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  1. Excellent long-term results with iliac stenting in local anesthesia for post-thrombotic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitfod, Lotte; Just, Sven; Foegh, Pia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Only 20% of iliac veins will recanalize on anticoagulation (AC) treatment alone and may, therefore, develop venous obstruction after iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis (DVT). A considerable number of these patients will suffer from post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) leading to impaired qu...... stent was 89% (17/19) and 16 patients (84 %) had almost or total symptom relief at follow-up. CONCLUSION: Endovascular stenting of iliac obstruction in local anesthesia is minimally invasive and shows excellent long-term outcomes for patients suffering from PTS....

  2. Global Uranium Supply Ensured for Long Term, New Report Shows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Uranium resources and production are on the rise with the security of uranium supply ensured for the long term, according to a new report by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Uranium 2011: Resources, Production and Demand, commonly referred to as the ''Red Book'', shows that total identified uranium resources have grown 12.5% since 2008. However, the costs of production have also increased, leading to reductions in lower cost category resources. These figures, which reflect the situation as of 1 January 2011, mean that total identified resources are sufficient for over 100 years of supply based on current requirements. Global uranium mine production increased by over 25% between 2008 and 2010 because of significantly increased production in Kazakhstan, currently the world's leading producer. The increased resource base has been achieved thanks to a 22% increase in uranium exploration and mine development expenditures between 2008 and 2010, which in 2010 totalled over $2 billion. Demand for uranium is expected to continue to rise for the foreseeable future. Although the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident has affected nuclear power projects and policies in some countries, nuclear power remains a key part of the global energy mix. Several governments have plans for new nuclear power plant construction, with the strongest expansion expected in China, India, the Republic of Korea and the Russian Federation. The speed and magnitude of growth in generating capacity elsewhere is still to be determined. By the year 2035, according to the joint NEA-IAEA Secretariat, world nuclear electricity generating capacity is projected to grow from 375 GWe net (at the end of 2010) to between 540 GWe net in the low demand case and 746 GWe net in the high demand case, increases of 44% and 99% respectively. Accordingly, world annual reactor-related uranium requirements are projected to rise from 63 875 tonnes of uranium metal

  3. Latest data shows long-term security of uranium supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    capacity projections developed in this edition, by the year 2035, world nuclear capacity is projected to grow to between 500 and 785 GWe net. Accordingly, world reactor- related uranium requirements are also projected to rise. As observed in the past, increased investment in exploration has resulted in important discoveries and the identification of new resources. It is foreseen that, if market conditions improve further, additional exploration will be stimulated leading to the identification of additional resources of economic interest. Even in the high-growth scenario to 2035, less than half of the identified resources described in this edition would be consumed. The challenge remains to develop mines in a timely and environmentally sustainable fashion as uranium demand increases. A strong market will be required for these resources to be developed within the time frame required to meet future uranium demand. In addition, current projections of uranium mine production capacities could satisfy projected high-case world uranium requirements until the late 2020s. However, given the challenges and length of time associated with increasing production at existing mines and opening new mines, it is unlikely that all production increases will proceed as planned. As a result, secondary sources of previously mined uranium will continue to be required, complemented to the extent possible by uranium savings achieved by specifying lower tails assays at enrichment facilities and technical developments in fuel cycle technology. While the status of supply and demand is considered from today's technologies perspective, it should be recognised that the deployment of advanced reactor and fuel cycle technologies can positively affect the long-term availability of uranium and could conceivably extend it to thousands of years. These are some of the findings from Uranium 2009: Resources, Production and Demand , a joint study by the OECD/NEA and the IAEA, carried out in co-operation with their

  4. Excellent long-term outcome for survivors of apple peel atresia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, S; Brevoord, JCD; Goldhoorn, GA; Festen, C; Hazebroek, FWJ; van Heurn, LWE; de Langen, ZJ; van der Zee, DC; Aronson, DC

    Background: Apple peel atresia is the rarest type of small bowel atresia. Because of its rare occurrence and high mortality rate, little is known about the long-term outcome of these children. Methods: The patient charts, operative reports, and office notes of 15 children with apple peel atresia

  5. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: A Long Term Follow-up Shows Benefit with Risk Factor Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koroush Khalighi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Only sparse data was available on long-term of Takotusbo Cardiomyopathy (TC. Previous studies suggested prognosis is not necessarily benign. We report the long-term follow-up of 12 TC patients actively managed with risk factor reduction. Retrospective analysis of all patients diagnosed with TC at our hospital between 1998 and 2010. We identified 12 patients with TC among 1651 cases of emergent left heart catheterization over 12 years. Mean follow-up time was 8.3 ± 3.6 years. All were female, 87% had hypertension, 25% had history of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD, 67% had hyperlipidemia, 44% had some preceding emotional trauma, and 44% had some physical/physiological stress. Previous studies have shown that over 50% of TC patients experience future cardiac events, and 10% have a recurrence of TC. Patients were prescribed therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC and guideline directed medical therapy (GDMT for aggressive risk factor reduction. TLC included diet, exercise, and cardiac rehabilitation. GDMT often included aspirin, beta-blockers, ACE-inhibitors, and statins. Follow-up echocardiograms showed recovery and maintenance of the ejection fraction. There was no cardiac mortality and no recurrences of TC. Aggressive risk factor reduction with TLC and GDMT may be effective in improving the long term outcomes of patients with TC.

  6. Working memory training shows immediate and long-term effects on cognitive performance in children

    OpenAIRE

    Pugin, Fiona; Metz, Andreas J; Stauffer, Madlaina; Wolf, Martin; Jenni, Oskar G; Huber, Reto

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is important for mental reasoning and learning processes. Several studies in adults and school-age children have shown performance improvement in cognitive tests after working memory training. Our aim was to examine not only immediate but also long-term effects of intensive working memory training on cognitive performance tests in children. Fourteen healthy male subjects between 10 and 16 years trained a visuospatial n-back task over 3 weeks (30 min daily), while 15 individuals...

  7. Data for improvement and clinical excellence: protocol for an audit with feedback intervention in long-term care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalm Corinne

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable evidence about the effectiveness of audit coupled with feedback, although few audit with feedback interventions have been conducted in long-term care (LTC settings to date. In general, the effects have been found to be modest at best, although in settings where there has been little history of audit and feedback, the effects may be greater, at least initially. The primary purpose of the Data for Improvement and Clinical Excellence (DICE Long-Term Care project is to assess the effects of an audit with feedback intervention delivered monthly over 13 months in four LTC facilities. The research questions we addressed are: 1. What effects do feedback reports have on processes and outcomes over time? 2. How do different provider groups in LTC and home care respond to feedback reports based on data targeted at improving quality of care? Methods/design The research team conducting this study comprises researchers and decision makers in continuing care in the province of Alberta, Canada. The intervention consists of monthly feedback reports in nine LTC units in four facilities in Edmonton, Alberta. Data for the feedback reports comes from the Resident Assessment Instrument Minimum Data Set (RAI version 2.0, a standardized instrument mandated for use in LTC facilities throughout Alberta. Feedback reports consist of one page, front and back, presenting both graphic and textual information. Reports are delivered to all staff working in the four LTC facilities. The primary evaluation uses a controlled interrupted time series design both adjusted and unadjusted for covariates. The concurrent process evaluation uses observation and self-report to assess uptake of the feedback reports. Following the project phase described in this protocol, a similar intervention will be conducted in home care settings in Alberta. Depending on project findings, if they are judged useful by decision makers participating in this research

  8. Chronic alcohol self-administration in monkeys shows long-term quantity/frequency categorical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Erich J; Farro, Jonathan; Gonzales, Steven; Helms, Christa; Grant, Kathleen A

    2014-11-01

    The current criteria for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) do not include consumption (quantity/frequency) measures of alcohol intake, in part due to the difficulty of these measures in humans. Animal models of ethanol (EtOH) self-administration have been fundamental in advancing our understanding of the neurobiological basis of AUD and can address quantity/frequency measures with accurate measurements over prolonged periods of time. The nonhuman primate model of voluntary oral alcohol self-administration has documented both binge drinking and drinking to dependence and can be used to test the stability of consumption measures over time. Here, an extensive set of alcohol intakes (g/kg/d) was analyzed from a large multi-cohort population of Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys (n = 31). Daily EtOH intake was uniformly distributed over chronic (12 months) access for all animals. Underlying this distribution of intakes were subpopulations of monkeys that exhibited distinctive clustering of drinking patterns, allowing us to categorically define very heavy drinking (VHD), heavy drinking (HD), binge drinking (BD), and low drinking (LD). These categories were stable across the 12 months assessed by the protocol, but exhibited fluctuations when examined at shorter intervals. The establishment of persistent drinking categories based on quantity/frequency suggests that consumption variables can be used to track long-term changes in behavioral, molecular, or physiochemical mechanisms related to our understanding of diagnosis, prevention, intervention, and treatment efficacies. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Long-term integrated studies show complex and surprising effects of climate change in northern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter M. Groffman; Lindsey Rustad; Pamela H. Templer; John Campbell; Lynn M. Christenson; Nina K. Lany; Anne M. Socci; Matthew A. Vadeboncoeur; Paul Schaberg; Geoffrey F. Wilson; Charles T. Driscoll; Timothy J. Fahey; Melany C. Fisk; Christine L. Goodale; Mark B. Green; Steven P. Hamburg; Chris E. Johnson; Myron J. Mitchell; Jennifer L. Morse; Linda H. Pardo; Nicholas L. Rodenhouse

    2012-01-01

    Evaluations of the local effects of global change are often confounded by the interactions of natural and anthropogenic factors that overshadow the effects of climate changes on ecosystems. Long-term watershed and natural elevation gradient studies at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest and in the surrounding region show surprising results demonstrating the effects...

  10. Long-Term Trial Results Show No Mortality Benefit from Annual Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen year follow-up data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial show higher incidence but similar mortality among men screened annually with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal examination

  11. Brain morphometry shows effects of long-term musical practice in middle-aged keyboard players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, H.; Minnerop, M.; Pieperhoff, P.; Schleicher, A.; Zilles, K.; Altenmüller, E.; Amunts, K.

    2013-01-01

    To what extent does musical practice change the structure of the brain? In order to understand how long-lasting musical training changes brain structure, 20 male right-handed, middle-aged professional musicians and 19 matched controls were investigated. Among the musicians, 13 were pianists or organists with intensive practice regimes. The others were either music teachers at schools or string instrumentalists, who had studied the piano at least as a subsidiary subject, and practiced less intensively. The study was based on T1-weighted MR images, which were analyzed using deformation-based morphometry. Cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of cortical areas and subcortical nuclei as well as myeloarchitectonic maps of fiber tracts were used as regions of interest to compare volume differences in the brains of musicians and controls. In addition, maps of voxel-wise volume differences were computed and analyzed. Musicians showed a significantly better symmetric motor performance as well as a greater capability of controlling hand independence than controls. Structural MRI-data revealed significant volumetric differences between the brains of keyboard players, who practiced intensively and controls in right sensorimotor areas and the corticospinal tract as well as in the entorhinal cortex and the left superior parietal lobule. Moreover, they showed also larger volumes in a comparable set of regions than the less intensively practicing musicians. The structural changes in the sensory and motor systems correspond well to the behavioral results, and can be interpreted in terms of plasticity as a result of intensive motor training. Areas of the superior parietal lobule and the entorhinal cortex might be enlarged in musicians due to their special skills in sight-playing and memorizing of scores. In conclusion, intensive and specific musical training seems to have an impact on brain structure, not only during the sensitive period of childhood but throughout life. PMID

  12. Brain morphometry shows effects of long-term musical practice in middle-aged keyboard players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna eGärtner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To what extent does musical practice change the structure of the brain? In order to understand how long-lasting musical training changes brain structure, 20 male right-handed, middle-aged professional musicians and 19 matched controls were investigated. Among the musicians, 13 were pianists or organists with intensive practice regimes. The others were either music teachers at schools or string instrumentalists, who had studied the piano at least as a subsidiary subject, and practiced less intensively. The study was based on T1-weighted MR images, which were analyzed using Deformation Field Morphometry. Cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of cortical areas and subcortical nuclei as well as myeloarchitectonic maps of fiber tracts were used as regions of interest to compare volume differences in the brains of musicians and controls. In addition, maps of voxel-wise volume differences were computed and analyzed.Musicians showed a significantly better symmetric motor performance as well as a greater capability of controlling hand independence than controls. Structural MRI-data revealed significant volumetric differences between the brains of keyboard players, who practiced intensively and controls in right sensorimotor areas and the corticospinal tract as well as in the entorhinal cortex and the left superior parietal lobule. Moreover, they showed also larger volumes in a comparable set of regions than the less intensively practicing musicians. The structural changes in the sensory and motor systems correspond well to the behavioral results, and can be interpreted in terms of plasticity as a result of intensive motor training. Areas of the superior parietal lobule and the entorhinal cortex might be enlarged in musicians due to their special skills in sight-playing and memorizing of scores. In conclusion, intensive and specific musical training seems to have an impact on brain structure, not only during the sensitive period of childhood but throughout

  13. Revision hip arthroplasty with an extensively 
porous-coated stem - excellent long-term 
results also in severe femoral bone stock loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Per B; Jensen, Niels J F; Kampmann, Jens; Bæk Hansen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    During the last 25 years uncemented hip stem revision relying on diaphyseal fixation has shown improving clinical results and stem survival. The purpose of this study was to present the long-term results of hip revision with the SOLUTION stem (DePuy, Warsaw Indiana).
Ninety-three consecutive SOLUTION hip stem revisions in 84 patients with a mean age of 69 years (range 33-86 years) were reviewed. Of these, clinical and radiographic follow-up examination by an independent observer was possible in 36 hips/29 patients after mean 14 years (range 10-18 years). Stem re-revision was documented by our own files and by the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Registry. 
Stem re-revision had been performed in two hips for aseptic loosening, one due to deep infection and in one patient due to stem fracture. The 18 years cumulative survival, free of re-revision for any reason was calculated as 94.4% (88.9-99.8)% and for aseptic loosening to 97.6% (94.3-100%). Intraoperative complications were frequent with incidence of shaft fractures (14/93) and perforations (9/93) showing a significant learning curve. Mean Harris Hip Score was 85 (range 53-99). Osseointegration was seen in 34/36 stems with two stems fibrous fixated. Stress shielding was significant associated with stem diameters ≥15 mm. Severe preoperative bone deficiency had no negative bearing on stem survival and no significant influence on osseointegration of the stem or on Harris Hip Score. 
 Femoral stem revision with an extensively porous-coated monoblock chrome-cobalt stem seems to be a reliable and reproducible technique resulting in excellent long-term survivorship and clinical outcome. It can be used in femurs with deficient bone stock.

  14. Development of organoids from mouse and human endometrium showing endometrial epithelium physiology and long-term expandability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boretto, Matteo; Cox, Benoit; Noben, Manuel; Hendriks, Nikolai; Fassbender, Amelie; Roose, Heleen; Amant, Frédéric; Timmerman, Dirk; Tomassetti, Carla; Vanhie, Arne; Meuleman, Christel; Ferrante, Marc; Vankelecom, Hugo

    2017-05-15

    The endometrium, which is of crucial importance for reproduction, undergoes dynamic cyclic tissue remodeling. Knowledge of its molecular and cellular regulation is poor, primarily owing to a lack of study models. Here, we have established a novel and promising organoid model from both mouse and human endometrium. Dissociated endometrial tissue, embedded in Matrigel under WNT-activating conditions, swiftly formed organoid structures that showed long-term expansion capacity, and reproduced the molecular and histological phenotype of the tissue's epithelium. The supplemented WNT level determined the type of mouse endometrial organoids obtained: high WNT yielded cystic organoids displaying a more differentiated phenotype than the dense organoids obtained in low WNT. The organoids phenocopied physiological responses of endometrial epithelium to hormones, including increased cell proliferation under estrogen and maturation upon progesterone. Moreover, the human endometrial organoids replicated the menstrual cycle under hormonal treatment at both the morpho-histological and molecular levels. Together, we established an organoid culture system for endometrium, reproducing tissue epithelium physiology and allowing long-term expansion. This novel model provides a powerful tool for studying mechanisms underlying the biology as well as the pathology of this key reproductive organ. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Case Reports Showing a Long-Term Effect of Subanesthetic Ketamine Infusion in Reducing L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. Sherman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine is an FDA-approved drug with a known safety profile. Low-dose subanesthetic intravenous ketamine infusion treatment has led to long-term reduction of treatment-resistant depression and of chronic pain states. We report on low-dose subanesthetic intravenous ketamine infusion treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD patients by 5 case studies and show a long-lasting therapeutic benefit to reduce L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID, improve on time, and reduce depression. Based on the literature we hypothesize that low-dose ketamine may act as a ‘chemical deep brain stimulation', by desynchronizing hypersynchronous oscillatory brain activity, including in the basal ganglia and the motor cortex. The presented PD case reports indicate tolerability, safety and long-term beneficial effects of low-dose ketamine infusion that should be further investigated in a properly controlled prospective clinical trial for treatment of LID, as well as the prevalent nonmotor features pain and depression in PD patients.

  16. Rapid fabrication of superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film with excellent energy-release characteristics and long-term storage stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Xiang; Zhou, Xiang, E-mail: zhouxiang@njust.edu.cn; Hao, Gaozi; Xiao, Lei; Liu, Jie; Jiang, Wei, E-mail: superfine_jw@126.com

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film is prepared by combining electrophoretic deposition and surface modification technologies. • The deposition system and kinetics of electrophoretic deposition process are investigated to optimize parameters to obtain smooth films. • Energy-release characteristics of superhydrophobic films are significantly improved for both fresh and aged samples. • Superhydrophobic films exhibit excellent long-time storage stability both in natural and accelerated aging test. • A preignition reaction is found to enhance the energy-release characteristics of superhydrophobic nanothermite film. - Abstract: One of the challenges for the application of energetic materials is their energy-retaining capabilities after long-term storage. In this study, we report a facile method to fabricate superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film by combining electrophoretic deposition and surface modification technologies. Different concentrations of dispersion solvents and additives are investigated to optimize the deposition parameters. Meanwhile, the dependence of deposition rates on nanoparticle concentrations is also studied. The surface morphology and chemical composition are characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A static contact angles as high as 156° shows the superhydrophobicity of the nanothermite film. Natural and accelerated aging tests are performed and the thermal behavior is analyzed. Thermal analysis shows that the surface modification contributes to significantly improved energy-release characteristics for both fresh and aged samples, which is supposed to be attributed to the preignition reaction between Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shell and FAS-17. Superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film exhibits excellent long-time storage stability with 83.4% of energy left in

  17. Long-Term Surveys Show Invasive Overbite Clams (Potamocorbula amurensis) are Spatially Limited in Suisun Marsh, California

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Baumsteiger; Robert E. Schroeter; Teejay O'Rear; Jonathan D. Cook; Peter B. Moyle

    2017-01-01

    https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss2art6The overbite clam (Potamocorbula amurensis) is a major invasive species in the San Francisco Estuary, California, and has been implicated in the decline of pelagic productivity and native fish species. Little is known of its impact on Suisun Marsh, a large brackish tidal region of the estuary. We looked at the abundance and spatial distribution of clams in the marsh, including examining the influence of water quality, using long-term (1988–2015) o...

  18. Long-Term Surveys Show Invasive Overbite Clams (Potamocorbula amurensis are Spatially Limited in Suisun Marsh, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Baumsteiger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss2art6The overbite clam (Potamocorbula amurensis is a major invasive species in the San Francisco Estuary, California, and has been implicated in the decline of pelagic productivity and native fish species. Little is known of its impact on Suisun Marsh, a large brackish tidal region of the estuary. We looked at the abundance and spatial distribution of clams in the marsh, including examining the influence of water quality, using long-term (1988–2015 otter trawl surveys. Temporal trends indicated that overbite clam abundance has been increasing, but adult clams were spatially restricted to a single large slough (Suisun. Clams were absent from most interior channels, limiting their overall effect on the marsh aquatic ecosystem. Abiotic variables, particularly salinity, proved important predictors of overbite clam abundance, although the variables examined alone could not explain overbite clam distributions. We propose that connectivity, detritus loads, and/or predation pressure may work in conjunction with abiotic variables to cause poor survival rates for recruits in interior marsh sites, keeping the distribution limited. Overall results are encouraging for restoration projects in brackish tidal marshes that need to deal with overbite clams.

  19. MoS2/Ni3S4 composite nanosheets on interconnected carbon shells as an excellent supercapacitor electrode architecture for long term cycling at high current densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shengchun; Yao, Tinghui; Guo, Xin; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Dequan; Liu, Qiming; Li, Yali; Li, Junshuai; He, Deyan

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we report an electrode architecture of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)/nickel sulfide (Ni3S4) composite nanosheets anchored on interconnected carbon (C) shells (C@MoS2/Ni3S4). Electrochemical measurements indicate that the C@MoS2/Ni3S4 structure possesses excellent supercapacitive properties especially for long term cycling at high current densities. A specific capacitance as high as ∼640.7 F g-1 can still be delivered even after 10,000 cycles at a high current density of 20 A g-1. From comparison of microstructures and electrochemical properties of the related materials/structures, the improved performance of C@MoS2/Ni3S4 can be attributed to the relatively dispersedly distributed nanosheet-shaped MoS2/Ni3S4 that provides efficient contact with electrolyte and effectively buffers the volume change during charge/discharge processes, enhanced cycling stability by MoS2, and reduced equivalent series resistance by the interconnected C shells.

  20. Dryland biological soil crust cyanobacteria show unexpected decreases in abundance under long-term elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Blaire; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Yeager, Chris M.; Belnap, Jayne; Evans, R. David; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2012-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) cover soil surfaces in many drylands globally. The impacts of 10 years of elevated atmospheric CO2 on the cyanobacteria in biocrusts of an arid shrubland were examined at a large manipulated experiment in Nevada, USA. Cyanobacteria-specific quantitative PCR surveys of cyanobacteria small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes suggested a reduction in biocrust cyanobacterial biomass in the elevated CO2 treatment relative to the ambient controls. Additionally, SSU rRNA gene libraries and shotgun metagenomes showed reduced representation of cyanobacteria in the total microbial community. Taxonomic composition of the cyanobacteria was similar under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions, indicating the decline was manifest across multiple cyanobacterial lineages. Recruitment of cyanobacteria sequences from replicate shotgun metagenomes to cyanobacterial genomes representing major biocrust orders also suggested decreased abundance of cyanobacteria sequences across the majority of genomes tested. Functional assignment of cyanobacteria-related shotgun metagenome sequences indicated that four subsystem categories, three related to oxidative stress, were differentially abundant in relation to the elevated CO2 treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that elevated CO2 affected a generalized decrease in cyanobacteria in the biocrusts and may have favoured cyanobacteria with altered gene inventories for coping with oxidative stress.

  1. Almost 50 years of monitoring shows that climate, not forestry, controls long-term organic carbon fluxes in a large boreal watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepistö, Ahti; Futter, Martyn N; Kortelainen, Pirkko

    2014-04-01

    Here, we use a unique long-term data set on total organic carbon (TOC) fluxes, its climatic drivers and effects of land management from a large boreal watershed in northern Finland. TOC and runoff have been monitored at several sites in the Simojoki watershed (3160 km(2) ) since the early 1960s. Annual TOC fluxes have increased significantly together with increased inter-annual variability. Acid deposition in the area has been low and has not significantly influenced losses of TOC. Forest management, including ditching and clear felling, had a minor influence on TOC fluxes - seasonal and long-term patterns in TOC were controlled primarily by changes in soil frost, seasonal precipitation, drought, and runoff. Deeper soil frost led to lower spring TOC concentrations in the river. Summer TOC concentrations were positively correlated with precipitation and soil moisture not temperature. There is some indication that drought conditions led to elevated TOC concentrations and fluxes in subsequent years (1998-2000). A sensitivity analysis of the INCA-C model results showed the importance of landscape position, land-use type, and soil temperature as controls of modeled TOC concentrations. Model predictions were not sensitive to forest management. Our results are contradictory to some earlier plot-scale and small catchment studies that have shown more profound forest management impacts on TOC fluxes. This shows the importance of scale when assessing the mechanisms controlling TOC fluxes and concentrations. The results highlight the value of long-term multiple data sets to better understand ecosystem response to land management, climate change and extremes in northern ecosystems. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Brevican-deficient mice display impaired hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation but show no obvious deficits in learning and memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brakebusch, Cord; Seidenbecher, Constanze I; Asztely, Fredrik

    2002-01-01

    of brevican in the development and function of the brain, we generated mice lacking a functional brevican gene. These mice are viable and fertile and have a normal life span. Brain anatomy was normal, although alterations in the expression of neurocan were detected. Perineuronal nets formed but appeared...... to be less prominent in mutant than in wild-type mice. Brevican-deficient mice showed significant deficits in the maintenance of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). However, no obvious impairment of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission was found, suggesting a complex cause for the LTP defect....... Detailed behavioral analysis revealed no statistically significant deficits in learning and memory. These data indicate that brevican is not crucial for brain development but has restricted structural and functional roles....

