WorldWideScience

Sample records for showed higher fasting

  1. Adaptive grouping for the higher-order multilevel fast multipole method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borries, Oscar Peter; Jørgensen, Erik; Meincke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    An alternative parameter-free adaptive approach for the grouping of the basis function patterns in the multilevel fast multipole method is presented, yielding significant memory savings compared to the traditional Octree grouping for most discretizations, particularly when using higher-order basis...... functions. Results from both a uniformly and nonuniformly meshed scatterer are presented, showing how the technique is worthwhile even for regular meshes, and demonstrating that there is no loss of accuracy in spite of the large reduction in memory requirements and the relatively low computational cost....

  2. Multilevel Fast Multipole Method for Higher Order Discretizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borries, Oscar Peter; Meincke, Peter; Jorgensen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The multi-level fast multipole method (MLFMM) for a higher order (HO) discretization is demonstrated on high-frequency (HF) problems, illustrating for the first time how an efficient MLFMM for HO can be achieved even for very large groups. Applying several novel ideas, beneficial to both lower...... order and higher order discretizations, results from a low-memory, high-speed MLFMM implementation of a HO hierarchical discretization are shown. These results challenge the general view that the benefits of HO and HF-MLFMM cannot be combined....

  3. Improved Multilevel Fast Multipole Method for Higher-Order discretizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borries, Oscar Peter; Meincke, Peter; Jorgensen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The Multilevel Fast Multipole Method (MLFMM) allows for a reduced computational complexity when solving electromagnetic scattering problems. Combining this with the reduced number of unknowns provided by Higher-Order discretizations has proven to be a difficult task, with the general conclusion b...

  4. Higher fasting glucose is associated with poorer cognition among healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Misty A W; Gunstad, John; Calvo, Dayana; Spitznagel, Mary Beth

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is associated with cognitive deficits; however, the mechanisms are unclear, especially among otherwise healthy adults. Our objectives were to examine (a) whether obesity is linked to elevations in fasting glucose and (b) whether these elevations are associated with cognitive impairment among otherwise healthy young adults. Participants were 35 normal weight adults and 35 young adults with obesity who completed a task from the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics-4 (ANAM-4). Measured body mass index (BMI) and fasting blood glucose levels (mg/dL) were examined. Persons with obesity had higher fasting glucose levels than normal weight persons (p = .03). After applying Bonferroni correction for multiple tests, higher fasting glucose predicted less accurate performance on tests of inhibitory control: Go/No-Go Commission Errors (β = .33, p = .004). No effects were observed for sustained attention or working memory (ps ≥. 049). Persons with glucose levels in the prediabetes range had nearly twice as many errors as those with normal glucose, a large effect that was independent of BMI. Young adults who were obese but otherwise healthy had higher fasting glucose levels compared with normal weight peers. Higher glucose levels were associated with poorer cognitive performance on tests of inhibitory control, especially among individuals with prediabetes levels. Thus, subclinical elevations in blood glucose may contribute to cognitive impairment and, ultimately, greater impulsivity-well in advance of the development of chronic disease states (e.g., insulin resistance or Type 2 diabetes) and independently of excess adiposity--though prospective studies are needed to determine directionality of this relationship. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The Fast-Casual Conundrum: Fast-Casual Restaurant Entrées Are Higher in Calories than Fast Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoffman, Danielle E; Davidson, Charis R; Hales, Sarah B; Crimarco, Anthony E; Dahl, Alicia A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2016-10-01

    Frequently eating fast food has been associated with consuming a diet high in calories, and there is a public perception that fast-casual restaurants (eg, Chipotle) are healthier than traditional fast food (eg, McDonald's). However, research has not examined whether fast-food entrées and fast-casual entrées differ in calorie content. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the caloric content of entrées at fast-food restaurants differed from that found at fast-casual restaurants. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of secondary data. Calorie information from 2014 for lunch and dinner entrées for fast-food and fast-casual restaurants was downloaded from the MenuStat database. Mean calories per entrée between fast-food restaurants and fast-casual restaurants and the proportion of restaurant entrées that fell into different calorie ranges were assessed. A t test was conducted to test the hypothesis that there was no difference between the average calories per entrée at fast-food and fast-casual restaurants. To examine the difference in distribution of entrées in different calorie ranges between fast-food and fast-casual restaurants, χ(2) tests were used. There were 34 fast-food and 28 fast-casual restaurants included in the analysis (n=3,193 entrées). Fast-casual entrées had significantly more calories per entrée (760±301 kcal) than fast-food entrées (561±268; Prestaurants to determine whether the energy content or nutrient density of full meals (ie, entrées with sides and drinks) differs between fast-casual restaurants and fast-food restaurants. Calorie-conscious consumers should consider the calorie content of entrée items before purchase, regardless of restaurant type. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Integral fast reactor shows its mettle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ya.; Lajnberri, M.; Barris, L.; Uoters, L.

    1988-01-01

    The main aspects of the problem of developing a closed fuel cycle at a NPP built in the so-called integrated version when a fast reactor and the plant for spent fuel regeneration and fuel element production are located in the same site (IFR project), are considered. The technologies of U-Pu-Zr alloy fuel reprocessing and production based on high-temperature metallurgical process and the method of casting under pressure are described. The demonstration of practical feasibility of the fuel cycle on the basis of the IFR reactor is planned for 1990

  7. Averaging Principle for the Higher Order Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation with a Random Fast Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng

    2018-04-01

    This work concerns the problem associated with averaging principle for a higher order nonlinear Schrödinger equation perturbed by a oscillating term arising as the solution of a stochastic reaction-diffusion equation evolving with respect to the fast time. This model can be translated into a multiscale stochastic partial differential equations. Stochastic averaging principle is a powerful tool for studying qualitative analysis of stochastic dynamical systems with different time-scales. To be more precise, under suitable conditions, we prove that there is a limit process in which the fast varying process is averaged out and the limit process which takes the form of the higher order nonlinear Schrödinger equation is an average with respect to the stationary measure of the fast varying process. Finally, by using the Khasminskii technique we can obtain the rate of strong convergence for the slow component towards the solution of the averaged equation, and as a consequence, the system can be reduced to a single higher order nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a modified coefficient.

  8. Averaging Principle for the Higher Order Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation with a Random Fast Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng

    2018-06-01

    This work concerns the problem associated with averaging principle for a higher order nonlinear Schrödinger equation perturbed by a oscillating term arising as the solution of a stochastic reaction-diffusion equation evolving with respect to the fast time. This model can be translated into a multiscale stochastic partial differential equations. Stochastic averaging principle is a powerful tool for studying qualitative analysis of stochastic dynamical systems with different time-scales. To be more precise, under suitable conditions, we prove that there is a limit process in which the fast varying process is averaged out and the limit process which takes the form of the higher order nonlinear Schrödinger equation is an average with respect to the stationary measure of the fast varying process. Finally, by using the Khasminskii technique we can obtain the rate of strong convergence for the slow component towards the solution of the averaged equation, and as a consequence, the system can be reduced to a single higher order nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a modified coefficient.

  9. Do minority and poor neighborhoods have higher access to fast-food restaurants in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter; Arcaya, Mariana C; Parker, Devin M; Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D; Subramanian, S V

    2014-09-01

    Disproportionate access to unhealthy foods in poor or minority neighborhoods may be a primary determinant of obesity disparities. We investigated whether fast-food access varies by Census block group (CBG) percent black and poverty. We measured the average driving distance from each CBG population-weighted centroid to the five closest top ten fast-food chains and CBG percent black and percent below poverty. Among 209,091 CBGs analyzed (95.1% of all US CBGs), CBG percent black was positively associated with fast-food access controlling for population density and percent poverty (average distance to fast-food was 3.56 miles closer (95% CI: -3.64, -3.48) in CBGs with the highest versus lowest quartile of percentage of black residents). Poverty was not independently associated with fast-food access. The relationship between fast-food access and race was stronger in CBGs with higher levels of poverty (p for interaction fast-food while poverty was not an independent predictor of fast-food access. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The metabolites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed greater differences between patients with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and healthy controls than those in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjoo; Kim, Minkyung; Han, Ji Yun; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Jee, Sun Ha; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-03-01

    To determine differences between peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the plasma metabolites in patients with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and healthy controls. In all, 65 nononobese patients (aged 30-70 years) with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and 65 nonobese sex-matched healthy controls were included, and fasting peripheral blood mononuclear cell and plasma metabolomes were profiled. The diabetic or impaired fasting glucose patients showed higher circulating and peripheral blood mononuclear cell lipoprotein phospholipase A 2 activities, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor-α than controls. Compared with controls, impaired fasting glucose or diabetic subjects showed increases in 11 peripheral blood mononuclear cell metabolites: six amino acids (valine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan), l-pyroglutamic acid, two fatty acid amides containing palmitic amide and oleamide and two lysophosphatidylcholines. In impaired fasting glucose or diabetic patients, peripheral blood mononuclear cell lipoprotein phospholipase A 2 positively associated with peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysophosphatidylcholines and circulating inflammatory markers, including tumour necrosis factor-α, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and lipoprotein phospholipase A 2 activities. In plasma metabolites between patients and healthy controls, we observed significant increases in only three amino acids (proline, valine and leucine) and decreases in only five lysophosphatidylcholines. This study demonstrates significant differences in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell metabolome in patients with impaired fasting glucose or diabetes compared with healthy controls. These differences were greater than those observed in the plasma metabolome. These data suggest peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a useful tool to better understand the inflammatory pathophysiology of diabetes.

  11. The French Fast Reactor Program - Innovations in Support to Higher Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauché, François

    2013-01-01

    • From the experience of ASTRID first phase of conceptual design studies (2010-2012), two remarks can be made: → Higher requirements in safety and operability lead to higher costs that cannot be fully recovered by advances in technology. This puts additional pressure on the next phases of the design to optimize the design and to keep the costs to the minimum. → There is a clear link between the level of safety that can be achieved and the maturity of the technology, i.e. the experience accumulated in R&D, design, construction, operation and decommissioning of past reactors. In the field of fast neutron reactors, this gives a strong advantage to the sodium technology, because strengths and weaknesses are well mastered. • Meeting the high requirements set for ASTRID and serving R&D needs of innovative options will require increased industrial and international collaboration

  12. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective

  13. Prolonged fasting impairs neural reactivity to visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, N; Wassenberg, A; Toygar, T; Kellermann, T; Weidenfeld, C; Berthold-Losleben, M; Chechko, N; Orfanos, S; Vocke, S; Laoutidis, Z G; Schneider, F; Karges, W; Habel, U

    2016-01-01

    Previous literature has shown that hypoglycemia influences the intensity of the BOLD signal. A similar but smaller effect may also be elicited by low normal blood glucose levels in healthy individuals. This may not only confound the BOLD signal measured in fMRI, but also more generally interact with cognitive processing, and thus indirectly influence fMRI results. Here we show in a placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind study on 40 healthy subjects, that overnight fasting and low normal levels of glucose contrasted to an activated, elevated glucose condition have an impact on brain activation during basal visual stimulation. Additionally, functional connectivity of the visual cortex shows a strengthened association with higher-order attention-related brain areas in an elevated blood glucose condition compared to the fasting condition. In a fasting state visual brain areas show stronger coupling to the inferior temporal gyrus. Results demonstrate that prolonged overnight fasting leads to a diminished BOLD signal in higher-order occipital processing areas when compared to an elevated blood glucose condition. Additionally, functional connectivity patterns underscore the modulatory influence of fasting on visual brain networks. Patterns of brain activation and functional connectivity associated with a broad range of attentional processes are affected by maturation and aging and associated with psychiatric disease and intoxication. Thus, we conclude that prolonged fasting may decrease fMRI design sensitivity in any task involving attentional processes when fasting status or blood glucose is not controlled.

  14. Accessibility of fast food outlets is associated with fast food intake. A study in the Capital Region of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernsdorf, Kamille Almer; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2017-01-01

    Literature suggests that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast food options may show higher levels of fast food intake. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were applied to examine the association between GIS-located fast food outlets (FFOs) and self-reported fast food intake...... density and decreased significantly with increasing distance to the nearest FFO for distances ≤ 4km. For long distances (>4km), odds increased with increasing distance, although this applied only for car owners. Results suggest that Danish health promotion strategies need to consider the contribution...

  15. Rats socially-reared and full fed learned an autoshaping task, showing less levels of fear-like behaviour than fasted or singly-reared rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Hernández, Miguel; Téllez-Alcántara, N Patricia

    2004-07-01

    During the learning of instrumental tasks, rats are usually fasted to increase reinforced learning. However, fasting produces several undesirable side effects. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that control rats, i.e. full-fed and group-reared rats, will learn an autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. The interaction between fasting and single-rearing of rats was also tested. Results showed that control rats and fasted rats acquired the autoshaping task similarly, independently of rearing condition or gender. However, fasted or singly-reared rats produced fear-like behaviour, since male rats group-reared and fasted (85% body/wt, P autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. However, fasting or single-rearing produced fear-like behaviour. Thus, the training of control rats in autoshaping tasks may be an option that improves animal welfare.

  16. Consumption of meat is associated with higher fasting glucose and insulin concentrations regardless of glucose and insulin genetic risk scores: a meta-analysis of 50,345 Caucasians12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretts, Amanda M; Follis, Jack L; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Ngwa, Julius S; Wojczynski, Mary K; Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota; Varga, Tibor V; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Houston, Denise K; Lahti, Jari; Ericson, Ulrika; van den Hooven, Edith H; Mikkilä, Vera; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Rice, Kenneth; Renström, Frida; North, Kari E; McKeown, Nicola M; Feitosa, Mary F; Kanoni, Stavroula; Smith, Caren E; Garcia, Melissa E; Tiainen, Anna-Maija; Sonestedt, Emily; Manichaikul, Ani; van Rooij, Frank JA; Dimitriou, Maria; Raitakari, Olli; Pankow, James S; Djoussé, Luc; Province, Michael A; Hu, Frank B; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Keller, Margaux F; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Rotter, Jerome I; Hofman, Albert; Graff, Misa; Kähönen, Mika; Mukamal, Kenneth; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ordovas, Jose M; Liu, Yongmei; Männistö, Satu; Uitterlinden, André G; Deloukas, Panos; Seppälä, Ilkka; Psaty, Bruce M; Cupples, L Adrienne; Borecki, Ingrid B; Franks, Paul W; Arnett, Donna K; Nalls, Mike A; Eriksson, Johan G; Orho-Melander, Marju; Franco, Oscar H; Lehtimäki, Terho; Dedoussis, George V; Meigs, James B; Siscovick, David S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent studies suggest that meat intake is associated with diabetes-related phenotypes. However, whether the associations of meat intake and glucose and insulin homeostasis are modified by genes related to glucose and insulin is unknown. Objective: We investigated the associations of meat intake and the interaction of meat with genotype on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in Caucasians free of diabetes mellitus. Design: Fourteen studies that are part of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium participated in the analysis. Data were provided for up to 50,345 participants. Using linear regression within studies and a fixed-effects meta-analysis across studies, we examined 1) the associations of processed meat and unprocessed red meat intake with fasting glucose and insulin concentrations; and 2) the interactions of processed meat and unprocessed red meat with genetic risk score related to fasting glucose or insulin resistance on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Results: Processed meat was associated with higher fasting glucose, and unprocessed red meat was associated with both higher fasting glucose and fasting insulin concentrations after adjustment for potential confounders [not including body mass index (BMI)]. For every additional 50-g serving of processed meat per day, fasting glucose was 0.021 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.011, 0.030 mmol/L) higher. Every additional 100-g serving of unprocessed red meat per day was associated with a 0.037-mmol/L (95% CI: 0.023, 0.051-mmol/L) higher fasting glucose concentration and a 0.049–ln-pmol/L (95% CI: 0.035, 0.063–ln-pmol/L) higher fasting insulin concentration. After additional adjustment for BMI, observed associations were attenuated and no longer statistically significant. The association of processed meat and fasting insulin did not reach statistical significance after correction for multiple comparisons. Observed associations were not modified by genetic

  17. A novel fast gas chromatography method for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2014-05-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in ambient air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C9-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a 14.5 min analysis time. Moreover, in-situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an 11.7 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to 19.7 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). These analysis times potentially allow for a twofold to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in-situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC (OBVOC) linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest

  18. The oxidative debt of fasting: evidence for short- to medium-term costs of advanced fasting in adult king penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schull, Quentin; Viblanc, Vincent A; Stier, Antoine; Saadaoui, Hédi; Lefol, Emilie; Criscuolo, François; Bize, Pierre; Robin, Jean-Patrice

    2016-10-15

    In response to prolonged periods of fasting, animals have evolved metabolic adaptations helping to mobilize body reserves and/or reduce metabolic rate to ensure a longer usage of reserves. However, those metabolic changes can be associated with higher exposure to oxidative stress, raising the question of how species that naturally fast during their life cycle avoid an accumulation of oxidative damage over time. King penguins repeatedly cope with fasting periods of up to several weeks. Here, we investigated how adult male penguins deal with oxidative stress after an experimentally induced moderate fasting period (PII) or an advanced fasting period (PIII). After fasting in captivity, birds were released to forage at sea. We measured plasmatic oxidative stress on the same individuals at the start and end of the fasting period and when they returned from foraging at sea. We found an increase in activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase along with fasting. However, PIII individuals showed higher oxidative damage at the end of the fast compared with PII individuals. When they returned from re-feeding at sea, all birds had recovered their initial body mass and exhibited low levels of oxidative damage. Notably, levels of oxidative damage after the foraging trip were correlated to the rate of mass gain at sea in PIII individuals but not in PII individuals. Altogether, our results suggest that fasting induces a transitory exposure to oxidative stress and that effort to recover in body mass after an advanced fasting period may be a neglected carryover cost of fasting. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. A current drive by using the fast wave in frequency range higher than two timeslower hybrid resonance frequency on tokamaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sun Ho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient current drive scheme in central or off-axis region is required for the steady state operation of tokamak fusion reactors. The current drive by using the fast wave in frequency range higher than two times lower hybrid resonance (w>2wlh could be such a scheme in high density, high temperature reactor-grade tokamak plasmas. First, it has relatively higher parallel electric field to the magnetic field favorable to the current generation, compared to fast waves in other frequency range. Second, it can deeply penetrate into high density plasmas compared to the slow wave in the same frequency range. Third, parasitic coupling to the slow wave can contribute also to the current drive avoiding parametric instability, thermal mode conversion and ion heating occured in the frequency range w<2wlh. In this study, the propagation boundary, accessibility, and the energy flow of the fast wave are given via cold dispersion relation and group velocity. The power absorption and current drive efficiency are discussed qualitatively through the hot dispersion relation and the polarization. Finally, those characteristics are confirmed with ray tracing code GENRAY for the KSTAR plasmas.

  20. A novel Fast Gas Chromatography based technique for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C10-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a ~ 14 min analysis time. Moreover, in situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an ~ 11 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to ~ 19 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). This corresponds to a two- to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest ~ 30 km west of central Tokyo, Japan, the

  1. Fish kidney cells show higher tolerance to hyperosmolality than amphibian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Gui

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to fish, amphibians inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. To better understand osmoregulation in fish and amphibian, we have investigated the morphological changes in kidney cells to osmotic stress. To address this, kidney cell line isolated from the freshwater grass carp (CIK and Chinese giant salamander (GSK were challenged to different mediums with distinct osmotic pressures (100, 300 and 700 mOsm. Morphological alterations of the fish and amphibian cells were compared by optical and electron microscopy. Following hyposmotic treatment (100 mOsm, both CIK and GSK cells became unhealthy and show condensed chromatin, swollen mitochondria and cytoplasmic vacuole. Meanwhile, after hyperosmotic treatment (700 mOsm, shrunken CIK cells with multipolar shape, pale or lightly stained cytoplasm, condensed chromatin, vacuoles and swollen mitochondria were detected. GSK cells were seriously damaged and most were completely lysed. The results suggest that fish kidney cells show a higher degree of tolerance to hyperosmoticity by comparing to amphibians and provide novel insights on the osmoregulatory capacity and adaptability of kidney cells between the two animal groups.

  2. Higher Magnesium Intake Is Associated with Lower Fasting Glucose and Insulin, with No Evidence of Interaction with Select Genetic Loci, in a Meta-Analysis of 15 CHARGE Consortium Studies1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Adela; Ngwa, Julius S.; Renström, Frida; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Ganna, Andrea; Hallmans, Göran; Houston, Denise K.; Jacques, Paul F.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Manichaikul, Ani; North, Kari E.; Ntalla, Ioanna; Sonestedt, Emily; Tanaka, Toshiko; van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Djoussé, Luc; Grigoriou, Efi; Johansson, Ingegerd; Lohman, Kurt K.; Pankow, James S.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Riserus, Ulf; Yannakoulia, Mary; Zillikens, M. Carola; Hassanali, Neelam; Liu, Yongmei; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Papoutsakis, Constantina; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Uitterlinden, André G.; Viikari, Jorma; Groves, Christopher J.; Hofman, Albert; Lind, Lars; McCarthy, Mark I.; Mikkilä, Vera; Mukamal, Kenneth; Franco, Oscar H.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Dedoussis, George V.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Hu, Frank B.; Ingelsson, Erik; Kähönen, Mika; Kao, W. H. Linda; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Orho-Melander, Marju; Prokopenko, Inga; Rotter, Jerome I.; Siscovick, David S.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Franks, Paul W.; Meigs, James B.; McKeown, Nicola M.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Favorable associations between magnesium intake and glycemic traits, such as fasting glucose and insulin, are observed in observational and clinical studies, but whether genetic variation affects these associations is largely unknown. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with either glycemic traits or magnesium metabolism affect the association between magnesium intake and fasting glucose and insulin. Fifteen studies from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium provided data from up to 52,684 participants of European descent without known diabetes. In fixed-effects meta-analyses, we quantified 1) cross-sectional associations of dietary magnesium intake with fasting glucose (mmol/L) and insulin (ln-pmol/L) and 2) interactions between magnesium intake and SNPs related to fasting glucose (16 SNPs), insulin (2 SNPs), or magnesium (8 SNPs) on fasting glucose and insulin. After adjustment for age, sex, energy intake, BMI, and behavioral risk factors, magnesium (per 50-mg/d increment) was inversely associated with fasting glucose [β = −0.009 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.013, −0.005), P magnesium-related SNP or interaction between any SNP and magnesium reached significance after correction for multiple testing. However, rs2274924 in magnesium transporter-encoding TRPM6 showed a nominal association (uncorrected P = 0.03) with glucose, and rs11558471 in SLC30A8 and rs3740393 near CNNM2 showed a nominal interaction (uncorrected, both P = 0.02) with magnesium on glucose. Consistent with other studies, a higher magnesium intake was associated with lower fasting glucose and insulin. Nominal evidence of TRPM6 influence and magnesium interaction with select loci suggests that further investigation is warranted. PMID:23343670

  3. Effect of space allowance during transport and fasting or non-fasting during lairage on welfare indicators in Merino lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozar, A.; Rodriguez, A.I.; Garijo, P.; Calvo, L.; Vergara, H.

    2016-11-01

    A total of 72 male lambs of Merina breed were sampled in a 3×2 factorial design, testing three different space allowances treatment (SA) during transport [0.16 m2/animal (SAL; n=24); 0.20 m2/animal (SAM; n=24) and 0.30 m2/animal (SAH; n=24)] and two lairage treatments (TL) during 18 h previous slaughter [fasting (FAST; n=36) vs feeding (FEED; n=36)] on welfare physiological indicators. After transport, glucose and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were highest in SAM group and lowest in SAH one (p<0.05). SAL showed intermediate values for both parameters. SA did not affect the rest of the blood parameters studied. TL-FAST treatment decreased glucose values (p<0.001) while increased LDH (p<0.001). Fasting caused an increase (p<0.05) of Red Blood Cell Count values in SAM group. Feed deprivation did not affect cortisol or adrenaline values. Noradrenaline value was higher (p<0.001) in TL-FAST groups than in TL-FEED. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, a range of space allowance during transport between 0.16 and 0.30 m2/lamb could be recommended without showing major changes on welfare physiological indicators; and feeding could be more appropriate than fasting during lairage. (Author)

  4. Predator-prey interactions in selected slow and fast developing females of a ladybird, Propylea dissecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Arshi; Omkar; Mishra, Geetanjali

    2015-10-14

    Development rate polymorphism describes the scenario in which individuals exhibit distinct differences in their rate of development resulting in slow and fast developers even from the same clutch of eggs. Previously we showed that in ladybird, Propylea dissecta fast developers have higher foraging and predation rates than slow developers. But correlation between foraging efficacies with reproductive output of female remains unexplored. We selected slow and fast developmental rate for 15 generations in a P. dissecta and assessed female functional response and numerical response by using varying prey biomasses (A. pisum). We evaluated predatory parameters: prey consumption, attack rate, handling time, and the reproductive measures: number of eggs laid, egg, and body biomass conversion efficiencies. Overall, both group of P. dissecta showed increased prey biomasses curvilinear for consumption rate demonstrating the physiological capacity of foraging for food are mutually exclusive behaviors (i.e., Holling's Type-II functional response). Consumption rate and proportion of prey consumed was higher, and prey handling time was shorter, in experimental fast developers. However, prey attack rate was higher in experimental slow developers. The functional response of experimental fast developers got elevated whereas got depressed for control slow-fast developers. Our results suggest that slow developers may perform better at low prey biomass than fast developers due to their high attack rate whereas high density prey may favour fast developers due to their shorter prey handling time and higher consumption rates. This study is first attempt to evaluate predatory responses of experimentally selected lines of slow and fast developers. J. Exp. Zool. 9999A:XX-XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Fast spine echo and fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequences in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paolillo, Andrea; Giugni, Elisabetta; Bozzao, Alessandro; Bastianello, Stefano

    1997-01-01

    Fast spin echo (FSE) and fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery (fast-FLAIR) sequences, were compared with conventional spin echo (CSE) in quantitating multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion burden. For each sequence, the total number and volume of MS lesions were calculated in 38 remitting multiple sclerosis patients using a semiautomated lesion detection program. Conventional spin echo, fast spin echo, and fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery image were reported on randomly and at different times by two expert observers. Interobserver differences, the time needed to quantitative multiple sclerosis lesions and lesion signal intensity (contrast-to-noise ratio and overall contrast) were considered. The lesions were classified by site into infratentorial, white matter and cortical/subcortical. A total of 2970 lesions with a volume of 961.7 cm 3 was calculated on conventional spin echo images. Fast spin echo images depicted fewer (16.6%; p < .005) and smaller (24.9%; p < .0001) lesions and the differences were statistically significant. Despite an overall nonsignificant reduction for fast-FLAIR images (-5% and 4.8% for lesion number and volume, respectively), significantly lower values (lesion number: p < 0.1; volume: p < .04)were observed for infratentorial lesions, while significantly higher values were seen for cortical/subcortical lesions (lesion number: p < .01; volume: p < .02). A higher lesion/white matter contrast (p < .002), a significant time saving for lesion burden quantitation (p < .05) and very low interobserver variability were found in favor of fast-FLAIR. Our data suggest that, despite the limitations regarding infratentorial lesions, fast-FLAIR sequences are indicated in R studies because of their good identification of cortical/subcortical lesions, almost complete interobserver agreement, higher contrast-to-noise ratio and limited time needed for semiautomated quantitation

  6. Accessibility of fast food outlets is associated with fast food intake. A study in the Capital Region of Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernsdorf, Kamille Almer; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Andreasen, Anne Helms; Toft, Ulla; Lykke, Maja; Glümer, Charlotte

    2017-11-01

    Literature suggests that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast food options may show higher levels of fast food intake. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were applied to examine the association between GIS-located fast food outlets (FFOs) and self-reported fast food intake among adults (+ 16 years) in the Capital Region of Denmark (N = 48,305). Accessibility of FFOs was measured both as proximity (distance to nearest FFO) and density (number of FFOs within a 1km network buffer around home). Odds of fast food intake ≥ 1/week increased significantly with increasing FFO density and decreased significantly with increasing distance to the nearest FFO for distances ≤ 4km. For long distances (>4km), odds increased with increasing distance, although this applied only for car owners. Results suggest that Danish health promotion strategies need to consider the contribution of the built environment to unhealthy eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fast-food intake and perceived and objective measures of the local fast-food environment in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Pagh Pedersen, Trine; Schipperijn, Jasper; Jørgensen, Sanne Ellegaard; Holstein, Bjørn E; Krølner, Rikke

    2016-02-01

    We examined associations between fast-food intake and perceived and objective fast-food outlet exposure. Information from the Health Behaviours in School-aged Children Study was linked to fast-food outlets in seventy-five school neighbourhoods. We used multivariate multilevel logistic regression analyses to examine associations between at least weekly fast-food intake and perceived and objective fast-food outlet measures. Data represent 4642 adolescents (aged 11-15 years) in Denmark. Boys reporting two or more fast-food outlets had 34% higher odds consuming fast food at least weekly. We detected higher odds of at least weekly fast-food intake among 15-year-old 9th graders (ORall=1.74; 95% CI 1.40, 2.18; ORboys=2.20; 95% CI 1.66, 2.91; ORgirls=1.41; 95% CI 1.03, 1.92), Danish speakers (ORall=2.32; 95% CI 1.68, 3.19; ORboys=2.58; 95% CI 1.69, 3.93; ORgirls=2.37; 95% CI 1.46, 3.84) and those travelling 15 min or less to school (ORall=1.21; 95% CI 1.00, 1.46; ORgirls=1.44; 95% CI 1.08, 1.93) compared with 11-year-old 5th graders, non-Danish speakers and those with longer travel times. Boys from middle- (OR=1.28; 95% CI 1.00, 1.65) and girls from low-income families (OR=1.46; 95% CI 1.05, 2.04) had higher odds of at least weekly fast-food intake compared with those from high-income backgrounds. Girls attending schools with canteens (OR=1.47; 95% CI 1.00, 2.15) had higher odds of at least weekly fast-food intake than girls at schools without canteens. The present study demonstrates that perceived food outlets may impact fast-food intake in boys while proximity impacts intake in girls. Public health planning could target food environments that emphasize a better understanding of how adolescents use local resources.

  8. Amniotic Fluid Cells Show Higher Pluripotency-Related Gene Expression Than Allantoic Fluid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, Debora; Generali, Melanie; Görtz, Sabrina; Geering, Diego; Slamecka, Jaroslav; Hoerstrup, Simon P; Bleul, Ulrich; Weber, Benedikt

    2017-10-01

    Amniotic fluid represents an abundant source of multipotent stem cells, referred as broadly multipotent given their differentiation potential and expression of pluripotency-related genes. However, the origin of this broadly multipotent cellular fraction is not fully understood. Several sources have been proposed so far, including embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. In this regard, the ovine developmental model uniquely allows for direct comparison of fetal fluid-derived cells from two separate fetal fluid cavities, the allantois and the amnion, over the entire duration of gestation. As allantoic fluid mainly collects fetal urine, cells originating from the efferent urinary tract can directly be compared with cells deriving from the extraembryonic amniotic tissues and the fetus. This study shows isolation of cells from the amniotic [ovine amniotic fluid cells (oAFCs)] and allantoic fluid [ovine allantoic fluid cells (oALCs)] in a strictly paired fashion with oAFCs and oALCs derived from the same fetus. Both cell types showed cellular phenotypes comparable to standard mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), with trilineage differentiation potential, and expression of common ovine MSC markers. However, the expression of MSC markers per single cell was higher in oAFCs as measured by flow cytometry. oAFCs exhibited higher proliferative capacities and showed significantly higher expression of pluripotency-related genes OCT4, STAT3, NANOG, and REX1 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction compared with paired oALCs. No significant decrease of pluripotency-related gene expression was noted over gestation, implying that cells with high differentiation potential may be isolated at the end of pregnancy. In conclusion, this study suggests that cells with highest stem cell characteristics may originate from the fetus itself or the amniotic fetal adnexa rather than from the efferent urinary tract or the allantoic fetal adnexa.

  9. Distraction, not hunger, is associated with lower mood and lower perceived work performance on fast compared to non-fast days during intermittent fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Katherine M; Baker, Stephanie

    2015-06-01

    Using a repeated measures design, 16 females recorded hunger, distraction, mood and perceived work performance on two consecutive fast days, on two earlier and on two subsequent consecutive non-fast days, during intermittent fasting. Using regression analyses, low positive mood was associated with higher distraction (β = -0.38, p < 0.01), and lower perceived work performance was associated with higher distraction (β = -0.50, p < 0.01) and lower positive mood (β = 0.59, p = 0.01). No associations were found with hunger (largest β = -0.11, p = 0.15). Associations between mood, perceived work performance and distraction but not hunger mirror those found in traditional dieting and suggest no benefit for attention from intermittent fasting-type regimes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. A herbicide-resistant ACCase 1781 Setaria mutant shows higher fitness than wild type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T; Picard, J C; Tian, X; Darmency, H

    2010-10-01

    It is often alleged that mutations conferring herbicide resistance have a negative impact on plant fitness. A mutant ACCase1781 allele endowing resistance to the sethoxydim herbicide was introgressed from a resistant green foxtail (Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv) population into foxtail millet (S. italica (L.) Beauv.). (1) Better and earlier growth of resistant plants was observed in a greenhouse cabinet. (2) Resistant plants of the advanced BC7 backcross generation showed more vigorous juvenile growth in the field, earlier flowering, more tillers and higher numbers of grains than susceptible plants did, especially when both genotypes were grown in mixture, but their seeds were lighter than susceptible seeds. (3) Field populations originating from segregating hybrids had the expected allele frequencies under normal growth conditions, but showed a genotype shift toward an excess of homozygous resistant plants within 3 years in stressful conditions. Lower seed size, lower germination rate and perhaps unexplored differences in seed longevity and predation could explain how the resistant plants have the same field fitness over the whole life cycle as the susceptible ones although they produce more seeds. More rapid growth kinetics probably accounted for higher fitness of the resistant plants in adverse conditions. The likelihood of a linkage with a beneficial gene is discussed versus the hypothesis of a pleiotropic effect of the ACCase resistance allele. It is suggested that autogamous species like Setaria could not develop a resistant population without the help of a linkage with a gene producing a higher fitness.

  11. Fast wave current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities

  12. Reliability of Serum Metabolites over a Two-Year Period: A Targeted Metabolomic Approach in Fasting and Non-Fasting Samples from EPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaintre, David; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Vineis, Paolo; Key, Timothy J.; Onland Moret, N. Charlotte; Scalbert, Augustin; Rinaldi, Sabina; Ferrari, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although metabolic profiles have been associated with chronic disease risk, lack of temporal stability of metabolite levels could limit their use in epidemiological investigations. The present study aims to evaluate the reliability over a two-year period of 158 metabolites and compare reliability over time in fasting and non-fasting serum samples. Methods Metabolites were measured with the AbsolueIDQp180 kit (Biocrates, Innsbruck, Austria) by mass spectrometry and included acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, hexoses, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins. Measurements were performed on repeat serum samples collected two years apart in 27 fasting men from Turin, Italy, and 39 non-fasting women from Utrecht, The Netherlands, all participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Reproducibility was assessed by estimating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) in multivariable mixed models. Results In fasting samples, a median ICC of 0.70 was observed. ICC values were fasting samples, the median ICC was 0.54. ICC values were fasting as compared to fasting samples, with a statistically significant difference for 19–36% of acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins. Conclusion A single measurement per individual may be sufficient for the study of 73% and 52% of the metabolites showing ICCs >0.50 in fasting and non-fasting samples, respectively. ICCs were higher in fasting samples that are preferable to non-fasting. PMID:26274920

  13. Predictors of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily A. van Bilsen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the health effects of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy are still unclear, it is important to identify the predictors and motivational factors involved in women’s decision to observe the fast. We investigated these factors in a cross sectional study of 187 pregnant Muslim women who attended antenatal care visits in the Budi Kemuliaan Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. The odds of adherence to fasting were reduced by 4% for every week increase in gestational age during Ramadan [odds ratio (OR 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.92, 1.00; p = 0.06] and increased by 10% for every one unit increase of women’s prepregnancy body mass index (BMI (OR 1.10; 95% CI 0.99, 1.23; p = 0.08. Nonparticipation was associated with opposition from husbands (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.14, 0.82; p = 0.02 and with women’s fear of possible adverse effects of fasting on their own or the baby’s health (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.22, 1.01; p = 0.05 and OR 0.43; 95% CI 0.21, 0.89; p = 0.02, respectively, although they were attenuated in multivariable analysis. Neither age, income, education, employment, parity, experience of morning sickness, nor fasting during pregnancy outside of Ramadan determined fasting during pregnancy. Linear regression analysis within women who fasted showed that the number of days fasted were inversely associated with women’s gestational age, fear of possible adverse effects of fasting on their own or the fetal health, and with opposition from husbands. In conclusion, earlier gestational age during Ramadan, husband’s opinion and possibly higher prepregnancy BMI, influence women’s adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy. Fear of adverse health effects of Ramadan fasting is common in both fasting and non-fasting pregnant women.

  14. Lower omental t-regulatory cell count is associated with higher fasting glucose and lower β-cell function in adults with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenhammer, Lauren E; Lam, Jonathan; Alderete, Tanya L; Allayee, Hooman; Akbari, Omid; Katkhouda, Namir; Goran, Michael I

    2016-06-01

    T-lymphocytes are potential initiators and regulators of adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, but there is limited human data on omental AT. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between T cells, particularly Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, in human subcutaneous (subQ) and omental AT and type 2 diabetes risk. SubQ and deep subQ (DsubQ) abdominal and omental AT biopsies were collected from 44 patients (body mass index, BMI ≥25) undergoing elective abdominal surgery. Flow cytometry was used to quantify CD4+ T cell (T effector and Treg) and macrophages (M1 and M2), and systemic inflammation was measured in fasting blood. Tregs were significantly lower in omental versus subQ and DsubQ AT, and M1 cell counts were significantly higher in the omental and DsubQ depot relative to the subQ. Only omental AT Tregs were negatively associated with fasting glucose and MCP-1 and positively associated with homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-β. M1 and M2 cell counts across multiple depots had significant relationships with HOMA-insulin resistance, tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin, and HOMA-β. All relationships were consistent across ethnicities. Tregs were significantly lower in omental versus both subQ adipose depots. Fewer omental Tregs may have metabolic implications based on depot-specific relationships with higher fasting glucose and lower β-cell function. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  15. The effect of fast-food availability on fast-food consumption and obesity among rural residents: an analysis by race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Richard A; Sharkey, Joseph R; Horel, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Rural areas of the United States tend to have higher obesity rates than urban areas, particularly in regions with high proportions of non-white residents. This paper analyzes the effect of fast-food availability on the level of fast-food consumption and obesity risk among both white and non-white residents of central Texas. Potential endogeneity of fast-food availability is addressed through instrumental variables regression using distance to the nearest major highway as an instrument. We find that non-whites tend to exhibit higher obesity rates, greater access to fast-food establishments and higher consumption of fast-food meals compared to their white counterparts. In addition, we found that whites and non-whites respond differently to the availability of fast-food in rural environments. Greater availability is not associated with either greater consumption of fast-food meals or a higher obesity risk among the sample of whites. In contrast, greater availability of fast-food is positively associated with both the number of meals consumed for non-white rural residents and their obesity. While our results are robust to specification, the effect of availability on weight outcomes is notably weaker when indirectly calculated from the implied relationship between consumption and caloric intake. This highlights the importance of directly examining the proposed mechanism through which an environmental factor influences weight outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Spectroscopic study of fast-neutron-irradiated chromatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radu, L.; Gazdaru, D.; Constantinescu, B.

    2004-01-01

    The effects produced by fast neutrons (0-100 Gy) on chromatin structure were analyzed by (i) [ 1 H]-NMR spectroscopy, (ii) time resolved spectroscopy, and (iii) fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Two types of chromatin were tested: (i) a chromatin from a normal tissue (liver of Wistar rats) and (ii) a chromatin from a tumoral tissue (Guerin limphotrope epithelioma, a rat solid tumor). The fast-neutron action on chromatin determines greater values of the [ 1 H]-NMR transverse relaxation time, indicating a more injured structure. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements show that the relative contribution of the excited state lifetime of bound ethidium bromide to chromatin DNA diminishes with increasing irradiation doses. This reflects the damage that occurs in DNA structure: production of single- and double-strand breaks due to sugar and base modifications. By the FRET method, the distance between dansyl chloride and acridine orange coupled at chromatin was determined. This distance increases upon fast-neutron action. The radiosensitivity of the tumor tissue chromatin seems higher than that of the normal tissue chromatin, probably because of its higher (loose) euchromatin/(compact) heterochromatin ratio. As the values of the physical parameters analyzed are specific for a determined dose, the establishment of these parameters may constitute a criterion for the microdosimetry of chromatin radiolesions produced by fast neutrons. (author)

  17. Spectroscopic study of fast-neutron-irradiated chromatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radu, L. [V. Babes National Inst., Dept. of Molecular Genetics, Bucharest (Romania)]. E-mail: serbanradu@pcnet.ro; Gazdaru, D. [Bucharest Univ., Dept. of Biophysics, Physics Faculty, Bucharest (Romania); Constantinescu, B. [H. Hulubei National Inst., Dept. of Cyclotron, Bucharest (Romania)

    2004-02-01

    The effects produced by fast neutrons (0-100 Gy) on chromatin structure were analyzed by (i) [{sup 1}H]-NMR spectroscopy, (ii) time resolved spectroscopy, and (iii) fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Two types of chromatin were tested: (i) a chromatin from a normal tissue (liver of Wistar rats) and (ii) a chromatin from a tumoral tissue (Guerin limphotrope epithelioma, a rat solid tumor). The fast-neutron action on chromatin determines greater values of the [{sup 1}H]-NMR transverse relaxation time, indicating a more injured structure. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements show that the relative contribution of the excited state lifetime of bound ethidium bromide to chromatin DNA diminishes with increasing irradiation doses. This reflects the damage that occurs in DNA structure: production of single- and double-strand breaks due to sugar and base modifications. By the FRET method, the distance between dansyl chloride and acridine orange coupled at chromatin was determined. This distance increases upon fast-neutron action. The radiosensitivity of the tumor tissue chromatin seems higher than that of the normal tissue chromatin, probably because of its higher (loose) euchromatin/(compact) heterochromatin ratio. As the values of the physical parameters analyzed are specific for a determined dose, the establishment of these parameters may constitute a criterion for the microdosimetry of chromatin radiolesions produced by fast neutrons. (author)

  18. Effect of neutron anisotropic scattering in fast reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Gou

    2004-01-01

    Numerical tests were performed about an effect of a neutron anisotropic scattering on criticality in the Sn transport calculation. The simplest approximation, the consistent P approximation and the extended transport approximation were compared with each other in one-dimensional slab fast reactor models. JAERI fast set which has been used for fast reactor analyses is inadequate to evaluate the effect because it doesn't include the scattering matrices and the self-shielding factors to calculate the group-averaged cross sections weighted by the higher-order moment of angular flux. In the present study, the sub-group method was used to evaluate the group-averaged cross sections. Results showed that the simplest approximation is inadequate and the transport approximation is effective for evaluating the anisotropic scattering. (author)

  19. New fast reactor installation concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The large size and complexity of fast reactor installations are emphasised and these difficulties will be increased with the advent of fast reactors of higher power. In this connection a new concept of fast reactor installation is described with a view to reducing the size of the installation and enabling most components, including even the primary vessel, to be constructed within the confines of a workshop. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  20. Accuracy of non-fasting lipid profile for the assessment of lipoprotein coronary risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, S.; Ijaz, A.; Sharif, T.; Khan, D.A.; Siddique, A.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of non-fasting lipid profile in the diagnosis of hyperlipidemia, taking fasting lipid profile as gold standard, in adult population. Study Design: Cross sectional validation study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of chemical pathology and endocrinology, armed forces institute of pathology, rawalpindi, from july to december 2014. Methodology: One hundred seventy five adult patients coming for fasting lipid prodile were included; their non-fasting samples were taken on the next day. patients on anti-cholesterol treatment and indoor patients were excluded. Total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholestrol (HDL-C), and triglycerides were measured by direct enzymatic calorimetric method by modular p-800 rate. Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated by friendewald's formula but when triglyceride was greater than 4.5mol/l, then LDL-C was measured directly by homogenous enzymatic colorimetric method. non-fasting lipid profile had 93% specificity, 51% sensitivity, 94% positive predictive value and 49% negative predictive value and 65% accuracy with 7.28 positive likehood ratio and 0.52 negative likelihood ratio. Non fasting TC and non-HDLC were significantly higher than fasting TC and non-HDL-c by mean difference of 0.2 mmol/l each with p=0.001 and p=0.004, respectively. fasting and on fasting HDLC-are comparable to each other with mean difference of 0.01 mmol/l (p=0.745) Receiver operating curve (ROC) of non fasting non HDLC-C showed 0.84 (95% Cl (0.738-0.870), p=0.000) area under the curve (AUC) indicating that it was a significant test for ruling out hyperlipdemia. Bland-altmann plot showed a significant difference between non fasting, non HDLC-C and fasting LDL-C and non fasting, non-HDL-C -0.087540 with base -0.00109; therefore, these cannot be alternative to each other. Conclusion: Diagnostic accuracy of non-fasting lipid profile was found significantly higher than fasting lipid profile (p=0

  1. Fast parallel diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Kuang, E-mail: z.kuang@liv.ac.uk [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brodie Building, Liverpool L69 3GQ (United Kingdom); Dun Liu; Perrie, Walter; Edwardson, Stuart; Sharp, Martin; Fearon, Eamonn; Dearden, Geoff; Watkins, Ken [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brodie Building, Liverpool L69 3GQ (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    Fast parallel femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring is demonstrated using a spatial light modulator (SLM). The Gratings and Lenses algorithm, which is simple and computationally fast, is used to calculate computer generated holograms (CGHs) producing diffractive multiple beams for the parallel processing. The results show that the finite laser bandwidth can significantly alter the intensity distribution of diffracted beams at higher angles resulting in elongated hole shapes. In addition, by synchronisation of applied CGHs and the scanning system, true 3D micro-structures are created on Ti6Al4V.

  2. Do GIS-derived measures of fast food retailers convey perceived fast food opportunities? Implications for food environment assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Timothy L.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Freedman, Darcy A.; Bell, Bethany A.; Liese, Angela D.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Geographic information systems (GISs) have been used to define fast food availability, with higher availability perhaps promoting poorer quality diets. Alternative measures involve perceptions; however, few studies have examined associations between GIS-derived and perceived measures of the food environment. Methods Telephone surveys of 705 participants within an eight-county region in South Carolina were analyzed using logistic regression to examine relationships between geographic presence of and distance to various types of food retailers and perceived fast food availability. Results The mean distance to the nearest fast food restaurant was 6.1 miles, with 16% of participants having a fast food restaurant within 1 mile of home. The geographic presence of and distance to all food retailer types were significantly associated with perceived availability of fast food in unadjusted models. After adjustment, only the presence of a fast food restaurant or pharmacy was significantly associated with greater odds of higher perceived availability of fast food. Greater odds of lower perceived availability of fast food were observed with the presence of a dollar store and increasing distance to the nearest supermarket or pharmacy. Conclusions Measures of fast food availability, whether objective or perceived, may not be interchangeable. Researchers should carefully decide on the appropriate measurement tool—GIS-derived or perceived—in food environment studies. PMID:27617371

  3. Do GIS-derived measures of fast food retailers convey perceived fast food opportunities? Implications for food environment assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Timothy L; Colabianchi, Natalie; Freedman, Darcy A; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2017-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GISs) have been used to define fast food availability, with higher availability perhaps promoting poorer quality diets. Alternative measures involve perceptions; however, few studies have examined associations between GIS-derived and perceived measures of the food environment. Telephone surveys of 705 participants within an eight-county region in South Carolina were analyzed using logistic regression to examine relationships between geographic presence of and distance to various types of food retailers and perceived fast food availability. The mean distance to the nearest fast food restaurant was 6.1 miles, with 16% of participants having a fast food restaurant within 1 mile of home. The geographic presence of and distance to all food retailer types were significantly associated with perceived availability of fast food in unadjusted models. After adjustment, only the presence of a fast food restaurant or pharmacy was significantly associated with greater odds of higher perceived availability of fast food. Greater odds of lower perceived availability of fast food were observed with the presence of a dollar store and increasing distance to the nearest supermarket or pharmacy. Measures of fast food availability, whether objective or perceived, may not be interchangeable. Researchers should carefully decide on the appropriate measurement tool-GIS-derived or perceived-in food environment studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of intermittent fasting and chronic swimming exercise on body composition and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Ruan Carlos Macedo de; Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Ferraz, Alex Soares Marreiros; da Silva, Tiago Eugênio Oliveira; Marocolo, Moacir

    2017-12-01

    Intermittent fasting protocol (IFP) has been suggested as a strategy to change body metabolism and improve health. The effects of IFP seem to be similar to aerobic exercise, having a hormetic adaptation according to intensity and frequency. However, the effects of combining both interventions are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of IFP with and without endurance-exercise training on body composition, food behavior, and lipid metabolism. Twenty-week-old Wistar rats were kept under an inverted circadian cycle of 12 h with water ad libitum and assigned to 4 different groups: control group (ad libitum feeding and sedentary), exercise group (ad libitum feeding and endurance training), intermittent fasting group (IF; intermittent fasting and sedentary), and intermittent fasting and exercise group (IFEX; intermittent fasting and endurance training). After 6 weeks, the body weight of IF and IFEX animals decreased without changes in food consumption. Yet, the body composition between the 2 groups was different, with the IFEX animals containing higher total protein and lower total fat content than the IF animals. The IFEX group also showed increases in total high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased intramuscular lipid content. The amount of brown adipose tissue was higher in IF and IFEX groups; however, the IFEX group showed higher expression levels of uncoupling protein 1 in this tissue, indicating a greater thermogenesis. The IFP combined with endurance training is an efficient method for decreasing body mass and altering fat metabolism, without inflicting losses in protein content.

  5. Performance of Chicks Submitted to Fasting Post-Hatching and with Maltodextrine Supplementing to Diet as Hydrating and Energetic Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CA Machado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of maltodextrin on performance of chicks passed through four fasting periods. A completely randomized design was performed, consisting of three treatments (1 - control, 2 - 4% saccharose; 3-4% maltodextrin 20 and four fasting periods after hatching (0, 12, 24 and 36 hours with four replications, totaling 1920 birds of both sexes. The studied variables were: water intake in the first 12 hours, average food intake, average body weight and real feed conversion. Data was submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared with each other by Dunnett test at 5% significance. The use of additives and imposing of different fasting periods did not influence the performance at 42 days old. Therefore, fasted chicks consumed significantly more water. At 7 days old, chicks fasted showed higher body weight and higher feed intake, however, the viability did not suffer any influence, the weight remained higher after 21days with the fast imposition and there was no influence on other variables. There was no effect of fasting on broiler chiken's performance at 42 days old. The inclusion of sucrose and maltodextrin to drinking water stimulated the chick´s water intake and provided higher viability after seven days old.

  6. Ramadan, fasting and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Urfan Zahoor; Lykke, Jacob Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In Islam, the month of Ramadan is a period of fasting lasting 29 or 30 days. Epidemiological studies among Muslims in Denmark have not been conducted, but studies show, that fasting among pregnant Muslim women is common. Fasting does not increase the risk of growth restriction or preterm delivery...

  7. Fast-prototyping of VLSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saucier, G.; Read, E.

    1987-01-01

    Fast-prototyping will be a reality in the very near future if both straightforward design methods and fast manufacturing facilities are available. This book focuses, first, on the motivation for fast-prototyping. Economic aspects and market considerations are analysed by European and Japanese companies. In the second chapter, new design methods are identified, mainly for full custom circuits. Of course, silicon compilers play a key role and the introduction of artificial intelligence techniques sheds a new light on the subject. At present, fast-prototyping on gate arrays or on standard cells is the most conventional technique and the third chapter updates the state-of-the art in this area. The fourth chapter concentrates specifically on the e-beam direct-writing for submicron IC technologies. In the fifth chapter, a strategic point in fast-prototyping, namely the test problem is addressed. The design for testability and the interface to the test equipment are mandatory to fulfill the test requirement for fast-prototyping. Finally, the last chapter deals with the subject of education when many people complain about the lack of use of fast-prototyping in higher education for VLSI

  8. Calcium, nutrient and food intake of Greek Orthodox Christian monks during a fasting and non-fasting week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Vardavas, Constantine; Hatzis, Christos; Kafatos, Anthony

    2008-10-01

    To assess the Ca, nutrient and food intake of Greek Orthodox Christian monks during a vegetarian-type fasting week, compared with their normal diet. Dietary data collection (using 7 d weighed food records), anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, as well as serum glucose and lipid analyses, were performed during Palm Sunday week (fasting) and the week following Pentecost Sunday (non-fasting). Mean daily nutrient and food (g/d) intakes were calculated from the food records. The study took place in two monasteries in the Municipality of Heraklion, Crete. The study involved ten healthy monks aged 25-65 years, with BMI > 30 kg/m2, who had been performing fasts for the last 24.4 (SD 10.4) years and lived in monasteries in Crete during April-June 2005. Nutrient and food intake profiles were more favourable during the fasting week, when participants had lower intakes of total and saturated fat and trans-fatty acids, and higher intakes of dietary fibre, Fe, folate, legumes and fish/seafood. Ca intake was lower when participants fasted, whereas consumption of dairy products, meat and eggs increased significantly in the non-fasting week. Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher, whereas blood lipid levels were more favourable during the fasting week. The periodic vegetarianism recommended by the Greek Orthodox Church contributes to the favourable profiles of several biomarkers of health among this sample of monks. The fasting rituals described are an important component of the traditional diet of Crete and should be emphasised in nutrition education programmes promoting this Mediterranean eating pattern.

  9. Fast charge implications: Pack and cell analysis and comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanim, Tanvir R.; Shirk, Matthew G.; Bewley, Randy L.; Dufek, Eric J.; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of 50-kW (about 2C) direct current fast charging on a full-size battery electric vehicle's battery pack in comparison to a pack exclusively charged at 3.3 kW, which is the common alternating current Level 2 charging power level. Comparable scaled charging protocols are also independently applied to individual cells at three different temperatures, 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C, to perform a comparative analysis with the packs. Dominant cell-level aging modes were identified through incremental capacity analysis and compared with full packs to gain a clear understanding of additional key factors that affect pack aging. While the cell-level study showed a minor impact on performance due to direct current fast charging, the packs showed a significantly higher rate of capacity fade under similar charging protocols. This indicates that pack-level aging cannot be directly extrapolated from cell evaluation. Delayed fast charging, completing shortly before discharge, was found to have less of an impact on battery degradation than conventional alternating current Level 2 charging.

  10. Development of a fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, H. D. F. H.; Schoone, G. J.; Beijer, E. G. M.; Kroon, C. C. M.; Hommers, M.; Ozbel, Y.; Ozensoy, S.; da Silva, E. S.; Cardoso, L. M.; da Silva, E. D.

    2002-01-01

    A fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for the detection of anti-Leishinania antibodies in serum samples from dogs with visceral leishmamosis was developed. The test is based on the direct agglutination test (DAT), but combines a higher parasite concentration with a smaller test volume. In

  11. Ramadan, fasting and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Urfan Zahoor; Lykke, Jacob Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In Islam, the month of Ramadan is a period of fasting lasting 29 or 30 days. Epidemiological studies among Muslims in Denmark have not been conducted, but studies show, that fasting among pregnant Muslim women is common. Fasting does not increase the risk of growth restriction or preterm delivery......, but there are reports of decreased foetal movements. Furthermore, the fasting may have long-term health consequences for the offspring, especially when they reach their middle age. According to Islam and the interpretation, pregnant and breast-feeding women are allowed to postpone the fasting of the month of Ramadan...

  12. Ramadan, faste og graviditet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Urfan Zahoor; Lykke, Jacob Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In Islam, the month of Ramadan is a period of fasting lasting 29 or 30 days. Epidemiological studies among Muslims in Denmark have not been conducted, but studies show, that fasting among pregnant Muslim women is common. Fasting does not increase the risk of growth restriction or preterm delivery......, but there are reports of decreased foetal movements. Furthermore, the fasting may have long-term health consequences for the offspring, especially when they reach their middle age. According to Islam and the interpretation, pregnant and breast-feeding women are allowed to postpone the fasting of the month of Ramadan...

  13. Sistem Gesture Accelerometer dengan Metode Fast Dynamic Time Warping (FastDTW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Farisa Chaerul Haviana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern environment, the interaction between humans and computers require a more natural form of interaction. Therefore, it is important to be able to build a system that can meet these demands, such as by building a hand gesture recognition system or gesture to create a more natural form of interaction. This study aims to design a smartphone’s accelerometer gesture system as human computer interaction interfaces using FastDTW (Fast Dynamic Time Warping.The result of this study is form of gesture interaction which implemented in a system that can make the process of recognition of the human hand movements based on a smartphone accelerometer which generates a command to run the media player application functions as a case study. FastDTW as the development of Dynamic Time Warping method (DTW is able to compute faster than DTW and have an accuracy approaching DTW. From the test results, FastDTW show a fairly high degree of accuracy reached 86% and showed a better computing speed compared to DTW   Keywords: Human and Computer Interaction, Accelerometer-based gesture, FastDTW, Media player application function

  14. The invasive wetland plant Alternanthera philoxeroides shows a higher tolerance to waterlogging than its native Congener Alternanthera sessilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Chen

    Full Text Available Plant invasion is one of the major threats to natural ecosystems. Phenotypic plasticity is considered to be important for promoting plant invasiveness. High tolerance of stress can also increase survival of invasive plants in adverse habitats. Limited growth and conservation of carbohydrate are considered to increase tolerance of flooding in plants. However, few studies have examined whether invasive species shows a higher phenotypic plasticity in response to waterlogging or a higher tolerance of waterlogging (lower plasticity than native species. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to compare the growth and morphological and physiological responses to waterlogging of the invasive, clonal, wetland species Alternanthera philoxeroides with those of its co-occurring, native, congeneric, clonal species Alternanthera sessilis. Plants of A. philoxeroides and A. sessilis were subjected to three treatments (control, 0 and 60 cm waterlogging. Both A. philoxeroides and A. sessilis survived all treatments. Overall growth was lower in A. philoxeroides than in A. sessilis, but waterlogging negatively affected the growth of A. philoxeroides less strongly than that of A. sessilis. Alternanthera philoxeroides thus showed less sensitivity of growth traits (lower plasticity and higher waterlogging tolerance. Moreover, the photosynthetic capacity of A. philoxeroides was higher than that of A. sessilis during waterlogging. Alternanthera philoxeroides also had higher total non-structural and non-soluble carbohydrate concentrations than A. sessilis at the end of treatments. Our results suggest that higher tolerance to waterlogging and higher photosynthetic capacity may partly explain the invasion success of A. philoxeroides in wetlands.

  15. Actinides burnup in a sodium fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Pineda A, R.; Martinez C, E.; Alonso, G., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2017-09-15

    The burnup of actinides in a nuclear reactor is been proposed as part of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle, this process would close the fuel cycle recycling some of the radioactive material produced in the open nuclear fuel cycle. These actinides are found in the spent nuclear fuel from nuclear power reactors at the end of their burnup in the reactor. Previous studies of actinides recycling in thermal reactors show that would be possible reduce the amounts of actinides at least in 50% of the recycled amounts. in this work, the amounts of actinides that can be burned in a fast reactor is calculated, very interesting results surge from the calculations, first, the amounts of actinides generated by the fuel is higher than for thermal fuel and the composition of the actinides vector is different as in fuel for thermal reactor the main isotope is the {sup 237}Np in the fuel for fast reactor the main isotope is the {sup 241}Am, finally it is concluded that the fast reactor, also generates important amounts of waste. (Author)

  16. A study of fast electron energy transport in relativistically intense laser-plasma interactions with large density scalelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R. H. H.; Norreys, P. A. [Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxford OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Perez, F.; Baton, S. D. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR 7605, CNRS/CEA/UPMC, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Santos, J. J.; Nicolai, Ph.; Hulin, S. [Univ. Bordeaux/CNRS/CEA, CELIA, UMR 5107, 33405 Talence (France); Ridgers, C. P. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Davies, J. R. [GoLP, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Lancaster, K. L.; Trines, R. M. G. M. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxford OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Bell, A. R.; Tzoufras, M. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxford OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Rose, S. J. [Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    A systematic experimental and computational investigation of the effects of three well characterized density scalelengths on fast electron energy transport in ultra-intense laser-solid interactions has been performed. Experimental evidence is presented which shows that, when the density scalelength is sufficiently large, the fast electron beam entering the solid-density plasma is best described by two distinct populations: those accelerated within the coronal plasma (the fast electron pre-beam) and those accelerated near or at the critical density surface (the fast electron main-beam). The former has considerably lower divergence and higher temperature than that of the main-beam with a half-angle of {approx}20 Degree-Sign . It contains up to 30% of the total fast electron energy absorbed into the target. The number, kinetic energy, and total energy of the fast electrons in the pre-beam are increased by an increase in density scalelength. With larger density scalelengths, the fast electrons heat a smaller cross sectional area of the target, causing the thinnest targets to reach significantly higher rear surface temperatures. Modelling indicates that the enhanced fast electron pre-beam associated with the large density scalelength interaction generates a magnetic field within the target of sufficient magnitude to partially collimate the subsequent, more divergent, fast electron main-beam.

  17. Effects of fasting, temperature, and photoperiod on preproghrelin mRNA expression in Chinese perch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Zhao, Cheng; Liang, Xu-Fang; He, Shan; Tian, Changxu; Cheng, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Xiaochen; Lv, Liyuan; Guo, Wenjie; Xue, Min; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2017-06-01

    Preproghrelin, a gut/brain peptide, plays an important role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis in teleost and mammals. In the present study, we obtained the full-length preproghrelin cDNA in Chinese perch. The preproghrelin messenger RNA (mRNA) tissue expression showed that level was much higher in stomach and pituitary than in other tissues. The fasting study showed, after gastric emptying (3-6 h), short-term fasting (6-12 h) increased preproghrelin expression in the stomach. While in the pituitary, fasting reduced preproghrelin expression at 1, 3, 12, and 48 h, presenting state fluctuation of self-adjustment. The temperature study showed that the mRNA expression of preproghrelin was the highest in the brain at 26 °C and highest in the stomach at 32 °C, respectively, with different optimum temperature in these two tissues, reflecting spatiotemporal differences of regulation by central nervous system and peripheral organs. The photoperiod study showed that normal light (11 h of lightness and 13 h of darkness) led to highest preproghrelin expression, both in the brain and in the stomach, than continuous light or continuous dark, proving food intake is adapted to natural photoperiod or normal light in this study. These results all indicated that tissue-specific preproghrelin expression of Chinese perch could be significantly affected by environmental factors. Short-term fasting of 6 h after gastric emptying, 26 °C, and normal light led to higher preproghrelin expression, which indicated potential appetite increase in Chinese perch.

  18. Fast sweeping methods for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws at steady state II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engquist, Björn; Froese, Brittany D.; Tsai, Yen-Hsi Richard

    2015-04-01

    The idea of using fast sweeping methods for solving stationary systems of conservation laws has previously been proposed for efficiently computing solutions with sharp shocks. We further develop these methods to allow for a more challenging class of problems including problems with sonic points, shocks originating in the interior of the domain, rarefaction waves, and two-dimensional systems. We show that fast sweeping methods can produce higher-order accuracy. Computational results validate the claims of accuracy, sharp shock curves, and optimal computational efficiency.

  19. Three-dimensional fast recovery fast spin-echo imaging of the inner ear and the vestibulocochlear nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, K.; Morikawa, M.; Ishimaru, H.; Ochi, M.; Hayashi, K. [Department of Radiology, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8501 (Japan); Kabasawa, H. [GE Yokogawa Medical Systems, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of three-dimensional fast recovery fast spin-echo (3DFRFSE) for imaging of the inner ear as well as the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves. We evaluated 3DFRFSE sequences, comparing it with 3D fast spin-echo (3DFSE) in a water phantom and in 12 normal volunteers. We also examined 66 patients using 3DFRFSE sequence and assessed the visualization of their pathologies. In a water phantom study, signal intensity (SI) on 3DFRFSE was higher than that on 3DFSE at the same TR ranging from 1500 to 6000 ms. In normal volunteers, 3DFRFSE with TR of 2800 ms showed comparable SI, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) superior to those on 3DFSE with TR of 5000 ms. In clinical setting, 3DFRFSE was useful in demonstrating anatomic details in the labyrinth and pathologic findings of inner ear. The 3DFRFSE can provide high-resolution heavily T2-weighted images (T2WI) with shorter scan time than 3DFSE without significant disadvantage. The 3DFRFSE is a beneficial technique for evaluation of lesions in the inner ear as well as the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves. (orig.)

