attitudes towards prisoners and more pessimistic and punitive answers on general questions about prisoners, crime and punishment. Conclusion The attitudes towards prisoners differed markedly among the groups investigated. The findings could have important implications, particularly for the preventive work carried out in our prisons. Whether attitudes toward prisoners can be influenced by educational programs and the dispersion of factual information needs to be investigated.

  11. Students\\\\\\' Modernist Socio-Political Attitude in the View of Family and University Effects


    fit indices such as CMIN/DF ratio, IFI, NFI, CFI, PCFI, RMSEA, were inspected.     Discussion of Results and Conclusions   This paper examines how university and family affect students' modernist socio-political attitudes. The results showed that the mean score of modernist socio-political attitudes among students was above average. Iranian society, particularly Iranian students, have been changing. Their attitudes toward modernity and socio-political issues have been changed. As the result shows, most of the students in research's population have modern socio-political attitudes. In the theoretical framework, we proposed three main hypotheses: 1- There is a relationship between the family communication patterns and students' modernist socio-political attitudes. 2: There is a relationship between the social-political influence of university and students' modernist socio-political attitudes. 3: There is a relationship between demographic variables (such as socio-economic status and gender and students' modernist socio-political attitudes. The result of a two-variate regression shows that there is a positive relationship between the two independent variables (family communication patterns and demographic variables and students' modernist socio-political attitudes, but there is not a significant relationship between the influence of university and students' attitudes.     Keywords:

  12. Attitudes to motherhood in different cultures.

    Razina N.V.


    Full Text Available The study of motherhood is a promising and relevant field of psychology. This article represents the results of a study in which a socio-psychological analysis of reproductive attitudes and demographic behaviour was conducted. The study also shows the relationship between attitudes related to motherhood and women’s cultural affiliations. The factors that contribute to the nature of attitudes towards motherhood and the interaction between these factors were studied. According to the results of this study, we distinguished the most significant characteristics of the attitudes to motherhood that influence the nature of the relationship between a mother and her unborn child. The model of the development of attitudes to motherhood proposed by R. V. Ovcharova was detailed. We considered the influence of factors on the nature of attitudes to motherhood as well as the influence of factors on each other. The results of this study allow us to describe the psychological portraits of women with different attitudes to motherhood.

  13. High school students' scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward physics: a structural equation model

    Kapucu, Serkan; Bahçivan, Eralp


    Background: There are some theoretical evidences that explain the relationships between core beliefs (i.e., epistemological beliefs) and peripheral beliefs (self-efficacy in learning) in the literature. The close relationships of such type of beliefs with attitudes are also discussed by some researchers. Constructing a model that investigates these relationships by considering theoretical and empirical evidences can empower researchers to discuss these relationships more comprehensively. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships among Turkish high school students' scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and their attitudes toward physics. Sample: A total of 632 high school students participated in this study; however, 269 female and 229 male (a total of 498) high school students' data were used. Design and methods: Three distinct instruments that measure scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward physics were combined into a unique questionnaire form and it was distributed to high school students. To explore the relationships among these variables, structural equation modeling was used. Results: The results showed that scientific epistemological belief dimensions uncovered by the nature of knowing (source and justification) significantly and positively related to both self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward other important physics dimensions. Additionally, self-efficacy in learning physics significantly and positively predicted attitudes toward multiple physics dimensions (importance, comprehension and requirement). However, epistemological belief dimensions related to the nature of knowledge (certainty and development) did not have significant impact on self-efficacy in learning physics or attitudes toward physics. Conclusions: This study concludes that there are positive and significant relationships among Turkish high school students' scientific

  14. Cooperation, framing and political attitudes

    Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Wengström, Erik Roland

    This paper shows that political attitudes are linked to cooperative behavior in an incentivized experiment with a large sample randomly drawn from the Danish population. However, this relationship depends on the way the experiment is framed. In the standard game in which subjects give to a public...... that this difference in the framing effect across political point of views is to some extent explained by differences in beliefs and basic cooperation preferences.......This paper shows that political attitudes are linked to cooperative behavior in an incentivized experiment with a large sample randomly drawn from the Danish population. However, this relationship depends on the way the experiment is framed. In the standard game in which subjects give to a public...


    Anupama BHARGAVA


    Full Text Available Teaching being a dynamic activity requires a favourable attitude and certain specific competencies from its practitioners. Teachers’ proficiency depends on the attitude she possesses for the profession. The positive attitude helps teacher to develop a conductive learner friendly environment in the classroom. This also casts a fruitful effect on learning of the students. Attitude being a social construct is influenced by many factors like gender social strata ,age, stream of education and previous experience of the job .what bearing the gender and stream of education has on the attitude of student teachers towards teaching profession to throw light on this a study was conducted using a readymade tool. Study of different categories like Non-tribal male and female science stream, nontribal male and female social science stream, Tribal male and female science stream, Tribal male and female social science stream was undertaken. In a sample of hundred students ninety six students responded. The mean scores were considered and ‘ t’ value was calculated to find the difference in the attitude of different categories towards teaching profession.