  3. Illegal and legal parrot trade shows a long-term, cross-cultural preference for the most attractive species increasing their risk of extinction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L Tella

    Full Text Available Illegal trade constitutes a major threat for a variety of wildlife. A criminology framework has been recently applied to parrot poaching in Mexico, suggesting an opportunistic crime in which the most abundant and accessible species, and not the rare or highly priced species, were poached more often. We analyzed this information, together with additional long-term data (1981-2005 on both the legal and illegal trade of the 22 Mexican parrot species (n = 31,019 individuals, using multivariate statistics and hypothesis-testing approaches. Our results showed a selective capture of parrot species attending to their attractiveness. Parrot species widely differed in attractiveness to people (as reflected by their combined measures of body size, coloration, and ability to imitate human speech, and their attractiveness strongly correlated with their prices both in the Mexican and US markets. The most attractive and valuable species (amazons and macaws were disproportionally caught attending to the number of years they were legally trapped. Similar patterns were found for parrots poached for the domestic Mexican market, for those smuggled to the USA, and for those legally exported before or after 1992, when the USA ban led parrot exports to be mostly directed to European countries. Finally, the long-term cross-cultural preference for the most attractive species has led them to be among the most threatened species today. Since current parrot poaching mostly responds to local demand, socio-ecological work is needed to reverse the long-standing pet-keeping tradition that may decimate the most desired species in Neotropical countries.

  4. Illegal and legal parrot trade shows a long-term, cross-cultural preference for the most attractive species increasing their risk of extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, José L; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Illegal trade constitutes a major threat for a variety of wildlife. A criminology framework has been recently applied to parrot poaching in Mexico, suggesting an opportunistic crime in which the most abundant and accessible species, and not the rare or highly priced species, were poached more often. We analyzed this information, together with additional long-term data (1981-2005) on both the legal and illegal trade of the 22 Mexican parrot species (n = 31,019 individuals), using multivariate statistics and hypothesis-testing approaches. Our results showed a selective capture of parrot species attending to their attractiveness. Parrot species widely differed in attractiveness to people (as reflected by their combined measures of body size, coloration, and ability to imitate human speech), and their attractiveness strongly correlated with their prices both in the Mexican and US markets. The most attractive and valuable species (amazons and macaws) were disproportionally caught attending to the number of years they were legally trapped. Similar patterns were found for parrots poached for the domestic Mexican market, for those smuggled to the USA, and for those legally exported before or after 1992, when the USA ban led parrot exports to be mostly directed to European countries. Finally, the long-term cross-cultural preference for the most attractive species has led them to be among the most threatened species today. Since current parrot poaching mostly responds to local demand, socio-ecological work is needed to reverse the long-standing pet-keeping tradition that may decimate the most desired species in Neotropical countries.

  5. Fel d 1-derived synthetic peptide immuno-regulatory epitopes show a long-term treatment effect in cat allergic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couroux, P; Patel, D; Armstrong, K; Larché, M; Hafner, R P

    2015-05-01

    Cat-PAD, the first in a new class of synthetic peptide immuno-regulatory epitopes (SPIREs), was shown to significantly improve rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms in subjects with cat allergy up to 1 year after the start of a short course of treatment. To evaluate the long-term effects of Cat-PAD on rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms following standardized allergen challenge 2 years after treatment. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study, subjects were exposed to cat allergen in an environmental exposure chamber (EEC) before and after treatment with two regimens of Cat-PAD (either eight doses of 3 nmol or four doses of 6 nmol) given intradermally over a 3-month period. In this follow-up study, changes from baseline in rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms were reassessed 2 years after the start of treatment. The primary endpoint showed a mean reduction in total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom scores of 3.85 units in the 4 × 6 nmol Cat-PAD group compared to placebo 2 years after the start of treatment (P = 0.13), and this difference was statistically significant in the secondary endpoint at the end of day 4 when the cumulative allergen challenge was greatest (P = 0.02). Consistent reductions in nasal symptoms of between 2 and 3 units were observed for 4 × 6 nmol Cat-PAD compared to placebo between the 2 and 3 h time points on days 1-4 of EEC challenge at 2 years (P Cat-PAD. This study is the first to provide evidence of a long-term therapeutic effect with this new class of SPIREs. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Long Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... us! Living with HD Long-Term Care Long Term Care Click here to download Long-Term Care for HD, (part of HDSA’s Family Guide ... on patient and family issues related to long-term HD care. For many caregivers of people with ...

  7. Adolescent mice show anxiety- and aggressive-like behavior and the reduction of long-term potentiation in mossy fiber-CA3 synapses after neonatal maternal separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S Y; Han, S H; Woo, R-S; Jang, S H; Min, S S

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to maternal separation (MS) during early life is an identified risk factor for emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression later in life. This study investigated the effects of neonatal MS on the behavior and long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as basic synaptic transmission at hippocampal CA3-CA1 and mossy fiber (MF)-CA3 synapses in adolescent mice for 19days. When mice were adolescents, we measured depression, learning, memory, anxious and aggressive behavior using the forced swimming test (FST), Y-maze, Morris water maze (MWM), elevated plus maze (EPM), three consecutive days of the open field test, the social interaction test, the tube-dominance test and the resident-intruder test. The results showed that there was no difference in FST, Y-maze, and MWM performance. However, MS mice showed more anxiety-like behavior in the EPM test and aggressive-like behavior in the tube-dominance and resident-intruder tests. In addition, the magnitude of LTP and release probability in the MF-CA3 synapses was reduced in the MS group but not in the CA3-CA1 synapse. Our results indicate that early life stress due to MS may induce anxiety- and aggressive-like behavior during adolescence, and these effects are associated with synaptic plasticity at the hippocampal MF-CA3 synapses. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Kamp K’aana, a 2-week residential weight management summer camp, shows long-term improvement in body mass index z scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term effects of Kamp K'aana, a 2-week residential weight management camp, on body mass index (BMI) measures were evaluated on 71 of 108 (66%) obese youth 10 to 14 years of age. Measures were obtained at 11-month study follow-up (n=38) or extracted from medical record (n=33). Compared with basel...

  9. A randomised trial of enteral glutamine supplementation for very preterm children showed no beneficial or adverse long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twilhaar, E.S.; de Kieviet, J.F.; Oosterlaan, J.; van Elburg, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim This study evaluated the long-term effects of enteral glutamine supplementation on neurodevelopmental outcomes of a Dutch cohort of very preterm children at 13 years of age. Methods The cohort was enrolled in a randomised placebo-controlled trial between 2001 and 2003 in which infants received

  10. A randomised trial of enteral glutamine supplementation for very preterm children showed no beneficial or adverse long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twilhaar, E. Sabrina; de Kieviet, Jorrit F.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; van Elburg, Ruurd M.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the long-term effects of enteral glutamine supplementation on neurodevelopmental outcomes of a Dutch cohort of very preterm children at 13 years of age. The cohort was enrolled in a randomised placebo-controlled trial between 2001-2003 in which infants received glutamine- or

  11. Long-Term Collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, As previously announced in Echo (No. 254), your delegates took action to draw attention to the projects of the Long-Term Collections (LTC), the humanitarian body of the CERN Staff Association. On Tuesday, 11 October, at noon, small Z-Cards were widely distributed at the entrances of CERN restaurants and we thank you all for your interest. We hope to have achieved an important part of our goal, which was to inform you, convince you and find new supporters among you. We will find out in the next few days! An exhibition of the LTC was also set up in the Main Building for the entire week. The Staff Association wants to celebrate the occasion of the Long-Term Collection’s 45th anniversary at CERN because, ever since 1971, CERN personnel have showed great support in helping the least fortunate people on the planet in a variety of ways according to their needs. On a regular basis, joint fundraising appeals are made with the Directorate to help the victims of natural disasters around th...

  12. Structured electronic template for histopathology reporting on colorectal carcinoma resections: five-year follow-up shows sustainable long-term quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, Bettina; Bjugn, Roger

    2012-06-01

    To improve quality, pathology organizations have published guidelines with key parameters for histopathology reporting on cancer resections. Checklists or structured templates improve upon the presence of key parameters in histopathology reports, but data are lacking on long-term sustainability of such reporting. From 2003 to 2006, the Cancer Registry of Norway and the Norwegian Society of Pathology collaborated on the development of a structured electronic template for histopathology reporting on colorectal carcinoma resections. To investigate use and long-term effect of this structured template in one of the first laboratories implementing the template for routine diagnostic work. All histopathology reports (n =123) in the 1-year period prior to implementation were evaluated with respect to presence of key parameters. Likewise, all histopathology reports (n =1186) in the 5-year period after implementation were evaluated with respect to template use and presence of key parameters. The electronic template had been used in 1089 (91.8%) of the 1186 cases. Template use was stable in the entire 5-year period, and had significantly improved upon the presence of data on 7 of 11 key parameters valid for both the pre-implementation and the post-implementation period. Eight hundred and twenty-two (75.5%) of the 1089 template reports contained information on all key parameters, compared to just 20 (16.3%) of the 123 free text reports in the 1-year pre-implementation period. Electronic template reporting has a significant and sustainable long-term, positive effect upon the quality of histopathology reports.

  13. Long-term forecasting and comparison of mortality in the Evaluation of the Xience Everolimus Eluting Stent vs. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization (EXCEL) trial: prospective validation of the SYNTAX Score II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Carlos M; van Klaveren, David; Farooq, Vasim; Simonton, Charles A; Kappetein, Arie-Pieter; Sabik, Joseph F; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Stone, Gregg W; Serruys, Patrick W

    2015-05-21

    To prospectively validate the SYNTAX Score II and forecast the outcomes of the randomized Evaluation of the Xience Everolimus-Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization (EXCEL) Trial. Evaluation of the Xience Everolimus Eluting Stent vs. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization is a prospective, randomized multicenter trial designed to establish the efficacy and safety of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with the everolimus-eluting stent compared with coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery in subjects with unprotected left-main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease and low-intermediate anatomical SYNTAX scores (EXCEL, the SYNTAX Score II was prospectively applied to predict 4-year mortality in the CABG and PCI arms. The 95% prediction intervals (PIs) for mortality were computed using simulation with bootstrap resampling (10 000 times). For the entire study cohort, the 4-year predicted mortalities were 8.5 and 10.5% in the PCI and CABG arms, respectively [odds ratios (OR) 0.79; 95% PI 0.43-1.50). In subjects with low (≤22) anatomical SYNTAX scores, the predicted OR was 0.69 (95% PI 0.34-1.45); in intermediate anatomical SYNTAX scores (23-32), the predicted OR was 0.93 (95% PI 0.53-1.62). Based on 4-year mortality predictions in EXCEL, clinical characteristics shifted long-term mortality predictions either in favour of PCI (older age, male gender and COPD) or CABG (younger age, lower creatinine clearance, female gender, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction). The SYNTAX Score II indicates at least an equipoise for long-term mortality between CABG and PCI in subjects with ULMCA disease up to an intermediate anatomical complexity. Both anatomical and clinical characteristics had a clear impact on long-term mortality predictions and decision making between CABG and PCI. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The

  14. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  15. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Comité des collectes à long terme

    2011-01-01

    It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

  16. Excellent survival and low incidence of arrhythmias, stroke and heart failure long-term after surgical ASD closure at young age. A prospective follow-up study of 21-33 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Roos-Hesselink (Jolien); F.J. Meijboom (Folkert); S.E.C. Spitaels (Silja); E.M.W.J. Utens (Elisabeth); A.J.J.C. Bogers (Ad); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); E.H.M. van Rijen (Susan); R.T. van Domburg (Ron)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: Although studies have suggested good long-term results, arrhythmias, pulmonary hypertension and left ventricular dysfunction are mentioned as sequelae long-term after surgical atrial septal defect closure at young age. Most studies were performed only by questionnaire and in a

  17. Collectes à long terme

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2014-01-01

    En cette fin d’année 2014 qui approche à grands pas, le Comité des Collectes à Long Terme remercie chaleureusement ses fidèles donatrices et donateurs réguliers pour leurs contributions à nos actions en faveur des plus démunis de notre planète. C’est très important, pour notre Comité, de pouvoir compter sur l’appui assidu que vous nous apportez. Depuis plus de 40 ans maintenant, le modèle des CLT est basé principalement sur des actions à long terme (soit une aide pendant 4-5 ans par projet, mais plus parfois selon les circonstances), et sa planification demande une grande régularité de ses soutiens financiers. Grand MERCI à vous ! D’autres dons nous parviennent au cours de l’année, et ils sont aussi les bienvenus. En particulier, nous tenons à remercier...

  18. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    45 years helping in developing countries! CERN personnel have been helping the least fortunate people on the planet since 1971. How? With the Long-Term Collections! Dear Colleagues, The Staff Association’s Long-Term Collections (LTC) Committee is delighted to share this important milestone in the life of our Laboratory with you. Indeed, whilst the name of CERN is known worldwide for scientific discoveries, it also shines in the many humanitarian projects which have been supported by the LTC since 1971. Several schools and clinics, far and wide, carry its logo... Over the past 45 years, 74 projects have been supported (9 of which are still ongoing). This all came from a group of colleagues who wanted to share a little of what life offered them here at CERN, in this haven of mutual understanding, peace and security, with those who were less fortunate elsewhere. Thus, the LTC were born... Since then, we have worked as a team to maintain the dream of these visionaries, with the help of regular donat...

  19. Introduction: Long term prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranger, G.

    2003-01-01

    Making a decision upon the right choice of a material appropriate to a given application should be based on taking into account several parameters as follows: cost, standards, regulations, safety, recycling, chemical properties, supplying, transformation, forming, assembly, mechanical and physical properties as well as the behaviour in practical conditions. Data taken from a private communication (J.H.Davidson) are reproduced presenting the life time range of materials from a couple of minutes to half a million hours corresponding to applications from missile technology up to high-temperature nuclear reactors or steam turbines. In the case of deep storage of nuclear waste the time required is completely different from these values since we have to ensure the integrity of the storage system for several thousand years. The vitrified nuclear wastes should be stored in metallic canisters made of iron and carbon steels, stainless steels, copper and copper alloys, nickel alloys or titanium alloys. Some of these materials are passivating metals, i.e. they develop a thin protective film, 2 or 3 nm thick - the so-called passive films. These films prevent general corrosion of the metal in a large range of chemical condition of the environment. In some specific condition, localized corrosion such as the phenomenon of pitting, occurs. Consequently, it is absolutely necessary to determine these chemical condition and their stability in time to understand the behavior of a given material. In other words the corrosion system is constituted by the complex material/surface/medium. For high level nuclear wastes the main features for resolving problem are concerned with: geological disposal; deep storage in clay; waste metallic canister; backfill mixture (clay-gypsum) or concrete; long term behavior; data needed for modelling and for predicting; choice of appropriate solution among several metallic candidates. The analysis of the complex material/surface/medium is of great importance

  20. Long-Term Symbolic Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, William G; Trafton, J. G

    2007-01-01

    What are the characteristics of long-term learning? We investigated the characteristics of long-term, symbolic learning using the Soar and ACT-R cognitive architectures running cognitive models of two simple tasks...

  1. LONG TERM COLLECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Long-Term Collections (CLT) committee would like to warmly thank its faithful donors who, year after year, support our actions all over the world. Without you, all this would not be possible. We would like to thank, in particular, the CERN Firemen’s Association who donated 5000 CHF in the spring thanks to the sale of their traditional calendar, and the generosity of the CERN community. A huge thank you to the firemen for their devotion to our cause. And thank you to all those who have opened their door, their heart, and their purses! Similarly, we warmly thank the CERN Yoga Club once again for its wonderful donation of 2000 CHF we recently received. We would also like to tell you that all our projects are running well. Just to remind you, we are currently supporting the activities of the «Réflexe-Partage» Association in Mali; the training centre of «Education et Développement» in Abomey, Benin; and the orphanage and ...

  2. Industrial Foundations as Long-Term Owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen; Poulsen, Thomas; Børsting, Christa Winther

    Short-termism has become a serious concern for corporate governance, and this has inspired a search for institutional arrangements to promote long-term decision-making. In this paper, we call attention to long-term ownership by industrial foundations, which is common in Northern Europe but little...... known in the rest of the world. We use a unique Danish data set to document that industrial foundations are long-term owners that practice long-term governance. We show that foundation ownership is highly stable compared to other ownership structures. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less...... and particularly that industrial foundations possess characteristics that promote long-termism. Policymakers, business owners and managers interested in promoting long-term governance models should therefore reconsider the role of ownership structure....

  3. Long-term characteristics of nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, N; Kuwabara, K

    2010-01-01

    Long-term characteristics of the nuclear emulsion so called 'OPERA film' used in the neutrino oscillation experiment, OPERA, has been studied for 8 years since its production or refreshing after it. In the results, it turned out to be excellent in sensitivity, amount of random noise, and refreshing characteristics. The retention capacity of latent image of tracks was also studied. The result will open the way to the recycling of 7,000,000 emulsion films which will remain not developed after 5 years of OPERA's run, and other long-term experiments with emulsion.

  4. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted imag...

  5. Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

  6. Long-term Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hémous, David; Olsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    for potential innovators is smaller and the rate of innovation might be lower than in the noncooperative equilibrium. We contrast this with a setting with relationship-specific innovations that we show are encouraged by the establishment of relational contracts. We illustrate the predictions of the model using...

  7. Accessibility Long Term Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Axhausen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Improved accessibility and its correlate lower generalized cost of contact, travel and transport have been sought by dynamic human societies for their economic and social benefits through- out recorded history. The paper will reflect about this process at a number of different spatial and temporal scales based on a conceptual model. Looking back at European history, it will trace the interaction between Christaller's logic of local market areas and the idea of (low contact cost network cities. Focusing on Switzerland since 1950 it will show how network investment changed the relative distribution of population and employment and how this interacted with changes in the preferences of the travelers. Using a recent snapshot of how a substantial sample of Swiss maintain their social networks over often very large areas, it will try to answer the question of what will happen in the future, if the current trend of ever lower costs of contact will persist.

  8. Long term radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slessarev, I.

    2001-01-01

    A major issue to secure the development of nuclear energy in future is the radioactive waste minimization, both inside the fuel cycle and in a deep geological storage. The aim of this paper is to establish the physical principles which provide an inherent minimization of the radioactive wastes. A new concept is introduced to characterize the radiotoxicity associated to various nuclei families in equilibrium state. The analysis shows the potential of evolutionary nuclear systems, mostly based on known technologies and the potential of more futuristic systems, like accelerator-driven systems and Th-fuel cycle. Several groups of the toxicity sources are object of the studies: Actinides as a part of the nuclear fuel which is remaining unusable after irradiation in nuclear power plants; long-lived fission products as the inevitable result of nuclear energy production; Lanthanides as an important part of fission products which separation from Actinides is technologically difficult because of similar chemical properties

  9. a long-term study

    OpenAIRE

    Petereit, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The hospital mortality rate of renal transplant patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) is considered to be significantly higher compared to general ICU patients. Data concerning the long term outcomes of these patients is lacking. Furthermore, little data exists to guide the management of immunosuppression (IS) in critically ill patients on ICU. The author hypothesizes that a reduced IS on ICU will not lead to significantly increased long-term mortality, rejections and transplant fai...

  10. The eight-item modified Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey: psychometric evaluation showed excellent performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, André; Stuck, Andreas E.; Silliman, Rebecca A.; Ganz, Patricia A.; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluation and validation of the psychometric properties of the eight-item modified Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (mMOS-SS). Study Design and Setting Secondary analyses of data from three populations: Boston breast cancer study (N = 660), Los Angeles breast cancer study (N = 864), and Medical Outcomes Study (N = 1,717). The psychometric evaluation of the eight-item mMOS-SS compared performance across populations and with the original 19-item Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SS). Internal reliability, factor structure, construct validity, and discriminant validity were evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha, principal factor analysis (PFA), and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), Spearman and Pearson correlation, t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Results mMOS-SS internal reliability was excellent in all three populations. PFA factor loadings were similar across populations; one factor >0.6, well-discriminated two factor (instrumental/emotional social support four items each) >0.5. CFA with a priori two-factor structure yielded consistently adequate model fit (root mean squared errors of approximation 0.054–0.074). mMOS-SS construct and discriminant validity were similar across populations and comparable to MOS-SS. Psychometric properties held when restricted to women aged ≥65 years. Conclusion The psychometric properties of the eight-item mMOS-SS were excellent and similar to those of the original 19-item instrument. Results support the use of briefer mMOS-SS instrument; better suited to multidimensional geriatric assessments and specifically in older women with breast cancer. PMID:22818947

  11. [Long-term psychiatric hospitalizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancke, L; Amariei, A

    2017-02-01

    Long-term hospitalizations in psychiatry raise the question of desocialisation of the patients and the inherent costs. Individual indicators were extracted from a medical administrative database containing full-time psychiatric hospitalizations for the period 2011-2013 of people over 16 years old living in the French region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. We calculated the proportion of people who had experienced a hospitalization with a duration of 292 days or more during the study period. A bivariate analysis was conducted, then ecological data (level of health-care offer, the deprivation index and the size of the municipalities of residence) were included into a multilevel regression model in order to identify the factors significantly related to variability of long-term hospitalization rates. Among hospitalized individuals in psychiatry, 2.6% had had at least one hospitalization of 292 days or more during the observation period; the number of days in long-term hospitalization represented 22.5% of the total of days of full-time hospitalization in psychiatry. The bivariate analysis revealed that seniority in the psychiatric system was strongly correlated with long hospitalization rates. In the multivariate analysis, the individual indicators the most related to an increased risk of long-term hospitalization were: total lack of autonomy (OR=9.0; 95% CI: 6.7-12.2; Phospitalization (OR=1.7; CI95%: 1.4-2.1; Plong-term hospitalization rates depending on the type of establishment were very high, but the density of hospital beds or intensity of ambulatory activity services were not significantly linked to long-term hospitalization. The inhabitants of small urban units had significantly less risk of long-term hospitalization than those of large cities. We found no influence of material and social deprivation in the long-term hospitalizations. Long-term hospitalization in psychiatry only concerns a minority of patients but represents the fifth of the total number of days of

  12. Nuclear Energy, Long Term Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2006-01-01

    There are serious warnings about depletion of oil and gas and even more serious warnings about dangers of climate change caused by emission of carbon dioxide. Should developed countries be called to replace CO2 emitting energy sources as soon as possible, and the time available may not be longer then few decades, can nuclear energy answer the call and what are the requirements? Assuming optimistic contribution of renewable energy sources, can nuclear energy expand to several times present level in order to replace large part of fossil fuels use? Paper considers intermediate and long-term requirements. Future of nuclear power depends on satisfactory answers on several questions. First group of questions are those important for near and intermediate future. They deal with economics and safety of nuclear power stations in the first place. On the same time scale a generally accepted concept for radioactive waste disposal is also required. All these issues are in the focus of present research and development. Safer and more economical reactors are targets of international efforts in Generation IV and INPRO projects, but aiming further ahead these innovative projects are also addressing issues such as waste reduction and proliferation resistance. However, even assuming successful technical development of these projects, and there is no reason to doubt it, long term and large-scale nuclear power use is thereby not yet secured. If nuclear power is to play an essential role in the long-term future energy production and in reduction of CO2 emission, than several additional questions must be replied. These questions will deal with long-term nuclear fuel sufficiency, with necessary contribution of nuclear power in sectors of transport and industrial processes and with nuclear proliferation safety. This last issue is more political then technical, thus sometimes neglected by nuclear engineers, yet it will have essential role for the long-term prospects of nuclear power. The

  13. Long-term data archiving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web

  14. Three-dimensional echocardiography with tissue harmonic imaging shows excellent reproducibility in assessment of left ventricular volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Won Yong; Søgaard, Peter; Egeblad, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    on variance. Operator variability showed important contributions to total variance with the use of 2D echocardiography. The reproducibility of 3D echocardiography and tissue harmonic imaging is excellent and comparable to magnetic resonance imaging techniques; 3D echocardiography therefore should provide...

  15. Atovaquone Nanosuspensions Show Excellent Therapeutic Effect in a New Murine Model of Reactivated Toxoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöler, Nadja; Krause, Karsten; Kayser, Oliver; Müller, Rainer H.; Borner, Klaus; Hahn, Helmut; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2001-01-01

    Immunocompromised patients are at risk of developing toxoplasma encephalitis (TE). Standard therapy regimens (including sulfadiazine plus pyrimethamine) are hampered by severe side effects. While atovaquone has potent in vitro activity against Toxoplasma gondii, it is poorly absorbed after oral administration and shows poor therapeutic efficacy against TE. To overcome the low absorption of atovaquone, we prepared atovaquone nanosuspensions (ANSs) for intravenous (i.v.) administration. At concentrations higher than 1.0 μg/ml, ANS did not exert cytotoxicity and was as effective as free atovaquone (i.e., atovaquone suspended in medium) against T. gondii in freshly isolated peritoneal macrophages. In a new murine model of TE that closely mimics reactivated toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised hosts, using mice with a targeted mutation in the gene encoding the interferon consensus sequence binding protein, i.v.-administered ANS doses of 10.0 mg/kg of body weight protected the animals against development of TE and death. Atovaquone was detectable in the sera, brains, livers, and lungs of mice by high-performance liquid chromatography. Development of TE and mortality in mice treated with 1.0- or 0.1-mg/kg i.v. doses of ANS did not differ from that in mice treated orally with 100 mg of atovaquone/kg. In conclusion, i.v. ANSs may prove to be an effective treatment alternative for patients with TE. PMID:11353624

  16. The long term characteristics of greenschist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bo-An

    2016-04-01

    The greenschist in the Jinping II Hydropower Station in southwest China exhibits continuous creep behaviour because of the geological conditions in the region. This phenomenon illustrates the time-dependent deformation and progressive damage that occurs after excavation. In this study, the responses of greenschist to stress over time were determined in a series of laboratory tests on samples collected from the access tunnel walls at the construction site. The results showed that the greenschist presented time-dependent behaviour under long-term loading. The samples generally experienced two stages: transient creep and steady creep, but no accelerating creep. The periods of transient creep and steady creep increased with increasing stress levels. The long-term strength of the greenschist was identified based on the variation of creep strain and creep rate. The ratio of long-term strength to conventional strength was around 80% and did not vary much with confining pressures. A quantitative method for predicting the failure period of greenschist, based on analysis of the stress-strain curve, is presented and implemented. At a confining pressure of 40 MPa, greenschist was predicted to fail in 5000 days under a stress of 290 MPa and to fail in 85 days under the stress of 320 MPa, indicating that the long-term strength identified by the creep rate and creep strain is a reliable estimate.