  20. A Hardware Fast Tracker for the ATLAS Trigger: The Fast TracKer (FTK) Project.

    CERN Document Server

    Asbah, Nedaa; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The trigger system of the ATLAS experiment is designed to reduce the event rate from the LHC nominal bunch crossing at 40 MHz to about 1 kHz, at the design luminosity of 10^{34} cm^{-2} s{-1}. After a successful period of data taking from 2010 to early 2013, the LHC is restarting in 2015 with much higher instantaneous luminosity and this will increase the load on High Level Trigger system, the second stage of the selection based on software algorithms. More sophisticated algorithms will be needed to achieve higher background rejection while maintaining good efficiency for interesting physics signals. The Fast TracKer is part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade project; it is a hardware processor that will provide, at every level-1 accept (100 kHz) and within 100 microseconds, full tracking information for tracks with momentum as low as 1 GeV. Providing fast extensive access to tracking information, with resolution comparable to the offline reconstruction, the Fast Tracker will for example help the High Level Trigger...

  1. Type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase levels are higher in slow-twitch than fast-twitch mouse skeletal muscle and are increased in hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsili, Alessandro; Ramadan, Waile; Harney, John W; Mulcahey, Michelle; Castroneves, Luciana Audi; Goemann, Iuri Martin; Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Huang, Stephen A; Zavacki, Ann Marie; Maia, Ana Luiza; Dentice, Monica; Salvatore, Domenico; Silva, J Enrique; Larsen, P Reed

    2010-12-01

    Because of its large mass, relatively high metabolic activity and responsiveness to thyroid hormone, skeletal muscle contributes significantly to energy expenditure. Despite the presence of mRNA encoding the type 2 iodothyronine-deiodinase (D2), an enzyme that activates T(4) to T3, very low or undetectable activity has been reported in muscle homogenates of adult humans and mice. With a modified D2 assay, using microsomal protein, overnight incubation and protein from D2 knockout mouse muscle as a tissue-specific blank, we examined slow- and fast-twitch mouse skeletal muscles for D2 activity and its response to physiological stimuli. D2 activity was detectable in all hind limb muscles of 8- to 12-wk old C57/BL6 mice. Interestingly, it was higher in the slow-twitch soleus than in fast-twitch muscles (0.40 ± 0.06 vs. 0.076 ± 0.01 fmol/min · mg microsomal protein, respectively, P Hypothyroidism caused a 40% (P hypothyroidism argue for a more important role for D2-generated T(3) in skeletal muscle physiology than previously assumed.

  2. KINETIC MODEL OF ELECTRIC-DISCHARGE СО2-LASER WITH FAST FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Nevdakh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a kinetic model of CW electric-discharge CO2-laser with fast flow. Expressions linking a non-saturated gain ratio, saturation intensity and output power of the fast-flow laser with excitation rates and relaxation times of laser levels have been obtained in the paper. The paper demonstrates that the higher excitation and flow rates or higher saturation intensity provide considerably higher specific output power of the fast-flow CO2-laser in comparison with a sealed-off CO2-laser. While maintaining a steady discharge the same output power of the fast-flow CO2-laser may be obtained under various discharge conditions and combinations of fast flow rate, gas mixture composition and active media temperature.

  3. Low fasting low high-density lipoprotein and postprandial lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorodila Konstandina

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and disturbed postprandial lipemia are associated with coronary heart disease. In the present study, we evaluated the variation of triglyceride (TG postprandially in respect to serum HDL cholesterol levels. Results Fifty two Greek men were divided into 2 main groups: a the low HDL group (HDL p = 0.002. The low HDL group had significantly higher TG at 4, 6 and 8 h postprandially compared to the controls (p = 0.006, p = 0.002, and p p = 0.017 compared to the matched-control group. ROC analysis showed that fasting TG ≥ 121 mg/dl have 100% sensitivity and 81% specificity for an abnormal TG response (auc = 0.962, p Conclusions The delayed TG clearance postprandially seems to result in low HDL cholesterol even in subjects with low fasting TG. The fasting TG > 121 mg/dl are predictable for abnormal response to fatty meal.

  4. A prospective audit of preprocedural fasting practices on a transplant ward: when fasting becomes starving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidot, Helen; Teevan, Kate; Carey, Sharon; Strasser, Simone; Shackel, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence and duration of preprocedural medically ordered fasting during a period of hospitalisation in an Australian population of patients with hepatic cirrhosis or following liver transplantation and to identify potential solutions to reduce fasting times. Protein-energy malnutrition is a common finding in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and can impact significantly on survival and quality of life. Protein and energy requirements in patients with cirrhosis are higher than those of healthy individuals. A significant feature of cirrhosis is the induction of starvation metabolism following seven to eight hours of food deprivation. Many investigative and interventional procedures for patients with cirrhosis necessitate a period of fasting to comply with anaesthesia guidelines. An observational study of the fasting episodes for 34 hospitalised patients with hepatic cirrhosis or following liver transplantation. Nutritional status was estimated using subjective global assessment and handgrip strength. The prevalence and duration of fasting practices for diagnostic or investigational procedures were estimated using electronic records and patient notes. Thirty-three patients (97%) were malnourished. Twenty-two patients (65%) were fasted during the observation period. There were 43 occasions of fasting with a median fasting time of 13·5 hours. On 40 occasions fasting times exceeded the maximum six-hour guideline recommended prior to the administration of anaesthesia by the majority of Anaesthesiology Societies. The majority of procedures (77%) requiring fasting occurred after midday. Eating breakfast on the day of the procedure reduced fasting time by 45%. Medically ordered preprocedural fasting times almost always exceed existing guidelines in this nutritionally compromised group. Adherence to fasting guidelines and eating breakfast before the procedure can reduce fasting times significantly and avoid the potential induction of starvation metabolism

  5. Marketing fast food: impact of fast food restaurants in children's hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahud, Hannah B; Binns, Helen J; Meadow, William L; Tanz, Robert R

    2006-12-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to determine fast food restaurant prevalence in hospitals with pediatric residencies and (2) to evaluate how hospital environment affects purchase and perception of fast food. We first surveyed pediatric residency programs regarding fast food restaurants in their hospitals to determine the prevalence of fast food restaurants in these hospitals. We then surveyed adults with children after pediatric outpatient visits at 3 hospitals: hospital M with an on-site McDonald's restaurant, hospital R without McDonald's on site but with McDonald's branding, and hospital X with neither on-site McDonald's nor branding. We sought to determine attitudes toward, consumption of, and influences on purchase of fast food and McDonald's food. Fifty-nine of 200 hospitals with pediatric residencies had fast food restaurants. A total of 386 outpatient surveys were analyzed. Fast food consumption on the survey day was most common among hospital M respondents (56%; hospital R: 29%; hospital X: 33%), as was the purchase of McDonald's food (hospital M: 53%; hospital R: 14%; hospital X: 22%). McDonald's accounted for 95% of fast food consumed by hospital M respondents, and 83% of them bought their food at the on-site McDonald's. Using logistic regression analysis, hospital M respondents were 4 times more likely than respondents at the other hospitals to have purchased McDonald's food on the survey day. Visitors to hospitals M and R were more likely than those at hospital X to believe that McDonald's supported the hospital financially. Respondents at hospital M rated McDonald's food healthier than did respondents at the other hospitals. Fast food restaurants are fairly common in hospitals that sponsor pediatric residency programs. A McDonald's restaurant in a children's hospital was associated with significantly increased purchase of McDonald's food by outpatients, belief that the McDonald's Corporation supported the hospital financially, and higher rating

  6. Fast reactors will eat nuclear waste from LWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokiwai, Moriyasu [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Res., Lab.

    1999-12-01

    Although nuclear power is one of the indispensable energy sources to support modern life styles in developed countries, it becomes harder and harder to increase its capacity. Newspaper reported that there are numbers of evidences showing the suppression effect on cancer by the low level of radiation. It is expected for public people that the fear for radiation induced harm on health will mitigate through the explanation based on scientific evidences. Safe management of radioactive waste is one of the most serious issues to be solved. The neutron at fast reactors can eat more effectively the long lived several nuclear waste materials from light water reactor system, The key issue is to develop the fast reactor fuel cycle system technologies that are more economical, more proliferation resistant and higher breeding ratio. The Metallic Fuel Cycle is one of the options for the future fast breeder reactor and its related fuel cycle that enable to give the answer for the radioactive waste issues. The attractiveness of the metallic fuel cycle concept is briefly described. (author)

  7. Fast reactors will eat nuclear waste from LWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwai, Moriyasu

    1999-01-01

    Although nuclear power is one of the indispensable energy sources to support modern life styles in developed countries, it becomes harder and harder to increase its capacity. Newspaper reported that there are numbers of evidences showing the suppression effect on cancer by the low level of radiation. It is expected for public people that the fear for radiation induced harm on health will mitigate through the explanation based on scientific evidences. Safe management of radioactive waste is one of the most serious issues to be solved. The neutron at fast reactors can eat more effectively the long lived several nuclear waste materials from light water reactor system, The key issue is to develop the fast reactor fuel cycle system technologies that are more economical, more proliferation resistant and higher breeding ratio. The Metallic Fuel Cycle is one of the options for the future fast breeder reactor and its related fuel cycle that enable to give the answer for the radioactive waste issues. The attractiveness of the metallic fuel cycle concept is briefly described. (author)

  8. How fast are the ultra-fast nano-scale solid-liquid phase transitions induced by energetic particles in solids?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopasso, E.M.; Caro, A.; Caro, M.

    2003-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic forces acting on the evolution of the nanoscale regions excited by collisions of energetic particles into solid targets. We analyze the role of diffusion, thermo-migration, and the liquidus-solidus two-phase field crossing, as the system cools down from the collision-induced melt under different conditions of energy deposition. To determine the relevance of these thermodynamic forces, solute redistribution is evaluated using molecular dynamics simulations of equilibrium Au-Ni solid solutions. At low collision energies, our results show that the quenching of spherical cascades is too fast to allow for solute redistribution according to equilibrium solidification as determined from the equilibrium phase diagram (zone refining effect), and only thermo-migration is observed. At higher energies instead, in the cylindrical symmetry of ion tracks, quenching rate is in a range that shows the combined effects of thermo-migration and solute redistribution that, depending on the material, can reinforce or cancel each other. These results are relevant for the interpretation of the early stage of radiation damage in alloys, and show that the combination of ultra-fast but nano-scale characteristics of these processes can still be described in terms of linear response of the perturbed system

  9. Effect of Fast Neutron to MA/PU Burning/Transmutation Characteristic Using a Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsodi; Lasman, As Natio; Kimamoto, A.; Marsongkohadi; Zaki, S.

    2003-01-01

    MA/Pu burning/transmutation has been studied and evaluated using fast neutrons. Generally, neutron density at this fast burner reactor and transmutation has spectrum energy level around 0.2 MeV with wide enough variation, i.e. from low neutron spectrum to its peak is 0.2 MeV. This neutron spectrum energy level depends on the kind of cooler material or fuel used. Neutron spectrum higher than fast power reactor neutron spectrum is found by means of changing oxide fuel by metallic fuel and changing natrium cooler material by metallic or gas cooler material. This evaluation is conducted by various variations in accordance with the kind of fuel or cooler, MA/Pu fractions and fuel comparison fraction with respect to its cooler in order to get better neutron usage and MA/Pu burning speed. Reactor calculation evaluation in this paper was conducted with 26-group nuclear data cross section energy spectrum. The main purpose of the discussion is to know the effect of fast neutrons to burning/transmutation MA/Pu using fast neutrons

  10. Energy metabolism and fasting in male and female insectivorous bats Molossus molossus (Chiroptera: Molossidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MB. Freitas

    Full Text Available Metabolic adaptations induced by 24 and 48 hours of fasting were investigated in male and female insectivorous bats (Molossus molossus Pallas, 1766. For this purpose, plasma glucose, non esterified fatty acids (NEFA, glycogen, protein and lipids concentrations in liver and muscles were obtained. Data presented here demonstrate that fed bats showed plasma glucose levels similar to those reported for other mammal species. In response to fasting, glycemia was decreased only in 48 hours fasted females. Plasma NEFA levels were similar in both sexes, and did not exhibit any changes during fasting. Considering the data from energy reserve variations, fed females presented an increased content of liver glycogen as well as higher breast muscle protein and limbs lipids concentrations, compared to fed males. In response to fasting, liver and muscle glycogen levels remained unchanged. Considering protein and lipid reserves, only females showed decreased values following fasting, as seen in breast, limbs and carcass lipids and breast muscle protein reserves, but still fail to keep glucose homeostasis after 48 hours without food. Taken together, our data suggest that the energy metabolism of insectivorous bats may vary according to sexual differences, a pattern that might be associated to different reproduction investments and costs between genders.

  11. A Comparison of Lignin, Macroalgae, Wood and Straw Fast Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    these biomasses. The fast pyrolysis of macroalgae showed a promising result with a bio-oil yield of 65 wt% dry ash free basis (daf) and 76 % energy recovery in the bio-oil while the lignin fast pyrolysis provides a bio-oil yield of 47 wt% daf and energy recovery in bio-oil of 45 %. The physiochemical properties...... of the bio-oils were characterized with respect to higher heating value (HHV), molecular mass distribution, viscosity, pH, density, thermal behaviors, elemental concentrations, phase separation and aging. The lignin and macroalgae oil properties were different compared to those of the wood and straw oils......A fast pyrolysis study on lignin and macroalgae (non-conventional biomass) and wood and straw (conventional biomass) were carried out in a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor at pyrolysis temperature of 550 ºC. The product distributions and energy recoveries were measured and compared among...

  12. Evaluation of laser-driven ion energies for fusion fast-ignition research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosaki, S.; Yogo, A.; Koga, K.; Okamoto, K.; Shokita, S.; Morace, A.; Arikawa, Y.; Fujioka, S.; Nakai, M.; Shiraga, H.; Azechi, H.; Nishimura, H.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate laser-driven ion acceleration using kJ-class picosecond (ps) laser pulses as a fundamental study for ion-assisted fusion fast ignition, using a newly developed Thomson-parabola ion spectrometer (TPIS). The TPIS has a space- and weight-saving design, considering its use in an laser-irradiation chamber in which 12 beams of fuel implosion laser are incident, and, at the same time, demonstrates sufficient performance with its detectable range and resolution of the ion energy required for fast-ignition research. As a fundamental study on laser-ion acceleration using a ps pulse laser, we show proton acceleration up to 40 MeV at 1 × 10^{19} W cm^{-2}. The energy conversion efficiency from the incident laser into protons higher than 6 MeV is 4.6%, which encourages the realization of fusion fast ignition by laser-driven ions.

  13. Effect of the long-term regular intake of virgin olive oil on the phenolic metabolites in human fasting plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Rosa-Maria; Soler, Aranzazu; Girona, Josefa; Heras, Mercedes; Romero, Maria-Paz; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Solà, Rosa; Masana, Lluis; Motilva, Maria-Jose

    2010-09-21

    The effect of repeated consumption of virgin olive oil on endogenous phenolic metabolites of fasting plasma is unknown. For this reason, we hypothesized that regular long-term virgin olive oil intake could have an indirect protection effect on the endogenous phenols. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine the phenolic profile of human plasma in a fasting state of long-term regular virgin olive oil consumers, using the fasting plasma of non-consumers as a natural control. Forty participants living in the area of Reus (Catalonia, Spain) were selected, 20 life-long regular consumers of virgin olive oil and a natural control of 20 non-consumers, the latter being Rumanians who dislike the taste of olive oil. The diet was obtained from 3-day food records. The results showed similar phenolic composition of fasting plasmas of the two volunteer groups. Of special interest is that more of the compounds quantified showed higher concentration in fasting plasma from habitual virgin olive oil consumers. The compounds were semi-quantified using caffeic acid as the calibration standard. The quantification of fasting consumer's plasma showed higher concentration of a hydroxyflavanone type compound (2.90+/-0.04 microM vs 1.5+/-0.04 microM) and a catecholamine derivative (0.70+/-0.03 microM vs 0.56+/-0.03 microM) than the plasma of non-consumers (P<0.05). The results suggest an indirect protective mechanism of long-term regular virgin olive oil consumption related to the protection of the endogenous antioxidant system. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of altered eating habits and periods during Ramadan fasting on intraocular pressure, tear secretion, corneal and anterior chamber parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimoglu, H; Ozturk, B; Gunduz, K; Bozkurt, B; Kamis, U; Okka, M

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether altered eating habits and periods, especially the pre-dawn meal, during Ramadan fasting have any significant effect on intraocular pressure (IOP), tear secretion, corneal and anterior chamber parameters. IOP, basal tear secretion (BTS), reflex tear secretion (RTS), and Pentacam measurements of 31 healthy volunteers were performed at 0800 and 1600 hours during Ramadan fasting and 1 month later during non-fasting period. Comparison of measurements between fasting and non-fasting periods at 0800 hours revealed significantly higher values for IOP (P=0.005), RTS (P=0.006), and BTS (P=0.014) during fasting. Conversely at 1600 hours, IOP was significantly lower during fasting (P=0.013) and no statistically significant difference was noted for RTS and BTS. IOP showed a diurnal variation of 2.45 mmHg (P<0.001) and BTS showed a 3.06 mm decrease (P=0.04) during the fasting period. No significant differences could be found in the corneal and anterior chamber parameters during fasting and non-fasting periods. Our results revealed that fluid loading at the pre-dawn meal during Ramadan fasting might increase the IOP and tear secretion in the early morning period and these values decrease remarkably at the end of 12 h of fasting due to dehydration.

  15. FAST: FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J. Lawrence

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available FAST (FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox provides simple, powerful open source command-line tools to filter, transform, annotate and analyze biological sequence data. Modeled after the GNU (GNU’s Not Unix Textutils such as grep, cut, and tr, FAST tools such as fasgrep, fascut, and fastr make it easy to rapidly prototype expressive bioinformatic workflows in a compact and generic command vocabulary. Compact combinatorial encoding of data workflows with FAST commands can simplify the documentation and reproducibility of bioinformatic protocols, supporting better transparency in biological data science. Interface self-consistency and conformity with conventions of GNU, Matlab, Perl, BioPerl, R and GenBank help make FAST easy and rewarding to learn. FAST automates numerical, taxonomic, and text-based sorting, selection and transformation of sequence records and alignment sites based on content, index ranges, descriptive tags, annotated features, and in-line calculated analytics, including composition and codon usage. Automated content- and feature-based extraction of sites and support for molecular population genetic statistics makes FAST useful for molecular evolutionary analysis. FAST is portable, easy to install and secure thanks to the relative maturity of its Perl and BioPerl foundations, with stable releases posted to CPAN. Development as well as a publicly accessible Cookbook and Wiki are available on the FAST GitHub repository at https://github.com/tlawrence3/FAST. The default data exchange format in FAST is Multi-FastA (specifically, a restriction of BioPerl FastA format. Sanger and Illumina 1.8+ FastQ formatted files are also supported. FAST makes it easier for non-programmer biologists to interactively investigate and control biological data at the speed of thought.

  16. Three-dimensional Core Design of a Super Fast Reactor with a High Power Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Liangzhi; Oka, Yoshiaki; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Ikejiri, Satoshi; Ju, Haitao

    2010-01-01

    The SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR) pursues high power density to reduce its capital cost. The fast spectrum SCWR, called a super fast reactor, can be designed with a higher power density than thermal spectrum SCWR. The mechanism of increasing the average power density of the super fast reactor is studied theoretically and numerically. Some key parameters affecting the average power density, including fuel pin outer diameter, fuel pitch, power peaking factor, and the fraction of seed assemblies, are analyzed and optimized to achieve a more compact core. Based on those sensitivity analyses, a compact super fast reactor is successfully designed with an average power density of 294.8 W/cm 3 . The core characteristics are analyzed by using three-dimensional neutronics/thermal-hydraulics coupling method. Numerical results show that all of the design criteria and goals are satisfied

  17. The effect of Ramadan fasting and maternal hypoalbuminaemia on neonatal anthropometric parameters and placental weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakar, M N; Balsak, D; Verit, F F; Zebitay, A G; Buyuk, A; Akay, E; Turfan, M; Demir, S; Yayla, M

    2016-05-01

    In Islamic religion, daytime fasting during the month called Ramadan is an annual practice. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of Ramadan fasting and maternal hypoalbuminaemia on neonatal growth parameters. A prospective case-control study was conducted in Diyarbakir and Istanbul, Turkey. The sample size of fasting group was 168 and that of non-fasting group was 170. Demographic characteristics, obstetrics ultrasonographic findings and laboratory parameters of the participants were recorded. Neonatal anthropometric parameters and placental weight were noted. The mean placental weight was significantly higher in the fasting group (p = 0.037). Also, in the fasting group, pregnant women with hypoalbuminaemia had significantly higher placental weight (p = 0.009). In conclusion, the mean placental weight in the fasting group was significantly higher. Also a significant correlation between placental weight and maternal serum albumin level was observed in the fasting group.

  18. 2-D image diagnostic technique for edge turbulence using fast cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, N.; Mizuuchi, T.; Feng, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Fast cameras are powerful tool to visualize the edge turbulence in peripheral plasmas. Under Bi-directional collaborations recently in Heliotron J and GAMMA10 filamentary structures along the magnetic field line were firstly observed with GPI (gas puff imaging) by fast camera. In both machines the filamentary structures had similar stripe pattern in the images and simultaneous measurements of the ion saturation current by electrostatic probes show that the filamentary structures were relatively higher electron density/temperature regions in peripheral plasmas. It is not sufficient to conclude both filamentary structures are the same, however, these phenomena were thought to be related to the energy confinement. Thus the physics mechanism should be solved in the near future. (author)

  19. Fasting glycaemia to simplify screening for gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser Rüetschi, J; Jornayvaz, F R; Rivest, R; Huhn, E A; Irion, O; Boulvain, M

    2016-12-01

    Recommendations in Switzerland on screening for gestational diabetes endorse the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group consensus. As universal testing is time consuming and glucose loading is unpleasant, the recommendations include a simplification, not performing the glucose loading in women with fasting glycaemia fasting glycaemia was fasting glycaemia. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 10.9% in our population. Among 251 women with gestational diabetes, fasting glycaemia was ≥5.1 mmol/l in 119 women (47.4%), between 4.4 and fasting glycaemia between 4.4 and fasting glycaemia is an attractive alternative to universal screening with the complete 75-g glucose tolerance test. This strategy is, however, slightly less sensitive than previously reported in higher-risk populations. Fasting glycaemia can be considered as an alternative to the complete test for gestational diabetes screening. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. The Field Assessment Stroke Triage for Emergency Destination (FAST-ED): a Simple and Accurate Pre-Hospital Scale to Detect Large Vessel Occlusion Strokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Fabricio O.; Silva, Gisele S.; Furie, Karen L.; Frankel, Michael R.; Lev, Michael H.; Camargo, Érica CS; Haussen, Diogo C.; Singhal, Aneesh B.; Koroshetz, Walter J.; Smith, Wade S.; Nogueira, Raul G.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Patients with large vessel occlusion strokes (LVOS) may be better served by direct transfer to endovascular capable centers avoiding hazardous delays between primary and comprehensive stroke centers. However, accurate stroke field triage remains challenging. We aimed to develop a simple field scale to identify LVOS. Methods The FAST-ED scale was based on items of the NIHSS with higher predictive value for LVOS and tested in the STOPStroke cohort, in which patients underwent CT angiography within the first 24 hours of stroke onset. LVOS were defined by total occlusions involving the intracranial-ICA, MCA-M1, MCA-2, or basilar arteries. Patients with partial, bi-hemispheric, and/or anterior + posterior circulation occlusions were excluded. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of FAST-ED were compared with the NIHSS, Rapid Arterial oCclusion Evaluation (RACE) scale and Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Severity Scale (CPSSS). Results LVO was detected in 240 of the 727 qualifying patients (33%). FAST-ED had comparable accuracy to predict LVO to the NIHSS and higher accuracy than RACE and CPSS (area under the ROC curve: FAST-ED=0.81 as reference; NIHSS=0.80, p=0.28; RACE=0.77, p=0.02; and CPSS=0.75, p=0.002). A FAST-ED ≥4 had sensitivity of 0.60, specificity 0.89, PPV 0.72, and NPV 0.82 versus RACE ≥5 of 0.55, 0.87, 0.68, 0.79 and CPSS ≥2 of 0.56, 0.85, 0.65, 0.78, respectively. Conclusions FAST-ED is a simple scale that if successfully validated in the field may be used by medical emergency professionals to identify LVOS in the pre-hospital setting enabling rapid triage of patients. PMID:27364531

  1. Fibroblasts maintained in 3 dimensions show a better differentiation state and higher sensitivity to estrogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montani, Claudia [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Civic Hospital of Brescia (Italy); Steimberg, Nathalie; Boniotti, Jennifer [Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Anatomy and Physiopathology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Brescia (Italy); Biasiotto, Giorgio; Zanella, Isabella [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Civic Hospital of Brescia (Italy); Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Diafera, Giuseppe [Integrated Systems Engineering (ISE), Milan (Italy); Biunno, Ida [IRGB-CNR, Milan (Italy); IRCCS-Multimedica, Milan (Italy); Caimi, Luigi [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Civic Hospital of Brescia (Italy); Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Mazzoleni, Giovanna [Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Anatomy and Physiopathology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Brescia (Italy); Di Lorenzo, Diego, E-mail: diego.dilorenzo@yahoo.it [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Civic Hospital of Brescia (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Cell differentiation and response to hormonal signals were studied in a 3D environment on an in-house generated mouse fibroblast cell line expressing a reporter gene under the control of estrogen responsive sequences (EREs). 3D cell culture conditions were obtained in a Rotary Cell Culture System; (RCCS™), a microgravity based bioreactor that promotes the aggregation of cells into multicellular spheroids (MCS). In this bioreactor the cells maintained a better differentiated phenotype and more closely resembled in vivo tissue. The RCCS™ cultured fibroblasts showed higher expression of genes regulating cell assembly, differentiation and hormonal functions. Microarray analysis showed that genes related to cell cycle, proliferation, cytoskeleton, migration, adhesion and motility were all down-regulated in 3D as compared to 2D conditions, as well as oncogene expression and inflammatory cytokines. Controlled remodeling of ECM, which is an essential aspect of cell organization, homeostasis and tissue was affected by the culture method as assessed by immunolocalization of β-tubulin. Markers of cell organization, homeostasis and tissue repair, metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and its physiological inhibitor (TIMP4) changed expression in association with the relative formation of cell aggregates. The fibroblasts cultured in the RCCS™ maintain a better responsiveness to estrogens, measured as expression of ERα and regulation of an ERE-dependent reporter and of the endogenous target genes CBP, Rarb, MMP1 and Dbp. Our data highlight the interest of this 3D culture model for its potential application in the field of cell response to hormonal signals and the pharmaco-toxicological analyses of chemicals and natural molecules endowed of estrogenic potential. - Highlights: • We here characterized the first cell line derived from an estrogen reporter mouse. • In the RCCS cells express an immortalized behavior but not a transformed phenotype. • The RCCS provides a system for

  2. Fast Weight Long Short-Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, T. Anderson; Sridhar, Sharath Nittur; Wang, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Associative memory using fast weights is a short-term memory mechanism that substantially improves the memory capacity and time scale of recurrent neural networks (RNNs). As recent studies introduced fast weights only to regular RNNs, it is unknown whether fast weight memory is beneficial to gated RNNs. In this work, we report a significant synergy between long short-term memory (LSTM) networks and fast weight associative memories. We show that this combination, in learning associative retrie...

  3. Fast Flux Watch: A mechanism for online detection of fast flux networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basheer N. Al-Duwairi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fast flux networks represent a special type of botnets that are used to provide highly available web services to a backend server, which usually hosts malicious content. Detection of fast flux networks continues to be a challenging issue because of the similar behavior between these networks and other legitimate infrastructures, such as CDNs and server farms. This paper proposes Fast Flux Watch (FF-Watch, a mechanism for online detection of fast flux agents. FF-Watch is envisioned to exist as a software agent at leaf routers that connect stub networks to the Internet. The core mechanism of FF-Watch is based on the inherent feature of fast flux networks: flux agents within stub networks take the role of relaying client requests to point-of-sale websites of spam campaigns. The main idea of FF-Watch is to correlate incoming TCP connection requests to flux agents within a stub network with outgoing TCP connection requests from the same agents to the point-of-sale website. Theoretical and traffic trace driven analysis shows that the proposed mechanism can be utilized to efficiently detect fast flux agents within a stub network.

  4. REM sleep behaviour disorder is associated with lower fast and higher slow sleep spindle densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Christian; Godin, Isabelle; Montplaisir, Jacques; Nielsen, Tore

    2015-12-01

    To investigate differences in sleep spindle properties and scalp topography between patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) and healthy controls, whole-night polysomnograms of 35 patients diagnosed with RBD and 35 healthy control subjects matched for age and sex were compared. Recordings included a 19-lead 10-20 electroencephalogram montage and standard electromyogram, electrooculogram, electrocardiogram and respiratory leads. Sleep spindles were automatically detected using a standard algorithm, and their characteristics (amplitude, duration, density, frequency and frequency slope) compared between groups. Topological analyses of group-discriminative features were conducted. Sleep spindles occurred at a significantly (e.g. t34 = -4.49; P = 0.00008 for C3) lower density (spindles ∙ min(-1) ) for RBD (mean ± SD: 1.61 ± 0.56 for C3) than for control (2.19 ± 0.61 for C3) participants. However, when distinguishing slow and fast spindles using thresholds individually adapted to the electroencephalogram spectrum of each participant, densities smaller (31-96%) for fast but larger (20-120%) for slow spindles were observed in RBD in all derivations. Maximal differences were in more posterior regions for slow spindles, but over the entire scalp for fast spindles. Results suggest that the density of sleep spindles is altered in patients with RBD and should therefore be investigated as a potential marker of future neurodegeneration in these patients. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  5. The influence of hydrogen intercalation on inner pressure of Ni/MH battery during fast charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianzhen; Wu, Feng; Hu, Daozhong; Chen, Shi; Mao, Licai; Wang, Guoqing

    Gaseous hydrogen is confirmed to be the main component and primarily responsible for the inner pressure rise inside the 8-Ah Ni/MH batteries during fast charge. Based on a temperature-dependent pressure model proposed in this work, the kinetic characteristics of the hydrogen evolution were investigated. The overpotential and exchange current density were obtained by fitting the presented equation to the experimental data. Moreover, the profiles of hydrogen concentration during fast charge was further modeled and calculated according to the proposed mathematical model of hydrogen intercalation. It is indicated that diffusion step controls the fast charge performances and the higher the charge rate is, the more quickly the negative electrode attains to the maximum surface intercalation fraction, and however, the calculated results also show that further charge can reduce the difference of charge efficiency among the various rate during fast charge. Numerical investigations also reveal that the increase of diffusion coefficient and decrease of the particle size can efficiently improve the characteristics of fast charge, respectively.

  6. Fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, R K; Nessa, A; Hossain, M A; Siddiqui, N I; Hussain, M A

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is a condition in which the body fat stores are increased to an extent which impairs health and leads to serious health consequences. The amount of body fat is difficult to measure directly, and is usually determined from an indirect measure - the body mass index (BMI). Increased BMI in obese persons is directly associated with an increase in metabolic disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. This Analytical cross sectional study was undertaken to assess the relation between obesity and glycemic control of body by measuring fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. This study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from 1st July 2011 to 30th June 2012 on 120 equally divided male and female persons within the age range of 25 to 55 years. Age more than 55 years and less than 25 years and diagnosed case of Hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, polycystic ovary, Antipsychotic drug user and regular steroid users were excluded. Non probability purposive type of sampling technique was used for selecting the study subjects. Measurement of body mass index was done as per procedure. Fasting serum glucose was estimated by glucose oxidase method and Glycosylated hemoglobin by Boronate Affinity method. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS (version 17.0). Data were expressed as Mean±SE and statistical significance of difference among the groups were calculated by unpaired student's 't' test and Pearson's correlation coefficient tests were done as applicable. The Mean±SE of fasting serum glucose was significant at 1% level (P value obese group of BMI. There was no significant difference of glycosylated hemoglobin level between control and study groups. But there was positive correlation within each group. Fasting serum glucose also showed a bit stronger positive correlation with BMI. Both obese male and female persons showed higher levels of fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. The observed positive

  7. Fast facts: The availability and accessibility of nutrition information in fast food chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard, Lyndal; Glasson, Colleen; Chapman, Kathy; Miller, Caroline

    2011-12-01

    Nutrition information at the point-of-sale assists consumers to make informed fast food choices. This study provides a baseline measure of the availability and accessibility of nutrition information in fast food outlets in Australia, filling a gap in the literature. An in-store observational survey was conducted in 222 outlets of five fast food chains in five states. The Australian websites for each chain were surveyed for nutrition information. At least some nutrition information was available in 66% of outlets. The availability of information was higher in lower socioeconomic areas. Significantly less information was available in signatory chains of the self-regulatory marketing code. Information provided was generally incomplete; only one outlet (0.5%) provided information for all food and beverage items. In some instances information was old. Information was more available for 'healthier' products and less available for meal combinations. Information was provided on all chains' websites, however it was sometimes difficult to locate. While most outlets surveyed made some nutrition information available to consumers, it was generally incomplete. Fast food chains should provide comprehensive, up-to-date information for all menu items. Chains should also ensure their staff members are adequately trained in providing nutrition information.

  8. Fast temperature fluctuation measurements in SOL of tokamak TCV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horacek, J.; Nielsen, Anders Henry; Pitts, R.A.

    to compare the statistical character of turbulence in the SOL particle flux on TCV with results from the 2D fluid electrostatic model ESEL [2][4]. Using results from the fast sweeping, similar comparisons can now be made with the fluctuating Te and will be described in this contribution. We also present...... basic statistics derived from the Te time series obtained at different radii in the SOL plasma and show, in particular, that the relationship between higher moments of the probability distribution function from both experimental and simulated Te’s may be well described by the Beta probability...... distribution function, introduced for SOL turbulence in [5]. The fast Te capability also allows the SOL response to Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) to be studied and new results will be presented for the far SOL Te response during Type III ELMs....

  9. A study on the development of a fast neutron television converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Koji; Miya, Kenzo

    1993-01-01

    Experiments on fast neutron radiography (FNR) were carried out using the fast neutron source reactor YAYOI of the University of Tokyo. For a real time imaging technique using FNR, for a fast neutron television system (FNR-TV), it is essential to develop a highly sensitive luminescent converter in order to obtain good quality images. A new converter was recently developed and tested. It showed an about six times higher sensitivity compared with the first prototype converter. In this paper, the characteristics of the converter are discussed as well as the clearer images of a FNR-TV when using the converter. The FNR-TV images were obtained with 500 frames integrated. A small hole (1.0 mm in diameter and 10 mm in depth) in an acrylic plate was well imaged through a 50 mm thick iron block. A 0.15 mm thick aluminum spacer in the calibrated fuel pin was also discernible. (orig.)

  10. Fast-track knee arthroplasty – status and future challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik; Thienpont, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Fast-track programs have been developed for different surgical procedures leading to higher patient satisfaction and lower morbidity. This concept has been extended to knee arthroplasty in recent years. The purpose of this narrative review was to discuss the different aspects of fast-track knee...... arthroplasty....

  11. Robust adaptive multivariable higher-order sliding mode flight control for air-breathing hypersonic vehicle with actuator failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an adaptive multivariable higher-order sliding mode control for the longitudinal model of an air-breathing vehicle under system uncertainties and actuator failures. Firstly, a fast finite-time control law is designed for a chain of integrators. Secondly, based on the input/output feedback linearization technique, the system uncertainty and external disturbances are modeled as additive certainty and the actuator failures are modeled as multiplicative uncertainty. By using the proposed fast finite-time control law, a robust multivariable higher-order sliding mode control is designed for the air-breathing hypersonic vehicle with actuator failures. Finally, adaptive laws are proposed for the adaptation of the parameters in the robust multivariable higher-order sliding mode control. Thus, the bounds of the uncertainties are not needed in the control system design. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed robust adaptive multivariable higher-order sliding mode control.

  12. Effects of Ramadan fasting on the symptoms of chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazid, Rami M; Khalaf, Hassan H; Sakr, Haitham I; Altorbak, Nora A; Alenzi, Habiba S; Awad, Zaki M; Smettei, Osama A; Elsanan, Moataz A; Widyan, Adel M; Azazy, Ahmed S; Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan W

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effect of Ramadan fasting on the symptoms of chronic heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Globally, more than one billion Muslims fast during Ramadan. Data regarding the effect of fasting in heart failure patients with a reduced ejection fraction are limited. We prospectively studied 249 outpatients with HFrEF who undertook Ramadan fasting at tertiary care cardiac center in Saudi Arabia in 2017. We obtained information regarding the clinical assessment, diagnosis, emergency department visits, and hospitalization during and in the month preceding Ramadan. We enrolled 249 patients, 227 (91%) undertook the fast for the entire month. During Ramadan, 209 (92%) patients remained hemodynamically stable, whereas 18 (8%) developed instability. The mean New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class was significantly lower in the stable than in the unstable group (1.46±0.7 vs. 3.22±0.55, p less than 0.0001), although no intergroup differences were observed before Ramadan. Patients from the unstable vs. the stable group showed significantly less adherence to medications (67% vs. 94%, p less than 0.0001) and to diet (39% vs. 79%, p less than 0.0001), and a lower likelihood of demonstrating ischemic cardiomyopathy as an underlying etiology of HFrEF (33% vs. 57%, p=0.046). Dependent t-test analysis including all patients showed that the NYHA classification before Ramadan was significantly higher than during Ramadan (2.19±0.9 vs. 1.6±0.8, t-value 8.5, p less than 0.0001). In most patients with chronic HFrEF, Ramadan fasting is considered safe. Non-adherence to medication and diet are significantly associated with decompensated heart failure during Ramadan.

  13. Child-directed marketing inside and on the exterior of fast food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Isgor, Zeynep; Rimkus, Leah; Powell, Lisa M; Barker, Dianne C; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    Children who eat fast food have poor diet and health outcomes. Fast food is heavily marketed to youth, and exposure to such marketing is associated with higher fast food consumption. To examine the extent of child-directed marketing (CDM) inside and on the exterior of fast food restaurants. Data were collected from 6,716 fast food restaurants located in a nationally representative sample of public middle- and high-school enrollment areas in 2010, 2011, and 2012. CDM was defined as the presence of one or more of seven components inside or on the exterior of the restaurant. Analyses were conducted in 2014. More than 20% of fast food restaurants used CDM inside or on their exterior. In multivariate analyses, fast food restaurants that were part of a chain, offered kids' meals, were located in middle- (compared to high)-income neighborhoods, and in rural (compared to urban) areas had significantly higher odds of using any CDM; chain restaurants and those located in majority black neighborhoods (compared to white) had significantly higher odds of having an indoor display of kids' meal toys. Compared to 2010, there was a significant decline in use of CDM in 2011, but the prevalence increased close to the 2010 level in 2012. CDM inside and on the exterior of fast food restaurants is prevalent in chain restaurants; majority black communities, rural areas, and middle-income communities are disproportionately exposed. The fast food industry should limit children's exposure to marketing that promotes unhealthy food choices. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fuel-cladding mechanical interaction effects in fast reactor mixed oxide fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltax, A [Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Advanced Reactor Division, Madison, PA (United States); Biancheria, A

    1977-04-01

    Thermal and fast reactor irradiation experiments on mixed oxide fuel pins under steady-state and power change conditions reveal evidence for significant fuel-cladding mechanical interaction (FCMI) effects. Analytical studies with the LIFE-III fuel performance code indicate that high cladding stresses can be produced by general and local FCMI effects. Also, evidence is presented to show that local cladding strains can be caused by the accumulation of cesium at the fuel-cladding interface. Although it is apparent that steady-state FCMI effects have not given rise to cladding breaches in current fast reactors, it is anticipated that FCMI may become more important in the future because of interest in: higher fuel burnups; increased power ramp rates; load follow operation; and low swelling cladding alloys. (author)

  15. Fuel-cladding mechanical interaction effects in fast reactor mixed oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boltax, A.; Biancheria, A.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal and fast reactor irradiation experiments on mixed oxide fuel pins under steady-state and power change conditions reveal evidence for significant fuel-cladding mechanical interaction (FCMI) effects. Analytical studies with the LIFE-III fuel performance code indicate that high cladding stresses can be produced by general and local FCMI effects. Also, evidence is presented to show that local cladding strains can be caused by the accumulation of cesium at the fuel-cladding interface. Although it is apparent that steady-state FCMI effects have not given rise to cladding breaches in current fast reactors, it is anticipated that FCMI may become more important in the future because of interest in: higher fuel burnups; increased power ramp rates; load follow operation; and low swelling cladding alloys. (author)

  16. Fast Food Pattern and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Review of Current Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    There are growing concern globally regarding the alarming trend of fast food consumption and its related cardiometabolic outcomes including overweight and obesity. This study aimed to review the current evidences available in relation to adverse effects of fast food pattern on cardiometa-bolic risk factors. Relevant articles including epidemiological and clinical studies with appropriate design and good quality were obtained through searches of the Medline, PubMed, Scopus databases and Google scholar with related key words including "fast foods", "processed foods", "obesity", "overweight", "insulin resistance", "diabetes", "cardiovascular disease", "metabolic syndrome", "dyslipidemia" and "hypertension". Fast food consumption and out-of-home eating behavior is a main risk factor for lower diet quality, higher calorie and fat intake and lower micronutrients density of diet. Frequent consumption of fast foods was accompanied with overweight and abdominal fat gain, impaired insulin and glucose homeostasis, lipid and lipoprotein disorders, induction of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Higher fast food consumption also increases the risk of developmental diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. This review provides further evidence warning us against the irreparable effects of fast food consumption on public health especially the increasing global burden of obesity and cardiovascu-lar diseases.

  17. Effect of pigment concentration on fastness and color values of thermal and UV curable pigment printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Gulcin; Kalav, Berdan; Karagüzel Kayaoğlu, Burçak

    2017-10-01

    In the current study, it is aimed to determine the effect of pigment concentration on fastness and colour values of thermal and ultraviolet (UV) curable pigment printing on synthetic leather. For this purpose, thermal curable solvent-based and UV curable water-based formulations were prepared with different pigment concentrations (3, 5 and 7%) separately and applied by screen printing technique using a screen printing machine. Samples printed with solvent-based formulations were thermally cured and samples printed with water-based formulations were cured using a UV curing machine equipped with gallium and mercury (Ga/Hg) lamps at room temperature. The crock fastness values of samples printed with solvent-based formulations showed that increase in pigment concentration was not effective on both dry and wet crock fastness values. On the other hand, in samples printed with UV curable water-based formulations, dry crock fastness was improved and evaluated as very good for all pigment concentrations. However, increasing the pigment concentration affected the wet crock fastness values adversely and lower values were observed. As the energy level increased for each irradiation source, the fastness values were improved. In comparison with samples printed with solvent-based formulations, samples printed with UV curable water-based formulations yielded higher K/S values at all pigment concentrations. The results suggested that, higher K/S values can be obtained in samples printed with UV curable water-based formulations at a lower pigment concentration compared to samples printed with solvent-based formulations.

  18. Health Implications of Adults' Eating at and Living near Fast Food or Quick Service Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, J; Moudon, A V; Kim, S Y; Hurvitz, P M; Drewnowski, A

    2015-07-20

    This paper examined whether the reported health impacts of frequent eating at a fast food or quick service restaurant on health were related to having such a restaurant near home. Logistic regressions estimated associations between frequent fast food or quick service restaurant use and health status, being overweight or obese, having a cardiovascular disease or diabetes, as binary health outcomes. In all, 2001 participants in the 2008-2009 Seattle Obesity Study survey were included in the analyses. Results showed eating ⩾2 times a week at a fast food or quick service restaurant was associated with perceived poor health status, overweight and obese. However, living close to such restaurants was not related to negative health outcomes. Frequent eating at a fast food or quick service restaurant was associated with perceived poor health status and higher body mass index, but living close to such facilities was not.

  19. Chicken meat quality as a function of fasting period and water spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Komiyama

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of different fasting periods and water spray during lairage on the quality of chicken meat. A number of 300 male Ross broilers were reared up to 42 days of age, and submitted to four pre-slaughter fasting periods (4, 8, 12, and 16 hours and sprayed with water or not during lairage. Deboned breast meat was submitted to the following analysis: pH, color, drip loss, water retention capacity, cooking loss, and shear force. There was a significant effect (p < 0.05 of fasting period on meat luminosity was significantly different, with the highest value obtained for 4-hour fasting, whereas no difference was found among the other fasting periods. Meat pH values were different among fasting periods when birds received water spray, with birds fasted for 4, 8, and 12 hours of fasting presenting lower meat pH values (5.87, 5.87, and 6.04, respectively. The interaction between fasting period and water spray influenced meat drip loss and cooking loss, with birds fasted for 16h and not receiving water spray presenting higher drip loss (4.88 and higher cooking loss (28.24 as compared to the other birds. Fasting period affects meat quality, and very short periods (4h impair meat quality.

  20. Design of unique pins for irradiation of higher actinides in a fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basmajian, J.A.; Birney, K.R.; Weber, E.T.; Adair, H.L.; Quinby, T.C.; Raman, S.; Butler, J.K.; Bateman, B.C.; Swanson, K.M.

    1982-03-01

    The actinides produced by transmutation reactions in nuclear reactor fuels are a significant factor in nuclear fuel burnup, transportation and reprocessing. Irradiation testing is a primary source of data of this type. A segmented pin design was developed which provides for incorporation of multiple specimens of actinide oxides for irradiation in the UK's Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) at Dounreay Scotland. Results from irradiation of these pins will extend the basic neutronic and material irradiation behavior data for key actinide isotopes

  1. The drug target genes show higher evolutionary conservation than non-target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wenhua; Xu, Yongdeng; Guo, Yiying; Yu, Ziqi; Feng, Guanglong; Liu, Panpan; Luan, Meiwei; Zhu, Hongjie; Liu, Guiyou; Zhang, Mingming; Lv, Hongchao; Duan, Lian; Shang, Zhenwei; Li, Jin; Jiang, Yongshuai; Zhang, Ruijie

    2016-01-26

    Although evidence indicates that drug target genes share some common evolutionary features, there have been few studies analyzing evolutionary features of drug targets from an overall level. Therefore, we conducted an analysis which aimed to investigate the evolutionary characteristics of drug target genes. We compared the evolutionary conservation between human drug target genes and non-target genes by combining both the evolutionary features and network topological properties in human protein-protein interaction network. The evolution rate, conservation score and the percentage of orthologous genes of 21 species were included in our study. Meanwhile, four topological features including the average shortest path length, betweenness centrality, clustering coefficient and degree were considered for comparison analysis. Then we got four results as following: compared with non-drug target genes, 1) drug target genes had lower evolutionary rates; 2) drug target genes had higher conservation scores; 3) drug target genes had higher percentages of orthologous genes and 4) drug target genes had a tighter network structure including higher degrees, betweenness centrality, clustering coefficients and lower average shortest path lengths. These results demonstrate that drug target genes are more evolutionarily conserved than non-drug target genes. We hope that our study will provide valuable information for other researchers who are interested in evolutionary conservation of drug targets.

  2. Fasting time and vitamin B12 levels in a community-based population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Dennis J; Naugler, Christopher; Sadrzadeh, S M Hossein

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin (Cbl), is an essential vitamin that manifests with numerous severe but non-specific symptoms in cases of deficiency. Assessing Cbl status often requires fasting, although this requirement is not standard between institutions. This study evaluated the impact of fasting on Cbl levels in a large community-based cohort in an effort to promote standardization of Cbl testing between sites. Laboratory data for Cbl, fasting time, patient age and sex were obtained from laboratory information service from Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS) for the period of April 2011 to June 2015. CLS is the sole supplier of laboratory services in the Southern Alberta region in Canada (population, approximately 1.4 million). To investigate potential sex-specific effects of fasting on Cbl levels, males and females were analyzed separately using linear regression models. A total of 346,957 individual patient results (196,849 females, 146,085 males) were obtained. The mean plasma Cbl level was 386.5 (±195.6) pmol/L and 412.0 (±220.8) pmol/L for males and females, respectively. Linear regression analysis showed fasting had no significant association with Cbl levels in females; however a statistically significant decrease of 0.9pmol/L/hour fasting (pfasting has the potential to contribute to higher rates of Cbl deficiency in men. Together, these data suggest fasting should be excluded as a requirement for evaluating plasma Cbl. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Higher prevalence of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and subsequent higher incidence in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, Thomas; Scharling, Henrik; Jensen, Jan Skov

    2008-01-01

    , non-fasting blood glucose and triglycerides. Significantly more men (242, 5.4%) than women (152, 2.5%) developed type 2 DM. The odds ratio (OR) for developing diabetes with a BMI above 30 kg/m(2) compared to a BMI of 20-25 kg/m(2) was 8.1 in women and 6.3 in men; for a non-fasting plasma glucose of 8.......4-11.0 mmol/l compared to a plasma glucose of 5.5-6.4, the ORs were 7.8 in women and 4.7 in men. The OR for developing diabetes in persons with a non-fasting triglyceride level above 2.0 mmol/l compared to 1.0-2.0 mmol/l was 1.8 in both sexes; women with non -fasting triglycerides below 1.0 mmol/l had...... or non-fasting plasma glucose >11.1 mmol/l) were excluded. Some 6154 women and 4733 men were studied and followed up in 1981-1983 or in 1991-1994. The significance of risk factors was examined by multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Initially, a higher proportion of men than women had high...

  4. Fasting plasma glucose levels and coronary artery calcification in subjects with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Young-Mi; Kang, Sung-Goo; Song, Sang-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Prediabetes is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). While the association of impaired glucose tolerance with CVD has been shown in many studies, the relationship between impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and CVD remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores of participants with normal fasting glucose versus those with IFG, according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, and to assess whether differences in CAC scores were independent of important confounders. Retrospective study. Health Promotion Center of the University Hospital (Gyeonggi-do, South Korea), during the period 2010-2014. Participants were enrolled from the general population who visited for a medical check-up. CAC was assessed in asymptomatic individuals by multidetector computed tomography. Anthropometric parameters and metabolic profiles were also recorded. Subjects were divided into four fasting glucose groups. Participants with a history of CVD or diabetes mellitus were excluded. Correlation between FPG and CAC scores, CAC score categories, and association between CAC score and FPG categories. Of 1112 participants, 346 (34.2%) had a CAC score > 0. FPG values in the IFG patients were positively but weakly correlated with CAC scores (r=0.099, P=.001). The incidence of CAC differed according to FPG level (P =110 mg/dL had a significantly higher risk of CAC than did subjects with normal fasting glucose (110.

  5. Cumulative latency advance underlies fast visual processing in desynchronized brain state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-dong; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Dinghong; Yao, Haishan

    2014-01-07

    Fast sensory processing is vital for the animal to efficiently respond to the changing environment. This is usually achieved when the animal is vigilant, as reflected by cortical desynchronization. However, the neural substrate for such fast processing remains unclear. Here, we report that neurons in rat primary visual cortex (V1) exhibited shorter response latency in the desynchronized state than in the synchronized state. In vivo whole-cell recording from the same V1 neurons undergoing the two states showed that both the resting and visually evoked conductances were higher in the desynchronized state. Such conductance increases of single V1 neurons shorten the response latency by elevating the membrane potential closer to the firing threshold and reducing the membrane time constant, but the effects only account for a small fraction of the observed latency advance. Simultaneous recordings in lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and V1 revealed that LGN neurons also exhibited latency advance, with a degree smaller than that of V1 neurons. Furthermore, latency advance in V1 increased across successive cortical layers. Thus, latency advance accumulates along various stages of the visual pathway, likely due to a global increase of membrane conductance in the desynchronized state. This cumulative effect may lead to a dramatic shortening of response latency for neurons in higher visual cortex and play a critical role in fast processing for vigilant animals.

  6. Plane wave fast color flow mode imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolic, Ibrahim; Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    A new Plane wave fast color flow imaging method (PWM) has been investigated, and performance evaluation of the PWM based on experimental measurements has been made. The results show that it is possible to obtain a CFM image using only 8 echo-pulse emissions for beam to flow angles between 45...... degrees and 75 degrees. Compared to the conventional ultrasound imaging the frame rate is similar to 30 - 60 times higher. The bias, B-est of the velocity profile estimate, based on 8 pulse-echo emissions, is between 3.3% and 6.1% for beam to flow angles between 45 degrees and 75 degrees, and the standard...

  7. [18F]FDG-PET scan in patients with fasting hyperglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BELOHLAVEK, Otakar; JARUSKOVA, Monika

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that a non-fasting state reduces [18F]FDG-PET quality, but the significance of higher levels of fasting blood glucose has aroused some doubts over time. The aim of this work was to provide further evidence to clarify this issue and its impact on the handling of hyper glycemic patients in daily routine. Muscle and liver standardized uptake values (SUV) and their ratio, tumor SUV and the frequency of positive PET findings were retrospectively analyzed in 116 hyper glycemic (HG) patients (>11 mmol/L), in 116 patients with slightly elevated glycemia (SEG) (5.6-7.0 mmol/L) and in 116 normoglycemic (NG) patients (4.7 mmol/L). No significant difference was found in the muscle to liver ratio, in muscle SUV and in the frequency of positive PET findings among HG, SEG and NG patients. HG patients exhibited ~10% higher liver SUV in comparison to SEG and NG patients; a positive correlation (r=0.2849) was found between liver SUV and blood glucose levels. Significantly higher tumor SUV was present in SEG patients. We did not confirm that hyperglycemia in a fasting state negatively influences the diagnostic quality of [18F]FDG-PET. The positive correlation between liver SUV and blood glucose levels is clinically negligible and might be explained by increased fasting hepatic gluconeogenesis in diabetics. Our data encourage the performance of [18F]FDG-PET investigations under fasting conditions, regardless of the mild to medium elevation of fasting blood glucose level.

  8. Reference intervals for glucose, beta-cell polypeptides and counterregulatory factors during prolonged fasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Kurt; Wildner-Christensen, M; Eshøj, O

    2001-01-01

    To establish reference intervals for the pancreatic beta-cell response and the counterregulatory hormone response to prolonged fasting, we studied 33 healthy subjects (16 males, 17 females) during a 72-h fast. Glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and proinsulin levels decreased (P ... of counterregulatory factors increased during the fast [P fasting (P ... decreased from the second to third day of fasting (P = 0.03). Males had higher glucose and glucagon levels and lower FFA levels during the fast (P

  9. Impact of training state on fasting-induced regulation of adipose tissue metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertholdt, Lærke; Gudiksen, Anders; Stankiewicz, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Recruitment of fatty acids from adipose tissue is essential during fasting. However, the molecular mechanisms behind fasting-induced metabolic regulation in human adipose tissue and the potential impact of training state in this are unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investig......Recruitment of fatty acids from adipose tissue is essential during fasting. However, the molecular mechanisms behind fasting-induced metabolic regulation in human adipose tissue and the potential impact of training state in this are unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study...... was to investigate 1) fasting-induced regulation of lipolysis and glyceroneogenesis in human adipose tissue as well as 2) the impact of training state on basal oxidative capacity and fasting-induced metabolic regulation in human adipose tissue. Untrained (VO2max 55ml......RNA content were higher in trained subjects than untrained subjects. In addition, trained subjects had higher adipose tissue hormone sensitive lipase Ser660 phosphorylation and adipose triglyceride lipase protein content as well as higher plasma free fatty acids concentration than untrained subjects during...

  10. Seasonal and interannual variability of fast ice extent in the southeastern Laptev Sea between 1999 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selyuzhenok, V.; Krumpen, T.; Mahoney, A.; Janout, M.; Gerdes, R.

    2015-12-01

    Along with changes in sea ice extent, thickness, and drift speed, Arctic sea ice regime is characterized by a decrease of fast ice season and reduction of fast ice extent. The most extensive fast ice cover in the Arctic develops in the southeastern Laptev Sea. Using weekly operational sea ice charts produced by Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI, Russia) from 1999 to 2013, we identified five main key events that characterize the annual evolution of fast ice in the southeastern Laptev Sea. Linking the occurrence of the key events with the atmospheric forcing, bathymetry, freezeup, and melt onset, we examined the processes driving annual fast ice cycle. The analysis revealed that fast ice in the region is sensitive to thermodynamic processes throughout a season, while the wind has a strong influence only on the first stages of fast ice development. The maximal fast ice extent is closely linked to the bathymetry and local topography and is primarily defined by the location of shoals, where fast ice is likely grounded. The annual fast ice cycle shows significant changes over the period of investigation, with tendencies toward later fast ice formation and earlier breakup. These tendencies result in an overall decrease of the fast ice season by 2.8 d/yr, which is significantly higher than previously reported trends.

  11. Comparing nutrition environments in bodegas and fast-food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckerman, Kathryn M; Lovasi, Laszlo; Yousefzadeh, Paulette; Sheehan, Daniel; Milinkovic, Karla; Baecker, Aileen; Bader, Michael D M; Weiss, Christopher; Lovasi, Gina S; Rundle, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Many small grocery stores or "bodegas" sell prepared or ready-to-eat items, filling a niche in the food environment similar to fast-food restaurants. However, little comparative information is available about the nutrition environments of bodegas and fast-food outlets. This study compared the nutrition environments of bodegas and national chain fast-food restaurants using a common audit instrument, the Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants (NEMS-R) protocol. The analytic sample included 109 bodegas and 107 fast-food restaurants located in New York City neighborhoods in the upper third and lower third of the census tract poverty rate distribution. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated in 102 food outlets, including 31 from the analytic sample and 71 from a supplementary convenience sample. The analysis compared scores on individual NEMS-R items, a total summary score, and subscores indicating healthy food availability, nutrition information, promotions of healthy or unhealthy eating, and price incentives for healthy eating, using t tests and χ(2) statistics to evaluate differences by outlet type and neighborhood poverty. Fast-food restaurants were more likely to provide nutrition information, and bodegas scored higher on healthy food availability, promotions, and pricing. Bodegas and fast-food restaurants had similar NEMS-R total scores (bodegas 13.09, fast food 14.31; P=0.22). NEMS-R total scores were higher (indicating healthier environments) in low- than high-poverty neighborhoods among both bodegas (14.79 vs 11.54; P=0.01) and fast-food restaurants (16.27 vs 11.60; Pnutrition environments in the two types of food outlets. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fast readout of scintillating fibres using position-sensitive photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agoritsas, V.; Akchurin, N.; Bergdolt, A.M.; Bing, O.; Bravar, A.; Ditta, J.; Dufournaud, J.; Dyachenko, V.A.; Giacomich, R.; Gorin, A.M.; Kuroda, K.; Magaudda, D.; Newsom, C.; Okada, K.; Onel, Y.; Penzo, A.; Rakhmatov, V.Ye.; Rykalin, V.I.; Salvato, G.; Savin, A.A.; Schiavon, P.; Sillou, D.; Solovyov, Yu.A.; Takeutchi, F.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Vasilchenko, V.G.; Yoshida, T.; Zaychenko, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    Major progress has recently been achieved in the fast readout of scintillating fibres using position-sensitive photomultipliers (PSPMs). Experimental results obtained with commercially available PSPMs already show a space resolution better than 200 μm, a time resolution of about 1.5 ns with a detection efficiency higher than 90%, and the possibility of separating double hits with a minimum distance of ∼3 mm. An upgrade of PSPMs based on new dynode structures is also in progress. Results obtained with one new PSPM prototype in a magnetic field are also presented. (orig.)

  13. The influence of hydrogen intercalation on inner pressure of Ni/MH battery during fast charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jianzhen; Wu, Feng; Hu, Daozhong; Chen, Shi; Mao, Licai; Wang, Guoqing [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2006-10-20

    Gaseous hydrogen is confirmed to be the main component and primarily responsible for the inner pressure rise inside the 8-Ah Ni/MH batteries during fast charge. Based on a temperature-dependent pressure model proposed in this work, the kinetic characteristics of the hydrogen evolution were investigated. The overpotential and exchange current density were obtained by fitting the presented equation to the experimental data. Moreover, the profiles of hydrogen concentration during fast charge was further modeled and calculated according to the proposed mathematical model of hydrogen intercalation. It is indicated that diffusion step controls the fast charge performances and the higher the charge rate is, the more quickly the negative electrode attains to the maximum surface intercalation fraction, and however, the calculated results also show that further charge can reduce the difference of charge efficiency among the various rate during fast charge. Numerical investigations also reveal that the increase of diffusion coefficient and decrease of the particle size can efficiently improve the characteristics of fast charge, respectively. (author)

  14. Changes in the nutritional quality of fast-food items marketed at restaurants, 2010 v. 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Jackie; Harris, Jennifer L; Davison, Kirsten K; Williams, David R; Roberto, Christina A

    2018-03-27

    To examine the nutritional quality of menu items promoted in four (US) fast-food restaurant chains (McDonald's, Burger King, Wendy's, Taco Bell) in 2010 and 2013. Menu items pictured on signs and menu boards were recorded at 400 fast-food restaurants across the USA. The Nutrient Profile Index (NPI) was used to calculate overall nutrition scores for items (higher scores indicate greater nutritional quality) and was dichotomized to denote healthier v. less healthy items. Changes over time in NPI scores and energy of promoted foods and beverages were analysed using linear regression. Four hundred fast-food restaurants (McDonald's, Burger King, Wendy's, Taco Bell; 100 locations per chain). NPI of fast-food items marketed at fast-food restaurants. Promoted foods and beverages on general menu boards and signs remained below the 'healthier' cut-off at both time points. On general menu boards, pictured items became modestly healthier from 2010 to 2013, increasing (mean (se)) by 3·08 (0·16) NPI score points (Prestaurants showed limited improvements in nutritional quality in 2013 v. 2010.

  15. ADT fast losses MD

    CERN Document Server

    Priebe, A; Dehning, B; Redaelli, S; Salvachua Ferrando, BM; Sapinski, M; Solfaroli Camillocci, M; Valuch, D

    2013-01-01

    The fast beam losses in the order of 1 ms are expected to be a potential major luminosity limitation for higher beam energies after the LHC long shutdown (LS1). Therefore a Quench Test is planned in the winter 2013 to estimate the quench limit in this timescale and revise the current models. This experiment was devoted to determination the LHC Transverse Damper (ADT) as a system for fast losses induction. A non-standard operation of the ADT was used to develop the beam oscillation instead of suppressing them. The sign flip method had allowed us to create the fast losses within several LHC turns at 450 GeV during the previous test (26th March 2012). Thus, the ADT could be potentially used for the studies of the UFO ("Unidentied Falling Object") impact on the cold magnets. Verification of the system capability and investigations of the disturbed beam properties were the main objectives of this MD. During the experiment, the pilot bunches of proton beam were excited independently in the horizontal and vertical ...

  16. The future of the Fast Breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) can produce more fissile nuclei than they consume whilst, at the same time, generating energy using fast neutrons. By conversion of uranium isotope 238 into a fissionable fuel, FBRs provide over 60 times more energy than can be extracted from the uranium reserves by thermal reactors. Their development is therefore an essential objective in the next century, particularly for those industrialised countries that have little or no energy resources of their own. The European countries which have been engaged in the development of FBRs for more than 25 years have decided to collaborate in an advanced design, the European Fast Reactor (EFR) which uses the best of previous national projects and draws on extensive operating experience from FBR plants in Europe. The naturally safe characteristics and technological features of sodium-cooled Fast Reactors will be fully utilised in an EFR design which meets the same safety level as the Light Water Reactors (LWRs). Owing to technical progress and series construction effect, the EFR is expected to achieve competitiveness with contemporary LWRs with the higher capital cost of the Fast Reactor offset by its markedly lower fuel cycle cost. (author)

  17. Fast food and obesity: a spatial analysis in a large United Kingdom population of children aged 13-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Lorna K; Clarke, Graham P; Cade, Janet E; Edwards, Kimberly L

    2012-05-01

    The childhood obesity epidemic is a current public health priority in many countries, and the consumption of fast food has been associated with obesity. This study aims to assess the relationship between fast-food consumption and obesity as well as the relationship between fast-food outlet access and consumption in a cohort of United Kingdom teenagers. A weighted accessibility score of the number of fast-food outlets within a 1-km network buffer of the participant's residence at age 13 years was calculated. Geographically weighted regression was used to assess the relationships between fast-food consumption at age 13 years and weight status at ages 13 and 15 years, and separately between fast-food accessibility and consumption. Data were collected from 2004 to 2008. The consumption of fast food was associated with a higher BMI SD score (β=0.08, 95% CI=0.03, 0.14); higher body fat percentage (β=2.06, 95% CI=1.33, 2.79); and increased odds of being obese (OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.02, 1.49). All these relationships were stationary and did not vary over space in the study area. The relationship between the accessibility of outlets and consumption did vary over space, with some areas (more rural areas) showing that increased accessibility was associated with consumption, whereas in some urban areas increased accessibility was associated with lack of consumption. There is continued need for nutritional education regarding fast food, but public health interventions that place restrictions on the location of fast-food outlets may not uniformly decrease consumption. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Preliminary studies leading to a conceptual design of a 1000 MWe fast neutron reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendryes, G.; Zaleski, C.P.