  16. Reading Habits and Attitudes of UMSKAL Undergraduates

    Shameem Ahmed


    Full Text Available Effective reading is essential for success in acquiring a foreign language (Mikulecky 2008. Students have to read a wide range of textbooks and related materials at the tertiary level. Lack of adequate reading habit is, therefore, bound to impede students’ progress towards mastery of a foreign language. This study investigated reading habits and attitudes on reading of the undergraduate students attending ESL courses at a public university in Malaysia. For data collection, a 35 item questionnaire based on the Adult Survey of Reading Attitude (ASRA from the work of Smith (1991 were designed and administered on around 314 students. The questionnaire investigated the students’ general habit, preferences, and attitude towards reading. This study was based on the following research questions: What are the reading habits of these undergraduate students? What are the attitudes of these students to reading as a useful language learning skill? What are the reading preferences of these undergraduate students? The research findings through qualitative analysis revealed that the undergraduate students had an overall positive attitude towards reading in spite of their minimal enjoyment of it and the resulting anxieties and difficulties they face. Based on the findings, few recommendations were made to improve reading among those undergraduates. Keywords: Reading habits, attitude towards reading, reading preferences, ESL

  17. Not a "reality" show.

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica


    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  18. Individual Attitudes Towards Trade

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel


    Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals......-Ohlin model in shaping free trade attitudes, relative to existing literature....

  19. Language Learners' Acculturation Attitudes

    Rafieyan, Vahid; Orang, Maryam; Bijami, Maryam; Nejad, Maryam Sharafi; Eng, Lin Siew


    Learning a language involves knowledge of both linguistic competence and cultural competence. Optimal development of linguistic competence and cultural competence, however, requires a high level of acculturation attitude toward the target language culture. To this end, the present study explored the acculturation attitudes of 70 Iranian…

  20. Asymmetrical international attitudes

    Van Oudenhoven, JP; Askevis-Leherpeux, F; Hannover, B; Jaarsma, R; Dardenne, B


    In general, attitudes towards nations have a fair amount of reciprocity: nations either like each other are relatively indifferent to each other or dislike each other Sometimes, however international attitudes are asymmetrical. In this study, we use social identity theory in order to explain asymmet

  1. Best practices for measuring students' attitudes toward learning science.

    Lovelace, Matthew; Brickman, Peggy


    Science educators often characterize the degree to which tests measure different facets of college students' learning, such as knowing, applying, and problem solving. A casual survey of scholarship of teaching and learning research studies reveals that many educators also measure how students' attitudes influence their learning. Students' science attitudes refer to their positive or negative feelings and predispositions to learn science. Science educators use attitude measures, in conjunction with learning measures, to inform the conclusions they draw about the efficacy of their instructional interventions. The measurement of students' attitudes poses similar but distinct challenges as compared with measurement of learning, such as determining validity and reliability of instruments and selecting appropriate methods for conducting statistical analyses. In this review, we will describe techniques commonly used to quantify students' attitudes toward science. We will also discuss best practices for the analysis and interpretation of attitude data.

  2. Japanese Learners' Attitudes toward English Pronunciation

    Armand, Suarez; Tanaka, Yukiko; アーマンド, スワレス; 田中, ゆき子


    In this study, junior college students' attitudes toward English pronunciation and their actual pronunciation abilities were measured with the purpose of investigating the relationship between the two. Attitudes were measured using a questionnaire the authors prepared. The results of the analysis showed that although 80% of the students recognized the importance of studying pronunciation, over 50% of them study it less than once or twice a month, and about 40% of the students reported their E...

  3. Consumer Attitudes and Their Inflation Expectations

    Santoro, Emiliano; Pfajfar, Damjan; Ehrmann, Michael


    This paper studies consumers’ inflation expectations using micro-level data from the University of Michigan’s Surveys of Consumers. It shows that beyond the well-established socioeconomic factors such as income, age, or gender, inflation expectations are also related to respondents’ financial...... situation, their purchasing attitudes, and their expectations about the macroeconomy. Respondents with current or expected financial difficulties and those with pessimistic attitudes about major purchases, income developments, or unemployment have a stronger upward bias than other households. However...