  17. Long-term effects of directed forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupbach, Almut

    2018-03-01

    The intention to forget reduces the accessibility of information in memory, which is commonly explained with temporary retrieval difficulties. Long-term effects have rarely been studied, and results are inconsistent. The present study re-assessed the long-term effects of directed forgetting (DF). Participants encoded a first list of items (L1), and were then instructed to forget or to remember this list. Immediately afterwards, all participants were presented with a second list to remember. In Experiment 1, memory for L1 and L2 was assessed after a 24-h delay. The forget cue reduced the number of items that were recalled from L1. Experiment 2 implemented a 12-h delay between encoding and test that was either filled with day-time wakefulness or night-time sleep. Replicating the findings of Exp. 1, recall of L1 was reduced in the forget in comparison to the remember condition. Sleep in comparison to wakefulness significantly strengthened L1 memory in the remember group only. Taken together, the present study shows that the intention to forget can have long-lasting consequences. This suggests that different mechanisms underlie the short- and long-term effects of DF, with long-term effects potentially reflecting the preferential consolidation of information that has been identified as important during encoding.

  18. Long-term working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, K A; Kintsch, W

    1995-04-01

    To account for the large demands on working memory during text comprehension and expert performance, the traditional models of working memory involving temporary storage must be extended to include working memory based on storage in long-term memory. In the proposed theoretical framework cognitive processes are viewed as a sequence of stable states representing end products of processing. In skilled activities, acquired memory skills allow these end products to be stored in long-term memory and kept directly accessible by means of retrieval cues in short-term memory, as proposed by skilled memory theory. These theoretical claims are supported by a review of evidence on memory in text comprehension and expert performance in such domains as mental calculation, medical diagnosis, and chess.

  19. Analysing long term discursive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    What do timescales - the notion that processes take place or can be viewed within a shorter or longer temporal range (Lemke 2005) - mean for the analysis of discourse? What are the methodological consequences of analyzing discourse at different timescales? It may be argued that discourse analysis...... in general has favored either the analysis of short term processes such as interviews, discussions, and lessons, or the analysis of non-processual entities such as (multimodal) texts, arguments, discursive repertoires, and discourses (in a Foucaultian sense). In contrast, analysis of long term processes...... which extend beyond the single interaction, for instance negotiations or planning processes, seems to have played a less important role, with studies such as Iedema 2001 and Wodak 2000 as exceptions. These long term processes, however, are central to the constitution and workings of organizations...

  20. Long-Term Patency of Lymphovenous Anastomoses: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourani, Saam S; Taylor, G Ian; Ashton, Mark W

    2016-08-01

    With advancements in technology and microsurgical techniques, lymphovenous anastomosis has become a popular reconstructive procedure in the treatment of chronic lymphedema. However, the long-term patency of these anastomoses is not clear in the literature. A systematic review of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed to assess the reported long-term patency of lymphovenous anastomoses. A total of eight studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Pooled data from four similar experiments in normal dogs showed an average long-term (≥5 months) patency of 52 percent. The only experiment in dogs with chronic lymphedema failed to show any long-term patency. The creation of peripheral lymphovenous anastomoses with a moderate long-term patency rate has become technically possible. However, the long-term results in chronic lymphedema are limited.

  1. Challenges and reforms in Long-Term Care policy in Spain - See more at: http://www.gigapp.org/index.php/component/jresearch/?view=publication&task=show&id=1808#sthash.QjsbaT7Q.dpuf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Fuentes, Francisco Javier

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  2. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P.; Gao, B. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  3. Long-Term Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Poulsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    in Denmark. Industrial foundations are independent legal entities without owners or members typically with the dual objective of preserving the company and using excess profits for charity. We use a unique Danish data set to examine the governance of foundation-owned companies. We show that they are long......-term in several respects. Foundations hold on to their shares for longer. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less frequently. They have more conservative capital structures with less leverage. Their companies survive longer. Their business decisions appear to be more long term. This paper supports...... the hypothesis that time horizons are influenced by ownership structures and particularly that industrial foundations promote longtermism. Policymakers which are interested in promoting longtermism should allow and perhaps even encourage the creation of industrial foundations. More generally they should consider...

  4. Intraoperative ultrasound guidance in breast-conserving surgery shows superiority in oncological outcome, long-term cosmetic and patient-reported outcomes: Final outcomes of a randomized controlled trial (COBALT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volders, J H; Haloua, M H; Krekel, N M A; Negenborn, V L; Kolk, R H E; Lopes Cardozo, A M F; Bosch, A M; de Widt-Levert, L M; van der Veen, H; Rijna, H; Taets van Amerongen, A H M; Jóźwiak, K; Meijer, S; van den Tol, M P

    2017-04-01

    The multicenter randomized controlled COBALT trial demonstrated that ultrasound-guided breast-conserving surgery (USS) results in a significant reduction of margin involvement (3.1% vs. 13%) and excision volumes compared to palpation-guided surgery (PGS). The aim of the present study was to determine long term oncological and patient-reported outcomes including quality of life (QoL), together with their progress over time. 134 patients with T1-T2 breast cancer were randomized to USS (N = 65) or PGS (N = 69). Cosmetic outcomes were assessed with the Breast Cancer Conservative Treatment cosmetic results (BCCT.core) software, panel-evaluation and patient self-evaluation on a 4-point Likert-scale. QoL was measured using the EORTC QLQ-C30/-BR23 questionnaire. No locoregional recurrences were reported after mean follow-up of 41 months. Seven patients (5%) developed distant metastatic disease (USS 6.3%, PGS 4.4%, p = 0.466), of whom six died of disease (95.5% overall survival). USS achieved better cosmetic outcomes compared to PGS, with poor outcomes of 11% and 21% respectively, a result mainly attributable to mastectomies due to involved margins following PGS. There was no difference after 1 and 3 years in cosmetic outcome. Dissatisfied patients included those with larger excision volumes, additional local therapies and worse QoL. Patients with poor/fair cosmetic outcomes scored significantly lower on aspects of QoL, including breast-symptoms, body image and sexual enjoyment. By significantly reducing positive margin status and lowering resection volumes, USS improves the rate of good cosmetic outcomes and increases patient-satisfaction. Considering the large impact of cosmetic outcome on QoL, USS has great potential to improve QoL following breast-conserving therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  5. Navigating Long-Term Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Holt MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Americans over age 65 constitute a larger percentage of the population each year: from 14% in 2010 (40 million elderly to possibly 20% in 2030 (70 million elderly. In 2015, an estimated 66 million people provided care to the ill, disabled, and elderly in the United States. In 2000, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 15 million Americans used some form of long-term care: adult day care, home health, nursing home, or hospice. In all, 13% of people over 85 years old, compared with 1% of those ages 65 to 74, live in nursing homes in the United States. Transitions of care, among these various levels of care, are common: Nursing home to hospital transfer, one of the best-studied transitions, occurs in more than 25% of nursing home residents per year. This article follows one patient through several levels of care.

  6. French Approach for Long Term Storage Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, Jacob; Carreton, Jean-Pierre; Lizot, Marie Therese; Lhomme, Veronique

    2014-01-01

    IRSN presents its statement regarding long-term storage facilities; in France, the regulatory documents do not define the long term duration. The storage facility lifetime can only be appreciated according to the needs and materials stored therein. However, the magnitude of the long-term can be estimated at a few hundred years compared to a few decades for current storage. Usually, in France, construction of storage facilities is driven from the necessity various necessities, linked to the management of radioactive material (eg spent fuel) and to the management of radioactive waste. Because of the variety of 'stored materials and objects' (fission product solutions, plutonium oxide powders, activated solids, drums containing technological waste, spent fuel...), a great number of storage facility design solutions have been developed (surface, subsurface areas, dry or wet conditions...) in the World. After describing the main functions of a storage facility, IRSN displays the safety principles and the associated design principles. The specific design principles applied to particular storage (dry or wet spent fuel storage, depleted uranium or reprocessed uranium storage, plutonium storage, waste containing tritium storage, HLW and ILLW storage...) are also presented. Finally, the concerns due to the long-term duration storage and related safety assessment are developed. After discussing these issues, IRSN displays its statement. The authorization procedures governing the facility lifetime are similar to those of any basic nuclear installation, the continuation of the facility operation remaining subject to periodic safety reviews (in France, every 10 years). The applicant safety cases have to show, that the safety requirements are always met; this requires, at minimum, to take into account at the design stage, comfortable design margins. (author)

  7. Long term mechanical properties of alkali activated slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Zheng, W. Z.; Xu, Z. Z.; Leng, Y. F.; Qin, C. Z.

    2018-01-01

    This article reports a study on the microstructural and long-term mechanical properties of the alkali activated slag up to 180 days, and cement paste is studied as the comparison. The mechanical properties including compressive strength, flexural strength, axis tensile strength and splitting tensile strength are analyzed. The results showed that the alkali activated slag had higher compressive and tensile strength, Slag is activated by potassium silicate (K2SiO3) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions for attaining silicate modulus of 1 using 12 potassium silicate and 5.35% sodium hydroxide. The volume dosage of water is 35% and 42%. The results indicate that alkali activated slag is a kind of rapid hardening and early strength cementitious material with excellent long-term mechanical properties. Single row of holes block compressive strength, single-hole block compressive strength and standard solid brick compressive strength basically meet engineering requirements. The microstructures of alkali activated slag are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The hydration products of alkali-activated slag are assured as hydrated calcium silicate and hydrated calcium aluminate.

  8. Long-term management of GERD in the elderly with pantoprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Calabrese

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Carlo Calabrese, Anna Fabbri, Giulio Di FeboDepartment of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, University of Bologna, ItalyAbstract: The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD increases with age and elderly are more likely to develop severe disease. Older patients often complain of less severe or frequent heartburn than younger patients and they may present with atypical symptoms such as dysphagia, weight loss, or extraesophageal symptoms. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs are central in the management of GERD and are unchallenged with regards to their efficacy. They are considered safe and more effective than histamine receptor antagonists for healing esophagitis and for preventing its recurrence using a long term maintenance treatment. PPI have minimal side effects and few slight drug interactions and are considered safe for long term treatment. Pantoprazole is significantly effective both for acute and long-term treatment with excellent control of relapse and symptoms. It is well tolerated even for long-term therapy and its tolerability is optimal. Pantoprazole shows to have minimal interactions with other drugs because of a lower affinity for cytocrome P450 than older PPIs. Although the majority of elderly has concomitant illnesses and receive other drugs, this does not adversely effect the efficacy of pantoprazole because of its pharmacokinetics, which are independent of patient age. Clinical practice suggests that a low dose maintenance of PPIs should be used in older patients with GERD.Keywords: GERD, long-term management, pantoprazole, safety, efficacy, tolerability

  9. Long term study of mechanical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Diab

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, properties of limestone cement concrete containing different replacement levels of limestone powder were examined. It includes 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of limestone powder as a partial replacement of cement. Silica fume was added incorporated with limestone powder in some mixes to enhance the concrete properties. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity were determined. Also, durability of limestone cement concrete with different C3A contents was examined. The weight loss, length change and cube compressive strength loss were measured for concrete attacked by 5% sodium sulfate using an accelerated test up to 525 days age. The corrosion resistance was measured through accelerated corrosion test using first crack time, cracking width and steel reinforcement weight loss. Consequently, for short and long term, the use of limestone up to 10% had not a significant reduction in concrete properties. It is not recommended to use blended limestone cement in case of sulfate attack. The use of limestone cement containing up to 25% limestone has insignificant effect on corrosion resistance before cracking.

  10. Long Term Planning at IQ Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This is a Danish version. This case about long term planning at the owner-managed manufacturing firm IQ Metal shows how the future management and ownership may be organized to utilize owner assets and minimize roadblocks. Initially, the owner-manager Bo Fischer Larsen explains how he acquired...... in The Owner Strategy Map into the questionnaire available on www.ejerstrategi-kortet.dk. Lastly, the Owner Strategy Map's recommendation of how to organize the future management and ownership of IQ Metal is explained....

  11. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition.

  12. Long-term mortality after poliomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Rostgaard, Klaus; Juel, Knud

    2003-01-01

    .18-3.37). Apart from polio patients with respiratory failure, long-term mortality did not appear to increase until 20 years after discharge. Contracting severe paralytic poliomyelitis at a young age seemed to increase long-term mortality. The most common causes of death were polio sequelae (standardized mortality...... patients. CONCLUSIONS: Survivors of poliomyelitis, especially severely paralyzed polio patients, have an increased long-term mortality....

  13. HOME LONG-TERM CARE IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kułagowska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The considerable proportion of the elderly, the chronically ill and the disabled in community is an economic and organizational challenge for the state social policy. It requires a large, steadily increasing financing from the public funds and creating an optional care model to fulfill the needs of citizens and guarantee high quality services. Development of the long-term care is one of the problems to be solved. This paper presents: – a long-term care forms, organization and tasks; – a role of long-term care but particularly home longterm care to protect health in Poland; – problems related with home long-term care functioning.

  14. Financing long term liabilities (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    charges and fees levied from the waste producers. Altogether, financial resources for decommissioning are needed for the following steps: the post-operational phase in which the facility is prepared for dismantling after its final shut-down, dismantling of the radioactive part of the facility, management, storage and disposal of the radioactive waste, restoration of the site, licensing and regulatory supervision of all these steps. Additional means are necessary for the management, storage and disposal of the spent fuel. The way in which the availability of financial resources is secured differs between public owned installations and installations of the private power utilities. In Germany, past practices has resulted in singular contaminated sites of limited extent, mainly during the first half of the 20. century. Those contaminated sites have been or are being cleaned up and redeveloped. In large areas of Saxony and Thuringia, the geological formations permitted the surface and underground mining of Uranium ore. Facilities of the former Soviet-German WISMUT Ltd. where ore was mined and processed from 1946 until the early 1990's can be found at numerous sites. In the course of the re-unification of Germany, the soviet shares of the WISMUT were taken over by the Federal Republic of Germany and the closure of the WISMUT facilities was initiated. In that phase the extent of the damages to the environment and of the necessary remediation work became clear. All mining and milling sites are now closed and are under decommissioning. A comprehensive remediation concept covers all WISMUT sites. Heaps and mill-tailing ponds are transferred into a long-term stable condition. The area of the facilities to be remediated amounts to more than 30 km 2 . Heaps cover a total area of ca. 15,5 km 2 , tailing ponds in which the tailings resulting from the Uranium production are stored as sludges cover 6,3 km 2 ). In total, the remediation issues are very complex and without precedent. The

  15. Long-term survival after perforated diverticulitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vermeulen (Jan); M.P. Gosselink (Martijn Pieter); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); E. van der Harst (Erwin); B.E. Hansen (Bettina); G.H.H. Mannaerts (Guido); P-P. Coene (Peter Paul); W.F. Weidema (Wibo); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAim: Short-term survival after emergency surgery for perforated diverticulitis is poor. Less is known about long-term survival. The aims of this study were to evaluate long-term survival after discharge from hospital and to identify factors associated with prognosis. Method: All patients

  16. The Long-Term Swap Rate and a General Analysis of Long-Term Interest Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Biagini; Alessandro Gnoatto; Maximilian H\\"artel

    2015-01-01

    We introduce here for the first time the long-term swap rate, characterised as the fair rate of an overnight indexed swap with infinitely many exchanges. Furthermore we analyse the relationship between the long-term swap rate, the long-term yield, see [4], [5], and [25], and the long-term simple rate, considered in [8] as long-term discounting rate. We finally investigate the existence of these long-term rates in two term structure methodologies, the Flesaker-Hughston model and the linear-rat...

  17. The Implementation of Long-Term Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Rafaelič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term care is a new area of social protection that is based on the users needs and their understanding of the quality of life. In other countries direct payments are an important part of the long-term care systems. Discussed in the article are the development of direct payments in Slovenia and other countries. Different systems of long term care and direct payment schemes are presented. The slovene long term care system is provided through different laws and social secruity pillars and has yet to be established. Experiences of the pilot project in direct funding with the resettlements to the community are presented in the last part of the article. Direct payments are very effective in terms of resettlement of people from institutions into the community. New solutions for the new long term care law that will promote deinstitutionalisation and the development of community services are suggested.

  18. Dynamics of long-term genomic selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannink Jean-Luc

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simulation and empirical studies of genomic selection (GS show accuracies sufficient to generate rapid gains in early selection cycles. Beyond those cycles, allele frequency changes, recombination, and inbreeding make analytical prediction of gain impossible. The impacts of GS on long-term gain should be studied prior to its implementation. Methods A simulation case-study of this issue was done for barley, an inbred crop. On the basis of marker data on 192 breeding lines from an elite six-row spring barley program, stochastic simulation was used to explore the effects of large or small initial training populations with heritabilities of 0.2 or 0.5, applying GS before or after phenotyping, and applying additional weight on low-frequency favorable marker alleles. Genomic predictions were from ridge regression or a Bayesian analysis. Results Assuming that applying GS prior to phenotyping shortened breeding cycle time by 50%, this practice strongly increased early selection gains but also caused the loss of many favorable QTL alleles, leading to loss of genetic variance, loss of GS accuracy, and a low selection plateau. Placing additional weight on low-frequency favorable marker alleles, however, allowed GS to increase their frequency earlier on, causing an initial increase in genetic variance. This dynamic led to higher long-term gain while mitigating losses in short-term gain. Weighted GS also increased the maintenance of marker polymorphism, ensuring that QTL-marker linkage disequilibrium was higher than in unweighted GS. Conclusions Losing favorable alleles that are in weak linkage disequilibrium with markers is perhaps inevitable when using GS. Placing additional weight on low-frequency favorable alleles, however, may reduce the rate of loss of such alleles to below that of phenotypic selection. Applying such weights at the beginning of GS implementation is important.

  19. Long term results of pyeloplasty in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayib, Abdul Malik

    2004-01-01

    To determine the presenting systems, complications, stone coincidence in adult patients with primary ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction seen at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We are also reporting the success rate and long term results of adult pyeloplasty. We reviewed the records of 34 patients who underwent 37 pyeloplasty operations during the period January 1992 through to June 2002. The preoperative radiological diagnosis made by intravenous urogram or renal isotopes scan. We excluded from our study patients with previous history of passage of stones, renal or ureteral surgeries, large renal pelvis stone that may cause UPJ obstruction or abnormalities that may lead to secondry UPJ obstruction such as vesicoureteral reflux. There were 28 male patients and 8 females, their age varied between 16 and 51-years, the mean age was 36.1 years, and 18 (52.9%) patients had concomitant renal stones. Ispsilateral split renal function improved by 3-7% post pyeloplasty in 23 patients, while in one patient the function stayed the same, and in another patient the split function reduced by 4%. T1/2 renal isotopes washout time became less than 15 minutes in 19 patients and less than 20 minutes in 6 patients. Intravenous urogram revealed disappearence of the obstruction at UPJ in 7 patients while in 2 patients it became poorly functioning. Anderson Hynes pyeloplasty is an excellent procedure for treating UPJ obstruction in adults. Our success rate is comparable to the international repoted rates, while our study revealed a higher incidence of concomitant renal stones than the international studies. (author)

  20. Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...

  1. Reforming long-term care in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costa-i-Font, Joan

    2011-01-01

    .... Offers the very latest analysis of long-term care reform agendas in Europe. Compares countries comparatively less studied with the experiences of reform in Germany, the UK, Netherlands and Sweden...

  2. Long-term outcomes after severe shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Cristina M; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Jones, Jason P; Kuttler, Kathryn G; Lanspa, Michael J; Wilson, Emily L; Hopkins, Ramona O; Brown, Samuel M

    2015-02-01

    Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ≥1 μg/kg per minute of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured 3-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years; 82% (62 of 76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of 5 years after hospital admission. The patients' Physical Functioning scores were below U.S. population norms (P shock had a high 3-year survival rate. Patients' long-term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill intensive care unit survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term outcomes. Even extremely critically ill patients have similar outcomes to general intensive care unit survivor populations.

  3. Manganese in long term paediatric parenteral nutrition.

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, A P; Kiely, E; Meadows, N

    1994-01-01

    The current practice of providing manganese supplementation to neonates on long term parenteral nutrition is leading to a high incidence of hypermanganesaemia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in adults on long term manganese parenteral nutrition have shown changes in TI weighted MRI images and similar findings in a neonate receiving trace element supplementation are reported here. Whole blood manganese concentration in the infant was 1740 nmol/l (or 8.3 times upper reference limit). ...

  4. Physiological, Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Long-Term Habituation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calin-Jageman, Robert J

    2009-09-12

    Work funded on this grant has explored the mechanisms of long-term habituation, a ubiquitous form of learning that plays a key role in basic cognitive functioning. Specifically, behavioral, physiological, and molecular mechanisms of habituation have been explored using a simple model system, the tail-elicited siphon-withdrawal reflex (T-SWR) in the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Substantial progress has been made on the first and third aims, providing some fundamental insights into the mechanisms by which memories are stored. We have characterized the physiological correlates of short- and long-term habituation. We found that short-term habituation is accompanied by a robust sensory adaptation, whereas long-term habituation is accompanied by alterations in sensory and interneuron synaptic efficacy. Thus, our data indicates memories can be shifted between different sites in a neural network as they are consolidated from short to long term. At the molecular level, we have accomplished microarray analysis comparing gene expression in both habituated and control ganglia. We have identified a network of putatively regulated transcripts that seems particularly targeted towards synaptic changes (e.g. SNAP25, calmodulin) . We are now beginning additional work to confirm regulation of these transcripts and build a more detailed understanding of the cascade of molecular events leading to the permanent storage of long-term memories. On the third aim, we have fostered a nascent neuroscience program via a variety of successful initiatives. We have funded over 11 undergraduate neuroscience scholars, several of whom have been recognized at national and regional levels for their research. We have also conducted a pioneering summer research program for community college students which is helping enhance access of underrepresented groups to life science careers. Despite minimal progress on the second aim, this project has provided a) novel insight into the network mechanisms by

  5. [Percutaneous transhepatic bilioplasty: long-term results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, D; Martina, M C; Tola, E; Fonio, P; Fronda, G R; Gandini, G

    1990-10-01

    We report the results of a long-term follow-up of 40/101 patients with benign biliary strictures treated with percutaneous balloon dilatation (PBD) at the Radiology Department of the University of Turin, from March 1983 to March 1990. We excluded all the patients who were not followed or treated after June 1988, being their follow-up shorter than 18 months. All patients underwent accurate clinical, biological (AST, ALT, gammaGT, alcaline phosphatase) and US controls. Mean follow-up was 33.5 months. Mean success rate was 75% in strictures of bilioenteric anastomosis, 86% in iatrogenic strictures of the common bile duct, 65% in sclerosing cholangitis, 80% in papillary strictures in which endoscopic treatment had not been possible for anatomical reasons. Our results, compared to the most important radiological and surgical series, show PBD to have lower morbidity than surgery and no mortality during the so-called peroperative period (30 days). Moreover, in case of recurrences, PBD can be repeated without further complications and does not affect eventual surgery.

  6. Long term results of mandibular distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batra Puneet

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular distraction osteogenesis has become a popular surgical modality due to its many advantages over conventional orthognathic surgical procedures. However, in spite of the technique having been used for over 15 years, no concrete long term results are available regarding the stability of results. We discuss the various studies which have reported either in favour or against the stablility of results after distraction. We report a series of 6 cases (3 unilateral and 3 bilateral distraction where distraction was carried out before puberty and followed them up to seven years after removal of distractors. This case series shows that results achieved by distraction osteogenesis are unstable or best unpredictable with respect to producing a permanent size increase in the mandible. The role of the distraction osteogenesis in overcoming the pterygomassetric sling is questionable. We suggest a multicenter study with adequate patient numbers treated with a similar protocol and documented after growth cessation to have meaningful conclusions on the debate of distraction osteogenesis versus orthognathic surgery.

  7. Short-horizon regulation for long-term investors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Z.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of imposing repeated short-horizon regulatory constraints on long-term investors. We show that Value-at-Risk and Expected Shortfall constraints, when imposed dynamically, lead to similar optimal portfolios and wealth distributions. We also show that, in utility terms, the costs

  8. Long-Term Retardation of Uranium in the KURT Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Shin, Joo Do; Park, Tae Jin

    2016-01-01

    One of possibilities resolving this issue is to study the migration and retardation processes of radionuclides in the subsurface environments by using naturally occurring radionuclides as analogues of radioactive waste. To date, however, the long-term behavior of radionuclides in a granitic groundwater system is not yet fully understood. The ubiquitous presence of uranium (U) in rocks makes it an ideal natural analogue for studying the behaviors of radionuclides in a deep geological repository for the final disposal of HLW. In this study, long-term retardation behavior of natural uranium was investigated using granite rock samples taken from the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel), located in Daejeon city. The distribution of uranium and its binding mechanism in granite samples were investigated using the sequential chemical extraction (SCE) technique combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ICP-MS methods. In this study, the long-term retardation of uranium in the KURT environment was investigated using SCE and EPMA techniques combined with ICP-MS and XRD. Results showed that long-term interaction of rock with groundwater can change U species and mineralize dissolved U, which can consequently contribute to the retardation of U in the fractured granitic rock environment. This study will help us to understand the long-term behavior of radionuclides migrating through the fractured granite rock and then enhance the reliability of the safety assessment for a HLW repository

  9. Long-term prisoner in prison isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Grudzińska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term prisoner belongs to a particular category of people who are imprisoned in prisons. On the one hand in this group are often heavily demoralized people who committed the most serious crimes, on the other hand it is a group of prisoners, who should be well thought out and programmed the impact of rehabilitation. The situation of man trapped for years poses in a complicated situation not only the prisoners, but also the entire prison staff. They have to take care of the fact that the prison isolation did not cause the state in which convicts form itself in learned helplessness and lack of skills for self-planning and decision-making. In addition, planning the rehabilitation impact of long-term prisoners should not be forgotten that these prisoners in the short or the long term will return to the libertarian environment therefore, should prevent any negative effects of long-term imprisonment. This article presents the main issues related to the execution of imprisonment against long-term prisoners. It is an attempt to systematize the knowledge of this category of people living in prison isolation.