    1964-01-01

    This report presents the results of studies which seemed important to undertake in connexion with the development of fast neutron reactors. - It points out the advantage of high internal breeding ratios (∼1, 1) which are necessary in order to get a small change in time both in power distribution and reactivity (less: than 0.005 Δk/k in 18 months). - It shows how to achieve this goal, when simultaneously power distribution flattening is obtained. These results in a higher mean specific power (which is an economic gain) and therefore in a smaller doubling time (about 10 years). - It attempts to find criteria concerning the specific power that should be used in future reactor designs -It presents a conceptional design of a 1000 MWe fast neutron reactor, for the realisation of which no technological impossibility appears. - It shows that the dynamic behaviour seems satisfactory despite a positive total isothermal sodium coefficient. - It tries to predict the development of fast reactors within the future total nuclear program. It does not appear that fissile materials supply problems should in France slow down the development of fast neutron reactors, which will be essentially tied up to its economical ability to produce cheap electric power. (authors) [fr

  19. Does fast-neutron radiotherapy merely reduce the radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Koichi

    1984-01-01

    We examined whether fast-neutron radiotherapy is superior to low-LET radiotherpy by comparing the relationship between cell survival and tumor control probabilities after exposure of tumor-bearing (species) to the two modalities. Analysis based on TCD 50 assay and lung colony assay indicated that single dose of fast neutron achieved animal cures at higher survival rates than other radiation modalities including single and fractionated γ-ray doses, fractionated doses of fast neutron, and the mixed-beam scheme with a sequence of N-γ-γ-γ-N. We conclude that fast-neutron radiotherapy cured animal tumors with lower cell killing rates other radiation modalities. (author)

  20. A fast and flexible reactor physics model for simulating neutron spectra and depletion in fast reactors - 202

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recktenwald, G.D.; Bronk, L.A.; Deinert, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Determining the time dependent concentration of isotopes within a nuclear reactor core is central to the analysis of nuclear fuel cycles. We present a fast, flexible tool for determining the time dependent neutron spectrum within fast reactors. The code (VBUDS: visualization, burnup, depletion and spectra) uses a two region, multigroup collision probability model to simulate the energy dependent neutron flux and tracks the buildup and burnout of 24 actinides, as well as fission products. While originally developed for LWR simulations, the model is shown to produce fast reactor spectra that show high degree of fidelity to available fast reactor benchmarks. (authors)

  1. Advantage of fast reacting adsorbents like humic acids for the recovery of uranium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denzinger, H.; Schnell, C.; Heitkamp, D.; Wagener, K.

    1980-01-01

    This report is divided into two sections. The first part comprises experimental data of humic acid adsorbers; whereas, the second concerns design parameter and costs of a recovery plant using fast reacting adsorbents. Summarizing the experimental results, hydrogen-loaded humic acids on carriers show an exceptionally fast kinetics of uranium fixation in seawater which is practically temperature independent. This fast adsorption performance may be maintained in a technical recovery process if care is taken to minimize slow diffraction controlled steps preceding the uranium fixation reaction. When humic acid was used instead of titanium hydroxide in the recovery plant, there was a decrease of investment and production costs of about 50%. However, there was a higher percentage of energy costs, i.e., electric power consumption and investments for pumps

  2. Fast Food Pattern and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Review of Current Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahadoran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are growing concern globally regarding the alarming trend of fast food consump­tion and its related cardiometabolic outcomes including overweight and obesity. This study aimed to review the current evidences available in relation to adverse effects of fast food pattern on cardiometa­bolic risk factors. Methods: Relevant articles including epidemiological and clinical studies with appropriate design and good quality were obtained through searches of the Medline, PubMed, Scopus databases and Google scholar with related key words including "fast foods", "processed foods", "obesity", "overweight", "insulin resistance", "diabetes", "cardiovascular disease", "metabolic syndrome", "dyslipidemia" and "hypertension". Results: Fast food consumption and out-of-home eating behavior is a main risk factor for lower diet quality, higher calorie and fat intake and lower micronutrients density of diet. Frequent consumption of fast foods was accompanied with overweight and abdominal fat gain, impaired insulin and glucose homeostasis, lipid and lipoprotein disorders, induction of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Higher fast food consumption also increases the risk of developmental diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: This review provides further evidence warning us against the irreparable effects of fast food consumption on public health especially the increasing global burden of obesity and cardiovascu­lar diseases.

  3. Fast-food menu offerings vary in dietary quality, but are consistently poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Reedy, Jill; Kahle, Lisa L; Harris, Jennifer L; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate five popular fast-food chains' menus in relation to dietary guidance. Menus posted on chains' websites were coded using the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies and MyPyramid Equivalents Database to enable Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) scores to be assigned. Dollar or value and kids' menus and sets of items promoted as healthy or nutritious were also assessed. Five popular fast-food chains in the USA. Not applicable. Full menus scored lower than 50 out of 100 possible points on the HEI-2005. Scores for Total Fruit, Whole Grains and Sodium were particularly dismal. Compared with full menus, scores on dollar or value menus were 3 points higher on average, whereas kids' menus scored 10 points higher on average. Three chains marketed subsets of items as healthy or nutritious; these scored 17 points higher on average compared with the full menus. No menu or subset of menu items received a score higher than 72 out of 100 points. The poor quality of fast-food menus is a concern in light of increasing away-from-home eating, aggressive marketing to children and minorities, and the tendency for fast-food restaurants to be located in low-income and minority areas. The addition of fruits, vegetables and legumes; replacement of refined with whole grains; and reformulation of offerings high in sodium, solid fats and added sugars are potential strategies to improve fast-food offerings. The HEI may be a useful metric for ongoing monitoring of fast-food menus.

  4. Serum Lipid Profile: Fasting or Non-fasting?

    OpenAIRE

    Nigam, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Serum lipid profile has now become almost a routine test. It is usually done in fasting state due to certain limitations in non-fasting serum sample. In the recent past efforts have been made to simplify blood sampling by replacing fasting lipid profile with non-fasting lipid profile. However, fasting specimen is preferred if cardiovascular risk assessment is based on total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol or non-HDL cholesterol. A lot has yet to be done in this area. Till then we have to believe...

  5. Evaluation of the relationship between physiological FDG uptake in the heart and age, blood glucose level, fasting period, and hospitalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneta, Tomohiro; Hakamatsuka, Takashi; Takanami, Kentaro

    2006-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is widely used for evaluation of cancer and ischemic heart disease. Recently, increased myocardial FDG uptake has been reported to be related to some types of heart disease, such as sarcoidosis. However, the physiological increased FDG uptake in the heart often mimics the abnormal high uptake in these cases. In this study, we investigated the relationships between myocardial uptake and age, blood glucose level, fasting period, and hospitalization status (inpatient vs. outpatient). A total of 159 non-diabetic patients were enrolled in the present study. Patients were imaged on a PET/CT scanner, and a three-dimensional region of interest (ROI) was drawn on the fused PET/CT image to measure the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) of the whole left ventricle. No significant relationships were observed between myocardial uptake and age or fasting period. Blood glucose level showed a significant relationship (p=0.025) with myocardial uptake, but the R-square was extremely small (r 2 =0.03). With an SUV max threshold of 3.0, there was no significant difference between inpatients and outpatients. However, outpatients showed a significantly higher frequency of myocardial uptake over SUV max of 5.0 (x 2 test: p=0.046). It is difficult to predict the degree of physiological uptake in the heart from data regarding age, fasting period, or blood glucose level. Outpatients tend to show higher myocardial uptake than inpatients, which may make it difficult to detect abnormally increased uptake in the heart. A long fasting period, such as overnight fasting, is an inadequate means to reduce the physiological uptake of FDG in the heart. (author)

  6. Seismic Loading for FAST: May 2011 - August 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asareh, M. A.; Prowell, I.

    2012-08-01

    As more wind farms are constructed in seismically active regions, earthquake loading increases in prominence for design and analysis of wind turbines. Early investigation of seismic load tended to simplify the rotor and nacelle as a lumped mass on top of the turbine tower. This simplification allowed the use of techniques developed for conventional civil structures, such as buildings, to be easily applied to wind turbines. However, interest is shifting to more detailed models that consider loads for turbine components other than the tower. These improved models offer three key capabilities in consideration of base shaking for turbines: 1) The inclusion of aerodynamics and turbine control; 2) The ability to consider component loads other than just tower loads; and 3) An improved representation of turbine response in higher modes by reducing modeling simplifications. Both experimental and numerical investigations have shown that, especially for large modern turbines, it is important to consider interaction between earthquake input, aerodynamics, and operational loads. These investigations further show that consideration of higher mode activity may be necessary in the analysis of the seismic response of turbines. Since the FAST code is already capable of considering these factors, modifications were developed that allow simulation of base shaking. This approach allows consideration of this additional load source within a framework, the FAST code that is already familiar to many researchers and practitioners.

  7. Waves from Propulsion Systems of Fast Ferries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taatø, Søren Haugsted; Aage, Christian; Arnskov, Michael M.

    1998-01-01

    Waves from fast ferries have become an environmental problem of growing concern to the public. Fast ferries produce not only higher waves than conventional ships but also fundamentally different wave systems when they sail at supercritical speeds. Hitherto, ship waves have been considered as being...... generated by the ship hulls alone. Whereas this assumption may be reasonable for conventional ships with large hulls and limited propulsive power, the situation is different for fast ferries with their smaller hulls and very large installed power. A simple theoretical model and a series of model tests...... on a monohull fast ferry seem to indicate that a substantial part of the wave-making can be directly attributed to the propulsion system itself. Thus, two wave systems are created with different phases, but with similar frequency contents, which means that they merge into one system behind the ship, very...

  8. Differences in Body Fat Distribution Play a Role in the Lower Levels of Elevated Fasting Glucose amongst Ghanaian Migrant Women Compared to Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, Mary; Kunst, Anton E; Busschers, Wim B; van Valkengoed, Irene G; Dijkshoorn, Henriette; Boateng, Linda; Brewster, Lizzy M; Snijder, Marieke B; Stronks, Karien; Agyemang, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Despite higher levels of obesity, West African migrant women appear to have lower rates of type 2 diabetes than their male counterparts. We investigated the role of body fat distribution in these differences. Cross-sectional study of Ghanaian migrants (97 men, 115 women) aged 18-60 years in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured. Logistic regression was used to explore the association of BMI, waist and hip measurements with elevated fasting glucose (glucose≥5.6 mmol/L). Linear regression was used to study the association of the same parameters with fasting glucose. Mean BMI, waist and hip circumferences were higher in women than men while the prevalence of elevated fasting glucose was higher in men than in women, 33% versus 19%. With adjustment for age only, men were non-significantly more likely than women to have an elevated fasting glucose, odds ratio (OR) 1.81, 95% CI: 0.95, 3.46. With correction for BMI, the higher odds among men increased and were statistically significant (OR 2.84, 95% CI: 1.32, 6.10), but with consideration of body fat distribution (by adding both hip and waist in the analysis) differences were no longer significant (OR 1.56 95% CI: 0.66, 3.68). Analysis with fasting glucose as continuous outcome measure showed somewhat similar results. Compared to men, the lower rates of elevated fasting glucose observed among Ghanaian women may be partly due to a more favorable body fat distribution, characterized by both hip and waist measurements.

  9. Differences in Body Fat Distribution Play a Role in the Lower Levels of Elevated Fasting Glucose amongst Ghanaian Migrant Women Compared to Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Nicolaou

    Full Text Available Despite higher levels of obesity, West African migrant women appear to have lower rates of type 2 diabetes than their male counterparts. We investigated the role of body fat distribution in these differences.Cross-sectional study of Ghanaian migrants (97 men, 115 women aged 18-60 years in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured. Logistic regression was used to explore the association of BMI, waist and hip measurements with elevated fasting glucose (glucose≥5.6 mmol/L. Linear regression was used to study the association of the same parameters with fasting glucose.Mean BMI, waist and hip circumferences were higher in women than men while the prevalence of elevated fasting glucose was higher in men than in women, 33% versus 19%. With adjustment for age only, men were non-significantly more likely than women to have an elevated fasting glucose, odds ratio (OR 1.81, 95% CI: 0.95, 3.46. With correction for BMI, the higher odds among men increased and were statistically significant (OR 2.84, 95% CI: 1.32, 6.10, but with consideration of body fat distribution (by adding both hip and waist in the analysis differences were no longer significant (OR 1.56 95% CI: 0.66, 3.68. Analysis with fasting glucose as continuous outcome measure showed somewhat similar results.Compared to men, the lower rates of elevated fasting glucose observed among Ghanaian women may be partly due to a more favorable body fat distribution, characterized by both hip and waist measurements.

  10. Fast Food, Addiction, and Market Power

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Timothy J.; Patterson, Paul M.; Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2007-01-01

    Many attribute the rise in obesity since the early 1980's to the overconsumption of fast food. A dynamic model of a different-product industry equilibrium shows that a firm with market power will price below marginal cost in a steady-state equilibrium. A spatial hedonic pricing model is used to test whether fast food firms set prices in order to exploit their inherent addictiveness. The results show that firms price products dense in addictive nutrients below marginal cost, but price products...

  11. DMPDS: A Fast Motion Estimation Algorithm Targeting High Resolution Videos and Its FPGA Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sanchez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new fast motion estimation (ME algorithm targeting high resolution digital videos and its efficient hardware architecture design. The new Dynamic Multipoint Diamond Search (DMPDS algorithm is a fast algorithm which increases the ME quality when compared with other fast ME algorithms. The DMPDS achieves a better digital video quality reducing the occurrence of local minima falls, especially in high definition videos. The quality results show that the DMPDS is able to reach an average PSNR gain of 1.85 dB when compared with the well-known Diamond Search (DS algorithm. When compared to the optimum results generated by the Full Search (FS algorithm the DMPDS shows a lose of only 1.03 dB in the PSNR. On the other hand, the DMPDS reached a complexity reduction higher than 45 times when compared to FS. The quality gains related to DS caused an expected increase in the DMPDS complexity which uses 6.4-times more calculations than DS. The DMPDS architecture was designed focused on high performance and low cost, targeting to process Quad Full High Definition (QFHD videos in real time (30 frames per second. The architecture was described in VHDL and synthesized to Altera Stratix 4 and Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGAs. The synthesis results show that the architecture is able to achieve processing rates higher than 53 QFHD fps, reaching the real-time requirements. The DMPDS architecture achieved the highest processing rate when compared to related works in the literature. This high processing rate was obtained designing an architecture with a high operation frequency and low numbers of cycles necessary to process each block.

  12. Scaling Trapped Ion Quantum Computers Using Fast Gates and Microtraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Alexander K.; Taylor, Richard L.; Hope, Joseph J.; Carvalho, André R. R.

    2018-06-01

    Most attempts to produce a scalable quantum information processing platform based on ion traps have focused on the shuttling of ions in segmented traps. We show that an architecture based on an array of microtraps with fast gates will outperform architectures based on ion shuttling. This system requires higher power lasers but does not require the manipulation of potentials or shuttling of ions. This improves optical access, reduces the complexity of the trap, and reduces the number of conductive surfaces close to the ions. The use of fast gates also removes limitations on the gate time. Error rates of 10-5 are shown to be possible with 250 mW laser power and a trap separation of 100 μ m . The performance of the gates is shown to be robust to the limitations in the laser repetition rate and the presence of many ions in the trap array.

  13. Differences between glycogen biogenesis in fast- and slow-twitch rabbit muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cussó, R; Lerner, L R; Cadefau, J

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal muscle glycogen is an essential energy substrate for muscular activity. The biochemical properties of the enzymes involved in de novo synthesis of glycogen were analysed in two types of rabbit skeletal muscle fiber (fast- and slow-twitch). Glycogen concentration was higher in fast...

  14. Fast-food consumption and obesity among Michigan adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Beth; Rafferty, Ann P; Lyon-Callo, Sarah; Fussman, Christopher; Imes, Gwendoline

    2011-07-01

    Consumption of meals eaten away from home, especially from fast-food restaurants, has increased in the United States since the 1970s. The main objective of this study was to examine the frequency and characteristics of fast-food consumption among adults in Michigan and obesity prevalence. We analyzed data from 12 questions about fast-food consumption that were included on the 2005 Michigan Behavioral Risk Factor Survey, a population-based telephone survey of Michigan adults, using univariate and bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression, and compared these data with data on Michigan obesity prevalence. Approximately 80% of Michigan adults went to fast-food restaurants at least once per month and 28% went regularly (≥2 times/wk). Regular fast-food consumption was higher among younger adults (mostly men) but was not significantly associated with household income, education, race, or urbanicity (in a multivariate framework). The prevalence of obesity increased consistently with frequenting fast-food restaurants, from 24% of those going less than once a week to 33% of those going 3 or more times per week. The predominant reason for choosing fast food was convenience. Although hypothetically 68% of adults who go to fast-food restaurants would choose healthier fast-food items when available, only 16% said they ever use nutritional information when ordering. The prevalence of fast-food consumption is high in Michigan across education, income, and racial groups and is strongly associated with obesity. Making nutritional information at fast-food restaurants more readily available and easier to use may help consumers to order more healthful or lower-calorie items.

  15. Effect of carbon tetrachloride on glycogen metabolism in fasted and refed mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pushpendran, C.K.; Shenoy, B.V.; Eapen, J.

    1977-01-01

    Hepatic glycogen was depleted rapidly in fasted mice treated with CCl 4 . Glycogen breakdown was slow when CCl 4 was administered after 1 hr of refeeding. There was an initial increase and then a reduction in liver glycogen of mice refed for 2 hr prior to CCl 4 injection. The incorporation of glucose-U- 14 C into glycogen was higher in mice which were refed before CCl 4 administration than in fasted mice treated with the hepatotoxin. The specific activity of lactate was higher in CCl 4 treated mice. The data suggested differences in glycogen metabolism of fasted and refed mice in response to CCl 4 treatment. (author)

  16. Effects of duration of fast and animal age on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Oldham, R.D.; Moretti, E.S.; Spaletto, M.I.

    1986-01-01

    The fraction of plutonium absorbed after oral administration of Pu(VI) to 24-h-fasted mice was 19 X 10(-4), 13-fold higher than in fed mice, 1.4 X 10(-4). We have investigated the relevance of the high gastrointestinal (GI) absorption value for the 24-h-fasted animals in setting drinking water standards for humans. When fasting was initiated at the beginning of the active phase of the mouse's daily activity cycle (when they would normally eat), plutonium GI absorption rose from 2.8 X 10(-4) at zero-time to a level typical of the 24-h-fasted mouse after only 2 h of fasting. In contrast, in mice allowed to eat for 4 h into their active phase prior to initiation of the fast (meal-fed mice), 8 h of fasting were required before GI absorption rose to a level similar to that of the 24-h-fasted mouse. The fraction of plutonium retained after gavage administration of Pu(VI) to 1-day-old rats was 74 X 10(-4), 70-fold higher than the value for fed adults. Retention after GI absorption in neonates remained 30- to 70-fold higher than in adults until weaning. One week after weaning, the fraction absorbed and retained by fed weanling rats was the same as that for fed adults, 1 X 10(-4). Drinking water standards for plutonium have been set based on GI absorption values for fed adult animals. The 10- to 100-fold increases in plutonium absorption in young and fasted animals reported by ourselves and others, and the rapid rise to fasted levels of absorption at the start of the animal's active phase, indicate that consideration should be given to elevated levels of plutonium absorption in young and fasted individuals

  17. Sublingual fast dissolving niosomal films for enhanced bioavailability and prolonged effect of metoprolol tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ayat; Fetih, Gihan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to prepare and evaluate sublingual fast dissolving films containing metoprolol tartrate-loaded niosomes. Niosomes were utilized to allow for prolonged release of the drug, whereas the films were used to increase the drug's bioavailability via the sublingual route. Niosomes were prepared using span 60 and cholesterol at different drug to surfactant ratios. The niosomes were characterized for size, zeta-potential, and entrapment efficiency. The selected niosomal formulation was incorporated into polymeric films using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose E15 and methyl cellulose as film-forming polymers and Avicel as superdisintegrant. The physical characteristics (appearance, texture, pH, uniformity of weight and thickness, disintegration time, and palatability) of the prepared films were studied, in addition to evaluating the in vitro drug release, stability, and in vivo pharmacokinetics in rabbits. The release of the drug from the medicated film was fast (99.9% of the drug was released within 30 minutes), while the drug loaded into the niosomes, either incorporated into the film or not, showed only 22.85% drug release within the same time. The selected sublingual film showed significantly higher rate of drug absorption and higher drug plasma levels compared with that of commercial oral tablet. The plasma levels remained detectable for 24 hours following sublingual administration, compared with only 12 hours after administration of the oral tablet. In addition, the absolute bioavailability of the drug (ie, relative to intravenous administration) following sublingual administration was found to be significantly higher (91.06%±13.28%), as compared with that after oral tablet administration (39.37%±11.4%). These results indicate that the fast dissolving niosomal film could be a promising delivery system to enhance the bioavailability and prolong the therapeutic effect of metoprolol tartrate.

  18. Hydrogels from feather keratin show higher viscoelastic properties and cell proliferation than those from hair and wool keratins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza, Yussef; Bandara, Nandika; Ullah, Aman; Wu, Jianping

    2018-09-01

    Hydrogel prepared from keratin shows potential applications in tissue engineering. However, the importance of the keratin sources has not been considered. The objectives of this study were to characterize and compare the rheological (storage modulus), physical (porosity, pore size, swelling capacity, and water contact angle) and in vitro cell compatibility of hydrogel scaffolds prepared from various keratin sources. Keratins were characterized by means of their molecular weight, amino acid composition, thermal and conformational properties. Hydrogels from chicken feather keratins demonstrated substantially higher storage modulus (G') than hair and wool keratin hydrogels. However, higher swelling capacity (>3000%) was determined in hair and wool over feather keratin (1500%) hydrogels. Our results suggest that small molecular weight and β-sheet conformation of feather keratin (~10 kDa) facilitated the self-assembly of rigid hydrogels through disulfide bond re-oxidation. Whereas, high molecular weight (10-75 kDa) stretchable α-helix conformation in hair and wool keratins resulted in weaker hydrogels. The cell cultures using fibroblasts showed the highest proliferation rate on chicken feather keratin hydrogel scaffolds. After 15 days of culture, partial breakdown of keratin fibers was observed. Results indicate that stiffer avian keratins can be used to fabricate more mechanically robust biomaterials than mammalian keratins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fast and sensitive taxonomic classification for metagenomics with Kaiju

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menzel, Peter; Ng, Kim Lee; Krogh, Anders

    2016-01-01

    heuristic. We show in a genome exclusion study that Kaiju can classify more reads with higher sensitivity and similar precision compared to fast k-mer based classifiers, especially in genera that are underrepresented in reference databases. We also demonstrate that Kaiju classifies more than twice as many...... reads in ten real metagenomes compared to programs based on genomic k-mers. Kaiju can process up to millions of reads per minute, and its memory footprint is below 5 GB of RAM, allowing the analysis on a standard PC. The program is available under the GPL3 license at: github.com/bioinformatics-centre/kaiju...

  20. Fast food: unfriendly and unhealthy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, S; Dyerberg, J; Astrup, A

    2007-06-01

    Although nutrition experts might be able to navigate the menus of fast-food restaurant chains, and based on the nutritional information, compose apparently 'healthy' meals, there are still many reasons why frequent fast-food consumption at most chains is unhealthy and contributes to weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Fast food generally has a high-energy density, which, together with large portion sizes, induces over consumption of calories. In addition, we have found it to be a myth that the typical fast-food meal is the same worldwide. Chemical analyses of 74 samples of fast-food menus consisting of French fries and fried chicken (nuggets/hot wings) bought in McDonalds and KFC outlets in 35 countries in 2005-2006 showed that the total fat content of the same menu varies from 41 to 65 g at McDonalds and from 42 to 74 g at KFC. In addition, fast food from major chains in most countries still contains unacceptably high levels of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (IP-TFA). IP-TFA have powerful biological effects and may contribute to increased weight gain, abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. The food quality and portion size need to be improved before it is safe to eat frequently at most fast-food chains.

  1. Fractional equivalent Lagrangian densities for a fractional higher-order equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujioka, J

    2014-01-01

    In this communication we show that the equivalent Lagrangian densities (ELDs) of a fractional higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation with stable soliton-like solutions can be related in a hitherto unknown way. This new relationship is described in terms of a new fractional operator that includes both left- and right-sided fractional derivatives. Using this operator it is possible to generate new ELDs that contain different fractional parts, in addition to the already known ELDs, which only differ by a sum of first-order partial derivatives of two arbitrary functions. (fast track communications)

  2. Analytical model for fast-shock ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi, S. A.; Farahbod, A. H.; Sobhanian, S.

    2014-01-01

    A model and its improvements are introduced for a recently proposed approach to inertial confinement fusion, called fast-shock ignition (FSI). The analysis is based upon the gain models of fast ignition, shock ignition and considerations for the fast electrons penetration into the pre-compressed fuel to examine the formation of an effective central hot spot. Calculations of fast electrons penetration into the dense fuel show that if the initial electron kinetic energy is of the order ∼4.5 MeV, the electrons effectively reach the central part of the fuel. To evaluate more realistically the performance of FSI approach, we have used a quasi-two temperature electron energy distribution function of Strozzi (2012) and fast ignitor energy formula of Bellei (2013) that are consistent with 3D PIC simulations for different values of fast ignitor laser wavelength and coupling efficiency. The general advantages of fast-shock ignition in comparison with the shock ignition can be estimated to be better than 1.3 and it is seen that the best results can be obtained for the fuel mass around 1.5 mg, fast ignitor laser wavelength ∼0.3  micron and the shock ignitor energy weight factor about 0.25

  3. Do persistently fast-growing juveniles contribute disproportionately to population growth? A new analysis tool for matrix models and its application to rainforest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidema, Pieter A; Brienen, Roel J W; During, Heinjo J; Güneralp, Burak

    2009-11-01

    Plants and animals often exhibit strong and persistent growth variation among individuals within a species. Persistently fast-growing individuals have a higher chance of reaching reproductive size, do so at a younger age, and therefore contribute disproportionately to population growth (lambda). Here we introduce a new approach to quantify this "fast-growth effect." We propose using age-size-structured matrix models in which persistently fast and slow growers are distinguished as they occur in relatively young and old age classes for a given size category. Life-cycle pathways involving fast growth can then be identified, and their contribution to lambda is quantified through loop analysis. We applied this approach to an example species, the tropical rainforest tree Cedrela odorata, that shows persistent growth variation among individuals. Loop analysis showed that juvenile trees reaching the 10-cm diameter class at below-median age contributed twice as much to lambda as slow juvenile growers. Fast growth to larger-diameter categories also contributed disproportionately to lambda. The results were robust to changes in parameter values and life-history trade-offs. These results show that the fast-growth effect can be strong in long-lived species. Persistent growth differences among individuals should therefore be accommodated for in demographic models and life-history studies.

  4. Effectiveness of Nutrition Education on Fast Food Choices in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kelly N.; Taylor, Julie Smith; Kuiper, RuthAnne

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has become a major health concern in the United States. An increased frequency of fast food restaurant dining is associated with higher intake of calories and calories from fat. The purpose of this study was to gain insight as to how food choices in a "simulated" fast food environment might be influenced by nutrition…

  5. Improved meta-analytic methods show no effect of chromium supplements on fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Christopher H

    2014-01-01

    The trace mineral chromium has been extensively researched over the years in its role in glucose metabolism. Dietary supplement companies have attempted to make claims that chromium may be able to treat or prevent diabetes. Previous meta-analyses/systematic reviews have indicated that chromium supplementation results in a significant lowering of fasting glucose in diabetics but not in nondiabetics. A meta-analysis was conducted using an alternative measure of effect size, d(ppc2) in order to account for changes in the control group as well as the chromium group. The literature search included MEDLINE, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and previously published article reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Included studies were randomized, placebo-controlled trials in the English language with subjects that were nonpregnant adults, both with and without diabetes. Sixteen studies with 809 participants (440 diabetics and 369 nondiabetics) were included in the analysis. Screening for publication bias indicated symmetry of the data. Tests of heterogeneity indicated the use of a fixed-effect model (I² = 0 %). The analysis indicated that there was no significant effect of chromium supplementation in diabetics or nondiabetics, with a weighted average effect size of 0.02 (SE = 0.07), p = 0.787, CI 95 % = -0.12 to 0.16. Chromium supplementation appears to provide no benefits to populations where chromium deficiency is unlikely.

  6. Fast-food exposure around schools in urban Adelaide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee, Neil T; Kennedy, Hannah P; Niyonsenga, Theo

    2016-12-01

    To assess whether exposure to fast-food outlets around schools differed depending on socio-economic status (SES). Binary logistic regression was used to investigate the presence and zero-inflated Poisson regression was used for the count (due to the excess of zeroes) of fast food within 1000 m and 15000 m road network buffers around schools. The low and middle SES tertiles were combined due to a lack of significant variation as the 'disadvantaged' group and compared with the high SES tertile as the 'advantaged' group. School SES was expressed using the 2011 Australian Bureau of Statistics, socio-economic indices for areas, index of relative socio-economic disadvantage. Fast-food data included independent takeaway food outlets and major fast-food chains. Metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia. A total of 459 schools were geocoded to the street address and 1000 m and 1500 m road network distance buffers calculated. There was a 1·6 times greater risk of exposure to fast food within 1000 m (OR=1·634; 95 % 1·017, 2·625) and a 9·5 times greater risk of exposure to a fast food within 1500 m (OR=9·524; 95 % CI 3·497, 25·641) around disadvantaged schools compared with advantaged schools. Disadvantaged schools were exposed to more fast food, with more than twice the number of disadvantaged schools exposed to fast food. The higher exposure to fast food near more disadvantaged schools may reflect lower commercial land cost in low-SES areas, potentially creating more financially desirable investments for fast-food developers.

  7. Comparison of fasting and non-fasting lipid profiles in a large cohort of patients presenting at a community hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Louis-Jacques; Collins, Charlene; Lagacé, Mathieu; Douville, Pierre

    2018-02-01

    To compare the fasting and non-fasting lipid profile including ApoB in a cohort of patients from a community setting. Our purpose was to determine the proportion of results that could be explained by the known biological variation in the fasting state and to examine the additional impact of non-fasting on these same lipid parameters. 1093 adult outpatients with fasting lipid requests were recruited from February to September 2016 at the blood collection sites of the Moncton Hospital. Participants were asked to come back in the next 3-4days after having eaten a regular breakfast to have their blood drawn for a non-fasting lipid profile. 91.6% of patients in this study had a change in total cholesterol that fell within the biological variation expected for this parameter. Similar results were seen for HDL-C (94.3%) non-HDL-C (88.8%) and ApoB (93.0%). A smaller number of patients fell within the biological variation expected for TG (78.8%) and LDL-C (74.6%). An average TG increase of 0.3mmol/L was observed in fed patients no matter the level of fasting TG. A gradual widening in the range of change in TG concentration was observed as fasting TG increased. Similar results were seen in diabetic patients. Outside of LDL-C and TG, little changes were seen in lipid parameters in the postprandial state. A large part of these changes could be explained by the biological variation. We observed a gradual widening in the range of increase in TG for patients with higher fasting TG. Non-HDL-C and ApoB should be the treatment target of choice for patients in the non-fasting state. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The fast reactor and energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The progress made with fast reactor development in many countries is summarised showing that the aim is to provide to the nation concerned an ability to instal fast reactor power stations at the end of this century or early in the next one. Accepting the importance of fast reactors as a potential independent source of energy, problems concerning economics, industrial capability, technical factors, public acceptibility and in particular plutonium management, are discussed. It is concluded that although fast reactors have reached a comparatively advanced stage of development, a number of factors make it likely that their introduction for electricity generation will be a gradual process. Nevertheless it is necessary to complete demonstration and development phases in good time. (U.K.)

  9. Fast Pyrolysis of Four Lignins from Different Isolation Processes Using Py-GC/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Xiaona; Sui, Shujuan; Tan, Shun; Pittman, Charles; Sun, Jianping; Zhang, Zhijun

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis is a promising approach that is being investigated to convert lignin into higher value products including biofuels and phenolic chemicals. In this study, fast pyrolysis of four types of lignin, including milled Amur linden wood lignin (MWL), enzymatic hydrolysis corn stover lignin (EHL), wheat straw alkali lignin (AL) and wheat straw sulfonate lignin (SL), were performed using pyrolysis gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the...

  10. Fasting and Fast Food Diet Play an Opposite Role in Mice Brain Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrogiovanni, Paola; Li Volti, Giovanni; Sanfilippo, Cristina; Tibullo, Daniele; Galvano, Fabio; Vecchio, Michele; Avola, Roberto; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Malaguarnera, Lucia; Castorina, Sergio; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Imbesi, Rosa; Di Rosa, Michelino

    2018-01-20

    Fasting may be exploited as a possible strategy for prevention and treatment of several diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and aging. On the other hand, high-fat diet (HFD) represents a risk factor for several diseases and increased mortality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of fasting on mouse brain aging transcriptome and how HFD regulates such pathways. We used the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, in order to identify suitable microarray datasets comparing mouse brain transcriptome under fasting or HFD vs aged mouse brain transcriptome. Three microarray datasets were selected for this study, GSE24504, GSE6285, and GSE8150, and the principal molecular mechanisms involved in this process were evaluated. This analysis showed that, regardless of fasting duration, mouse brain significantly expressed 21 and 30 upregulated and downregulated genes, respectively. The involved biological processes were related to cell cycle arrest, cell death inhibition, and regulation of cellular metabolism. Comparing mouse brain transcriptome under fasting and aged conditions, we found out that the number of genes in common increased with the duration of fasting (222 genes), peaking at 72 h. In addition, mouse brain transcriptome under HFD resembles for the 30% the one of the aged mice. Furthermore, several molecular processes were found to be shared between HFD and aging. In conclusion, we suggest that fasting and HFD play an opposite role in brain transcriptome of aged mice. Therefore, an intermittent diet could represent a possible clinical strategy to counteract aging, loss of memory, and neuroinflammation. Furthermore, low-fat diet leads to the inactivation of brain degenerative processes triggered by aging.

  11. Effect of carbon tetrachloride on glycogen metabolism in fasted and refed mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pushpendran, C K; Shenoy, B V; Eapen, J [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biochemistry and Food Technology Div.

    1977-11-01

    Hepatic glycogen was depleted rapidly in fasted mice treated with CCl/sub 4/. Glycogen breakdown was slow when CCl/sub 4/ was administered after 1 hr of refeeding. There was an initial increase and then a reduction in liver glycogen of mice refed for 2 hr prior to CCl/sub 4/ injection. The incorporation of glucose-U-/sup 14/C into glycogen was higher in mice which were refed before CCl/sub 4/ administration than in fasted mice treated with the hepatotoxin. The specific activity of lactate was higher in CCl/sub 4/ treated mice. The data suggested differences in glycogen metabolism of fasted and refed mice in response to CCl/sub 4/ treatment.

  12. Outcome of Blunt Abdominal Traumas with Stable Hemodynamic and Positive FAST Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behboodi, Firooz; Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra; Masjedi, Navid; Shojaie, Reza; Sadri, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) is a highly effective first screening tool for initial classification of abdominal trauma patients. The present study was designed to evaluate the outcome of patients with blunt abdominal trauma and positive FAST findings. The present prospective cross-sectional study was done on patients over 7 years old with normal abdominal examination, positive FAST findings, and available abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scan findings. The frequency of need for laparotomy as well as its probable risk factors were calculated. 180 patients were enrolled (mean age: 28.0 ± 11.5 years; 76.7% male). FAST findings were confirmed by abdominopelvic CT scan in only 124 (68.9%) cases. Finally, 12 (6.6%) patients needed laparotomy. Mean age of those in need of laparotomy was significantly higher than others (36.75 ± 11.37 versus 27.34 ± 11.37, p = 0.006). Higher grading of spleen (p = 0.001) and hepatic (p = 0.038) ruptures increased the probability of need for laparotomy. 68.9% of the positive FAST findings in patients with blunt abdominal trauma and stable hemodynamics was confirmed by abdominopelvic CT scan and only 6.6% needed laparotomy. Simultaneous presence of free fluid and air in the abdominal area, old age, and higher grading o solid organ injuries were factors that had a significant correlation with need for laparotomy.

  13. Effects of fasting and feeding on the fast-start swimming performance of southern catfish Silurus meridionalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, G J; He, X K; Cao, Z D; Fu, S J

    2015-01-21

    This study investigated the effects of fasting and feeding on the fast-start escape swimming performance of juvenile southern catfish Silurus meridionalis, a sit-and-wait forager that encounters extreme fasting and famine frequently during its lifespan. Ten to 30 days of fasting resulted in no significant change in most of the variables measured in the fast-start response except a 20-30% decrease in the escape distance during the first 120 ms (D 120ms ) relative to the control group (48 h after feeding). The ratio of the single-bend (SB) response (lower energetic expenditure) to the double-bend (DB) response increased significantly from 0% in the control group to 75 and 82·5% in the 20 and 30 day fasting groups, respectively. Satiated feeding (25% of body mass) resulted in a significantly lower (36·6%) maximum linear velocity (V max ) and a significantly lower (43·3%) D 120ms than in non-fed fish (control group, 48 h after feeding). Half-satiated feeding (12·5% of body mass), however, showed no significant effects on any of the measured variables of the fast-start response relative to control fish. It is suggested that the increase in the ratio of SB:DB responses with fasting in S. meridionalis may reflect a trade-off between energy conservation and maintaining high V max , while variables of fast-start performance were more sensitive to feeding than fasting might be an adaptive strategy to their foraging mode and food availability in their habitat. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Interactive effects of reward sensitivity and residential fast-food restaurant exposure on fast-food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Catherine; Daniel, Mark; Knäuper, Bärbel; Gauvin, Lise; Kestens, Yan; Dubé, Laurette

    2010-03-01

    Local fast-food environments have been increasingly linked to obesity and related outcomes. Individuals who are more sensitive to reward-related cues might be more responsive to such environments. This study aimed to assess the moderating role of sensitivity to reward on the relation between residential fast-food restaurant exposure and fast-food consumption. Four hundred fifteen individuals (49.6% men; mean age: 34.7 y) were sampled from 7 Montreal census tracts stratified by socioeconomic status and French/English language. The frequency of fast-food restaurant visits in the previous week was self-reported. Sensitivity to reward was self-reported by using the Behavioral Activation System (BAS) scale. Fast-food restaurant exposure within 500 m of the participants' residence was determined by using a Geographic Information System. Main and interactive effects of the BAS and fast-food restaurant exposure on fast-food consumption were tested with logistic regression models that accounted for clustering of observations and participants' age, sex, education, and household income. Regression results showed a significant interaction between BAS and fast-food restaurant exposure (P food restaurant exposure and consumption was positive for the highest tertile (odds ratio: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.84; P < 0.001) but null for the intermediate (odds ratio: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.34; P = 0.81) and lowest (odds ratio: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.51, 1.37; P = 0.49) tertiles. Reward-sensitive individuals may be more responsive to unhealthful cues in their immediate environment.

  15. Fast Convolution Module (Fast Convolution Module)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bierens, L

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the design and realisation of a real-time range azimuth compression module, the so-called 'Fast Convolution Module', based on the fast convolution algorithm developed at TNO-FEL...

  16. Studies of fast-ion transport induced by energetic particle modes using fast-particle diagnostics with high time resolution in CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, M.; Toi, K.; Suzuki, C.; Nagaoka, K.; Matsushita, H.; Goto, K.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to reveal the effects of the energetic particle mode (EPM) on fast-ion transport and consequent fast-ion loss in the Compact Helical System (CHS). For this purpose, fast particle diagnostics capable of following fast events originating from the EPM (f -5 Tesla at the magnetic probe position. The lost fast-ion probe (LIP) located at the outboard side of the torus indicates that bursting EPMs lead to periodically enhanced losses of co-going fast ions having smaller pitch angles in addition to losses of marginally co-passing fast ions. Coinciding with EPM bursts, the H- light detector viewing the peripheral region at the outboard side also shows large pulsed increases similar to that of the LIP whereas the detector viewing the peripheral region at the inboard side does not. This is also evidence that fast ions are expelled to the outboard side due to the EPM. The charge-exchange neutral particle analyzer indicates that only fast ions whose energy is close to the beam injection energy E b are strongly affected by EPM, suggesting in turn that observed EPMs are excited by fast ions having energy close to E b . (author)

  17. The Effect of Fasting on the Concentration of Enzimatic Antioxidants (Superoxide Dismutase and Glutathione Peroxidase in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muliatul Jannah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Consumption of excessive calories can increase the incidence of degenerative diseases mediated by ROS. Caloric restriction, have been shown to increase levels of antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD and Gluthatione Peroxidase (GPx. Fasting like Ramadan fasting (FLRF is a form of calorie restriction, but its effect on levels of SOD and GPx remains unclear. Objectives: to investigate the effect of fasting on levels of SOD and GPx. Methods: in a post-test only control group design, sample of 24 rats Sprague Dawley Rats aged 3-month-old, weighing 250-300 grams, were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group 1 (P-70, 2 (P-100, and 3 (P-140 were fasted for 6 hours/day, each group received of 70%, 100% and 140% calories respectively. Group 4 (C-AL received 100% calories, ad libitum. Day 16 blood was taken and levels of SOD and GPx were determined by ELISA. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVAs, followed by post hoc LSD tests, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: the results showed that the levels of SOD and GPx occur significant differences between the groups, p = 0.000. The test results post hoc SOD (318.64 and GPx (89.16 group P-70, compared with group C-AL (278.60 and 57.20 was significantly higher (p = 0.00. SOD and GPx P-70 group compared with the group P-140 (92.03 and 48.79, significantly higher (p = 0.00. Compared with group P-100 (296.70 and 75.71 SOD and GPx in group P-70 was significantly higher, p = 0.000. Conclusion: Fasting with calorie intake of 70% and 100% for 15 days can increases levels of SOD and GPx in male rats.

  18. Fast-ion losses induced by ELMs and externally applied magnetic perturbations in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Munoz, M; Rodriguez-Ramos, M; Äkäslompolo, S; De Marne, P; Dunne, M G; Dux, R; Fietz, S; Fuchs, C; Geiger, B; Herrmann, A; Hoelzl, M; Kurzan, B; McDermott, R M; Strumberger, E; Evans, T E; Ferraro, N M; Pace, D C; Lazanyi, N; Nocente, M; Shinohara, K

    2013-01-01

    Phase-space time-resolved measurements of fast-ion losses induced by edge localized modes (ELMs) and ELM mitigation coils have been obtained in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak by means of multiple fast-ion loss detectors (FILDs). Filament-like bursts of fast-ion losses are measured during ELMs by several FILDs at different toroidal and poloidal positions. Externally applied magnetic perturbations (MPs) have little effect on plasma profiles, including fast-ions, in high collisionality plasmas with mitigated ELMs. A strong impact on plasma density, rotation and fast-ions is observed, however, in low density/collisionality and q 95 plasmas with externally applied MPs. During the mitigation/suppression of type-I ELMs by externally applied MPs, the large fast-ion bursts observed during ELMs are replaced by a steady loss of fast-ions with a broad-band frequency and an amplitude of up to an order of magnitude higher than the neutral beam injection (NBI) prompt loss signal without MPs. Multiple FILD measurements at different positions, indicate that the fast-ion losses due to static 3D fields are localized on certain parts of the first wall rather than being toroidally/poloidally homogeneously distributed. Measured fast-ion losses show a broad energy and pitch-angle range and are typically on banana orbits that explore the entire pedestal/scrape-off-layer (SOL). Infra-red measurements are used to estimate the heat load associated with the MP-induced fast-ion losses. The heat load on the FILD detector head and surrounding wall can be up to six times higher with MPs than without 3D fields. When 3D fields are applied and density pump-out is observed, an enhancement of the fast-ion content in the plasma is typically measured by fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) spectroscopy. The lower density during the MP phase also leads to a deeper beam deposition with an inward radial displacement of ≈2 cm in the maximum of the beam emission. Orbit simulations are used to test different models for 3D

  19. Patterned basal seismicity shows sub-ice stream bedforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcheck, C. G.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Schwartz, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Patterns in seismicity emanating from the bottom of fast-moving ice streams and glaciers may indicate localized patches of higher basal resistance— sometimes called 'sticky spots', or otherwise varying basal properties. These seismogenic basal areas resist an unknown portion of the total driving stress of the Whillans Ice Plain (WIP), in West Antarctica, but may play an important role in the WIP stick-slip cycle and ice stream slowdown. To better understand the mechanism and importance of basal seismicity beneath the WIP, we analyze seismic data collected by a small aperture (micro-earthquakes in Dec 2014, and we compare the resulting map of seismicity to ice bottom depth measured by airborne radar. The number of basal earthquakes per area within the network is spatially heterogeneous, but a pattern of two 400m wide streaks of high seismicity rates is evident, with >50-500 earthquakes detected per 50x50m grid cell in 2 weeks. These seismically active streaks are elongated approximately in the ice flow direction with a spacing of 750m. Independent airborne radar measurements of ice bottom depth from Jan 2013 show a low-amplitude ( 5m) undulation in the basal topography superposed on a regional gradient in ice bottom depth. The flow-perpendicular wavelength of these low-amplitude undulations is comparable to the spacing of the high seismicity bands, and the streaks of high seismicity intersect local lows in the undulating basal topography. We interpret these seismic and radar observations as showing seismically active sub-ice stream bedforms that are low amplitude and elongated in the direction of ice flow, comparable to the morphology of mega scale glacial lineations (MSGLs), with high basal seismicity rates observed in the MSGL troughs. These results have implications for understanding the formation mechanism of MSGLS and well as understanding the interplay between basal topographic roughness, spatially varying basal till and hydrologic properties, basal

  20. Characterization and Comparison of the 10-2 SITA-Standard and Fast Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Barkana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the 10-2 SITA-standard and SITA-fast visual field programs in patients with glaucoma. Methods: We enrolled 26 patients with open angle glaucoma with involvement of at least one paracentral location on 24-2 SITA-standard field test. Each subject performed 10-2 SITA-standard and SITA-fast tests. Within 2 months this sequence of tests was repeated. Results: SITA-fast was 30% shorter than SITA-standard (5.5±1.1 vs 7.9±1.1 minutes, <0.001. Mean MD was statistically significantly higher for SITA-standard compared with SITA-fast at first visit (Δ=0.3 dB, =0.017 but not second visit. Inter-visit difference in MD or in number of depressed points was not significant for both programs. Bland-Altman analysis showed that clinically significant variations can exist in individual instances between the 2 programs and between repeat tests with the same program. Conclusions: The 10-2 SITA-fast algorithm is significantly shorter than SITA-standard. The two programs have similar long-term variability. Average same-visit between-program and same-program between-visit sensitivity results were similar for the study population, but clinically significant variability was observed for some individual test pairs. Group inter- and intra-program test results may be comparable, but in the management of the individual patient field change should be verified by repeat testing.

  1. Prolonged fasting activates Nrf2 in post-weaned elephant seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Soñanez-Organis, José G; Rodriguez, Ruben; Viscarra, Jose A; Nishiyama, Akira; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2013-08-01

    Elephant seals naturally experience prolonged periods of absolute food and water deprivation (fasting). In humans, rats and mice, prolonged food deprivation activates the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and increases oxidative damage. In elephant seals, prolonged fasting activates RAS without increasing oxidative damage likely due to an increase in antioxidant defenses. The mechanism leading to the upregulation of antioxidant defenses during prolonged fasting remains elusive. Therefore, we investigated whether prolonged fasting activates the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2, which controls the expression of antioxidant genes, and if such activation is potentially mediated by systemic increases in RAS. Blood and skeletal muscle samples were collected from seals fasting for 1, 3, 5 and 7 weeks. Nrf2 activity and nuclear content increased by 76% and 167% at week 7. Plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) were 5000% and 250% higher at week 7 than at week 1. Phosphorylation of Smad2, an effector of Ang II and TGF signaling, increased by 120% at week 7 and by 84% in response to intravenously infused Ang II. NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) mRNA expression, which is controlled by smad proteins, increased 430% at week 7, while Nox4 protein expression, which can activate Nrf2, was 170% higher at week 7 than at week 1. These results demonstrate that prolonged fasting activates Nrf2 in elephant seals and that RAS stimulation can potentially result in increased Nox4 through Smad phosphorylation. The results also suggest that Nox4 is essential to sustain the hormetic adaptive response to oxidative stress in fasting seals.

  2. Impact of Fast Charging on Life of EV Batteries; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric; Burton, Evan; Smith, Kandler; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-05-03

    Installation of fast charging infrastructure is considered by many as one of potential solutions to increase the utility and range of electric vehicles (EVs). This is expected to reduce the range anxiety of drivers of EVs and thus increase their market penetration. Level 1 and 2 charging in homes and workplaces is expected to contribute to the majority of miles driven by EVs. However, a small percentage of urban driving and most of inter-city driving could be only achieved by a fast-charging network. DC fast charging at 50 kW, 100 kW, 120 kW compared to level 1 (3.3 kW) and level 2 (6.6 kW) results in high-current charging that can adversely impact the life of the battery. In the last couple of years, we have investigated the impact of higher current rates in batteries and potential of higher temperatures and thus lower service life. Using mathematical models, we investigated the temperature increase of batteries due to higher heat generation during fast charge and have found that this could lead to higher temperatures. We compared our models with data from other national laboratories both for fine-tuning and calibration. We found that the incremental temperature rise of batteries during 1C to 3C fast charging may reduce the practical life of the batteries by less than 10% over 10 to 15 years of vehicle ownership. We also found that thermal management of batteries is needed for fast charging to prevent high temperature excursions leading to unsafe conditions.

  3. Characteristics and factors influencing fast food intake of young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic group (SEG) and gender were significantly related to fast food intake (p < 0.01), with a larger proportion of participants (65%, n = 76) in the lower socio-economic group (LSEG) showing more frequent use. Males consumed fast food more frequently than females. The most popular fast foods consumed were ...

  4. FAST TCP over optical burst switched networks: Modeling and stability analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Shihada, Basem

    2013-04-01

    FAST TCP is important for promoting data-intensive applications since it can cleverly react to both packet loss and delay for detecting network congestion. This paper provides a continuous time model and extensive stability analysis of FAST TCP congestion-control mechanism in bufferless Optical Burst Switched Networks (OBS). The paper first shows that random burst contentions are essential to stabilize the network, but cause throughput degradation in FAST TCP flows when a burst with all the packets from a single round is dropped. Second, it shows that FAST TCP is vulnerable to burst delay and fails to detect network congestion due to the little variation of round-trip time, thus unstable. Finally it shows that introducing extra delays by implementing burst retransmission stabilizes FAST TCP over OBS. The paper proves that FAST TCP is not stable over barebone OBS. However, it is locally, exponentially, and asymptotically stable over OBS with burst retransmission.

  5. Fast breeder reactor research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Full text: The meeting was attended by 15 participants from seven countries and two international organizations. The Eighth Annual Meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) was attended by representatives from France, Fed. Rep. Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of America - countries that have made significant progress in developing the technology and physics of sodium cooled fast reactors and have extensive national programmes in this field - as well as by representatives of the Commission of the European Communities and the IAEA. The design of fast-reactor power plants is a more difficult task than developing facilities with thermal reactors. Different reactor kinetics and dynamics, a hard neutron spectrum, larger integral doses of fuel and structural material irradiation, higher core temperatures, the use of an essentially novel coolant, and, as a result of all these factors, the additional reliability and safety requirements that are imposed on the planning and operation of sodium cooled fast reactors - all these factors pose problems that can be solved comprehensively only by countries with a high level of scientific and technical development. The exchange of experience between these countries and their combined efforts in solving the fundamental problems that arise in planning, constructing and operating fast reactors are promoting technical progress and reducing the relative expenditure required for various studies on developing and introducing commercial fast reactors. For this reason, the meeting concentrated on reviewing and discussing national fast reactor programmes. The situation with regard to planning, constructing and operating fast experimental and demonstration reactors in the countries concerned, the experience accumulated in operating them, the difficulties arising during operation and ways of over-coming them, the search for optimal designs for the power

  6. The relationship between new media exposure and fast food consumption among Chinese children and adolescents in school: a rural-urban comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansstein, Francesca Valeria; Hong, Yu; Di, Chen

    2017-09-01

    In recent decades, China has experienced an exponential growth in the number of internet users, especially among the youngest population, as well as a rapid proliferation of Western-type fast food restaurants. The health consequences of internet availability and fast food consumption among youth have been largely studied in Western countries, but few studies have focused on China. This paper has two goals. The first is to evaluate the differences in new media exposure and preferences for fast foods between rural and urban areas. The second goal is to test the association between new media exposure and fast food consumption. The targets of this analysis are Chinese children and adolescents aged 6-18 attending school at the time of the interview. Research hypotheses were tested using mean-groups comparisons for differences between rural urban sub-samples, and logistic regressions with odds ratios to estimate the relationship between media exposure and preferences towards fast foods. Cross-sectional data from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey were employed. Watching online videos and playing computer games are behaviors associated with higher probabilities of eating at fast food restaurants in both rural and urban young residents, with higher odds in rural areas. Surfing the internet is associated with higher odds of being overweight in both rural and urban settings. Results also show that children living in rural areas spend significantly more time playing computer games, watching TV and videotapes, but less time doing homework than their urban peers. This paper suggests that monitoring the nutritional effects of new media exposure in China is of key importance in order to develop adequate health promotion policies, in both rural and urban areas.

  7. Outdoor ultrafine particle concentrations in front of fast food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vert, Cristina; Meliefste, Kees; Hoek, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs) have been associated with negative effects on human health. Emissions from motor vehicles are the principal source of UFPs in urban air. A study in Vancouver suggested that UFP concentrations were related to density of fast food restaurants near the monitoring sites. A previous monitoring campaign could not separate the contribution of restaurants from road traffic. The main goal of this study has been the quantification of fast food restaurants' contribution to outdoor UFP concentrations. A portable particle number counter (DiscMini) has been used to carry out mobile monitoring in a largely pedestrianized area in the city center of Utrecht. A fixed route passing 17 fast food restaurants was followed on 8 days. UFP concentrations in front of the restaurants were 1.61 times higher than in a nearby square without any local sources used as control area and 1.22 times higher compared with all measurements conducted in between the restaurants. Adjustment for other sources such as passing mopeds, smokers or candles did not explain the increase. In conclusion, fast food restaurants result in significant increases in outdoor UFP concentrations in front of the restaurant.

  8. Comparative study of fast critical burner reactors and subcritical accelerator driven systems and the impact on transuranics inventory in a regional fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanello, V.; Salvatores, M.; Schwenk-Ferrero, A.; Gabrielli, F.; Maschek, W.; Vezzoni, B.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Double-strata fuel cycle has a potential to minimize transuranics mass in Europe. → European Minor Actinides legacy can be reduced down to 0 before the end of century. → 40% higher capacity needed to burn MA for fast critical reactor then for EFIT fleet. → Na cooled fast reactor cores with high content of MA and low CR have been assessed. → Fast critical and ADS-EFIT reactors show comparable MA transmutation performance. - Abstract: In the frame of Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) strategies, many solutions have been proposed in order to burn transuranics (TRU) discharged from conventional thermal reactors in fast reactor systems. This is due to the favourable feature of neutron fission to capture cross section ratio in a fast neutron spectrum for most TRU. However the majority of studies performed use the Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS), due to their potential flexibility to utilize various fuel types, loaded with significant amounts of TRU having very different Minor Actinides (MA) over Pu ratios. Recently the potential of low conversion ratio critical fast reactors has been rediscovered, with very attractive burning capabilities. In the present paper the burning performances of two systems are directly compared: a sodium cooled critical fast reactor with a low conversion ratio, and the European lead cooled subcritical ADS-EFIT reactor loaded with fertile-free fuel. Comparison is done for characteristics of both the intrinsic core and the regional fuel cycle within a European double-strata scenario. Results of the simulations, obtained by use of French COSI6 code, show comparable performance and confirm that in a double strata fuel cycle the same goals could be achieved by deploying dedicated fast critical or ADS-EFIT type reactors. However the critical fast burner reactor fleet requires ∼30-40% higher installed power then the ADS-EFIT one. Therefore full comparative assessment and ranking can be done only by a

  9. Magnetic resonance measurements of azygos and portal venous blood flow under fasting and postprandial conditions in healthy controls and cirrhotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, Naoko

    2001-01-01

    Using MR velocity mapping, we studied measurements azygos (A) and portal venous blood flow (P) under fasting and postprandial conditions in 7 healthy controls (C) and 10 cirrhotics (LC). Fasting A in LC was higher than that in C. Fasting P in C was higher than that in LC. Variability of repeated measuring A and P was low in C and LC. A postprandial increase of A in LC was higher than that in C. Fasting A/P ratio in LC was higher than that in C. Our results suggest that MR velocity mapping is expected as the reproducible method for monitoring the hemodynamic change in the azygos and portal venous system. (author)

  10. Increased Set Shifting Costs in Fasted Healthy Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Heather M.; Burgess, Paul W.; Gilbert, Sam J.; Serpell, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the impact of temporary food restriction on a set shifting task requiring participants to judge clusters of pictures against a frequently changing rule. 60 healthy female participants underwent two testing sessions: once after fasting for 16 hours and once in a satiated state. Participants also completed a battery of questionnaires (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]; Persistence, Perseveration and Perfectionism Questionnaire [PPPQ-22]; and Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire [EDE-Q6]). Set shifting costs were significantly increased after fasting; this effect was independent of self-reported mood and perseveration. Furthermore, higher levels of weight concern predicted a general performance decrement under conditions of fasting. We conclude that relatively short periods of fasting can lead to set shifting impairments. This finding may have relevance to studies of development, individual differences, and the interpretation of psychometric tests. It also could have implications for understanding the etiology and maintenance of eating disorders, in which impaired set shifting has been implicated. PMID:25025179

  11. Outcome of Blunt Abdominal Traumas with Stable Hemodynamic and Positive FAST Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firooz Behboodi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST is a highly effective first screening tool for initial classification of abdominal trauma patients. The present study was designed to evaluate the outcome of patients with blunt abdominal trauma and positive FAST findings. Methods: The present prospective cross-sectional study was done on patients over 7 years old with normal abdominal examination, positive FAST findings, and available abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT scan findings. The frequency of need for laparotomy as well as its probable risk factors were calculated. Results: 180 patients were enrolled (mean age: 28.0 ± 11.5 years; 76.7% male. FAST findings were confirmed by abdominopelvic CT scan in only 124 (68.9% cases. Finally, 12 (6.6% patients needed laparotomy. Mean age of those in need of laparotomy was significantly higher than others (36.75 ± 11.37 versus 27.34 ± 11.37, p = 0.006. Higher grading of spleen (p = 0.001 and hepatic (p = 0.038 ruptures increased the probability of need for laparotomy. Conclusion: 68.9% of the positive FAST findings in patients with blunt abdominal trauma and stable hemodynamics was confirmed by abdominopelvic CT scan and only 6.6% needed laparotomy. Simultaneous presence of free fluid and air in the abdominal area, old age, and higher grading o solid organ injuries were factors that had a significant correlation with need for laparotomy.

  12. Risk-assessment methodology for fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.

    1976-04-01

    The methods applied or proposed for risk assessment of nuclear reactors are reviewed, particularly with respect to their applicability for risk assessment of future commercial fast breeder reactors. All methods are based on the calculation of accident consequences for relatively few accident scenarios. The role and general impact of uncertainties in fast-reactor accident analysis are discussed. The discussion shows the need for improvement of the methodology. A generalized and improved risk-assessment methodology is outlined and proposed (accident-spectra-progression approach). The generalization consists primarily of an explicit treatment of uncertainties throughout the accident progression. The results of this method are obtained in form of consequence distributions. The width and shape of the distributions depend in part on the superposition of the uncertainties. The first moment of the consequence distribution gives an improved prediction of the ''average'' consequence. The higher-consequence moments can be used for consideration of risk aversion. The assessment of the risk of one or a certain number of nuclear reactors can only provide an ''isolated'' risk assessment. The general problem of safety risk assessment and its relation to public acceptance of certain modes of power production is a much broader problem area, which is also discussed

  13. MDS shows a higher expression of hTERT and alternative splice variants in unactivated T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen; Wu, Lei; Sun, Houfang; Ren, Xiubao; Epling-Burnette, Pearlie K; Yang, Lili

    2016-11-01

    Telomere instability and telomerase reactivation are believed to play an important role in the development of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Abnormal enzymatic activity of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), and its alternative splice variants have been reported to account for deregulated telomerase function in many cancers. In this study, we aim to compare the differences in expression of hTERT and hTERT splice variants, as well as telomere length and telomerase activity in unstimulated T-cells between MDS subgroups and healthy controls. Telomere length in MDS cases was significantly shorter than controls (n = 20, pMDS using World Health Organization classification (WHO subgroups versus control: RARS, p= 0.009; RCMD, p=0.0002; RAEB1/2, p=0.004, respectively) and the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS subgroups: Low+Int-1, pMDS patients (n=20) had significantly higher telomerase activity (p=0.002), higher total hTERT mRNA levels (p=0.001) and hTERT α+β- splice variant expression (pMDS (r=0.58, p=0.007). This data is in sharp contrast to data published previously by our group showing a reduction in telomerase and hTERT mRNA in MDS T-cells after activation. In conclusion, this study provides additional insight into hTERT transcript patterns and activity in peripheral T-cells of MDS patients. Additional studies are necessary to better understand the role of this pathway in MDS development and progression.

  14. Irradiation Experiments on Plutonium Fuels for Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, B. R.T.; Wait, E. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment Harwell, Berks. (United Kingdom)

    1967-09-15

    An assessment carried out some years ago indicated that cermet fuels might provide the high burn-up and integrity required for fast reactors. An irradiation programme was started at Harwell on (U, Pu)O{sub 2} -SS cermet plates and rods, mainly In thermal neutron fluxes, to gain experience of dimensional stability at temperatures typical of modern sodium-cooled fast reactor designs (600-650 Degree-Sign C). A subsequent assessment showed that cermets carried a large penalty as far as breeding was concerned and (U, Pu)C was chosen by Harwell for long-term study as an alternative, economic, fast reactor fuel. However, the results from the cermet experiments were of sufficient promise to proceed with parallel irradiation programmes on cermets and carbide. The studies of cermets showed that dimensional instability (swelling and cladding rupture) were caused by the pressures exerted on the steel matrix by the fuel particles, and that the initial density of the fuel particles was important in determining the burn-up at which failure occurred. Further, it was shown that cermets provided a useful vehicle for studying the changes occurring in oxide fuel particles with increasing burn-up. The disappearance of initial porosity and its replacement by fission gas bubbles and segregated solid fission products was studied in some detaiL No significant differences were observed between UO{sub 2} and(U,Pu)O{sub 2} particles. The initial studies of (U, Pu)C were concerned with the effect of varying composition and structure on swelling and fission gas release. A tantalum-lined nickel alloy cladding material was used to contain both pellet and powder specimens In an irradiation experiment in the core of the Dounreay fast reactor. This showed that the presence of a metal phase in the fuel led to a high swelling rate, that fission gas release was low up to {approx} 3% bum-up, and that a low density powder accommodated the swelling without excessive straining of the can. A subsequent

  15. Life and health insurance industry investments in fast food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Arun V; McCormick, Danny; Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U; Boyd, J Wesley

    2010-06-01

    Previous research on health and life insurers' financial investments has highlighted the tension between profit maximization and the public good. We ascertained health and life insurance firms' holdings in the fast food industry, an industry that is increasingly understood to negatively impact public health. Insurers own $1.88 billion of stock in the 5 leading fast food companies. We argue that insurers ought to be held to a higher standard of corporate responsibility, and we offer potential solutions.