  4. Comorbidity, knowledge and attitude towards sex among patients with Dhat syndrome: A retrospective study.

    Grover, Sandeep; Gupta, Sunil; Mehra, Aseem; Avasthi, Ajit


    This study aimed to assess the knowledge about sex, attitude towards sex, prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity and relationship of the comorbidity with onset of symptoms of Dhat syndrome. Treatment records of 264 patients diagnosed with Dhat syndrome were reviewed for clinical profile including psychiatric comorbidity and sexual dysfunction and information on sexual knowledge and attitude using Sex Knowledge and Attitude Questionnaire (SKAQ-II). None of the patients gave all the correct responses on the SKAQ-II. Poor knowledge about sexual matters was not limited to the semen formation only, but also involved other aspects of sexuality, like masturbation, relationship of pregnancy with orgasm in women, breast feeding and pregnancy, relationship of sexual desire with addictive drugs and sexually transmitted diseases can be cured by having sex with a virgin girl. Higher level of education showed significant association with better sexual knowledge and liberal attitude. There was significant positive correlation between sexual knowledge and attitude. About half (51.9%) of patients had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder and/or sexual dysfunction. Among the psychiatric disorders, depressive disorders were the most common and premature ejaculation was the most common comorbid sexual dysfunction. Among those with comorbidity, symptoms of Dhat syndrome preceded the onset of other disorders. Patients with Dhat syndrome have high rates of comorbidity and poor sexual knowledge and less liberal attitude, which was not only limited to loss of semen but also involves other spheres of sexuality. Accordingly psychoeducation in patients of Dhat syndrome should not be limited to addressing the myths and lack of knowledge about semen formation, but also should address poor sexual knowledge on all the aspects related to sexuality and the negative attitude towards sex.




    Full Text Available The title of this study is A Comparative study of Attitude towards Physical Education Between Professional and Non-professional College students. The level of attitude towards physical education may varyaccording to individual differences. To analyse and compare the level of attitude differences between professional and non-professional college students the investigator administered Adams scale of attitude towards physical education. This scale is consisted of 40 statements. Seven point Likert scale was used to measure thescale. Four hypotheses have been formulated.Hypotheses were formulated based on the following dimensions:1. Course2. Age3. Parental occupation4. LocalityA sample of 100 college students were taken for this study from various Professional and non – professional colleges located at in and around Salem. A random sampling technique was used to select theparticipantsparticipants. According to the course the participants were divided into two groups. I.e. professional and non-professional courses. According to the age the participantsparticipants were divided into two group’s i.e. 20 years & below and above 20 years. According to the occupation of the parents again the participants, they were divided into two groups i.e. self-employed and salary employed. Again according to the locality the participants were divided into groups. i.e. urban and rural. ‘t’-test and Chi – square were used to interpret and analyse the collected data. The overall finding of the study reveals that the boys studying in on-professionalcolleges showed higher positive attitude towards physical education than boys studying in professional colleges.The age of the subject and the occupation of the parent did not have any relationship with the subject’s attitude towards physical Education. But the locality of the subject has a significant relationship with their attitude towards physical education

  6. Effects of group sexual counseling on the traditional perceptions and attitudes of Iranian pregnant women

    Navidian A


    Full Text Available Ali Navidian,1 Shahindokht Navabi Rigi,2 Parvin Soltani2 1Department of Counseling, Pregnancy Health Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran; 2Department of Midwifery, Nursing and Midwifery School, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IranBackground: Marital relationships may fluctuate due to physical and psychological changes during pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate the effect of group sexual counseling on the traditional perceptions and attitudes of pregnant women.Methods: This was a quasiexperimental intervention study. Among the pregnant women who were referred to health care centers in Zahedan, Iran, in 2015 for routine care during pregnancy, 100 individuals were chosen and randomly categorized into two groups: intervention (n=50 and control (n=50. Variables were the participant’s attitudes and beliefs on sexual activity during pregnancy. The data were collected during pregnancy using the Sexual Activities and Attitudes Questionnaire. The questionnaire was completed before and 6 weeks after five sessions of group sexual counseling. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (Version 20 with descriptive and analytical statistics.Results: The mean of score changes for sexual attitudes and traditional perceptions in the intervention group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.0001. Analysis of covariance also showed that the mean score of the participant’s traditional perceptions and sexual attitudes in both groups was significantly different after the group sexual counseling.Discussion: Due to the positive effect of group sexual counseling on improving the attitudes of pregnant women about sexual issues and reframing the traditional perceptions over sexual activities during pregnancy, it is recommended that this educational intervention should be integrated into counseling and prenatal care for pregnant women. Keywords: group sexual counseling, belief, attitude

  7. Showing Value (Editorial

    Denise Koufogiannakis


    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  8. The Influence of Medication Attitudes on Utilization of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in Indonesian Prisons.

    Culbert, Gabriel J; Bazazi, Alexander R; Waluyo, Agung; Murni, Astia; Muchransyah, Azalia P; Iriyanti, Mariska; Finnahari; Polonsky, Maxim; Levy, Judith; Altice, Frederick L


    Negative attitudes toward HIV medications may restrict utilization of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Indonesian prisons where many people living with HIV (PLH) are diagnosed and first offered ART. This mixed-method study examines the influence of medication attitudes on ART utilization among HIV-infected Indonesian prisoners. Randomly-selected HIV-infected male prisoners (n = 102) completed face-to-face in-depth interviews and structured surveys assessing ART attitudes. Results show that although half of participants utilized ART, a quarter of those meeting ART eligibility guidelines did not. Participants not utilizing ART endorsed greater concerns about ART efficacy, safety, and adverse effects, and more certainty that ART should be deferred in PLH who feel healthy. In multivariate analyses, ART utilization was independently associated with more positive ART attitudes (AOR = 1.09, 95 % CI 1.03-1.16, p = 0.002) and higher internalized HIV stigma (AOR = 1.03, 95 % CI 1.00-1.07, p = 0.016). Social marketing of ART is needed to counteract negative ART attitudes that limit ART utilization among Indonesian prisoners.