  10. Long-term opioid therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, H.; Ekholm, O.; Sjøgren, P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Longitudinal population-based studies of long-term opioid therapy (L-TOT) in chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) patients are sparse. Our study investigated incidence and predictors for initiating L-TOT and changes in self-rated health, pain interference and physical activities in long......-term opioid therapy does not seem to provide pain relief, improvement in HRQOL and physical capacity in CNCP patients in a general population.......,145). A nationally representative subsample of individuals (n = 2015) completed the self-administered questionnaire in both 2000 and 2013. Collected information included chronic pain (≥6 months), health behaviour, self-rated health, pain interference with work activities and physical activities. Long-term users were...

  11. Long-term opioid therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, H; Ekholm, Ola; Sjøgren, P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Longitudinal population-based studies of long-term opioid therapy (L-TOT) in chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) patients are sparse. Our study investigated incidence and predictors for initiating L-TOT and changes in self-rated health, pain interference and physical activities in long......-term opioid therapy does not seem to provide pain relief, improvement in HRQOL and physical capacity in CNCP patients in a general population.......,145). A nationally representative subsample of individuals (n = 2015) completed the self-administered questionnaire in both 2000 and 2013. Collected information included chronic pain (≥6 months), health behaviour, self-rated health, pain interference with work activities and physical activities. Long-term users were...

  12. [Analysis of long-term survivors in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Akira; Matuzu, Kenichi

    2012-07-01

    We analyzed the clinicopathologic and therapeutic factors associated with long-term survival in 449 patients with anaplastic carcinoma registered with the Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Consortium of Japan. Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between long-term survival of more than 1 year and the following factors: the appearance of acute symptom; WBC thyroid gland after surgery; no distant metastasis at initial diagnosi; complete resection of gross tumor; and administration of external irradiation (40 Gy) and chemotherapy. In multivariate analysis, only tumor diameter (disease.

  13. Long-term home care scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Jensen, Thomas Sejr

    In several countries, home care is provided for certain citizens living at home. The long-term home care scheduling problem is to generate work plans spanning several days such that a high quality of service is maintained and the overall cost is kept as low as possible. A solution to the problem...... provides detailed information on visits and visit times for each employee on each of the covered days. We propose a branch-and-price algorithm for the long-term home care scheduling problem. The pricing problem generates one-day plans for an employee, and the master problem merges the plans with respect...

  14. Valuing a long-term care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellen, C M

    1992-10-01

    The business valuation industry generally uses at least one of three basic approaches to value a long-term care facility: the cost approach, sales comparison approach, or income approach. The approach that is chosen and the resulting weight that is applied to it depend largely on the circumstances involved. Because a long-term care facility is a business enterprise, more weight usually is given to the income approach which factors into the estimate of value both the tangible and intangible assets of the facility.

  15. A Long-term Plan for Kalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    In this case, the author demonstrates together with the owner-manager of KALK A/S, Mr Rasmus Jorgensen, how to use the Family Business Map to frame a constructive discussion about long-term planning. The Family Business Map is a tool for long-term planning in family firms developed by Professor...... Morten Bennedsen, INSEAD and Professor Joseph Fan, Chinese University of Hong Kong. It consists of 40 questions regarding assets in the family and roadblocks facing the family firm. The Family Business Map determines that the level of family assets in KALK is high, while the level of roadblocks is severe...

  16. What's Mine is Yours: Long-Term Experiences of Good Samaritan Organ Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramstedt, Katrina A

    2018-03-01

    This study is a long-term follow-up on the health and quality of life of Good Samaritan living organ donors who donated an average of 10 years ago. Thirteen donors (kidney, liver, and lung) completed 2 surveys. Data from the RAND 36-Item Health Survey showed that for all domains, as well as the physical and mental component summary scales, the Good Samaritan donor outcomes were superior to the general population ( P good, very good, or excellent health status. Although donors overwhelmingly reported positivity about the donation experience, narrative comments about adverse events and recipient death must keep transplant teams alert to these critical areas. Good Samaritan organ donors come to the hospital healthy, give a gift to a stranger, and sometimes leave and linger disabled. Donor teams should be observing, questioning, and responding in an effort to maximize their welfare. This research is unique because investigation of the long-term health and psychosocial outcomes of Good Samaritan organ donors is rare. Existing studies that report long-term outcomes of kidney donors do not separately analyze Good Samaritan donor data from related living donors.

  17. Long-term monitoring of breath methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polag, Daniela; Keppler, Frank

    2018-05-15

    In recent years, methane as a component of exhaled human breath has been considered as a potential bioindicator providing information on microbial activity in the intestinal tract. Several studies indicated a relationship between breath methane status and specific gastrointestinal disease. So far, almost no attention has been given to the temporal variability of breath methane production by individual persons. Thus here, for the first time, long-term monitoring was carried out measuring breath methane of three volunteers over periods between 196 and 1002days. Results were evaluated taking into consideration the health status and specific medical intervention events for each individual during the monitoring period, and included a gastroscopy procedure, a vaccination, a dietary change, and chelate therapy. As a major outcome, breath methane mixing ratios show considerable variability within a person-specific range of values. Interestingly, decreased breath methane production often coincided with gastrointestinal complaints whereas influenza infections were mostly accompanied by increased breath methane production. A gastroscopic examination as well as a change to a low-fructose diet led to a dramatic shift of methane mixing ratios from high to low methane production. In contrast, a typhus vaccination as well as single chelate injections resulted in significant short-term methane peaks. Thus, this study clearly shows that humans can change from high to low methane emitters and vice versa within relatively short time periods. In the case of low to medium methane emitters the increase observed in methane mixing ratios, likely resulting from immune reactions and inflammatory processes, might indicate non-microbial methane formation under aerobic conditions. Although detailed reaction pathways are not yet known, aerobic methane formation might be related to cellular oxidative-reductive stress reactions. However, a detailed understanding of the pathways involved in human

  18. Long term stability of atomic time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Gérard; Arias, Elisa Felicitas

    2012-08-01

    International Atomic Time TAI gets its stability from some 400 atomic clocks worldwide that generate the free atomic scale EA L and its accuracy from a small number of primary frequency standards (PFS) which frequency measurements are used to steer the EAL frequency. Because TAI is computed in "real - time" (every month) and has operational constraints, it is not optimal and the BIPM computes in deferred time another time scale TT(BIPM), which is based on a weighted average of the evaluations of TAI frequency by the PFS. We show that a point has been reached where the stability of atomic time scales, the accuracy of primary frequency standards, and the capabilities of frequency transfer are approximately at a similar level, in the low 10 - 16 in relative frequency. The goal is now to reach and surpass 1x10 - 16 and the three fields are in various stages of advancement towards this aim. We review the stability and accuracy recently achieved by frequency standards, focusing on primary frequency standards on one hand, and on new secondary realizations e.g. based on optical transitions on the other hand. We study how these performances can translate to the performance of atomic time scales, and the possible implications of the availability of new high - accuracy frequency standards operating on a regular basis. Finally we show how time transfer is trying to keep up with the progresses of frequency standards. Time transfer is presently the limiting factor at short averaging time (e.g. 1 - 2 weeks) but it should not be limiting the long term stability of atomic time scales, which is the main need of many applications in astronomy.

  19. Simulation of long-term dynamic behavior of runaway electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yulei; Liu Jian; Zhang Ruili; He Yang

    2015-01-01

    The secular dynamics of runaway electrons in Tokamak electromagnetic field is studied. The radiation effect is added into a relativistic volume-preserving algorithm to gain long-term stability of calculation. The results shows that the method we used is able to reveal the behavior of a runaway electron in configuration space. (author)

  20. Incidental Biasing of Attention from Visual Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Judith E.; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2016-01-01

    Holding recently experienced information in mind can help us achieve our current goals. However, such immediate and direct forms of guidance from working memory are less helpful over extended delays or when other related information in long-term memory is useful for reaching these goals. Here we show that information that was encoded in the past…

  1. Recent warming reverses long-term arctic cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    kaufman, D.S.; Vinther, Bo Møllesøe

    2009-01-01

    continued through the Middle Ages and into the Little Ice Age. A 2000-year transient climate simulation with the Community Climate System Model shows the same temperature sensitivity to changes in insolation as does our proxy reconstruction, supporting the inference that this long-term trend was caused...

  2. Long-Term Stability of Social Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

  3. Timber joints under long-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.

    This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were...

  4. Professionalism in Long-Term Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinski, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…

  5. Pituitary diseases : long-term psychological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemensma, Jitske

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, pituitary adenomas can be appropriately treated, but patients continue to report impaired quality of life (QoL) despite long-term remission or cure. In patients with Cushing’s disease, Cushing’s syndrome or acromegaly, doctors should be aware of subtle cognitive impairments and the

  6. Long-term effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Alexander; Burkart, Werner; Grosche, Bernd; Jung, Thomas; Martignoni, Klaus; Stephan, Guenther

    1997-01-01

    This paper approaches the long-term effects of ionizing radiation considering the common thought that killing of cells is the basis for deterministic effects and that the subtle changes in genetic information are important in the development of radiation-induced cancer, or genetic effects if these changes are induced in germ cells

  7. Asthma Medicines: Long-Term Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or injected, are sometimes of value to get asthma quickly under control when a child is beginning long-term asthma therapy. Inhaled corticosteroids ... Updated 11/21/2015 Source Guide to Your Childs Allergies and Asthma (Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics) The information ...

  8. Nutritional deficit and Long Term Potentiation alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Petrosino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we examined the ability of prenatally malnourished offspring to produce and maintain long-term potentiation (LTP of the perforant path/dentate granule cell synapse in freely moving rats at 15,30, and 90 days of age. Population spike amplitude (PSA was calculated from dentate field potential recordings prior to and at 15, 30, 60 min. and 3, 5, 18 and 24 h following tetanization of the perforant pathway. All animals of both malnourished and well-nourished diet groups at 15 days of age showed potentiation of PSA measures but the measures obtained from 15-day-old prenatally malnourished animals were significantly less than that of age-matched, well-nourished controls. At 30 days of age, remarkable effect of tetanization was likely observed from PSA measures for this age group followed much the same pattern. At 90 days of age, PSA measures obtained from malnourished animals decreased from pretetanization levels immediately following tetanization. At this age, however, at three hours time recordings, this measure growing up to a level which did not differ significantly from that of the control group. These results indicate that the width of tetanization induced enhancement of dentate granule cell response in preweanling rats (15-day-old animals is signifacantly affected fromgestational protein malnutrition and this trend is kept in animals tested at 30 and 90 days of age. The fact, however, that considerable limitation in LTP generation was gained from prenatally malnourished animals at 90 days of age, implying that dietary rehabilitation starting at birth is an intervention strategy not capable to imbrove the effects of the gestational stress.

  9. Perinatal respiratory infections and long term consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Indinnimeo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most important pathogen in the etiology of respiratory infections in early life. 50% of children are affected by RSV within the first year of age, and almost all children become infected within two years. Numerous retrospective and prospective studies linking RSV and chronic respiratory morbidity show that RSV bronchiolitis in infancy is followed by recurrent wheezing after the acute episod. According to some authors a greater risk of wheezing in children with a history of RSV bronchiolitis would be limited to childhood, while according to others this risk would be extended into adolescence and adulthood. To explain the relationship between RSV infection and the development of bronchial asthma or the clinical pathogenetic patterns related to a state of bronchial hyperreactivity, it has been suggested that RSV may cause alterations in the response of the immune system (immunogenic hypothesis, activating directly mast cells and basophils and changing the pattern of differentiation of immune cells present in the bronchial tree as receptors and inflammatory cytokines. It was also suggested that RSV infection can cause bronchial hyperreactivity altering nervous airway modulation, acting on nerve fibers present in the airways (neurogenic hypothesis.The benefits of passive immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab, which seems to represent an effective approach in reducing the sequelae of RSV infection in the short- and long-term period, strengthen the implementation of prevention programs with this drug, as recommended by the national guidelines of the Italian Society of Neonatology. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the

  10. A novel irreversible FLT3 inhibitor, FF-10101, shows excellent efficacy against AML cells withFLT3mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Takeshi; Nakatani, Toshiyuki; Uda, Ken; Ogura, Hayato; Shin, Wigyon; Kurokawa, Naoya; Saito, Koichi; Fujikawa, Norie; Date, Tomomi; Takasaki, Masaru; Terada, Daisuke; Hirai, Atsushi; Akashi, Akimi; Chen, Fangli; Adachi, Yoshiya; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Hayakawa, Fumihiko; Hagiwara, Shinji; Naoe, Tomoki; Kiyoi, Hitoshi

    2018-01-25

    An activating mutation of Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ( FLT3 ) is the most frequent genetic alteration associated with poor prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Although many FLT3 inhibitors have been clinically developed, no first-generation inhibitors have demonstrated clinical efficacy by monotherapy, due to poor pharmacokinetics or unfavorable safety profiles possibly associated with low selectivity against FLT3 kinase. Recently, a selective FLT3 inhibitor, quizartinib, demonstrated favorable outcomes in clinical studies. However, several resistant mutations emerged during the disease progression. To overcome these problems, we developed a novel FLT3 inhibitor, FF-10101, designed to possess selective and irreversible FLT3 inhibition. The co-crystal structure of FLT3 protein bound to FF-10101 revealed the formation of a covalent bond between FF-10101 and the cysteine residue at 695 of FLT3. The unique binding brought high selectivity and inhibitory activity against FLT3 kinase. FF-10101 showed potent growth inhibitory effects on human AML cell lines harboring FLT3 internal tandem duplication ( FLT3 -ITD), MOLM-13, MOLM-14, and MV4-11, and all tested types of mutant FLT3-expressing 32D cells including quizartinib-resistant mutations at D835, Y842, and F691 residues in the FLT3 kinase domain. In mouse subcutaneous implantation models, orally administered FF-10101 showed significant growth inhibitory effect on FLT3-ITD-D835Y- and FLT3-ITD-F691L-expressing 32D cells. Furthermore, FF-10101 potently inhibited growth of primary AML cells harboring either FLT3 -ITD or FLT3 -D835 mutation in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that FF-10101 is a promising agent for the treatment of patients with AML with FLT3 mutations, including the activation loop mutations clinically identified as quizartinib-resistant mutations. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  11. Sourcing Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi

    2011-01-01

    the competitiveness of manufacturing companies (7). Over the last couple of years, supplier’s development is an evolution in supply chain management and there is a growing interest in generating approaches for meaningful development of suppliers and SDI. This would allow businesses to snatch long-term strategic......Sourcing Excellence is one of the key performance indicators (KPIs) in this world of ever changing sourcing strategies. Manufacturing companies need to access and diagnose the reliability and competencies of existing suppliers in order to coordinate and develop them. This would help in managing...... their relationships through the sharing and diversification of knowledge and skills. Meanwhile, this research will also strengthen the collaboration of researchers in the field of operations management to ascertain and adopt the right development tools for specific or groups of suppliers in manufacturing companies...

  12. Long-Term Control Medications for Lung Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Asthma Medications Long-Term Control Medications Long-Term Control Medications Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer Patient Long-term control medications are taken daily to control and ...

  13. Long-term follow-up after arthroscopic tenotomy for partial rupture of the biceps brachii tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergenhuyzen, A L R; Vermote, K A G; van Bree, H; Van Ryssen, B

    2010-01-01

    To report the long-term clinical outcomes and radiographic results in dogs diagnosed with partial bicipital rupture and treated by arthroscopic tenotomy. The medical records of dogs that had undergone arthroscopic tenotomy were retrospectively reviewed. Inclusion criteria for this study were: performance of an arthroscopic tenotomy between August 1999 and July 2007, availability of arthroscopic records data for review, and ability to obtain follow-up data for more than one year after arthroscopic tenotomy. In all cases, owners were interviewed during follow-up appointments or via telephone to determine perceived outcome after surgery. Forty-seven arthroscopic tenotomies were performed on 40 dogs without any major surgical complications. Long-term follow-up examinations, ranging from 12 months to 48 months (mean 26 months) after the tenotomy, were obtained for 24 dogs (25 shoulders). Clinical outcome was assessed as excellent in 22 shoulders, with each dog showing a full return of limb function. A total of 10 dogs (11 joints) were evaluated radiographically; six joints revealed no progression of pathology, and five joints showed a limited progression of pathology. Arthroscopic tenotomy in the treatment of bicipital partial rupture yields favourable long-term clinical results and a high degree of owner satisfaction. The feasibility of this technique and the long-term clinical and radiographic outcome from our study indicate that this technique can be considered a reliable and safe treatment for partial bicipital rupture.

  14. Long-term prognosis of childhood absence epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ferrández, C; Martínez-Salcedo, E; Casas-Fernández, C; Alarcón-Martínez, H; Ibáñez-Micó, S; Domingo-Jiménez, R

    2017-03-18

    Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is considered easily manageable with medication provided that a strict patient classification system is employed. It accounts for 10% of all childhood epilepsy cases starting before the age of 15 and it is most frequent in school-aged girls. The aim of this study is to analyse long-term outcomes of patients diagnosed with CAE according to the Loiseau and Panayiotopoulos criteria and treated during childhood. We conducted a retrospective study including 69 patients with CAE who are currently older than 11; data were gathered from medical histories, EEG records, and telephone questionnaires. 52 patients met the Loiseau and Panayiotopoulos criteria. Mean age is now 17.16 years. Female-to-male ratio was 1.65:1; mean age at onset was 6 years and 2 months; mean duration of treatment was 3 years and 9 months. A family history of epilepsy was present in 30.8% of the patients and 7.7% had a personal history of febrile convulsions. Absence seizures were simple in 73.5% of the patients and complex in 26.5%. Response rates to first-line treatment were as follows: valproic acid, 46.3%; and valproic acid plus ethosuximide, 90.9%. The rate of response to second-line therapy (ethosuximide or lamotrigine) was 84.2%; 4% of the patients experienced further seizures after treatment discontinuation, 78.8% achieved seizure remission, and 25% needed psychological and academic support. Our data show that epileptic patients should be classified according to strict diagnostic criteria since patients with true CAE have an excellent prognosis. The relapse rate was very low in our sample. Despite the favourable prognosis, psychological and academic support is usually necessary. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Some shortcomings of long-term working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobet, F

    2000-11-01

    Within the framework of their long term working memory theory, Ericsson and Kintsch (1995) propose that experts rapidly store information in long-term memory through two mechanisms: elaboration of long-term memory patterns and schemas and use of retrieval structures. They use chess players' memory as one of their most compelling sources of empirical evidence. In this paper, I show that evidence from chess memory, far from supporting their theory, limits its generality. Evidence from other domains reviewed by Ericsson and Kintsch, such as medical expertise, is not as strong as claimed, and sometimes contradicts the theory outright. I argue that Ericsson and Kintsch's concept of retrieval structure conflates three different types of memory structures that possess quite different properties. One of these types of structures--generic, general purpose retrieval structures--has a narrower use than proposed by Ericsson and Kintsch: it applies only in domains where there is a conscious, deliberate intent by individuals to improve their memory. Other mechanisms, including specific retrieval structures, exist that permit a rapid encoding into long-term memory under other circumstances.

  16. Neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Bianca P; Aron, Arthur; Fisher, Helen E; Brown, Lucy L

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined the neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten women and 7 men married an average of 21.4 years underwent fMRI while viewing facial images of their partner. Control images included a highly familiar acquaintance; a close, long-term friend; and a low-familiar person. Effects specific to the intensely loved, long-term partner were found in: (i) areas of the dopamine-rich reward and basal ganglia system, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dorsal striatum, consistent with results from early-stage romantic love studies; and (ii) several regions implicated in maternal attachment, such as the globus pallidus (GP), substantia nigra, Raphe nucleus, thalamus, insular cortex, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate. Correlations of neural activity in regions of interest with widely used questionnaires showed: (i) VTA and caudate responses correlated with romantic love scores and inclusion of other in the self; (ii) GP responses correlated with friendship-based love scores; (iii) hypothalamus and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with sexual frequency; and (iv) caudate, septum/fornix, posterior cingulate and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with obsession. Overall, results suggest that for some individuals the reward-value associated with a long-term partner may be sustained, similar to new love, but also involves brain systems implicated in attachment and pair-bonding.

  17. Neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Arthur; Fisher, Helen E.; Brown, Lucy L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten women and 7 men married an average of 21.4 years underwent fMRI while viewing facial images of their partner. Control images included a highly familiar acquaintance; a close, long-term friend; and a low-familiar person. Effects specific to the intensely loved, long-term partner were found in: (i) areas of the dopamine-rich reward and basal ganglia system, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dorsal striatum, consistent with results from early-stage romantic love studies; and (ii) several regions implicated in maternal attachment, such as the globus pallidus (GP), substantia nigra, Raphe nucleus, thalamus, insular cortex, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate. Correlations of neural activity in regions of interest with widely used questionnaires showed: (i) VTA and caudate responses correlated with romantic love scores and inclusion of other in the self; (ii) GP responses correlated with friendship-based love scores; (iii) hypothalamus and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with sexual frequency; and (iv) caudate, septum/fornix, posterior cingulate and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with obsession. Overall, results suggest that for some individuals the reward-value associated with a long-term partner may be sustained, similar to new love, but also involves brain systems implicated in attachment and pair-bonding. PMID:21208991

  18. Long-Term Prognosis of Plantar Fasciitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Liselotte; Krogh, Thøger Persson; Ellingsen, Torkell

    2018-01-01

    , exercise-induced symptoms, bilateral heel pain, fascia thickness, and presence of a heel spur) could predict long-term outcomes, (3) to assess the long-term ultrasound (US) development in the fascia, and (4) to assess whether US-guided corticosteroid injections induce atrophy of the heel fat pad. Study....... The risk was significantly greater for women (P Fascia thickness decreased significantly in both the asymptomatic and symptomatic groups (P Fascia thickness (P =.49) and presence of a heel...... spur (P =.88) at baseline had no impact on prognosis. At follow-up, fascia thickness and echogenicity had normalized in only 24% of the asymptomatic group. The mean fat pad thickness was 9.0 mm in patients who had received a US-guided corticosteroid injection and 9.4 mm in those who had not been given...

  19. Experiences of long-term tranquillizer use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinhoj, K T; Larsson, S; Helweg-Joergensen, S

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the article is to analyse narrative descriptions and experiences of long-term tranquillizer use. The analysis is based on a Danish in-depth study of 50 informants with a self-diagnosed dependency on tranquillizers. The theoretical analysis is dependent on psychodynamic reasoning. Furth...... use. Important themes frequently mentioned in the clients' descriptions are traumatic childhood experiences, identity problems, life crises in adulthood and difficulties in stopping taking psychotropic drugs....

  20. Murine model of long term obstructive jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hiroaki; Aoki, Masayo; Yang, Jing; Katsuta, Eriko; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Woelfel, Ingrid A.; Wang, Xuan; Spiegel, Sarah; Zhou, Huiping; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    Background With the recent emergence of conjugated bile acids as signaling molecules in cancer, a murine model of obstructive jaundice by cholestasis with long-term survival is in need. Here, we investigated the characteristics of 3 murine models of obstructive jaundice. Methods C57BL/6J mice were used for total ligation of the common bile duct (tCL), partial common bile duct ligation (pCL), and ligation of left and median hepatic bile duct with gallbladder removal (LMHL) models. Survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier method. Fibrotic change was determined by Masson-Trichrome staining and Collagen expression. Results 70% (7/10) of tCL mice died by Day 7, whereas majority 67% (10/15) of pCL mice survived with loss of jaundice. 19% (3/16) of LMHL mice died; however, jaundice continued beyond Day 14, with survival of more than a month. Compensatory enlargement of the right lobe was observed in both pCL and LMHL models. The pCL model demonstrated acute inflammation due to obstructive jaundice 3 days after ligation but jaundice rapidly decreased by Day 7. The LHML group developed portal hypertension as well as severe fibrosis by Day 14 in addition to prolonged jaundice. Conclusion The standard tCL model is too unstable with high mortality for long-term studies. pCL may be an appropriate model for acute inflammation with obstructive jaundice but long term survivors are no longer jaundiced. The LHML model was identified to be the most feasible model to study the effect of long-term obstructive jaundice. PMID:27916350

  1. Long term evolution 4G and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Yacoub, Michel; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Tronco, Tania

    2016-01-01

    This book focus on Long Term Evolution (LTE) and beyond. The chapters describe different aspects of research and development in LTE, LTE-Advanced (4G systems) and LTE-450 MHz such as telecommunications regulatory framework, voice over LTE, link adaptation, power control, interference mitigation mechanisms, performance evaluation for different types of antennas, cognitive mesh network, integration of LTE network and satellite, test environment, power amplifiers and so on. It is useful for researchers in the field of mobile communications.

  2. Long-Term Contracting with Markovian Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Battaglini

    2005-01-01

    To study how a firm can capitalize on a long-term customer relationship, we characterize the optimal contract between a monopolist and a consumer whose preferences follow a Markov process. The optimal contract is nonstationary and has infinite memory, but is described by a simple state variable. Under general conditions, supply converges to the efficient level for any degree of persistence of the types and along any history, though convergence is history-dependent. In contrast, as with consta...