  16. Comparison of respiratory-triggered 3-D fast spin-echo and single-shot fast spin-echo radial slab MR cholangiopancreatography images in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavhan, Govind B.; Almehdar, Abeer; Gupta, Sumeet [The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Moineddin, Rahim [University of Toronto, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Toronto (Canada); Babyn, Paul S. [Royal University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon (Canada)

    2013-09-15

    The two most commonly performed magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) sequences, 3-D fast spin-echo (3-D FSE) and single-shot fast spin-echo radial slabs (radial slabs), have not been compared in children. The purpose of this study was to compare 3-D FSE and radial slabs MRCP sequences on a 3-T scanner to determine their ability to show various segments of pancreaticobiliary tree and presence of artifacts in children. We reviewed 79 consecutive MRCPs performed in 74 children on a 3-T scanner. We noted visibility of major ducts on 3-D FSE and radial slabs. We noted the order of branching of ducts in the right and left hepatic ducts and the degree of visibility of the pancreatic duct. Statistical analysis was performed using McNemar and signed rank tests. There was no significant difference in the visibility of major bile ducts and the order of branching in the right hepatic lobe between sequences. A higher order of branching in the left lobe was seen on radial slabs than 3-D FSE (mean order of branching 2.82 versus 2.27; P-value = 0.0002). The visibility of pancreatic duct was better on radial slabs as compared to 3-D FSE (mean value of 1.53 vs. 0.90; P-value < 0.0001). 3-D FSE sequence was artifact-free in 25/79 (31.6%) MRCP exams as compared to radial slabs, which were artifact-free in 18/79 (22.8%) MRCP exams (P-value = 0.0001). There is no significant difference in the visibility of major bile ducts between 3-D FSE and radial slab MRCP sequences at 3-T in children. However, radial slab MRCP shows a higher order of branching in the left hepatic lobe and superior visibility of the pancreatic duct than 3-D FSE. (orig.)

  17. Waiting list paradox: Danish cancer patients diagnosed fast have higher mortality after diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Frydenberg, Morten; Hansen, Rikke Pilegaard

    on hospital discharge diagnoses for the 2004-2005 period, extracted from population-based healthcare databases in the former County of Aarhus, Denmark, and subsequently validated in the National Danish Cancer Registry. All patients with a first-time diagnosis of colon, rectal, lung, skin, breast, or prostate...... with longer diagnostic interval until the reference point of 30 days. For colon, rectal, skin, and breast cancer mortality seemed to increase with diagnostic interval longer than 30 days. The waiting list paradox is manifest in Denmark. We speculate that medical professionals organise the diagnostic pathway......Studies often show that cancer patients diagnosed more rapidly have higher mortality rates than patients with longer waits in the primary and secondary health care sector. Our aim was to examine whether this paradox is manifest in the Danish health care system. The study was based on data...

  18. Effect of Reduced Meal Frequency during Ramadan Fasting on Retinal and Choroidal Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersan, Ismail; Tufan, Hasan Ali; Arikan, Sedat; Kara, Selcuk; Gencer, Baran; Hondur, Ahmet Murat

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of Ramadan fasting on central foveal thickness (CFT) and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) in healthy individuals using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). The EDI-OCT scans of 42 healthy individuals obtained after about 12 hours of fasting on at least the twenty-first consecutive day of fasting were compared to scans of the same patients taken one month after the last day they had fasted. CFT values were similar for both time periods (p > 0.05). The SFCT was significantly higher after consecutive fasting days towards the end of Ramadan, compared to the SFCT after one month of no fasting (one month after Ramadan ended) (p Ramadan fasting may lead to a significant increase in subfoveal choroidal thickness without affecting the central foveal thickness.

  19. FTO is expressed in neurones throughout the brain and its expression is unaltered by fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTaggart, James S; Lee, Sheena; Iberl, Michaela; Church, Chris; Cox, Roger D; Ashcroft, Frances M

    2011-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the first intron of the ubiquitously expressed FTO gene are associated with obesity. Although the physiological functions of FTO remain unclear, food intake is often altered when Fto expression levels are manipulated. Furthermore, deletion of FTO from neurones alone has a similar effect on food intake to deletion of FTO in all tissues. These results indicate that FTO expression in the brain is particularly important. Considerable focus has been placed on the dynamic regulation of Fto mRNA expression in the hypothalamus after short-term (16-48 hour) fasting, but results have been controversial. There are no studies that quantify FTO protein levels across the brain, and assess its alteration following short-term fasting. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that FTO protein is widely expressed in mouse brain, and present in the majority of neurones. Using quantitative Western blotting and RT-qPCR we show that FTO protein and mRNA levels in the hypothalamus, cerebellum and rostral brain are relatively uniform, and levels in the brain are higher than in skeletal muscles of the lower limbs. Fasting for 18 hours does not alter the expression pattern, or levels, of FTO protein and mRNA. We further show that the majority of POMC neurones, which are critically involved in food intake regulation, also express FTO, but that the percentage of FTO-positive POMC neurones is not altered by fasting. In summary, we find no evidence that Fto/FTO expression is regulated by short-term (18-hour) fasting. Thus, it is unlikely that the hunger and increased post-fasting food intake caused by such food deprivation is driven by alterations in Fto/FTO expression. The widespread expression of FTO in neurones also suggests that physiological studies of this protein should not be limited to the hypothalamus.

  20. FTO is expressed in neurones throughout the brain and its expression is unaltered by fasting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S McTaggart

    Full Text Available Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the first intron of the ubiquitously expressed FTO gene are associated with obesity. Although the physiological functions of FTO remain unclear, food intake is often altered when Fto expression levels are manipulated. Furthermore, deletion of FTO from neurones alone has a similar effect on food intake to deletion of FTO in all tissues. These results indicate that FTO expression in the brain is particularly important. Considerable focus has been placed on the dynamic regulation of Fto mRNA expression in the hypothalamus after short-term (16-48 hour fasting, but results have been controversial. There are no studies that quantify FTO protein levels across the brain, and assess its alteration following short-term fasting. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that FTO protein is widely expressed in mouse brain, and present in the majority of neurones. Using quantitative Western blotting and RT-qPCR we show that FTO protein and mRNA levels in the hypothalamus, cerebellum and rostral brain are relatively uniform, and levels in the brain are higher than in skeletal muscles of the lower limbs. Fasting for 18 hours does not alter the expression pattern, or levels, of FTO protein and mRNA. We further show that the majority of POMC neurones, which are critically involved in food intake regulation, also express FTO, but that the percentage of FTO-positive POMC neurones is not altered by fasting. In summary, we find no evidence that Fto/FTO expression is regulated by short-term (18-hour fasting. Thus, it is unlikely that the hunger and increased post-fasting food intake caused by such food deprivation is driven by alterations in Fto/FTO expression. The widespread expression of FTO in neurones also suggests that physiological studies of this protein should not be limited to the hypothalamus.

  1. The association between the geography of fast food outlets and childhood obesity rates in Leeds, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Lorna K; Edwards, Kimberley L

    2010-11-01

    To analyse the association between childhood overweight and obesity and the density and proximity of fast food outlets in relation to the child's residential postcode. This was an observational study using individual level height/weight data and geographic information systems methodology. Leeds in West Yorkshire, UK. This area consists of 476 lower super-output areas. Children aged 3-14 years who lived within the Leeds metropolitan boundaries (n=33,594). The number of fast food outlets per area and the distance to the nearest fast food outlet from the child's home address. The weight status of the child: overweight, obese or neither. 27.1% of the children were overweight or obese with 12.6% classified as obese. There is a significant positive correlation (pfood outlets and higher deprivation. A higher density of fast food outlets was significantly associated (p=0.02) with the child being obese (or overweight/obese) in the generalised estimating equation model which also included sex, age and deprivation. No significant association between distance to the nearest fast food outlet and overweight or obese status was found. There is a positive relationship between the density of fast food outlets per area and the obesity status of children in Leeds. There is also a significant association between fast food outlet density and areas of higher deprivation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Receptivity to television fast-food restaurant marketing and obesity among U.S. youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C; Tanski, Susanne E; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Li, Zhigang; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D

    2013-11-01

    Advertisement of fast food on TV may contribute to youth obesity. The goal of the study was to use cued recall to determine whether TV fast-food advertising is associated with youth obesity. A national sample of 2541 U.S. youth, aged 15-23 years, were surveyed in 2010-2011; data were analyzed in 2012. Respondents viewed a random subset of 20 advertisement frames (with brand names removed) selected from national TV fast-food restaurant advertisements (n=535) aired in the previous year. Respondents were asked if they had seen the advertisement, if they liked it, and if they could name the brand. A TV fast-food advertising receptivity score (a measure of exposure and response) was assigned; a 1-point increase was equivalent to affirmative responses to all three queries for two separate advertisements. Adjusted odds of obesity (based on self-reported height and weight), given higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity, are reported. The prevalence of overweight and obesity, weighted to the U.S. population, was 20% and 16%, respectively. Obesity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, fast-food restaurant visit frequency, weekday TV time, and TV alcohol advertising receptivity were associated with higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity (median=3.3 [interquartile range: 2.2-4.2]). Only household income, TV time, and TV fast-food advertising receptivity retained multivariate associations with obesity. For every 1-point increase in TV fast-food advertising receptivity score, the odds of obesity increased by 19% (OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.01, 1.40). There was no association between receptivity to televised alcohol advertisements or fast-food restaurant visit frequency and obesity. Using a cued-recall assessment, TV fast-food advertising receptivity was found to be associated with youth obesity. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  3. Receptivity to Television Fast-Food Restaurant Marketing and Obesity Among U.S. Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Li, Zhigang; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Advertisement of fast food on TV may contribute to youth obesity. Purpose The goal of the study was to use cued recall to determine whether TV fast-food advertising is associated with youth obesity. Methods A national sample of 2541 U.S. youth, aged 15–23 years, were surveyed in 2010–2011; data were analyzed in 2012. Respondents viewed a random subset of 20 advertisement frames (with brand names removed) selected from national TV fast-food restaurant advertisements (n=535) aired in the previous year. Respondents were asked if they had seen the advertisement, if they liked it, and if they could name the brand. A TV fast-food advertising receptivity score (a measure of exposure and response) was assigned; a 1-point increase was equivalent to affirmative responses to all three queries for two separate advertisements. Adjusted odds of obesity (based on self-reported height and weight), given higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity, are reported. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity, weighted to the U.S. population, was 20% and 16%, respectively. Obesity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, fast-food restaurant visit frequency, weekday TV time, and TV alcohol advertising receptivity were associated with higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity (median=3.3 [interquartile range: 2.2–4.2]). Only household income, TV time, and TV fast-food advertising receptivity retained multivariate associations with obesity. For every 1-point increase in TV fast-food advertising receptivity score, the odds of obesity increased by 19% (OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.01, 1.40). There was no association between receptivity to televised alcohol advertisements or fast-food restaurant visit frequency and obesity. Conclusions Using a cued-recall assessment, TV fast-food advertising receptivity was found to be associated with youth obesity. PMID:24139768

  4. Experiences and outcomes of maternal Ramadan fasting during pregnancy: results from a sub-cohort of the Born in Bradford birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petherick, Emily S; Tuffnell, Derek; Wright, John

    2014-09-26

    Observing the fast during the holy month of Ramadan is one of the five pillars of Islam. Although pregnant women and those with pre-existing illness are exempted from fasting many still choose to fast during this time. The fasting behaviours of pregnant Muslim women resident in Western countries remain largely unexplored and relationships between fasting behaviour and offspring health outcomes remain contentious. This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence, characteristics of fasting behaviours and offspring health outcomes in Asian and Asian British Muslim women within a UK birth cohort. Prospective cohort study conducted at the Bradford Royal Infirmary UK from October to December 2010 comprising 310 pregnant Muslim women of Asian or Asian British ethnicity that had a live singleton birth at the Bradford Royal Infirmary. The main outcome of the study was the decision to fast or not during Ramadan. Secondary outcomes were preterm births and mean birthweight. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the relationship between covariables of interest and women's decision to fast or not fast. Logistic regression was also used to investigate the relationship between covariables and preterm birth as well as low birth weight. Mutually adjusted analysis showed that the odds of any fasting were higher for women with an obese BMI at booking compared to women with a normal BMI, (OR 2.78 (95% C.I. 1.29-5.97)), for multiparous compared to nulliparous women(OR 3.69 (95% C.I. 1.38-9.86)), and for Bangladeshi origin women compared to Pakistani origin women (OR 3.77 (95% C.I. 1.04-13.65)). Odds of fasting were lower in women with higher levels of education (OR 0.40 (95% C.I. 0.18-0.91)) and with increasing maternal age (OR 0.87 (95% C.I. 0.80-0.94). No associations were observed between fasting and health outcomes in the offspring. Pregnant Muslim women residing in the UK who fasted during Ramadan differed by social, demographic and lifestyle characteristics

  5. Energy contribution of sugar-sweetened beverage refills at fast-food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breck, Andrew; Cantor, Jonathan H; Elbel, Brian

    2017-09-01

    To identify demographic and consumer characteristics associated with refilling a soft drink at fast-food restaurants and the estimated energy content and volume of those refills. Logistic and linear regression with cross-sectional survey data. Data include fast-food restaurant receipts and consumer surveys collected from restaurants in New York City (all boroughs except Staten Island), and Newark and Jersey City, New Jersey, during 2013 and 2014. Fast-food restaurant customers (n 11795) from ninety-eight restaurants. Thirty per cent of fast-food customers ordered a refillable soft drink. Nine per cent of fast-food customers with a refillable soft drink reported refilling their beverage (3 % of entire sample). Odds of having a beverage refill were higher among respondents with a refillable soft drink at restaurants with a self-serve refill kiosk (adjusted OR (aOR)=7·37, Prestaurant (aOR=4·45, P<0·001). KFC (aOR=2·18, P<0·001) and Wendy's (aOR=0·41, P<0·001) customers had higher and lower odds, respectively, of obtaining a refill, compared with Burger King customers. Respondents from New Jersey (aOR=1·47, P<0·001) also had higher odds of refilling their beverage than New York City customers. Customers who got a refill obtained on average 29 more 'beverage ounces' (858 ml) and 250 more 'beverage calories' (1046 kJ) than customers who did not get a refill. Refilling a beverage was associated with having obtained more beverage calories and beverage ounces. Environmental cues, such as the placement and availability of self-serve beverage refills, may influence consumer beverage choice.

  6. Fast food consumption and gestational diabetes incidence in the SUN project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia J Dominguez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes prevalence is increasing, mostly because obesity among women of reproductive age is continuously escalating. We aimed to investigate the incidence of gestational diabetes according to the consumption of fast food in a cohort of university graduates. METHODS: The prospective dynamic "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN cohort included data of 3,048 women initially free of diabetes or previous gestational diabetes who reported at least one pregnancy between December 1999 and March 2011. Fast food consumption was assessed through a validated 136-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Fast food was defined as the consumption of hamburgers, sausages, and pizza. Three categories of fast food were established: low (0-3 servings/month, intermediate (>3 servings/month and ≤2 servings/week and high (>2 servings/week. Non-conditional logistic regression models were used to adjust for potential confounders. RESULTS: We identified 159 incident cases of gestational diabetes during follow-up. After adjusting for age, baseline body mass index, total energy intake, smoking, physical activity, family history of diabetes, cardiovascular disease/hypertension at baseline, parity, adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern, alcohol intake, fiber intake, and sugar-sweetened soft drinks consumption, fast food consumption was significantly associated with a higher risk of incident gestational diabetes, with multivariate adjusted OR of 1.31 (95% conficence interval [CI]:0.81-2.13 and 1.86 (95% CI: 1.13-3.06 for the intermediate and high categories, respectively, versus the lowest category of baseline fast food consumption (p for linear trend: 0.007. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that pre-pregnancy higher consumption of fast food is an independent risk factor for gestational diabetes.

  7. Sublingual fast dissolving niosomal films for enhanced bioavailability and prolonged effect of metoprolol tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allam A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ayat Allam, Gihan Fetih Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt Abstract: The aim of the present work was to prepare and evaluate sublingual fast dissolving films containing metoprolol tartrate-loaded niosomes. Niosomes were utilized to allow for prolonged release of the drug, whereas the films were used to increase the drug’s bioavailability via the sublingual route. Niosomes were prepared using span 60 and cholesterol at different drug to surfactant ratios. The niosomes were characterized for size, zeta-potential, and entrapment efficiency. The selected niosomal formulation was incorporated into polymeric films using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose E15 and methyl cellulose as film-forming polymers and Avicel as superdisintegrant. The physical characteristics (appearance, texture, pH, uniformity of weight and thickness, disintegration time, and palatability of the prepared films were studied, in addition to evaluating the in vitro drug release, stability, and in vivo pharmacokinetics in rabbits. The release of the drug from the medicated film was fast (99.9% of the drug was released within 30 minutes, while the drug loaded into the niosomes, either incorporated into the film or not, showed only 22.85% drug release within the same time. The selected sublingual film showed significantly higher rate of drug absorption and higher drug plasma levels compared with that of commercial oral tablet. The plasma levels remained detectable for 24 hours following sublingual administration, compared with only 12 hours after administration of the oral tablet. In addition, the absolute bioavailability of the drug (ie, relative to intravenous administration following sublingual administration was found to be significantly higher (91.06%±13.28%, as compared with that after oral tablet administration (39.37%±11.4%. These results indicate that the fast dissolving niosomal film could be a promising delivery system to

  8. Formation of fast shocks by magnetic reconnection in the solar corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, M. H.; Tsai, C. L.; Ma, Z. W.; Lee, L. C.

    2009-01-01

    Reconnections of magnetic fields over the solar surface are expected to generate abundant magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) discontinuities and shocks, including slow shocks and rotational discontinuities. However, the generation of fast shocks by magnetic reconnection process is relatively not well studied. In this paper, magnetic reconnection in a current sheet is studied based on two-dimensional resistive MHD numerical simulations. Magnetic reconnections in the current sheet lead to the formation of plasma jets and plasma bulges. It is further found that the plasma bulges, the leading part of plasma jets, in turn lead to the generation of fast shocks on flanks of the bulges. The simulation results show that during the magnetic reconnection process, the plasma forms a series of structures: plasma jets, plasma bulges, and fast shocks. As time increases, the bulges spread out along the current sheet (±z direction) and the fast shocks move just ahead of the bulges. The effects of initial parameters ρ s /ρ m , β ∞ , and t rec on the fast shock generation are also examined, where ρ s /ρ m is the ratio of plasma densities on two sides of the initial current sheet, β ∞ =P ∞ /(B ∞ 2 /2μ 0 ), P ∞ is the plasma pressure and B ∞ is the magnetic field magnitude far from the current sheet, and t rec is the reconnection duration. In the asymmetric case with ρ s /ρ m =2, β ∞ =0.01 and t rec =1000, the maximum Alfven Mach number of fast shocks (M A1max ) is M A1max congruent with 1.1, where M A1 =V n1 /V A1 , and V n1 and V A1 are, respectively, the normal upstream fluid velocity and the upstream Alfven speed in the fast shocks frame. As the density ratio ρ s /ρ m (=1-8) and plasma beta β ∞ (=0.0001-1) increase, M A1max varies slightly. For the case with a large plasma beta β ∞ (=5), the fast shock is very weak. As the reconnection duration t rec increases, the bulges lead to generation of fast shocks with a higher M A1max . The present results can be

  9. Proton probe measurement of fast advection of magnetic fields by hot electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willingale, L; Thomas, A G R; Nilson, P M; Kaluza, M C; Dangor, A E; Evans, R G; Fernandes, P; Haines, M G; Kamperidis, C; Kingham, R J; Ridgers, C P; Sherlock, M; Wei, M S; Najmudin, Z; Krushelnick, K; Bandyopadhyay, S; Notley, M; Minardi, S; Rozmus, W; Tatarakis, M

    2011-01-01

    A laser generated proton beam was used to measure the megagauss strength self-generated magnetic fields from a nanosecond laser interaction with an aluminum target. At intensities of 10 15 W cm −2 , the significant hot electron production and strong heat fluxes result in non-local transport becoming important to describe the magnetic field dynamics. Two-dimensional implicit Vlasov–Fokker–Planck modeling shows that fast advection of the magnetic field from the focal region occurs via the Nernst effect at significantly higher velocities than the sound speed, v N /c s ≈ 10.

  10. Fasting enhances TRAIL-mediated liver natural killer cell activity via HSP70 upregulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu T A Dang

    Full Text Available Acute starvation, which is frequently observed in clinical practice, sometimes augments the cytolytic activity of natural killer cells against neoplastic cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the enhancement of natural killer cell function by fasting in mice. The total number of liver resident natural killer cells in a unit weight of liver tissue obtained from C57BL/6J mice did not change after a 3-day fast, while the proportions of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL+ and CD69+ natural killer cells were significantly elevated (n = 7, p <0.01, as determined by flow cytometric analysis. Furthermore, we found that TRAIL- natural killer cells that were adoptively transferred into Rag-2-/- γ chain-/- mice could convert into TRAIL+ natural killer cells in fasted mice at a higher proportion than in fed mice. Liver natural killer cells also showed high TRAIL-mediated antitumor function in response to 3-day fasting. Since these fasted mice highly expressed heat shock protein 70 (n = 7, p <0.05 in liver tissues, as determined by western blot, the role of this protein in natural killer cell activation was investigated. Treatment of liver lymphocytes with 50 µg/mL of recombinant heat shock protein 70 led to the upregulation of both TRAIL and CD69 in liver natural killer cells (n = 6, p <0.05. In addition, HSP70 neutralization by intraperitoneally injecting an anti- heat shock protein 70 monoclonal antibody into mice prior to fasting led to the downregulation of TRAIL expression (n = 6, p <0.05. These findings indicate that acute fasting enhances TRAIL-mediated liver natural killer cell activity against neoplastic cells through upregulation of heat shock protein 70.

  11. Anthropometric, biomechanical, and isokinetic strength predictors of ball release speed in high-performance cricket fast bowlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormgoor, Shohn; Harden, Lois; Mckinon, Warrick

    2010-07-01

    Fast bowling is fundamental to all forms of cricket. The purpose of this study was to identify parameters that contribute to high ball release speeds in cricket fast bowlers. We assessed anthropometric dimensions, concentric and eccentric isokinetic strength of selected knee and shoulder muscle groups, and specific aspects of technique from a single delivery in 28 high-performance fast bowlers (age 22.0 +/- 3.0 years, ball release speed 34.0 +/- 1.3 m s(-1)). Six 50-Hz cameras and the Ariel Performance Analysis System software were used to analyse the fast and accurate deliveries. Using Pearson's correlation, parameters that showed significant associations with ball release speed were identified. The findings suggest that greater front leg knee extension at ball release (r=0.52), shoulder alignment in the transverse plane rotated further away from the batsman at front foot strike (r=0.47), greater ankle height during the delivery stride (r=0.44), and greater shoulder extension strength (r=0.39) contribute significantly to higher ball release speeds. Predictor variables failed to allow their incorporation into a multivariate model, which is known to exist in less accomplished bowlers, suggesting that factors that determine ball release speed found in other groups may not apply to high-performance fast bowlers.

  12. Individuals with Metabolically Healthy Overweight/Obesity Have Higher Fat Utilization than Metabolically Unhealthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Pujia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying the change in phenotype from metabolically healthy to metabolically unhealthy obesity are still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a difference in fasting fat utilization exists between overweight/obese individuals with a favorable cardiovascular risk profile and those with Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we sought to explore whether there is an association between fasting fat utilization and insulin resistance. In this cross-sectional study, 172 overweight/obese individuals underwent a nutritional assessment. Those with fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or antidiabetic treatment were considered to be diabetics. If at least three of the NCEP criteria were present, they had Metabolic Syndrome, while those with less criteria were considered to be healthy overweight/obese. An indirect calorimetry was performed to estimate Respiratory Quotient, an index of nutrient utilization. A lower Respiratory Quotient (i.e., higher fat utilization was found in healthy overweight/obese individuals than in those with Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 diabetes (0.85 ± 0.05; 0.87 ± 0.06; 0.88 ± 0.05 respectively, p = 0.04. The univariate and multivariable analysis showed a positive association between the Respiratory Quotient and HOMA-IR (slope in statistic (B = 0.004; β = 0.42; p = 0.005; 95% Confidence interval = 0.001–0.006. In this study, we find, for the first time, that the fasting Respiratory Quotient is significantly lower (fat utilization is higher in individuals who are metabolically healthy overweight/obese than in those with metabolically unhealthy obesity. In addition, we demonstrated the association between fat utilization and HOMA-IR, an insulin resistance index.

  13. Single-provenance mature conifers show higher non-structural carbohydrate storage and reduced growth in a drier location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Frida I; Fajardo, Alex; Hoch, Günter

    2017-08-01

    Since growth is more sensitive to drought than photosynthesis, trees inhabiting dry regions are expected to exhibit higher carbohydrate storage and less growth than their conspecifics from more humid regions. However, the same pattern can be the result of different genotypes inhabiting contrasting humidity conditions. To test if reduced growth and high carbohydrate storage are environmentally driven by drought, we examined the growth and non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations in single-provenance stands of mature trees of Pinus contorta Douglas and Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson planted at contrasting humidity conditions (900 versus 300 mm of annual precipitation) in Patagonia, Chile. Individual tree growth was measured for each species and at each location as mean basal area increment of the last 10 years (BAI10), annual shoot elongation for the period 2011-14, and needle length for 2013 and 2014 cohorts. Additionally, needle, branch, stem sapwood and roots were collected from each sampled tree to determine soluble sugars, starch and total NSC concentrations. The two species showed lower mean BAI10 and 2013 needle length in the dry site; P. ponderosa also had lower annual shoot extension for 2011 and 2014, and lower 2014 needle length, in the dry than in the mesic site. By contrast, NSC concentrations of all woody tissues for both species were either similar or higher in the dry site when compared with the mesic site. Patterns of starch and sugars were substantially different: starch concentrations were similar between sites except for roots of P. ponderosa, which were higher in the dry site, while sugar concentrations of all woody tissues in both species were higher in the dry site. Overall, our study provides evidence that reduced growth along with carbon (C) accumulation is an environmentally driven response to drought. Furthermore, the significant accumulation of low-molecular weight sugars in the dry site is compatible with a prioritized C

  14. The mechanism underlying fast germination of tomato cultivar LA2711.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchao; Chu, Zhuannan; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Ying; Wang, Jinfang; Li, Dianbo; Weeda, Sarah; Ren, Shuxin; Ouyang, Bo; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Seed germination is important for early plant morphogenesis as well as abiotic stress tolerance, and is mainly controlled by the phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA). Our previous studies identified a salt-tolerant tomato cultivar, LA2711, which is also a fast-germinating genotype, compared to its salt-sensitive counterpart, ZS-5. In an effort to further clarify the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we compared the dynamic levels of ABA and GA4, the transcript abundance of genes involved in their biosynthesis and catabolism as well as signal transduction between the two cultivars. In addition, we tested seed germination sensitivity to ABA and GAs. Our results revealed that insensitivity of seed germination to exogenous ABA and low ABA content in seeds are the physiological mechanisms conferring faster germination rates of LA2711 seeds. SlCYP707A2, which encodes an ABA catabolic enzyme, may play a decisive role in the fast germination rate of LA2711, as it showed a significantly higher level of expression in LA2711 than ZS-5 at most time points tested during germination. The current results will enable us to gain insight into the mechanism(s) regarding seed germination of tomato and the role of fast germination in stress tolerance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fast food intake in Canada: Differences among Canadians with diverse demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Billette, Jean-Michel

    2015-02-03

    To estimate the contribution of fast food to daily energy intake, and compare intake among Canadians with varied demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics. Using the National Cancer Institute method, nationally representative estimates of mean usual daily caloric intake from fast food were derived from 24-hour dietary recall data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 (n = 17,509) among participants age ≥ 2 years. Mean daily intake and relative proportion of calories derived from fast food were compared among respondents with diverse demographic (age, sex, provincial and rural/urban residence), socio-economic (income, education, food security status) and health and lifestyle characteristics (physical activity, fruit/vegetable intake, vitamin/ mineral supplement use, smoking, binge drinking, body mass index (BMI), self-rated health and dietary quality). On average, Canadians reported consuming 146 kcal/day from fast food, contributing to 6.3% of usual energy intake. Intake was highest among male teenagers (248 kcal) and lowest among women ≥ 70 years of age (32 kcal). Fast food consumption was significantly higher among respondents who reported lower fruit and vegetable intake, poorer dietary quality, binge drinking, not taking vitamin/mineral supplements (adults only), and persons with higher BMI. Socio-economic status, physical activity, smoking and self-rated health were not significantly associated with fast food intake. While average Canadian fast food consumption is lower than national US estimates, intake was associated with lower dietary quality and higher BMI. Findings suggest that research and intervention strategies should focus on dietary practices of children and adolescents, whose fast food intakes are among the highest in Canada.

  16. Neighborhood fast food restaurants and fast food consumption: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrea S; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2011-07-08

    Recent studies suggest that neighborhood fast food restaurant availability is related to greater obesity, yet few studies have investigated whether neighborhood fast food restaurant availability promotes fast food consumption. Our aim was to estimate the effect of neighborhood fast food availability on frequency of fast food consumption in a national sample of young adults, a population at high risk for obesity. We used national data from U.S. young adults enrolled in wave III (2001-02; ages 18-28) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 13,150). Urbanicity-stratified multivariate negative binomial regression models were used to examine cross-sectional associations between neighborhood fast food availability and individual-level self-reported fast food consumption frequency, controlling for individual and neighborhood characteristics. In adjusted analysis, fast food availability was not associated with weekly frequency of fast food consumption in non-urban or low- or high-density urban areas. Policies aiming to reduce neighborhood availability as a means to reduce fast food consumption among young adults may be unsuccessful. Consideration of fast food outlets near school or workplace locations, factors specific to more or less urban settings, and the role of individual lifestyle attitudes and preferences are needed in future research.

  17. Neighborhood fast food restaurants and fast food consumption: A national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon-Larsen Penny

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies suggest that neighborhood fast food restaurant availability is related to greater obesity, yet few studies have investigated whether neighborhood fast food restaurant availability promotes fast food consumption. Our aim was to estimate the effect of neighborhood fast food availability on frequency of fast food consumption in a national sample of young adults, a population at high risk for obesity. Methods We used national data from U.S. young adults enrolled in wave III (2001-02; ages 18-28 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 13,150. Urbanicity-stratified multivariate negative binomial regression models were used to examine cross-sectional associations between neighborhood fast food availability and individual-level self-reported fast food consumption frequency, controlling for individual and neighborhood characteristics. Results In adjusted analysis, fast food availability was not associated with weekly frequency of fast food consumption in non-urban or low- or high-density urban areas. Conclusions Policies aiming to reduce neighborhood availability as a means to reduce fast food consumption among young adults may be unsuccessful. Consideration of fast food outlets near school or workplace locations, factors specific to more or less urban settings, and the role of individual lifestyle attitudes and preferences are needed in future research.

  18. Fast imaging system on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraud, A.; Salasca, S.; Verger, J. M.; Alarcon, T.; Agarici, G.; Bremond, S.; Chenevois, J. P.; Geynet, M.; Migozzi, J. B.; Reux, C.

    2009-01-01

    A new endoscope aiming at transferring the image of a poloidal section of the Tore Supra plasma to a fast camera able to record frames at a speed up to 4800 frames per second at full resolution, or much faster for a limited number of pixel, has been installed on Tore Supra. First movies showing the light emission associated to fast phenomena such as plasma start up, disruptions or gas and pellet injections have been produced.

  19. Upgrading the Fast Calorimeter Simulation in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Schaarschmidt, Jana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The tremendous need for simulated samples now and even more so in the future, encourage the development of fast simulation techniques. The Fast Calorimeter Simulation is a faster though less accurate alternative to the full calorimeter simulation with Geant4. It is based on parametrizing the longitudunal and lateral energy deposits of single particles in the ATLAS calorimeter. Principal component analysis and machine learning techniques are used to improve the performance and decrease the memory need compared to the current version of the ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation. The parametrizations are expanded to cover very high energies and very forward detector regions, to increase the applicability of the tool. A prototype of this upgraded Fast Calorimeter Simulation has been developed and first validations with single particles show substantial improvements over the previous version.

  20. Corticotropin-releasing factor overexpression in mice abrogates sex differences in body weight, visceral fat, and food intake response to a fast and alters levels of feeding regulatory hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixin; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Yuan, Pu-Qing; Stengel, Andreas; Taché, Yvette

    2017-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor overexpressing (CRF-OE) male mice showed an inhibited feeding response to a fast, and lower plasma acyl ghrelin and Fos expression in the arcuate nucleus compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We investigated whether hormones and hypothalamic feeding signals are impaired in CRF-OE mice and the influence of sex. Male and female CRF-OE mice and WT littermates (4-6 months old) fed ad libitum or overnight fasted were assessed for body, adrenal glands and perigonadal fat weights, food intake, plasma hormones, blood glucose, and mRNA hypothalamic signals. Under fed conditions, compared to WT, CRF-OE mice have increased adrenal glands and perigonadal fat weight, plasma corticosterone, leptin and insulin, and hypothalamic leptin receptor and decreased plasma acyl ghrelin. Compared to male, female WT mice have lower body and perigonadal fat and plasma leptin but higher adrenal glands weights. CRF-OE mice lost these sex differences except for the adrenals. Male CRF-OE and WT mice did not differ in hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC), while female CRF-OE compared to female WT and male CRF-OE had higher NPY mRNA levels. After fasting, female WT mice lost more body weight and ate more food than male WT, while CRF-OE mice had reduced body weight loss and inhibited food intake without sex difference. In male WT mice, fasting reduced plasma insulin and leptin and increased acyl ghrelin and corticosterone while female WT showed only a rise in corticosterone. In CRF-OE mice, fasting reduced insulin while leptin, acyl ghrelin and corticosterone were unchanged with no sex difference. Fasting blood glucose was higher in CRF-OE with female > male. In WT mice, fasting increased hypothalamic NPY expression in both sexes and decreased POMC only in males, while in CRF-OE mice, NPY did not change, and POMC decreased in males and increased in females. These data indicate that CRF-OE mice have abnormal basal and fasting

  1. FastChem: An ultra-fast equilibrium chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzmann, Daniel; Stock, Joachim

    2018-04-01

    FastChem is an equilibrium chemistry code that calculates the chemical composition of the gas phase for given temperatures and pressures. Written in C++, it is based on a semi-analytic approach, and is optimized for extremely fast and accurate calculations.

  2. [A 53-year-old man with herpes encephalitis showing acceleration of improvement in higher brain function after general anesthesia with sevoflurane: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Naohiko; Kaida, Kenichi; Hongo, Yu; Ogawa, Go; Ishikawa, Yukinobu; Takeda, Katsuhiko; Kamakura, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    We experienced a right-handed 53-year-old man who presented with disturbance of consciousness and fever. Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) was diagnosed based on the detection of herpes simplex virus DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid. The administration of acyclovir for 42 days improved his consciousness level. Drowsiness, fever and seizures reappeared 20 days after stopping acyclovir treatment (day 67) and he responded well to vidarabine and methylprednisolone pulse therapy. An assessment of aphasia on day 98 revealed transcortical sensory aphasia. Brain MRI showed lesion in the left temporal lobe, bilateral insular cortexes and bilateral frontal lobe. His higher brain dysfunction continued. On day 156, he underwent hip replacement arthroplasty under general anesthesia sevoflurane. His higher brain dysfunction rapidly improved thereafter. We concluded that the accelerated improvement in our patient's higher brain function was related to the protective effect of sevoflurane. Some reports also show the protective effects of sevoflurane in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by inhibition of T cell activation. These protective and anti-inflammatory effects may explain the accelerated improvement in higher brain function after general anesthesia.

  3. INERTIAL RANGE TURBULENCE OF FAST AND SLOW SOLAR WIND AT 0.72 AU AND SOLAR MINIMUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodorescu, Eliza; Echim, Marius; Munteanu, Costel [Institute for Space Sciences, Măgurele (Romania); Zhang, Tielong [Space Research Institute, Graz (Austria); Bruno, Roberto [INAF-IAPS, Istituto di Astrofizica e Planetologia Spaziali, Rome (Italy); Kovacs, Peter, E-mail: eliteo@spacescience.ro [Geological and Geophysical Institute of Hungary, Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-05-10

    We investigate Venus Express observations of magnetic field fluctuations performed systematically in the solar wind at 0.72 Astronomical Units (AU), between 2007 and 2009, during the deep minimum of solar cycle 24. The power spectral densities (PSDs) of the magnetic field components have been computed for time intervals that satisfy the data integrity criteria and have been grouped according to the type of wind, fast and slow, defined for speeds larger and smaller, respectively, than 450 km s{sup −1}. The PSDs show higher levels of power for the fast wind than for the slow. The spectral slopes estimated for all PSDs in the frequency range 0.005–0.1 Hz exhibit a normal distribution. The average value of the trace of the spectral matrix is −1.60 for fast solar wind and −1.65 for slow wind. Compared to the corresponding average slopes at 1 AU, the PSDs are shallower at 0.72 AU for slow wind conditions suggesting a steepening of the solar wind spectra between Venus and Earth. No significant time variation trend is observed for the spectral behavior of both the slow and fast wind.

  4. Sociodemographic differences in fast food price sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Katie A.; Guilkey, David K.; Ng, Shu Wen; Duffey, Kiyah J.; Popkin, Barry M.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Shikany, James M.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Importance Fiscal food policies (e.g., taxation) are increasingly proposed to improve population-level health, but their impact on health disparities is unknown. Objective We estimated subgroup-specific effects of fast food price changes on fast food consumption and cardio-metabolic outcomes, hypothesizing inverse associations between fast food price with fast food consumption, BMI, and insulin resistance and stronger associations among blacks (vs. whites) and participants with relatively lower education or income. Design 20-year follow-up (5 exams) in a biracial U.S. prospective cohort: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) (1985/86–2005/06, baseline n=5,115). Participants Aged 18–30 at baseline; designed for equal recruitment by race (black/white), educational attainment, age, and gender. Exposures Community-level price data from the Council for Community and Economic Research (C2ER) temporally- and geographically-linked to study participants’ home address at each exam. Main outcome and measures Participant-reported number of fast food eating occasions per week; BMI (kg/m2) from clinical assessment of weight and height; homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) from fasting glucose and insulin. Covariates included individual- and community-level social and demographic factors. Results In repeated measures regression, multivariable-adjusted associations between fast food price and consumption were non-linear (quadratic, pconsumption at higher prices; estimates varied according to race (interaction term p=0.04), income (p=0.07), and education (p=0.03). For example, at the 10th percentile of price ($1.25/serving), blacks and whites had mean fast food consumption (times/week) of 2.2 (95% CI: 2.1–2.3) and 1.6 (1.5–1.7), respectively, while at the 90th percentile of price ($1.53/serving), respective mean consumption estimates were 1.9 (1.8–2.0) and 1.5 (1.4–1.6). We observed differential price effects on HOMA

  5. A Fast-Starting Robotic Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya; Watts, Matthew; Conte, Joe; Hover, Franz; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2009-11-01

    We have built a simple mechanical system to emulate the fast-start performance of fish. The system consisted of a thin metal beam covered by a urethane rubber fish body. The body form of the mechanical fish in this work was modeled from a pike species, which is the most successfully studied fast-start specialist species. The mechanical fish was held in curvature and hung in water by two restraining lines, which were simultaneously released by pneumatic cutting mechanisms. The potential energy in the beam was transferred into the fluid, thereby accelerating the fish, similar to a pike. We measured the resulting velocity and acceleration, as well as the efficiency of propulsion for the mechanical fish model and also ran a series of flow visualization tests to observe the resulting flow pattern. We also studied the influence of stiffness and geometry of the tail on the efficiency of propulsion and flow pattern. The hydrodynamic efficiency of the fish, calculated by the transfer of energy, was around 10%. Flow visualization of the mechanical fast-start wake was also analyzed, showing that the acceleration is associated with the fast movement of an intense vortex in a near-lateral direction.

  6. Neighborhood fast food restaurants and fast food consumption: A national study

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Andrea S; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent studies suggest that neighborhood fast food restaurant availability is related to greater obesity, yet few studies have investigated whether neighborhood fast food restaurant availability promotes fast food consumption. Our aim was to estimate the effect of neighborhood fast food availability on frequency of fast food consumption in a national sample of young adults, a population at high risk for obesity. Methods We used national data from U.S. young adults enrolled...

  7. [Cardiac risk profile in diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaan, Beatriz D'Agord; Harzheim, Erno; Gus, Iseu

    2004-08-01

    Mortality of diabetic patients is higher than that of the population at large, and mainly results from cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of the present study was to identify the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with diabetes mellitus (DM) or abnormal fasting glucose (FG) in order to guide health actions. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in a representative random cluster sampling of 1,066 adult urban population (> or =20 years) in the state of Rio Grande do Sul between 1999 and 2000. A structured questionnaire on coronary risk factors was applied and sociodemographic characteristics of all adults older than 20 years living in the same dwelling were collected. Subjects were clinically evaluated and blood samples were obtained for measuring total cholesterol and fasting glycemia. Statistical analysis was performed using Stata 7 and a 5% significance level was set. Categorical variables were compared by Pearson's chi-square and continuous variables were compared using Student's t-test or Anova and multivariate analysis, all controlled for the cluster effect. Of 992 subjects, 12.4% were diabetic and 7.4% had impaired fasting glucose. Among the risk factors evaluated, subjects who presented any kind of glucose homeostasis abnormality were at a higher prevalence of obesity (17.8, 29.2 and 35.3% in healthy subjects, impaired fasting glucose and DM respectively, pfasting glucose and DM, respectively, pfasting glucose and DM respectively, p=0.01). Subjects with any kind of glucose homeostasis abnormality represent a group, which preventive individual and population health policies should target since they have higher prevalence of coronary artery disease risk factors.

  8. Enabling fast charging – A battery technology gap assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Jansen, Andrew N.; Tanim, Tanvir; Dufek, Eric J.; Pesaran, Ahmad; Burnham, Andrew; Carlson, Richard B.; Dias, Fernando; Hardy, Keith; Keyser, Matthew; Kreuzer, Cory; Markel, Anthony; Meintz, Andrew; Michelbacher, Christopher; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Nelson, Paul A.; Robertson, David C.; Scoffield, Don; Shirk, Matthew; Stephens, Thomas; Vijayagopal, Ram; Zhang, Jiucai

    2017-11-01

    The battery technology literature is reviewed, with an emphasis on key elements that limit extreme fast charging. Key gaps in existing elements of the technology are presented as well as developmental needs. Among these needs are advanced models and methods to detect and prevent lithium plating; new positive-electrode materials which are less prone to stress-induced failure; better electrode designs to accommodate very rapid diffusion in and out of the electrode; measure temperature distributions during fast charge to enable / validate models; and develop thermal management and pack designs to accommodate the higher operating voltage.

  9. Comparison of Fast-Food and Non-Fast-Food Children's Menu Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Elena L.; Jedda, Virginia B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Compare the macronutrient content of children's meals sold by fast-food restaurants (FFR) and non-fast-food restaurants (NFF). Design: All restaurants within the designated city limits were surveyed. Non-fast-food children's meals were purchased, weighed, and analyzed using nutrition software. All fast-food children's meals were…

  10. Fast Swinnex Filtration (FSF): A fast and robust sampling and extraction method suitable for metabolomics analysis of cultures grown in complex media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCloskey, Douglas; Utrilla, Jose; Naviaux, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    , we develop a fast-filtration method using pressuredriven Swinnex filters. We show that the method is fast enough to provide an accurate snapshot of intracellular metabolism, reduces matrix interference from the media to improve the number of compounds that can be detected, and is applicable...... to anaerobic and aerobic liquid cultures grown in a variety of culturing systems. Furthermore, we apply the fast filtration method to investigate differences in the absolute intracellular metabolite levels of anaerobic cultures grown in minimal and complex media....

  11. Glucose metabolism during fasting is altered in experimental porphobilinogen deaminase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collantes, María; Serrano-Mendioroz, Irantzu; Benito, Marina; Molinet-Dronda, Francisco; Delgado, Mercedes; Vinaixa, María; Sampedro, Ana; Enríquez de Salamanca, Rafael; Prieto, Elena; Pozo, Miguel A; Peñuelas, Iván; Corrales, Fernando J; Barajas, Miguel; Fontanellas, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) haploinsufficiency (acute intermittent porphyria, AIP) is characterized by neurovisceral attacks when hepatic heme synthesis is activated by endogenous or environmental factors including fasting. While the molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritional regulation of hepatic heme synthesis have been described, glucose homeostasis during fasting is poorly understood in porphyria. Our study aimed to analyse glucose homeostasis and hepatic carbohydrate metabolism during fasting in PBGD-deficient mice. To determine the contribution of hepatic PBGD deficiency to carbohydrate metabolism, AIP mice injected with a PBGD-liver gene delivery vector were included. After a 14 h fasting period, serum and liver metabolomics analyses showed that wild-type mice stimulated hepatic glycogen degradation to maintain glucose homeostasis while AIP livers activated gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis due to their inability to use stored glycogen. The serum of fasted AIP mice showed increased concentrations of insulin and reduced glucagon levels. Specific over-expression of the PBGD protein in the liver tended to normalize circulating insulin and glucagon levels, stimulated hepatic glycogen catabolism and blocked ketone body production. Reduced glucose uptake was observed in the primary somatosensorial brain cortex of fasted AIP mice, which could be reversed by PBGD-liver gene delivery. In conclusion, AIP mice showed a different response to fasting as measured by altered carbohydrate metabolism in the liver and modified glucose consumption in the brain cortex. Glucose homeostasis in fasted AIP mice was efficiently normalized after restoration of PBGD gene expression in the liver. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Ethical Internationalisation in Higher Education: Interfaces with International Development and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashby, Karen; de Oliveira Andreotti, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    This analysis is situated within a larger project focusing on ethics and internationalisation in higher education. Internationalisation is occurring at a fast pace and encompasses overlapping and contradictory aims largely framed by market imperatives. At the same time, institutions of higher education increasingly promote sustainability. We use a…

  13. Core design of long life-cycle fast reactors operating without reactivity margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristova, E. N.; Baydin, D. F.; Gol'din, V. Y.; Pestryakova, G. A.; Stoynov, M. I.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we consider a possibility of designing a fast reactor core that operates without reactivity margin for a long time. This study is based on the physical principle of fast reactor operating in a self-adjustable neutron-nuclear regime (SANNR-1) introduced by L.P. Feoktistov (1988-1993) and improved by V. Ya. Gol'din SANNR-2 (1995). The mathematical modeling of active zones of fast reactors in SANNR modes is held by authors since 1992. The numerical simulation is based on solving the neutron transport equation coupled with quasi-diffusion equations. The calculations have been performed using standard 26 energy groups. We use a hierarchy of spatial models of 1D, 1.5D, 2D, and 3D geometries. The spatial models of higher dimensionality are used for verification of results. The calculations showed that operation of the reactor in this mode increases its efficiency, safety and simplifies management. It is possible to achieve continuous work of the reactor in SANNR-2 during 7-10 years without fuel overloads by means of further optimization of the mode. Small reactivity margin is used only for the reactor start up. After first 10-15 days the reactor in SANNR-2 operates without reactivity margin. (authors)

  14. Breakfast and fast food eating behavior in relation to socio-demographic differences among school adolescents in Sanandaj Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimoradi, Foad; Jandaghi, Parisa; Khodabakhshi, Adeleh; Javadi, Maryam; Moghadam, Seyed Amir Hossein Zehni

    2017-06-01

    Fast food consumption and skipping breakfast has been increasingly prevalent among high school adolescents in recent years. These unhealthy food habits are considered as risk factors of chronic diseases among adolescents and adults. To determine the consumption amount of fast food, breakfast, and some associated factors in adolescents. In this cross-sectional study in 2015, 553 adolescent students aged 14-18 years were randomly selected among high schools of Sanandaj, Iran. Demographic data and also consumption amount of fast food and breakfast in adolescents in addition to the related factors were studied. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire which its reliability and validity were measured by five experts and analyzed with SPSS-16 by Chi-square test and ANOVA. The results show that 69.8 % of subjects consume fast food at least once a week. Fast food and breakfast consumption is related significantly to subjects' fathers' occupation respectively (p=0.005), (p=0.006). Eating breakfast is significantly higher among boys than girls (pfast food consumption are: their own and their families and friends' interest and accompaniment, advertisement, close proximity of school and home to fast food stores. The consumption of fast food is high among Iranian adolescents. It correlates significantly with variables including father's occupation and all of the associated factors. Breakfast consumption correlates significantly with adolescents' age and gender, as well as parents' occupation and educational level.

  15. Myomaker mediates fusion of fast myocytes in zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landemaine, Aurélie; Rescan, Pierre-Yves; Gabillard, Jean-Charles, E-mail: Jean-charles.gabillard@rennes.inra.fr

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Myomaker is transiently expressed in fast myocytes during embryonic myogenesis. • Myomaker is essential for fast myocyte fusion in zebrafish. • The function of myomaker is conserved among Teleostomi. - Abstract: Myomaker (also called Tmem8c), a new membrane activator of myocyte fusion was recently discovered in mice. Using whole mount in situ hybridization on zebrafish embryos at different stages of embryonic development, we show that myomaker is transiently expressed in fast myocytes forming the bulk of zebrafish myotome. Zebrafish embryos injected with morpholino targeted against myomaker were alive after yolk resorption and appeared morphologically normal, but they were unable to swim, even under effect of a tactile stimulation. Confocal observations showed a marked phenotype characterized by the persistence of mononucleated muscle cells in the fast myotome at developmental stages where these cells normally fuse to form multinucleated myotubes. This indicates that myomaker is essential for myocyte fusion in zebrafish. Thus, there is an evolutionary conservation of myomaker expression and function among Teleostomi.

  16. Fast Food Jobs. National Study of Fast Food Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined employment in the fast-food industry. The national survey collected data from employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies. Female employees outnumbered males by two to one. The ages of those fast-food employees in the survey sample ranged from 14 to 71, with fully 70 percent being in the 16- to 20-year-old age…

  17. Intermittent Fasting Modulation of the Diabetic Syndrome in Streptozotocin-Injected Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louiza Belkacemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of intermittent overnight fasting in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats. Over 30 days, groups of 5-6 control or STZ rats were allowed free food access, starved overnight, or exposed to a restricted food supply comparable to that ingested by the intermittently fasting animals. Intermittent fasting improved glucose tolerance, increased plasma insulin, and lowered Homeostatis Model Assessment index. Caloric restriction failed to cause such beneficial effects. The β-cell mass, as well as individual β-cell and islet area, was higher in intermittently fasting than in nonfasting STZ rats, whilst the percentage of apoptotic β-cells appeared lower in the former than latter STZ rats. In the calorie-restricted STZ rats, comparable findings were restricted to individual islet area and percentage of apoptotic cells. Hence, it is proposed that intermittent fasting could represent a possible approach to prevent or minimize disturbances of glucose homeostasis in human subjects.

  18. Today's attitudes and future prospects of fast reactors in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabaschi, S.; Cicognani, G.; Pierantoni, F.

    1982-01-01

    The Italian fast reactor programme is reviewed. The 15 year collaboration with France has resulted in the construction of the PEC reactor, development of the Superphenix-1 and a common R and D programme for future large fast reactors. The CNEN 4th five year (1980-84) plan is outlined. The budget breakdown for different areas shows the importance attached to the fast reactor. (U.K.)

  19. The impact of "Ramadan fasting period" on total and differential white blood cells, haematological indices, inflammatory biomarker, respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests of healthy and asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, V R; Alavinezhad, A; Boskabady, M H

    2016-01-01

    There is no conclusive evidence regarding the effect of fasting on different features in asthmatic patients. In the present study, the effect of Ramadan fasting in asthmatic patients and healthy control was studied. Haematological indices, inflammatory mediators, pulmonary function tests (PFT) and respiratory symptoms were evaluated in 15 asthmatic patients compared to 14 healthy matched control group before and after the one-month fasting period in Ramadan. The change in each parameter from the beginning to the end of Ramadan was calculated and referred to as "variation during Ramadan". The values of MCH, MCHC in both groups and monocyte counts in asthmatic patients, were significantly increased but platelet count was reduced in asthmatic and controls respectively compared to pre-Ramadan fasting period (Pfasting month (Pfasting month in both groups were non-significantly higher compared to pre-fasting values except FVC. Respiratory symptoms in asthmatic patients were non-significantly but wheeze-o was significantly reduced after Ramadan fasting period in asthma group (Pfasting period between two groups, although reduction of hs-CRP in asthmatic group was non-significantly higher than control group. These results show that Ramadan fasting period has no negative impact on asthma and may have some positive effect on asthma severity with regard to reduction of hs-CRP concentration and chest wheeze. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Fast DNA analysis by laser mass spectrometry for human genome analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, K.; Taranenko, N. I.; Allman, S. L.; Chang, L. Y.; Chen, C. H.

    1995-01-01

    Fast DNA sequencing by laser mass spectrometry is possible if the following 3 criteria are met: (1) Size of DNA fragment should be greater than 300 nucleotides. (2) Enough sensitivity to detect DNA produce from polymerases chain reactins (PCR). (3) Higher resolution of mass spectr. So far, the firt 2 criteria are met: If the resolution can be significantly improve, fast DNA sequencing by laser mass spectrometry weil be a reality in the near feature

  1. Nonlinear interaction of fast particles with Alfven waves in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candy, J.; Borba, D.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Kerner, W.; Berk, H.L.

    1996-01-01

    A numerical algorithm to study the nonlinear, resonant interaction of fast particles with Alfven waves in tokamak geometry has been developed. The scope of the formalism is wide enough to describe the nonlinear evolution of fishbone modes, toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes and ellipticity-induced Alfven eigenmodes, driven by both passing and trapped fast ions. When the instability is sufficiently weak, it is known that the wave-particle trapping nonlinearity will lead to mode saturation before wave-wave nonlinearities are appreciable. The spectrum of linear modes can thus be calculated using a magnetohydrodynamic normal-mode code, then nonlinearly evolved in time in an efficient way according to a two-time-scale Lagrangian dynamical wave model. The fast particle kinetic equation, including the effect of orbit nonlinearity arising from the mode perturbation, is simultaneously solved of the deviation, δf = f - f 0 , from an initial analytic distribution f 0 . High statistical resolution allows linear growth rates, frequency shifts, resonance broadening effects, and nonlinear saturation to be calculated quickly and precisely. The results have been applied to an ITER instability scenario. Results show that weakly-damped core-localized modes alone cause negligible alpha transport in ITER-like plasmas--even with growth rates one order of magnitude higher than expected values. However, the possibility of significant transport in reactor-type plasmas due to weakly unstable global modes remains an open question

  2. Alfvenic Instabilities and Fast Ion Transport in the DIII-D Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zeeland, M.; Heidbrink, W.; Nazikian, R.; Austin, M.; Berk, H.; Gorelenkov, N.; Holcomb, C.; Kramer, G.; Lohr, J.; Luo, Y.; Makowski, M.; McKee, G.; Petty, C.; Prater, R.; Solomon, W.; White, R.

    2008-01-01

    Neutral beam injection into reversed magnetic shear DIII-D plasmas produces a variety of Alfvenic activity including Toroidicity and Ellipticity induced Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE/EAE, respectively) and Reversed Shear Alfven Eigenmodes (RSAE) as well as their spatial coupling. These modes are typically studied during the discharge current ramp phase when incomplete current penetration results in a high central safety factor and strong drive due to multiple higher order resonances. During this same time period Fast-Ion D α (FIDA) spectroscopy shows that the central fast ion profile is flattened, the degree of which depends on the Alfven eigenmode amplitude. Interestingly, localized electron cyclotron heating (ECH) near the mode location stabilizes RSAE activity and results in significantly improved fast ion confinement relative to discharges with ECH deposition on axis. In these discharges, RSAE activity is suppressed when ECH is deposited near the radius of the shear reversal point and enhanced with deposition near the axis. To simulate the observed neutral beam ion redistribution, NOVA calculations of the 3D eigenmode structures are matched with experimental measurements and used in combination with the ORBIT guiding center following code. For fixed frequency eigenmodes, it is found that ORBIT calculations cannot explain the observed beam ion transport with experimentally measured mode amplitudes. Possible explanations are considered including recent simulation results incorporating eigenmodes with time dependent frequencies

  3. Fast Bayesian Non-Negative Matrix Factorisation and Tri-Factorisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwer, Thomas; Frellsen, Jes; Liò, Pietro

    We present a fast variational Bayesian algorithm for performing non-negative matrix factorisation and tri-factorisation. We show that our approach achieves faster convergence per iteration and timestep (wall-clock) than Gibbs sampling and non-probabilistic approaches, and do not require additional...... samples to estimate the posterior. We show that in particular for matrix tri-factorisation convergence is difficult, but our variational Bayesian approach offers a fast solution, allowing the tri-factorisation approach to be used more effectively....

  4. A fast dynamic mode in rare earth based glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, L. Z.; Xue, R. J.; Zhu, Z. G.; Wang, W. H.; Bai, H. Y., E-mail: hybai@iphy.ac.cn [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Ngai, K. L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2016-05-28

    Metallic glasses (MGs) usually exhibit only slow β-relaxation peak, and the signature of the fast dynamic is challenging to be observed experimentally in MGs. We report a general and unusual fast dynamic mode in a series of rare earth based MGs manifested as a distinct fast β′-relaxation peak in addition to slow β-relaxation and α-relaxation peaks. We show that the activation energy of the fast β′-relaxation is about 12RT{sub g} and is equivalent to the activation of localized flow event. The coupling of these dynamic processes as well as their relationship with glass transition and structural heterogeneity is discussed.

  5. An Easy Way to Show Memory Color Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes and evaluates a simple stimulus display that allows one to measure memory color effects (the effect of object knowledge and memory on color perception). The proposed approach is fast and easy and does not require running an extensive experiment. It shows that memory color effects are robust to minor variations due to a lack of color calibration.

  6. An Easy Way to Show Memory Color Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Witzel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes and evaluates a simple stimulus display that allows one to measure memory color effects (the effect of object knowledge and memory on color perception). The proposed approach is fast and easy and does not require running an extensive experiment. It shows that memory color effects are robust to minor variations due to a lack of color calibration.

  7. Mobilisation of lipophilic pollutants from blubber in northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris) during the post-weaning fast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, Caroline [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, UCLouvain, Croix du Sud 2/L7.05.08, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Dirtu, Alin C. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toxicological Center, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Department of Chemistry, “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Stas, Marie [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, UCLouvain, Croix du Sud 2/L7.05.08, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Guiot, Yves [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, UCLouvain, Brussels (Belgium); Malarvannan, Govindan [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toxicological Center, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Das, Krishna [Laboratoire d’Océanologie, MARE Center B6c, Université de Liège, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Costa, Daniel P. [Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Department, University of California Santa Cruz, 100 Shaffer Rd, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States); Crocker, Daniel E. [Department of Biology, Sonoma State University, 1801 East Cotati Ave, Rohnert Park, CA 94928 (United States); Covaci, Adrian [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toxicological Center, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Debier, Cathy, E-mail: cathy.debier@uclouvain.be [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, UCLouvain, Croix du Sud 2/L7.05.08, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2014-07-15

    Northern elephant seals (NES) (Mirounga angustirostris) from the Año Nuevo State Reserve (CA, USA) were longitudinally sampled during the post-weaning fast in order to study the mobilisation and redistribution of various classes of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) between blubber and blood. Inner and outer blubber layers were analysed separately. Organohalogenated compounds were detected in all blubber samples in the decreasing order of their concentrations: p,p′-DDE>PCBs⪢HCB>PBDEs. The concentrations of all studied compounds were homogeneously distributed in the blubber layer at early fast, since the concentrations of POPs were statistically not different in the inner and outer layers. With the progression of the fast, the concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs and p,p′-DDE increased more sharply in inner blubber than in outer blubber. As a result, their levels became significantly higher in inner blubber as compared to outer blubber at late fast. The rise of pollutant concentrations in blubber might result from a less efficient mobilisation than triglycerides and/or a reuptake by adipocytes of some of the pollutants released into the circulation. The mobilisation of pollutants from blubber was higher at late fast. An increase of pollutant concentrations was observed in serum between early and late fast. Lower halogenated congeners (i.e. tetra-CBs) were present in higher proportions in serum, whereas the higher halogenated congeners (i.e. hepta-CBs) were mainly found in the inner and outer blubber layers. The transfer ratios of both PBDEs and PCBs from inner blubber to serum decreased with the number of chlorine and bromine atoms. In addition, the distribution of both types of compounds between serum and blubber was strongly influenced by their lipophilic character (log K{sub ow} values), with more

  8. A fasting inducible switch modulates gluconeogenesis via activator/coactivator exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yi; Dentin, Renaud; Chen, Danica

    2008-01-01

    During early fasting, increases in skeletal muscle proteolysis liberate free amino acids for hepatic gluconeogenesis in response to pancreatic glucagon. Hepatic glucose output diminishes during the late protein-sparing phase of fasting, when ketone body production by the liver supplies compensatory...... expression through the dephosphorylation and nuclear shuttling of forkhead box O1 (FOXO1). Here we show that a fasting-inducible switch, consisting of the histone acetyltransferase p300 and the nutrient-sensing deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), maintains energy balance in mice through the sequential induction...... of CRTC2 and FOXO1. After glucagon induction, CRTC2 stimulated gluconeogenic gene expression by an association with p300, which we show here is also activated by dephosphorylation at Ser 89 during fasting. In turn, p300 increased hepatic CRTC2 activity by acetylating it at Lys 628, a site that also...

  9. Diet-induced obesity attenuates fasting-induced hyperphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, D I; Lemus, M B; Kua, E; Andrews, Z B

    2011-07-01

    Obesity impairs arcuate (ARC) neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-releated peptide (AgRP) neuronal function and renders these homeostatic neurones unresponsive to the orexigenic hormone ghrelin. In the present study, we investigated the effect of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on feeding behaviour, ARC neuronal activation and mRNA expression following another orexigenic stimulus, an overnight fast. We show that 9 weeks of high-fat feeding attenuates fasting-induced hyperphagia by suppressing ARC neuronal activation and hypothalamic NPY/AgRP mRNA expression. Thus, the lack of appropriate feeding responses in DIO mice to a fast is caused by failure ARC neurones to recognise and/or respond to orexigenic cues. We propose that fasting-induced hyperphagia is regulated not by homeostatic control of appetite in DIO mice, but rather by changes in the reward circuitry. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Fast-Food Marketing Strategies and their Impact on Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso M. Herédia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity are growing health problems in children. The increase in fast-food consumption has greatly contributed to this phenomenon. Children are a frequent target for fast-food advertising, and the television is one of the most used marketing channels. We assessed the frequency of fast-food ingestion, television viewing time and body mass index (BMI in children from 8 to 12 years of age. A quantitative approach was followed, using a self-report questionnaire. The sample was composed of 60 children with an age average of 9.88 years (SD=1.37. It was found that longer television viewing times were associated with higher frequency of fast-food ingestion for both school days (rS = 0.54, p < .001 and weekends/holidays (rS = 0.50, p < .001. A positive and moderate correlation between television viewing times and BMI (rS = 0.51, p < .001; rS = 0.55, p < .001 was also observed. The results indicate that television advertising makes children wanting to try the fast-food advertised (67%; n = 40, and ask parents to buy it (60%; n = 36. The good taste (72%; n = 43 and the gifts (38%; n = 23 are what the children in our study most appreciate in fast-food restaurants. Despite legal regulatory mechanisms, marketing continues to have a strong impact on the promotion of fast-food consumption in children.

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of Gasoline and Diesel Produced via Fast Pyrolysis and Hydroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, D. D.