  9. The Effect of Computer Assisted Instruction Based Constructivist Learning Approach on Students’ Attitudes and Achievements

    Şeyda Gül


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of computer assisted instruction based constructivist learning approach on students’ attitudes towards computers and science and technology lesson and their achievements at science and technology lesson. The study group is a group of 56 students who attend to fourth grade of a public primary school which were selected via convenient sampling method from Körfez (Kocaeli. The data were collected by means of Attitude Scale to Science and Technology Lesson, Attitude Scale to Computers and Achievement Test. In this research, a quasi-experiment design with pre test-post test control group was employed. The subjects was taught to the students using constructivist learning method which carried out at present syllabus in control group and computer assisted instruction based constructivist learning approach in experimental group. The findings from this study showed that there was a statistically significant difference between groups’ post-test attitudes towards computers and post-test scores obtained from achievement test in favour of experimental group (p0.05 despite the fact that there was a positive increase at experimental groups’ attitudes.

  10. Community Influences on Married Women's Safer Sex Negotiation Attitudes in Bangladesh: A Multilevel Analysis.

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Cready, Cynthia M


    The influence of disadvantaged or deprived community on individuals' health risk-behaviors is increasingly being documented in a growing body of literature. However, little is known about the effects of community characteristics on women's sexual attitudes and behaviors. To examine community effects on married women's safer sex negotiation attitudes, we analyzed cross-sectional data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys on a sample of 15,134 married women in 600 communities. We estimated two multilevel logistic regression models. Model 1, which included only individual-level variables, showed that women's autonomy/empowerment, age, and HIV knowledge had significant associations with their safer sex negotiation attitudes. We did not find any socioeconomic status gradient in safer sex negotiation attitudes at the individual level. Adding community-level variables in Model 2 significantly improved the fit of the model. Strikingly, we found that higher community-level poverty was associated with greater positive safer sex negotiation attitudes. Prevailing gender norms and overall women's empowerment in the community also had significant effects. While research on community influences calls for focusing on disadvantaged communities, our research highlights the importance of not underestimating the challenges that married women in economically privileged communities may face in negotiating safer sex. To have sufficient and equitable impact on married women's sexual and reproductive health, sexual and reproductive health promotion policies and programs need to be directed to women in wealthier communities as well.

  11. Sexism and attitudes towards sexual diversity in mexican students of Social Work

    Luis-Manuel Rodríguez-Otero


    Full Text Available Sexism and hostile attitudes towards people who differ from heteronormative model (gay, lesbian, bisexual, transsexual, transgender and intersex are the result of socio-cultural phenomena such as patriarchy and heterocentrism. The draft of such attitudes in Social Work is a positive element in the revictimization of users. Since there is no research to analyze jointly homophobia, biphobia and Transphobia student of Social Work quantitative research arises in order to identify whether there are such attitudes in students in this discipline in Mexico. And identify whether these attitudes are related to each other and to the ambivalent sexism. To this end, various scales have been applied in analyzing paths liket format attitudes to 120 students from the Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. The results show average levels of sexism, homophobia, and transphobia biphobia, being decisive variables related to sex, age, religion and education level. Based on these results it is considered necessary to include content on gender and sexual diversity in the training plans of the degree of Social Work.

  12. An Investigation of Attitudes of 6-8th Graders Towards Universal Values

    Ender DURUALP


    Full Text Available This study aims to describe attitudes of 6-8th graders towards universal values and examine the impact of their age, gender, grade level, academic performance, parental level of education, and family income on their attitudes towards universal values. The population consisted of 6-8th graders being taught in primary schools in Çankırı, Turkey. The sample consisted of 361 students (203 girls, 158 boys randomly selected from Çankırı İsmet İnönü Elementary School located in Çankırı which attracts the highest number of students from each level of socioeconomic status. The sociodemographic data of children and their parents were collected through a “General Information Form”, and the data related to attitudes towards universal values were obtained by the “Attitude Towards Universal Values Scale” developed by Demir and Koç (2009. Data were analyzed through Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis H tests, and Cronbach Alpha (α reliability coefficient. Results showed that girls (p>0.05, 8th graders, academically-talented children, those whose parents are university graduates, and those with a family income of minimum wage or more have more positive attitudes towards universal values (p<0.05.

  13. Assessing Business and Marketing Teachers' Attitudes toward Cultural Pluralism and Diversity.

    Adams, Elaine; Hall, Helen C.