  3. The 2013 Long-Term Budget Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    and Social Security. Population projections depend on projections of fertility , immigration, and mortality. For fertility rates, CBO adopted the...projections, which differ from those of the Social Security trustees. Together, CBO’s long-term assump- tions about fertility , mortality, and...such as obesity and future medical technology, CBO has based its mortality projec- tions on a simple extrapolation of past trends. Conse- quently

  4. Long-Term Hearing Results After Ossiculoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Matthew D; Trinidade, Aaron; Russell, James Shep; Dornhoffer, John L

    2017-04-01

    To determine if the OOPS index is predictive of long-term hearing results after ossiculoplasty. Case series with retrospective chart review. Tertiary care otology practice. Adult and pediatric patients (3-88 years of age). Ossiculoplasty with cartilage tympanoplasty, with or without mastoidectomy. Primary outcome measures included short-term hearing results (pure-tone average air-bone gap [PTA-ABG] measured between 60 days and 1 year after surgery), long-term hearing results (PTA-ABG measured ≥5 years after surgery), and the rate of successful ABG closure to ≤20 dB. Secondary measures included the need for revision surgery, delayed tympanic membrane graft failure, worsening conductive hearing loss (after an initially satisfactory hearing result), and recurrence of cholesteatoma. There was no significant difference between adults and children for short-term hearing results (average post-op PTA-ABG was 18.9 dB vs. 19.8 dB, respectively; p = 0.544), long-term hearing results (average final PTA-ABG was 19.3 dB vs. 19.4 dB, respectively; p = 0.922), or rate of ABG closure to less than 20 dB (63.1% vs. 58.0%, p = 0.282). Spearman's rank-order correlation (ρ) identified a strong positive correlation between OOPS index score and average post-operative PTA-ABG (ρ = 0.983; p hearing outcomes in adult and pediatric patients undergoing ossiculoplasty in both the short term and the long term.

  5. Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1994-01-01

    Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration was investigated from 1982 to 1992 at a semi-natural location 10 km north of Munich, southern Germany. For this period the continuous measurement yielded a long-term average of 8.6 Bq.m -3 (arithmetic mean) and 6.9 Bq.m -3 (geometric mean), from which an average annual effective dose of 0.14 mSv due to outdoor radon can be derived. A long-term trend of the radon concentration was not detectable over the whole period of observation. However, by time series analysis, a long-term cyclic pattern was identified with two maxima (1984-1986, 1989-1991) and two minima (1982-1983, 1987-1988). The seasonal pattern is characterized by an autumn maximum and an early summer minimum. On average, the seasonal maximum in October was found to be higher by a factor of 2 than the June minimum. The diurnal variation of the radon concentration shows a maximum in the early morning and a minimum in the afternoon. On average, this maximum is a factor of 2 higher than the minimum. In the long term a seasonal pattern was observed for diurnal variation, with an average diurnal maximum to minimum ratio of 1.5 in winter compared with 3.5 in the summer months. The radon concentration is correlated with a meteorological parameter (stagnation index) which takes into account horizontal and vertical exchange processes and the wash-out of aerosols in the lower atmosphere. (orig.)

  6. Assessment of Long-Term Mate Preferences in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Atari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that assessment of mate preferences has received relatively little psychometric attention from researchers, particularly in non-Western cultures. The current research was designed to (1 extend previous findings on long-term mate preferences by using a qualitative strategy, (2 develop a psychometrically sound scale for assessment of long-term mate preferences in men, and (3 develop a sex-neutral scale for assessment of long-term mate preferences. Six dimensions of mate preferences emerged for men: F = family/domesticity, A = attractiveness/sexuality, K = kindness/dependability, E = education/intelligence, R = religiosity/chastity, and S = status/resources. These male-specific dimensions of mate preferences showed satisfactory concurrent and convergent validity as well as high internal consistency coefficients. We mixed the female- and male-specific measures of mate preferences and arrived at 20 characteristics without culture- or sex-specific content. We further hypothesized that the 20-item scale of mate preferences would have a five-factor structure (i.e., kindness/dependability, attractiveness/sexuality, status/resources, education/intelligence, religiosity/chastity [KASER] in men and women and that this model would replicate sex differences cited in the evolutionary psychological literature. Measurement invariance was evidenced across sexes and sex differences accorded with those in the literature. Therefore, the five-factor model of long-term mate preferences (i.e., KASER model as measured by the Iranian Mate Preferences Scale-20 may be used to evaluate long-term mate preferences in men and women in Iran. Limitations are noted and future directions are discussed in the light of evolutionary perspective on human mating psychology.

  7. Long-term sealing of openings in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.; Stockmann, N.; Yaramanci, U.; Laurens, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive wastes can be disposed of in deep salt formations. Rock salt is a suitable geologic medium because of its unique characteristics. Open boreholes, shafts and drifts are created to provide physical access to the repository. Long-term seals must be emplaced in those potential pathways to prevent radioactive release to the biosphere. The sealing materials must be mechanically and, most important, geochemically stable within the host rock. Salt bricks made of compressed salt-powder are understood to be the first choice long-term sealing material. Seals built from salt bricks will be ductile. The permeability of the salt bricks is assumed to be in the order of 2*10 -15 m 2 . Large sealing systems are built by combining the individual bricks with mortar. Raw materials for mortar are fine-grained halite powder and ground saliferous clay. The permeability of the mortar decreases with its salt content to approx. 2*10 -14 m 2 . Moistened saliferous clay may show temporary swelling. Sealing experiments will be carried out in the Asse salt mine. Long-term seals will be built into holes of 1 m diameter. The contact and merging of the brick-wall with the surrounding rock salt will be investigated in long-term tests. Within the in situ sealing program a number of geophysical methods are applied. Acoustic emission measurements are used to study the effects of high pressure gas injection and a geoelectrical observation program is aiming to estimate the permeability in and around the long-term seal. High frequency electromagnetic methods contribute to the knowledge of the petrophysical rock properties. 11 refs., 12 figs

  8. PSA modeling of long-term accident sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, Gabriel; Corenwinder, Francois; Lanore, Jeanne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the extension of PSA scope to include external hazards, in France, both operator (EDF) and IRSN work for the improvement of methods to better take into account in the PSA the accident sequences induced by initiators which affect a whole site containing several nuclear units (reactors, fuel pools,...). These methodological improvements represent an essential prerequisite for the development of external hazards PSA. However, it has to be noted that in French PSA, even before Fukushima, long term accident sequences were taken into account: many insight were therefore used, as complementary information, to enhance the safety level of the plants. IRSN proposed an external events PSA development program. One of the first steps of the program is the development of methods to model in the PSA the long term accident sequences, based on the experience gained. At short term IRSN intends to enhance the modeling of the 'long term' accident sequences induced by the loss of the heat sink or/and the loss of external power supply. The experience gained by IRSN and EDF from the development of several probabilistic studies treating long term accident sequences shows that the simple extension of the mission time of the mitigation systems from 24 hours to longer times is not sufficient to realistically quantify the risk and to obtain a correct ranking of the risk contributions and that treatment of recoveries is also necessary. IRSN intends to develop a generic study which can be used as a general methodology for the assessment of the long term accident sequences, mainly generated by external hazards and their combinations. This first attempt to develop this generic study allowed identifying some aspects, which may be hazard (or combinations of hazards) or related to initial boundary conditions, which should be taken into account for further developments. (authors)

  9. Long-term EARLINET dust observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Lucia; Amiridis, Vassilis; Amodeo, Aldo; Binietoglou, Ioannis; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Schwarz, Anja; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Papayannis, Alexandros; Sicard, Michael; Comeron, Adolfo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2015-04-01

    Systematic observations of Saharan dust events over Europe are performed from May 2000 by EARLINET, the European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork. EARLINET is a coordinated network of stations that make use of advanced lidar methods for the vertical profiling of aerosols. The backbone of EARLINET network is a common schedule for performing the measurements and the quality assurance of instruments/data. Particular attention is paid to monitoring the Saharan dust intrusions over the European continent. The geographical distribution of the EARLINET stations is particularly appealing for the dust observation, with stations located all around the Mediterranean and in the center of the Mediterranean (Italian stations) where dust intrusions are frequent, and with several stations in the central Europe where dust penetrates occasionally. All aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles related to observations collected during these alerts are grouped in the devoted "Saharan dust" category of the EARLINET database. This category consists of about 4700 files (as of December 2013). Case studies involving several stations around Europe selected from this long-term database have been provided the opportunity to investigate dust modification processes during transport over the continent. More important, the long term EARLINET dust monitoring allows the investigation of the horizontal and vertical extent of dust outbreaks over Europe and the climatological analysis of dust optical intensive and extensive properties at continental scale. This long-term database is also a unique tool for a systematic comparison with dust model outputs and satellite-derived dust products. Because of the relevance for both dust modeling and satellite retrievals improvement, results about desert dust layers extensive properties as a function of season and source regions are investigated and will be presented at the conference. First comparisons with models outputs and CALIPSO dust products will be

  10. LONG-TERM OUTCOME IN PEDIATRIC TRICHOTILLOMANIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Maya C; Panza, Kaitlyn E; Mulqueen, Jilian M; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Bloch, Michael H

    2015-10-01

    To examine long-term outcome in children with trichotillomania. We conducted follow-up clinical assessments an average of 2.8 ± 0.8 years after baseline evaluation in 30 of 39 children who previously participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for pediatric trichotillomania. Our primary outcome was change in hairpulling severity on the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Hospital Hairpulling Scale (MGH-HPS) between the end of the acute phase and follow-up evaluation. We also obtained secondary measures examining styles of hairpulling, comorbid anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as continued treatment utilization. We examined both correlates and predictors of outcome (change in MGH-HPS score) using linear regression. None of the participants continued to take NAC at the time of follow-up assessment. No significant changes in hairpulling severity were reported over the follow-up period. Subjects reported significantly increased anxiety and depressive symptoms but improvement in automatic pulling symptoms. Increased hairpulling symptoms during the follow-up period were associated with increased depression and anxiety symptoms and increased focused pulling. Older age and greater focused pulling at baseline assessment were associated with poor long-term prognosis. Our findings suggest that few children with trichotillomania experience a significant improvement in trichotillomania symptoms if behavioral treatments are inaccessible or have failed to produce adequate symptom relief. Our findings also confirm results of previous cross-sectional studies that suggest an increased risk of depression and anxiety symptoms with age in pediatric trichotillomania. Increased focused pulling and older age among children with trichotillomania symptoms may be associated with poorer long-term prognosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Long-term governance for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, M.

    2007-01-01

    Meritxell Martell spoke of the long-term aspects of radioactive waste management. She pointed out that decision-making processes need to be framed within the context of sustainability, which means that a balance should be sought between scientific considerations, economic aspects and structural conditions. Focusing on structural aspects, Working Group 3 of COWAM-Spain came to the conclusion that the activity of the regulator is a key factor of long-term management. Another finding is that from a sustainability perspective multi-level governance is more effective for coping with the challenges of radioactive waste management than one tier of government-making decisions. The working group also felt that the current Local Information Committees need to evolve towards more institutionalized and legitimized mechanisms for long-term involvement. Ms. Martell introduced a study comparing the efficiency of economic instruments to advance sustainable development in nuclear communities vs. municipalities in mining areas. The study found that funds transferred to nuclear zones had become a means to facilitate local acceptance of nuclear facilities rather than a means to promote socio-economic development. Another finding is that economic instruments are not sufficient guarantees of sustainable development by themselves; additional preconditions include leadership, vision and entrepreneur-ship on the part of community leaders, private or public investments, among others. Finally, Ms. Martell summarised the challenges faced by the Spanish radioactive waste management programme, which include the need for strategic thinking, designing the future in a participatory fashion, and working with local and regional governments and citizens to devise mechanisms for social learning, economic development and environmental protection. (author)

  12. Long-term outcomes of infantile spasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seak Hee Oh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The aims of this study were to investigate the long-term outcomes in children with infantile spasms (IS and to identify the prognostic factors influencing their neurodevelopment. Methods : We retrospectively evaluated seventy two children over five years old who were treated for IS at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, between 1994 and 2007. Forty-three children were contacted by telephone or medical follow-up to assess their current neurodevelopmental status. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (95% CIs of risk factors for unfavorable outcomes. Results : The mean follow-up duration for these 43 children was 7.2¡?#?.5 ;years (range, 4.5 to 13.0 years. Of these, 13 (30.2% had cryptogenic and 30 (69.8% had symptomatic IS. Eleven (25.6% children were initially treated with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH therapy, with a mean treatment lag of 1.3¡?#?.9 ;months (range; 0.1 to 7.0 months. Eighteen (41.8% children clinically responded to initial treatment, as shown by EEG response. Overall, 22 (51.2% children had at least moderate neurodevelopmental disorders and 2 (4.8% died. In univariate analysis, etiology (symptomatic and poor electroclinical response to initial treatment were related to long-term unfavorable outcomes. In multivariate analysis, response to primary treatment was the sole significant independent risk factor with a high OR. Conclusion : Overall prognosis of children with IS was poor. Electroclinical non-responsiveness to initial treatment was related to unfavorable long-term outcomes, indicating that initial control of seizures may be important in reducing the likelihood of poor neurodevelopment.

  13. Long-term visuospatial retention unaffected by fornix transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sze Chai; Buckley, Mark J

    2010-08-01

    As part of an earlier experiment (Kwok and Buckley, 2009), six macaque monkeys (three with fornix transection and three unoperated controls) were trained postoperatively to discriminate a total of 104 new concurrent visuospatial conditional problems to criterion. Our experiment measured and compared long-term retention of these problems with two separate one-trial postoperative retention tests administered 3 and 15 months, respectively, after acquisition. All animals showed some degree of forgetting of these problems but all remembered above chance levels, even after 15 months. The amount forgotten by each group did not differ significantly at either time point. These results show that long-term retention of visuospatial information is independent of the fornix. Similarities in resistance to forgetting are drawn between fornix-transected macaques and patients with amnesia and the implications for clinical rehabilitation are discussed. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Transcriptional regulation of long-term potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliim, Nicola; Leshchyns'ka, Iryna; Sytnyk, Vladimir; Janitz, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP), the persistent strengthening of synapses following high levels of stimulation, is a form of synaptic plasticity that has been studied extensively as a possible mechanism for learning and memory formation. The strengthening of the synapse that occurs during LTP requires cascades of complex molecular processes and the coordinated remodeling of pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurons. Despite over four decades of research, our understanding of the transcriptional mechanisms and molecular processes underlying LTP remains incomplete. Identification of all the proteins and non-coding RNA transcripts expressed during LTP may provide greater insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in learning and memory formation.

  15. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  16. Rising Long-term Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    Rather than chronicle recent developments in European long-term interest rates as such, this paper assesses the impact of increases in those interest rates on economic performance and inflation. That puts us in a position to evaluate the economic pressures for further rises in those rates...... spending, debt service costs and shrinking fiscal space. There are also countervailing positive effects, which render the net negative effects on spending and the real costs of borrowing relatively small. The illustrative projections, based on techniques derived from an analysis of how financial markets...

  17. Performance and Long Term Stability of Mesoporous Silica Membranes for Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elma, Muthia; Yacou, Christelle; Diniz da Costa, João C.; Wang, David K.

    2013-01-01

    This work shows the preparation of silica membranes by a two-step sol-gel method using tetraethyl orthosilicate in ethanolic solution by employing nitric acid and ammonia as co-catalysts. The sols prepared in pH 6 resulted in the lowest concentration of silanol (Si–OH) species to improve hydrostability and the optimized conditions for film coating. The membrane was tested to desalinate 0.3–15 wt % synthetic sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions at a feed temperature of 22 °C followed by long term membrane performance of up to 250 h in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution. Results show that the water flux (and salt rejection) decrease with increasing salt concentration delivering an average value of 9.5 kg m–2 h–1 (99.6%) and 1.55 kg m–2 h–1 (89.2%) from the 0.3 and 15 wt % saline feed solutions, respectively. Furthermore, the permeate salt concentration was measured to be less than 600 ppm for testing conditions up to 5 wt % saline feed solutions, achieving below the recommended standard for potable water. Long term stability shows that the membrane performance in water flux was stable for up to 150 h, and slightly reduced from thereon, possibly due to the blockage of large hydrated ions in the micropore constrictions of the silica matrix. However, the integrity of the silica matrix was not affected by the long term testing as excellent salt rejection of >99% was maintained for over 250 h. PMID:24956942

  18. Long-term Advertising Effects and Optimal Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Bech Christensen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Using pure single-source data, this paper provides evidence for the existence and magnitude of long-term advertising effects across FMCG product categories. Furthermore, we focus on the difficulties that arise for wellestablished brands when new products are introduced into the market and product innovations take place. Our research shows that such occurrences drastically alter the relationship between share of voice and share of market in any given FMCG market, hence making...

  19. Long-term Advertising Effects and Optimal Budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Bech Christensen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Using pure single-source data, this paper provides evidence for theexistence and magnitude of long-term advertising effects across FMCG productcategories. Furthermore, we focus on the difficulties that arise for wellestablishedbrands when new products are introduced into the market andproduct...... innovations take place. Our research shows that such occurrencesdrastically alter the relationship between share of voice and share of market inany given FMCG market, hence making it pivotal for marketers to focus on suchrelationships in order to maintain market position....

  20. The Long-Term Consequences of Free School Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Lavy

    2015-01-01

    I study the long-term consequences of what amounted to an effective free school choice program which two decades ago targeted disadvantaged students in Israel. I show that the program led to significant gains in post-secondary education, through increased enrollment in academic and teachers' colleges but without any increase in enrollment in research universities. Free school choice increased also earnings at adulthood of treated students. Male students had much larger improvements in college...

  1. Sudden Death Due to Coronary Artery Lesions Long-term After the Arterial Switch Operation: A Systematic Review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Sebastiaan W.H.; van der Stelt, Femke; ter Heide, Henriëtte; Schoof, Paul H.; Doevendans, Pieter A.F.M.; Meijboom, Folkert J.; Breur, Johannes M.P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background The arterial switch operation (ASO) is the preferred procedure for children with dextrotransposition of the great arteries or Taussig-Bing anomaly. Short- as well as long-term outcome of ASO are excellent, but coronary artery stenoses are reported as a common long-term complication. It

  2. Neuroblastoma patients with high-affinity FCGR2A, -3A and stimulatory KIR 2DS2 treated by long-term infusion of anti-GD2antibody ch14.18/CHO show higher ADCC levels and improved event-free survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Nikolai; Jensen, Christian; Troschke-Meurer, Sascha; Zumpe, Maxi; Jüttner, Madlen; Ehlert, Karoline; Kietz, Silke; Müller, Ina; Lode, Holger N

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphisms in Fc-gamma-receptor (FCGR) genes as well as killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) and KIR ligand (KIRL) repertoires may influence antitumor effects of monoclonal antibodies (mAb). Here, we systematically analyzed high- and low-affinity FCGR2A and -3A genotypes as well as stimulating and inhibitory KIR/KIRL combinations in 53 neuroblastoma (NB) patients treated by long-term infusion (LTI) of anti-GD 2 IgG1 Ab ch14.18/CHO using validated real-time PCR methods. Patients with high-affinity FCGR2A and -3A genotypes showed a higher level of Ab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) on day 8 after the start of ch14.18/CHO and superior event-free survival (EFS) compared to patients with low FCGR genotypes. Similar observations were made for patients with stimulatory KIR/KIRL haplotype B (combination of KIR genes including activating receptor genes) compared to inhibitory haplotype A (a fixed set of genes encoding for inhibitory receptors, except 2DS4) and stronger effects were found in patients when haplotype B and high-affinity FCGRs were combined. Surprisingly, independent analysis of KIRs showed a major role of activating KIR 2DS2 for high ADCC levels and prolongation of EFS. The greatest effect was observed in 2DS2-positive patients that also had high-affinity FCGR2A and -3A genotypes. In summary, the presence of the activating KIR 2DS2 has a major effect on ADCC levels and survival in NB patients treated by LTI of ch14.18/CHO and may therefore be a useful biomarker in combination with FCGR polymorphisms for Ab-based immunotherapies.

  3. Long-term Trends in Coral Reef Fish Yields and Exploitation Rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: coral reef fish, yield, long term trends, commercial fishing, Kenya Analysis of long-term (1978–2001) marine fisheries data showed that Kenyan coralreefs produced an estimated 2–4 metric t/km2/year of demersal fish. A rapid overall decline in landings occurred during the 1990s. Yields (t/km2/year) showed ...

  4. Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N; Henningfield, J E; Benowitz, N L; Connolly, G N; Dresler, C; Fagerstrom, K; Jarvis, M J; Boyle, P

    2005-06-01

    Global tobacco deaths are high and rising. Tobacco use is primarily driven by nicotine addiction. Overall tobacco control policy is relatively well agreed upon but a long term nicotine policy has been less well considered and requires further debate. Reaching consensus is important because a nicotine policy is integral to the target of reducing tobacco caused disease, and the contentious issues need to be resolved before the necessary political changes can be sought. A long term and comprehensive nicotine policy is proposed here. It envisages both reducing the attractiveness and addictiveness of existing tobacco based nicotine delivery systems as well as providing alternative sources of acceptable clean nicotine as competition for tobacco. Clean nicotine is defined as nicotine free enough of tobacco toxicants to pass regulatory approval. A three phase policy is proposed. The initial phase requires regulatory capture of cigarette and smoke constituents liberalising the market for clean nicotine; regulating all nicotine sources from the same agency; and research into nicotine absorption and the role of tobacco additives in this process. The second phase anticipates clean nicotine overtaking tobacco as the primary source of the drug (facilitated by use of regulatory and taxation measures); simplification of tobacco products by limitation of additives which make tobacco attractive and easier to smoke (but tobacco would still be able to provide a satisfying dose of nicotine). The third phase includes a progressive reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, with clean nicotine freely available to take the place of tobacco as society's main nicotine source.

  5. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M.

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, ii) modelling, iii) countermeasures, iv) runoff v) spatial variations, and vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 239-240 Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  6. Andra long term memory project - 59277

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charton, Patrick; Boissier, Fabrice; Martin, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Long term memory of repositories is required by safety, reversibility and social expectations. Thus Andra has implemented since 2010 a long-term memory project to reinforce and diversify its current arrangements in this field, as well as to explore opportunities to extend memory keeping over thousands years. The project includes opportunity studies of dedicated facilities. The 'Ecotheque' and 'Geotheque' projects contribute to memory respectively through environmental and geological samples preservation. The options of creating (i) an archive centre for Andra's interim and permanent archives, (ii) an artist center to study the contribution of arts to memory preservation, (iii) a museum of radioactive waste disposal history and technology (radium industry..., sea disposal, current solutions...) are considered. Other studies provided by the project examine our heritage. This includes the continuity of languages and symbolic systems, the continuity of writing and engraving methods, the archaeology of landscapes (memory of the earths evolution, multi-century memory of industrial and agricultural landscapes), the archaeology practices (how might a future archaeologist be interested in our current activity?), the preservation of historical sites and industrial memory, the continuity of institutional organizations, the memory and history of science evolution as well as broad history

  7. Institutionalization and Organizational Long-term Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L. Fleck

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Institutionalization processes have an ambivalent effect on organizational long-term success. Even though they foster organizational stability and permanence, they also bring about rigidity and resistance to change. As a result, successful organizations are likely to lose their competitive advantage over time. The paper addresses this issue through the investigation of the institutionalization processes of two long-lived companies: General Electric, a firm that has been a long-term success and its rival, Westinghouse, which was broken up after eleven decades of existence. The longitudinal, multilevel analysis of firms and industry has identified two different modes of organizational institutionalization. The reactive mode gives rise to rigidity and change resistance, much like institutional theory predicts; the proactive mode, on the other hand, neutralizes those negative effects of institutionalization processes. In the reactive mode, structure predominates. In the proactive mode, agency plays a major role in organizational institutionalization, and in managing the organization’s relations with the environment, clearly contributing to environmental institutionalization.

  8. Long term testing of PSI-membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huslage, J.; Brack, H.P.; Geiger, F.; Buechi, F.N.; Tsukada, A.; Scherer, G.G. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Long term tests of PSI membranes based on radiation-grafted FEP and ETFE films were carried out and FEP-based membranes were evaluated by monitoring the in-situ membrane area resistance measured by a current pulse method. By modifying our irradiation procedure and using the double crosslinking concept we obtain reproducible membrane cell lifetimes (in term of in-situ membrane resistance) of greater than 5000 hours at 60-65{sup o}C. Preliminary tests at 80-85{sup o}C with lifetimes of greater than 2500 demonstrate the potential long term stability of PSI proton exchange membranes based on FEP over the whole operating temperature range of low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Radiation grafted PSI membranes based on ETFE have better mechanical properties than those of the FEP membranes. Mechanical properties are particularly important in large area cells and fuel cell stacks. ETFE membranes have been tested successfully for approximately 1000 h in a 2-cell stack (100 cm{sup 2} active area each cell). (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  9. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: (i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, (ii) modelling, (iii) countermeasures, (iv) runoff (v) spatial variations, and (vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239-240}Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  10. Neo bladder long term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhr, I.; Mohamed, A. M.; Moustafa, A.; Al-Sherbiny, M.; Salama, M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the commonest forms of orthotopic bladder substitution for bladder cancer surivors, used in our institute, is the use of ileocecal segment. Sometimes, the need for Indiana pouch heterotropic continent diversion arises. Aim: To compare the long-term effect of orthotopic ileocecal bladder and heterotropic Indiana pouch following radical cystectomy in bladder cancer patients. Patients and methods: Between January 2008 and December 2011, 91 patients underwent radical cystectomy/anterior pelvic exentration and ortho topic ileocecal bladder reconstruction (61 patients) and Indiana pouch (30 patients), when orthotopic diversion could not be technically or oncologically feasible. Results: Convalescence was uneventful in most patients. All minor and major urinary leakage cases, in both diversions groups, where successfully conservatively treated. Only one patient in the ileocecal group with major urinary leak required re-exploration with successful revision of uretro-colonic anastomosis. Only one patient in the Indiana pouch group had accidentally discovered sub-centimetric stone, which was simply expelled. The overall survival proportion of ileocecal group was 100% compared to 80% in the Indiana pouch group (p < 0.001). The disease free survival proportion of ileocecal group was 90.8% compared to 80% in the Indiana pouch group (p = 0.076). Effective comparative daytime and nighttime urinary continence as well as renal function deterioration were not statistically significant between both reconstruction types. Conclusion: Both ileocecal bladder and Indiana pouch are safe procedures in regard to long-term effects over kidney function following radical cystectomy

  11. Amyloid osteoarthropathy in long term hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzincolo, C.; Cardona, P.; Vita, G.; Bedani, P.L.; Farinelli, A.; Scutellari, P.N.