    2011-03-01

    In this work, a life cycle assessment (LCA) estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and net energy value (NEV) of the production of gasoline and diesel from forest residues via fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing, from production of the feedstock to end use of the fuel in a vehicle, is performed. The fast pyrolysis and hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are based on a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) design report. The LCA results show GHG emissions of 0.142 kg CO2-equiv. per km traveled and NEV of 1.00 MJ per km traveled for a process using grid electricity. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis shows a range of results, with all values better than those of conventional gasoline in 2005. Results for GHG emissions and NEV of gasoline and diesel from pyrolysis are also reported on a per MJ fuel basis for comparison with ethanol produced via gasification. Although pyrolysis-derived gasoline and diesel have lower GHG emissions and higher NEV than conventional gasoline does in 2005, they underperform ethanol produced via gasification from the same feedstock. GHG emissions for pyrolysis could be lowered further if electricity and hydrogen are produced from biomass instead of from fossil sources.

  12. Longitudinal fasting blood glucose patterns and arterial stiffness risk in a population without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuntao; Yu, Junxing; Jin, Cheng; Li, Yun; Su, Jinmei; Wei, Guoqing; Zheng, Xiaoming; Gao, Jingsheng; Gao, Wenyuan; Wu, Shouling

    2017-01-01

    To identify long-term fasting blood glucose trajectories and to assess the association between the trajectories and the risk of arterial stiffness in individuals without diabetes. We enrolled 16,454 non-diabetic participants from Kailuan cohort. Fasting blood glucose concentrations were measured in 2006, 2008, and 2010 survey. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocities were measured during 2011 to 2016. Multivariate regression model was used to estimate the difference of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity levels and logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) of arterial stiffness risk, according to the fasting blood glucose trajectories. We identified five distinct fasting blood glucose trajectories and each of the trajectories was labeled according to its range and change over 2006-2010 survey: elevated-stable pattern (5.0% of participants), elevated-decreasing pattern (6.6%), moderate-increasing pattern (10.9%), moderate-stable pattern (59.3%), and low-stable pattern (18.2%). After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals with elevated-stable pattern had a 42.6 cm/s (95%CI: 24.7 to 60.6 cm/s) higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity level and a 37% (OR 1.37, 95%CI: 1.14 to 1.66) higher arterial stiffness risk, and individuals with moderate-increasing pattern had a 19.6 cm/s (95%CI: 6.9 to 32.3 cm/s) higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity level and a 17% (OR 1.17, 95%CI: 1.03 to 1.33) higher arterial stiffness risk, related to individuals with moderate-stable pattern. We did not find significant associations of the elevated-decreasing or low-stable patterns with arterial stiffness. Consistently, the cumulative average, variability, and increased rate of fasting blood glucose during 2006-2010 survey were significantly associated with the arterial stiffness risk. Discrete fasting blood glucose trajectories were associated with the arterial stiffness risk in non-diabetic individuals.

  13. Fast Pyrolysis of Four Lignins from Different Isolation Processes Using Py-GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Lin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis is a promising approach that is being investigated to convert lignin into higher value products including biofuels and phenolic chemicals. In this study, fast pyrolysis of four types of lignin, including milled Amur linden wood lignin (MWL, enzymatic hydrolysis corn stover lignin (EHL, wheat straw alkali lignin (AL and wheat straw sulfonate lignin (SL, were performed using pyrolysis gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA showed that the four lignins exhibited widely different thermolysis behaviors. The four lignins had similar functional groups according to the FTIR analysis. Syringyl, guaiacyl and p-hydroxyphenylpropane structural units were broken down during pyrolysis. Fast pyrolysis product distributions from the four lignins depended strongly on the lignin origin and isolation process. Phenols were the most abundant pyrolysis products from MWL, EHL and AL. However, SL produced a large number of furan compounds and sulfur compounds originating from kraft pulping. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and time on the product distributions from corn stover EHL were also studied. At 350 °C, EHL pyrolysis mainly produced acids and alcohols, while phenols became the main products at higher temperature. No obvious influence of pyrolysis time was observed on EHL pyrolysis product distributions.

  14. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium and uranium in fed and fasted adult baboons and mice: application to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Oldham, R.D.; Cohen, N.; Ralston, L.G.; Moretti, E.S.; Ayres, L.

    1989-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) absorption values of plutonium and uranium were determined in fed and fasted adult baboons and mice. For both baboons and mice, the GI absorptions of plutonium and uranium were 10 to 20 times higher in 24 h fasted animals than in fed ones. For plutonium, GI absorption values in baboons were almost identical to those in mice for both fed and fasted conditions, and values for fed animals agreed with estimates for humans. For uranium, GI absorption values in fed and fasted baboons were 6 to 7 times higher than those in mice, and agreed well with those fed and fasted humans. For one baboon that was not given its morning meal, plutonium absorption 2 h after the start of the active phase was the same as that in the 24 h fasted animals. In contrast, for baboons that received a morning meal, plutonium absorption did not rise to the value of 24 h fasted baboons even 8 h after the meal. We conclude that GI absorption values for plutonium and uranium in adult baboons are good estimates of the values in humans and that the values for the fasted condition should be used to set standards for oral exposure of persons in the workplace. (author)

  15. Fasting Plasma Insulin at 5 Years of Age Predicted Subsequent Weight Increase in Early Childhood over a 5-Year Period—The Da Qing Children Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan Yan; Wang, Jin Ping; Jiang, Ya Yun; Li, Hui; Hu, Ying Hua; Lee, Kok Onn; Li, Guang Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between hyperinsulinemia and obesity is well known. However, it is uncertain especially in childhood obesity, if initial fasting hyperinsulinemia predicts obesity, or obesity leads to hyperinsulinemia through insulin resistance. Objective To investigate the predictive effect of fasting plasma insulin on subsequent weight change after a 5-year interval in childhood. Methods 424 Children from Da Qing city, China, were recruited at 5 years of age and followed up for 5 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma insulin, glucose and triglycerides were measured at baseline and 5 years later. Results Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age was significantly correlated with change of weight from 5 to 10 years (ΔWeight). Children in the lowest insulin quartile had ΔWeight of 13.08±0.73 kg compare to 18.39±0.86 in the highest insulin quartile (P<0.0001) in boys, and similarly 12.03±0.71 vs 15.80±0.60 kg (P<0.0001) in girls. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictive effect of insulin at 5 years of age on subsequent weight gain over 5 years remained statistically significant even after the adjustment for age, sex, birth weight, TV-viewing time and weight (or body mass index) at baseline. By contrast, the initial weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent changes in insulin level 5 years later. Children who had both higher fasting insulin and weight at 5 years of age showed much higher levels of systolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and triglycerides at 10 years of age. Conclusions Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age predicts weight gain and cardiovascular risk factors 5 year later in Chinese children of early childhood, but the absolute weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent change in fasting insulin. PMID:26047327

  16. Fasting Plasma Insulin at 5 Years of Age Predicted Subsequent Weight Increase in Early Childhood over a 5-Year Period-The Da Qing Children Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yan Chen

    Full Text Available The association between hyperinsulinemia and obesity is well known. However, it is uncertain especially in childhood obesity, if initial fasting hyperinsulinemia predicts obesity, or obesity leads to hyperinsulinemia through insulin resistance.To investigate the predictive effect of fasting plasma insulin on subsequent weight change after a 5-year interval in childhood.424 Children from Da Qing city, China, were recruited at 5 years of age and followed up for 5 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma insulin, glucose and triglycerides were measured at baseline and 5 years later.Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age was significantly correlated with change of weight from 5 to 10 years (ΔWeight. Children in the lowest insulin quartile had ΔWeight of 13.08±0.73 kg compare to 18.39±0.86 in the highest insulin quartile (P<0.0001 in boys, and similarly 12.03±0.71 vs 15.80±0.60 kg (P<0.0001 in girls. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictive effect of insulin at 5 years of age on subsequent weight gain over 5 years remained statistically significant even after the adjustment for age, sex, birth weight, TV-viewing time and weight (or body mass index at baseline. By contrast, the initial weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent changes in insulin level 5 years later. Children who had both higher fasting insulin and weight at 5 years of age showed much higher levels of systolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and triglycerides at 10 years of age.Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age predicts weight gain and cardiovascular risk factors 5 year later in Chinese children of early childhood, but the absolute weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent change in fasting insulin.

  17. Prospective Study of Fasting Blood Glucose and Intracerebral Hemorrhagic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng; Li, Guohong; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Gurol, Mahmut E; Yuan, Xiaodong; Hui, Ying; Ruan, Chunyu; Vaidya, Anand; Wang, Yanxiu; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Although diabetes mellitus is an established independent risk factor for ischemic stroke, the association between fasting blood glucose and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is limited and inconsistent. The objective of the current study was to examine the potential impact of long-term fasting blood glucose concentration on subsequent risk of ICH. This prospective study included 96 110 participants of the Kailuan study, living in Kailuan community, Tangshan city, China, who were free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer at baseline (2006). Fasting blood glucose concentration was measured in 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012. Updated cumulative average fasting blood glucose concentration was used as primary exposure of the current study. Incident ICH from 2006 to 2015 was confirmed by review of medical records. During 817 531 person-years of follow-up, we identified 755 incident ICH cases. The nadir risk of ICH was observed at fasting blood glucose concentration of 5.3 mmol/L. The adjusted hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of ICH were 1.59 (95% CI, 1.26-2.02) for diabetes mellitus or fasting blood glucose ≥7.00 mmol/L, 1.31 (95% CI, 1.02-1.69) for impaired fasting blood glucose (fasting blood glucose, 6.10-6.99 mmol/L), 0.98 (95% CI, 0.78-1.22) for fasting blood glucose 5.60 to 6.09 mmol/L, and 2.04 (95% CI, 1.23-3.38) for hypoglycemia (fasting blood glucose, fasting blood glucose 4.00 to 5.59 mmol/L. The results persisted after excluding individuals who used hypoglycemic, aspirin, antihypertensive agents, or anticoagulants, and those with intracerebral hemorrhagic cases occurred in the first 2 years of follow-up. In this large community-based cohort, low (fasting blood glucose concentrations were associated with higher risk of incident ICH, relative to fasting blood glucose concentrations of 4.00 to 6.09 mmol/L. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Impaired Fasting Glucose in Nondiabetic Range: Is It a Marker of Cardiovascular Risk Factor Clustering?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Valentino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Impaired fasting glucose (IFG through the nondiabetic range (100–125 mg/dL is not considered in the cardiovascular (CV risk profile. Aim. To compare the clustering of CV risk factors (RFs in nondiabetic subjects with normal fasting glucose (NFG and IFG. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study in 3739 nondiabetic subjects. Demographics, medical history, and CV risk factors were collected and lipid profile, fasting glucose levels (FBG, C-reactive protein (hsCRP, blood pressure (BP, anthropometric measurements, and aerobic capacity were determined. Results. 559 (15% subjects had IFG: they had a higher mean age, BMI, waist circumference, non-HDL cholesterol, BP, and hsCRP (p<0.0001 and lower HDL (p<0.001 and aerobic capacity (p<0.001. They also had a higher prevalence of hypertension (34% versus 25%; p<0.001, dyslipidemia (79% versus 74%; p<0.001, and obesity (29% versus 16%; p<0.001 and a higher Framingham risk score (8% versus 6%; p<0.001. The probability of presenting 3 or more CV RFs adjusted by age and gender was significantly higher in the top quintile of fasting glucose (≥98 mg/dL; OR = 2.02; 1.62–2.51. Conclusions. IFG in the nondiabetic range is associated with increased cardiovascular RF clustering.

  19. An Economical Fast Discriminator for Nuclear Pulse Counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issarachai, Opas; Punnachaiya, Suvit

    2009-07-01

    Full text: This research work was aimed to develop a fast discriminator at low cost but high capability for discrimination a nanosecond nuclear pulse. The fast discriminator can be used in association with fast photon counting system. The designed structure consisted of the ultra-fast voltage comparator using ADCMP601 integrated circuit, the monostable multivibrator with controllable pulse width output by propagation delay of logic gate, and the fast response buffer amplifier. The tested results of pulse height discrimination of 0-5 V nuclear pulse with 20 ns (FWHM) pulse width showed the correlation coefficient (R 2 ) between discrimination level and pulse height was 0.998, while the pulse rate more than 10 MHz could be counted. The 30 ns logic pulse width output revealed high stable and could be smoothly driven to low impedance load at 50 Ω. For pulse signal transmission to the counter, it was also found that the termination of reflected signal must be considered because it may cause pulse counting error

  20. An Empirical Analysis of the Development of China's Higher Vocational Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minglun, Wang

    2017-01-01

    After more than 20 years of practice and construction, China's higher vocational education has developed into an important educational category and become an important force in the development of China's higher education. But in the course of this development, higher vocational education is facing problems such as excessively fast development,…

  1. Effects of fast neutrons on chromatin: dependence on chromatin structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radu, L. [Dept. of Molecular Genetics, V. Babes National Inst., Bd. Timisoara, Bucharest (Romania); Constantinescu, B. [Dept. of Cyclotron, H. Hulubei National Inst., Bucharest (Romania); Gazdaru, D. [Dept. of Biophysics, Physics Faculty, Univ. of Bucharest (Romania)

    2002-07-01

    The effects of fast neutrons (10-100 Gy) on chromatin extracted from normal (liver of Wistar rats) and tumor (Walker carcinosarcoma maintained on Wistar rats) tissues were compared. The spectroscopic assays used were (i) chromatin intrinsic fluorescence, (ii) time-resolved fluorescence of chromatin-proflavine complexes, and (iii) fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between dansyl chloride and acridine orange coupled to chromatin. For both normal and tumor chromatin, the intensity of intrinsic fluorescence specific for acidic and basic proteins decreased with increasing dose. The relative contributions of the excited-state lifetime of proflavine bound to chromatin were reduced upon fast-neutron irradiation, indicating a decrease in the proportion of chromatin DNA available for ligand binding. The Forster energy transfer efficiencies were also modified by irradiation. These effects were larger for chromatin from tumor tissue. In the range 0-100 Gy, fast neutrons induced alterations in DNA and acidic and basic proteins, as well as in global chromatin structure. The radiosensitivity of chromatin extracted from tumor tissue seems to be higher than that of chromatin extracted from normal tissue, probably because of its higher euchromatin (loose)-heterochromatin (compact) ratio. (author)

  2. Effects of fast neutrons on chromatin: dependence on chromatin structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radu, L.; Constantinescu, B.; Gazdaru, D.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of fast neutrons (10-100 Gy) on chromatin extracted from normal (liver of Wistar rats) and tumor (Walker carcinosarcoma maintained on Wistar rats) tissues were compared. The spectroscopic assays used were (i) chromatin intrinsic fluorescence, (ii) time-resolved fluorescence of chromatin-proflavine complexes, and (iii) fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between dansyl chloride and acridine orange coupled to chromatin. For both normal and tumor chromatin, the intensity of intrinsic fluorescence specific for acidic and basic proteins decreased with increasing dose. The relative contributions of the excited-state lifetime of proflavine bound to chromatin were reduced upon fast-neutron irradiation, indicating a decrease in the proportion of chromatin DNA available for ligand binding. The Forster energy transfer efficiencies were also modified by irradiation. These effects were larger for chromatin from tumor tissue. In the range 0-100 Gy, fast neutrons induced alterations in DNA and acidic and basic proteins, as well as in global chromatin structure. The radiosensitivity of chromatin extracted from tumor tissue seems to be higher than that of chromatin extracted from normal tissue, probably because of its higher euchromatin (loose)-heterochromatin (compact) ratio. (author)

  3. Fast reconstruction of an unmanned engineering vehicle and its application to carrying rocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Qian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Engineering vehicle is widely used as a huge moving platform for transporting heavy goods. However, traditional human operations have a great influence on the steady movement of the vehicle. In this Letter, a fast reconstruction process of an unmanned engineering vehicle is carried out. By adding a higher-level controller and two two-dimensional laser scanners on the moving platform, the vehicle could perceive the surrounding environment and locate its pose according to extended Kalman filter. Then, a closed-loop control system is formed by communicating with the on-board lower-level controller. To verify the performance of automatic control system, the unmanned vehicle is automatically navigated when carrying a rocket towards a launcher in a launch site. The experimental results show that the vehicle could align with the launcher smoothly and safely within a small lateral deviation of 1 cm. This fast reconstruction presents an efficient way of rebuilding low-cost unmanned special vehicles and other automatic moving platforms.

  4. Fast-food consumers in Singapore: demographic profile, diet quality and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Clare; Ma, Yi; Bastian, Amber Carla; Fen Chan, Mei; Chew, Ling

    2014-08-01

    To determine the demographic profile of fast-food consumers among adult Singapore residents and ascertain whether fast-food consumption frequency is associated with diet quality and weight status. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey including an FFQ and anthropometric measures. Participants were grouped based on their fast-food consumption frequency as non-consumer, occasional consumer or regular consumer, with regular defined as at least once per week. Individuals living in the community in Singapore. Singapore residents (n 1627) aged 18-69 years of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity. Proportions of regular fast-food consumers were higher in younger age groups, higher income groups and middle education level groups. Mean daily energy intake was positively associated with fast-food consumption frequency (non-consumers 9636 kJ (2303 kcal); occasional consumers 11 159 kJ (2667 kcal); regular consumers 13 100 kJ (3131 kcal); P for trend food consumers were more likely to exceed the RDA for energy, fat and saturated fat, and less likely to meet wholegrain and fruit recommendations. Both regular consumers (OR = 1·24; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·51) and occasional consumers (OR = 1·52; 95 % CI 1·32, 1·77) were more likely to have a waist:hip ratio indicating abdominal obesity. Occasional consumers were more likely to have a BMI ≥ 23·0 kg/m2 (OR = 1·19; 95 % CI 1·04, 1·37), whereas regular consumers were less likely (OR = 0·76; 95 % CI 0·64, 0·91) to have an 'at-risk' BMI. Fast-food consumption is most prevalent in young adults, high income and middle education level groups. Frequent fast-food consumption in Singapore is associated with unfavourable dietary and nutrient profiles and abdominal obesity.

  5. Wave Driven Fast Ion Loss in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, E.D.; Cheng, C.Z.; Darrow, D.; Fu, G.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; Kramer, G.; Medley, S.S.; Menard, J.; Roquemore, L.; Stutman, D.; White, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    The study of fast ion instabilities in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks is motivated in large part by their potential to negatively impact the ignition threshold in fusion reactors by causing fast ion losses. Spherical tokamak's (ST), with intrinsically low magnetic fields, are particularly susceptible to fast ion driven instabilities. The 3.5 MeV alpha's from the D-T [deuterium-tritium] fusion reaction in proposed ST reactors will have velocities much higher than the Alfven speed. The Larmor radius of the fusion alphas, normalized to the plasma size, will also be larger than for conventional aspect ratio tokamak reactors. The resulting longer wavelengths of the *AE instabilities will be more effective in driving fast ion loss. The change in magnetic topology also influences the mode structure, as in the case of the Compressional Alfven Eigenmodes (CAE) seen on NSTX

  6. Effects of ramadan fasting on cardiovascular and biochemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Muslims abstain from food and drink from dawn to sunset every day during Ramadan - the holiest month in Islamic lunar calendar.  Methods: The effect of Ramadan fast on body mass index (BMI, blood pressure (BP, fasting blood glucose (FBG and lipid profile were studied on 100 healthy male, adult Muslim volunteers. All parameters were recorded one week before the onset and then in the last week of Ramadan month and compared.  Results: There was no statistically significant effect on BMI, and systolic or diastolic blood pressures (p>0.05. However, fasting blood glucose (FBG, serum total cholesterol (TC, serum triglycerides (TG were significantly decreased (p = 0.000 and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C level was significantly (p=0.000 increased in last week of Ramadan fasting compared to pre fasting levels. Conclusion: Our results show beneficial effects of Ramadan fasting on FBG and serum lipid profile. 

  7. Genetic variation of fasting glucose and changes in glycemia in response to 2-year weight-loss diet intervention: the POUNDS Lost trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiange; Huang, Tao; Zheng, Yan; Rood, Jennifer; Bray, George A.; Sacks, Frank M.; Qi, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Weight loss intervention through diet modification has been widely used to improve obesity-related hyperglycemia; however, little is known about whether genetic variation modifies the intervention effect. We examined the interaction between weight-loss diets and genetic variation of fasting glucose on changes in glycemic traits in a dietary intervention trial. Research Design and Methods The Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial is a randomized, controlled 2-year weight-loss trial. We assessed overall genetic variation of fasting glucose by calculating a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 14 fasting glucose-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms, and examined the progression in fasting glucose and insulin levels, and insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity in 733 adults from this trial. Results The GRS was associated with 6-month changes in fasting glucose (Pfasting insulin (P=0.042), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, P=0.009) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S, P=0.043). We observed significant interaction between the GRS and dietary fat on 6-month changes in fasting glucose, HOMA-IR and HOMA-S after multivariable adjustment (P-interaction=0.007, 0.045, and 0.028, respectively). After further adjustment for weight loss, the interaction remained significant on change in fasting glucose (P=0.015). In the high-fat diet group, participants in the highest GRS tertile showed increased fasting glucose, whereas participants in the lowest tertile showed decreased fasting glucose (P-trend<0.001); in contrast, the genetic association was not significant in the low-fat diet group (P-trend=0.087). Conclusions Our data suggest that participants with a higher genetic risk may benefit more by eating a low-fat diet to improve glucose metabolism. PMID:27113490

  8. Monte-Carlo Simulation of γ-ray and Fast Neutron Radiolysis of Liquid Water and 0.4 M H2SO4 Solutions at Temperatures up to 325 oC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunaryo, G.R.; Jintana, M.; Gerin, J.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Monte-Carlo simulations were used to study the radiolysis of liquid water at 25-325 o C when subjected to low linear energy transfer (LET) of 60 Co γ-ray radiation and fast neutrons of 2 and 0.8 MeV. The energy deposited in the early stage of 60 Co γ--ray irradiation was approximated by considering short segments (∼150 μm) of 300 MeV proton tracks, corresponding to an average LET of ∼0.3 keV/μm. In case of 2 MeV fast neutrons, the energy deposited was considered by using short segments (∼5 μm) of energy at 1.264, 0.465, 0.171, 0.063 and 0.24 MeV. 0.8 MeV fast neutrons were approximated by 0.505, 0.186, 0.069 and 0.025 MeV protons. The effect of 0.4 M H 2 SO 4 solution on radiolysis was also studied by this method for both 60 Co γ-rays and 0.8 MeV fast neutrons. The simulated results at the time of 10 -7 s after irradiation were obtained and compared with the available experimental results published by other researchers to be in excellent agreement with them over the entire temperature ranges and radiation sources studied. Except for g(H 2 ) that increase with temperature rises, the general behaviors of higher radical products and lower molecular products at higher temperatures were obtained. The LET effect is also validated by this study, showing that the increase in LET would yield higher molecular and lower radical products. Studies on 0.4 M H 2 SO 4 solutions also show good agreement between the computed and experimental data for γ-ray irradiation: the presence of 0.4 M H + , except for g(H 2 ) that gives lower value at 25 o C and higher value at 325 o C, gives the higher values for radicals and g(H 2 O 2 ) at 25 o C and lower values at 325 o C, compared with that for neutral water. The computed data show good agreement with the experimental data for 0.4 M H 2 SO 4 solutions induced by 0.8 MeV fast neutrons, except for g(H 2 ) and g(H · ) that gives good agreement up to 50 o C, then the opposite tendencies with the further temperature rises

  9. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Jacka, Petr; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    With the huge amount of data collected with ATLAS, there is a need to produce a large number of simulated events. These productions are very CPU and time consuming when using the full GEANT4 simulation. FastCaloSim is a program to quickly simulate the ATLAS calorimeter response, based on a parameterization of the GEANT4 energy deposits of several kinds of particles in a grid of energy and eta. A new version of FastCaloSim is under development and its integration into the ATLAS simulation infrastructure is ongoing. The use of machine learning techniques improves the performance and decreases the memory usage. Dedicated parameterizations for the forward calorimeters are being studied. First results of the new FastCaloSim show substantial improvements of the description of energy and shower shape variables, including the variables for jet substructure.

  10. Effect of fast-track cardiac anesthesia on myocardial oxidative damage, inflammation and nerve related peptides of patients undergoing cardiac operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Tao Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of fast-track cardiac anesthesia on myocardial oxidative damage, inflammation and nerve related peptides of patients undergoing cardiac operation. Methods: Sixty patients with rheumatic heart disease undergoing heart valve surgery were randomly divided into the fast track group (n=30 and conventional group (n=30. Then myocardial injury indicators, mitochondrial oxidative stress indicators, inflammation indicators and nerverelated peptides of both groups were analyzed. Results: cTnI contents at T2-T4 points in time of both groups showed an increasing trend and the increasing trend of fast track group was weaker than that of conventional group; SOD contents as well as mitochondrial tristate respiratory function, respiratory control ratios and phosphorus oxygen ratios in myocardial tissue of fast track group were higher than those of conventional group, and MDA contents was lower than those of conventional group; plasma TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, NSE, S100β and Aβ contents of fast track group were lower than those of conventional group. Conclusions: Fasttrack cardiac anesthesia can protect myocardial cells, reduce mitochondrial oxidative stress, relieve inflammation and improve nerve function; it is an ideal anesthesia method for cardiac operation.

  11. Preliminary examination of the applicability of imaging plates to fast neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubayashi, Masahito; Hibiki, Takashi; Mishima, Kaichiro; Yoshii, Koji; Okamoto, Koji

    2001-01-01

    Fast neutron radiography is an attractive non-destructive inspection technique because of the excellent penetration characteristics of fast neutrons in matter. However, the difficulty of detecting fast neutrons reduces this attractive feature. As an experiment to overcome the difficulty, imaging plates were applied to fast neutron radiography. A simple combination of two sheets of imaging plates and a sheet of polyethylene as a proton emitter was examined with the (fast neutron, thermal neutron and gamma ray) FTG discriminator proposed by Yoneda et al. . The experimental results showed that the method could be applicable to fast neutron radiography with effective discrimination of γ-rays

  12. Fast foods--are they a risk factor for functional gastrointestinal disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shau, Jian-Ping; Chen, Po-Hon; Chan, Chan-Fai; Hsu, Yung-Cheng; Wu, Tzee-Chung; James, Frank E; Pan, Wen-Han

    2016-01-01

    Fast-food consumption has greatly increased in Taiwan. Frequent fast food intake is associated with both allergy and obesity. The aim of this study was to describe fast food habit changes, and to assess the relationship between fast food intake and the risk of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) among Taiwanese adolescents. This analysis used data from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) of high school students conducted in 2011. A total of 2,042 adolescents (12-19 years) completed the questionnaire. The survey included the Rome III criteria for FGIDs, translated into Chinese for adolescents. Respondents with previously diagnosed chronic organic gastrointestinal diseases were excluded from the study. In total, 2,034 children were enrolled. 545 subjects (26.8%) had history of at least one FGID. 88.1% of the subjects reported fast foods consumption. A significantly higher prevalence of FGIDs was noted in adolescents with a history of fast foods consumption, compared with those reported not to have ingested fast foods in the past 30 days (27.6% vs 20.6%, p=0.024). An increased risk of FGIDs in children and adolescents was associated with fast food intake (OR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.78-1.83). FGIDs were common among Taiwanese adolescents. Fast-food consumption may contribute to a positive association with the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Lower fiber intake and more frozen desserts in the diet may be complicit in FGIDs. The findings have public health relevance in regard to the global increase in fast food consumption.

  13. [Preoperative fasting period of fluids in bariatric surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, P; Pietsch, U-C; Oesemann, R; Dietrich, A; Wrigge, H

    2017-07-01

    Aspiration of stomach content is a severe complication during general anaesthesia. The DGAI (German Society for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine) guidelines recommend a fasting period for liquids of 2 h, with a maximum of 400 ml. Preoperative fasting can affect the patients' recovery after surgery due to insulin resistance and higher protein catabolism as a response to surgical stress. The aim of the study was to compare a liberal fasting regimen consisting of up to 1000 ml of liquids until 2 h before surgery with the DGAI recommendation. The prospective observational clinical study was approved by the ethics committee of the University of Leipzig. In the liberal fasting group (G lib ) patients undergoing bariatric surgery were asked to drink 1000 ml of tea up to 2 h before surgery. Patients assigned to the restrictive fasting group (G res ) who were undergoing nonbariatric abdominal surgery were asked to drink no more than 400 ml of water up to 2 h preoperatively. Right after anaesthesia induction and intubation a gastric tube was placed, gastric residual volume was measured and the pH level of gastric fluid was determined. Moreover, the occurrence of aspiration was monitored. In all, 98 patients with a body mass index (BMI) of G lib 51.1 kg/m 2 and G res 26.5 kg/m 2 were identified. The preoperative fasting period of liquids was significantly different (G lib 170 min vs. G res 700 min, p fasting regimen (1000 ml of fluid) in the preoperative period is safe in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

  14. The fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: brief description of fast reactors; advantage in conserving uranium resources; experience, in UK and elsewhere, in fast reactor design, construction and operation; safety; production of plutonium, security aspects; consideration of future UK fast reactor programme. (U.K.)

  15. Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streichert Laura C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obtained from King County and from US Census data. Fast food restaurant addresses were obtained from Public Health-Seattle & King County and were geocoded. Fast food density was expressed per tract unit area and per capita. Arterial road density was a measure of vehicular and pedestrian access. Multivariate logistic regression models containing both socioeconomic status and road density were used in data analyses. Results Over one half (53.1% of King County census tracts had at least one fast food restaurant. Mean network distance from dwelling units to a fast food restaurant countywide was 1.40 km, and 1.07 km for census tracts containing at least one fast food restaurant. Fast food restaurant density was significantly associated in regression models with low median household income (p Conclusion No significant association was observed between census tract minority status and fast food density in King County. Although restaurant density was linked to low household incomes, that effect was attenuated by arterial road density. Fast food restaurants in King County are more likely to be located in lower income neighborhoods and higher traffic areas.

  16. New wheat cultivars induced by fast neutrons in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I.F.; Al-Maaroof, E.M.; Al-Aubaidi, M.O.; Al-Janabi, K.K.; Al-Janabi, A.A.; Al-Rawi, L.; Ali, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. aestivum) seeds from the cultivar Mexipak and F2 of the cross SaberBeg/Mexipak and saberBeg/Mexipak/Abu-Ghraib-4 were irradiated with fast neutrons and screened for resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia recondita Rob. ex Desm.) during three generations. Thirty-eight and 226 variants showing resistant and moderately resistant reactions, respectively, were selected. Of these variants three mutants showing genetic purity and stability were studied for yield components for four successive generations. Analyses of proteins and isozymes along with chemical and physical properties were conducted on these mutants and their parents. Data on disease incidence, lodging, shattering and yield components indicated that all the mutants significantly surpassed the cultivars Mexipak, SaberBeg and Abu-Ghraib-4. Both mutants Tamuz-1 and Tamuz-2 surpassed Mexipak in bread-making quality, while the mutant Tamuz-3 had a higher tendency for better bread-making quality than Mexipak or SeberBeg

  17. Fast reactor database. 2006 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    Liquid metal cooled fast reactors (LMFRs) have been under development for about 50 years. Ten experimental fast reactors and six prototype and commercial size fast reactor plants have been constructed and operated. In many cases, the overall experience with LMFRs has been rather good, with the reactors themselves and also the various components showing remarkable performances, well in accordance with the design expectations. The fast reactor system has also been shown to have very attractive safety characteristics, resulting to a large extent from the fact that the fast reactor is a low pressure system with large thermal inertia and negative power and temperature coefficients. In addition to the LMFRs that have been constructed and operated, more than ten advanced LMFR projects have been developed, and the latest designs are now close to achieving economic competitivity with other reactor types. In the current world economic climate, the introduction of a new nuclear energy system based on the LMFR may not be considered by utilities as a near future option when compared to other potential power plants. However, there is a strong agreement between experts in the nuclear energy field that, for sustainability reasons, long term development of nuclear power as a part of the world's future energy mix will require the fast reactor technology, and that, given the decline in fast reactor development projects, data retrieval and knowledge preservation efforts in this area are of particular importance. This publication contains detailed design data and main operational data on experimental, prototype, demonstration, and commercial size LMFRs. Each LMFR plant is characterized by about 500 parameters: physics, thermohydraulics, thermomechanics, by design and technical data, and by relevant sketches. The focus is on practical issues that are useful to engineers, scientists, managers, university students and professors with complete technical information of a total of 37 LMFR

  18. Studies on fast wave current drive in the JAERI tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Fujii, T.; Kawashima, H.; Tamai, H.; Saigusa, M.; Imai, T.; Hamamatsu, K.; Fukuyama, A.

    1991-01-01

    Fast wave electron heating experiment (FWEH) on JFT-2M and JT-60 and analysis of fast wave current drive (FWCD) ability on JT-60U are presented. In the JFT-2M, absorption of fast waves have been investigated by using a phased four-loop antenna array. The absorption of the fast waves has been studied for various plasma parameters by using combination of other additional heating methods such as electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and ion cyclotron heating. It is shown that the absorption efficiency estimated from various methods well correlates with one calculated theoretically in single pass damping. Interaction of the fast waves with fast electrons in combination with ECH has been examined through the measurement of non-thermal electron cyclotron emission (ECE). The observed ECE during FWEH is well explained by the theoretical model, which indicates generation of the appreciable energetic fast electrons by the fast waves. New four-loop array antennas have been employed to improve the absorption of unidirectionally-propagating waves. Characteristics of antenna loading resistance can be reproduced by a coupling calculation code. In JT-60, FWEH experiment in combination with lower hybrid current drive was performed. Power absorption efficiency of fast wave is substantially improved in combination with LHCD of relatively low power for both phasing modes. Bulk electron heating is observed with high-k // mode and coupling with fast electron is confirmed in hard X-ray emission with low-k // mode. The results are consistent with theoretical prediction based on 1.D full wave code. Synergetic effects between FWEH and LHCD are found. Coupling calculation indicates that eight-loop antenna is favourable for keeping high directivity in the required N // -range. Current drive efficiency is calculated with 1-D full wave code including trapped particle effects and higher harmonic ion cyclotron damping

  19. Inorganic component of saliva during fasting and after fast break

    OpenAIRE

    Samad, Rasmidar

    2016-01-01

    Oral health is closely related to salivary components. Saliva consists of water, inorganic and organic materials. Fasting changes one???s meal and drinking time that in turn can affect the environment in oral cavity, including inorganic componenet of saliva. The purpose of this study is to determine the inorganic component of saliva during fasting and after fast break.

  20. When fast atom diffraction turns 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zugarramurdi, Asier; Borisov, Andrei G.

    2013-01-01

    Fast atom diffraction at surfaces (FAD) in grazing incidence geometry is characterized by the slow motion in the direction perpendicular to the surface and fast motion parallel to the surface plane along a low index direction. It is established experimentally that for the typical surfaces the FAD reveals the 2D diffraction patterns associated with exchange of the reciprocal lattice vector perpendicular to the direction of fast motion. The reciprocal lattice vector exchange along the direction of fast motion is negligible. The usual approximation made in the description of the experimental data is then to assume that the effective potential leading to the diffraction results from the averaging of the 3D surface potential along the atomic strings forming the axial channel. In this work we use full quantum wave packet propagation calculations to study theoretically the possibility to observe the 3D diffraction in FAD experiments. We show that for the surfaces with large unit cell, such as can be the case for reconstructed or vicinal surfaces, the 3D diffraction can be observed. The reciprocal lattice vector exchange along the direction of fast motion leads to several Laue circles in the diffraction pattern

  1. Suppression of fast electron leakage from large openings in a plasma neutralizer for N-NB systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, Mieko; Hanada, Masaya; Yamana, Takashi; Inoue, Takashi; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2006-01-01

    To produce highly ionized plasmas at low operating pressure in a plasma neutralizer of negative ion based neutral beam (N-NB) systems, it is a critical issue to suppress leakage of fast electrons through large openings as the beam entrance/exit. The authors propose to form weak transverse magnetic fields without a significant beam deflection, called the shield field, across the large openings of the neutralizer. A numerical study showed that the shield field of only few tens of Gauss is sufficient to suppress the fast electron leakage from the openings. By measuring of an electron energy distribution function (EEDF), it was confirmed that such a weak magnetic field is enough to repel the fast electrons back into the neutralizer plasma. As the result, the plasma density increased with the shield field strength and saturated at 30 G. The plasma density reached 50% higher value than that without the shield field. Thus it was found that reflected fast electrons by the shield field of only 30 G work effectively for the plasma generation. It was also estimated that such a weak magnetic field sufficiently suppresses the deflection of a 1 MeV beam. This weak magnetic field would be applicable to the plasma neutralizer for the fusion demonstration (DEMO) plant

  2. Recent advances in possible effects of bread types and enrichment on appetite during Ramadan fasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Movahed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bread is the staple food of most Muslims and can be considered to be a component with a remarkable effect on satiety and appetite during Ramadan fasting. This study aimed to present the recent advances in investigating the effect of different types of bread and enrichments on satiety and appetite. Methods: In this paper, articles focusing on the effect of various bread types (including enriched bread on satiety and appetite, particularly during fasting were reviewed. Articles were found in databases such as ISI, PubMed and Google Scholar. Results: Different bread types with lower glycemic index are recommended for Ramadan fasting, especially for the Sahur meal, due to better satiety and sglycemic control. In addition, fermentable dietary fibers, such as arabinoxylans, β-glucan, fructans, and resistant starch, can influence appetite through fermentation in the colon by saccharolytic bacteria and gastrointestinal tract releasing hormones changes. Consumption of wholemeal bread results in the moderation of satiety and starvation. Barely, oat and rye breads demonstrate the better improvement of satiety compared to white wheat bread due to their higher fiber content, probiotic ingredients and steadier glycemia. On the other hand, use of protein-rich breads can result in delayed gastric emptying, steadier insulin levels and higher satiety. Beta-glucan enrichment shows similar significant results in terms of reducing hunger and increasing satiety by influencing the appetite and satiety and regulating hormones such as insulin, ghrelin and PYY. Fiber enrichment and probiotics (Fructo-oligosaccharides/Inulin could also be considered in this regard. Conclusion: During Ramadan fasting, barley bread, oat bread and wholegrain wheat bread could be suggested as the preferred bread types to be incorporated into the main meals to improve satiety and decrease hunger feeling.

  3. Proximity to Fast-Food Outlets and Supermarkets as Predictors of Fast-Food Dining Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athens, Jessica K; Duncan, Dustin T; Elbel, Brian

    2016-08-01

    This study used cross-sectional data to test the independent relationship of proximity to chain fast-food outlets and proximity to full-service supermarkets on the frequency of mealtime dining at fast-food outlets in two major urban areas, using three approaches to define access. Interactions between presence of a supermarket and presence of fast-food outlets as predictors of fast-food dining were also tested. Residential intersections for respondents in point-of-purchase and random-digit-dial telephone surveys of adults in Philadelphia, PA, and Baltimore, MD, were geocoded. The count of fast-food outlets and supermarkets within quarter-mile, half-mile, and 1-mile street network buffers around each respondent's intersection was calculated, as well as distance to the nearest fast-food outlet and supermarket. These variables were regressed on weekly fast-food dining frequency to determine whether proximity to fast food and supermarkets had independent and joint effects on fast-food dining. The effect of access to supermarkets and chain fast-food outlets varied by study population. Among telephone survey respondents, supermarket access was the only significant predictor of fast-food dining frequency. Point-of-purchase respondents were generally unaffected by proximity to either supermarkets or fast-food outlets. However, ≥1 fast-food outlet within a 1-mile buffer was an independent predictor of consuming more fast-food meals among point-of-purchase respondents. At the quarter-mile distance, ≥1 supermarket was predictive of fewer fast-food meals. Supermarket access was associated with less fast-food dining among telephone respondents, whereas access to fast-food outlets were associated with more fast-food visits among survey respondents identified at point-of-purchase. This study adds to the existing literature on geographic determinants of fast-food dining behavior among urban adults in the general population and those who regularly consume fast food. Copyright

  4. An evaluation of fast reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterkamp, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    A comparative study of different types of fast reactor radial blankets is presented. Included are blankets of fertile material UO 2 , THO 2 and Th-metal blankets of pure reflectors C, BeO, Ni and combinations of reflecting and fertile blankets. The results for 1000MWe cores indicate that there is no incentive to use other than fertile blankets. The most favorable fertile material is thorium due to the prospective higher price of U-233

  5. MHD induced fast-ion losses on ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GarcIa-Munoz, M.; Fahrbach, H.-U.; Bobkov, V.; Bruedgam, M.; Guenter, S.; Igochine, V.; Lauber, Ph.; Mantsinen, M.J.; Maraschek, M.; Poli, E.; Sassenberg, K.; Tardini, G.; Zohm, H.; Pinches, S.D.; Gobbin, M.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, P.; Piovesan, P.

    2009-01-01

    A detailed knowledge of the interplay between MHD instabilities and energetic particles has been gained from direct measurements of fast-ion losses (FILs). Time-resolved energy and pitch angle measurements of FIL caused by neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) and toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) have been obtained using a scintillator based FIL detector. The study of FIL due to TAEs has revealed the existence of a new core-localized MHD fluctuation, the Sierpes mode. The Sierpes mode is a non-pure Alfvenic fluctuation which appears in the acoustic branch, dominating the transport of fast-ions in ICRF heated discharges. The internal structure of both TAEs and Sierpes mode has been reconstructed by means of highly resolved multichord soft x-ray measurements. A spatial overlapping of their eigenfunctions leads to a FIL coupling, showing the strong influence that a core-localized fast-ion driven MHD instability may have on the fast-ion transport. We have identified the FIL mechanisms due to NTMs as well as due to TAEs. Drift islands formed by fast-ions in particle phase space are responsible for the loss of NBI fast-ions due to NTMs. In ICRF heated plasmas, a resonance condition fulfilled by the characteristic trapped fast-ion orbit frequencies leads to a phase matching between fast-ion orbit and NTM or TAE magnetic fluctuation. The banana tips of a resonant trapped fast-ion bounce radially due to an E x B drift in the TAE case. The NTM radial bounce of the fast-ion banana tips is caused by the radial component of the perturbed magnetic field lines.

  6. An efficient and fast detection algorithm for multimode FBG sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganziy, Denis; Jespersen, O.; Rose, B.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel dynamic gate algorithm (DGA) for fast and accurate peak detection. The algorithm uses threshold determined detection window and Center of gravity algorithm with bias compensation. We analyze the wavelength fit resolution of the DGA for different values of signal to noise ratio...... and different typical peak shapes. Our simulations and experiments demonstrate that the DGA method is fast and robust with higher stability and accuracy compared to conventional algorithms. This makes it very attractive for future implementation in sensing systems especially based on multimode fiber Bragg...

  7. Fast-ion Dα measurements of the fast-ion distribution (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W. W.

    2010-01-01

    The fast-ion Dα (FIDA) diagnostic is an application of charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy. Fast ions that neutralize in an injected neutral beam emit Balmer-α light with a large Doppler shift. The spectral shift is exploited to distinguish the FIDA emission from other bright sources of Dα light. Background subtraction is the main technical challenge. A spectroscopic diagnostic typically achieves temporal, energy, and transverse spatial resolution of ∼1 ms, ∼10 keV, and ∼2 cm, respectively. Installations that use narrow-band filters achieve high spatial and temporal resolution at the expense of spectral information. For high temporal resolution, the bandpass-filtered light goes directly to a photomultiplier, allowing detection of ∼50 kHz oscillations in FIDA signal. For two-dimensional spatial profiles, the bandpass-filtered light goes to a charge-coupled device camera; detailed images of fast-ion redistribution at instabilities are obtained. Qualitative and quantitative models relate the measured FIDA signals to the fast-ion distribution function. The first quantitative comparisons between theory and experiment found excellent agreement in beam-heated magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)-quiescent plasmas. FIDA diagnostics are now in operation at magnetic-fusion facilities worldwide. They are used to study fast-ion acceleration by ion cyclotron heating, to detect fast-ion transport by MHD modes and microturbulence, and to study fast-ion driven instabilities.

  8. Materials development for fast reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, T.; Mathew, M.D.; Laha, K.; Sandhya, R., E-mail: san@igcar.gov.in

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • A modified version of alloy D9 designated as IFAC-1 has been developed. • Oxide dispersion strengthened Grade 91 steel with good creep strength developed. • 0.14 wt% nitrogen in 316LN stainless steel leads to improved mechanical properties. • Type IV cracking resistant Grade 91 steel with boron addition developed. • Mechanical properties of SFR materials evaluated in sodium environment. -- Abstract: Materials play a crucial role in the economic competitiveness of electricity produced from fast reactors. It is necessary to increase the fuel burn-up and design life in order to realize this objective. The burnup is largely limited by the void swelling and creep resistance of the fuel cladding and wrapping materials. India's 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is in advanced stage of construction. The major structural materials chosen for PFBR with MOX fuel are D9 austenitic stainless steel as fuel clad and wrapper material, 316LN austenitic stainless steel for reactor components and piping and modified 9Cr-1Mo steel for steam generator. In order to improve the burnup, titanium, phosphorous and silicon contents in alloy D9 have been optimized for decreased void swelling and increased creep strength and this has led to the development of a modified version of alloy D9 as IFAC-1. Ferritic steels are inherently resistant to void swelling. The disadvantage is their poor creep strength. Creep resistance of 9Cr-ferritic steel has been improved with the dispersion of nano-size yttria to develop oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel clad tube with long-term creep strength, comparable to alloy D9 so as to achieve higher fuel burnup. Improved versions of 316LN stainless steel with nitrogen content of about 0.14 wt% having higher creep strength to increase the life of fast reactors and modified 9Cr-1Mo steel with reduced nitrogen content and controlled addition of boron to improve type IV cracking resistance for steam generator

  9. Fast and slow myosins as markers of muscle injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, M; Guiu-Comadevall, M; Cadefau, J A; Parra, J; Balius, R; Estruch, A; Rodas, G; Bedini, J L; Cussó, R

    2008-07-01

    The diagnosis of muscular lesions suffered by athletes is usually made by clinical criteria combined with imaging of the lesion (ultrasonography and/or magnetic resonance) and blood tests to detect the presence of non-specific muscle markers. This study was undertaken to evaluate injury to fast and slow-twitch fibres using specific muscle markers for these fibres. Blood samples were obtained from 51 non-sports people and 38 sportsmen with skeletal muscle injury. Western blood analysis was performed to determine fast and slow myosin and creatine kinase (CK) levels. Skeletal muscle damage was diagnosed by physical examination, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance and biochemical markers. The imaging tests were found to be excellent for detecting and confirming grade II and III lesions. However, grade I lesions were often unconfirmed by these techniques. Grade I lesions have higher levels of fast myosin than slow myosin with a very small increase in CK levels. Grade II and III lesions have high values of both fast and slow myosin. The evaluation of fast and slow myosin in the blood 48 h after the lesion occurs is a useful aid for the detection of type I lesions in particular, since fast myosin is an exclusive skeletal muscle marker. The correct diagnosis of grade I lesions can prevent progression of the injury in athletes undergoing continual training sessions and competitions, thus aiding sports physicians in their decision making.

  10. [Levels of obesity, fasting glycemia and physical condition in Chilean students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Floody, Pedro; Caamaño Navarrete, Felipe; Guzmán Guzmán, Iris Paola; Jerez Mayorga, Daniel; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Campos Jara, Christian; Ríos Lagos, Gonzalo; Díaz Inostroza, Hugo

    2015-06-01

    Chile has drastically altered eating patterns and physical activity. The main nutritional problem faced by Chilean society is overweight, which arises progressively from an early age. The aim of this study is to determine the nutritional status and compare fitness levels and fasting glucose in students. A descriptive cross-sectional comparative study was conducted, making a comparison by gender and nutritional status, with 100 students (56 men and 44 women) aged 12-15 years old. Body composition, fasting glucose and fitness were evaluated. Women had a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than men (22.73% and 19.65%). In the comparison of gender differences statistics were reported in one repetition maximum (1RM) (p = 0.001), abdominal strength (p = 0.004) and velocity (p = 0.001), there were no significant differences in body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.24) and fasting glucose (p = 0.99). In the comparison of nutritional status, the students classified as obese had a higher waist perimeter (p = 0.001), more time to walk 400 m (p = 0.008). There were no significant differences in other variables. Women have a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than men. Obese students have a waist circumference more elevated, more time to walk 400 meters (p = <0.05) and they have increased levels of basal glucose. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Fasts, feasts and festivals in diabetes-1: Glycemic management during Hindu fasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication is the first of a series on South Asian fasts, festivals, and diabetes, designed to spread awareness and stimulate research on this aspect of diabetes and metabolic care. It describes the various fasts observed as part of Hindu religion and offers a classification scheme for them, labeling them as infrequent and frequent. The infrequent fasts are further sub-classified as brief and prolonged, to facilitate a scientific approach to glycemic management during these fasts. Pre-fast counseling, non-pharmacological therapy, pharmacological modification, and post-fast debriefing are discussed in detail. All available drug classes and molecules are covered in this article, which provides guidance about necessary changes in dosage and timing of administration. While in no way exhaustive, the brief review offers a basic framework which diabetes care professionals can use to counsel and manage persons in their care who wish to observe various Hindu fasts.

  12. Fast neutron radiography using photoluminescent imaging plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rant, J.; Kristof, E.; Balasko, M.; Stade, J.

    1999-01-01

    Fast neutron radiography (FNR) and resonance neutron radiography (RNR) are complementary to the conventional radiography with high energy gamma-rays or brems-strahlung radiation used for the inspection of thick metal objects. In both non-destructive methods, the contrast sensitivity and the penetration power can be improved by using higher energy neutrons. At present direct techniques based either n Solid State Nuclear Track detectors (SSNTDs) or scintillating screens and transfer techniques using activation threshold detectors and radiographic films are applied for the detection of fast neutron images. Rather low detection sensitivity of film and SSNTD based fast neutron imaging methods and also rather poor inherent image contrast of SSNTD pose a problem for FNR in the fast neutron energy region 1-15 MeV interesting for NDT. For more efficient detection of fast neutron images the use of novel highly sensitive photoluminescent imaging plates (IP) in combination with threshold at the KFKI research reactor. The conventional IP produced by FUJI Photo Film Co. for the detection of beta and X-ray radiation were used. The threshold activation detectors were the reactions 115 In(n, n') 115m In, 64 Zn(n,p) 64 Cu, 56 Fe(n, p) 56 Mn, 24 Mg(n, p) 24 Na and 27 Al(n, α) 24 Na. These threshold reactions cover the fast neutron energy region between 0,7 MeV and 12 MeV. Pure, commercially available metals 0,1 mm to 0,25 mm thick made of In, Zn, Fe, Mg and Al were used as converter screens. The very high sensitivity of IP, the linearity of their response over 5 decades of exposure dose and the high dynamic digitalisation latitude enabled fast neutron radiography of image quality comparable to the quality of thermal NR. In our experimental conditions (φ n ∼ 10 8 n/cm 2 s, R Cd ∼ 2) the neutron exposure and IP exposure periods were still practical and comparable to the half life of the corresponding reaction products (half an hour to several hours). Even with the 27 Al(n.α) 24

  13. Development of Optical Fiber Detector for Measurement of Fast Neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YAGI, Takahiro; KAWAGUCHI, Shinichi; MISAWA, Tsuyoshi; PYEON, Cheol Ho; UNESAKI, Hironobu; SHIROYA, Seiji; OKAJIMA, Shigeaki; TANI, Kazuhiro

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of fast neutron flux is important for investigation of characteristic of fast reactors. In order to insert a neutron detector in a narrow space such as a gap of between fuel plates and measure the fast neutrons in real time, a neutron detector with an optical fiber has been developed. This detector consists of an optical fiber whose tip is covered with mixture of neutron converter material and scintillator such as ZnS(Ag). The detector for fast neutrons uses ThO 2 as converter material because 232 Th makes fission reaction with fast neutrons. The place where 232 Th can be used is limited by regulations because 232 Th is nuclear fuel material. The purpose of this research is to develop a new optical fiber detector to measure fast neutrons without 232 Th and to investigate the characteristic of the detector. These detectors were used to measure a D-T neutron generator and fast neutron flux distribution at Fast Critical Assembly. The results showed that the fast neutron flux distribution of the new optical fiber detector with ZnS(Ag) was the same as it of the activation method, and the detector are effective for measurement of fast neutrons. (authors)

  14. Ramadan fasting ameliorates arterial pulse pressure and lipid profile, and alleviates oxidative stress in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shafei, Ahmad I M

    2014-06-01

    Effects of Ramadan fasting on health are important. Its effects on arterial pulse pressure (PP), lipid profile and oxidative stress were characterized in hypertensives. PP, indices of lipid profile and oxidative stress were measured pre-, during and post-fasting in equal (40 each), sex- and age-matched groups (age 55 ± 5 years) of hypertensives (HT) and controls (C). Fasting reduced PP significantly by 17.2% and insignificantly by 9.3% in the HT and C groups, respectively. Total cholesterol (TC) was lowered insignificantly by 11.7% and 4.7% in the HT and C patients, respectively. Triglycerides (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly lowered by: TG: 24.5% and 22.8%; MDA: 45.6% and 54.3%; while glutathione (GSH) elevated by 56.8% and 52.6% in the HT and C groups, respectively. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) were raised significantly by 33.3% and insignificantly by 6.7%, whereas low-density lipoproteins (LDL) decreased significantly by 17.7% and insignificantly by 4.0% in the HT and C groups, respectively. At 6 weeks post-fasting, MDA remained significantly lower than the pre-fasting level by 24.3% and 25.7%, and GSH higher by 30.2% and 26.3% in the HT and C groups, respectively, while PP and TC returned to pre-fasting values in both groups. The post-fasting, HDL was significantly higher by 20.3% and LDL lower by 12.0% than the fasting levels in the HT patients. Fasting improves PP and lipids profile and ameliorates oxidative stress in hypertensives.

  15. Preoperative fasting times: Prescribed and actual fasting times at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current international guidelines for preoperative fasting for elective surgery are 6 ... to determine whether this policy was being followed and patients were being starved ..... recommended fasting time, so that autonomous patients take care.

  16. A Hardware Fast Tracker for the ATLAS trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Asbah, Nedaa; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The trigger system of the ATLAS experiment is designed to reduce the event rate from the LHC nominal bunch crossing at 40 MHz to about 1 kHz, at the design luminosity of 10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}. After a successful period of data taking from 2010 to early 2013, the LHC restarted with much higher instantaneous luminosity. This will increase the load on High Level Trigger system, the second stage of the selection based on software algorithms. More sophisticated algorithms will be needed to achieve higher background rejection while maintaining good efficiency for interesting physics signals. The Fast TracKer (FTK) is part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade project; it is a hardware processor that will provide, at every level-1 accepted event (100 kHz) and within 100 microseconds, full tracking information for tracks with momentum as low as 1 GeV. Providing fast extensive access to tracking information, with resolution comparable to the offline reconstruction, FTK will help in precise detection of the primary and secondar...

  17. Fast wave current drive on ITER in the presence of energetic alphas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mau, T.K.

    1989-01-01

    The impact of energetic alpha particle wave absorption on the range of frequencies for efficient fast wave current drive in an ITER-like fusion reactor core is investigated. The energetic alpha damping decrement is calculated, using an exact slowing down distribution function, and compared to electron and fuel ion damping over a wide range of frequencies. A combination of strong alpha damping and edge electron absorption in the higher ion harmonic regime limits efficient core fast wave current drive to the lower harmonics (1=2.3). However, high frequency fast waves may be employed to generate current in the outer plasma region. 11 refs., 7 figs

  18. Is Ramadan fasting related to health outcomes? A review on the related evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Azadbakht, Leila

    2014-10-01

    Fasting during Ramadan is an Islamic rule. Although previous review studies have assessed the impact of Ramadan on cardiovascular risk factors, athlete performance, diabetes and transplantation, in this study we have appraised some on these reviews by focusing on limitations and also, we have reviewed more recently published study and several recent studies, which are not reviewed till now. In this article, we reviewed recently conducted studies in regarding the impact of Ramadan fasting on weight, lipid profile, diabetes, immune system and gestation. MEDLINE (http://www.pubmed.com) was searched by using "Ramadan" as keyword and the most recent articles in mentioned topics since 2009 until February 2014 were selected. Although weight has been decreased during Ramadan in the most studies, weight regain is prevalent during the following months. Meta-analysis of pre-Ramadan lipid profile in comparison to post-Ramadan values had been showed that total cholesterol and triglyceride were decreased in men and high-density lipoprotein was increased among women. In regarding diabetes and fasting, diabetic patients should be aware that medical, nutritional and physical activity consulting is necessary for individuals with diabetes who want to fast during Ramadan. Although published studies show that Ramadan fasting had no serious adverse effect on offspring, it is strongly recommended that pregnant women avoid fasting because of the limitations of studies. The effect of fasting during Ramadan on the immune system is favorable. Ramadan fasting has no impact on kidney function and urine component. Studies showed that Ramadan fasting has health protective effects. More precise studies should be conducted for more reliable conclusion.

  19. Alfv?nic Instabilities and Fast Ion Transport in the DIII-D Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Zeeland, M; Heidbrink, W; Nazikian, R; Austin, M; Berk, H; Gorelenkov, N; Holcomb, C; Kramer, G; Lohr, J; Luo, Y; Makowski, M; McKee, G; Petty, C; Prater, R; Solomon, W; White, R

    2008-10-14

    Neutral beam injection into reversed magnetic shear DIII-D plasmas produces a variety of Alfvenic activity including Toroidicity and Ellipticity induced Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE/EAE, respectively) and Reversed Shear Alfven Eigenmodes (RSAE) as well as their spatial coupling. These modes are typically studied during the discharge current ramp phase when incomplete current penetration results in a high central safety factor and strong drive due to multiple higher order resonances. During this same time period Fast-Ion D{sub {alpha}} (FIDA) spectroscopy shows that the central fast ion profile is flattened, the degree of which depends on the Alfven eigenmode amplitude. Interestingly, localized electron cyclotron heating (ECH) near the mode location stabilizes RSAE activity and results in significantly improved fast ion confinement relative to discharges with ECH deposition on axis. In these discharges, RSAE activity is suppressed when ECH is deposited near the radius of the shear reversal point and enhanced with deposition near the axis. To simulate the observed neutral beam ion redistribution, NOVA calculations of the 3D eigenmode structures are matched with experimental measurements and used in combination with the ORBIT guiding center following code. For fixed frequency eigenmodes, it is found that ORBIT calculations cannot explain the observed beam ion transport with experimentally measured mode amplitudes. Possible explanations are considered including recent simulation results incorporating eigenmodes with time dependent frequencies.

  20. Building fast well-balanced two-stage numerical schemes for a model of two-phase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Mai Duc

    2014-06-01

    We present a set of well-balanced two-stage schemes for an isentropic model of two-phase flows arisen from the modeling of deflagration-to-detonation transition in granular materials. The first stage is to absorb the source term in nonconservative form into equilibria. Then in the second stage, these equilibria will be composed into a numerical flux formed by using a convex combination of the numerical flux of a stable Lax-Friedrichs-type scheme and the one of a higher-order Richtmyer-type scheme. Numerical schemes constructed in such a way are expected to get the interesting property: they are fast and stable. Tests show that the method works out until the parameter takes on the value CFL, and so any value of the parameter between zero and this value is expected to work as well. All the schemes in this family are shown to capture stationary waves and preserves the positivity of the volume fractions. The special values of the parameter 0,1/2,1/(1+CFL), and CFL in this family define the Lax-Friedrichs-type, FAST1, FAST2, and FAST3 schemes, respectively. These schemes are shown to give a desirable accuracy. The errors and the CPU time of these schemes and the Roe-type scheme are calculated and compared. The constructed schemes are shown to be well-balanced and faster than the Roe-type scheme.

  1. Japan: The Experimental Fast Reactor JOYO. Profile 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The experimental fast reactor JOYO of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is the first sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) in Japan. JOYO attained its initial criticality as a breeder core (MK-I core) in 1977. During the MK-I operation, which consisted of two 50 MWt and six 75 MWt duty cycles, the basic characteristics of plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) mixed oxide (MOX) fuel core and sodium cooling system were investigated and the breeding performance was verified. In 1983, the reactor increased its thermal output up to 100 MWt in order to start the irradiation tests of fuels and materials to be used mainly for other SFRs. Thirty-five duty cycle operations and many irradiation tests were successfully carried out using the MK-II core by 2000. The core was then modified to the MK-III core in 2003. In order to obtain higher fast neutron flux, the core was modified from one region core to two region core with different Pu fissile contents. Accordingly, the reactor power increased up to 140 MWt together with a renewal of intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) and dump heat exchangers (DHXs). The rated power operation of the MK-III core started in 2004. The MK-III core has been used for the irradiation tests of fuels and materials for future SFRs and other R&D fields like innovative nuclear energy systems and technologies as well. This powerful neutron irradiation flux has an advantage especially for high burn-up fuel irradiation and material irradiation with high neutron dose. This paper shows the outline of the irradiation irradiation irradiation irradiation irradiation capabilities and capacities to develop capabilities and capacities to develop capabilities and capacities to develop capabilities and capacities to develop innovative nuclear energy systems and technologies.

  2. SiC-based neutron detector in quasi-realistic working conditions: efficiency and stability at room and high temperature under fast neutron irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferone, Raffaello; Issa, Fatima; Ottaviani, Laurent; Biondo, Stephane; Vervisch, Vanessa [IM2NP, UMR CNRS 7334, Aix-Marseille University, Case 231,13397 Marseille Cedex 20, (France); Szalkai, Dora; Klix, Axel [KIT- Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology Karlsruhe 76344, (Germany); Vermeeren, Ludo [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol, (Belgium); Saenger, Richard [Schlumberger, Clamart, (France); Lyoussi, Abadallah [CEA, DEN, Departement d' Etudes des Reacteurs, Service de Physique Experimentale, Laboratoire Dosimetrie Capteurs Instrumentation, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, (France)

    2015-07-01

    In the framework of the European I SMART project, we have designed and made new SiC-based nuclear radiation detectors able to operate in harsh environments and to detect both fast and thermal neutrons. In this paper, we report experimental results of fast neutron irradiation campaign at high temperature (106 deg. C) in quasi-realistic working conditions. Our device does not suffer from high temperature, and spectra do show strong stability, preserving features. These experiments, as well as others in progress, show the I SMART SiC-based device skills to operate in harsh environments, whereas other materials would strongly suffer from degradation. Work is still demanded to test our device at higher temperatures and to enhance efficiency in order to make our device fully exploitable from an industrial point of view. (authors)

  3. Effect of taste masking technology on fast dissolving oral film: dissolution rate and bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; You, Xinru; Huang, Keqing; Raza, Faisal; Lu, Xin; Chen, Yuejian; Dhinakar, Arvind; Zhang, Yuan; Kang, Yang; Wu, Jun; Ge, Liang

    2018-07-01

    Fast dissolving oral film is a stamp-style, drug-loaded polymer film with rapid disintegration and dissolution. This new kind of drug delivery system requires effective taste masking technology. Suspension intermediate and liposome intermediate were prepared, respectively, for the formulation of two kinds of fast dissolving oral films with the aim of studying the effect of taste masking technology on the bioavailability of oral films. Loratadine was selected as the model drug. The surface pH of the films was close to neutral, avoiding oral mucosal irritation or side effects. The thickness of a 2 cm × 2 cm suspension oral film containing 10 mg of loratadine was 100 μm. Electron microscope analysis showed that liposomes were spherical before and after re-dissolution, and drugs with obvious bitterness could be masked by the encapsulation of liposomes. Dissolution of the two films was superior to that of the commercial tablets. Rat pharmacokinetic experiments showed that the oral bioavailability of the suspension film was significantly higher than that of the commercial tablets, and the relative bioavailability of the suspension film was 175%. Liposomal film produced a certain amount of improvement in bioavailability, but lower than that of the suspension film.