    The Pluralism and Diversity Attitude Assessment was used to assess business and marketing teachers' attitudes toward issues related to multicultural education (315 of 1,400 responded). Although they had positive attitudes about the issues, they were resistant toward implementation of cultural pluralism and diversity. (Contains 21 references.) (JOW)

  14. Students' Attitudes and Motivation for Learning English at Dokuz Eylul University School of Foreign Languages

    Öztürk, Kadim


    Attitudes and motivation are two of the key factors in second language learning since positive attitudes and high levels of motivation are considered as the predictors of a successful learning process. This study aims to reveal the relation between university preparatory students' attitudes towards learning English and their language learning…

  15. Attitudes toward Information Technology of Teachers of the Gifted: Implications for Gifted Education

    Shaunessy, Elizabeth


    This statewide study of teachers of intellectually gifted students examined teachers' attitudes toward information technology. Participants were 418 teachers of the intellectually gifted in a southeastern state who voluntarily responded to a survey about technology attitudes. Results indicated positive attitudes toward technology, with training in…

  16. Gender Differences in Computer-Related Attitudes and Behavior: A Meta-Analysis.

    Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.


    A meta-analysis of studies of gender differences in computer attitudes and behavior found that males exhibited greater sex-role stereotyping of computers, higher computer self-efficacy, and more positive attitudes toward computers than females. Most differences in attitudes and behavior were small, with the largest found in high school students.…

  17. Attitudes toward Euthanasia as a Function of Death Fears and Demographic Variables.

    Slezak, Michael E.


    Studied the relationship of attitudes toward euthanasia to death fears and demographic variables in a sample of 100 adults. Found the strongest predictors of euthanasia attitude were age and amount of education. Suggests individuals who are more experienced with life and death have a more positive attitude toward euthanasia. (Author)

  18. Predicting Educational Outcomes and Psychological Well-Being in Adolescents Using Time Attitude Profiles

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.


    Using cluster analysis of Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (ATAS) scores in a sample of 300 adolescents ("M" age = 16 years; "SD" = 1.25; 60% male; 41% European American; 25.3% Asian American; 11% African American; 10.3% Latino), the authors identified five time attitude profiles based on positive and negative attitudes toward…

  19. Personal drivers and factors influencing the attitude toward mobile advertising: A Study on Mobile phone users

    Manijeh Bahrainizadeh


    Based on the results of the path analysis the relationship between the variables in the model is investigated and results suggest that indicators of social influence, innovativeness, mobile phone technology and the general attitude towards advertising have a significant positive effect on attitude toward mobile advertising, while individual knowledge has a negative impact on attitude toward mobile advertising.

  20. Public medical shows.

    Walusinski, Olivier


    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre.


    Hilary Matheson


    Full Text Available Theory testing and construct measurement are inextricably linked. To date, no published research has looked at the factorial validity of an existing eating attitude inventory for use with exercisers. The Eating Attitude Test (EAT is a 26-item measure that yields a single index of disordered eating attitudes. The original factor analysis showed three interrelated factors: Dieting behavior (13-items, oral control (7-items, and bulimia nervosa-food preoccupation (6-items. The primary purpose of the study was to examine the factorial validity of the EAT among a sample of exercisers. The second purpose was to investigate relationships between eating attitudes scores and selected psychological constructs. In stage one, 598 regular exercisers completed the EAT. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to test the single-factor, a three-factor model, and a four-factor model, which distinguished bulimia from food pre-occupation. CFA of the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.66, RMSEA = 0.10, the three-factor-model (RCFI = 0.74; RMSEA = 0.09 showed poor model fit. There was marginal fit for the 4-factor model (RCFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.06. Results indicated five-items showed poor factor loadings. After these 5-items were discarded, the three models were re-analyzed. CFA results indicated that the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.76, RMSEA = 0.10 and three-factor model (RCFI = 0.82, RMSEA = 0.08 showed poor fit. CFA results for the four-factor model showed acceptable fit indices (RCFI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.06. Stage two explored relationships between EAT scores, mood, self-esteem, and motivational indices toward exercise in terms of self-determination, enjoyment and competence. Correlation results indicated that depressed mood scores positively correlated with bulimia and dieting scores. Further, dieting was inversely related with self-determination toward exercising. Collectively, findings suggest that a 21-item four-factor model shows promising validity coefficients

  2. The Great Cometary Show


    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  3. Exploring Graduate Students’ Attitudes towards Team Research and Their Scholarly Productivity: A Survey Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Tianlan Wei


    Full Text Available This study explores the attitudinal and motivational factors underlying graduate students’ attitudes towards team research. Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior, we hypothesize that attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control are three major determinants of graduate students’ intentions to conduct team research. An instrument was developed to measure the influences of these factors on students’ intentions and relevant scholarly productivity. A total of 281 graduate students from a large, comprehensive university in the southwest United States participated in the survey. Descriptive statistics reveal that around two-thirds of graduate students have no co-authored manuscripts submitted for publication since they started graduate school. Factor analyses validated the factor structure of the instrument, and the results of Structural Equation Modeling show that (a graduate students’ attitudes towards team research have a positive correlation with their attitudes towards individual research; (b attitude towards team research, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control, along with students’ discipline/major areas and classification, account for 58% of the variance in the intention to conduct team research; and (c subjective norm appears to be the most influential factor in the model, followed by attitude; while perceived behavioral control is not of much importance. These findings provide implications for academic departments and programs to promote graduate students’ team research. Specifically, creating a climate for collaborative research in academic programs/disciplines/universities may work jointly with enhancing students’ appraisals of such collaborations.