    1988-01-01

    The accumulation of amyloid in the bone and joint system has recently been recognized as a peculiar disease in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis (5 years at least), especially in those who use cuprophan membranes. The pathology of amyloidosis is characterized by deposits of amyloid (β microglobulin mainly) in the bone, in the synovia, and in pericapsular soft tissues. The skeleton of 46 long-term hemodialysis patients (19 males and 27 females) was studied by X-ray; bone and joint abnormalities due to amyloid deposition were observed in 45% of cases. The shoulder, hip, and wrist were the most frequently involved joints. Destructive spondyloarthorapathy was present in 15% of cases. The radiographic patterns of AOD are generally divided into axial and peripheral lesions. In the appendicular skeleton abnormalities include: well-defined lytic areas (geodes), pathologic fractures, marginal erosions, and particular soft tissue swelling. Destructive spondyloarthropathy is frequently present in the cervical spine (85% of our cases) and is characterized by narrowing of the invertebral space, marginal erosion, and subchondral bone sclerosis of the vertebral body

  12. [Long-term effectiveness of percutaneous laser disc decompression in treatment of cervical spondylosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hui; Li, Kangren; Fan, Shanjun; Xue, Li; Qiu, Xueyong; Yu, Bin; Gao, Shen; Chen, Jian

    2010-12-01

    To retrospectively analyze the long-term effectiveness of percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) in treatment of cervical spondylosis. Between March 2003 and June 2005, 156 patients with cervical spondylosis were treated with PLDD. There were 74 males and 82 females with an average age of 55.4 years (range, 31-74 years). The disease duration varied from 2 months to 15 years. Fifty-nine patients were classified as cervical spondylotic radiculopathy, 48 as vertebral-artery-type cervical spondylosis, 19 as cervical spondylotic myelopathy, and 30 as mixed type spondylosis. The lesions were located at the levels of C3, 4 in 32 discs, C4, 5 in 66 discs, C5, 6 in 89 discs, and C6, 7 in 69 discs, and including 71 one-level lesion and 85 multi-level lesions. All cases were followed up to study the long-term effectiveness and correlative factors. A total of 117 (75%) patients' symptoms were lightened or eased up immediately after operation. Discitis occurred in 1 case at 3 days after operation and was cured after 3 weeks of antibiotic use. All patients were followed up 5 years to 7 years and 3 months (5 years and 6 months on average). According to Macnab criteria, the long-term effectiveness was excellent in 60 cases (38.46%), good in 65 cases (41.67%), fair in 19 cases (12.18%), and poor in 12 cases (7.69%); the excellent and good rate was 80.13%. No significant difference was observed in the wedge angels and displacements of the intervertebral discs between before and after operations (P > 0.05). Multiple-factors logistic regression showed that the disease duration and patient's age had obvious relationship with the effectiveness of treatment (P spondylosis, disc protrusion degree, mild cervical instability, and lesion scope had no correlation with the effectiveness of treatment (P > 0.05). PLDD is safe and effective in treatment of cervical spondylosis with less complication. There is no impact on the stability in cervical spinal constructs. The disease duration and

  13. Long-term ecophysiological responses to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Kristine Stove; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    to elevated CO2 and only severe drought was observed to change the magnitude of responses (Paper III). In conclusion, the leaf adaptor frame greatly improved the measurement precision of leaf gas exchange. High precision photosynthetic measurements showed that leaf level responses to climate change factors......Plant physiology is affected by climate change. Acclimations of photosynthetic processes are induced by short-term changes in climatic conditions. Further acclimation can be caused by longterm adjustments to climate change due to ecosystem-feedbacks. The aim of this PhD was to investigate plant...... physiological responses to climate change in a seasonal and long-term perspective. The effects of elevated CO2, passive night time warming and periodic summer drought as single factor and in combination, on plant physiology were investigated in the long-term multifactorial field experiment CLIMAITE in a Danish...

  14. Long-term health benefits of appetite suppressants remain unproven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Roma Paumgartten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increasing prevalence of obesity, prevention and treatment of overweight has become a major public health concern. In addition to diet and exercise, drugs are needed for patients who failed to lose weight with behavioral treatment. The current article aimed to summarize recent concerns on the safety and efficacy of appetite suppressants. Several appetite suppressants have been banned for safety reasons. In 2010, sibutramine was withdrawn from the market because a long-term study showed it increased the risks of cardiovascular events. So far no study with a sufficiently large sample size has demonstrated that appetite suppressants can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with overweight. The withdrawal of sibutramine highlights that guidelines for the evaluation of weight control drugs must be more stringent, and studies on their long-term health benefits are needed prior to their marketing.

  15. Long-term effects of acoustic reafference training (ART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzera, Alexandra; Hohmann, Tanja; Streese, Lukas; Habbig, Anja; Raab, Markus

    2017-11-01

    In sport visual feedback is often used to enhance performance, mostly neglecting the auditory modality. However, athletes produce natural sounds when they move (acoustic reafferences) which they perceive and use to control their movements. We examined the short- and long-term effects of a training intervention on a complex movement by using acoustic reafferences. Natural step sounds produced during hurdling were recorded and played back to the participants immediately before each trial, with an increase (fast group), decrease (slow group), or no manipulation (control group) in the tempo. All groups increased their hurdling performance regarding overall running time, with the slow group showing the best performance development. After a 10-week retention, the fast and slow group further increased performance, whereas the control group declined. The repeated experience with acoustic information associated with the rhythmic pattern of hurdling may have helped developing a cognitive representation of that movement, especially regarding long-term effects.

  16. Health care utilisation among individuals reporting long-term pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Sjøgren, Per; Ekholm, Ola

    2004-01-01

    Individuals reporting long-term pain in the 1994 and 2000 Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys, which included random samples of 6000 and 16,684 persons respectively, were investigated concerning their use of the health care systems. A considerably higher use was observed in the pain population...... in the primary as well as the secondary health care sector, compared with a no pain control group. In 1994, individuals reporting long-term pain had on average 12.8 contacts per year to the primary health care sector compared with 7.3 for the control group. Use of secondary health care sector as estimated...... by hospital admission frequency and number of in-hospital days was not only significantly higher for the pain group but showed also an increasing tendency during the periods investigated (1991-1997). Women used the health care system significantly more than men, whereas age did not seem to influence...

  17. Sexual selection enables long-term coexistence despite ecological equivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Gonigle, Leithen K; Mazzucco, Rupert; Otto, Sarah P; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2012-04-26

    Empirical data indicate that sexual preferences are critical for maintaining species boundaries, yet theoretical work has suggested that, on their own, they can have only a minimal role in maintaining biodiversity. This is because long-term coexistence within overlapping ranges is thought to be unlikely in the absence of ecological differentiation. Here we challenge this widely held view by generalizing a standard model of sexual selection to include two ubiquitous features of populations with sexual selection: spatial variation in local carrying capacity, and mate-search costs in females. We show that, when these two features are combined, sexual preferences can single-handedly maintain coexistence, even when spatial variation in local carrying capacity is so slight that it might go unnoticed empirically. This theoretical study demonstrates that sexual selection alone can promote the long-term coexistence of ecologically equivalent species with overlapping ranges, and it thus provides a novel explanation for the maintenance of species diversity.

  18. Infants long-term memory for complex music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz; Polka, Linda; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2002-05-01

    In this study we examined infants' long-term memory for two complex pieces of music. A group of thirty 7.5 month-old infants was exposed daily to one short piano piece (i.e., either the Prelude or the Forlane by Maurice Ravel) for ten consecutive days. Following the 10-day exposure period there was a two-week retention period in which no exposure to the piece occurred. After the retention period, infants were tested on the Headturn Preference Procedure. At test, 8 different excerpts of the familiar piece were mixed with 8 different foil excerpts of the unfamiliar one. Infants showed a significant preference for the familiar piece of music. A control group of fifteen nonexposed infants was also tested and showed no preferences for either piece of music. These results suggest that infants in the exposure group retained the familiar music in their long-term memory. This was demonstrated by their ability to discriminate between the different excerpts of both the familiar and the unfamiliar pieces of music, and by their preference for the familiar piece. Confirming previous findings (Jusczyk and Hohne, 1993; Saffran et al., 2000), in this study we suggest that infants can retain complex pieces of music in their long-term memory for two weeks.

  19. A long-term view of worldwide fossil fuel prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, Shahriar; Topal, Erkan

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews a long-term trend of worldwide fossil fuel prices in the future by introducing a new method to forecast oil, natural gas and coal prices. The first section of this study analyses the global fossil fuel market and the historical trend of real and nominal fossil fuel prices from 1950 to 2008. Historical fossil fuel price analysis shows that coal prices are decreasing, while natural gas prices are increasing. The second section reviews previously available price modelling techniques and proposes a new comprehensive version of the long-term trend reverting jump and dip diffusion model. The third section uses the new model to forecast fossil fuel prices in nominal and real terms from 2009 to 2018. The new model follows the extrapolation of the historical sinusoidal trend of nominal and real fossil fuel prices. The historical trends show an increase in nominal/real oil and natural gas prices plus nominal coal prices, as well as a decrease in real coal prices. Furthermore, the new model forecasts that oil, natural gas and coal will stay in jump for the next couple of years and after that they will revert back to the long-term trend until 2018. (author)

  20. Long term results of operative treatment of knee osteochondritis dissecans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokter, Samo K; Strahovnik, Andrej; Kos, Darjan; Dovnik, Andraž; Fokter, Nina

    2012-10-01

    This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the hypothesis that open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) of an unstable osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesion results in a high percentage of acceptable outcomes at long-term follow-up. Eight patients who had been treated with ORIF for unstable knee OCD lesions were identified. Long-term outcomes were assessed with a Subjective Knee Evaluation Form and Knee Examination Form of the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC 2000) and an OCD specific Hughston rating scale. All lesions were healed and stable to arthroscopic probing at 3 months. At the average follow-up of 14.8 years (range 12-21 years), the mean IKDC subjective score was 80.9. In IKDC examination form, six patients reached group A (normal) and two patients reached groups B (near normal) and C (abnormal), respectively. According to Hughston criteria, three patients were rated excellent, three good, one fair, and one poor. We recommend aggressive attempts to preserve articular cartilage in OCD.

  1. Microscopic study of rock for estimating long-term behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yasuaki

    2004-02-01

    Micro-structure of rock plays an essential role for their long-term behavior. For understanding long-term characteristics of granite we here present the followings: 1) observation of microcrack initiation and propagation by Conforcal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) under uniaxial compression (before loading and at each loading stage), 2) characterization of the mechanism of microcrack initiation and propagation observed by stereoscopic microscope under uniaxial/triaxial compression and relaxation tests, and 3) a study of strong discontinuity analysis included in the homogenization theory to predict the long-term behavior of micro/macro-level stress for granite. First, CLSM was used to acquire clearly focused three-dimensional images of granite specimens, and observed the change of microscale structure including the mineral configuration under applying uniaxial compression stress. Then though microcracks have ever thought to be initiated and propagated on intergranular boundaries, we understand through the CLSM observation that new microcracks are generated from the ends of pre-existing cracks which are distributed in quartz and biotite. Second, we showed the results of stress-relaxation test of granite specimens observed by an optical microscope under water-saturated triaxial compression condition. Since microcrack generation and propagation play an essential role to predict the long-term behavior of rock, we managed the experiments with careful attention of 1) keeping constant edge-displacement and constant strain in the whole specimen accurately, and 2) measuring the relaxed stress exactly. Next, in order to simulate the experimental results which indicate that initiation and propagation of microcracks control the stress-relaxation phenomenon, we introduce a homogenization analysis procedure together with the strong discontinuity analysis which has recently established the mechanical implication and mathematical foundation. The numerical results show that we can

  2. Long-term care financing: lessons from France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Pamela; Nadash, Pamela; Racco, Nathalie

    2015-06-01

    adjusted and amounts are low. Nevertheless, expenditures have exceeded projections, burdening local governments. Private supplemental insurance covers 11% of French, mostly middle-income adults (versus 3% of Americans 18 and older). Whether policyholders will maintain employer-sponsored coverage after retirement is not known. The government's interest in pursuing an explicit public/private partnership has waned under President François Hollande, a centrist socialist, in contrast to the previous center-right leader, President Nicolas Sarkozy, thereby reducing the prospects of a coordinated public/private strategy. American private insurers are showing increasing interest in long-term care financing approaches that combine public and private elements. The French example shows how a simple, cheap, cash-based product can gain traction among middle-income individuals when offered by employers and combined with a steeply income-adjusted universal public program. The adequacy of such coverage, however, is a concern. © 2015 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  3. Clonal fidelity of chrysanthemum regenerated from long term cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevremović Slađana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics of flowers of long term regenerated chrysanthemum, cv. "White Spider", after ten years of micropropagation are investigated. Shoot cultures are established and maintained more than ten years by stem segment culture on MS medium supplemented with BAP and NAA (1.0, 0.1 mgL-1, respectively. Rooting of shoots (100 % has done on MS medium without hormones and it was very successful after ten years, as well as, after two or eight years of micropropagation. Acclimation of rooted chrysanthemum plantlets at greenhouse conditions was excellent and after appropriate photoperiod "in vitro" plants flowered 90.3 % and have the same flower color, shape and size as mother plants. Flower color changes of "in vitro" plants are observed during another flowering cycle one year after acclimatization. Observed variations of chrysanthemum flowers could be attributed to epigenetic factors.

  4. Preparation of Long Term Operation in Dukovany NPP, Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivanek, R.; Sabata, M.

    2012-01-01

    Dukovany NPP in the south-east of the Czech Republic operates four VVER 440/213 type units. The first unit was commissioned in 1985 and the last one in 1987. The operational results of the whole NPP have been excellent and NPP permanently belongs between the first quartile of the best operated NPPs in the world in accordance with WANO factors. Large safety improvement programme have been implemented in last 15 years. The original design lifetime of main components is 30 years which means till 2015 and it is understandable that NPP is preparing for long-term operation (LTO). The paper is describing activities carried out and planned for safe and successful LTO. (author)

  5. Autobiographical reasoning in long-term fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lee Harrington

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We explore the social psychological processes through which fan-based experiences become situated in fans' larger life narratives. Drawing on original survey data with long-term U.S. soap opera fans, we examine how the psychological mechanism of autobiographical reasoning functions in fans' construction of self-narratives over time. The case study presented here is a subset of a larger investigation into the age-related structure of fans' activities, identities, and interpretive capacities. Situated at the intersections of gerontological (life span/life course theory and contemporary fan studies, our project mines relatively uninvestigated theoretical terrain. We conclude with a brief discussion of implications for future fan studies.

  6. Technology for long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Sunghee H; Benefield, Lazelle E; Mahoney, Diane Feeney

    2010-01-01

    Severe staff shortages in long-term care (LTC) make it difficult to meet the demands of the growing aging population. Further, technology-savvy Baby Boomers are expected to reshape the current institutional environments toward gaining more freedom and control in their care and lives. Voices from business, academia, research, advocacy organizations, and government bodies suggest that innovative technological approaches are the linchpin that may prepare society to cope with these projected demands. In this article, we review the current state of aging-related technology, identify potential areas for efficacy testing on improving the quality of life of LTC residents in future research, and discuss barriers to implementation of LTC technology. Finally, we present a vision of future technology use that could transform current care practices. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes

  8. Long term radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Glodeanu, F.; Dina, D.

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive waste management is a key issue of the environmental policy of any company. According to the Romanian Nuclear Act (Law 111/1996) and the Environmental Protection Act (Law 137/1996) the owner is responsible for the management of all radioactive waste effluents at the nuclear installations, including the technical and cost components. The developed policy incorporates the practice in the EU Member States and in the country of the plant supplier (Canada). On short term, the priorities of our radioactive waste management policy are to extend the spent fuel storage capacity using the dry storage technology. On long term the policy includes a facilities for L/ILW packaging for disposal in a new surface repository to be built on the Cernavoda NPP site. For HLW the interim storage for about 50 years will provide the necessary time to select and implement the geological disposal, in accordance with the best international practice. (authors)

  9. Long-term Consequences of Early Parenthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Eva Rye; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Verner, Mette

    Having children at an early age is known to be associated with unfavorable economic outcomes, such as lower education, employment and earnings. In this paper, we study the long-term consequences of early parenthood for mothers and fathers. Our study is based on rich register-based data that......, importantly, merges all childbirths to the children’s mothers and fathers, allowing us to study the consequences of early parenthood for both parents. We perform a sibling fixed effects analysis in order to account for unobserved family attributes that are possibly correlated with early parenthood...... (and to lesser extent employment), as fathers appear to support the family, especially when early parenthood is combined with cohabitation with the mother and the child. Heterogeneous effects reveal that individuals with a more favorable socioeconomic background are affected more severely than...

  10. Long-term stability of salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2005-01-01

    The measurement of salivary cortisol provides a simple, non-invasive, and stress-free measure frequently used in studies of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. In research projects, samples are often required to be stored for longer periods of time either because of the protocol...... of the project or because of lack of funding for analysis. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of long-term storage of samples on the amounts of measurable cortisol. Ten pools of saliva were collected on polyester Salivette tampons from five subjects. After centrifugation the samples were...... either stored in small vials or spiked to polyester Salivette tampons before analysis for cortisol using Spectria RIA kits. The effects of storage were evaluated by a linear regression model (mixed procedure) on a logarithmic scale. No effects on cortisol concentrations were found after storage of saliva...

  11. Study on behaviour in long term of vitrified materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernaz, E.

    1993-01-01

    In collaboration with EDF (Electricite de France), after testing fusion of Refiom (Residus d'Epuration des Fumees d'Incineration d'Ordures Menageres), residues from purification of incineration smokes of household rubbish, realised at Porcheville and at the Laboratory of Renardieres with experimental processing of vitrification by plasma, CEA (Centre d'Etudes Atomiques), atomic center of research, began study on resistance in long term of vitrified products. From about thirty five years, CEA carries out research to confine radioactive waste of high activity in stable materials. Glass was the first best one which allowed to incorporate about thirty different chemical elements found in fission products solutions into a stable die with a good chemical durability; three vitrification shops raised, one at Marcoule ('AVM', 1978) in the south of France, the two other ones at La Hague ('R7', 1989 and 'T7', 1992) in Normandy. To determine a possible impact of a deep radioactive waste disposal on human and environment, several studies began. In particular, studies on aqueous corrosion of glasses to determine behaviour in long term of glass package (first barrier of confinement) and to estimate kinetics of releasing confined toxical elements on periods of several thousands years. Principal results are exposed in this conference. Experience shows that safety analysis cannot be based on long term extrapolation of a simple lixiviation result. This analysis must include: a sufficient knowledge in basic mechanisms of alteration to predict the kinetic evolution in a long term. To take in account environment conditions with a normal or accidental scheme (acidity, clay, organic compounds,...). This knowledge broadly developed by CEA for nuclear glasses seems to be easily transposable to different wastes (industrial ones or from hospitals) and takes place in a contract of research CEA/EDF to valorize vitrified products. 9 figs. 4 refs

  12. Long term radiological impact of thorium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, S.; Schapira, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Thorium extraction produces a certain amount of radioactive wastes. Potential long term radiological impact of these residues has been calculated using the recent ICRP-68 ingestion dose factors in connection with the computing code DECAY, developed at Orsay and described in this work. This code solves the well known Bateman's equations which govern the time dependence of a set of coupled radioactive nuclei. Monazites will be very likely the minerals to be exploited first, in case of an extensive use of thorium as nuclear fuel. Because monazites contain uranium as well, mining residues will contain not only the descendants of 232 Th and a certain proportion of non-extracted thorium (taken here to be 5%), but also this uranium, if left in the wastes for economical reasons. If no uranium would be present at all in the mineral, the potential radiotoxicity would strongly decrease in approximately 60 years, at the pace of the 5.8 years period of 228 Ra, which becomes the longest-lived radionuclide of the 4n radioactive family in the residues. Moreover, there is no risk due to radon exhalation, because of the very short period of 220 Rn. These significant differences between uranium and thorium mining have to be considered in view of some estimated long term real radiological impacts due to uranium residues, which could reach a value of the order of 1 mSv/year, the dose limit recommended for the public by the recent ICRP-60. (authors). 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs., 43 appendices

  13. Young Long-term Unemployed and the Individualization of Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hobbins

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, as in most Western societies, a common belief is that unemployment is somehow linked to the individual, her lack of work ethic, or other personal shortcomings rather than to structural causes. This is not only manifested in public arenas such as the media or political debates but also in our social surroundings. In recent years, these views have gained importance, indicating a shift in the location of responsibilities from the welfare state to the individual. This shift entails high demands and expectations on unemployed people and is something they have to deal with and relate to. One of the most exposed groups is young long-term unemployed. The aim of this article is to highlight how the discourse of individualized responsibility is reflected in unemployed peoples’ stories, and to shed light on the ways in which young long-term unemployed adults relate to and position themselves toward this discourse. Based on 18 qualitative interviews with young Swedish long-term unemployed people, the findings show three approaches to the discourse: conformity, distancing, and resistance.

  14. An optimized lead system for long-term esophageal electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhauser, T; Haeberlin, A; Marisa, T; Mattle, D; Abächerli, R; Goette, J; Jacomet, M; Vogel, R

    2014-04-01

    Long-term electrocardiography (ECG) featuring adequate atrial and ventricular signal quality is highly desirable. Routinely used surface leads are limited in atrial signal sensitivity and recording capability impeding complete ECG delineation, i.e. in the presence of supraventricular arrhythmias. Long-term esophageal ECG might overcome these limitations but requires a dedicated lead system and recorder design. To this end, we analysed multiple-lead esophageal ECGs with respect to signal quality by describing the ECG waves as a function of the insertion level, interelectrode distance, electrode shape and amplifier's input range. The results derived from clinical data show that two bipolar esophageal leads, an atrial lead with short (15 mm) interelectrode distance and a ventricular lead with long (80 mm) interelectrode distance provide non-inferior ventricular signal strength and superior atrial signal strength compared to standard surface lead II. High atrial signal slope in particular is observed with the atrial esophageal lead. The proposed esophageal lead system in combination with an increased recorder input range of ±20 mV minimizes signal loss due to excessive electrode motion typically observed in esophageal ECGs. The design proposal might help to standardize long-term esophageal ECG registrations and facilitate novel ECG classification systems based on the independent detection of ventricular and atrial electrical activity.

  15. Long-term uranium supply-demand analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    It is the intention of this study to investigate the long-term uranium supply demand situation using a number of supply and demand related assumptions. For supply, these assumptions as used in the Resources and Production Projection (RAPP) model include country economic development status, and consequent lead times for exploration and development, uranium development status, country infrastructure, and uranium resources including the Reasonably Assured (RAR), Estimated Additional, Categories I and II, (EAR-I and II) and Speculative Resource categories. The demand assumptions were based on the ''pure'' reactor strategies developed by the NEA Working Party on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Requirements for the 1986 OECD (NEA)/IAEA reports ''Nuclear Energy and its Fuel Cycle: Prospects to 2025''. In addition for this study, a mixed strategy case was computed using the averages of the Plutonium (Pu) burning LWR high, and the improved LWR low cases. It is understandable that such a long-term analysis cannot present hard facts, but it can show which variables may in fact influence the long-term supply-demand situation. It is hoped that results of this study will provide valuable information for planners in the uranium supply and demand fields. Periodical re-analyses with updated data bases will be needed from time to time

  16. EVAHEART: an implantable centrifugal blood pump for long-term circulatory support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kenji; Kihara, Shinichiro; Akimoto, Takehide; Tagusari, Osamu; Kawai, Akihiko; Umezu, Mitsuo; Tomioka, Jun; Kormos, Robert L; Griffith, Bartley P; Kurosawa, Hiromi

    2002-11-01

    We developed "EVAHEART": a compact centrifugal blood pump system as an implantable left ventricular assist device for long-term circulatory support. The 55 x 64 mm pump is made from pure titanium, and weighs 370 g. The entire blood-contacting surface is covered with an anti-thrombogenic coating of diamond like carbon (DLC) or 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) to improve blood compatibility. Flows exceeding 12 L/min against 100 mmHg pressure at 2600 rpm was measured. A low-temperature mechanical seal with recirculating cooling system is used to seal the shaft. EVAHEART demonstrated an acceptably low hemolysis rate with normalized index of hemolysis of 0.005 +/- 0.002 g/100L. We evaluated the pump in long-term in-vivo experiments with seven calves. Via left thoracotomy, we conducted left ventricular apex-descending aorta bypass, placing the pump in the left thoracic cavity. Pump flow rates was maintained at 5-9 L/min, pump power consumption remained stable at 9-10 W in all cases, plasma free Hb levels were less than 15 mg/dl, and the seal system showed good seal capability throughout the experiments. The calves were sacrificed on schedule on postoperative day 200, 222, 142, 90, 151, 155, and 133. No thrombi formed on the blood contacting surface with either the DLC or MPC coating, and no major organ thromboembolisms occurred except for a few small renal infarcts. EVAHEART centrifugal blood pump demonstrated excellent performance in long-term in-vivo experiments.