  4. Application of reflective memory network in Tokamak fast controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Chuqiao; Zhang Ming; Liu Rui; Zheng Wei; Zhuang Ge

    2014-01-01

    A specific application of reflective memory network in Tokamak fast controller was introduced in this paper. The PMC-5565 reflective memory card and ACC-5565 network hub were used to build a reflective memory real-time network to test its real- time function. The real-time, rapidity and determinacy of the time delay for fast controller controlling power device under the reflective memory network were tested in the LabVIEW RT real-time operation system. Depending on the reflective memory technology, the data in several fast controllers were synchronized, and multiple control tasks using a single control task were finished. The experiment results show that the reflective memory network can meet the real-time requirements for fast controller to perform the feedback control over devices. (authors)

  5. Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horel Scott A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between residential exposure to fast-food entrées, using two measures of potential spatial access: proximity (distance to the nearest location and coverage (number of different locations, and weekly consumption of fast-food meals. Methods Traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets, such as convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores, from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project were linked with individual participants (n = 1409 who completed the nutrition module in the 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Results Increased age, poverty, increased distance to the nearest fast food, and increased number of different traditional fast-food restaurants, non-traditional fast-food outlets, or fast-food opportunities were associated with less frequent weekly consumption of fast-food meals. The interaction of gender and proximity (distance or coverage (number indicated that the association of proximity to or coverage of fast-food locations on fast-food consumption was greater among women and opposite of independent effects. Conclusions Results provide impetus for identifying and understanding the complex relationship between access to all fast-food opportunities, rather than to traditional fast-food restaurants alone, and fast-food consumption. The results indicate the importance of further examining the complex interaction of gender and distance in rural areas and particularly in fast-food consumption. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the need for health promotion and policy efforts to consider all sources of fast-food as part of promoting healthful food choices.

  6. Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between residential exposure to fast-food entrées, using two measures of potential spatial access: proximity (distance to the nearest location) and coverage (number of different locations), and weekly consumption of fast-food meals. Methods Traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets, such as convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores, from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project were linked with individual participants (n = 1409) who completed the nutrition module in the 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Results Increased age, poverty, increased distance to the nearest fast food, and increased number of different traditional fast-food restaurants, non-traditional fast-food outlets, or fast-food opportunities were associated with less frequent weekly consumption of fast-food meals. The interaction of gender and proximity (distance) or coverage (number) indicated that the association of proximity to or coverage of fast-food locations on fast-food consumption was greater among women and opposite of independent effects. Conclusions Results provide impetus for identifying and understanding the complex relationship between access to all fast-food opportunities, rather than to traditional fast-food restaurants alone, and fast-food consumption. The results indicate the importance of further examining the complex interaction of gender and distance in rural areas and particularly in fast-food consumption. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the need for health promotion and policy efforts to consider all sources of fast-food as part of promoting healthful food choices. PMID:21599955

  7. Peripheral Blood Transcriptomic Signatures of Fasting Glucose and Insulin Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Brian H.; Hivert, Marie-France; Peters, Marjolein J.; Pilling, Luke C.; Hogan, John D.; Pham, Lisa M.; Harries, Lorna W.; Fox, Caroline S.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Dehghan, Abbas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Hofman, Albert; Hong, Jaeyoung; Joehanes, Roby; Johnson, Andrew D.; Munson, Peter J.; Rybin, Denis V.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Ying, Saixia; Melzer, David; Levy, Daniel; van Meurs, Joyce B.J.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Florez, Jose C.; Dupuis, Josée

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified genetic loci associated with glycemic traits. However, characterizing the functional significance of these loci has proven challenging. We sought to gain insights into the regulation of fasting insulin and fasting glucose through the use of gene expression microarray data from peripheral blood samples of participants without diabetes in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) (n = 5,056), the Rotterdam Study (RS) (n = 723), and the InCHIANTI Study (Invecchiare in Chianti) (n = 595). Using a false discovery rate q fasting glucose and 433 transcripts associated with fasting insulin levels after adjusting for age, sex, technical covariates, and complete blood cell counts. Among the findings, circulating IGF2BP2 transcript levels were positively associated with fasting insulin in both the FHS and RS. Using 1000 Genomes–imputed genotype data, we identified 47,587 cis-expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and 6,695 trans-eQTL associated with the 433 significant insulin-associated transcripts. Of note, we identified a trans-eQTL (rs592423), where the A allele was associated with higher IGF2BP2 levels and with fasting insulin in an independent genetic meta-analysis comprised of 50,823 individuals. We conclude that integration of genomic and transcriptomic data implicate circulating IGF2BP2 mRNA levels associated with glucose and insulin homeostasis. PMID:27625022

  8. Fast ejendom III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Hansen, Carsten

    Bogen er det tredje bind af tre planlagte bind om fast ejendom: I Overdragelsen, II Bolighandlen og III Ejerbeføjelsen. Fremstillingens giver et grundigt overblik over centrale områder af en omfattende regulering af fast ejendom, med angivelse af litteratur, hvor læseren kan søge yderligere...... oplysning. En ejer af fast ejendom er på særdeles mange områder begrænset i sin råden sammenlignet med ejeren af et formuegode i almindelighed. Fremstillingen tager udgangspunkt i ejerens perspektiv (fremfor samfundets eller myndighedernes). Både den privatretlige og offentligretlige regulering behandles......, eksempelvis ejendomsdannelsen, servitutter, naboretten, hævd, zoneinddelingen, den fysiske planlægning, beskyttelse af natur, beskyttelse af kultur, forurening fra fast ejendom, erstatning for forurening, jordforurening, ekspropriation, byggeri og adgang til fast ejendom....

  9. Medical use of fast neutrons in radiotherapy and radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bewley, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    Over 400 patients have been treated with fast neutrons from a cyclotron at Hammersmith Hospital, London, using 16 MeV deuterons on beryllium. A large variety of malignant disease is included in this trial. A randomized trial of fast neutron therapy for cancer of the mouth and throat is in progress and preliminary results will be given. Fast neutron radiographs are often taken to check the positions of the fields used on the patients. These show no contrast from bone, but demonstrate only the presence of gas-filled cavities. As a diagnostic method, fast neutron radiography suffers from a number of disadvantages, the main ones being lack of sensitivity of the image-forming system and the hazard to the patient due to a large Quality Factor. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to different types of tissue is an important factor in the medical use of fast neutrons. More data are needed on the processes whereby fast neutrons impart energy to matter, particularly for neutrons above 15 MeV

  10. Wash fastness improvement of malachite green-dyed cotton fabrics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Nano-size features of both silica and titania nanosols are predicted to enhance the wash fastness of ... The cotton fabric was obtained from traditional market and was previously tested to contain fully cellulose ..... The authors acknowledge financial support of DP2M,. Directorate General of Higher Education, Indonesia,.

  11. Fasting and rheumatic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hassan Jokar

    2015-01-01

    Fasting is one of the important religious practices of Muslims, in which the individuals abstain from eating and drinking from dawn to sunset. Fasting is not obligatory or even not allowed, in case it causes health problems to the fasting individual. Rheumatic diseases are a major group of chronic diseases which can bring about numerous problems while fasting. The aim of this article is to review the impact of Islamic fasting on rheumatic patients, based on the scientific evidences.

  12. Dynamics of the flood response to slow-fast landscape-climate feedbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. P. Perdigão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamical evolution of the flood response to landscape-climate feedbacks is evaluated in a joint nonlinear statistical-dynamical approach. For that purpose, a spatiotemporal sensitivity analysis is conducted on hydrological data from 1976–2008 over 804 catchments throughout Austria, and a general, data-independent nonlinear dynamical model is built linking floods with climate (via precipitation, landscape (via elevation and their feedbacks. These involve nonlinear scale interactions, with landform evolution processes taking place at the millennial scale (slow dynamics, and climate adjusting in years to decades (fast dynamics. The results show that floods are more responsive to spatial (regional than to temporal (decadal variability. Catchments from dry lowlands and high wetlands exhibit similarity between the spatial and temporal sensitivities (spatiotemporal symmetry and low landscape-climate codependence, suggesting they are not coevolving significantly. However, intermediate regions show differences between those sensitivities (symmetry breaks and higher landscape-climate codependence, suggesting undergoing coevolution. The break of symmetry is an emergent behaviour from nonlinear feedbacks within the system. A new coevolution index is introduced relating spatiotemporal symmetry with relative characteristic celerities, which need to be taken into account in hydrological space-time trading. Coevolution is expressed here by the interplay between slow and fast dynamics, represented respectively by spatial and temporal characteristics. The dynamical model captures emerging features of the flood dynamics and nonlinear landscape-climate feedbacks, supporting the nonlinear statistical assessment of spatiotemporally asymmetric flood change. Moreover, it enables the dynamical estimation of flood changes in space and time from the given knowledge at different spatiotemporal conditions. This study ultimately brings to light emerging signatures of

  13. The influence of feeding and fasting on plasma metabolites in the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chris M; Walsh, Patrick J; Kajimura, Makiko; McClelland, Grant B; Chew, Shit F

    2010-04-01

    Dogfish sharks are opportunistic predators, eating large meals at irregular intervals. Here we present a synthesis of data from several previous studies on responses in plasma metabolites after natural feeding and during prolonged fasting (up to 56days), together with new data on changes in plasma concentrations of amino acids and non-esterified fatty acids. Post-prandial and long-term fasting responses were compared to control sharks fasted for 7days, a typical inter-meal interval. A feeding frenzy was created in which dogfish were allowed to feed naturally on dead teleosts at two consumed ration levels, 2.6% and 5.5% of body weight. Most responses were more pronounced at the higher ration level. These included increases in urea and TMAO concentrations at 20h, followed by stability through to 56days of fasting. Ammonia levels were low and exhibited little short-term response to feeding, but declined to very low values during the extended fast. Glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate both fell after feeding, the latter to a greater and more prolonged extent (up to 60h), whereas acetoacetate did not change. During prolonged fasting, glucose concentrations were well regulated, but beta-hydroxybutyrate increased to 2-3-fold control levels. Total plasma amino acid concentrations increased in a biphasic fashion, with peaks at 6-20h, and 48-60h after the meal, followed by homeostasis during the extended fast. Essential and non-essential amino acids generally followed this same pattern, though some exhibited different trends after feeding: taurine, beta-alanine, and glycine (decreases or stability), alanine and glutamine (modest prolonged increases), and threonine, serine, asparagine, and valine (much larger short-term increases). Plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations declined markedly through 48h after the 2.6% meal. These data are interpreted in light of companion studies showing elevations in aerobic metabolic rate, urea production, rectal gland function, metabolic

  14. Comparing monolithic and fused core HPLC columns for fast chromatographic analysis of fat-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdi, Said El; Muaileq, Dina Abu; Alhazmi, Hassan A; Bratty, Mohammed Al; Deeb, Sami El

    2017-06-27

    HPLC stationary phases of monolithic and fused core type can be used to achieve fast chromatographic separation as an alternative to UPLC. In this study, monolithic and fused core stationary phases are compared for fast separation of four fat-soluble vitamins. Three new methods on the first and second generation monolithic silica RP-18e columns and a fused core pentafluoro-phenyl propyl column were developed. Application of three fused core columns offered comparable separations of retinyl palmitate, DL-α-tocopheryl acetate, cholecalciferol and menadione in terms of elution speed and separation efficiency. Separation was achieved in approx. 5 min with good resolution (Rs > 5) and precision (RSD ≤ 0.6 %). Monolithic columns showed, however, a higher number of theoretical plates, better precision and lower column backpressure than the fused core column. The three developed methods were successfully applied to separate and quantitate fat-soluble vitamins in commercial products.

  15. Generalized oscillator strengths for some higher valence-shell excitations of krypton atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The valence-shell excitations of krypton atom have been investigated by fast electron impact with an angle-resolved electron-energy-loss spectrometer. The generalized oscillator strengths for some higher mixed valence-shell excitations in 4d, 4f, 5p, 5d, 6s, 6p, 7s ← 4p of krypton atom have been determined. Their profiles are discussed, and the generalized oscillator strengths for the electric monopole and quadrupole excitations in 5p ← 4p are compared with the calculations of Amusia et al. (Phys. Rev. A 67 022703 (2003)). The differences between the experimental results and theoretical calculations show that more studies are needed.

  16. Fast wave current drive in H mode plasmas on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Grassie, J.S. de; Baity, F.W.

    1999-01-01

    Current driven by fast Alfven waves is measured in H mode and VH mode plasmas on the DIII-D tokamak for the first time. Analysis of the poloidal flux evolution shows that the fast wave current drive profile is centrally peaked but sometimes broader than theoretically expected. Although the measured current drive efficiency is in agreement with theory for plasmas with infrequent ELMs, the current drive efficiency is an order of magnitude too low for plasmas with rapid ELMs. Power modulation experiments show that the reduction in current drive with increasing ELM frequency is due to a reduction in the fraction of centrally absorbed fast wave power. The absorption and current drive are weakest when the electron density outside the plasma separatrix is raised above the fast wave cut-off density by the ELMs, possibly allowing an edge loss mechanism to dissipate the fast wave power since the cut-off density is a barrier for fast waves leaving the plasma. (author)

  17. Fast calorimeter simulation in LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Fast calorimeter simulation in LHCb In HEP experiments CPU resources required by MC simulations are constantly growing and become a very large fraction of the total computing power (greater than 75%). At the same time the pace of performance improvements from technology is slowing down, so the only solution is a more efficient use of resources. Efforts are ongoing in the LHC experiments to provide multiple options for simulating events in a faster way when higher statistics is needed. A key of the success for this strategy is the possibility of enabling fast simulation options in a common framework with minimal action by the final user. In this talk we will describe the solution adopted in Gauss, the LHCb simulation software framework, to selectively exclude particles from being simulated by the Geant4 toolkit and to insert the corresponding hits generated in a faster way. The approach, integrated within the Geant4 toolkit, has been applied to the LHCb calorimeter but it could also be used for other subdetec...

  18. Reducing microwave absorption with fast frequency modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Juehang; Hubler, A

    2017-05-01

    We study the response of a two-level quantum system to a chirp signal, using both numerical and analytical methods. The numerical method is based on numerical solutions of the Schrödinger solution of the two-level system, while the analytical method is based on an approximate solution of the same equations. We find that when two-level systems are perturbed by a chirp signal, the peak population of the initially unpopulated state exhibits a high sensitivity to frequency modulation rate. We also find that the aforementioned sensitivity depends on the strength of the forcing, and weaker forcings result in a higher sensitivity, where the frequency modulation rate required to produce the same reduction in peak population would be lower. We discuss potential applications of this result in the field of microwave power transmission, as it shows applying fast frequency modulation to transmitted microwaves used for power transmission could decrease unintended absorption of microwaves by organic tissue.

  19. BN-800 as a new stage in development of fast neutron sodium cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavskij, V.M.; Chebeskov, A.N.; Matveev, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    The role of fast reactors in the strategy of evolution of the nuclear power of Russia is discussed, BN-800 under construction, where unique technical and construction decisions are used, is viewed. Economical estimations of expenses with regard for all life cycle demonstrate that fast reactors may be no higher-priced than the most popular in the world water moderated reactors. Closing of nuclear fuel cycle of BN-800 makes possible decision of the problem of plutonium and actinide utilization, that makes the fast reactor more safety for the environment [ru

  20. Matrix Remodeling During Intervertebral Disc Growth and Degeneration Detected by Multichromatic FAST Staining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Victor Y.L.; Chan, Wilson C.W.; Hung, Siu-Chun; Cheung, Kenneth M.C.; Chan, Danny

    2009-01-01

    Various imaging techniques have been used to assess degeneration of the intervertebral disc, including many histological methods, but cartilage-oriented histological stains do not clearly show the comparatively complex structures of the disc. In addition, there is no integrated method to assess efficiently both the compartmental organization and matrix composition in disc samples. In this study, a novel histological method, termed FAST staining, has been developed to investigate disc growth and degeneration by sequential staining with fast green, Alcian blue, Safranin-O, and tartrazine to generate multichromatic histological profiles (FAST profiles). This identifies the major compartments of the vertebra-disc region, including the cartilaginous endplate and multiple zones of the annulus fibrosus, by specific FAST profile patterns. A disc degeneration model in rabbit established using a previously described puncture method showed gradual but profound alteration of the FAST profile during disc degeneration, supporting continual alteration of glycosaminoglycan. Changes of the FAST profile pattern in the nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus of the postnatal mouse spine suggested matrix remodeling activity during the growth of intervertebral discs. In summary, we developed an effective staining method capable of defining intervertebral disc compartments in detail and showing matrix remodeling events within the disc. The FAST staining method may be used to develop a histopathological grading system to evaluate disc degeneration or malformation. (J Histochem Cytochem 57:249–256, 2009) PMID:19001641

  1. The fast food and obesity link: consumption patterns and severity of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ginny; Sunil, Thankam S; Hinojosa, Pedro

    2012-05-01

    Rates of extreme forms of obesity are rapidly rising, as is the use of bariatric surgery for its treatment. The aim of the present study was to examine selected behavioral factors associated with severity of obesity among preoperative bariatric surgery patients in the San Antonio area, focusing specifically on the effects of fast food consumption. We used ordered logistic regression to model behavioral and attitudinal effects on obesity outcomes among 270 patients. These outcomes were based on the severity of obesity and were measured on the basis of body mass index. Our results indicated that, among the behavioral factors, fast food consumption exerted the largest influence on higher levels of obesity. These remained after controlling for several social and demographic characteristics. Our findings suggest that higher rates of fast food consumption are connected to the increasing rates of severe obesity. Given that morbid and super morbid obesity rates are growing at a more advanced pace than moderate obesity, it is necessary to explore the behavioral characteristics associated with these trends.

  2. Sufentanil Vs Fentanyl for Fast-Track Cardiac Anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C M Deshpande

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A perioperative anaesthetic management that aims to facilitate tracheal extubation of patients within 1-6 hrs after cardiac surgery is called "fast-track′. Main advantage of ′fast-track" method is better usage of medical resources and lowering hospital costs without increasing morbidity and mortality of the patients. Standard fast-track protocols contain short acting anaesthetic agents, smaller incisions and decreased pump times without hypothermia. In this study we compared two short acting opioid drugs, fentanyl versus Sufentanil when used as a part of the balanced anaesthesia technique for fast track in cardiac surgery patients& evaluated the time taken for extubation, haemodynamic stability, analgesia requirements& incidence of awareness. The results from the study show thatboth agents provide good haemodynamic stability and postoperative analgesia. Although Sufentanil provides earlier extuba-tion, both agents reduce the ICU stay equally. In conclusion both agents can be used effectively for fasttrack cardiac anaesthesia.

  3. Fast Detection Method in Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio (CR technology improves the utilization of spectrum highly via opportunistic spectrum sharing, which requests fast detection as the spectrum utilization is dynamic. Taking into consideration the characteristic of wireless channels, we propose a fast detection scheme for a cooperative cognitive radio network, which consists of multiple CRs and a central control office. Specifically, each CR makes individual detection decision using the sequential probability ratio test combined with Neyman Pearson detection with respect to a specific observation window length. The proposed method upper bounds the detection delay. In addition, a weighted K out of N fusion rule is also proposed for the central control office to reach fast global decision based on the information collected from CRs, with more weights assigned for CRs with good channel conditions. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can achieve fast detection while maintaining the detection accuracy.

  4. Energy conversion assessment of vacuum, slow and fast pyrolysis processes for low and high ash paper waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridout, Angelo J.; Carrier, Marion; Collard, François-Xavier; Görgens, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Vacuum, slow and fast pyrolysis of low and high ash paper waste sludge (PWS) is compared. • Reactor temperature and pellet size optimised to maximise liquid and solid product yields. • Gross energy recovery from solid and liquid was assessed. • Fast pyrolysis of low and high ash PWS offers higher energy conversions. - Abstract: The performance of vacuum, slow and fast pyrolysis processes to transfer energy from the paper waste sludge (PWS) to liquid and solid products was compared. Paper waste sludges with low and high ash content (8.5 and 46.7 wt.%) were converted under optimised conditions for temperature and pellet size to maximise both product yields and energy content. Comparison of the gross energy conversions, as a combination of the bio-oil/tarry phase and char (EC_s_u_m), revealed that the fast pyrolysis performance was between 18.5% and 20.1% higher for the low ash PWS, and 18.4% and 36.5% higher for high ash PWS, when compared to the slow and vacuum pyrolysis processes respectively. For both PWSs, this finding was mainly attributed to higher production of condensable organic compounds and lower water yields during FP. The low ash PWS chars, fast pyrolysis bio-oils and vacuum pyrolysis tarry phase products had high calorific values (∼18–23 MJ kg"−"1) making them promising for energy applications. Considering the low calorific values of the chars from alternative pyrolysis processes (∼4–7 MJ kg"−"1), the high ash PWS should rather be converted to fast pyrolysis bio-oil to maximise the recovery of usable energy products.

  5. Spherical Demons: Fast Surface Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, B.T. Thomas; Sabuncu, Mert; Vercauteren, Tom; Ayache, Nicholas; Fischl, Bruce; Golland, Polina

    2009-01-01

    We present the fast Spherical Demons algorithm for registering two spherical images. By exploiting spherical vector spline interpolation theory, we show that a large class of regularizers for the modified demons objective function can be efficiently implemented on the sphere using convolution. Based on the one parameter subgroups of diffeomorphisms, the resulting registration is diffeomorphic and fast – registration of two cortical mesh models with more than 100k nodes takes less than 5 minutes, comparable to the fastest surface registration algorithms. Moreover, the accuracy of our method compares favorably to the popular FreeSurfer registration algorithm. We validate the technique in two different settings: (1) parcellation in a set of in-vivo cortical surfaces and (2) Brodmann area localization in ex-vivo cortical surfaces. PMID:18979813

  6. The effect of Ramadan fasting on maternal serum lipids, cortisol levels and fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikensoy, Ebru; Balat, Ozcan; Cebesoy, Bahar; Ozkur, Ayhan; Cicek, Hulya; Can, Gunay

    2009-02-01

    To determine the effects of fasting during the month of Ramadan on fetal development and maternal serum cortisol and lipid profile. This study was performed in Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Gaziantep University Hospital, between 23 September 2006 and 23 October 2006 (during the month of Ramadan). Thirty-six consecutive healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies of 20 weeks or more, who were fasting during Ramadan, were included in the study group (group 1). The control group (group 2) consisted of 29 healthy pregnant women, who were not fasting during the study period. For evaluating Ramadan's effect on fetus, Doppler ultrasonography was performed on all subjects in the beginning and then once a week until the end of Ramadan for the following measurements: increase of fetal biparietal diameter (BPD), increase of fetal femur length (FL), increase of estimated fetal body weight (EFBW), fetal biophysical profile (BPP), amniotic fluid index (AFI), and umbilical artery systole/diastole (S/D) ratio. Maternal serum cortisol, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and LDL/HDL ratio were also evaluated before and after Ramadan. No significant difference was found between the two groups for the fetal age, maternal weight gain (kilogram), estimated fetal weight gain (EFWG), fetal BPP, AFI, and umbilical artery S/D ratio. In the fasting group, the maternal serum cortisol levels on day 20 were significantly higher than the initial levels obtained 1 week prior to Ramadan (p Ramadan. HDL levels showed a slight increase, but LDL/HDL ratios were significantly decreased in fasting group (p Ramadan. No untoward effect of Ramadan was observed on intrauterine fetal development.

  7. Experimental study of fast electron transport in the framework of fast ignition for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vauzour, B.

    2012-01-01

    The framework of this PhD thesis is the validation of the fast ignition scheme for the nuclear fusion by inertial confinement. It consists in the experimental study of the various processes involved in fast electron beams propagation, produced by intense laser pulses (10 19 W.cm -2 ), through dense matter either solid or compressed. In this work we present the results of three experiments carried out on different laser facilities in order to generate fast electron beams in various conditions and study their propagation in different states of matter, from the cold solid to the warm and dense plasma.The first experiment was performed with a high intensity contrast on the UHI100 laser facility (CEA Saclay). The study of fast electron energy deposition inside thin aluminium targets highlights a strong target heating at shallow depths, where the collective effects are predominant, thus producing a steep temperature profile between front (300 eV) and rear (20 eV) sides over 20μm thickness. A numerical simulation of the experiment shows that this temperature gradient induces the formation of a shock wave, breaking through the rear side of the target and thus leading to increase the thermal emission. The experimental chronometry of the shock breakthrough allowed validating the model of the collective transport of electrons.Two other experiments were dedicated to the study of fast electron beam propagation inside compressed targets. In the first experiment on the LULI2000 laser facility, the plane compression geometry allowed to precisely dissociate the energy losses due to resistive effects from those due to the collisional ones. By comparing our experimental results with simulations, we observed a significative increase of the fast electron beam energy losses with the compression and the target heating to temperatures close to the Fermi temperature. The second experiment, performed in a cylindrical geometry, demonstrated a fast electron beam guiding phenomenon due to

  8. Fast mutual-information-based contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gang; Yu, Lifang; Tian, Huawei; Huang, Xianglin; Wang, Yongbin

    2017-07-01

    Recently, T. Celik proposed an effective image contrast enhancement (CE) method based on spatial mutual information and PageRank (SMIRANK). According to the state-of-the-art evaluation criteria, it achieves the best visual enhancement quality among existing global CE methods. However, SMIRANK runs much slower than the other counterparts, such as histogram equalization (HE) and adaptive gamma correction. Low computational complexity is also required for good CE algorithms. In this paper, we novelly propose a fast SMIRANK algorithm, called FastSMIRANK. It integrates both spatial and gray-level downsampling into the generation of pixel value mapping function. Moreover, the computation of rank vectors is speeded up by replacing PageRank with a simple yet efficient row-based operation of mutual information matrix. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed FastSMIRANK could accelerate the processing speed of SMIRANK by about 20 times, and is even faster than HE. Comparable enhancement quality is preserved simultaneously.

  9. Is Ramadan fasting related to health outcomes? A review on the related evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Rouhani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fasting during Ramadan is an Islamic rule. Although previous review studies have assessed the impact of Ramadan on cardiovascular risk factors, athlete performance, diabetes and transplantation, in this study we have appraised some on these reviews by focusing on limitations and also, we have reviewed more recently published study and several recent studies, which are not reviewed till now. Materials and Methods: In this article, we reviewed recently conducted studies in regarding the impact of Ramadan fasting on weight, lipid profile, diabetes, immune system and gestation. MEDLINE (http://www.pubmed.com was searched by using "Ramadan" as keyword and the most recent articles in mentioned topics since 2009 until February 2014 were selected. Results: Although weight has been decreased during Ramadan in the most studies, weight regain is prevalent during the following months. Meta-analysis of pre-Ramadan lipid profile in comparison to post-Ramadan values had been showed that total cholesterol and triglyceride were decreased in men and high-density lipoprotein was increased among women. In regarding diabetes and fasting, diabetic patients should be aware that medical, nutritional and physical activity consulting is necessary for individuals with diabetes who want to fast during Ramadan. Although published studies show that Ramadan fasting had no serious adverse effect on offspring, it is strongly recommended that pregnant women avoid fasting because of the limitations of studies. The effect of fasting during Ramadan on the immune system is favorable. Ramadan fasting has no impact on kidney function and urine component. Conclusion: Studies showed that Ramadan fasting has health protective effects. More precise studies should be conducted for more reliable conclusion.

  10. Leiomodin-3-deficient mice display nemaline myopathy with fast-myofiber atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Tian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nemaline myopathy (NM is one of the most common forms of congenital myopathy, and affects either fast myofibers, slow myofibers, or both. However, an animal model for congenital myopathy with fast-myofiber-specific atrophy is not available. Furthermore, mutations in the leiomodin-3 (LMOD3 gene have recently been identified in a group of individuals with NM. However, it is not clear how loss of LMOD3 leads to NM. Here, we report a mouse mutant in which the piggyBac (PB transposon is inserted into the Lmod3 gene and disrupts its expression. Lmod3PB/PB mice show severe muscle weakness and postnatal growth retardation. Electron microscopy and immunofluorescence studies of the mutant skeletal muscles revealed the presence of nemaline bodies, a hallmark of NM, and disorganized sarcomeric structures. Interestingly, Lmod3 deficiency caused muscle atrophy specific to the fast fibers. Together, our results show that Lmod3 is required in the fast fibers for sarcomere integrity, and this study offers the first NM mouse model with muscle atrophy that is specific to fast fibers. This model could be a valuable resource for interrogating myopathy pathogenesis and developing therapeutics for NM as well as other pathophysiological conditions with preferential atrophy of fast fibers, including cancer cachexia and sarcopenia.

  11. Two bee-pollinated plant species show higher seed production when grown in gardens compared to arable farmland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cussans

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Insect pollinator abundance, in particular that of bees, has been shown to be high where there is a super-abundance of floral resources; for example in association with mass-flowering crops and also in gardens where flowering plants are often densely planted. Since land management affects pollinator numbers, it is also likely to affect the resultant pollination of plants growing in these habitats. We hypothesised that the seed or fruit set of two plant species, typically pollinated by bumblebees and/or honeybees might respond in one of two ways: 1 pollination success could be reduced when growing in a floriferous environment, via competition for pollinators, or 2 pollination success could be enhanced because of increased pollinator abundance in the vicinity.We compared the pollination success of experimental plants of Glechoma hederacea L. and Lotus corniculatus L. growing in gardens and arable farmland. On the farms, the plants were placed either next to a mass-flowering crop (oilseed rape, Brassica napus L. or field beans, Vicia faba L. or next to a cereal crop (wheat, Triticum spp.. Seed set of G. hederacea and fruit set of L. corniculatus were significantly higher in gardens compared to arable farmland. There was no significant difference in pollination success of G. hederacea when grown next to different crops, but for L. corniculatus, fruit set was higher in the plants growing next to oilseed rape when the crop was in flower.The results show that pollination services can limit fruit set of wild plants in arable farmland, but there is some evidence that the presence of a flowering crop can facilitate their pollination (depending on species and season. We have also demonstrated that gardens are not only beneficial to pollinators, but also to the process of pollination.

  12. PLUTONIUM METALLIC FUELS FOR FAST REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAN, MARIUS [Los Alamos National Laboratory; HECKER, SIEGFRIED S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-02-07

    Early interest in metallic plutonium fuels for fast reactors led to much research on plutonium alloy systems including binary solid solutions with the addition of aluminum, gallium, or zirconium and low-melting eutectic alloys with iron and nickel or cobalt. There was also interest in ternaries of these elements with plutonium and cerium. The solid solution and eutectic alloys have most unusual properties, including negative thermal expansion in some solid-solution alloys and the highest viscosity known for liquid metals in the Pu-Fe system. Although metallic fuels have many potential advantages over ceramic fuels, the early attempts were unsuccessful because these fuels suffered from high swelling rates during burn up and high smearing densities. The liquid metal fuels experienced excessive corrosion. Subsequent work on higher-melting U-PuZr metallic fuels was much more promising. In light of the recent rebirth of interest in fast reactors, we review some of the key properties of the early fuels and discuss the challenges presented by the ternary alloys.

  13. Influence of Ramadan fasting on physiological and performance variables in football players: summary of the F-MARC 2006 Ramadan fasting study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerguini, Yacine; Dvorak, Jiri; Maughan, Ronald J; Leiper, John B; Bartagi, Zakia; Kirkendall, Donald T; Al-Riyami, Masoud; Junge, Astrid

    2008-12-01

    The timing of food and liquid intake depends on the times of sunset and sunrise during the month of Ramadan. The current body of knowledge presents contradicting results as to the effect of Ramadan fasting on body mass, body composition and metabolic changes. The main objective of the present investigation was to gain additional information and scientific data in conformity with the philosophical background of Islam to allow optimisation of the daily training and dietary regimen in relation to the mental and physical performance of football players. The four teams, along with their coaches and trainers, attended a residential training camp at training centre 3 weeks before the start of Ramadan and throughout the study. Energy intake was relatively stable in the fasting group, but there was a small, albeit significant, decrease of approximately 0.7 kg in body mass. Water intake increased on average by 1.3 l/day in line with the greater energy intake in the non-fasting group in Ramadan. Daily sodium intake fell during Ramadan in the fasting players but increased slightly in the non-fasting group. Fasting players trained on average 11 h after their last food and drink, and reported that they felt slightly less ready to train during the Ramadan fast. None of the assessed performance variables was negatively affected by fasting while nearly all variables showed significant improvement at the third test session, indicating a training effect. Heart rate measurements in one training session during the third week of Ramadan appeared to suggest that the training load during training was marginally greater for the fasting than for the non-fasting players. However, the overall exercise load measures indicated that there was no biologically significant difference between the fasting and non-fasting groups. In the present study, biochemical, nutritional, subjective well-being and performance variables were not adversely affected in young male football players who followed

  14. Fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery imaging: first experience with a 3D version in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieshmann, U.C.; Symms, M.R.; Bartlett, P.A.; Shorvon, S.D.; Barker, G.J.; Stevens, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    We developed a 3D version of fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery imaging (FLAIR) which provides images with a slice thickness of 1.5 mm. We present our initial experience with 3D fast FLAIR in patients with epilepsy. We compared 3D fast FLAIR (slice thickness 1.5 mm), 2D fast FLAIR (slice thickness 5 mm) and a 3D spoiled GRASS (IRSPGR) sequence (slice thickness 1.5 mm) in 10 patients with lesional epilepsy (head injury 1, hippocampal sclerosis 2, low-grade glioma 2, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour 2, polymicrogyria 1, perinatal infarct 1 and presumed thrombosed aneurysm 1). Both 2D and 3D fast FLAIR sequences yielded higher conspicuity for lesions than the T1-weighted IRSPGR sequence, except in the patient with polymicrogyria. The extent of the lesion, in particular that of low-grade tumours, was best assessed on 3D fast FLAIR images. 3D fast FLAIR may be a useful additional tool especially for imaging low-grade tumours. (orig.)

  15. Developmental Trajectories of Boys’ Driven Exercise and Fasting During the Middle School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Heather A.; Guller, Leila; Smith, Gregory T.

    2016-01-01

    Boys appear to engage in eating disorder behavior, particularly nonpurging compensatory behaviors such as driven exercise and fasting, at higher rates than previously thought. Little is known about the development of these behaviors in adolescent boys. In a sample of 631 non-binge eating and non-purging boys studied once in 5th grade and 6 times over the 3 years of middle school (grades 6 through 8), we found that (a) for some youth, driven exercise and fasting were present from grade 6; (b) different boys progressed along different trajectories of engagement in driven exercise and fasting, with some boys engaging in no driven exercise or fasting (65.8% and 83.5%, respectively), some boys engaging in driven exercise and fasting throughout middle school (25.2% and 16.5%, respectively), and other boys discontinuing engagement in driven exercise (9%); (c) 5th grade depression, eating expectancies, and thinness expectancies predicted subsequent trajectory group membership; and (d) boys engaging in driven exercise and fasting in 8th grade remained distressed. Boys’ engagement in driven exercise and fasting behavior merits the attention of researchers and clinicians. PMID:26707543

  16. Local concentration of fast-food outlets is associated with poor nutrition and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Greenberg, Emily; Murphy, Jillian B; DiFazio, Lindsay A; Youra, Kathryn R

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of the local availability of fast-food restaurant locations with diet and obesity. We geocoded addresses of survey respondents and fast-food restaurant locations to assess the association between the local concentration of fast-food outlets, BMI, and fruit and vegetable consumption. The survey was conducted in Genesee County, Michigan. There were 1345 individuals included in this analysis, and the response rate was 25%. The Speak to Your Health! Community Survey included fruit and vegetable consumption items from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, height, weight, and demographics. We used ArcGIS to map fast-food outlets and survey respondents. Stepwise linear regressions identified unique predictors of body mass index (BMI) and fruit and vegetable consumption. Survey respondents had 8 ± 7 fast-food outlets within 2 miles of their home. Individuals living in close proximity to fast-food restaurants had higher BMIs t(1342) = 3.21, p food availability, which may constrain the success of nutrition promotion efforts. Efforts to decrease the local availability of unhealthy foods as well as programs to help consumers identify strategies for obtaining healthy meals at fast-food outlets may improve health outcomes.

  17. White adipose tissue coloring by intermittent fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivelä, Riikka; Alitalo, Kari

    2017-11-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) has been shown to promote metabolic health in several organisms. Two recent papers show that IF induces white adipose tissue beiging and increases thermogenesis, which improves metabolic health in mice.

  18. Fast-ball sports experts depend on an inhibitory strategy to reprogram their movement timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Hiroki; Ikudome, Sachi; Yotani, Kengo; Maruyama, Atsuo; Mori, Shiro

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to clarify whether an inhibitory strategy is used for reprogramming of movement timing by experts in fast-ball sports when they correct their movement timing due to unexpected environmental changes. We evaluated the influence of disruption of inhibitory function of the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) on reprogramming of movement timing of experts and non-experts in fast-ball sports. The task was to manually press a button to coincide with the arrival of a moving target. The target moved at a constant velocity, and its velocity was suddenly either increased or decreased in some trials. The task was performed either with or without transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which was delivered to the region of the rIFG. Under velocity change conditions without TMS, the experts showed significantly smaller timing errors and a higher rate of reprogramming of movement timing than the non-experts. Moreover, TMS application during the task significantly diminished the expert group's performance, but not the control group, particularly in the condition where the target velocity decreases. These results suggest that experts use an inhibitory strategy for reprogramming of movement timing. In addition, the rIFG inhibitory function contributes to the superior movement correction of experts in fast-ball sports.

  19. Distributed solar radiation fast dynamic measurement for PV cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xuefen; Yang, Yi; Cui, Jian; Du, Xingjing; Zheng, Tao; Sardar, Muhammad Sohail

    2017-10-01

    need of complex local installations, configuring of our SRMA system is very easy. Lora also provides SRMA a means to overcome the short communication distance and weather signal propagation decline such as in ZigBee and WiFi. The host computer in SRMA system uses the low power single-board PC EMB-3870 which was produced by NORCO. Wind direction sensor SM5386B and wind-force sensor SM5387B are installed to host computer through RS-485 bus for wind reference data collection. And Davis 6450 solar radiation sensor, which is a precision instrument that detects radiation at wavelengths of 300 to 1100 nanometers, allow host computer to follow real-time solar radiation. A LoRa polling scheme is adopt for the communication between host computer and terminal nodes in SRMA. An experimental SRMA has been established. This system was tested in Ganyu, Jiangshu province from May to August, 2016. In the test, the distances between the nodes and the host computer were between 100m and 1900m. At work, SRMA system showed higher reliability. Terminal nodes could follow the instructions from host computer and collect solar radiation data of distributed PV cells effectively. And the host computer managed the SRAM and achieves reference parameters well. Communications between the host computer and terminal nodes were almost unaffected by the weather. In conclusion, the testing results show that SRMA could be a capable method for fast dynamic measuring about solar radiation and related PV cell operating characteristics.

  20. Effect of Ramadan fasting in Saudi Arabia on serum bone profile and immunoglobulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahijri, Suhard M; Ajabnoor, Ghada M; Borai, Anwar; Al-Aama, Jumana Y; Chrousos, George P

    2015-10-01

    Each year Muslims fast from dawn to sunset for 1 month (Ramadan). In Saudi Arabia, the sleep-wake cycle during Ramadan is severely disturbed and is associated with abolition of the circadian cortisol rhythm, exposing Saudis to continuously increased cortisol levels, which may influence the immune response. In addition to cortisol, sleep and fasting affect the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and hence bone metabolism. Our objective was to investigate the effect of Ramadan type fasting on secretory patterns of PTH, markers of bone metabolism, and serum immunoglobulins. Blood samples from healthy young volunteers were collected at 9 a.m. and 9 p.m. (± 1 hour) before (Shaban) and 2 weeks into Ramadan. Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, 25-OH vitamin D, intact PTH (iPTH), and immunoglobulin (Ig) A, M and G were measured. During Ramadan, evening-adjusted calcium was higher (p = 0.036) and phosphate lower (p Ramadan mean morning phosphate was higher and the evening level lower was than Shabaan values (p = 0.010 and p Ramadan (p = 0.003 and p = 0.021 for morning and evening, respectively). Changes in dietary practices during Ramadan modulated PTH secretion to a pattern which might be beneficial to bone health. Combined effects of fasting and disturbed sleep led to a noted decrease in IgG level. Therefore, a possible beneficial effect of fasting on bone turnover is combined with decreased immune response.

  1. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  2. Use of fast Fourier transforms for solving partial differential equations in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Le Bail, R C

    1972-01-01

    The use of fast Fourier techniques for the direct solution of an important class of elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic partial differential equations in two dimensions is described. Extensions to higher-order and higher-dimension equations as well as to integrodifferential equations are presented, and several numerical examples with their resulting precision and timing are reported. (12 refs).

  3. Fast Advection of Magnetic Fields by Hot Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willingale, L.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Krushelnick, K.; Nilson, P. M.; Kaluza, M. C.; Dangor, A. E.; Evans, R. G.; Fernandes, P.; Haines, M. G.; Kamperidis, C.; Kingham, R. J.; Ridgers, C. P.; Sherlock, M.; Wei, M. S.; Najmudin, Z.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Notley, M.; Minardi, S.; Tatarakis, M.; Rozmus, W.

    2010-01-01

    Experiments where a laser-generated proton beam is used to probe the megagauss strength self-generated magnetic fields from a nanosecond laser interaction with an aluminum target are presented. At intensities of 10 15 W cm -2 and under conditions of significant fast electron production and strong heat fluxes, the electron mean-free-path is long compared with the temperature gradient scale length and hence nonlocal transport is important for the dynamics of the magnetic field in the plasma. The hot electron flux transports self-generated magnetic fields away from the focal region through the Nernst effect [A. Nishiguchi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 262 (1984)] at significantly higher velocities than the fluid velocity. Two-dimensional implicit Vlasov-Fokker-Planck modeling shows that the Nernst effect allows advection and self-generation transports magnetic fields at significantly faster than the ion fluid velocity, v N /c s ≅10.

  4. Effect of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy on neonatal birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Sarafraz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim &Background: Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan, the 9th lunar month. The duration of fasting varies from 13 to 18 hrs per day. Fasting individuals abstain from drinking liquids and eating foods. Manypregnant women and gynecologists are concerned about the possible complicationsassociated with fasting and effects on fetal health. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on neonatalbirth weight.Materials and Methods: The current historical cohort study was performed on pregnant women attending maternity hospitals in Kashan in 2008. Twofasting and non-fasting groups were compared. Multiple pregnancies and gestational age less than 37 weeks were considered as the exclusion criteria. In fasting and non-fasting groups, age, parity, gestational age, body mass index (BMI, mother's occupation, prenatal care attendance and intended or unintended pregnancy were matched. For the statistical analysis of the data, covariance analysis and SPSS v16.0 were used. Results: In this study, 293 cases were evaluated among whom 31.7% did notfast. In the two groups, the mean age, gestational age, parity and weight gain during pregnancy were not significantly different. The mean birth weight was 3338 g (±498 g and 3343 g (± 339 g in fasting and non-fasting groups respectively. The results showed that the mean birth weight of the neonates in fasting and non-fasting groups was not significantly different (p=0. 931 Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that there is no significant relationship between the neonatal birth weight and maternal fasting during pregnancy. Therefore we declare thatfasting for pregnant women who receive prenatal care has no effects on neonatal birth weight.

  5. Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA

    OpenAIRE

    Hurvitz, Philip M; Moudon, Anne V; Rehm, Colin D; Streichert, Laura C; Drewnowski, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obta...

  6. Chronic intermittent fasting improves cognitive functions and brain structures in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liaoliao Li

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health issue. Obesity started from teenagers has become a major health concern in recent years. Intermittent fasting increases the life span. However, it is not known whether obesity and intermittent fasting affect brain functions and structures before brain aging. Here, we subjected 7-week old CD-1 wild type male mice to intermittent (alternate-day fasting or high fat diet (45% caloric supplied by fat for 11 months. Mice on intermittent fasting had better learning and memory assessed by the Barnes maze and fear conditioning, thicker CA1 pyramidal cell layer, higher expression of drebrin, a dendritic protein, and lower oxidative stress than mice that had free access to regular diet (control mice. Mice fed with high fat diet was obese and with hyperlipidemia. They also had poorer exercise tolerance. However, these obese mice did not present significant learning and memory impairment or changes in brain structures or oxidative stress compared with control mice. These results suggest that intermittent fasting improves brain functions and structures and that high fat diet feeding started early in life does not cause significant changes in brain functions and structures in obese middle-aged animals.

  7. Chronic intermittent fasting improves cognitive functions and brain structures in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liaoliao; Wang, Zhi; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major health issue. Obesity started from teenagers has become a major health concern in recent years. Intermittent fasting increases the life span. However, it is not known whether obesity and intermittent fasting affect brain functions and structures before brain aging. Here, we subjected 7-week old CD-1 wild type male mice to intermittent (alternate-day) fasting or high fat diet (45% caloric supplied by fat) for 11 months. Mice on intermittent fasting had better learning and memory assessed by the Barnes maze and fear conditioning, thicker CA1 pyramidal cell layer, higher expression of drebrin, a dendritic protein, and lower oxidative stress than mice that had free access to regular diet (control mice). Mice fed with high fat diet was obese and with hyperlipidemia. They also had poorer exercise tolerance. However, these obese mice did not present significant learning and memory impairment or changes in brain structures or oxidative stress compared with control mice. These results suggest that intermittent fasting improves brain functions and structures and that high fat diet feeding started early in life does not cause significant changes in brain functions and structures in obese middle-aged animals.

  8. Fast ions and momentum transport in JET tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Fast ions are an inseparable part of fusion plasmas. They can be generated using electromagnetic waves or injected into plasmas as neutrals to heat the bulk plasma and to drive toroidal rotation and current. In future power plants fusion born fast ions deliver the main heating into the plasma. Understanding and controlling the fast ions is of crucial importance for the operation of a power plant. Furthermore, fast ions provide ways to probe the properties of the thermal plasma and get insight of its confinement properties. In this thesis, numerical code packages are used and developed to simulate JET experiments for a range of physics issues related to fast ions. Namely, the clamping fast ion distribution at high energies with RF heating, fast ion ripple torque generation and the toroidal momentum transport properties using NBI modulation technique are investigated. Through a comparison of numerical simulations and the JET experimental data it is shown that the finite Larmor radius effects in ion cyclotron resonance heating are important and that they can prevent fast ion tail formation beyond certain energy. The identified mechanism could be used for tailoring the fast ion distribution in future experiments. Secondly, ASCOT simulations of NBI ions in a ripple field showed that most of the reduction of the toroidal rotation that has been observed in the JET enhanced ripple experiments could be attributed to fast ion ripple torque. Finally, fast ion torque calculations together with momentum transport analysis have led to the conclusion that momentum transport in not purely diffusive but that a convective component, which increases monotonically in radius, exists in a wide range of JET plasmas. Using parameter scans, the convective transport has been shown to be insensitive to collisionality and q-profile but to increase strongly against density gradient. (orig.)

  9. Fast ions and momentum transport in JET tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmi, A.

    2012-07-01

    Fast ions are an inseparable part of fusion plasmas. They can be generated using electromagnetic waves or injected into plasmas as neutrals to heat the bulk plasma and to drive toroidal rotation and current. In future power plants fusion born fast ions deliver the main heating into the plasma. Understanding and controlling the fast ions is of crucial importance for the operation of a power plant. Furthermore, fast ions provide ways to probe the properties of the thermal plasma and get insight of its confinement properties. In this thesis, numerical code packages are used and developed to simulate JET experiments for a range of physics issues related to fast ions. Namely, the clamping fast ion distribution at high energies with RF heating, fast ion ripple torque generation and the toroidal momentum transport properties using NBI modulation technique are investigated. Through a comparison of numerical simulations and the JET experimental data it is shown that the finite Larmor radius effects in ion cyclotron resonance heating are important and that they can prevent fast ion tail formation beyond certain energy. The identified mechanism could be used for tailoring the fast ion distribution in future experiments. Secondly, ASCOT simulations of NBI ions in a ripple field showed that most of the reduction of the toroidal rotation that has been observed in the JET enhanced ripple experiments could be attributed to fast ion ripple torque. Finally, fast ion torque calculations together with momentum transport analysis have led to the conclusion that momentum transport in not purely diffusive but that a convective component, which increases monotonically in radius, exists in a wide range of JET plasmas. Using parameter scans, the convective transport has been shown to be insensitive to collisionality and q-profile but to increase strongly against density gradient. (orig.)

  10. A New Ultra Fast Conduction Mechanism in Insulating Polymer Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A brand new phenomenon, namely, electrical conduction via soliton-like ultra fast space charge pulses, recently identified in unfilled cross-linked polyethylene, is shown for the first time to occur in insulating polymer nanocomposites and its characteristics correlated with the electromechanical properties of nanostructured materials. These charge pulses are observed to cross the insulation under low electrical field in epoxy-based nanocomposites containing nanosilica particles with relative weights of 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% at speeds orders of magnitude higher than those expected for carriers in insulating polymers. The characteristics of mobility, magnitude and repetition rate for both positive and negative charge pulses are studied in relation to nanofiller concentration. The results show that the ultra fast charge pulses (packets are affected significantly by the concentration of nanoparticles. An explanation is presented in terms of a new conduction mechanism where the mechanical properties of the polymer and movement of polymer chains play an important role in the injection and transport of charge in the form of pulses. Here, the charge transport is not controlled by traps. Instead, it is driven by the contribution of polarization and the resultant electromechanical compression, which is substantially affected by the introduction of nanoparticles into the base polymer.

  11. Onset of Fast Magnetic Reconnection via Subcritical Bifurcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHIBIN eGUO

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a phase transition model for the onset of fast magnetic reconnection. By investigating the joint dynamics of streaming instability(i.e., current driven ion acoustic in this paper and current gradient driven whistler wave {color{blue} {prior to the onset of fast reconnection}}, we show that the nonlinear evolution of current sheet(CS can be described by a Landau-Ginzburg equation. The phase transition from slow reconnection to fast reconnection occurs at a critical thickness, $Delta_csimeq frac{2}{sqrt{pi}}left|frac{v_{the}}{v_c}right|d_e$, where $v_{the}$ is electron thermal velocity and $v_c$ is the velocity threshold of the streaming instability. For current driven ion acoustic, $Delta_c$ is $leq10d_e$. If the thickness of the CS is narrower than $Delta_c$, the CS subcritically bifurcates into a rough state, which facilitates breakage of the CS, and consequently initiates fast reconnection.

  12. Does Ramadan Fasting Adversely Affect Cognitive Function in Young Females?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Ghayour Najafabadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n=9 and nonfasting (n=8 groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan. Digit span test (DST and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whereas Stroop task 2 and task 3 showed significant improvements in Ramadan condition (p<0.05. Interference indices did not change significantly across the study except in post-Ramadan period of fasting group (p<0.05. Group × week interaction was significant only for error numbers (p<0.05. Athletes in nonfasting showed a significant decrease in number of errors in Ramadan compared to baseline (p<0.05. The results suggest that Ramadan fasting may not adversely affect cognitive function in female athletes.

  13. Concept and basic performance of an in-pile experimental reactor for fast breeder reactors using fast driver core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Toru; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    The possibility of an in-pile experimental reactor for fast breeder reactors using a fast driver core is investigated. The driver core is composed of a particle bed with diluted fuel. The results of various basic analyses show that this reactor could perform as follows: (1) power peaking at the outer boundary of test core does not take place for large test core; (2) the radial power distribution in test fuel pin is expected to be the same as a real reactor; (3) the experiments with short half width pulse is possible; (4) for the ordinary MOX core, enough heating-up is possible for core damage experiments; (5) the positive effects after power burst can be seen directly. These are difficult for conventional thermal in-pile experimental reactors in large power excursion experiments. They are very attractive advantages in the in-pile experiments for fast breeder reactors. (author)

  14. Fast breeder reactor safety : a perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Taking into consideration India's limited reserves of natural and vast reserves of thorium, the fast reactor route holds a great promise for India's energy supply in future. The fast reactor fueled with 239 Pu/ 238 U (unused or depleted) produces (breeds) more fissionable fuel material 239 Pu than it consumes. Calculations show that a fast breeder reactor (FBR) increases energy potential of natural uranium by about 60 times. As the fast reactor can also convert 232 Th into 233 U which is a fissionable material, it can make India's thorium reserves a source of almost inexhaustible energy supply for a long time to come. Significant advantage of FBR plants cooled by sodium and their world-wide operating experience are reviewed. There are two main safety issues of FBR, one nuclear and the other non-nuclear. The nuclear issue concerns core disruptive accident and the non-nuclear one concerns the high chemical energy potential of sodium. These two issues are analysed and it is pointed that they are manageable by current design, construction and operational practices. Main findings of safety research during the last six to eight years in West European Countries and United States of America (US) are summarised. Three stage engineered safety provision incorporated into the design of the sodium cooled Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) commissioned at Kalpakkam are explained. The important design safety features of FBTR such as primary system containment, emergency core cooling, plant protection system, inherent safety features achieved through reactivity coefficients, and natural convection cooling are discussed. Theoretical analysis and experimental research in fast reactor safety carried out at the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research during the past some years are reviewed. (M.G.B.)

  15. Development of ODS (oxide dispersion strengthened) ferritic-martensitic steels for fast reactor fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Shigeharu

    2000-01-01

    In order to attain higher burnup and higher coolant outlet temperature in fast reactor, oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic-martensitic steels were developed as a long life fuel cladding. The improvement in formability and ductility, which are indispensable in the cold-rolling method for manufacturing cladding tube, were achieved by controlling the microstructure using techniques such as recrystallization heat-treatment and α to γ phase transformation. The ODS ferritic-martensitic cladding tubes manufactured using these techniques have the highest internal creep rupture strength in the world as ferritic stainless steels. Strength level approaches adequate value at 700degC, which meets the requirement for commercial fast reactors. (author)

  16. A fast collocation method for a variable-coefficient nonlocal diffusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Che; Wang, Hong

    2017-02-01

    We develop a fast collocation scheme for a variable-coefficient nonlocal diffusion model, for which a numerical discretization would yield a dense stiffness matrix. The development of the fast method is achieved by carefully handling the variable coefficients appearing inside the singular integral operator and exploiting the structure of the dense stiffness matrix. The resulting fast method reduces the computational work from O (N3) required by a commonly used direct solver to O (Nlog ⁡ N) per iteration and the memory requirement from O (N2) to O (N). Furthermore, the fast method reduces the computational work of assembling the stiffness matrix from O (N2) to O (N). Numerical results are presented to show the utility of the fast method.

  17. Fast fission phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, Christian.

    1982-03-01

    Experimental studies of fast fission phenomena are presented. The paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, problems associated with fast fission processes are examined in terms of interaction potentials and a dynamic model is presented in which highly elastic collisions, the formation of compound nuclei and fast fission appear naturally. In the second part, a description is given of the experimental methods employed, the observations made and the preliminary interpretation of measurements suggesting the occurence of fast fission processes. In the third part, our dynamic model is incorporated in a general theory of the dissipative processes studied. This theory enables fluctuations associated with collective variables to be calculated. It is applied to highly inelastic collisions, to fast fission and to the fission dynamics of compound nuclei (for which a schematic representation is given). It is with these calculations that the main results of the second part can be interpreted [fr

  18. Obese Japanese adults with type 2 diabetes have higher basal metabolic rates than non-diabetic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Rieko; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Morita, Akemi; Watanabe, Shaw; Tanaka, Shigeho

    2011-01-01

    Several cross-sectional studies in Pima Indians and Caucasians have indicated that obese individuals with type 2 diabetes have a higher basal metabolic rate (BMR) than healthy, obese individuals. However, no study has investigated this comparison in Japanese subjects, who are known to be susceptible to type 2 diabetes due to genetic characteristics. Thirty obese Japanese adults with pre-type 2 diabetes (n=7) or type 2 diabetes (n=13) or without diabetes (n=10) participated in this study. BMR was measured using indirect calorimetry. The relationships between residual BMR (calculated as measured BMR minus BMR adjusted for fat-free mass, fat mass, age, and sex) and biomarkers including fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-R), triglycerides, and free fatty acids were examined using Pearson's correlation. BMR in diabetic subjects adjusted for fat-free mass, fat mass, age, and sex was 7.1% higher than in non-diabetic subjects. BMR in diabetic subjects was also significantly (pBMR and fasting glucose (r=0.391, p=0.032). These results indicate that in the Japanese population, obese subjects with type 2 diabetes have higher BMR compared with obese non-diabetic subjects. The fasting glucose level may contribute to these differences.

  19. Evaluation of noise and blur effects with SIRT-FISTA-TV reconstruction algorithm: Application to fast environmental transmission electron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjak, Hussein; Grenier, Thomas; Epicier, Thierry; Koneti, Siddardha; Roiban, Lucian; Gay, Anne-Sophie; Magnin, Isabelle; Peyrin, Françoise; Maxim, Voichita

    2018-06-01

    Fast tomography in Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy (ETEM) is of a great interest for in situ experiments where it allows to observe 3D real-time evolution of nanomaterials under operating conditions. In this context, we are working on speeding up the acquisition step to a few seconds mainly with applications on nanocatalysts. In order to accomplish such rapid acquisitions of the required tilt series of projections, a modern 4K high-speed camera is used, that can capture up to 100 images per second in a 2K binning mode. However, due to the fast rotation of the sample during the tilt procedure, noise and blur effects may occur in many projections which in turn would lead to poor quality reconstructions. Blurred projections make classical reconstruction algorithms inappropriate and require the use of prior information. In this work, a regularized algebraic reconstruction algorithm named SIRT-FISTA-TV is proposed. The performance of this algorithm using blurred data is studied by means of a numerical blur introduced into simulated images series to mimic possible mechanical instabilities/drifts during fast acquisitions. We also present reconstruction results from noisy data to show the robustness of the algorithm to noise. Finally, we show reconstructions with experimental datasets and we demonstrate the interest of fast tomography with an ultra-fast acquisition performed under environmental conditions, i.e. gas and temperature, in the ETEM. Compared to classically used SIRT and SART approaches, our proposed SIRT-FISTA-TV reconstruction algorithm provides higher quality tomograms allowing easier segmentation of the reconstructed volume for a better final processing and analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A repeating fast radio burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitler, L G; Scholz, P; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-03-10

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

  1. Fast neutron fluxes distribution in Egyptian ilmenite concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megahed, R.M.; Abou El-Nasr, T.Z.; Bashter, I.I.

    1978-01-01

    This work is concerned with the study of the distribution of fast neutron fluxes in a new type of heavy concrete made from Egyptian ilmenite ores. The neutron source used was a collimated beam of reactor neutrons emitted from one of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. Measurements were carried-out using phosphorous activation detectors. Iso-flux curves were represented which give directly the shape and thickness required to attenuate the emitted fast neutron flux to a certain value. The relaxation lengths were also evaluated from the measured data for both disc monodirectional source and infinite plane monodirectional source. The obtained values were compared with that calculated using the derived values of relative number densities and microscopic removal cross-sections of the different constituents. The obtained data show that ilmenite concrete attenuates fast neutron flux more strongly than ordinary concrete. A semiemperical formula was derived to calculate the fast neutron flux at different thicknesses along the beam axis. Another semiemperical formula was also derived to calculate the fast neutron flux in ordinary concrete along the beam axis using the corresponding value in ilmenite concrete

  2. Evidence for higher twist effects in fast π- production by antineutrinos in neon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, P. J.; Kasper, P.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Aderholz, M.; Armenise, N.; Azemoon, T.; Bertrand, D.; Berggren, M.; Bullock, F. W.; Calicchio, M.; Clayton, E. F.; Coghen, T.; Erriquez, O.; Gerbier, G.; Guy, J.; Hulth, P. O.; Iaselli, G.; Jones, G. T.; Lagraa, M.; Marage, P.; Middleton, R. P.; Miller, D.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Neveu, M.; O'Neale, S. W.; Parker, M. A.; Sansum, R. A.; Simopoulou, E.; Varvell, K.; Vallée, C.; Vayaki, A.; Venus, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wittek, W.; Wells, J.; Zevgolatakos, E.

    1986-03-01

    Evidence for a significant higher twist contribution to high z π- production in antineutrino scattering is presented. In events with W>3 GeV and Q 2>1 GeV2 in our data, it accounts for (51 ±8)% of all π- with z above 0.5. It is consistent with the z- Q 2 correlations of Berger's higher twist prediction. The data are inconclusive concerning the predicted y-z correlation and p T dependence. The z - Q 2 correlation is not adequately described by the Lund Monte-Carlo.

  3. Evidence for higher twist effects in fast π- production by antineutrinos in neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, P.J.; Azemoon, T.; Bullock, F.W.; Sansum, R.A.; Armenise, N.; Calicchio, M.; Erriquez, O.; Iaselli, G.; Bertrand, D.; Marage, P.; Berggren, M.; Hulth, P.O.; Coghen, T.; Gerbier, G.; Lagraa, M.; Neveu, M.; Parker, M.A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Simopoulo, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zevgolatakos, E.; Varvell, K.; Wells, J.; Vallee, C.

    1986-01-01

    Evidence for a significant higher twist contribution to high zπ - production in antineutrino scattering is presented. In events with W>3 GeV and Q 2 >1 GeV 2 in our data, it accounts for (51+-8)% of all π - with z above 0.5. It is consistent with the z-Q 2 correlations of Berger's higher twist prediction. The data are inconclusive concerning the predicted y-z correlation and psub(T) dependence. The z-Q 2 correlation is not adequately described by the Lund Monte-Carlo. (orig.)

  4. A fast learning method for large scale and multi-class samples of SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yu; Guo, Huiming

    2017-06-01

    A multi-class classification SVM(Support Vector Machine) fast learning method based on binary tree is presented to solve its low learning efficiency when SVM processing large scale multi-class samples. This paper adopts bottom-up method to set up binary tree hierarchy structure, according to achieved hierarchy structure, sub-classifier learns from corresponding samples of each node. During the learning, several class clusters are generated after the first clustering of the training samples. Firstly, central points are extracted from those class clusters which just have one type of samples. For those which have two types of samples, cluster numbers of their positive and negative samples are set respectively according to their mixture degree, secondary clustering undertaken afterwards, after which, central points are extracted from achieved sub-class clusters. By learning from the reduced samples formed by the integration of extracted central points above, sub-classifiers are obtained. Simulation experiment shows that, this fast learning method, which is based on multi-level clustering, can guarantee higher classification accuracy, greatly reduce sample numbers and effectively improve learning efficiency.

  5. Japanese experience with clinical trails of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunemoto, H.; Arai, T.; Morita, S.; Ishikawa, T.; Aoki, Y.; Takada, N.; Kamata, S.

    1982-01-01

    Between November, 1975 and November, 1981, 825 patients were treated with 30 MeV (d-Be) neutrons at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba. At the Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, 302 patients were referred to the Radiation Therapy department and were treated with 16 MeV (d-Be) neutrons. The emphasis of these clinical trials with fast neutrons was placed on the estimation of the effect of fast neutrons for locally advanced cancers or radioresistant cancers, and on evaluation of the rate of complication of normal tissues following irradiaton with fast neutrons. Results were evaluated for patients with previously untreated cancer; local control of the tumor was observed in 59.1%. Complications requiring medical care developed in only 32 patients. Patients who had received pre- or postoperative irradiation were excluded from this evaluation. Late reaction of soft tissue seemed to be more severe than that observed with photon beams. The results also suggest that for carcinoma of the larynx, esophagus, uterine cervix, Pancoasts's tumor of the lung and osteosarcoma, fast neutrons were considered to be effectively applied in this randomized clinical trial. For carcinoma of the larynx, a fast nuetron boost was effectively delivered, although an interstitial implant was necessarily combined with fast neutrons for carcinoma of the tongue. The cumulative survival rate of the patients with carcinoma of the esophagus treated with fast neutrons was 26% compared to the survival rate of 10.5% obtained using photons. This was supported by evidence from the pathological studies that showed that the tumor cells which had deeply invaded into the esophagus were effectively destroyed when fast neutrons were applied

  6. Smaller Counter Cation for Higher Transconductance in Anionic Conjugated Polyelectrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Schmidt, Martina M.

    2017-12-11

    Conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) are a focus of research because combine their inherent electrical conductivity and the ability to interact with ions in aqueous solutions or biological systems. However, it is still not understood to what degree the counter ion in CPEs influences the properties of the CPE itself and the performance of electronic transducers. In order to investigate this, three different conjugated polyelectrolytes, poly(6-(thiophen-3-yl)hexane-1-sulfonate)s (PTHS−X+), are synthesized, which have the same polythiophene backbone but different X+ counter ions: the bulky tetrabutylammonium (TBA+), tetraethylammonium (TEA+), and the smallest tetramethylammonium (TMA+). At the interface with biological systems, thin CPE films have to be stable in an aqueous environment and should allow the inward and outward flow of ions from the electrolyte. Since the studied PTHS−X+ have different solubilities in water, the optical properties of pristine PTHS−X+ as well as of crosslinked PTHS−X+ via UV–vis absorption spectroscopy are investigated additionally. PTHS−TMA+ exhibits better aggregation, fast interdiffusion of ions, and fast recovery from the oxidized state. Additionally, spectroelectrochemical and cyclic voltammetric as well as electrochemical capacitance investigations show that PTHS−TMA+ can be oxidized to a higher degree. This leads to a better performance of PTHS−TMA+-based organic electrochemical transistors.