  4. Farmer’s Attitude on Sustainable Agriculture and its Determinants: A Case Study in Behbahan County of Iran

    S. Abolhasan Sadati


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to conduct a descriptive survey to study the attitudes and perceptions of Iranian farmers on the concepts and thoughts of sustainable agriculture and identifying effective factors on their attitude. The target population of this study consisted of 7314 Behbahan farmers of Khuzestan province of Iran. A sample consisting of 208 respondents was selected through Stratified Sampling. The instrument used for assessing the attitude of respondents on the concepts of sustainable agriculture was a questionnaire by reliability 0.78. Responses were grouped based on the differences in standard deviation of mean, which revealed that 73.4% of respondents had moderate attitude towards concepts of sustainable agriculture. The results of study showed that there is positive correlation between literacy, participation in extension courses, off-farm income, farmer's knowledge about sustainable agriculture, level of use of sustainable agriculture methods, extension contacts and job satisfaction and negative correlation between age, experience in agricultural activities, family size and agrarian land with attitude toward sustainable agriculture. According to result of regression the ‘extension contacts’, ‘Farmers knowledge about sustainable agriculture’, ‘Job satisfaction’ and ‘literacy’ are effective factors on farmers attitude toward sustainable agriculture and explained 52.6% of this scale.

  5. Nursing students′ attitude toward suicide prevention

    Naresh Nebhinani


    Full Text Available Background: Preventing suicide depends upon different health professionals′ knowledge regarding suicide, attitude toward suicide attempters, skills to assess and manage suicidal risk. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the attitude of nursing students toward suicide prevention. Materials and Methods: 308 nursing students were recruited from the two institutions through total enumeration method. Attitude toward suicide prevention scale was administered. Study design was cross-sectional. Results: Majority were single females, from urban locality, who were pursuing BSc Nursing with the mean age of 20 years. Only minority had previous exposure to suicide prevention programs or workshops. Nearly half of the subjects had positive attitude toward working with suicidal patients. Again half of the subjects considered unemployment and poverty as main causes of suicide and were quite hopeless about it and they also perceived that most of the suicidal people would not reveal their suicidal plans to others. Conclusions: Merely half of the students had positive attitude toward working with suicidal patients. Hence, there is strong need to organize more educational and training programs on suicide prevention so that these budding health professionals could be more equipped and trained to manage these suicidal patients.

  6. Death Attitudes Among Middle-Aged Koreans.

    Hong, Michin; Hong, Seunghye; Adamek, Margaret E; Kim, Mee Hye


    The purpose of this study was to examine factors affecting death attitudes among middle-aged Koreans. In addition, the study explored the interaction effect between knowledge about end-of-life care planning and the experience of death of family or friends on death attitudes. The sample was obtained from a national survey with middle-aged adults in South Korea ( n = 2,026). Multivariate regression analysis revealed significant main effects and an interaction effect between knowledge about end-of-life care planning and the experience of death on death attitudes. Greater knowledge of end-of-life care planning was associated with more positive attitudes toward death; however, the effect was stronger for those who had not experienced the death of family or friends. Being older and having greater life satisfaction were also associated with more positive attitudes toward death. This study suggests that end-of-life education can help middle-aged adults embrace the final stage of life and prepare for their own death.

  7. The time for doing is not the time for change: effects of general action and inaction goals on attitude retrieval and attitude change.

    Albarracín, Dolores; Handley, Ian M


    Implicit in many informal and formal principles of psychological change is the understudied assumption that change requires either an active approach or an inactive approach. This issue was systematically investigated by comparing the effects of general action goals and general inaction goals on attitude change. As prior attitudes facilitate preparation for an upcoming persuasive message, general action goals were hypothesized to facilitate conscious retrieval of prior attitudes and therefore hinder attitude change to a greater extent than general inaction goals. Experiment 1 demonstrated that action primes (e.g., "go," "energy") yielded faster attitude report than inaction primes (e.g., "rest," "still") among participants who were forewarned of an upcoming persuasive message. Experiment 2 showed that the faster attitude report identified in Experiment 1 was localized on attitudes toward a message topic participants were prepared to receive. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 showed that, compared with inaction primes, action primes produced less attitude change and less argument scrutiny in response to a counterattitudinal message on a previously forewarned topic. Experiment 6 confirmed that the effects of the primes on attitude change were due to differential attitude retrieval. That is, when attitude expression was induced immediately after the primes, action and inaction goals produced similar amounts of attitude change. In contrast, when no attitude expression was induced after the prime, action goals produced less attitude change than inaction goals. Finally, Experiment 7 validated the assumption that these goal effects can be reduced or reversed when the goals have already been satisfied by an intervening task.