  17. Isotopic assessment of long term groundwater exploitation. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    The stress imposed on the available water resources due to man's impact (exploitation, release of pollutants and agricultural practices) has resulted in depletion of the available reserves as well as deterioration of water quality in many parts of the world. Over wide areas, abstractions are exceeding current natural recharge and it is apparent from scientific studies that these water resources are being mined, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. Sustainable development and management of those water resources needs long term monitoring records to understand the changes and dynamic responses due to the exploitation. These proceedings provide a synthesis of a series of hydrochemical, isotope and geohydrological data sets which will be used for quantitative assessment of the long term dynamic response of the groundwater system. The results show that both stable and radioactive isotopes are excellent tools for characterizing and understanding aquifer systems that are undergoing long term exploitation. Specific outcomes include establishment of methodologies for monitoring and predicting changes in water quality and quantity that will lead to improved water resources management. This publication is a summary of the results achieved during the coordinated research project (CRP) and the various studies performed by the participating institutions are presented as individual presentations. The overall achievements are presented as an executive summary, and the detailed findings are presented in each contribution. These results were presented in the final coordination meeting held in Vienna, 12-16 May 2003. The results obtained from this CRP will be used to improve the predictions of future behaviour of groundwater resources in response to exploitation. The scientific component of this CRP will be a valuable source of information for isotope hydrologists involved in isotope field applications and a useful guide for groundwater managers involved in groundwater resources

  18. A Multi-Stage Maturity Model for Long-Term IT Outsourcing Relationship Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Ming; Stevens, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The Multi-Stage Maturity Model for Long-Term IT Outsourcing Relationship Success, a theoretical stages-of-growth model, explains long-term success in IT outsourcing relationships. Research showed the IT outsourcing relationship life cycle consists of four distinct, sequential stages: contract, transition, support, and partnership. The model was…

  19. A Long-Term Prediction Model of Beijing Haze Episodes Using Time Series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid industrial development has led to the intermittent outbreak of pm2.5 or haze in developing countries, which has brought about great environmental issues, especially in big cities such as Beijing and New Delhi. We investigated the factors and mechanisms of haze change and present a long-term prediction model of Beijing haze episodes using time series analysis. We construct a dynamic structural measurement model of daily haze increment and reduce the model to a vector autoregressive model. Typical case studies on 886 continuous days indicate that our model performs very well on next day’s Air Quality Index (AQI prediction, and in severely polluted cases (AQI ≥ 300 the accuracy rate of AQI prediction even reaches up to 87.8%. The experiment of one-week prediction shows that our model has excellent sensitivity when a sudden haze burst or dissipation happens, which results in good long-term stability on the accuracy of the next 3–7 days’ AQI prediction.

  20. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy V.P. Bliss

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke.

  1. Haloperidol for long-term aggression in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khushu, Abha; Powney, Melanie J

    2016-11-27

    (1 RCT, n=110, RR 1.37, CI 0.84 to 2.24, low-quality evidence). Although there were some data for the outcomes listed above, there were no data on most of the binary outcomes and none on service outcomes (use of hospital/police), satisfaction with treatment, acceptance of treatment, quality of life or economics. Only one study could be included and most data were heavily skewed, almost impossible to interpret and oflow quality. There were also some limitations in the study design with unclear description of allocation concealment and high risk of bias for selective reporting, so no firm conclusions can be made. This review shows how trials in this group of people are possible - albeit difficult. Further relevant trials are needed to evaluate use of haloperidol in treatment of long-term/persistent aggression in people living with psychosis.

  2. Elevated rheumatoid factor and long term risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Schnohr, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis.......To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis....

  3. CERN Services for Long Term Data Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, Jamie; Blomer, Jakob; Ganis, Gerardo; Dallmeier-Tiessen, Sunje; Simko, Tibor; Cancio Melia, German; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe the services that are offered by CERN for Long Term preservation of High Energy Physics (HEP) data, with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) as a key use case. Data preservation is a strategic goal for European High Energy Physics (HEP), as well as for the HEP community worldwide and we position our work in this global content. Specifically, we target the preservation of the scientific data, together with the software, documentation and computing environment needed to process, (re-)analyse or otherwise (re-)use the data. The target data volumes range from hundreds of petabytes (PB – 10^15 bytes) to hundreds of exabytes (EB – 10^18 bytes) for a target duration of several decades. The Use Cases driving data preservation are presented together with metrics that allow us to measure how close we are to meeting our goals, including the possibility for formal certification for at least part of this work. Almost all of the services that we describe are fully generic – the exception being A...

  4. Long-term outcome of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Francesconi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPCM is a term used to describe the invasion of the central nervous system by the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. NPCM has been described sporadically in some case reports and small case series, with little or no focus on treatment outcome and long-term follow-up. METHODS: All patients with NPCM from January 1991 to December 2006 were analyzed and were followed until December 2009. RESULTS: Fourteen (3.8% cases of NPCM were identified out of 367 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. A combination of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP was the regimen of choice, with no documented death due to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. Residual neurological deficits were observed in 8 patients. Residual calcification was a common finding in neuroimaging follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: All the patients in this study responded positively to the association of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, a regimen that should be considered a treatment option in cases of NPCM. Neurological sequela was a relatively common finding. For proper management of these patients, anticonvulsant treatment and physical therapy support were also needed.

  5. Alpine Soils as long-term Bioindicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestroy, O.

    2009-04-01

    Alpine soils as long-term bioindicators The introductory words concern the definitions and peculiarities of alpine soils and their position in the Austrian Soil Classification 2000 in comparison with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006. The important parameters for genesis and threats for these soils in steep and high positions are discussed. It must be emphasized that the main threats are the very different kinds of erosion e.g. by water, wind and snow, and also by skiing (end of season) as well as and mountain-biking (mainly summer-sport). Due the very slow regeneration and - in this connection - due to the very slow changes of the soil entities, these soils give an utmost importance as a long-time bioindicator. With regard to the climate change one can assume an increase in the content of organic matter on site, but also an increase of erosion and mass movement on the other site, e. g. in kind of "plaiken" (soil slide) as result of an increasing intensity of rainfall. It lies partly in our hands to diminish the number and the intensity of the threats, we can influence the soil development, but the result to reach a new ecological equilibrium is very long - in case of alpine soil more than two generations.

  6. Long-term world energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizia, K.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of the extent to which new nuclear power plants are to be added, or the possibility of a complete ban on nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany, is now very much under discussion again. On the basis of the study published by the Conservation Commission of the World Energy Conference, 'World Energy - Looking Ahead to 2020,' whose findings are probably still on the conservative side, it is demonstrated that disastrous conditions will arise in most areas of the world unless the energy requirement can be met. There is still time to develop solutions by means of today's technologies and resources in order to ensure the long term continuity of energy supply. However, this will not be possible without the immediate and undisturbed expansion of nuclear energy, including the use of breeder reactors at the earliest possible date. In view of these perspectives there is no reason why the expansion of energy supply worldwide should not be assigned the same priority as the development of all-destructive weapons systems. (orig.) [de

  7. Long-term Variability of Beach Cusps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianca, C.; Holman, R. A.; Siegle, E.

    2016-02-01

    The most curious morphological features observed on beaches are the cusps. Due to their rhythmic spacing, beach cusps have attracted many observers and many, often contradictory, theories as to their form. Moreover, most of the research about beach cusps has focused on their formation. Few had available long time series to study such things as the variability of alongshore and cross-shore position and spacing on the cusp field, the presence, longevity and interactions between higher and lower sets of cusps, and the processes by which cusp fields extend, shrink or change length scale. The purpose of this work is to use long-term data sets of video images from two study sites, an intermediate (Duck, USA, 26 years) and a reflective beach (Massaguaçu, Brazil, 3 years), to investigate the temporal and spatial changes of cusps conditions. Time-evolving shoreline data were first extracted using an algorithm called ASLIM (Pianca et al 2015). Cusps were then identified based on the band-passed variability of time exposure image data about this shoreline as a function of elevation relative to MSL. The identified beaches cusps will be analyzed for cusp spacing, positions (upper or lower cusps), alongshore variability, merging events, percentage of cusp events, patterns of the events and time scales of variability. Finally, the relationship of these characteristics to environmental conditions (wave, tides, beach conditions) will be studied.

  8. Long term results of childhood dysphonia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackiewicz-Nartowicz, Hanna; Sinkiewicz, Anna; Bielecka, Arleta; Owczarzak, Hanna; Mackiewicz-Milewska, Magdalena; Winiarski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the long term results of treatment and rehabilitation of childhood dysphonia. This study included a group of adolescents (n=29) aged from 15 to 20 who were treated due to pediatric hyperfunctional dysphonia and soft vocal fold nodules during their pre-mutational period (i.e. between 5 and 12 years of age). The pre-mutational therapy was comprised of proper breathing pattern training, voice exercises and psychological counseling. Laryngostroboscopic examination and perceptual analysis of voice were performed in each patient before treatment and one to four years after mutation was complete. The laryngostroboscopic findings, i.e. symmetry, amplitude, mucosal wave and vocal fold closure, were graded with NAPZ scale, and the GRBAS scale was used for the perceptual voice analysis. Complete regression of the childhood dysphonia was observed in all male patients (n=14). Voice disorders regressed completely also in 8 out of 15 girls, but symptoms of dysphonia documented on perceptual scale persisted in the remaining seven patients. Complex voice therapy implemented in adolescence should be considered as either the treatment or preventive measure of persistent voice strain, especially in girls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term plutonium storage: Design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkey, D.D.; Wood, W.T.; Guenther, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    An important part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Program is the development of facilities for long-term storage of plutonium. The WCR design goals are to provide storage for metals, oxides, pits, and fuel-grade plutonium, including material being held as part of the Strategic Reserve and excess material. Major activities associated with plutonium storage are sorting the plutonium inventory, material handling and storage support, shipping and receiving, and surveillance of material in storage for both safety evaluations and safeguards and security. A variety of methods for plutonium storage have been used, both within the DOE weapons complex and by external organizations. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of proposed storage concepts based upon functional criteria. The concepts discussed include floor wells, vertical and horizontal sleeves, warehouse storage on vertical racks, and modular storage units. Issues/factors considered in determining a preferred design include operational efficiency, maintenance and repair, environmental impact, radiation and criticality safety, safeguards and security, heat removal, waste minimization, international inspection requirements, and construction and operational costs

  10. Long-Term Soft Denture Lining Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Chladek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term soft denture lining (LTSDL materials are used to alleviate the trauma associated with wearing complete dentures. Despite their established clinical efficacy, the use of LTSDLs has been limited due to the unfavorable effects of the oral environment on some of their mechanical and performance characteristics. The unresolved issue of LTSDL colonization by Candida albicans is particularly problematic. Silicone-based LTSDL (SLTSDL materials, which are characterized by more stable hardness, sorption and solubility than acrylic-based LTSDLs (ALTSDLs, are currently the most commonly used LTSDLs. However, SLTSDLs are more prone to debonding from the denture base. Moreover, due to their limitations, the available methods for determining bond strength do not fully reflect the actual stability of these materials under clinical conditions. SLTSDL materials exhibit favorable viscoelastic properties compared with ALTSDLs. Furthermore, all of the lining materials exhibit an aging solution-specific tendency toward discoloration, and the available cleansers are not fully effective and can alter the mechanical properties of LTSDLs. Future studies are needed to improve the microbiological resistance of LTSDLs, as well as some of their performance characteristics.

  11. Long term agreements energy efficiency. Progress 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    Long Term Agreements (LTAs) on energy efficiency have been contracted with various business sectors since 1992, as part of energy conservation policy: industrial sectors, commercial services, agrarian sectors and non-profit services. LTAs are voluntary agreements between a specific sector and the Minister of Economic Affairs. In some cases, the Minister of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries is also involved. The sector commits to an effort to improve energy efficiency by a particular percentage within an agreed period. As at 31 December 1999, a total of 29 LTAs had been contracted with industrial sectors and 14 with non-industrial ones. This report describes the progress of the LTAs in 1999. It reviews the energy efficiency improvements realised through the LTAs, both overall and in each individual sector. The aim is to make the efforts and results in the various sectors accessible to the general public. Appendix 1 describes the positioning of the LTA instrument. This Appendix provides and insight into the position of the LTAs within the overall set of policy instruments. It also covers the subsidy schemes and fiscal instruments that support the LTAs, the relationships between LTAs and environmental policy and new developments relating to the LTAs in the years ahead. Appendices 2 to 6 contain the reports on the LTAs and a list of abbreviations (Appendix 7)

  12. Containment long-term operational integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammataro, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Periodic integrated leak rate tests are required to assure that containments continue to meet allowable leakage limits. Although overall performance has been quite good to date, several major containment aging and degradation mechanisms have been identified. Two pilot plant life extension (PLEX) studies serve as models for extending the operational integrity of present containments for light-water cooled nuclear power plants in the United States. One study is for a Boiling-Water Reactor (BWR) and the second is for a Pressurized-Water Reactor (PWR). Research and testing programs for determining the ultimate pressure capacity and failure mechanisms for containments under severe loading conditions and studies for extending the life of current plants beyond the present 40-year licensed lifetime are under way. This paper presents an overview of containment designs in the United States. Also presented are a discussion of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME Code) and regulatory authority requirements for the design, construction, inservice inspection, leakage testing and repair of steel and concrete containments. Findings for containments from the pilot PLEX studies and continuing containment integrity research and testing programs are discussed. The ASME Code and regulatory requirements together with recommendations from the PLEX studies and containment integrity research and testing provide a basis for continued containment long-term operational integrity. (orig./GL)

  13. Long term results of compression sclerotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labas, P; Ohradka, B; Cambal, M; Reis, R; Fillo, J

    2003-01-01

    To compare the short and long term results of different techniques of compression sclerotherapy. In the past 10 years the authors treated 1622 pts due to chronic venous insufficiency. There were 3 groups of patients: 1) Pts treated by Sigg's technique using Aethoxysclerol, 2) Pts treated by Fegan's technique with Fibrovein, and 3) Pts treated by Fegan's procedure, but using a combination of both sclerosants. In all cases, the techniques of empty vein, bubble air, uninterrupted 6-week compression and forced mobilisation were used. In the group of pats. treated by Sigg's procedure, the average cure rate was 67.47% after 6 months, 60.3% after 5 years of follow-up. In Fegan's group this rate was 83.6% after 6 months and 78.54% after 5 year assessment. Statistically, significant differences were found only by the disappearance of varices and reduction of pain in favour of Fegan's technique. In the group of pts treated by Fegan's (Aethoxysclerol + Fibrovein) this rate after 5 years was 86%. The only statistically significant difference was found by the disappearance of varices in favour of Fegan's technique using a combination of 2 detergent sclerosants. Sclerotherapy is effective when properly executed in any length of vein no matter how dilated it has become. The recurrences are attributed more to inadequate technique than to the shortcoming of the procedure. Sclerotherapy is miniinvasive, with few complications, and can be repeated on out-patient basis. (Tab. 1, Ref. 22.).

  14. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10 3 -10 5 years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., open-quotes natural analoguesclose quotes) provide perhaps the only means of partial open-quotes validation,close quotes as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10 3 -10 8 years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the open-quotes validationclose quotes of performance assessments

  15. Long term prediction of flood occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Aguilar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available How long a river remembers its past is still an open question. Perturbations occurring in large catchments may impact the flow regime for several weeks and months, therefore providing a physical explanation for the occasional tendency of floods to occur in clusters. The research question explored in this paper may be stated as follows: can higher than usual river discharges in the low flow season be associated to a higher probability of floods in the subsequent high flow season? The physical explanation for such association may be related to the presence of higher soil moisture storage at the beginning of the high flow season, which may induce lower infiltration rates and therefore higher river runoff. Another possible explanation is persistence of climate, due to presence of long-term properties in atmospheric circulation. We focus on the Po River at Pontelagoscuro, whose catchment area amounts to 71 000 km2. We look at the stochastic connection between average river flows in the pre-flood season and the peak flows in the flood season by using a bivariate probability distribution. We found that the shape of the flood frequency distribution is significantly impacted by the river flow regime in the low flow season. The proposed technique, which can be classified as a data assimilation approach, may allow one to reduce the uncertainty associated to the estimation of the flood probability.

  16. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long-term contracts. 1.460-1 Section 1.460-1...) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-1 Long-term contracts. (a..., building, installation, or construction of property is a long-term contract under section 460 and what...

  17. Long-term academic stress enhances early processing of facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Qin, Shaozheng; Yao, Zhuxi; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to long-term stress can lead to a variety of emotional and behavioral problems. Although widely investigated, the neural basis of how long-term stress impacts emotional processing in humans remains largely elusive. Using event-related brain potentials (ERPs), we investigated the effects of long-term stress on the neural dynamics of emotionally facial expression processing. Thirty-nine male college students undergoing preparation for a major examination and twenty-one matched controls performed a gender discrimination task for faces displaying angry, happy, and neutral expressions. The results of the Perceived Stress Scale showed that participants in the stress group perceived higher levels of long-term stress relative to the control group. ERP analyses revealed differential effects of long-term stress on two early stages of facial expression processing: 1) long-term stress generally augmented posterior P1 amplitudes to facial stimuli irrespective of expression valence, suggesting that stress can increase sensitization to visual inputs in general, and 2) long-term stress selectively augmented fronto-central P2 amplitudes for angry but not for neutral or positive facial expressions, suggesting that stress may lead to increased attentional prioritization to processing negative emotional stimuli. Together, our findings suggest that long-term stress has profound impacts on the early stages of facial expression processing, with an increase at the very early stage of general information inputs and a subsequent attentional bias toward processing emotionally negative stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Low prevalence of long-term breastfeeding among women with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Camilla W; Stage, Edna; Barfred, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of long-term breastfeeding among women with type 2 diabetes compared to women with type 1 diabetes and to identify predictors of long-term breastfeeding for women with pre-gestational diabetes. METHODS: In total, 149 women with diabetes were interviewed...... 2 diabetes showed significantly lower prevalence of breastfeeding than the 105 women with type 1 diabetes (34% versus 61%, p ... predictors of long-term breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of long-term breastfeeding among women with type 2 diabetes was considerably lower than in women with type 1 diabetes. Number of feedings in the first 24 h was positive and BMI and smoking were negative predictors of long-term breastfeeding...

  19. LONG-TERM EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS IN CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, P.L.; Greene, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Charleston, South Carolina, area offers a unique opportunity to conduct studies that give insight into the implementation of policy for long-term earthquake preparedness at the local level. Research by Greene and Gori documented the low state of preparedness in 1981. Recent studies show that earthquake preparedness activities are now occurring in Charleston. Since 1981, increased national attention has been used by local citizens in Charleston to overcome political, informational, social, organizational, and economic barriers which tend to retard the adoption and implementation of earthquake mitigation policies.

  20. Chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence causes long-term anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaby, L E; Cavigelli, S A; Hirrlinger, A M; Caruso, M J; Braithwaite, V A

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to stress during adolescence can cause long-term changes in behavior and cognition. Anxiety diagnoses rise during adolescence and are increased by adverse experiences. Currently, it is unknown how long stress during adolescence alters anxiety in adulthood. We found that rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence expressed altered behavior 6.5 months later; showing increased anxiety in a feeding test in a novel environment. Although behavioral changes indicative of anxiety were detected in late adulthood, the basal levels of fecal corticoid metabolites in prior-stressed rats did not differ from unstressed, control rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Political connections, media monitoring and long-term loans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deming Yang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyze data on Chinese non-state-listed firms and find that it is easier for firms with political connections to obtain long-term loans with extended debt maturities than it is for firms without political connections. Our investigation indicates that this phenomenon is significantly less common with increased media monitoring. Houston et al. (2011 find strong evidence that the state ownership of media is associated with higher levels of bank corruption in China, but our study shows that, to a certain extent, media monitoring can curb corruption.

  2. Energy in 2010 - 2020. Long term challenges; Energie 2010-2020. Les defis du long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, Benjamin [ed.] [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-02-02

    This report presents the results of a workshop intending to anticipate the long term challenges, to guide better the short term power options, to understand the available political, economical and technical assumptions for the prospective world situation, to give some strategic hints on the necessary transition. Indeed, the difficult issue which the workshop tried to tackle was how should we prepare to reveal the energetic challenge of the development of the eight to ten billion inhabitants of our Planet in the next century without jeopardizing its existence. The energetic problems, a hardcore of the international preoccupation of both growth and environment, as it was recently evidenced by the climatic conference in Kyoto, have ever been the object of a particular attention on the part of General Commissariat of Plan. Thus, the commission 'Energy in 2010 - 2020' has been instituted in April 1996 in order to update the works done in 1990 - 1991 by the commission 'Energy 2010'. Soon it occurred to this new commission the task of illuminating its works by a long term (2050 - 2100) world prospective analysis of the challenges and problems linked to energy, growth and environment. In conclusion, this document tried to find answers to questions like: - which are the risks the energy consumption augmentation entail? - can we control them by appropriate urbanism and transport policies or technological innovation?. Four options for immediate action are suggested: - the energy efficiency should become a priority objective of policies; -coping with the long term challenges requires acting at present; - building the transition between governmental leadership and market; - taking profit of all the possible synergies between short and long term planning.

  3. The long-term nuclear explosives predicament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swahn, J.

    1992-01-01

    A scenario is described, where the production of new military fissile materials is halted and where civil nuclear power is phased out in a 'no-new orders' case. It is found that approximately 1100 tonnes of weapons-grade uranium, 233 tonnes of weapons-grade plutonium and 3795 tonnes of reactor-grade plutonium have to be finally disposed of as nuclear waste. This material could be used for the construction of over 1 million nuclear explosives. Reactor-grade plutonium is found to be easier to extract from spent nuclear fuel with time and some physical characteristics important for the construction of nuclear explosives are improved. Alternative methods for disposal of the fissile material that will avoid the long-term nuclear explosives predicament are examined. Among these methods are dilution, denaturing or transmutation of the fissile material and options for practicably irrecoverable disposal in deep boreholes, on the sea-bed, and in space. It is found that the deep boreholes method for disposal should be the primary alternative to be examined further. This method can be combined with an effort to 'forget' where the material was put. Included in the thesis is also an evaluation of the possibilities of controlling the limited civil nuclear activities in a post-nuclear world. Some surveillance technologies for a post-nuclear world are described, including satellite surveillance. In a review part of the thesis, methods for the production of fissile material for nuclear explosives are described, the technological basis for the construction of nuclear weapons is examined, including use of reactor-grade plutonium for such purposes; also plans for the disposal of spent fuel from civil nuclear power reactors and for the handling of the fissile material from dismantled warheads is described. The Swedish plan for the handling and disposal of spent nuclear fuel is described in detail. (490 refs., 66 figs., 27 tabs.)

  4. A new long-term care manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Robert L

    2015-04-01

    This article argues for a fresh look at how we provide long-term care (LTC) for older persons. Essentially, LTC offers a compensatory service that responds to frailty. Policy debate around LTC centers on costs, but we are paying for something we really don't want. Building societal enthusiasm (or even support) for LTC will require re-inventing and re-branding. LTC has three basic components: personal care, housing, and health care (primarily chronic disease management). They can be delivered in a variety of settings. It is rare to find all three done well simultaneously. Personal care (PC) needs to be both competent and compassionate. Housing must provide at least minimal amenities and foster autonomy; when travel time for PC raises costs dramatically, some form of clustered housing may be needed. Health care must be proactive, aimed at preventing exacerbations of chronic disease and resultant hospitalizations. Enhancing preferences means allowing taking informed risks. Payment incentives should reward both quality of care and quality of life, but positive outcomes must be defined as slowing decline. Paying for services but not for housing under Medicaid would automatically level the playing field between nursing homes (NH) and community-based services. Regulations should achieve greater parity between NH and community care and include both positive and negative feedback. Providing post-acute care should be separate from LTC. Using the tripartite LTC framework, we can create innovative flexible approaches to providing needed services for frail older persons in formats that are both desirable and affordable. Such care will be more socially desirable and hence worth paying for. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. HLW Long-term Management Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Won; Kang, C. H.; Ko, Y. K.