  7. Normal fasting plasma glucose levels and type 2 diabetes in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amir; Shai, Iris; Tekes-Manova, Dorit; Israeli, Eran; Pereg, David; Shochat, Tzippora; Kochba, Ilan; Rudich, Assaf

    2005-10-06

    The normal fasting plasma glucose level was recently defined as less than 100 mg per deciliter (5.55 mmol per liter). Whether higher fasting plasma glucose levels within this range independently predict type 2 diabetes in young adults is unclear. We obtained blood measurements, data from physical examinations, and medical and lifestyle information from men in the Israel Defense Forces who were 26 to 45 years of age. A total of 208 incident cases of type 2 diabetes occurred during 74,309 person-years of follow-up (from 1992 through 2004) among 13,163 subjects who had baseline fasting plasma glucose levels of less than 100 mg per deciliter. A multivariate model, adjusted for age, family history of diabetes, body-mass index, physical-activity level, smoking status, and serum triglyceride levels, revealed a progressively increased risk of type 2 diabetes in men with fasting plasma glucose levels of 87 mg per deciliter (4.83 mmol per liter) or more, as compared with those whose levels were in the bottom quintile (less than 81 mg per deciliter [4.5 mmol per liter], P for trend <0.001). In multivariate models, men with serum triglyceride levels of 150 mg per deciliter (1.69 mmol per liter) or more, combined with fasting plasma glucose levels of 91 to 99 mg per deciliter (5.05 to 5.50 mmol per liter), had a hazard ratio of 8.23 (95 percent confidence interval, 3.6 to 19.0) for diabetes, as compared with men with a combined triglyceride level of less than 150 mg per deciliter and fasting glucose levels of less than 86 mg per deciliter (4.77 mmol per liter). The joint effect of a body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of 30 or more and a fasting plasma glucose level of 91 to 99 mg per deciliter resulted in a hazard ratio of 8.29 (95 percent confidence interval, 3.8 to 17.8), as compared with a body-mass index of less than 25 and a fasting plasma glucose level of less than 86 mg per deciliter. Higher fasting plasma glucose

  8. A hardware fast tracker for the ATLAS trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbah, Nedaa

    2016-09-01

    The trigger system of the ATLAS experiment is designed to reduce the event rate from the LHC nominal bunch crossing at 40 MHz to about 1 kHz, at the design luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. After a successful period of data taking from 2010 to early 2013, the LHC already started with much higher instantaneous luminosity. This will increase the load on High Level Trigger system, the second stage of the selection based on software algorithms. More sophisticated algorithms will be needed to achieve higher background rejection while maintaining good efficiency for interesting physics signals. The Fast TracKer (FTK) is part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade project. It is a hardware processor that will provide, at every Level-1 accepted event (100 kHz) and within 100 microseconds, full tracking information for tracks with momentum as low as 1 GeV. Providing fast, extensive access to tracking information, with resolution comparable to the offline reconstruction, FTK will help in precise detection of the primary and secondary vertices to ensure robust selections and improve the trigger performance. FTK exploits hardware technologies with massive parallelism, combining Associative Memory ASICs, FPGAs and high-speed communication links.

  9. Fast ion absorption of lower hybrid power in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, M.C.R.; Brusati, M.

    1993-01-01

    The first experimental evidence at JET on the interaction of fast minority ions with LH is reported. An increase of approximately 20% on the fast ion energy content was observed in the presence of LH, with an estimated LH absorbed power of approximately 20% for 2 MW of LH power and plasma densities of 2.0 to 2.4 x 10 19 m -3 with central temperatures γ ray and neutron rates also show that absorption of LH waves by the fast minority ions is taking place. FFT analysis confirms a better damping of the wave when the overlap between ICRH and LHCD is maximized. (author)

  10. How a fast lane may replace a congestion toll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers a congested bottleneck. A fast lane reserves a more than proportional share of capacity to a designated group of travellers. Travellers are otherwise identical and other travellers can use the reserved capacity when it would otherwise be idle. The paper shows that such a fast...... welfare improving when demand is elastic....... lane is always Pareto improving under Nash equilibrium in arrival times at the bottleneck and inelastic demand. It can replicate the arrival schedule and queueing outcomes of a toll that optimally charges a constant toll during part of the demand peak. Within some bounds, the fast lane scheme is still...

  11. How a fast lane may replace a congestion toll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    This paper considers a congested bottleneck. A fast lane reserves a more than proportional share of capacity to a designated group of travellers. Travellers are otherwise identical and other travellers can use the reserved capacity when it would otherwise be idle. The paper shows that such a fast...... welfare improving when demand is elastic....... lane is always Pareto improving under Nash equilibrium in arrival times at the bottleneck and inelastic demand. It can replicate the arrival schedule and queueing outcomes of a toll that optimally charges a constant toll during part of the demand peak. Within some bounds, the fast lane scheme is still...

  12. Comparing monolithic and fused core HPLC columns for fast chromatographic analysis of fat-soluble vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurdi Said El

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available HPLC stationary phases of monolithic and fused core type can be used to achieve fast chromatographic separation as an alternative to UPLC. In this study, monolithic and fused core stationary phases are compared for fast separation of four fat-soluble vitamins. Three new methods on the first and second generation monolithic silica RP-18e columns and a fused core pentafluoro-phenyl propyl column were developed. Application of three fused core columns offered comparable separations of retinyl palmitate, DL-α-tocopheryl acetate, cholecalciferol and menadione in terms of elution speed and separation efficiency. Separation was achieved in approx. 5 min with good resolution (Rs > 5 and precision (RSD ≤ 0.6 %. Monolithic columns showed, however, a higher number of theoretical plates, better precision and lower column backpressure than the fused core column. The three developed methods were successfully applied to separate and quantitate fat-soluble vitamins in commercial products.

  13. Ramadan Fasting Exerts Immunomodulatory Effects: Insights from a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adawi, Mohammad; Watad, Abdulla; Brown, Stav; Aazza, Khadija; Aazza, Hicham; Zouhir, Mohamed; Sharif, Kassem; Ghanayem, Khaled; Farah, Raymond; Mahagna, Hussein; Fiordoro, Stefano; Sukkar, Samir Giuseppe; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Mahroum, Naim

    2017-01-01

    Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar and is observed by Muslims as a month of fasting. All Muslim adults are expected to fast; nevertheless certain subgroups, including sick, frail subjects, and pregnant women, among others, are exempted. Ramadan fasting has been shown to impact on body systems in different manners. The influence of Ramadan fasting on immune system regulation remains elusive; however, immune system changes, such as the modulation of body response to various infectious, stressful, and other harmful events, are of great interest during fasting. In this paper, we performed an extensive systematic literature review of different scholarly databases (ISI/Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed,/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Directory of Open Access Journals, EbscoHOST, Scirus, Science Direct, the Cochrane Library, and ProQuest), using the following key words: "fasting," "Ramadan," "Islam," and "immunity." Conclusions drawn from these findings included: (1) Ramadan fasting has been shown to only mildly influence the immune system and the alterations induced are transient, returning to basal pre-Ramadan status shortly afterward. (2) Ramadan fasting during the second trimester of pregnancy was shown to be safe and did not result in negative fetal outcomes, or maternal oxidative status alterations. (3) In cardiac patients, Ramadan fasting can have beneficial effects including lipid profile improvement and alleviation of oxidative stress. (4) In asthmatic patients as well as in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and autoimmune disorders, fasting was safe. (5) In psychiatric patients, such as those suffering from schizophrenia, fasting could increase immunologic markers. (6) Fasting Muslim athletes who maintain intensive training schedule during Ramadan showed fluctuations of immunologic markers.

  14. ATLAS FTK Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Iizawa, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Fast TracKer (FTK) will perform global track reconstruction after each Level-1 trigger accept signal to enable the software-based higher level trigger to have early access to tracking information. FTK is a dedicated processor based on a mixture of advanced technologies. Modern, powerful Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) form an important part of the system architecture, and the large level of computing power required for pattern recognition is provided by incorporating standard-cell ASICs named Associative Memory (AM). Motivation and the architecture of the FTK system will be presented, and the status of hardware and simulation will be following.

  15. MR Imaging of the Spine at 3.0T with T2-Weighted IDEAL Fast Recovery Fast Spin-Echo Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Ai Jun; Guo, Yong; Tian, Shu Ping; Shi, Li Jing; Huang, Min Hua

    2012-01-01

    To compare the iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and the least-squares estimation (IDEAL) method with a fat-saturated T2-weighted (T2W) fast recovery fast spin-echo (FRFSE) imaging of the spine. Images acquired at 3.0 Tesla (T) in 35 patients with different spine lesions using fat-saturated T2W FRFSE imaging were compared with T2W IDEAL FRFSE images. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)-efficiencies measurements were made in the vertebral bodies and spinal cord in the mid-sagittal plane or nearest to the mid-sagittal plane. Images were scored with the consensus of two experienced radiologists on a four-point grading scale for fat suppression and overall image quality. Statistical analysis of SNR-efficiency, fat suppression and image quality scores was performed with a paired Student's t test and Wilcoxon's signed rank test. Signal-to-noise ratio-efficiency for both vertebral body and spinal cord was higher with T2W IDEAL FRFSE imaging (p < 0.05) than with T2W FRFSE imaging. T2W IDEAL FRFSE demonstrated superior fat suppression (p < 0.01) and image quality (p < 0.01) compared to fat-saturated T2W FRFSE. As compared with fat-saturated T2W FRFSE, IDEAL can provide a higher image quality, higher SNR-efficiency, and consistent, robust and uniform fat suppression. T2W IDEAL FRFSE is a promising technique for MR imaging of the spine at 3.0T.

  16. Physiology of Ramadan fasting

    OpenAIRE

    Shokoufeh Bonakdaran

    2016-01-01

    Considering the emphasis of Islam on the importance of fasting, Muslims attempt to fast from dawn until sunset during the holy month of Ramadan. Fasting is associated with several benefits for normal and healthy individuals. However, it could pose high risks to the health of diabetic patients due to certain physiological changes. This study aimed to compare the physiological changes associated with fasting in healthy individuals and diabetic patients during Ramadan. Furthermore, we reviewed t...

  17. Crosses between monokaryons of Pleurotus sapidus or Pleurotus florida show an improved biotransformation of (+)-valencene to (+)-nootkatone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarini, Alejandra B; Plagemann, Ina; Schimanski, Silke; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G

    2014-11-01

    Several hundred monokaryotic and new dikaryotic strains derived thereof were established from (+)-valencene tolerant Pleurotus species. When grouped according to their growth rate on agar plates and compared to the parental of Pleurotus sapidus 69, the slowly growing monokaryons converted (+)-valencene more efficiently to the grapefruit flavour compound (+)-nootkatone. The fast growing monokaryons and the slow×slow and the fast×fast dikaryotic crosses showed similar or inferior yields. Some slow×fast dikaryons, however, exceeded the biotransformation capability of the parental dikaryon significantly. The activity of the responsible enzyme, lipoxygenase, showed a weak correlation with the yields of (+)-nootkatone indicating that the determination of enzyme activity using the primary substrate linoleic acid may be misleading in predicting the biotransformation efficiency. This exploratory study indicated that a classical genetics approach resulted in altered and partly improved terpene transformation capability (plus 60%) and lipoxygenase activity of the strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fast Tree: Computing Large Minimum-Evolution Trees with Profiles instead of a Distance Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Price, Morgan; S. Dehal, Paramvir; P. Arkin, Adam

    2009-07-31

    Gene families are growing rapidly, but standard methods for inferring phylogenies do not scale to alignments with over 10,000 sequences. We present FastTree, a method for constructing large phylogenies and for estimating their reliability. Instead of storing a distance matrix, FastTree stores sequence profiles of internal nodes in the tree. FastTree uses these profiles to implement neighbor-joining and uses heuristics to quickly identify candidate joins. FastTree then uses nearest-neighbor interchanges to reduce the length of the tree. For an alignment with N sequences, L sites, and a different characters, a distance matrix requires O(N^2) space and O(N^2 L) time, but FastTree requires just O( NLa + N sqrt(N) ) memory and O( N sqrt(N) log(N) L a ) time. To estimate the tree's reliability, FastTree uses local bootstrapping, which gives another 100-fold speedup over a distance matrix. For example, FastTree computed a tree and support values for 158,022 distinct 16S ribosomal RNAs in 17 hours and 2.4 gigabytes of memory. Just computing pairwise Jukes-Cantor distances and storing them, without inferring a tree or bootstrapping, would require 17 hours and 50 gigabytes of memory. In simulations, FastTree was slightly more accurate than neighbor joining, BIONJ, or FastME; on genuine alignments, FastTree's topologies had higher likelihoods. FastTree is available at http://microbesonline.org/fasttree.

  19. Effects of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular risk factors: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nematy Mohsen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that Ramadan fasting has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, however there are controversies. In the present study, the effect of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular risk factors has been investigated. Method This is a prospective observational study that was carried out in a group of patients with at least one cardiovascular risk factor (including history of documented previous history of either coronary artery disease (CAD, metabolic syndrome or cerebro-vascular disease in past 10 y. Eighty two volunteers including 38 male and 44 female, aged 29–70 y, mean 54.0 ± 10 y, with a previous history of either coronary artery disease, metabolic syndrome or cerebro-vascular disease were recruited. Subjects attended the metabolic unit after at least 10 h fasting, before and after Ramadan who were been fasting for at least 10 days. A fasting blood sample was obtained, blood pressure was measured and body mass index (BMI was calculated. Lipids profile, fasting blood sugar (FBS and insulin, homocysteine (hcy, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and complete blood count (CBC were analyzed on all blood samples. Results A significant improvement in 10 years coronary heart disease risk (based on Framingham risk score was found (13.0 ± 8 before Ramadan and 10.8 ±7 after Ramadan, P 0.001, t test.There was a significant higher HDL-c, WBC, RBC and platelet count (PLT, and lower plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c, VLDL-c, systolic blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference after Ramadan (P 0.05, t test. The changes in FBS, insulin,Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR, hcy, hs-CRP and diastolic blood pressure before and after Ramadan were not significant (P >0.05, t test. Conclusions This study shows a significant improvement in 10 years coronary heart disease risk score and other cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids profile

  20. Energy distribution of the fast electron from Cu and CH targets irradiated with fs-laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Dafeng; Gu Yuqiu; Zheng Zhijian; Zhou Weimin; Jiao Chunye

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of target's material on fast electron energy distribution, the energy distribution of fast electrons from the front and the rear of Cu and CH targets have been measured during the interaction of femtosecond laser-foil targets. The results show that the fast electron spectrums from the front of Cu and CH targets are similar, which show energy distribution of fast electrons depends very little on material of targets. The fast electron spectrums from the rear of Cu and CH targets are obviously dissimilar, which indicate a mighty effect of target material on fast electron transport. The fast electron spectrums from the Cu target is 'soften', which is due to electron recirculation and self-magnetic field produced by electrons transported in the target. The fast electron spectrums from the CH target is a Maxwellian distribution, which is due to collision effect when electrons transport in the target. (authors)

  1. A Fast Elitism Gaussian Estimation of Distribution Algorithm and Application for PID Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyang Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of distribution algorithm (EDA is an intelligent optimization algorithm based on the probability statistics theory. A fast elitism Gaussian estimation of distribution algorithm (FEGEDA is proposed in this paper. The Gaussian probability model is used to model the solution distribution. The parameters of Gaussian come from the statistical information of the best individuals by fast learning rule. A fast learning rule is used to enhance the efficiency of the algorithm, and an elitism strategy is used to maintain the convergent performance. The performances of the algorithm are examined based upon several benchmarks. In the simulations, a one-dimensional benchmark is used to visualize the optimization process and probability model learning process during the evolution, and several two-dimensional and higher dimensional benchmarks are used to testify the performance of FEGEDA. The experimental results indicate the capability of FEGEDA, especially in the higher dimensional problems, and the FEGEDA exhibits a better performance than some other algorithms and EDAs. Finally, FEGEDA is used in PID controller optimization of PMSM and compared with the classical-PID and GA.

  2. A fast elitism Gaussian estimation of distribution algorithm and application for PID optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingyang; Zhang, Chengjin; Zhang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of distribution algorithm (EDA) is an intelligent optimization algorithm based on the probability statistics theory. A fast elitism Gaussian estimation of distribution algorithm (FEGEDA) is proposed in this paper. The Gaussian probability model is used to model the solution distribution. The parameters of Gaussian come from the statistical information of the best individuals by fast learning rule. A fast learning rule is used to enhance the efficiency of the algorithm, and an elitism strategy is used to maintain the convergent performance. The performances of the algorithm are examined based upon several benchmarks. In the simulations, a one-dimensional benchmark is used to visualize the optimization process and probability model learning process during the evolution, and several two-dimensional and higher dimensional benchmarks are used to testify the performance of FEGEDA. The experimental results indicate the capability of FEGEDA, especially in the higher dimensional problems, and the FEGEDA exhibits a better performance than some other algorithms and EDAs. Finally, FEGEDA is used in PID controller optimization of PMSM and compared with the classical-PID and GA.

  3. Fast pyrolysis of biomass at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna

    This Ph.D. thesis describes experimental and modeling investigations of fast high temperature pyrolysis of biomass. Suspension firing of biomass is widely used for power generation and has been considered as an important step in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by using less fossil fuels. Fast...... to investigate the effects of operating parameters and biomass types on yields of char and soot, their chemistry and morphology as well as their reactivity using thermogravimetric analysis. The experimental study was focused on the influence of a wide range of operating parameters including heat treatment...... alkali metals. In this study, potassium lean pinewood (0.06 wt. %) produced the highest soot yield (9 and 7 wt. %) at 1250 and 1400°C, whereas leached wheat straw with the higher potassium content (0.3 wt. %) generated the lowest soot yield (2 and 1 wt. %). Soot yields of wheat and alfalfa straw at both...

  4. Fast-food consumption and body mass index in children and adolescents: an international cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Irene; Stewart, Alistair W; Hancox, Robert J; Beasley, Richard; Murphy, Rinki; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2014-12-08

    To investigate whether reported fast-food consumption over the previous year is associated with higher childhood or adolescent body mass index (BMI). Secondary analysis from a multicentre, multicountry cross-sectional study (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) Phase Three). Parents/guardians of children aged 6-7 completed questionnaires which included questions about their children's asthma and allergies, fast-food consumption, height and weight. Adolescents aged 13-14 completed the same questionnaire. The questionnaire asked "In the past 12 months, how often on average did you (your child) eat fast-food/burgers?" The responses were infrequent (never/only occasionally), frequent (once/twice a week) or very frequent (three or more times per week). A general linear mixed model was used to determine the association between BMI and fast-food consumption, adjusting for Gross National Income per capita by country, measurement type (whether heights/weights were reported or measured), age and sex. 72,900 children (17 countries) and 199,135 adolescents (36 countries) provided data. Frequent and very frequent fast-food consumption was reported in 23% and 4% of children, and 39% and 13% of adolescents, respectively. Children in the frequent and very frequent groups had a BMI that was 0.15 and 0.22 kg/m(2) higher than those in the infrequent group (pfast-food consumption is high in childhood and increases in adolescence. Compared with infrequent fast-food consumption, frequent and very frequent consumption is associated with a higher BMI in children. Owing to residual confounding, reverse causation and likely misreporting, the reverse association observed in adolescents should be interpreted with caution. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Glucocorticoids activate the ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic system in skeletal muscle during fasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, S. S.; Goldberg, A. L.; Goldberger, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are essential for the increase in protein breakdown in skeletal muscle normally seen during fasting. To determine which proteolytic pathway(s) are activated upon fasting, leg muscles from fed and fasted normal rats were incubated under conditions that block or activate different proteolytic systems. After food deprivation (1 day), the nonlysosomal ATP-dependent process increased by 250%, as shown in experiments involving depletion of muscle ATP. Also, the maximal capacity of the lysosomal process increased 60-100%, but no changes occurred in the Ca(2+)-dependent or the residual energy-independent proteolytic processes. In muscles from fasted normal and adrenalectomized (ADX) rats, the protein breakdown sensitive to inhibitors of the lysosomal or Ca(2+)-dependent pathways did not differ. However, the ATP-dependent process was 30% slower in muscles from fasted ADX rats. Administering dexamethasone to these animals or incubating their muscles with dexamethasone reversed this defect. During fasting, when the ATP-dependent process rises, muscles show a two- to threefold increase in levels of ubiquitin (Ub) mRNA. However, muscles of ADX animals failed to show this response. Injecting dexamethasone into the fasted ADX animals increased muscle Ub mRNA within 6 h. Thus glucocorticoids activate the ATP-Ub-dependent proteolytic pathway in fasting apparently by enhancing the expression of components of this system such as Ub.

  6. Fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzel, V.

    1975-01-01

    The author gives a survey of 'fast breeder reactors'. In detail the process of breeding, the reasons for the development of fast breeders, the possible breeder reactors, the design criteria, fuels, cladding, coolant, and safety aspects are reported on. Design data of some experimental reactors already in operation are summarized in stabular form. 300 MWe Prototype-Reactors SNR-300 and PFR are explained in detail and data of KWU helium-cooled fast breeder reactors are given. (HR) [de

  7. Fast reactors worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.S.; Vignon, D.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the evolution of fast reactors over the past 30 years, and their present status. Fast reactor development in different countries is described, and the present position, with emphasis on cost reduction and collaboration, is examined. The French development of the fast breeder type reactor is reviewed, and includes: the acquisition of technical skills, the search for competitive costs and the spx2 project, and more advanced designs. Future prospects are also discussed. (U.K.)

  8. Fast food (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...

  9. Mixed Higher Order Variational Model for Image Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel mixed higher order regularizer involving the first and second degree image derivatives is proposed in this paper. Using spectral decomposition, we reformulate the new regularizer as a weighted L1-L2 mixed norm of image derivatives. Due to the equivalent formulation of the proposed regularizer, an efficient fast projected gradient algorithm combined with monotone fast iterative shrinkage thresholding, called, FPG-MFISTA, is designed to solve the resulting variational image recovery problems under majorization-minimization framework. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed regularization scheme by the experimental comparisons with total variation (TV scheme, nonlocal TV scheme, and current second degree methods. Specifically, the proposed approach achieves better results than related state-of-the-art methods in terms of peak signal to ratio (PSNR and restoration quality.

  10. Islamic Fasting and Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereidoun Azizi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to review health-related aspects of Ramadan fasting in normal individuals and diabetics. During fasting days of Ramadan, glucose homeostasis is maintained by meal taken bepore dawn and by liver glycogen stores. Changes in serum lipids are variable and defend on the quality and quantity of food consumption and changes in weight. Compliant, well controlled type 2 diabetics may observe Ramadan fasting; but fasting is not recommended for type 1, non complaint, poorly controlled and pregnant diabetics. Although Ramadan fasting is safe for all healthy individuals and well controlled diabetics, those with uncontrolled diabetics and diabetics with complications should consult physicians and follow scientific recommendations.

  11. Fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plakman, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    This progress report summarizes the fast reactor research carried out by ECN during the period covering the year 1980. This research is mainly concerned with the cores of sodium-cooled breeders, in particular the SNR-300, and its related safety aspects. It comprises six items: A programme to determine relevant nuclear data of fission- and corrosion-products; A fuel performance programme comprising in-pile cladding failure experiments and a study of the consequences of loss-of-cooling and overpower; Basic research on fuel; Investigation of the changes in the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel DIN 1.4948 due to fast neutron doses, this material has been used in the manufacture of the reactor vessel and its internal components; Study of aerosols which could be formed at the time of a fast reactor accident and their progressive behaviour on leaking through cracks in the concrete containment; Studies on heat transfer in a sodium-cooled fast reactor core. As fast breeders operate at high power densities, an accurate knowledge of the heat transfer phenomena under single-phase and two-phase conditions is sought. (Auth.)

  12. Dependence of heavy metal burnup on nuclear data libraries for fast reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Ohki, S

    2003-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) is considering the highly burnt fuel as well as the recycling of minor actinide (MA) in the development of commercialized fast reactor cycle systems. Higher accuracy in burnup calculation is going to be required for higher mass plutonium isotopes ( sup 2 sup 4 sup 0 Pu, etc.) and MA nuclides. In the framework of research and development aiming at the validation and necessary improvements of fast reactor burnup calculation, we investigated the differences among the burnup calculation results with the major nuclear data libraries: JEF-2.2, ENDF/B-VI Release 5, JENDL-3.2, and JENDL-3.3. We focused on the heavy metal nuclides such as plutonium and MA in the central core region of a conventional sodium-cooled fast reactor. For main heavy metal nuclides ( sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U, sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U, sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu, sup 2 sup 4 sup 0 Pu, and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Pu), number densities after 1-cycle burnup did not change over one or two percent. Library dependence was re...

  13. Brand name logo recognition of fast food and healthy food among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Elva; Castaneda, Diego; Elder, John P; Slymen, Donald; Dozier, David

    2009-02-01

    The fast food industry has been increasingly criticized for creating brand loyalty in young consumers. Food marketers are well versed in reaching children and youth given the importance of brand loyalty on future food purchasing behavior. In addition, food marketers are increasingly targeting the Hispanic population given their growing spending power. The fast food industry is among the leaders in reaching youth and ethnic minorities through their marketing efforts. The primary objective of this study was to determine if young children recognized fast food restaurant logos at a higher rate than other food brands. Methods Children (n = 155; 53% male; 87% Hispanic) ages 4-8 years were recruited from elementary schools and asked to match 10 logo cards to products depicted on a game board. Parents completed a survey assessing demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with a healthy lifestyle in the home. Results Older children and children who were overweight were significantly more likely to recognize fast food restaurant logos than other food logos. Moreover, parents' psychosocial and socio-demographic characteristics were associated with the type of food logo recognized by the children. Conclusions Children's high recognition of fast food restaurant logos may reflect greater exposure to fast food advertisements. Families' socio-demographic characteristics play a role in children's recognition of food logos.

  14. A novel nature inspired firefly algorithm with higher order neural network: Performance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janmenjoy Nayak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The applications of both Feed Forward Neural network and Multilayer perceptron are very diverse and saturated. But the linear threshold unit of feed forward networks causes fast learning with limited capabilities, while due to multilayering, the back propagation of errors exhibits slow training speed in MLP. So, a higher order network can be constructed by correlating between the input variables to perform nonlinear mapping using the single layer of input units for overcoming the above drawbacks. In this paper, a Firefly based higher order neural network has been proposed for data classification for maintaining fast learning and avoids the exponential increase of processing units. A vast literature survey has been conducted to review the state of the art of the previous developed models. The performance of the proposed method has been tested with various benchmark datasets from UCI machine learning repository and compared with the performance of other established models. Experimental results imply that the proposed method is fast, steady, reliable and provides better classification accuracy than others.

  15. HCUP Fast Stats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — HCUP Fast Stats provides easy access to the latest HCUP-based statistics for health information topics. HCUP Fast Stats uses visual statistical displays in...

  16. Distinct slow and fast cortical theta dynamics in episodic memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastötter, Bernhard; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2014-07-01

    Brain oscillations in the theta frequency band (3-8 Hz) have been shown to be critically involved in human episodic memory retrieval. In prior work, both positive and negative relationships between cortical theta power and retrieval success have been reported. This study examined the hypothesis that slow and fast cortical theta oscillations at the edges of the traditional theta frequency band are differentially related to retrieval success. Scalp EEG was recorded in healthy human participants as they performed a cued-recall episodic memory task. Slow (~3 Hz) and fast (~7 Hz) theta oscillations at retrieval were examined as a function of whether an item was recalled or not and as a function of the items' output position at test. Recall success typically declines with output position, due to increases in interference level. The results showed that slow theta power was positively related but fast theta power was negatively related to retrieval success. Concurrent positive and negative episodic memory effects for slow and fast theta oscillations were dissociable in time and space, showing different time courses and different spatial locations on the scalp. Moreover, fast theta power increased from early to late output positions, whereas slow theta power was unaffected by items' output position. Together with prior work, the results suggest that slow and fast theta oscillations have distinct functional roles in episodic memory retrieval, with slow theta oscillations being related to processes of recollection and conscious awareness, and fast theta oscillations being linked to processes of interference and interference resolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Biological effects and RAPD analysis of alfalfa (medicago sativa L.) irradiated by fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Weibo; Zhang Yuexue; Tang Fenglan; Liu Jielin; Liu Fengqi; Shang Chen; Kong Fuquan; Wang Xiao; Liu Luxiang

    2011-01-01

    Dry seeds of alfalfa variety Zhaodong were irradiated by fast neutrons generated by linear accelerator with three fluences, 3.60 × 10 11 , 7.10 × 10 11 and 3.54 × 10 12 /cm 2 respectively. Seed germination, growth, and RAPD analysis on the mutation were reported in this study. The results showed that germination vigor and germination rate of irradiated seeds were higher than those of control, but seedling height and root length were reduced with the increase of fluences. When the dosages reached 3.54 × 10 12 /cm 2 , seedling root length decreased by 81.63% compared with the control, but the seedling didn't grow any true leaves except for cotyledon. 36 primers were used in RAPD analysis, and the results showed that the RAPD polymorphic loci rate was 7.25%, 6.52% and 5.80% among the 3.60 × 10 11 /cm 2 , 7.10 × 10 11 /cm 2 and 3.54 × 10 12 /cm 2 treated M 1 plants. RAPD polymorphic loci rate in the 3.60 × 10 11 /cm 2 treated plants was the highest among three treatment. It is concluded that 3.60 × 10 11 /cm 2 could be on optimum fluences for a alfalfa mutation by fast neutrons. (authors)

  18. Effect of taste masking technology on fast dissolving oral film: dissolution rate and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; You, Xinru; Huang, Keqing; Raza, Faisal; Lu, Xin; Chen, Yuejian; Dhinakar, Arvind; Zhang, Yuan; Kang, Yang; Wu, Jun; Ge, Liang

    2018-07-27

    Fast dissolving oral film is a stamp-style, drug-loaded polymer film with rapid disintegration and dissolution. This new kind of drug delivery system requires effective taste masking technology. Suspension intermediate and liposome intermediate were prepared, respectively, for the formulation of two kinds of fast dissolving oral films with the aim of studying the effect of taste masking technology on the bioavailability of oral films. Loratadine was selected as the model drug. The surface pH of the films was close to neutral, avoiding oral mucosal irritation or side effects. The thickness of a 2 cm × 2 cm suspension oral film containing 10 mg of loratadine was 100 μm. Electron microscope analysis showed that liposomes were spherical before and after re-dissolution, and drugs with obvious bitterness could be masked by the encapsulation of liposomes. Dissolution of the two films was superior to that of the commercial tablets. Rat pharmacokinetic experiments showed that the oral bioavailability of the suspension film was significantly higher than that of the commercial tablets, and the relative bioavailability of the suspension film was 175%. Liposomal film produced a certain amount of improvement in bioavailability, but lower than that of the suspension film.

  19. Caloric Intake from Fast Food among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2011-2012. NCHS Data Brief. Number 213

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikraman, Sundeep; Fryar, Cheryl D.; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of fast food has been linked to weight gain in adults. Fast food has also been associated with higher caloric intake and poorer diet quality in children and adolescents. From 1994 through 2006, caloric intake from fast food increased from 10% to 13% among children aged 2-18 years. This report presents the most recent data on the…

  20. Effect of Ramadan fasting on alanine transferase (ALT in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjatolah Rahimi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of Ramadan fasting on NAFLD are unknown and there are very limited studies have done in this area. Some nutritional and behavioral changes of fasting people in Ramadan can affect NAFLD. These include nutrition with high fat and calories, altering in weight and sleep and low physical activity. We decided to evaluate the effects of these changes on one of the important indicators of deterioration of NAFLD, ALT.Methods: Sixty patients with fatty liver disease performed two consecutive ALT exams before and after Ramadan month of whom finally 34 were fasting and 26 nonfasting. After collecting data they were divided in two groups of fasting and nonfasting and compared using SPSS software.Results: Mean ALT change from before to after Ramadan was higher and positive in fasting (+7.38±8.47 IU/L compared to nonfastng patients that was negative (-0.12±10.15 IU/L (P=0.002 and this change was mainly in patients who had fasted 21-30 days.Conclusion: Ramadan fasting may increase ALT. It is needed to perform more studies in patients with NAFLD during Ramadan fasting with larger sample size and in various conditions especially weight loss with patients’ education for observing dietary regimen.

  1. Higher Education Leadership: Challenge of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutjipto Sutjipto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the 21 st century, higher education (HE will play a very crucial role; in spite of its limited resources, HE should be able to respond to the challenges caused by the very fast advancement of technology. For this purpose managers of HE should be professional, those who are prepared to become the managers, so that they reflect wide perspectives, good attitudes, and quality skills in managing the HE in such a competitive era. Higher education leadership is expected to make use of the system and opportunity to improve its performance

  2. Ramadan Fasting Exerts Immunomodulatory Effects: Insights from a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Adawi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar and is observed by Muslims as a month of fasting. All Muslim adults are expected to fast; nevertheless certain subgroups, including sick, frail subjects, and pregnant women, among others, are exempted. Ramadan fasting has been shown to impact on body systems in different manners. The influence of Ramadan fasting on immune system regulation remains elusive; however, immune system changes, such as the modulation of body response to various infectious, stressful, and other harmful events, are of great interest during fasting. In this paper, we performed an extensive systematic literature review of different scholarly databases (ISI/Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed,/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Directory of Open Access Journals, EbscoHOST, Scirus, Science Direct, the Cochrane Library, and ProQuest, using the following key words: “fasting,” “Ramadan,” “Islam,” and “immunity.” Conclusions drawn from these findings included: (1 Ramadan fasting has been shown to only mildly influence the immune system and the alterations induced are transient, returning to basal pre-Ramadan status shortly afterward. (2 Ramadan fasting during the second trimester of pregnancy was shown to be safe and did not result in negative fetal outcomes, or maternal oxidative status alterations. (3 In cardiac patients, Ramadan fasting can have beneficial effects including lipid profile improvement and alleviation of oxidative stress. (4 In asthmatic patients as well as in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and autoimmune disorders, fasting was safe. (5 In psychiatric patients, such as those suffering from schizophrenia, fasting could increase immunologic markers. (6 Fasting Muslim athletes who maintain intensive training schedule during Ramadan showed fluctuations of immunologic markers.

  3. Ramadan Fasting Exerts Immunomodulatory Effects: Insights from a Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adawi, Mohammad; Watad, Abdulla; Brown, Stav; Aazza, Khadija; Aazza, Hicham; Zouhir, Mohamed; Sharif, Kassem; Ghanayem, Khaled; Farah, Raymond; Mahagna, Hussein; Fiordoro, Stefano; Sukkar, Samir Giuseppe; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Mahroum, Naim

    2017-01-01

    Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar and is observed by Muslims as a month of fasting. All Muslim adults are expected to fast; nevertheless certain subgroups, including sick, frail subjects, and pregnant women, among others, are exempted. Ramadan fasting has been shown to impact on body systems in different manners. The influence of Ramadan fasting on immune system regulation remains elusive; however, immune system changes, such as the modulation of body response to various infectious, stressful, and other harmful events, are of great interest during fasting. In this paper, we performed an extensive systematic literature review of different scholarly databases (ISI/Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed,/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Directory of Open Access Journals, EbscoHOST, Scirus, Science Direct, the Cochrane Library, and ProQuest), using the following key words: “fasting,” “Ramadan,” “Islam,” and “immunity.” Conclusions drawn from these findings included: (1) Ramadan fasting has been shown to only mildly influence the immune system and the alterations induced are transient, returning to basal pre-Ramadan status shortly afterward. (2) Ramadan fasting during the second trimester of pregnancy was shown to be safe and did not result in negative fetal outcomes, or maternal oxidative status alterations. (3) In cardiac patients, Ramadan fasting can have beneficial effects including lipid profile improvement and alleviation of oxidative stress. (4) In asthmatic patients as well as in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and autoimmune disorders, fasting was safe. (5) In psychiatric patients, such as those suffering from schizophrenia, fasting could increase immunologic markers. (6) Fasting Muslim athletes who maintain intensive training schedule during Ramadan showed fluctuations of immunologic markers. PMID:29230208

  4. Fusion ignition via a magnetically-assisted fast ignition approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, W. -M.; Gibbon, P.; Sheng, Z. -M.; Li, Y. T.; Zhang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress has been made towards laser-driven fusion ignition via different schemes, including direct and indirect central ignition, fast ignition, shock ignition, and impact ignition schemes. However, to reach ignition conditions, there are still various technical and physical challenges to be solved for all these schemes. Here, our multi-dimensional integrated simulation shows that the fast-ignition conditions could be achieved when two 2.8 petawatt heating laser pulses counter-pr...

  5. The fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J.

    1990-01-01

    The arguments for and against the fast breeder reactor are debated. The case for the fast reactor is that the world energy demand will increase due to increasing population over the next forty years and that the damage to the global environment from burning fossil fuels which contribute to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear fission is the only large scale energy source which can achieve a cut in the use of carbon based fuels although energy conservation and renewable sources will also be important. Fast reactors produce more energy from uranium than other types of (thermal) reactors such as AGRs and PWRs. Fast reactors would be important from about 2020 onwards especially as by then many thermal reactors will need to be replaced. Fast reactors are also safer than normal reactors. The arguments against fast reactors are largely economic. The cost, especially the capital cost is very high. The viability of the technology is also questioned. (UK)

  6. The fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.A.; Baker, M.A.W.; Hall, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Following submission of written evidence, the Energy Committee members asked questions of three witnesses from the Central Electricity Generating Board and Nuclear Electric (which will be the government owned company running nuclear power stations after privatisation). Both questions and answers are reported verbatim. The points raised include where the responsibility for the future fast reactor programme should lie, with government only or with private enterprise or both and the viability of fast breeder reactors in the future. The case for the fast reactor was stated as essentially strategic not economic. This raised the issue of nuclear cost which has both a construction and a decommissioning element. There was considerable discussion as to the cost of building a European Fast reactor and the cost of the electricity it would generate compared with PWR type reactors. The likely demand for fast reactors will not arrive for 20-30 years and the need to build a fast reactor now is questioned. (UK)

  7. Closing the Gap: Opportunities for Distance Education to Benefit Adult Learners in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, A.; Holmberg, C.; Neghina, C.; Owusu-Boampong, A.

    2016-01-01

    Distance education in higher education is a fast-growing and widespread phenomenon. As many adults are unable to participate in on-campus education, distance education offers flexible learning paths that greatly enhance accessibility to higher education. Exploring distance education's potential to increase the participation of adult learners in…

  8. Serum corticosteroid binding globulin expression is modulated by fasting in polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Brian A; Hamilton, Jason; Cattet, Marc R L; Stenhouse, Gordon; Obbard, Martyn E; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2011-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from several subpopulations undergo extended fasting during the ice-free season. However, the animals appear to conserve protein despite the prolonged fasting, though the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. We hypothesized that elevated concentrations of corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the primary cortisol binding protein in circulation, lead to cortisol resistance and provide a mechanism for protein conservation during extended fasting. The metabolic state (feeding vs. fasting) of 16 field sampled male polar bears was determined based on their serum urea to creatinine ratio (>25 for feeding vs. polar bears sampled. Serum CBG expression was greater in lactating females relative to non-lactating females and males. CBG expression was significantly higher in fasting males when compared to non-fasting males. This leads us to suggest that CBG expression may serve as a mechanism to conserve protein during extended fasting in polar bears by reducing systemic free cortisol concentrations. This was further supported by a lower serum glucose concentration in the fasting bears. As well, a lack of an enhanced adrenocortical response to acute capture stress supports our hypothesis that chronic hunger is not a stressor in this species. Overall, our results suggest that elevated serum CBG expression may be an important adaptation to spare proteins by limiting cortisol bioavailability during extended fasting in polar bears. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Production and release of acylcarnitines by primary myotubes reflect the differences in fasting fat oxidation of the donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Magnus; Chen, Shili; Zhao, Xinjie; Scheler, Mika; Irmler, Martin; Staiger, Harald; Beckers, Johannes; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Schleicher, Erwin D; Xu, Guowang; Lehmann, Rainer; Weigert, Cora

    2013-06-01

    Acylcarnitines are biomarkers of incomplete β-oxidation and mitochondrial lipid overload but indicate also high rates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. It is unknown whether the production of acylcarnitines in primary human myotubes obtained from lean, metabolically healthy subjects reflects the fat oxidation in vivo. Our objective was to quantify the acylcarnitine production in myotubes obtained from subjects with low and high fasting respiratory quotient (RQ). Fasting RQ was determined by indirect calorimetry. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were taken from 6 subjects with low fasting RQ (mean 0.79 ± 0.03) and 6 with high fasting RQ (0.90 ± 0.03), and satellite cells were isolated, cultured, and differentiated to myotubes. Myotubes were cultivated with 125 μM (13)C-labeled palmitate for 30 minutes and 4 and 24 hours. Quantitative profiling of 42 intracellular and 31 extracellular acylcarnitines was performed by stable isotope dilution-based metabolomics analysis by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Myotubes from donors with high fasting RQ produced and released significant higher amounts of medium-chain acylcarnitines. High (13)C8 and (13)C10 acylcarnitine levels in the extracellular compartment correlated with high fasting RQ. The decreased expression of medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) in these myotubes can explain the higher rate of incomplete fatty acid oxidation. A lower intracellular [(13)C]acetylcarnitine to carnitine and lower intracellular (13)C16/(13)C18 acylcarnitine to carnitine ratio indicate reduced fatty acid oxidation capacity in these myotubes. Mitochondrial DNA content was not different. Acylcarnitine production and release from primary human myotubes of donors with high fasting RQ indicate a reduced fatty acid oxidation capacity and a higher rate of incomplete fatty acid oxidation. Thus, quantitative profiling of acylcarnitine production in human myotubes can be a suitable tool to

  10. The Adverse Effects and Treatment Results of Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapy During Fasting/Non-Fasting State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliaz, Sinem; Tural Onur, Seda; Uysal, Mehmet Atilla; Chousein, Efsun Gonca Uğur; Tanriverdi, Elif; Bagci, Belma Akbaba; Bahadir, Ayse; Hattatoglu, Didem Gorgun; Ortakoylu, Mediha Gonenc; Yurt, Sibel

    2017-07-03

    Cigarette smoking is one of the most common addictions worldwide. Muslim smokers reduce the number of cigarettes they smoke during Ramadan due to the long fasting hours. We aimed to share our experience in a smoking cessation clinic during Ramadan by analyzing the efficacy and adverse effects of once-daily dosing of bupropion or varenicline in a fasting group compared with conventional dosing in a non-fasting group. We analyzed 57 patients who attended our smoking cessation clinic during Ramadan of 2014 and 2015, and at least one follow-up visit. For the fasting patients, we prescribed bupropion or varenicline after dinner (once daily) as the maintenance therapy. We recorded demographic characteristics of the patients, fasting state, drugs taken for smoking cessation, and the dosage of the medication. At the first follow-up visit, adverse effects seen with the treatment were recorded. We conducted telephone interviews 6 months after the first visits of the patients to learn the current smoking status of the groups. Of the total 57 patients, 20 (35.1%) were fasting and 37 (64.9%) were not fasting. Fasting and non-fasting patients were similar for sex, age, smoking pack-years, marital status, educational status, and mean Fagerström scores (p >.05). Adverse effects and quit rates after 6 months of follow-up were similar between the fasting and non-fasting groups (p >.05). Although our sample size was small, we found no difference in the rates of adverse effects or smoking cessation using a single daily oral dose of bupropion or varenicline between a fasting group and a non-fasting group that received conventional dosing.

  11. Effects of Ramadan fasting on moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhit, Amaar A; Kurdi, Amr M; Wadera, Junaid J; Alsuwaida, Abdulkareem O

    2017-01-01

    To examin the effect of Ramadan fasting on worsening of renal function (WRF). Method: This was a single-arm prospective observational study including 65 patients with stage 3 or higher chronic kidney disease (CKD). By definition, WRF was considered to have occurred when serum creatinine levels increased by 0.3 mg/dL (26.5 µmol/l) from baseline during or within 3 months after Ramadan. The study was conducted in the Nephrology Clinic of King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the month of Ramadan 1436 AH (Hijiri), which corresponded to June 18-July 17, 2015.  Results: This study included 65 adults with a mean age of 53 years. Overall, 33% of patients developed WRF. In the multivariate analysis, more advanced CKD stage, higher baseline systolic blood pressure and younger age were independently associated with WRF. Underlying cause of CKD, use of diuretics, use of renin angiotensin blockers, gender, and smoking status were not associated with WRF.  Conclusion: In patients with stage 3 or higher CKD, Ramadan fasting during the summer months was associated with worsening of renal function. Clinicians need to warn CKD patients against Ramadan fasting.

  12. Association between fast food purchasing and the local food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Kavanagh, A M

    2012-12-03

    In this study, an instrument was created to measure the healthy and unhealthy characteristics of food environments and investigate associations between the whole of the food environment and fast food consumption. In consultation with other academic researchers in this field, food stores were categorised to either healthy or unhealthy and weighted (between +10 and -10) by their likely contribution to healthy/unhealthy eating practices. A healthy and unhealthy food environment score (FES) was created using these weightings. Using a cross-sectional study design, multilevel multinomial regression was used to estimate the effects of the whole food environment on the fast food purchasing habits of 2547 individuals. Respondents in areas with the highest tertile of the healthy FES had a lower likelihood of purchasing fast food both infrequently and frequently compared with respondents who never purchased, however only infrequent purchasing remained significant when simultaneously modelled with the unhealthy FES (odds ratio (OR) 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32-0.83). Although a lower likelihood of frequent fast food purchasing was also associated with living in the highest tertile of the unhealthy FES, no association remained once the healthy FES was included in the models. In our binary models, respondents living in areas with a higher unhealthy FES than healthy FES were more likely to purchase fast food infrequently (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.00-1.82) however no association was found for frequent purchasing. Our study provides some evidence to suggest that healthier food environments may discourage fast food purchasing.

  13. Fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasile, A.

    2001-01-01

    Fast reactors have capacities to spare uranium natural resources by their breeding property and to propose solutions to the management of radioactive wastes by limiting the inventory of heavy nuclei. This article highlights the role that fast reactors could play for reducing the radiotoxicity of wastes. The conversion of 238 U into 239 Pu by neutron capture is more efficient in fast reactors than in light water reactors. In fast reactors multi-recycling of U + Pu leads to fissioning up to 95% of the initial fuel ( 238 U + 235 U). 2 strategies have been studied to burn actinides: - the multi-recycling of heavy nuclei is made inside the fuel element (homogeneous option); - the unique recycling is made in special irradiation targets placed inside the core or at its surroundings (heterogeneous option). Simulations have shown that, for the same amount of energy produced (400 TWhe), the mass of transuranium elements (Pu + Np + Am + Cm) sent to waste disposal is 60,9 Kg in the homogeneous option and 204.4 Kg in the heterogeneous option. Experimental programs are carried out in Phenix and BOR60 reactors in order to study the feasibility of such strategies. (A.C.)

  14. Automated Measurement of Fast Mitochondrial Transport in Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle eMiller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing recognition that fast mitochondrial transport in neurons is disrupted in multiple neurological diseases and psychiatric disorders. However a major constraint in identifying novel therapeutics based on mitochondrial transport is that the large-scale analysis of fast transport is time consuming. Here we describe methodologies for the automated analysis of fast mitochondrial transport from data acquired using a robotic microscope. We focused on addressing questions of measurement precision, speed, reliably, workflow ease, statistical processing and presentation. We used optical flow and particle tracking algorithms, implemented in ImageJ, to measure mitochondrial movement in primary cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons. With it, we are able to generate complete descriptions of movement profiles in an automated fashion of hundred of thousands of mitochondria with a processing time of approximately one hour. We describe the calibration of the parameters of the tracking algorithms and demonstrate that they are capable of measuring the fast transport of a single mitochondrion. We then show that the methods are capable of reliably measuring the inhibition of fast mitochondria transport induced by the disruption of microtubules with the drug nocodazole in both hippocampal and cortical neurons. This work lays the foundation for future large-scale screens designed to identify compounds that modulate mitochondrial motility.

  15. Fast and Automatic Ultrasound Simulation from CT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijian Cong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound is currently widely used in clinical diagnosis because of its fast and safe imaging principles. As the anatomical structures present in an ultrasound image are not as clear as CT or MRI. Physicians usually need advance clinical knowledge and experience to distinguish diseased tissues. Fast simulation of ultrasound provides a cost-effective way for the training and correlation of ultrasound and the anatomic structures. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for fast simulation of ultrasound from a CT image. A multiscale method is developed to enhance tubular structures so as to simulate the blood flow. The acoustic response of common tissues is generated by weighted integration of adjacent regions on the ultrasound propagation path in the CT image, from which parameters, including attenuation, reflection, scattering, and noise, are estimated simultaneously. The thin-plate spline interpolation method is employed to transform the simulation image between polar and rectangular coordinate systems. The Kaiser window function is utilized to produce integration and radial blurring effects of multiple transducer elements. Experimental results show that the developed method is very fast and effective, allowing realistic ultrasound to be fast generated. Given that the developed method is fully automatic, it can be utilized for ultrasound guided navigation in clinical practice and for training purpose.

  16. Metabolic Effects of Intermittent Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ruth E; Sears, Dorothy D

    2017-08-21

    The objective of this review is to provide an overview of intermittent fasting regimens, summarize the evidence on the health benefits of intermittent fasting, and discuss physiological mechanisms by which intermittent fasting might lead to improved health outcomes. A MEDLINE search was performed using PubMed and the terms "intermittent fasting," "fasting," "time-restricted feeding," and "food timing." Modified fasting regimens appear to promote weight loss and may improve metabolic health. Several lines of evidence also support the hypothesis that eating patterns that reduce or eliminate nighttime eating and prolong nightly fasting intervals may result in sustained improvements in human health. Intermittent fasting regimens are hypothesized to influence metabolic regulation via effects on (a) circadian biology, (b) the gut microbiome, and (c) modifiable lifestyle behaviors, such as sleep. If proven to be efficacious, these eating regimens offer promising nonpharmacological approaches to improving health at the population level, with multiple public health benefits.

  17. Effect of Linguizhugan decoction on hyperlipidemia rats with intermittent fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yubin; Qin, Jian; Ke, Bin; Zhang, Junjie; Shi, Lanying; Li, Qiong

    2013-04-01

    To explore the effect of Linguizhugan decoction on hyperlipidemia rats with caloric restriction. The hyperlipidemia model of rat was induced by high fat diet for 8 weeks. After the model was established, 26 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: the control group (n = 6), the model group (n = 6), the intermittent fasting (IF) group (n = 8), and the IF and herbal medicine (IFH) group (n = 6). IF group was applied intermittent fasting every other day. The IFH group was given Linguizhugan decoction every day and intermittent fasting every other day. Blood samples were taken at the end of 16 weeks, and serum ghrelin and lipid was tested. Serum ghrelin in the IF group significantly increased (P < 0.01). Serum ghrelin in IFH group was lower than the IF group (P < 0.05), but higher than the model group (P < 0.01). Linguizhugan decoction may play a part in regulation of energy and appetite in hyperlipidemia rats with IF.

  18. Fast track-hoftealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Bæk; Gromov, Kirill; Kristensen, Billy B

    2017-01-01

    Fast-track surgery implies a coordinated perioperative approach aimed at reducing surgical stress and facilitating post-operative recovery. The fast-track programme has reduced post-operative length of stay and has led to shorter convalescence with more rapid functional recovery and decreased...... morbidity and mortality in total hip arthroplasty. It should now be a standard total hip arthroplasty patient pathway, but fine tuning of the multiple factors in the fast-track pathway is still needed in patients with special needs or high comorbidity burden....

  19. Higher densities of fast-food and full-service restaurants are not associated with obesity prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Speakman, John R

    2017-08-01

    Background: The obesity epidemic in the United States has been mirrored by an increase in calories consumed outside of the home and by expansions in the numbers of, and portion sizes at, both fast-food restaurants (FFRs) and full-service restaurants (FSRs), leading some to blame the epidemic on the restaurant industry. If this were indeed true, one would predict that greater per capita densities of FFRs and FSRs would lead to greater obesity prevalence. Objective: We evaluated the population-level association between both FSRs and FFRs and the prevalence of obesity and calculated the proportion of calories consumed in these establishments. Design: In this ecological cross-sectional study, we used county-level data (aggregate-level data) for obesity prevalence across the mainland United States in 2012 and matched these data to county-level per capita densities of FFRs and FSRs in the same year. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the relation between the prevalence of obesity and the densities of FFRs and FSRs after adjustment for confounding factors. Results: Contrary to expectations, obesity prevalence was highly significantly negatively related to the densities of both FFRs and FSRs (combined-effect R 2 = 0.195). This was principally because greater numbers of both FFRs and FSRs were located in areas in which individuals were on average wealthier and more educated. When we normalized for these factors (and additional socioeconomic variables), the associations between restaurant densities and obesity effectively disappeared (pooled R 2 = 0.008). Our calculations showed that the percentage of total calories consumed in FFRs and FSRs is a mean of only 15.9% of the total intake (maximum: 22.6%). Conclusions: Variations in the densities of FFRs and FSRs are not linked to the prevalence of obesity in the United States, and food consumed in these establishments is responsible for <20% of total energy intake. This finding has implications for policy

  20. Fast ultrasonic visualisation under sodium. Application to the fast neutron reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imbert, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    The fast ultrasonic visualization under sodium is in the programme of research and development on the inspection inside the fast neutron reactors. This work is about the development of a such system of fast ultrasonic imaging under sodium, in order to improve the existing visualization systems. This system is based on the principle of orthogonal imaging, it uses two linear antennas with an important dephasing having 128 piezo-composite elements of central frequency equal to 1.6 MHz. (N.C.)

  1. Fast dissolving strips: A novel approach for the delivery of verapamil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kunte

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fast dissolving drug delivery system offers a solution for those patients having difficulty in swallowing tablets/capsules etc. Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker used as an antianginal, antiarrhythmic, and antihypertensive agent with extensive first pass metabolism which results in less bioavailability. This work investigated the possibility of developing verapamil fast dissolving strips allowing fast, reproducible drug dissolution in the oral cavity; thus bypassing first pass metabolism. Materials and methods: The fast dissolving strips were prepared by solvent casting technique with the help of HPMC E6 and maltodextrin. The strips were evaluated for drug content uniformity, film thickness, folding endurance, in vitro disintegration time, in vitro dissolution studies, surface pH study, and palatability study. Results: Official criteria for evaluation parameters were fulfilled by all formulations. Disintegration time showed by formulations was found to be in range of 20.4-28.6 sec. Based on the evaluation parameters, the formulation containing 2% HPMC E6 and 3.5% maltodextrin showed optimum performance against other formulations. Conclusion: It was concluded that the fast dissolving strips of verapamil can be made by solvent casting technique with enhanced dissolution rate, taste masking, and hence better patient compliance and effective therapy

  2. Lasing cavities and ultra-fast switch based on self-collimation of photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Deyin; Zhou Chuanhong; Gong Qian; Jiang Xunya

    2008-01-01

    The lasing cavities and ultra-fast switch based on the self-collimation (SC) of photonic crystal have been studied in this work. Some special properties of these devices are demonstrated, such as the higher quality factors and concise integration of the lasing cavities, the tolerance of the non-parallel reflectors in Fabry-Perot cavities. With nonlinearity, the ultra-fast switch can also be realized around the SC frequency. All these functional devices are designed based on the strong beam confinement of SC

  3. Lasing cavities and ultra-fast switch based on self-collimation of photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Deyin; Zhou Chuanhong; Gong Qian; Jiang Xunya [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)], E-mail: xyjiang@mit.edu

    2008-06-07

    The lasing cavities and ultra-fast switch based on the self-collimation (SC) of photonic crystal have been studied in this work. Some special properties of these devices are demonstrated, such as the higher quality factors and concise integration of the lasing cavities, the tolerance of the non-parallel reflectors in Fabry-Perot cavities. With nonlinearity, the ultra-fast switch can also be realized around the SC frequency. All these functional devices are designed based on the strong beam confinement of SC.

  4. Study of the fast inversion recovery pulse sequence. With reference to fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery and fast short TI inversion recovery pulse sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Maki, Toshio; Suzuki, Takeshi

    1997-01-01

    The fast inversion recovery (fast IR) pulse sequence was evaluated. We compared the fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery (fast FLAIR) pulse sequence in which inversion time (TI) was established as equal to the water null point for the purpose of the water-suppressed T 2 -weighted image, with the fast short TI inversion recovery (fast STIR) pulse sequence in which TI was established as equal to the fat null point for purpose of fat suppression. In the fast FLAIR pulse sequence, the water null point was increased by making TR longer. In the FLAIR pulse sequence, the longitudinal magnetization contrast is determined by TI. If TI is increased, T 2 -weighted contrast improves in the same way as increasing TR for the SE pulse sequence. Therefore, images should be taken with long TR and long TI, which are longer than TR and longer than the water null point. On the other hand, the fat null point is not affected by TR in the fast STIR pulse sequence. However, effective TE was affected by variation of the null point. This increased in proportion to the increase in effective TE. Our evaluation indicated that the fast STIR pulse sequence can control the extensive signals from fat in a short time. (author)

  5. Fast Nonconvex Model Predictive Control for Commercial Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Larsen, Lars F. S.; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2012-01-01

    in fewer than 5 or so iterations. We employ a fast convex quadratic programming solver to carry out the iterations, which is more than fast enough to run in real-time. We demonstrate our method on a realistic model, with a full year simulation, using real historical data. These simulations show substantial...... cost savings, and reveal how the method exhibits sophisticated response to real-time variations in electricity prices. This demand response is critical to help balance real-time uncertainties associated with large penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources in a future smart grid....

  6. Uranium alloys for using in fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C.; Pires, O.S.

    1988-08-01

    The U-Zr and U-Ti alloys are studied, given emphasis to the high solute solubility in gamma phase of uranium, which is suitable for using as metal fuel in fast breeder reactors. The alloys were prepared in electron beam furnaces and submitted to X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, microhardness, optical metallography, and chemical analysis. The obtained values are good agreements with the literature data. The study shows that the U-Zr presents better characteristics than the U-Ti for using as fuel in fast breeder reactors. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. Fast Light Optical Gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David D.

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation space missions are currently constrained by existing spacecraft navigation systems which are not fully autonomous. These systems suffer from accumulated dead-reckoning errors and must therefore rely on periodic corrections provided by supplementary technologies that depend on line-of-sight signals from Earth, satellites, or other celestial bodies for absolute attitude and position determination, which can be spoofed, incorrectly identified, occluded, obscured, attenuated, or insufficiently available. These dead-reckoning errors originate in the ring laser gyros themselves, which constitute inertial measurement units. Increasing the time for standalone spacecraft navigation therefore requires fundamental improvements in gyroscope technologies. One promising solution to enhance gyro sensitivity is to place an anomalous dispersion or fast light material inside the gyro cavity. The fast light essentially provides a positive feedback to the gyro response, resulting in a larger measured beat frequency for a given rotation rate as shown in figure 1. Game Changing Development has been investing in this idea through the Fast Light Optical Gyros (FLOG) project, a collaborative effort which began in FY 2013 between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), and Northwestern University. MSFC and AMRDEC are working on the development of a passive FLOG (PFLOG), while Northwestern is developing an active FLOG (AFLOG). The project has demonstrated new benchmarks in the state of the art for scale factor sensitivity enhancement. Recent results show cavity scale factor enhancements of approx.100 for passive cavities.

  8. Fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, A.E.; Reynolds, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    This book describes the major design features of fast breeder reactors and the methods used for their design and analysis. The foremost objective of this book is to fulfill the need for a textbook on Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) technology at the graduate level or the advanced undergraduate level. It is assumed that the reader has an introductory understanding of reactor theory, heat transfer, and fluid mechanics. The book is expected to be used most widely for a one-semester general course on fast breeder reactors, with the extent of material covered to vary according to the interest of the instructor. The book could also be used effectively for a two-quarter or a two-semester course. In addition, the book could serve as a text for a course on fast reactor safety since many topics other than those appearing in the safety chapters relate to FBR safety. Methodology in fast reactor design and analysis, together with physical descriptions of systems, is emphasized in this text more than numerical results. Analytical and design results continue to change with the ongoing evolution of FBR design whereas many design methods have remained fundamentally unchanged for a considerable time

  9. Technical Meeting on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycle Facilities with Improved Economic Characteristics. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, engineering oriented work, rather than basic research and development (R&D), has led to significant progress in improving the economics of innovative fast reactors and associated fuel cycle facilities, while maintaining and even enhancing the safety features of these systems. Optimization of plant size and layout, more compact designs, reduction of the amount of plant materials and the building volumes, higher operating temperatures to attain higher generating efficiencies, improvement of load factor, extended core lifetimes, high fuel burnup, etc. are good examples of achievements to date that have improved the economics of fast neutron systems. The IAEA, through its Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR) and Technical Working Group on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options and Spent Fuel Management (TWG-NFCO), devotes many of its initiatives to encouraging technical cooperation and promoting common research and technology development projects among Member States with fast reactor and advanced fuel cycle development programmes, with the general aim of catalysing and accelerating technology advances in these fields. In particular the theme of fast reactor deployment, scenarios and economics has been largely debated during the recent IAEA International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios, held in Paris in March 2013. Several papers presented at this conference discussed the economics of fast reactors from different national and regional perspectives, including business cases, investment scenarios, funding mechanisms and design options that offer significant capital and energy production cost reductions. This Technical Meeting on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycle Facilities with Improved Economic Characteristics addresses Member States’ expressed need for information exchange in the field, with the aim of identifying the main open issues and launching possible initiatives to help and

  10. Engineering Design of ITER Prototype Fast Plant System Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, B.; Sousa, J.; Carvalho, B.; Rodrigues, A. P.; Correia, M.; Batista, A.; Vega, J.; Ruiz, M.; Lopez, J. M.; Rojo, R. Castro; Wallander, A.; Utzel, N.; Neto, A.; Alves, D.; Valcarcel, D.

    2011-08-01

    The ITER control, data access and communication (CODAC) design team identified the need for two types of plant systems. A slow control plant system is based on industrial automation technology with maximum sampling rates below 100 Hz, and a fast control plant system is based on embedded technology with higher sampling rates and more stringent real-time requirements than that required for slow controllers. The latter is applicable to diagnostics and plant systems in closed-control loops whose cycle times are below 1 ms. Fast controllers will be dedicated industrial controllers with the ability to supervise other fast and/or slow controllers, interface to actuators and sensors and, if necessary, high performance networks. Two prototypes of a fast plant system controller specialized for data acquisition and constrained by ITER technological choices are being built using two different form factors. This prototyping activity contributes to the Plant Control Design Handbook effort of standardization, specifically regarding fast controller characteristics. Envisaging a general purpose fast controller design, diagnostic use cases with specific requirements were analyzed and will be presented along with the interface with CODAC and sensors. The requirements and constraints that real-time plasma control imposes on the design were also taken into consideration. Functional specifications and technology neutral architecture, together with its implications on the engineering design, were considered. The detailed engineering design compliant with ITER standards was performed and will be discussed in detail. Emphasis will be given to the integration of the controller in the standard CODAC environment. Requirements for the EPICS IOC providing the interface to the outside world, the prototype decisions on form factor, real-time operating system, and high-performance networks will also be discussed, as well as the requirements for data streaming to CODAC for visualization and

  11. Fast neutrons dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzyski, B.M.

    1977-01-01

    A proton recoil technique has been developed for inducing thermoluminescence with incident fast neutrons. CaF 2 was used as the TL phosphor, and cane sugar and polyethylene were used as proton radiators. The phosphor and the hydrogeneous material powders were well mixed, encapsulated in glass tubes and exposed to Am-Be sources, resulting in recoils from incident fast neutrons of energy between 0,25 and 11,25 MeV. The intrinsic response of pure CaF 2 to fast neutrons without a hydrogeneous radiator was checked by using LiF (TLD-700). Glow curves were recorded from room temperature up to 350 0 C after different doses of neutrons and gamma rays of 60 Co. First collision dose due to fast neutrons in tissue like materials such as cane sugar and polyethylene was also calculated [pt

  12. Organizational Commitment In Fast Food Franchising Businesses: The Case of Denizli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Görkem

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The sector of food and beverage growing in paralel with the rapid change of food habits on a global scale has witnessed the raising of the fast food businesses that franchising system has been implemented. As the development mentioned has increased the employment needs of fast food businesses, it has brought the necessity of giving importance to the activities related to improving the organizational commitment of personnel. Accordingly, the purpose of the study is to reveal compatatively the organizational commitments of the personnel working in fast food businesses that national or international franchising system has been implemented. The level of organizational commitment of 144 personnel working in the fast food businesses in Denizli where franchising system has been implemented has been measured by survey method. According to the study findings, it has been found out that affective, continuance and normative commitments regarding organizational commitm showed significant differences and that the general organizational commitment level hasn’t showed differences in terms of implementations of national and international franchising system of the bussiness.