  8. Attitude toward Science Teaching of Spanish and Turkish In-Service Elementary Teachers: Multi-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Korur, Fikret; Vargas, Rocío Vargas; Torres Serrano, Noemí


    Elementary school teachers' having a positive attitude toward science teaching might encourage students to develop positive attitudes toward science learning. This cross-cultural study aimed to validate the seven-factor structure of the Dimensions of Attitude toward Science (DAS) scale by applying it in two countries. Moreover, it aimed to…

  9. Glas Spacecraft Attitude Determination Using CCD Star Tracker and 3-AXIS Gyros

    Bae, Sungkoo

    The main purpose of the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is to determine the mass balance of the polar ice-sheets and their contributions to global sea level change. For the mission, the required accuracy for the laser altimeter height measurements is 10 cm. In this case, the direction in which the altimeter beam is pointing relative to the Terrestrial Reference Frame must be known to an accuracy of 1.5 arcseconds assuming the average slope of the ice-sheet surface is one degree. The laser pointing direction will be determined relative to the star field measured by a star tracker in the GLAS spacecraft (ICESAT). Thus, the specification of one arcsecond pointing accuracy requires that the spacecraft attitude determination has comparable accuracy. A Charge Coupled Device (CCD) star tracker and gyros will be installed in an optical bench of ICESAT to determine the spacecraft attitude. Each star position measurement from the CCD star tracker contains approximately five arcseconds position uncertainty depending on the magnitude of the observed stars. Furthermore, gyro output accuracy is corrupted by measurement noise and bias. The main purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the ability to determine the attitude to better than one arcsecond (1σ) using developed estimation algorithms. Extended Kalman Filters and a Batch method were developed and used to estimate the simulated GLAS attitude. The determined attitude showed that the root sum square of roll and pitch errors, which directly affect the laser beam pointing error, reduced to about 0.5 arcsecond (1σ), far better than one arcsecond. In order to support the study result, actual attitude data obtained from the X-ray Timing Explorer spacecraft, were processed with some of algorithms developed for this research. As a part of the generation of the measurement data, a star identification algorithm was developed.

  10. A study on the attitudes and behavioural influence of construction waste management in occupied Palestinian territory.

    Al-Sari, Majed I; Al-Khatib, Issam A; Avraamides, Marios; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo


    As a step towards comprehending what drives the management of construction waste in the occupied Palestinian territory, this paper quantifies construction waste generation and examines how the local contractors' waste management attitudes and behaviour are influenced. Collection of data was based on a survey, carried out in the southern part of the West Bank between April and May 2010. The survey targeted contractors who specialized in the construction of buildings. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the relationship between various attributes and the attitudes and behaviour that the local contractors demonstrate towards waste management. The results showed that during the construction of buildings, 17 to 81 kg of construction waste are generated per square metre of building floor. Although the area of a building is the key factor determining 74.8% of the variation of construction waste generation, the employment of labour-intensive techniques in the study area means that human factors such as the contractor's attitude and behaviour towards waste management, exert a key influence on waste generation. Attitudes towards the 3Rs of waste minimization and behaviour towards waste disposal are generally positive with smaller contractors exhibiting more positive attitudes and more satisfactory behaviour towards waste management. Overall, while contractors' behaviour towards waste sorting and disposal tends to be more satisfactory among contractors who are more conscious about the potential environmental impacts of construction waste, it was generally observed that in the absence of a regulatory framework, the voluntary attitudes and behaviour among the local contractors are mostly driven by direct economic considerations.

  11. Attitudes of Children Established by Classical Conditioning.

    Barnabei, Fred; And Others

    This study examined the attitudes of children established by classical conditioning. Subjects were 4th graders (26 males and 31 females). Each child was randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. A posttest-only design was used with positive and negative word associations presented to the experimental group, and neutral word…

  12. Participation in Adult Education: Attitudes and Barriers

    Boeren, Ellen


    In this paper, we control the intention theory of Fishbein and Ajzen (1980) for the participation in an adult education course. Based on the Flemish Eurostat Adult Education Survey, we reveal that participants in adult education have a more positive attitude towards learning and that within the group of non-participants, those who formulate an…

  13. Family Resemblance in Attitudes to Foods.

    Rozin, Paul; And Others


    Compares young adults with their parents and explores food preferences and attitudes to food, especially sensitivity to cleanliness and contamination of foods. Results indicate small positive parent-child correlations for food preferences but larger correlations for contamination sensitivity. (Author/AS)

  14. Near-Death Experiences and Antisuicidal Attitudes.

    Greyson, Bruce


    One hundred-fifty near death experiencers (NDErs) and 43 individuals who had come close to death without having NDEs (nonNDErs) rated 12 antisuicidal attitudes. NDErs endorsed significantly more statements than did nonNDErs, and, among NDErs, number of statements endorsed was positively associated with depth of experience. Findings support…

  15. Improving Elderly Clients' Attitudes Through Photography

    Aronson, David W.; Graziano, Anthony M.