  13. A fast and accurate dihedral interpolation loop subdivision scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhuo; An, Yalei; Wang, Zhongshuai; Yu, Ke; Zhong, Si; Lan, Rushi; Luo, Xiaonan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a fast and accurate dihedral interpolation Loop subdivision scheme for subdivision surfaces based on triangular meshes. In order to solve the problem of surface shrinkage, we keep the limit condition unchanged, which is important. Extraordinary vertices are handled using modified Butterfly rules. Subdivision schemes are computationally costly as the number of faces grows exponentially at higher levels of subdivision. To address this problem, our approach is to use local surface information to adaptively refine the model. This is achieved simply by changing the threshold value of the dihedral angle parameter, i.e., the angle between the normals of a triangular face and its adjacent faces. We then demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for various 3D graphic triangular meshes, and extensive experimental results show that it can match or exceed the expected results at lower computational cost.

  14. Risk of falls in older people during fast-walking--the TASCOG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callisaya, M L; Blizzard, L; McGinley, J L; Srikanth, V K

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between fast-walking and falls in older people. Individuals aged 60-86 years were randomly selected from the electoral roll (n=176). Gait speed, step length, cadence and a walk ratio were recorded during preferred- and fast-walking using an instrumented walkway. Falls were recorded prospectively over 12 months. Log multinomial regression was used to estimate the relative risk of single and multiple falls associated with gait variables during fast-walking and change between preferred- and fast-walking. Covariates included age, sex, mood, physical activity, sensorimotor and cognitive measures. The risk of multiple falls was increased for those with a smaller walk ratio (shorter steps, faster cadence) during fast-walking (RR 0.92, CI 0.87, 0.97) and greater reduction in the walk ratio (smaller increase in step length, larger increase in cadence) when changing to fast-walking (RR 0.73, CI 0.63, 0.85). These gait patterns were associated with poorer physiological and cognitive function (prisk of multiple falls was also seen for those in the fastest quarter of gait speed (p=0.01) at fast-walking. A trend for better reaction time, balance, memory and physical activity for higher categories of gait speed was stronger for fallers than non-fallers (prisk of multiple falls. There may be two distinct groups at risk--the frail person with short shuffling steps, and the healthy person exposed to greater risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Population of vibrational levels of carbon dioxide by cylindrical fast ionization wave

    KAUST Repository

    Levko, Dmitry

    2017-09-08

    The population of vibrational levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) by a cylindrical fast ionization wave is analyzed using a one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo collisions model. The model takes into account the inelastic electron-neutral collisions as well as the super-elastic collisions between electrons and excited species. We observe an efficient population of only the first two levels of the symmetric and asymmetric vibrational modes of CO2 by means of a fast ionization wave. The excitation of other higher vibrational modes by the fast ionization wave is inefficient. Additionally, we observe a strong influence of the secondary electron emission on the population of vibrational states of CO2. This effect is associated with the kinetics of high energy electrons generated in the cathode sheath.

  16. Temperature dependent investigation on optically active process of higher-order bands in irradiated silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yi; Nanjing Univ., JS; Wu Fengmei; Nanjing Univ., JS; Zheng Youdou; Nanjing Univ., JS; Suezawa, M.; Imai, M.; Sumino, K.

    1996-01-01

    Optically active processes of the higher-order bands (HOB) are investigated at different temperatures in fast neutron irradiated silicon using Fourier transform infrared absorption measurement. It is shown that the optically active process is nearly temperature independent below 80 K, the slow decay process remains up to a heating temperature of 180 K. The observations are analyzed in terms of the relaxation behavior of photoexcited carriers governed by fast neutron radiation induced defect clusters. (orig.)

  17. Fast micrographia: An unusual but distinctive sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umaiorubahan Meenakshisundaram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast micrographia is a rare clinical sign, which is reported in patients with pallidal pathology. A 68-year-old male presented with hypophonia and short shuffling gait with decreased arm swing. About 3 weeks before, he had an acute myocardial infarction and a period of hemodynamic and respiratory distress during which he required mechanical ventilatory support. He was found to have a fast handwriting with micrographia from the outset. His rapid alternating hand and finger movements were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain showed features of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy including hyperintensities on T1 and T2 weighted images in the globus pallidus, and putamen bilaterally.

  18. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  19. A fast-start pacing strategy speeds pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics and improves supramaximal running performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Turnes

    Full Text Available The focus of the present study was to investigate the effects of a fast-start pacing strategy on running performance and pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2 kinetics at the upper boundary of the severe-intensity domain. Eleven active male participants (28±10 years, 70±5 kg, 176±6 cm, 57±4 mL/kg/min visited the laboratory for a series of tests that were performed until exhaustion: 1 an incremental test; 2 three laboratory test sessions performed at 95, 100 and 110% of the maximal aerobic speed; 3 two to four constant speed tests for the determination of the highest constant speed (HS that still allowed achieving maximal oxygen uptake; and 4 an exercise based on the HS using a higher initial speed followed by a subsequent decrease. To predict equalized performance values for the constant pace, the relationship between time and distance/speed through log-log modelling was used. When a fast-start was utilized, subjects were able to cover a greater distance in a performance of similar duration in comparison with a constant-pace performance (constant pace: 670 m±22%; fast-start: 683 m±22%; P = 0.029; subjects also demonstrated a higher exercise tolerance at a similar average speed when compared with constant-pace performance (constant pace: 114 s±30%; fast-start: 125 s±26%; P = 0.037. Moreover, the mean VO2 response time was reduced after a fast start (constant pace: 22.2 s±28%; fast-start: 19.3 s±29%; P = 0.025. In conclusion, middle-distance running performances with a duration of 2-3 min are improved and VO2 response time is faster when a fast-start is adopted.

  20. Effects of fasting during Ramadan on cerebrovascular hemodynamics: A transcranial Doppler study

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrpour, Masoud; Akhoundi, Fahimeh H.; Rezaei, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: To determine whether Islamic fasting would change cerebral blood flow during Ramadan.Methods: The study group comprised 20 subjects (16 males and 4 females) on a regimen of 1 month food and water intake restriction, according to Islamic fasting ritual. Subjects were evaluated for cerebral bolo flow through a middle cerebral artery (MCA) by means of transcranial Doppler (TCD), the day before starting Ramadan fasting and the day after the month of Ramadan.Results: Our results showed...

  1. Effects of an in vacancy on local distortion of fast phase transition in Bi-doped In3SbTe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Minho; Choi, Heechae; Kim, Seungchul; Ahn, Jinho; Kim, Yong Tae

    2017-12-01

    Indium vacancies in Bi-doped In3SbTe2 (BIST) cause local distortion or and faster phase transition of BIST with good stability. The formation energy of the In vacancy in the BIST is relatively lower compared to that in IST due to triple negative charge state of the In vacancy ( V 3- In) and higher concentration of the V 3- In in BIST. The band gap of BIST is substantially reduced with increasing concentrations of the V 3- In and the hole carriers, which results in a higher electrical conductivity. The phase-change memory (PRAM) device fabricated with the BIST shows very fast, stable switching characteristics at lower voltages.

  2. On the implementation of fast marching methods for 3D lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2001-01-01

    This technical report discusses Sethian's Fast Marching Method and its higher accuracy variant. Both methods may be used to compute the arrival times at the points of a discrete lattice of a front which is monotonously expanding. Applications of the method include arrival time computation and the...

  3. Fasting Ramadan in chronic kidney disease patients: Clinical and biochemical effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernieh Bassam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasting of the month of Ramadan is a pillar of Islam. Muslim patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD usually fast this month. To determine the effects of fasting on renal function in CKD patients, we prospectively studied 31 (19 males and mean age 54 ±14.2 years CKD patients during the month of Ramadan 1426 Hijra (4 th October - 4 th November 2005; 14 patients were in stage III CKD, 12 had stage IV and 5 had stage V. The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR was 29 ± 16.3 mL/min. Diabetes was the main cause of CKD (19 (61% patients, and hypertension was present in 22 (71% patients. Clinical assessment and renal function tests were performed one month prior to fasting then during and a month later. Medications were taken in two divided doses at sunset (time of breaking the fast and pre dawn (before starting the fast. All patients fasted the whole month of Ramadan with a good tolerance, tendency to weight reduction, and lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure. eGFR showed a significant improvement during the fast and the month after. The blood sugar was high during fasting with an increment in the Hb A1c. There was better lipid profile, reduction of the pro-teinuria and urinary sodium. We conclude that this study demonstrates a good tolerance and safety of fasting Ramadan in CKD patients.

  4. Damages to gladiolu corm caused by fast neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiwei; Wang Dan; Zhang Dongxue; Zheng Chun

    2007-01-01

    Gladiolus corms were irradiated to 100-500kGy by fast neutrons in the CFBR-II pulsed reactor, Scanning electron microscope images of the irradiated samples revealed significant radiation damages to the gladiolus corms, and the mutagenic effects were studied by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Within the dose range, radiation damage to the corm increased with the dose, with corm epidermis of the samples irradiated in vertical incidence being more serious than those irradiated in side-incidence to the same dose. Biological characters were investigated via field experiments, and the bands of protein subunit were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the fast neutrons irradiation inhibited growth of M1 generation seedling significantly. Protein expression was obviously inhibited by the irradiation. The study indicates that fast neutron induction is an effective way for gladiolus breeding. And the results may lay a foundation for studies on fast neutron mutation breeding. (authors)

  5. Fast reactors in nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazachkovskii, O

    1981-02-01

    The possible applications are discussed of fast reactor nuclear power plants. Basic differences are explained in fast and thermal reactors, mainly with a view to nuclear fuel utilization. Discussed in more detail are the problems of nuclear fuel reproduction and the nost important technical problems of fast reactors. Flow charts are shown of heat transfer for fast reactors BN-350 (loop design) and BN-600 (integral coolant circuit design). Main specifications are given for demonstration and power fast reactors in operation, under construction and in project-stage.

  6. FastMag: Fast micromagnetic simulator for complex magnetic structures (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R.; Li, S.; Lubarda, M. V.; Livshitz, B.; Lomakin, V.

    2011-04-01

    A fast micromagnetic simulator (FastMag) for general problems is presented. FastMag solves the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation and can handle multiscale problems with a high computational efficiency. The simulator derives its high performance from efficient methods for evaluating the effective field and from implementations on massively parallel graphics processing unit (GPU) architectures. FastMag discretizes the computational domain into tetrahedral elements and therefore is highly flexible for general problems. The magnetostatic field is computed via the superposition principle for both volume and surface parts of the computational domain. This is accomplished by implementing efficient quadrature rules and analytical integration for overlapping elements in which the integral kernel is singular. Thus, discretized superposition integrals are computed using a nonuniform grid interpolation method, which evaluates the field from N sources at N collocated observers in O(N) operations. This approach allows handling objects of arbitrary shape, allows easily calculating of the field outside the magnetized domains, does not require solving a linear system of equations, and requires little memory. FastMag is implemented on GPUs with ?> GPU-central processing unit speed-ups of 2 orders of magnitude. Simulations are shown of a large array of magnetic dots and a recording head fully discretized down to the exchange length, with over a hundred million tetrahedral elements on an inexpensive desktop computer.

  7. Fast-responding property of electromagnetically induced transparency in Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Bai, Zhengyang; Huang, Guoxiang

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the transient optical response property of an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a cold Rydberg atomic gas. We show that both the transient behavior and the steady-state EIT spectrum of the system depend strongly on Rydberg interaction. Especially, the response speed of the Rydberg-EIT can be five times faster (and even higher) than the conventional EIT without the Rydberg interaction. For comparison, two different theoretical approaches (i.e., two-atom model and many-atom model) are considered, revealing that Rydberg blockade effect plays a significant role for increasing the response speed of the Rydberg-EIT. The fast-responding Rydberg-EIT by using the strong, tunable Rydberg interaction uncovered here is not only helpful for enhancing the understanding of the many-body dynamics of Rydberg atoms but also useful for practical applications in quantum information processing by using Rydberg atoms.

  8. A Hardware Fast Tracker for the ATLAS trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbah, N.

    2016-01-01

    The trigger system of the ATLAS experiment is designed to reduce the event rate from the LHC nominal bunch crossing at 40 MHz to about 1 kHz, at the design luminosity of 10 34 cm -2 · s -1 . After a successful period of data taking from 2010 to early 2013, the LHC already started with much higher instantaneous luminosity. This will increase the load on High Level Trigger system, the second stage of the selection based on software algorithms. More sophisticated algorithms will be needed to achieve higher background rejection while maintaining good efficiency for interesting physics signals. The Fast TracKer (FTK) is part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade project. It is a hardware processor that will provide, at every Level-1 accepted event (100 kHz) and within 100 μs, full tracking information for tracks with momentum as low as 1 GeV. Providing fast, extensive access to tracking information, with resolution comparable to the offline reconstruction, FTK will help in precise detection of the primary and secondary vertices to ensure robust selections and improve the trigger performance. FTK exploits hardware technologies with massive parallelism, combining Associative Memory ASICs, FPGAs and high-speed communication links.

  9. Acute regulation of plasma leptin by isoprenaline in lean and obese fasted subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, K C R; Nicholas, M D; Shojaee-Moradie, F; Umpleby, A M; Giannoulis, M G

    2006-07-01

    In human obesity, there is some evidence for impaired adrenergic sensitivity with respect to catecholamine-induced lipolysis. The beta-adrenoceptor agonist isoprenaline has been shown to suppress plasma leptin levels in lean humans in vivo. We hypothesized that a reduced adrenergic sensitivity in obese humans would result in impaired suppression of leptin secretion. Eight obese [Ob, body mass index (BMI) = 33.3 kg/m2] and seven lean (Ln, BMI = 21.8 kg/m2) men were studied after an overnight fast. Intravenous isoprenaline infusion was initiated at a rate of 8 ng/kg/min, titrated up to 24 ng/kg/min over 30 min and continued at this rate for a further 120 min with continuous electrocardiogram monitoring. Baseline fasting plasma leptin was higher in obese compared with lean subjects (Ob 12.2 +/- 1.8, Ln 2.6 +/- 0.6 ng/ml, p fasting glycerol as a measure of lipolysis was similar in both groups (Ob 62.9 +/- 7.6, Ln 42.4 +/- 8.9 micromol/l) and increased from baseline to 150 min by equivalent amounts (Ob +66.9%, Ln +81.2%, p = NS). Plasma leptin decreased from baseline to 150 min with similar relative changes in both groups (Ob -29.2%, Ln -27.8%). Obese subjects show a similar lipolytic and leptin response to acute isoprenaline infusion compared with lean subjects. Impaired beta-adrenergic-induced inhibition of leptin secretion does not appear to contribute to hyperleptinaemia in obese human subjects.

  10. FAST: framework for heterogeneous medical image computing and visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smistad, Erik; Bozorgi, Mohammadmehdi; Lindseth, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Computer systems are becoming increasingly heterogeneous in the sense that they consist of different processors, such as multi-core CPUs and graphic processing units. As the amount of medical image data increases, it is crucial to exploit the computational power of these processors. However, this is currently difficult due to several factors, such as driver errors, processor differences, and the need for low-level memory handling. This paper presents a novel FrAmework for heterogeneouS medical image compuTing and visualization (FAST). The framework aims to make it easier to simultaneously process and visualize medical images efficiently on heterogeneous systems. FAST uses common image processing programming paradigms and hides the details of memory handling from the user, while enabling the use of all processors and cores on a system. The framework is open-source, cross-platform and available online. Code examples and performance measurements are presented to show the simplicity and efficiency of FAST. The results are compared to the insight toolkit (ITK) and the visualization toolkit (VTK) and show that the presented framework is faster with up to 20 times speedup on several common medical imaging algorithms. FAST enables efficient medical image computing and visualization on heterogeneous systems. Code examples and performance evaluations have demonstrated that the toolkit is both easy to use and performs better than existing frameworks, such as ITK and VTK.

  11. Imprints of fast-rotating massive stars in the Galactic Bulge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappini, Cristina; Frischknecht, Urs; Meynet, Georges; Hirschi, Raphael; Barbuy, Beatriz; Pignatari, Marco; Decressin, Thibaut; Maeder, André

    2011-04-28

    The first stars that formed after the Big Bang were probably massive, and they provided the Universe with the first elements heavier than helium ('metals'), which were incorporated into low-mass stars that have survived to the present. Eight stars in the oldest globular cluster in the Galaxy, NGC 6522, were found to have surface abundances consistent with the gas from which they formed being enriched by massive stars (that is, with higher α-element/Fe and Eu/Fe ratios than those of the Sun). However, the same stars have anomalously high abundances of Ba and La with respect to Fe, which usually arises through nucleosynthesis in low-mass stars (via the slow-neutron-capture process, or s-process). Recent theory suggests that metal-poor fast-rotating massive stars are able to boost the s-process yields by up to four orders of magnitude, which might provide a solution to this contradiction. Here we report a reanalysis of the earlier spectra, which reveals that Y and Sr are also overabundant with respect to Fe, showing a large scatter similar to that observed in extremely metal-poor stars, whereas C abundances are not enhanced. This pattern is best explained as originating in metal-poor fast-rotating massive stars, which might point to a common property of the first stellar generations and even of the 'first stars'.

  12. Effect of 48 h Fasting on Autonomic Function, Brain Activity, Cognition, and Mood in Amateur Weight Lifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurvydas, Albertas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The acute fasting-induced cardiovascular autonomic response and its effect on cognition and mood remain debatable. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of a 48 h, zero-calorie diet on autonomic function, brain activity, cognition, and mood in amateur weight lifters. Methods. Nine participants completed a 48 h, zero-calorie diet program. Cardiovascular autonomic function, resting frontal brain activity, cognitive performance, and mood were evaluated before and after fasting. Results. Fasting decreased (p Fasting decreased (p Fasting also increased (p fasting resulted in higher parasympathetic activity and decreased resting frontal brain activity, increased anger, and improved prefrontal-cortex-related cognitive functions, such as mental flexibility and set shifting, in amateur weight lifters. In contrast, hippocampus-related cognitive functions were not affected by it. PMID:28025637

  13. Integrated fast ignition simulation of cone-guided target with three codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakagami, H. [Hyogo Univ., Computer Engineering, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Johzaki, T.; Nagatomo, H.; Mima, K. [Osaka Univ., Institute of Laser Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    It was reported that the fuel core was heated up to {approx} 0.8 keV in the fast ignition experiments with cone-guided targets, but they could not theoretically explain heating mechanisms and achievement of such high temperature. Thus simulations should play an important role in estimating the scheme performance, and we must simulate each phenomenon with individual codes and integrate them under the Fast Ignition Integrated Interconnecting code project. In the previous integrated simulations, fast electrons generated by the laser-plasma interaction were too hot to efficiently heat the core and we got only a 0.096 keV temperature rise. Including the density gap at the contact surface between the cone tip and the imploded plasma, the period of core heating became longer and the core was heated by 0.162 keV, about 69% higher increment compared with ignoring the density gap effect. (authors)

  14. Thyroid hormone regulation of Sirtuin 1 expression and implications to integrated responses in fasted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Aline; de Souza, Luana Lopes; Oliveira, Lorraine Soares; Faustino, Larissa Costa; Santiago, Letícia Aragão; Bloise, Flavia Fonseca; Ortiga-Carvalho, Tania Maria; Almeida, Norma Aparecida Dos Santos; Pazos-Moura, Carmen Cabanelas

    2013-02-01

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, has been connected to beneficial effects elicited by calorie restriction. Physiological adaptation to starvation requires higher activity of SIRT1 and also the suppression of thyroid hormone (TH) action to achieve energy conservation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that those two events are correlated and that TH may be a regulator of SIRT1 expression. Forty-eight-hour fasting mice exhibited reduced serum TH and increased SIRT1 protein content in liver and brown adipose tissue (BAT), and physiological thyroxine replacement prevented or attenuated the increment of SIRT1 in liver and BAT of fasted mice. Hypothyroid mice exhibited increased liver SIRT1 protein, while hyperthyroid ones showed decreased SIRT1 in liver and BAT. In the liver, decreased protein is accompanied by reduced SIRT1 activity and no alteration in its mRNA. Hyperthyroid and hypothyroid mice exhibited increases and decreases in food intake and body weight gain respectively. Food-restricted hyperthyroid animals (pair-fed to euthyroid group) exhibited liver and BAT SIRT1 protein levels intermediary between euthyroid and hyperthyroid mice fed ad libitum. Mice with TH resistance at the liver presented increased hepatic SIRT1 protein and activity, with no alteration in Sirt1 mRNA. These results suggest that TH decreases SIRT1 protein, directly and indirectly, via food ingestion control and, in the liver, this reduction involves TRβ. The SIRT1 reduction induced by TH has important implication to integrated metabolic responses to fasting, as the increase in SIRT1 protein requires the fasting-associated suppression of TH serum levels.

  15. Separate and unequal: the influence of neighborhood and school characteristics on spatial proximity between fast food and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Loh, Ji Meng

    2010-08-01

    Social science and health literature have identified residential segregation as a critical factor in exposure to health-related resources, including food environments. Differential spatial patterning of food environments surrounding schools has significant import for youth. We examined whether fast food restaurants clustered around schools in New York City, and whether any observed clustering varied as a function of school type, school racial demographics, and area racial and socioeconomic demographics. We geocoded fast food locations from 2006 (n=817) and schools from 2004-2005 (n=2096; public and private, elementary and secondary) in the five boroughs of New York City. A point process model (inhomogeneous cross-K function) examined spatial clustering. A minimum of 25% of schools had a fast food restaurant within 400 m. High schools had higher fast food clustering than elementary schools. Public elementary and high schools with large proportions of Black students or in block groups with large proportions of Black residents had higher clustering than White counterparts. Finally, public high schools had higher clustering than private counterparts, with 1.25 to 2 times as many restaurants than expected by chance. The results suggest that the geography of opportunity as it relates to school food environments is unequal in New York City. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary linolenic acid and fasting glucose and insulin: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoussé, Luc; Hunt, Steven C; Tang, Weihong; Eckfeldt, John H; Province, Michael A; Ellison, R Curtis

    2006-02-01

    To assess whether dietary linolenic acid is associated with fasting insulin and glucose. In a cross-sectional design, we studied 3993 non-diabetic participants of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study 25 to 93 years of age. Linolenic acid was assessed through a food frequency questionnaire, and laboratory data were obtained after at least a 12-hour fast. We used generalized linear models to calculate adjusted means of insulin and glucose across quartiles of dietary linolenic acid. From the lowest to the highest sex-specific quartile of dietary linolenic acid, means +/- standard error for logarithmic transformed fasting insulin were 4.06 +/- 0.02 (reference), 4.09 +/- 0.02, 4.13 +/- 0.02, and 4.17 +/- 0.02 pM, respectively (trend, p continuous variable, the multivariable adjusted regression coefficient was 0.42 +/- 0.08. There was no association between dietary linolenic acid and fasting glucose (trend p = 0.82). Our data suggest that higher consumption of dietary linolenic acid is associated with higher plasma insulin, but not glucose levels, in non-diabetic subjects. Additional studies are needed to assess whether higher intake of linolenic acid results in an increased insulin secretion and improved glucose use in vivo.

  17. Gene expression profiling of fast- and slow- growing gonadotroph non-functioning pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Camilla Maria; Sundaram, Arvind Y M; Øystese, Kristin Astrid

    2018-01-01

    Objective Reliable biomarkers associated with aggressiveness of non-functioning gonadotroph adenomas (GAs) are lacking. As the growth of tumor remnants is highly variable, molecular markers for growth potential prediction are necessary. We hypothesized that fast- and slow - growing GAs present......, GPM6A and six EMT-related genes (SPAG9, SKIL, MTDH, HOOK1, CNOT6L and PRKACB). MTDH, but not EMCN, demonstrated involvement in cell migration and association with EMT-markers. Conclusions Fast- and slow- growing GAs present different gene expression profiles and genes related to EMT have higher...... expression in fast-growing tumors. In addition to MTDH, identified as an important contributor to aggressiveness, the other genes might represent markers for tumor growth potential and possible targets for drug therapy. ....

  18. Time response of fast-gated microchannel plates used as x-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.E.; Bell, P.; Hanks, R.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Landen, N.; Power, G.; Wiedwald, J.; Meier, M.

    1990-01-01

    We report measurements of the time response of fast-gated, micro- channel plate (MCP) detectors, using a <10 ps pulsewidth ultra-violet laser and an electronic sampling system to measure time resolutions to better than 25 ps. The results show that framing times of less than 100 ps are attainable with high gain. The data is compared to a Monte Carlo calculation, which shows good agreement. We also measured the relative sensitivity as a function of DC bias, and saturation effects for large signal inputs. In part B, we briefly describe an electrical ''time-of-flight'' technique, which we have used to measure the response time of a fast-gated microchannel plate (MCP). Thinner MCP's than previously used have been tested, and, as expected, show fast gating times and smaller electron multiplication. A preliminary design for an x-ray pinhole camera, using a thin MCP, is presented. 7 refs., 6 figs

  19. AMT1;1 transgenic rice plants with enhanced NH4(+) permeability show superior growth and higher yield under optimal and suboptimal NH4(+) conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranathunge, Kosala; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Gidda, Satinder; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

    2014-03-01

    The major source of nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa L.) is ammonium (NH4(+)). The NH4(+) uptake of roots is mainly governed by membrane transporters, with OsAMT1;1 being a prominent member of the OsAMT1 gene family that is known to be involved in NH4(+) transport in rice plants. However, little is known about its involvement in NH4(+) uptake in rice roots and subsequent effects on NH4(+) assimilation. This study shows that OsAMT1;1 is a constitutively expressed, nitrogen-responsive gene, and its protein product is localized in the plasma membrane. Its expression level is under the control of circadian rhythm. Transgenic rice lines (L-2 and L-3) overexpressing the OsAMT1;1 gene had the same root structure as the wild type (WT). However, they had 2-fold greater NH4(+) permeability than the WT, whereas OsAMT1;1 gene expression was 20-fold higher than in the WT. Analogous to the expression, transgenic lines had a higher NH4(+) content in the shoots and roots than the WT. Direct NH4(+) fluxes in the xylem showed that the transgenic lines had significantly greater uptake rates than the WT. Higher NH4(+) contents also promoted higher expression levels of genes in the nitrogen assimilation pathway, resulting in greater nitrogen assimilates, chlorophyll, starch, sugars, and grain yield in transgenic lines than in the WT under suboptimal and optimal nitrogen conditions. OsAMT1;1 also enhanced overall plant growth, especially under suboptimal NH4(+) levels. These results suggest that OsAMT1;1 has the potential for improving nitrogen use efficiency, plant growth, and grain yield under both suboptimal and optimal nitrogen fertilizer conditions.

  20. AMT1;1 transgenic rice plants with enhanced NH4 + permeability show superior growth and higher yield under optimal and suboptimal NH4 + conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The major source of nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa L.) is ammonium (NH4 +). The NH4 + uptake of roots is mainly governed by membrane transporters, with OsAMT1;1 being a prominent member of the OsAMT1 gene family that is known to be involved in NH4 + transport in rice plants. However, little is known about its involvement in NH4 + uptake in rice roots and subsequent effects on NH4 + assimilation. This study shows that OsAMT1;1 is a constitutively expressed, nitrogen-responsive gene, and its protein product is localized in the plasma membrane. Its expression level is under the control of circadian rhythm. Transgenic rice lines (L-2 and L-3) overexpressing the OsAMT1;1 gene had the same root structure as the wild type (WT). However, they had 2-fold greater NH4 + permeability than the WT, whereas OsAMT1;1 gene expression was 20-fold higher than in the WT. Analogous to the expression, transgenic lines had a higher NH4 + content in the shoots and roots than the WT. Direct NH4 + fluxes in the xylem showed that the transgenic lines had significantly greater uptake rates than the WT. Higher NH4 + contents also promoted higher expression levels of genes in the nitrogen assimilation pathway, resulting in greater nitrogen assimilates, chlorophyll, starch, sugars, and grain yield in transgenic lines than in the WT under suboptimal and optimal nitrogen conditions. OsAMT1;1 also enhanced overall plant growth, especially under suboptimal NH4 + levels. These results suggest that OsAMT1;1 has the potential for improving nitrogen use efficiency, plant growth, and grain yield under both suboptimal and optimal nitrogen fertilizer conditions. PMID:24420570

  1. Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2009-01-01

    Background While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES) – a cross-sectional multilevel study conducted within metropolitan Melbourne, Australia in 2003. Methods The VicLANES data used in this analysis included 2547 participants from 49 census collector districts in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. The outcome of interest was the total frequency of fast food purchased for consumption at home within the previous month (never, monthly and weekly) from five major fast food chains (Red Rooster, McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Hungry Jacks and Pizza Hut). Three measures of fast food access were created: density and variety, defined as the number of fast food restaurants and the number of different fast food chains within 3 kilometres of road network distance respectively, and proximity defined as the road network distance to the closest fast food restaurant. Multilevel multinomial models were used to estimate the associations between fast food restaurant access and purchasing with never purchased as the reference category. Models were adjusted for confounders including determinants of demand (attitudes and tastes that influence food purchasing decisions) as well as individual and area socio-economic characteristics. Results Purchasing fast food on a monthly basis was related to the variety of fast food restaurants (odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 1.02 – 1.25) after adjusting for individual and area characteristics. Density and proximity were not found to be significant predictors of fast food purchasing after adjustment for individual socio-economic predictors

  2. Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2009-05-27

    While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES) - a cross-sectional multilevel study conducted within metropolitan Melbourne, Australia in 2003. The VicLANES data used in this analysis included 2547 participants from 49 census collector districts in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. The outcome of interest was the total frequency of fast food purchased for consumption at home within the previous month (never, monthly and weekly) from five major fast food chains (Red Rooster, McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Hungry Jacks and Pizza Hut). Three measures of fast food access were created: density and variety, defined as the number of fast food restaurants and the number of different fast food chains within 3 kilometres of road network distance respectively, and proximity defined as the road network distance to the closest fast food restaurant.Multilevel multinomial models were used to estimate the associations between fast food restaurant access and purchasing with never purchased as the reference category. Models were adjusted for confounders including determinants of demand (attitudes and tastes that influence food purchasing decisions) as well as individual and area socio-economic characteristics. Purchasing fast food on a monthly basis was related to the variety of fast food restaurants (odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 1.02 - 1.25) after adjusting for individual and area characteristics. Density and proximity were not found to be significant predictors of fast food purchasing after adjustment for individual socio-economic predictors. Although we found an independent

  3. Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavanagh Anne M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES – a cross-sectional multilevel study conducted within metropolitan Melbourne, Australia in 2003. Methods The VicLANES data used in this analysis included 2547 participants from 49 census collector districts in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. The outcome of interest was the total frequency of fast food purchased for consumption at home within the previous month (never, monthly and weekly from five major fast food chains (Red Rooster, McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Hungry Jacks and Pizza Hut. Three measures of fast food access were created: density and variety, defined as the number of fast food restaurants and the number of different fast food chains within 3 kilometres of road network distance respectively, and proximity defined as the road network distance to the closest fast food restaurant. Multilevel multinomial models were used to estimate the associations between fast food restaurant access and purchasing with never purchased as the reference category. Models were adjusted for confounders including determinants of demand (attitudes and tastes that influence food purchasing decisions as well as individual and area socio-economic characteristics. Results Purchasing fast food on a monthly basis was related to the variety of fast food restaurants (odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 1.02 – 1.25 after adjusting for individual and area characteristics. Density and proximity were not found to be significant predictors of fast food purchasing after adjustment for individual socio

  4. thermal, electrical and structural characterization of fast ion conducting glasses (Ag Br)x(AgPO)1-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartini, E.; Yufus, S.; Priyanto, T; Indayaningsih, N; Collins, M F

    2001-01-01

    Fast ion conducting glasses are of considerable technological interest because of their possible application in batteries, sensors, and displays. One of the main scientific challenges is to explain how the disordered structure of the glass is related to the high ionic conductivity that can be achieved at ambient temperature. Fast ion conducting glasses (AgBr) x (AgPO3) 1- x with x=0.0; 0.2; 0.3; 0.4; 0.5; 0.7; and 0.85 were prepared by rapid quenching. The studies of structure, thermal property and electrical conductivity have been made. The X-ray diffraction patterns of this system show that the sample are glasses for x 0.5. The neutron diffraction data shows that all AgBr doped glasses exhibit a strong and relatively sharp diffraction peak at anomalously low momentum transfer value, Q∼ 0.7 Α - 1. The low Q-peak is not observed in AgPO 3 glass, and in the X-ray data. The results of electrical conductivity show that the conduction is essentially ionic and due to silver ions alone. The logarithm of the ionic conductivity increases with increasing AgBr mole fraction, and reaches maximum for x = 0.5. The thermal property results measured by differential scanning calorimetric show that the temperatures of the glass transition, the crystallization and the melt reach minimum for the glass with composition x 0.5. We conclude that there appears to be a relation between higher conductivity at ambient temperature, and the low Q-peak. Based on this investigation a better fast ion conducting glass proposed is (AgBr) 0 .5(AgPO 3 ) 0 .5 with the conductivity of 8 x 10 - 5 S/cm

  5. The prototype fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomfield, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR), which is a liquid metal cooled fast reactor power station, situated at Dounreay, Scotland. The principal design features of a Fast Reactor and the PFR are given, along with key points of operating history, and health and safety features. The role of the PFR in the development programme for commercial reactors is discussed. (U.K.)

  6. A Very Fast and Angular Momentum Conserving Tree Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcello, Dominic C.

    2017-01-01

    There are many methods used to compute the classical gravitational field in astrophysical simulation codes. With the exception of the typically impractical method of direct computation, none ensure conservation of angular momentum to machine precision. Under uniform time-stepping, the Cartesian fast multipole method of Dehnen (also known as the very fast tree code) conserves linear momentum to machine precision. We show that it is possible to modify this method in a way that conserves both angular and linear momenta.

  7. A Very Fast and Angular Momentum Conserving Tree Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcello, Dominic C., E-mail: dmarce504@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Center for Computation and Technology Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    There are many methods used to compute the classical gravitational field in astrophysical simulation codes. With the exception of the typically impractical method of direct computation, none ensure conservation of angular momentum to machine precision. Under uniform time-stepping, the Cartesian fast multipole method of Dehnen (also known as the very fast tree code) conserves linear momentum to machine precision. We show that it is possible to modify this method in a way that conserves both angular and linear momenta.

  8. The Integral Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    During the past two years, scientists from Argonne have developed an advanced breeder reactor with a closed self contained fuel cycle. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is a new reactor concept, adaptable to a variety of designs, that is based on a fuel cycle radically different from the CRBR line of breeder development. The essential features of the IFR are metal fuel, pool layout, and pyro- and electro-reprocessing in a facility integral with the reactor plant. The IFR shows promise to provide an inexhaustible, safe, economic, environmentally acceptable, and diversion resistant source of nuclear power. It shows potential for major improvement in all of the areas that have led to concern about nuclear power

  9. Fasting Hyperglycemia Increases In-Hospital Mortality Risk in Nondiabetic Female Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojing Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies had shown that elevated admission plasma glucose (APG could increase mortality rate and serious complications of acute myocardial infarction (AMI, but whether fasting plasma glucose (FPG had the same role remains controversial. In this retrospective study, 253 cases of AMI patients were divided into diabetic (n=87 and nondiabetic group (n=166. Our results showed that: compared with the nondiabetic patients, diabetic patients had higher APG, FPG, higher plasma triglyceride, higher rates of painless AMI (P0.05. While nondiabetic patients were subgrouped in terms of APG and FPG (cut points were 11.1 mmol/L and 7.0 mmol/L, resp., the mortality rate had significant difference (P<0.01, whereas glucose level lost significance in diabetic group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that FPG (OR: 2.014; 95% confidence interval: 1.296–3.131; p<0.01 but not APG was independent predictor of in-hospital mortality for nondiabetic patients. These results indicate that FPG can be an independent predictor for mortality in nondiabetic female patients with AMI.

  10. A comparison of mutagenic effects of common wheat by electron beam, fast neutron and 60Co gamma ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Daochang; Wang Linqing

    1988-02-01

    After winter wheat was irradiated by electron beam, fast neutron and γ-rays, respectively, the RBE value of electron beam to both fast neutrons and γ-rays was less than one, the RBE value of fast neutron to γ-rays was largely more than one. This results indicated that biological effect of M 1 generation induced by electron beam was less than that of fast neutrons very much, and similar to γ-ray irradiation. With electron beam irradiation, the half-lethal doses of M 1 generation were from 185 to 370 Gy, closer to 370 Gy, the lethal doses from 740 to 925 Gy. M 2 mutation efficiency with electron beam treatment was larger as compared with that with both fast neutrons and γ-rays. A wider mutation spectrum and higher mutation efficiency compared with other physical mutagens can be obtained with electron beam irradiation, about 30% higher than that with γ-ray irradiation. The best doses of irradiation with electron beam were 370 to 555 Gy. Fast neutrons, a better dose of which was 25 Gy, could induce more mutants than that with γ-rays in M 2 generation. The dose in which biological injury reached to 50% was the best dose for M 2 mutants by electron beam irradiation

  11. Parietal Fast Sleep Spindle Density Decrease in Alzheimer's Disease and Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgoni, Maurizio; Lauri, Giulia; Truglia, Ilaria; Cordone, Susanna; Sarasso, Simone; Scarpelli, Serena; Mangiaruga, Anastasia; D'Atri, Aurora; Tempesta, Daniela; Ferrara, Michele; Marra, Camillo; Rossini, Paolo Maria; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have identified two types of sleep spindles: fast (13–15 Hz) centroparietal and slow (11–13 Hz) frontal spindles. Alterations in spindle activity have been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Only few studies have separately assessed fast and slow spindles in these patients showing a reduction of fast spindle count, but the possible local specificity of this phenomenon and its relation to cognitive decline severity are not clear. Moreover, fast and slow spindle density have never been assessed in AD/MCI. We have assessed fast and slow spindles in 15 AD patients, 15 amnesic MCI patients, and 15 healthy elderly controls (HC). Participants underwent baseline polysomnographic recording (19 cortical derivations). Spindles during nonrapid eye movements sleep were automatically detected, and spindle densities of the three groups were compared in the derivations where fast and slow spindles exhibited their maximum expression (parietal and frontal, resp.). AD and MCI patients showed a significant parietal fast spindle density decrease, positively correlated with Minimental State Examination scores. Our results suggest that AD-related changes in spindle density are specific for frequency and location, are related to cognitive decline severity, and may have an early onset in the pathology development. PMID:27066274

  12. FAST: An advanced code system for fast reactor transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikityuk, Konstantin; Pelloni, Sandro; Coddington, Paul; Bubelis, Evaldas; Chawla, Rakesh

    2005-01-01

    One of the main goals of the FAST project at PSI is to establish a unique analytical code capability for the core and safety analysis of advanced critical (and sub-critical) fast-spectrum systems for a wide range of different coolants. Both static and transient core physics, as well as the behaviour and safety of the power plant as a whole, are studied. The paper discusses the structure of the code system, including the organisation of the interfaces and data exchange. Examples of validation and application of the individual programs, as well as of the complete code system, are provided using studies carried out within the context of designs for experimental accelerator-driven, fast-spectrum systems

  13. Fast Burst Synchronization for Power Line Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampe Lutz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast burst synchronization is an important requirement in asynchronous communication networks, where devices transmit short data packets in an unscheduled fashion. Such a synchronization is typically achieved by means of a preamble sent in front of the data packet. In this paper, we study fast burst synchronization for power line communication (PLC systems operating below 500 kHz and transmitting data rates of up to about 500 kbps as it is typical in various PLC network applications. In particular, we are concerned with the receiver processing of the preamble signal and the actual design of preambles suitable for fast burst synchronization in such PLC systems. Our approach is comprehensive in that it takes into account the most distinctive characteristics of the power line channel, which are multipath propagation, highly varying path loss, and disturbance by impulse noise, as well as important practical constraints, especially the need for spectral shaping of the preamble signal and fast adjustment of the automatic gain control (AGC. In fact, we regard the explicit incorporation of these various requirements into the preamble design as the main contribution of this work. We devise an optimization criterion and a stochastic algorithm to search for suitable preamble sequences. A comprehensive performance comparison of a designed and two conventional preambles shows that the designed sequence is superior in terms of (a fast burst synchronization in various transmission environments, (b fast AGC adjustment, and (c compliance of its spectrum with the spectral mask applied to the data transmit signal.

  14. Islamic fasting and multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Month-long daytime Ramadan fasting pose s major challenges to multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Muslim countries. Physicians should have practical knowledge on the implications of fasting on MS. We present a summary of database searches (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed) and a mini-symposium on Ramadan fasting and MS. In this symposium, we aimed to review the effect of fasting on MS and suggest practical guidelines on management. Discussion In general, fasting is possible for most stable patients. Appropriate amendment of drug regimens, careful monitoring of symptoms, as well as providing patients with available evidence on fasting and MS are important parts of management. Evidence from experimental studies suggests that calorie restriction before disease induction reduces inflammation and subsequent demyelination and attenuates disease severity. Fasting does not appear to have unfavorable effects on disease course in patients with mild disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score ≤3). Most experts believed that during fasting (especially in summer), some MS symptoms (fatigue, fatigue perception, dizziness, spasticity, cognitive problems, weakness, vision, balance, gait) might worsen but return to normal levels during feasting. There was a general consensus that fasting is not safe for patients: on high doses of anti-convulsants, anti-spastics, and corticosteroids; with coagulopathy or active disease; during attacks; with EDSS score ≥7. Summary These data suggest that MS patients should have tailored care. Fasting in MS patients is a challenge that is directly associated with the spiritual belief of the patient. PMID:24655543

  15. Fast Fingerprint Classification with Deep Neural Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsanti, Daniel; Guichi, Yanis; Ene, Andreea-Daniela

    2018-01-01

    . In this work we evaluate the performance of two pre-trained convolutional neural networks fine-tuned on the NIST SD4 benchmark database. The obtained results show that this approach is comparable with other results in the literature, with the advantage of a fast feature extraction stage....

  16. Fast food in the diet: Implications and solutions for families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A

    2018-04-06

    Fast food is omnipresent in the United States (U.S.) and contributes to poor dietary quality and poor health among youth and adults alike. Children need adults to teach them good eating habits to attain and maintain good health by introducing them to healthful foods and being good role models. The fast food industry, through vast funds and advertising, contribute to challenges parents face to provide healthful foods for their families and thwart our best efforts to meet health goals. Research shows fast food consumption is influenced by lack of cooking confidence, time pressures, and perceptions of ease and convenience. We need practical strategies to help parents and children make healthier food choices. As a product of conference proceedings, this paper provides a non-exhaustive narrative summary of the fast food marketplace and marketing, the contributions of fast food to diet and health, struggles with healthful eating among families, and possible solutions of how we can help children and parents empower themselves to have healthier lives. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Dounreay fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maclennan, R.; Eggar, T.; Skeet, T.

    1992-01-01

    The short debate which followed a private notice question asking for a statement on Government policy on the future of the European fast breeder nuclear research programme is reported verbatim. In response to the question, the Minister for Energy said that the Government had decided in 1988 that the Dounreay prototype fast reactor would close in 1994. That decision had been confirmed. Funding of fast breeder research and development beyond 1993 is not a priority as commercialization is not expected until well into the next century. Dounreay will be supported financially until 1994 and then for its subsequent decommissioning and reprocessing of spent fuel. The debate raised issues such as Britain losing its lead in fast breeder research, loss of jobs and the Government's nuclear policy in general. However, the Government's position was that the research had reached a stage where it could be left and returned to in the future. (UK)

  18. Knowledge management in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriakose, K.K.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.; Swaminathan, P.; Raj, Baldev

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the work that is being carried out in Knowledge Management of Fast Reactors at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) including a few examples of how the knowledge acquired because of various incidents in the initial years has been utilized for the successful operation of Fast Breeder Test Reactor. It also briefly refers to the features of the IAEA initiative on the preservation of Knowledge in the area of Fast Reactors in the form of 'Fast Reactor Knowledge Organization System' (FR-KOS), which is based on a taxonomy for storage and mining of Fast Reactor Knowledge. (author)

  19. Effects of slow- and fast-acting compression on hearing impaired listeners’ consonant-vowel identification in interrupted noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalewski, Borys; Zaar, Johannes; Fereczkowski, Michal

    2017-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence about the relative benefit of slow- and fast- acting compression for speech intelligibility. It has been hypothesized tha tfast-acting compression improves audibility at low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) but may distort the speech envelope at higher SNRs. The present...... intelligibility benefit of fast-acting compression was found in both the quiet and the noisy conditions for the lower speech levels. No negative effects of fast-acting compression were observed when the speech level exceeded the level of the noise. These findings suggest that fast-acting compression provides...... study investigated the effects of compression with nearly instantaneous attack time but either fast (10 ms) or slow (500 ms) release times on consonant identification in hearing-impaired listeners. Consonant-vowel speech tokens were presented at several presentation levels in two conditions...

  20. N-fertilization has different effects on the growth, carbon and nitrogen physiology, and wood properties of slow- and fast-growing Populus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Li, Mengchun; Luo, Jie; Cao, Xu; Qu, Long; Gai, Ying; Jiang, Xiangning; Liu, Tongxian; Bai, Hua; Janz, Dennis; Polle, Andrea; Peng, Changhui; Luo, Zhi-Bin

    2012-10-01

    To investigate how N-fertilization affects the growth, carbon and nitrogen (N) physiology, and wood properties of poplars with contrasting growth characteristics, slow-growing (Populus popularis, Pp) and fast-growing (P. alba×P. glandulosa, Pg) poplar saplings were exposed to different N levels. Above-ground biomass, leaf area, photosynthetic rates (A), instantaneous photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE (i)), chlorophyll and foliar sugar concentrations were higher in Pg than in Pp. Foliar nitrate reductase (NR) activities and root glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities were higher in Pg than in Pp as were the N amount and NUE of new shoots. Lignin contents and calorific values of Pg wood were less than that of Pp wood. N-fertilization reduced root biomass of Pg more than of Pp, but increased leaf biomass, leaf area, A, and PNUE(i) of Pg more than of Pp. Among 13 genes involved in the transport of ammonium or nitrate or in N assimilation, transcripts showed more pronounced changes to N-fertilization in Pg than in Pp. Increases in NR activities and N contents due to N-fertilization were larger in Pg than in Pp. In both species, N-fertilization resulted in lower calorific values as well as shorter and wider vessel elements/fibres. These results suggest that growth, carbon and N physiology, and wood properties are more sensitive to increasing N availability in fast-growing poplars than in slow-growing ones, which is probably due to prioritized resource allocation to the leaves and accelerated N physiological processes in fast-growing poplars under higher N levels.

  1. Does Ramadan fasting alter body weight and blood lipids and fasting blood glucose in a healthy population? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul, Seval; Savaş, Esen; Öztürk, Zeynel Abidin; Karadağ, Gülendam

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of self-controlled cohort studies comparing body weights, blood levels of lipids and fasting blood glucose levels before and after Ramadan taking into account gender differences. Several databases were searched up to June 2012 for studies showing an effect of Ramadan fasting in healthy subjects, yielding 30 articles. The primary finding of this meta-analysis was that after Ramadan fasting, low-density lipoprotein (SMD = -1.67, 95 % CI = -2.48 to -0.86) and fasting blood glucose levels (SMD = -1.10, 95 % CI = -1.62 to -0.58) were decreased in both sex groups and also in the entire group compared to levels prior to Ramadan. In addition, in the female subgroup, body weight (SMD = -0.04, 95 % CI = -0.20, 0.12), total cholesterol (SMD = 0.05, 95 % CI = -0.51 to 0.60), and triglyceride levels (SMD = 0.03, 95 % CI = -0.31, 0.36) remained unchanged, while HDL levels (SMD = 0.86, 95 % CI = 0.11 to 1.61, p = 0.03) were increased. In males, Ramadan fasting resulted in weight loss (SMD = -0.24, 95 % CI = -0.36, -0.12, p = 0.001). Also, a substantial reduction in total cholesterol (SMD = -0.44, 95 % CI = -0.77 to -0.11) and LDL levels (SMD = -2.22, 95 % CI = -3.47 to -0.96) and a small decrease in triglyceride levels (SMD = -0.35, 95 % CI = -0.67 to -0.02) were observed in males. In conclusion, by looking at this data, it is evident that Ramadan fasting can effectively change body weight and some biochemical parameters in healthy subjects especially in males compared to pre-Ramadan period.

  2. Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; Dean, Wesley R; Horel, Scott A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between residential exposure to fast-food entrées, using two measures of potential spatial access: proximity (distance to the nearest location) and coverage (number of different locations), and weekly consumption of fast-food meals. Methods Traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets, such as convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores, from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environmen...

  3. Does peer learning or higher levels of e-learning improve learning abilities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Bjarne Skjødt; Jensen, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The fast development of e-learning and social forums demands us to update our understanding of e-learning and peer learning. We aimed to investigate if higher, pre-defined levels of e-learning or social interaction in web forums improved students' learning ability....

  4. Fast-ion transport in the presence of magnetic reconnection induced by sawtooth oscillations in ASDEX Upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiger, B.; M. García-Muñoz,; Dux, R.; Ryter, F.; Tardini, G.; Orte, L. B.; Classen, I.G.J.; Fable, E.; Fischer, R.; Igochine, V.; McDermott, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    The transport of beam-generated fast ions has been investigated experimentally at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak in the presence of sawtooth crashes. After sawtooth crashes, phase space resolved fast-ion D-alpha measurements show a significant reduction of the central fast-ion density-more than

  5. FastScatTM: An Object-Oriented Program for Fast Scattering Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Hamilton

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available FastScat is a state-of-the-art program for computing electromagnetic scattering and radiation. Its purpose is to support the study of recent algorithmic advancements, such as the fast multipole method, that promise speed-ups of several orders of magnitude over conventional algorithms. The complexity of these algorithms and their associated data structures led us to adopt an object-oriented methodology for FastScat. We discuss the program's design and several lessons learned from its C++ implementation including the appropriate level for object-orientedness in numeric software, maintainability benefits, interfacing to Fortran libraries such as LAPACK, and performance issues.

  6. Plasma turbulence measured by fast sweep reflectometry on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clairet, F.; Vermare, L.; Leclert, G.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally devoted to electron density profile measurement we show that fast frequency sweeping reflectometry technique can bring valuable and innovative measurements onto plasma turbulence. While fast frequency sweeping technique is traditionally devoted to electron density radial profile measurements we show in this paper how we can handle the fluctuations of the reflected signal to recover plasma density fluctuation measurements with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Large size turbulence related to magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) activity and the associated magnetic islands can be detected. The radial profile of the micro-turbulence, which is responsible for plasma anomalous transport processes, is experimentally determined through the fluctuation of the reflected phase signal. (authors)

  7. Plasma turbulence measured by fast sweep reflectometry on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clairet, F.; Vermare, L.; Heuraux, S.; Leclert, G.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally devoted to electron density profile measurement we show that fast frequency sweeping reflectometry technique can bring valuable and innovative measurements onto plasma turbulence. While fast frequency sweeping technique is traditionally devoted to electron density radial profile measurements we show in this paper how we can handle the fluctuations of the reflected signal to recover plasma density fluctuation measurements with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Large size turbulence related to magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) activity and the associated magnetic islands can be detected. The radial profile of the micro-turbulence, which is responsible for plasma anomalous transport processes, is experimentally determined through the fluctuation of the reflected phase signal

  8. Comparison of a conventional cardiac-triggered dual spin-echo and a fast STIR sequence in detection of spinal cord lesions in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bot, J.C.J.; Barkhof, F.; Lycklama a Nijeholt, G.J.; Bergers, E.; Castelijns, J.A.; Polman, C.H.; Ader, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    The current optimal imaging protocol in spinal cord MR imaging in patients with multiple sclerosis includes a long TR conventional spin-echo (CSE) sequence, requiring long acquisition times. Using short tau inversion recovery fast spin-echo (fast STIR) sequences both acquisition time can be shortened and sensitivity in the detection of multiple sclerosis (MS) abnormalities can be increased. This study compares both sequences for the potential to detect both focal and diffuse spinal abnormalities. Spinal cords of 5 volunteers and 20 MS patients were studied at 1.0 T. Magnetic resonance imaging included cardiac-gated sagittal dual-echo CSE and a cardiac-gated fast STIR sequence. Images were scored regarding number, size, and location of focal lesions, diffuse abnormalities and presence/hindrance of artifacts by two experienced radiologists. Examinations were scored as being definitely normal, indeterminate, or definitely abnormal. Interobserver agreement regarding focal lesions was higher for CSE (κ=0.67) than for fast STIR (κ=0.57) but did not differ significantly. Of all focal lesions scored in consensus, 47 % were scored on both sequences, 31 % were only detected by fast STIR, and 22 % only by dual-echo CSE (n. s.). Interobserver agreement for diffuse abnormalities was lower with fast STIR (κ=0.48) than dual-echo CSE (κ=0.65; n. s.). After consensus, fast STIR showed in 10 patients diffuse abnormalities and dual-echo CSE in 3. After consensus, in 19 of 20 patients dual-echo CSE scans were considered as definitely abnormal compared with 17 for fast STIR. The fast STIR sequence is a useful adjunct to dual-echo CSE in detecting focal abnormalities and is helpful in detecting diffuse MS abnormalities in the spinal cord. Due to the frequent occurrence of artifacts and the lower observer concordance, fast STIR cannot be used alone. (orig.)

  9. FAST and SAFE Passive Safety Devices for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartanto, Donny; Kim, Chihyung; Kim, In-Hyung; Kim, Yonghee [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The major factor is the impact of the neutron spectral hardening. The second factor that affects the CVR is reduced capture by the coolant when the coolant voiding occurs. To improve the CVR, many ideas and concepts have been proposed, which include introduction of an internal blanket, spectrum softening, or increasing the neutron leakage. These ideas may reduce the CVR, but they deteriorate the neutron economy. Another potential solution is to adopt a passive safety injection device such as the ARC (autonomous reactivity control) system, which is still under development. In this paper, two new concepts of passive safety devices are proposed. The devices are called FAST (Floating Absorber for Safety at Transient) and SAFE (Static Absorber Feedback Equipment). Their purpose is to enhance the negative reactivity feedback originating from the coolant in fast reactors. SAFE is derived to balance the positive reactivity feedback due to sodium coolant temperature increases. It has been demonstrated that SAFE allows a low-leakage SFR to achieve a self-shutdown and self-controllability even though the generic coolant temperature coefficient is quite positive and the coolant void reactivity can be largely managed by the new FAST device. It is concluded that both FAST and SAFE devices will improve substantially the fast reactor safety and they deserve more detailed investigations.

  10. Active school transport and fast food intake: Are there racial and ethnic differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Vaznaugh, E V; Bécares, L; Sallis, J F; Sánchez, B N

    2016-10-01

    To investigate whether active school transport was associated with fast food consumption, and to examine differences across racial/ethnic groups. Adolescent data (n=3194) from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey were analyzed with logistic regression models to examine the association between active school transport (AST) and fast food intake across racial/ethnic groups. In the overall sample, AST during 1-2days in the past week was associated with greater likelihood of fast food intake (OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.03-2.43), compared with zero days of AST, controlling for demographic and other factors. The association between AST and fast food intake differed significantly by race/ethnicity (pfast food intake (1-2days OR, 2.37, 95%CI: 1.05-5.35; 3-4days OR, 2.78, 95% CI: 1.04-7.43; 5days OR, 2.20, 95%CI: 1.23-3.93). Among White and Asian adolescents, there was a curvilinear pattern: relative to adolescents who reported zero days of AST, those who did AST 1-2days/week had greater likelihood of fast food intake, but AST of 3-4days and 5days/week was associated respectively, with higher and lower likelihood of fast food intake among both groups. AST appears to be a risk factor for fast food intake, and may expose some ethnic groups more than others to increased opportunity to purchase and consume fast food. Programs and policies to promote AST among adolescents should incorporate efforts to encourage healthy eating and discourage concentration of fast food outlets near schools. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fast neutron radiotherapy: for equal or for better

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Battermann, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    The renewed application of fast neutrons in clinical radiotherapy has been stimulated by fundamental radiobiological findings. The biological effects of high LET radiation, including fast neutrons, are different from those obtained with x rays in at least three respects: the oxygen enhancement ratio, the sensitivity of cells at different phases of the cell cycle, and the contribution of sublethal damage to cell reproductive death. Furthermore, wide variations in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) have been observed for different tumors and normal tissues. Measurements of volume changes in human pulmonary metastases indicate that the RBE for slowly growing tumors which are generally well-differentiated is higher than that for poorly differentiated lesions. Six thousand patients have now been treated with fast neutron beams. The results of the clinical applications vary according to the method of application and to the type of cancer involved: treatment of inoperable malignancies of the salivary gland is very encouraging: the therapeutic gain is rather small for bladder and rectal cancers, soft tissue sarcomas and advanced carcinomas of the cervix; the responses of brain tumors are very disappointing. Most neutron radiotherapy applications have been less than optimal because of inadequate physical and technical conditions. Despite these difficulties, some interesting clinical data have become available. Due to the technical shortcomings, the possible advantages of fast neutrons are probably underestimated for many tumor sites. Well-designed clinical trials, preferably performed with high energy cyclotrons in clinical environments, will provide a decisive answer to the question of the usefulness of the new radiation modality

  12. The shielding performance of multilayer composite shielding structures to 14.8 MeV fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Zhiqiang; Kang Qing; Xu Jun; Wang Zhenggang; Lu Nan

    2014-01-01

    Cement-based round thin-layer samples mixed with 30% quality content of barite, and 20% quality content of carbide boron has Prepared, the same-diameter sliced samples of pure graphite and pure polyethylene has cut, then, samples combination and cross stack order has designed, formed four species Multilayer Composite shield structure, at last, neutron attenuation measurements has been done by experimental system of using 14.8 MeV neutrons from the 5SDH-2 accelerator and long counter composition, penetrating rate of samples and the shield structure to 14.8 MeV fast neutron has tested, and attenuation section has calculated. Results show that 14.8 MeV fast neutrons to higher penetration rates of thin layer samples, attenuation cross section of samples distinguish small between each other, must be increasing the thickness of the samples to reduce the experimental uncertainty; through composed of attenuation cross section and thickness parameters of composite structure, can more accurately predict the shielding ability of composite structures, error between calculation results and experimental results in 4%. (authors)

  13. A Fast Algorithm of Cartographic Sounding Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Haigang; HUA Li; ZHAO Haitao; ZHANG Yongli

    2005-01-01

    An effective strategy and framework that adequately integrate the automated and manual processes for fast cartographic sounding selection is presented. The important submarine topographic features are extracted for important soundings selection, and an improved "influence circle" algorithm is introduced for sounding selection. For automatic configuration of soundings distribution pattern, a special algorithm considering multi-factors is employed. A semi-automatic method for solving the ambiguous conflicts is described. On the basis of the algorithms and strategies a system named HGIS for fast cartographic sounding selection is developed and applied in Chinese Marine Safety Administration Bureau (CMSAB). The application experiments show that the system is effective and reliable. At last some conclusions and the future work are given.

  14. A Quantitative Study of the Underrepresentation of Female Leaders in Assemblies of God Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicari, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Consistently women have been unable to attain senior leadership roles as fast as their male counterparts particularly within higher education. Scholars have studied the under-representation of women in senior leadership positions within higher education but have not studied the phenomenon at faith-based institutions or within the Assemblies of God…

  15. Multi-domain, higher order level set scheme for 3D image segmentation on the GPU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ojaswa; Zhang, Qin; Anton, François

    2010-01-01

    to evaluate level set surfaces that are $C^2$ continuous, but are slow due to high computational burden. In this paper, we provide a higher order GPU based solver for fast and efficient segmentation of large volumetric images. We also extend the higher order method to multi-domain segmentation. Our streaming...

  16. Lethal and mutagenic effects of fast neutrons of different energy on Streptomyces griseus spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podgorskaya, M.E.; Tulina, G.G.; Serdechnaya, A.I.; Matselyukh, B.P.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of lethal and mutagenic effects of fast neutrons of different energy on spores of prototrophic and auxotrophic strains of Streptomyces griseus. Relative biological effectiveness of fast neutrons is higher than that of γ-rays and depends on beam energy. Neutrons of 22-50 MeV induce Streptomyces griseus mutations more frequently (by one order of magnitude) than neutrons of 1.4-1.6 MeV do. The obtained mutants can be used in studying Streptomyces griseus genetics

  17. Rotational state modification and fast ortho-para conversion of H2 trapped within the highly anisotropic potential of Pd(210)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, S.; Ivanov, D.; Ogura, S.; Wilde, M.; Arguelles, E. F.; Diño, W. A.; Kasai, H.; Fukutani, K.

    2018-02-01

    The rotational state and ortho-para conversion of H2 on a Pd(210) surface is investigated with rotational-state-selective temperature-programmed desorption (RS-TPD) and theoretical calculations. The isotope dependence of TPD shows a higher desorption energy for D2 than that for H2, which is ascribed to the rotational and zero-point vibrational energies. The RS-TPD data show that the desorption energy of H2(J =1 ) (J : rotational quantum number) is higher than that of H2(J =0 ). This is due to the orientationally anisotropic potential confining the adsorbed H2, which is in agreement with theoretical calculations. Furthermore, the H2 desorption intensity ratio in J =1 and J =0 indicates fast ortho-para conversion in the adsorption state, which we estimate to be of the order of 1 s.

  18. Probing Photoinduced Structural Phase Transitions by Fast or Ultra-Fast Time-Resolved X-Ray Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailleau, Hervé Collet, Eric; Buron-Le Cointe, Marylise; Lemée-Cailleau, Marie-Hélène Koshihara, Shin-Ya

    molecules transform in an independent way each other. Actually the photoinduced phase transition with the establishment of the new electronic and structural oscopic order is preceded by precursor co-operative phenomena due to the formation of nano-scale correlated objects. These are the counterpart of pre-transitional fluctuations at thermal equilibrium which take place above the transition temperature (short range order preceding long range one). Moreover ultra-fast X-ray scattering will play a central role within the fascinating field of manipulating coherence, for instance to directly observe coherent atomic motions induced by a light pulse, such as optical phonons. In the first part of this contribution we present what experimental features are accessible by X-ray scattering to describe the physical picture for a photoinduced structural phase transition. The second part shows how a time-resolved X-ray scattering experiment can be performed with regards to the different pulsed X-ray sources. The first time-resolved X-ray diffraction experiments on photoinduced phase transitions are described and discussed in the third part. Finally some challenges for future are briefly indicated in the conclusion.

  19. Thermogenesis induced by a high-carbohydrate meal in fasted lean and overweight young men: insulin, body fat, and sympathetic nervous system involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Lopes, Iva; Forga, Luis; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    This dietary trial was designed to evaluate the effect of an experimental short-term fasting period followed by a high-carbohydrate meal on energy expenditure, thermogenesis, and sympathetic nervous system activity in normal (body mass index 27 kg/m(2)) men who were healthy, non-diabetic or with no other endocrine disease, non-smokers, not taking oral prescription medications, and with a stable body weight for the previous 3 mo. Fasting and fed energy expenditures and diet-induced thermogenesis were measured after a high-carbohydrate meal in seven overweight and six lean young male subjects by indirect calorimetry. Heart rate, urinary excretion of catecholamines, serum glucose, and insulin were also measured over the experimental fasting (7.5 h) and postprandial (4 h) periods. After carbohydrate intake, overweight men showed a significantly higher energy production (kJ/kg of fat-free mass) than did lean individuals, and the diet-induce