    Ten older adults were involved in a photography activity once a week for six weeks, while five older adults were controls. Using pre- and post-program semantic differentials, it was found that the photography activity was associated with significant increases in positive attitudes. (Author)

  16. CAVL: Does it develop learner’s attitude?

    Hojjat MALEKI


    Full Text Available Individual’s response to anything related to the immediate context can form attitudes concerning the learning situation where the language is taught. As an attempt to shed new light on the issues relevant to attitude, this study investigated the extent to which a Computer-Assisted Vocabulary Learning (CAVL, Mandegar, can improve learners’ perceptions about the program. To fulfill the aim, eighty first-grade high school learners, divided as control and experimental groups, were randomly selected. Two questionnaires, in the first and last session adopted from Altiner (2011 and Bulut & Farhan (2007 respectively, were administered to the participants to investigate their perception to use CAVL in the future. The results, obtained using Paired Samples T-Test (p=0.002 < .05, revealed a significant difference between CAVL users and nonusers in favor of the experimental group. Students in the experimental group showed a positive attitude toward CAVL and perceived its utility for helping them speed up vocabulary learning. The present finding might have important implications for decision makers and teachers to further involve Computer-Assisted based programs to increase Language learning.

  17. Social activities, self-efficacy, game attitudes, and game addiction.

    Jeong, Eui Jun; Kim, Doo Hwan


    This study examines whether social activities with parents, online and offline social self-efficacy, and attitudes toward gaming are associated with the degree of game addiction among adolescents. Using data from a survey of 600 middle- and high-school students in South Korea, we tested the relationships of personal characteristics (grade point average and time spent on gaming each day), social self-efficacy (both on- and offline), general social activities (with parents, friends, and teachers), gaming activities with parents, and attitudes toward gaming (those of self, parents, friends, and teachers) with the degree of game addiction. In addition, we conducted ANOVA tests to determine the differences among three groups: non-addicts (NA), possible (mild or moderate) addicts (PA), and Internet addicts (IA). The results show that social self-efficacy in the real world (offline) was negatively related with the degree of game addiction, whereas social self-efficacy in the virtual world (online) indicated a positive association. Social activities with parents are negatively associated with game addiction, although no relationship is found between gaming activities with parents and game addiction. Parental attitude toward gaming has a negative relationship with the addiction. Results and implications are discussed.

  18. Economic Status and Social Attitudes of Migrant Workers in China

    Peilin Li; Wei Li


    Migrant workers, meaning those who used to be farmers but have left rural areas and found jobs in cities as a result of economic reform and rapid development in China, have made a significant contribution to the burgeoning labor market and played an important role in speeding up the transition from a planned to a market economy. This present paper considers the economic status and social attitudes of migrant workers. It is based on the analysis of a large-scale survey in 2006, which was conducted using questionnaires and covered 28 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions throughout the country. It was found that the income status of migrant workers depends heavily on the education and technical skills that they have developed, rather than on identity-based discrimination. Surprisingly,it was also found that those on less income and of lower economic and social status show more positive attitudes to society than those who are affluent and considered of higher social status. It is concluded that the decisive factor in attitude and behavior of migrant workers is historic rather than economic.

  19. Knowledge of and Attitude Toward Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Among Psychiatrists in Saudi Arabia

    AlHadi, Ahmad N.; AlShiban, Abdulrahman M.; Alomar, Majed A.; Aljadoa, Othman F.; AlSayegh, Ahmed M.; Jameel, Mohammed A.


    Objectives The aims of this study were to assess psychiatrists' knowledge of and attitudes toward repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in Saudi Arabia and to determine the contributing factors. Methods A quantitative observational cross-sectional study was conducted using an online survey. The sample consisted of 96 psychiatrists in Saudi Arabia. A new valid and reliable questionnaire was developed. Results A total of 96 psychiatrists enrolled in the study, 81% of whom were men. Half of the participants were consultants. The sample mainly consisted of general psychiatrists (65%). The mean age of the participants was 37 years. The results showed that 80% of the psychiatrists had a sufficient level of knowledge about rTMS. Consultants had greater knowledge than residents. Training abroad was not significantly associated with the level of knowledge or the type of attitude. Most psychiatrists (79%) had a positive attitude toward rTMS. Only 53% of the psychiatrists said they would agree to receive rTMS if they experienced a psychotic depressive condition. A minority of psychiatrists (7%) said they would not refer their patients for rTMS. Conclusions Most of the psychiatrists surveyed had good knowledge of and a positive attitude toward rTMS. Those who had a high level of training and experience showed higher levels of knowledge. Articles were reported to be a better source for improving physician knowledge than textbooks. Having a family member or relative who was treated with rTMS positively affected psychiatrists' attitudes toward rTMS. PMID:27564426

  20. Expressed attitudes of adolescents toward marriage and family life.

    Martin, Paige D; Specter, Gerald; Martin, Don; Martin, Maggie


    In the U.S., modifications in family structure and in attitudes concerning marriage and family life have been numerous. Areas such as sexual behavior and alternative living arrangements have become highly varied and nontraditional compared to past generations. This study examined the attitudes of adolescents toward aspects of marriage and family life. The majority of adolescents expressed negative attitudes toward divorce and viewed marriage as a lifelong commitment. While only about a third of the adolescents expressed positive attitudes toward premarital sex, a majority indicated they would engage in sexual intercourse before marriage, or already have. Interestingly, about half of the adolescents held positive attitudes toward cohabitation. Lastly, the adolescents demonstrated a growing acceptance of premarital counseling and psychoeducational interventions regarding marriage and family life.