    2010-02-01

    Permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuels from the power generation is considered to be the unique method for the conservation of human being and nature in the present and future. In spite of spent nuclear fuels produced from power generation, based on the recent trends on the gap between supply and demand of energy, the advance on energy price and reduction of carbon dioxide, nuclear energy is expected to play a role continuously in Korea. It means that a new concept of nuclear fuel cycle is needed to solve problems on spent nuclear fuels. The concept of the advanced nuclear fuel cycle including PYRO processing and SFR was presented at the 255th meeting of the Atomic Energy Commission. According to the concept of the advanced nuclear fuel cycle, actinides and long-term fissile nuclides may go out of existence in SFR. And then it is possible to dispose of short term decay wastes without a great risk bearing. Many efforts had been made to develop the KRS for the direct disposal of spent nuclear fuels in the representative geology of Korea. But in the case of the adoption of Advanced nuclear fuel cycle, the disposal of PYRO wastes should be considered. For this, we carried out the Safety Analysis on HLW Disposal Project with 5 sub-projects such as Development of HLW Disposal System, Radwaste Disposal Safety Analysis, Feasibility study on the deep repository condition, A study on the Nuclide Migration and Retardation Using Natural Barrier, and In-situ Study on the Performance of Engineered Barriers

  6. Review of long-term results of stereotactic psychosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon-Chan; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Choi, Chang-Rak

    2002-09-01

    Stereotactic psychosurgery is an effective method for treating some medically intractable psychiatric illnesses. However, it is unfamiliar and the long-term clinical results have not been reported in Asia. The long-term results of psychosurgery are evaluated and the neuroanatomical basis is discussed. Twenty-one patients underwent stereotactic psychosurgery for medically intractable psychiatric illnesses since 1993. All were referred from psychiatrists for these disorders. Two patients showed aggressive behavior, 12 had obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and seven had depression with anxiety disorders. Bilateral amygdalotomy and subcaudate tractotomy were performed for aggressive behavior, limbic leucotomy was performed for OCD, and subcaudate tractotomy with or without cingulotomy was performed for depression with anxiety. OCD was evaluated with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), the visual analogue scale, the Clinical Global Impression Scale, and the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS). The Mini-Mental State Examination and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised were used for the evaluation of aggressive behavior. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) was used for evaluation of depression. Ventriculography was used in the first seven patients and magnetic resonance imaging-guided stereotaxy was used in the recent 14 cases for localization of the target. The lesions were made with a radiofrequency lesion generator. OAS scores in the two patients with aggressive behavior during follow up declined from 8 to 2 with clinical improvement. All 12 patients with OCD returned to their previous life and showed the mean YBOCS scores decreased from 34 to 3. Ten patients with OCD could be followed up (mean 45 months). All patients returned to their previous social life. In seven patients with depression with anxiety, HAMD scores declined from 28.5 to 16.5. There was no operative mortality and no significant morbidity except for one case of mild

  7. A security/safety survey of long term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acorn, Jonathan R

    2010-01-01

    What are the major security/safety problems of long term care facilities? What steps are being taken by some facilities to mitigate such problems? Answers to these questions can be found in a survey of IAHSS members involved in long term care security conducted for the IAHSS Long Term Care Security Task Force. The survey, the author points out, focuses primarily on long term care facilities operated by hospitals and health systems. However, he believes, it does accurately reflect the security problems most long term facilities face, and presents valuable information on security systems and practices which should be also considered by independent and chain operated facilities.

  8. Determining long-term regional erosion rates using impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergarten, Stefan; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    More than 300,000 impact craters have been found on Mars, while the surface of Moon's highlands is even saturated with craters. In contrast, only 184 impact craters have been confirmed on Earth so far with only 125 of them exposed at the surface. The spatial distribution of these impact craters is highly inhomogeneous. Beside the large variation in the age of the crust, consumption of craters by erosion and burial by sediments are the main actors being responsible for the quite small and inhomogeneous crater record. In this study we present a novel approach to infer long-term average erosion rates at regional scales from the terrestrial crater inventory. The basic idea behind this approach is a dynamic equilibrium between the production of new craters and their consumption by erosion. It is assumed that each crater remains detectable until the total erosion after the impact exceeds a characteristic depth depending on the crater's diameter. Combining this model with the terrestrial crater production rate, i.e., the number of craters per unit area and time as a function of their diameter, allows for a prediction of the expected number of craters in a given region as a function of the erosion rate. Using the real crater inventory, this relationship can be inverted to determine the regional long-term erosion rate and its statistical uncertainty. A limitation by the finite age of the crust can also be taken into account. Applying the method to the Colorado Plateau and the Deccan Traps, both being regions with a distinct geological history, yields erosion rates in excellent agreement with those obtained by other, more laborious methods. However, these rates are formally exposed to large statistical uncertainties due to the small number of impact craters. As higher crater densities are related to lower erosion rates, smaller statistical errors can be expected when large regions in old parts of the crust are considered. Very low long-term erosion rates of less than 4

  9. Incidence, clinical characteristics, and long-term prognosis of travel-associated pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Ralf; Suess, Christian; Leus, Maria; Luxembourg, Beate; Miesbach, Wolfgang; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard; Zeiher, Andreas M; Spyridopoulos, Ioakim

    2009-01-01

    Prolonged air travel is considered a risk factor for pulmonary embolism (PE). The clinical characteristics as well as the long-term prognosis of patients suffering from travel-associated PE ('economy-class syndrome', ECS) remain largely unknown. Owing to its proximity, our hospital is the primary referral centre for Frankfurt Airport, Europe's third-largest airport. The goal of our study was to follow-up all patients with ECS, who were admitted to our hospital between 1997 and 2006. We systematically reviewed all medical charts from patients presenting with acute PE to our emergency room or intensive care unit (ICU) and performed a telephone follow-up on patients discharged alive. Together with the data provided from the statistics department of Fraport Inc., the operating company of the Frankfurt International Airport, we were also able to put the medical data in context with the corresponding number of passengers and flight distances. A total of 257 patients with acute PE were admitted to our emergency and ICU between 1997 and 2006. Out of these, 62 patients suffered from ECS (45 flight-associated PE and 17 from other travel-associated PE). ECS patients were prone to more haemodynamic relevant acute events, reflected by a higher rate of initial cardiopulmonary resuscitation (4.8% vs. 1.5%; P = 0.153) and higher percentage of massive PE (8% vs. 3%; P = 0.064). Nevertheless, intrahospital mortality was similar in both groups (ECS 4.8%, others 4.1%; P = 0.730). Interestingly, the long-term outcome of ECS patients was excellent (Kaplan-Meier analysis; P log-rank: 0.008 vs. other entities). In general, ECS was a rare event (one event/5 million passengers), where long-haul flights over 5000 km lead to a 17-fold risk increase compared with shorter flights. Travel-associated PE was a common cause of PE in our hospital, with patients showing excellent long-term prognosis after discharge. The risk of ECS is rather low and strictly dependent on the flight distance.

  10. Dienogest in long-term treatment of endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schindler AE

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Adolf E SchindlerInstitute for Medical Research and Education, Essen, GermanyAbstract: Endometriosis is a chronic disease primarily affecting women of childbearing age, in which endometriotic lesions form outside the uterus, typically leading to painful symptoms, fatigue, and infertility. The symptoms of endometriosis may cause significant impairment in quality of life and represent a substantial economic burden to patients, families, and society. There is no cure for endometriosis; management consists of alleviating pain and other symptoms, reducing endometriotic lesions, and improving quality of life. Recurrence after surgical intervention is common, while the clinical evidence to support the efficacy and safety of many medications currently used in endometriosis is limited. Dienogest is an oral progestin that has been investigated extensively in the treatment of endometriosis in two clinical programs performed in Europe and Japan, including dose-ranging, placebo-controlled, active comparator-controlled, and long-term (up to 65 weeks studies. These studies demonstrated that dienogest 2 mg daily effectively alleviates the painful symptoms of endometriosis, reduces endometriotic lesions, and improves indices of quality of life. Dienogest showed a favorable safety and tolerability profile in these studies, with predictable adverse effects, high rates of patient compliance, and low withdrawal rates. This review article describes the clinical trial evidence that characterizes the efficacy and safety of dienogest in endometriosis, including two studies characterizing dienogest in long-term use. The relevance of these findings to the management of endometriosis in clinical practice is discussed.Keywords: dienogest, endometriosis, progestins, long-term treatment, quality of life, symptoms, pain

  11. Long-term variability of the spring taryn-aufeises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Alekseev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term variability of large taryn-aufeises was studied for several decades in different regions of the USA (Alaska and Russia (Chukotka, Kolyma, Southern Yakutia, Transbaikalia, and Eastern Sayan. Differences between volumes of individual ice massifs and the recorded maximal values change from 2–3 to 95–100%, and they do not depend on sizes of ice fields and their geographical locations. No statistically significant dependence of the aufeis volumes on the atmospheric precipitation amount and the air temperature was revealed in the most of the above areas. However, a general tendency for decreasing of the annual maxima of the ice reserves due to the climate warming was noticed. The long-term variations of the aufeises show existence of cycles of increase and decrease in their maximum sizes with their durations of 3, 7 and 11 years with the 25–30% amplitude of variations relative to the mean long-term values. In the Arctic areas, some of the giant aufeises do not melt completely during the summer and remain for a next winter. The volume of pereletoks (shortterm permafrost varies within the range of 5–25%, averaging 16% of the spring ice reserves. In the southern geocryological zone, a clearly pronounced dependence of activity of the aufeis processes on the snow thickness was found: when the snow depth increased from 70 to 100 cm, volumes of aufeises decreased by a factor of three, and the aufeises disappeared completely under the thickness larger 120 cm. It should be noted that the processes producing the aufeis-forming sources of subsurface water, and the factors of their layered-ice accumulation remain almost unexplored.

  12. Long-term assessment of meniscal extrusion after meniscal repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, D; Siboni, R; Kanagaratnam, L; Boisrenoult, P; Beaufils, P; Pujol, N

    2017-05-01

    Arthroscopic meniscal repair limits the medium-term risk of radiological osteoarthritis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cannot provide an accurate assessment of meniscal healing but may show harbingers of osteoarthritis such as meniscal extrusion. The objective of this study was to assess long-term meniscal extrusion after meniscal repair. Arthroscopic meniscal suture is not followed by meniscal extrusion and can, therefore, provide good knee function in the long-term. Consecutive patients who underwent arthroscopic meniscal suture on a stable or stabilised knee were included retrospectively. MRI was performed to measure absolute meniscal extrusion (AME), relative meniscal extrusion (RME), anterior sagittal extrusion (ASE), posterior sagittal extrusion (PSE), coronal cartilage coverage index (cCCI), and sagittal cartilage coverage index (sCCI). After a mean follow-up of 8.8±0.87 years, there was no evidence of meniscal extrusion in these patients with stable or stabilised knees: AME, 1.7±1.03 and 2.3±0.93mm, RME, 17±0.10% and 28±0.12%, ASE, 2.52±1.43 and 1.71±2.42mm, PSE, 0.29±3.49 and 0.22±2.35mm, cCCI, 23±0.08% and 20±0.09%, and sCCI, 49±0,10% and 53±0.09%. In the long-term after meniscal repair, osteoarthritis is limited and meniscal function seems preserved. IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. High-level Waste Long-term management technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Won; Kang, C. H.; Ko, Y. K.

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop a long-term management system(A-KRS) which deals with spent fuels from domestic nuclear power stations, HLW from advanced fuel cycle and other wastes that are not admitted to LILW disposal site. Also, this project demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of the key technologies applied in the A-KRS by evaluating them under in-situ condition such as underground research laboratory and provide important information to establish the safety assessment and long-term management plan. To develop the technologies for the high level radioactive wastes disposal, demonstrate their reliability under in-situ condition and establish safety assessment of disposal system, The major objects of this project are the following: Ο An advanced disposal system including waste containers for HLW from advanced fuel cycle and pyroprocess has been developed. Ο Quantitative assessment tools for long-term safety and performance assessment of a radwaste disposal system has been developed. Ο Hydrological and geochemical investigation and interpretation methods has been developed to evaluate deep geological environments. Ο The THMC characteristics of the engineered barrier system and near-field has been evaluated by in-situ experiments. Ο The migration and retardation of radionuclides and colloid materials in a deep geological environment has been investigated. The results from this project will provide important information to show HLW disposal plan safe and reliable. The knowledge from this project can also contribute to environmental conservation by applying them to the field of oil and gas industries to store their wastes safe

  14. Long-term survivorship of stemless anatomical shoulder replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Sascha; Beck, Verena; Wegner, Alexander; Dudda, Marcel; Patsalis, Theodor; Jäger, Marcus

    2018-01-24

    Like in many other joints, current shoulder replacement designs aim at bone preservation. According to the literature available, stemless total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) compares favourably with stemmed designs in terms of function and survivorship of the implant. However, long-term results of stemless shoulder arthroplasty are still missing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate long-term results of stemless anatomical TSA. Between 2006 and 2009, 51 shoulders in 46 patients were resurfaced using the Biomet Total Evolutive Shoulder System (TESS). Thirty-one shoulders in 26 patients who were aged 66.7 ± 10.0 (range 34-82) years were available for review at a mean follow-up of 94.7 ± 11.3 (76-124) months. The implant survival rate was 93.5% at eight years. The overall revision rate of the TESS implant was 9.7%. Radiolucent lines were found on the glenoid side of the TESS arthroplasty in 90.9% of the cases. All stemless humeral corolla implants showed solid fixation at follow-up. Clinical scores significantly improved at long-term follow-up (VAS from 8.1 ± 0.9 to 1.0 ± 1.2, p < 0.001; Quick-DASH from 67.9 ± 13.5 to 18.7 ± 16.5, p < 0.001 and Constant score from 14.7 ± 6.1 to 68.8 ± 13.2, p < 0.001). Stemless TSA has stood the test of time at eight years in terms of clinical scores, radiographic loosening, complication rates and implant survivorship.

  15. Northern European long term climate archives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohl, Veronica [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is responsible for the management and disposal of Sweden's radioactive waste. It is intended to deposit the spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository. This repository shall keep the radiotoxic material separated from humans and the environment for extended periods, from decades to millennia and possibly to geological timescales. During this time perspective climate induced changes such as shore-level displacement and evolution of permafrost and ice sheets are expected to occur which may affect the repository. The possible occurrence, extent and duration of these long-term changes, are therefore of interest when considering the assessment of repository performance and safety. The main climate parameters determining both surface and subsurface conditions are temperature and precipitation. As a result of the last advance of the Weichselian ice sheet only few geological archives exist, which contain information on past climatic conditions in Sweden before c 16,000 years BP. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and evaluate available information from Scandinavian, Northern and Central European geological archives, which record climatic conditions during the Weichselian time period. The compilation provides paleotemperature data sets, which may be used to explore the possible evolution of periglacial permafrost in Sweden. This report is a synopsis of 22 publications detailing climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian time period in Northwestern Europe based on quantified paleotemperature records. Some of the data is presented as temperature curves which were digitised specifically for this report. The time range covered by the different publications varies considerably. Only few authors dealt with the whole Weichselian period and the majority cover only a few thousand years. This however is not considered to influence the reliability of the archives. The reason for the

  16. Northern European long term climate archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohl, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is responsible for the management and disposal of Sweden's radioactive waste. It is intended to deposit the spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository. This repository shall keep the radiotoxic material separated from humans and the environment for extended periods, from decades to millennia and possibly to geological timescales. During this time perspective climate induced changes such as shore-level displacement and evolution of permafrost and ice sheets are expected to occur which may affect the repository. The possible occurrence, extent and duration of these long-term changes, are therefore of interest when considering the assessment of repository performance and safety. The main climate parameters determining both surface and subsurface conditions are temperature and precipitation. As a result of the last advance of the Weichselian ice sheet only few geological archives exist, which contain information on past climatic conditions in Sweden before c 16,000 years BP. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and evaluate available information from Scandinavian, Northern and Central European geological archives, which record climatic conditions during the Weichselian time period. The compilation provides paleotemperature data sets, which may be used to explore the possible evolution of periglacial permafrost in Sweden. This report is a synopsis of 22 publications detailing climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian time period in Northwestern Europe based on quantified paleotemperature records. Some of the data is presented as temperature curves which were digitised specifically for this report. The time range covered by the different publications varies considerably. Only few authors dealt with the whole Weichselian period and the majority cover only a few thousand years. This however is not considered to influence the reliability of the archives. The reason for the varying

  17. Pathways towards different long-term outcomes after naturalistic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekroll, Vidar Blokhus; Rønnestad, Michael Helge

    2018-03-01

    This study suggests some potential pathways leading towards maintained gains or further growth versus deterioration after naturalistic psychotherapy with experienced clinicians. This is explored in a way that transcends specific theoretical orientations. Sixteen therapies, all showing reliable improvement on Outcome Questionnaire 45.2 (OQ-45) at treatment termination but varying in later post-therapy development, were included in this study. Building on previous content and correlational analyses, individual cases were explored qualitatively in search for developmental patterns of potential relevance for long-term outcome. Patterns re-emerging across several cases were described in light of the OQ-45 trajectories of clients providing them. Six pathways, associated with different long-term outcomes, emerged. Four of these, "Reflective route towards regulation of affects," "Gaining autonomy through a secure holding relationship," "Opening up as a new relational/emotional experience," and "Lasting acceptance of «reality»," re-emerged in clients showing maintained/growing treatment effects. Two pathways, entitled "Residual problems grow and overshadow progress" and "Core problems remain beneath superficial change," seemed linked to deterioration after termination of therapy. We suggest the former pathways as some possible routes towards enduring good outcome, and the latter as some patterns to avoid when trying to secure therapy gains will not be only temporary. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Long-term Hydrologic Time Series in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, T. G.; Dudley, R. W.; Hodgkins, G. A.

    2002-05-01

    Long-term hydrologic data are valuable for improving our understanding of how water resources are likely to respond to changes in climate. The hydrologic regimes of rivers and lakes integrate climatological, geophysical, and biological processes that are difficult to model. Hydrologic variables record a synthesis of these complex interactions in metrics that are relatively easy to measure, compare among regions, and relate to measured climatic and land use variables. Here we present representative case studies using datasets including lake and river ice-out dates, seasonal center-of-volume date (SCVD, date on which half of the snow-melt dominated discharge volume has occurred during the period 1-Jan. and 31-May has occurred), water temperature, snow water equivalent, total annual discharge, and river ice thickness. These datasets were collected mainly by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The snow data were collected by Maine Geological Survey, USGS, and private companies. The lake ice-out data were collected by various citizen observers and utility companies. Sea surface temperature measurements at Boothbay Harbor, Maine, are recorded by the Maine Department of Marine Resources. Because the calculation of ice thickness was peripheral to making these river flow measurements, the existence of these ice thickness data are fortuitous and provides a valuable data set that can be used in hydroclimatological investigations for detection of environmental change. Time-series analysis of lake and river ice-out dates, SCVD, and water temperature show a consistent hydrologic response indicating earlier spring warming in recent decades. The dates for Damariscotta Lake and the Piscataquis River ice-out have advanced significantly over their respective periods of record. Our analyses show that a majority of the lakes and rivers in Maine having long-term records (>100 years for lakes, and >50 years for rivers) show significant advances. The date of the SCVD, which is associated

  19. Perioperative and Long-term Outcomes of Carotid Endarterectomy for Japanese Asymptomatic Cervical Carotid Artery Stenosis: A Single Institution Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ISHIGURO, Taichi; YONEYAMA, Taku; ISHIKAWA, Tatsuya; YAMAGUCHI, Koji; KAWASHIMA, Akitsugu; KAWAMATA, Takakazu; OKADA, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    As the recently developed medical treatments for asymptomatic cervical carotid artery stenosis (ACCAS) have shown excellent stroke prevention, carotid endarterectomy (CEA) should be carried out for more selected patients and with lower complication rates and better long-term outcomes. We have performed CEA for Japanese ACCAS patients with a uniform surgical technique and strict perioperative management. In this study, we retrospectively investigated the perioperative complications and long-term outcomes of our CEA series. A total of 147 CEAs were carried out in 139 Japanese ACCAS patients. All patients were routinely checked for their cardiac function and high risk coronary lesions were preferentially treated before CEA. All CEAs were performed under general anesthesia using a shunt system. The postoperative cerebral blood flow was routinely measured under continued sedation to prevent postoperative hyperperfusion. The 30-day perioperative morbidity rate was 2.04%, including a perioperative stroke rate of 0.68%. There were no perioperative deaths. With regard to the long-term outcomes of the 134 followed-up patients, 9 patients were dead and 5 patients suffered from strokes, including 2 patients with ipsilateral hemispheric ischemia. The annual rates of death, all stroke and ipsilateral ischemic stroke were 1.15%, 0.64%, and 0.25%, respectively. These results showed that the perioperative morbidity and mortality rates of our CEAs were lower than those in the previous large trials. Furthermore, the long-term outcomes of this series were favorable to those reported in the latest medical treatment trials for ACCAS patients. CEA may be useful for preventing ischemic stroke in Japanese ACCAS patients. PMID:26458845

  20. Predicting discharge to a long-term acute care hospital after admission to an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szubski, Caleb R; Tellez, Alejandra; Klika, Alison K; Xu, Meng; Kattan, Michael W; Guzman, Jorge A; Barsoum, Wael K

    2014-07-01

    Long-term acute care hospitals are an option for patients in intensive care units who require prolonged care after an acute illness. Predicting use of these facilities may help hospitals improve resource management, expenditures, and quality of care delivered in intensive care. To develop a predictive tool for early identification of intensive care patients with increased probability of transfer to such a hospital. Data on 1967 adults admitted to intensive care at a tertiary care hospital between January 2009 and June 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. The prediction model was developed by using multiple ordinal logistic regression. The model was internally validated via the bootstrapping technique and externally validated with a control cohort of 950 intensive care patients. Among the study group, 146 patients (7.4%) were discharged to long-term acute care hospitals and 1582 (80.4%) to home or other care facilities; 239 (12.2%) died in the intensive care unit. The final prediction algorithm showed good accuracy (bias-corrected concordance index, 0.825; 95% CI, 0.803-0.845), excellent calibration, and external validation (concordance index, 0.789; 95% CI, 0.754-0.824). Hypoalbuminemia was the greatest potential driver of increased likelihood of discharge to a long-term acute care hospital. Other important predictors were intensive care unit category, older age, extended hospital stay before admission to intensive care, severe pressure ulcers, admission source, and dependency on mechanical ventilation. This new predictive tool can help estimate on the first day of admission to intensive care the likelihood of a patient's discharge to a long-term acute care hospital. ©2014 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  1. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Williams, Joseph; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    Sustainable Enterprise Excellence balances complementary and competing interests of key stakeholder segments, including society and the natural environment and increases the likelihood of superior and sustainable competitive positioning and hence long-term enterprise success that is defined...... by continuously relevant and responsible governance, strategy, actions and performance consistent with high-level organizational resilience, robustness and resplendence (R3). This is accomplished through organizational design and function emphasizing innovation, enterprise intelligence & analytics, operational......, supply chain, customer-related, human capital, financial, marketplace, societal, and environmental performance. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence integrates ethical, efficient and effective (E3) enterprise governance with 3E (equity, ecology, economy) Triple Top Line strategy throughout enterprise...

  2. Dienogest in long-term treatment of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Adolf E

    2011-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic disease primarily affecting women of childbearing age, in which endometriotic lesions form outside the uterus, typically leading to painful symptoms, fatigue, and infertility. The symptoms of endometriosis may cause significant impairment in quality of life and represent a substantial economic burden to patients, families, and society. There is no cure for endometriosis; management consists of alleviating pain and other symptoms, reducing endometriotic lesions, and improving quality of life. Recurrence after surgical intervention is common, while the clinical evidence to support the efficacy and safety of many medications currently used in endometriosis is limited. Dienogest is an oral progestin that has been investigated extensively in the treatment of endometriosis in two clinical programs performed in Europe and Japan, including dose-ranging, placebo-controlled, active comparator-controlled, and long-term (up to 65 weeks) studies. These studies demonstrated that dienogest 2 mg daily effectively alleviates the painful symptoms of endometriosis, reduces endometriotic lesions, and improves indices of quality of life. Dienogest showed a favorable safety and tolerability profile in these studies, with predictable adverse effects, high rates of patient compliance, and low withdrawal rates. This review article describes the clinical trial evidence that characterizes the efficacy and safety of dienogest in endometriosis, including two studies characterizing dienogest in long-term use. The relevance of these findings to the management of endometriosis in clinical practice is discussed.

  3. Short and long term representation of an unfamiliar tone distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Anja X; Diercks, Charlette; Troje, Nikolaus F; Cuddy, Lola L

    2016-01-01

    We report on a study conducted to extend our knowledge about the process of gaining a mental representation of music. Several studies, inspired by research on the statistical learning of language, have investigated statistical learning of sequential rules underlying tone sequences. Given that the mental representation of music correlates with distributional properties of music, we tested whether participants are able to abstract distributional information contained in tone sequences to form a mental representation. For this purpose, we created an unfamiliar music genre defined by an underlying tone distribution, to which 40 participants were exposed. Our stimuli allowed us to differentiate between sensitivity to the distributional properties contained in test stimuli and long term representation of the distributional properties of the music genre overall. Using a probe tone paradigm and a two-alternative forced choice discrimination task, we show that listeners are able to abstract distributional properties of music through mere exposure into a long term representation of music. This lends support to the idea that statistical learning is involved in the process of gaining musical knowledge.

  4. Long-term reliability of the visual EEG Poffenberger paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Patrick; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Mochalski, Lisa; Schlüter, Caroline; Güntürkün, Onur; Genc, Erhan

    2017-07-14

    The Poffenberger paradigm is a simple perception task that is used to estimate the speed of information transfer between the two hemispheres, the so-called interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT). Although the original paradigm is a behavioral task, it can be combined with electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the underlying neurophysiological processes during task execution. While older studies have supported the validity of both paradigms for investigating interhemispheric interactions, their long-term reliability has not been assessed systematically before. The present study aims to fill this gap by determining both internal consistency and long-term test-retest reliability of IHTTs produced by using the two different versions of the Poffenberger paradigm in a sample of 26 healthy subjects. The results show high reliability for the EEG Poffenberger paradigm. In contrast, reliability measures for the behavioral Poffenberger paradigm were low. Hence, our results indicate that electrophysiological measures of interhemispheric transfer are more reliable than behavioral measures; the later should be used with caution in research investigating inter-individual differences of neurocognitive measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cohort Measures of Internal Migration: Understanding Long-Term Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Aude

    2017-12-01

    Internal migration intensities fluctuate over time, but both migration levels and trends show great diversity. The dynamics underpinning these trends remain poorly understood because they are analyzed almost exclusively by applying period measures to cross-sectional data. This article proposes 10 cohort measures that can be applied to both prospective and retrospective data to systematically examine long-term trends. To demonstrate their benefits, the proposed measures are applied to retrospective survey data for England that provide residential histories from birth to age 50 for cohorts born between 1918 and 1957. The analysis reveals stable lifetime migration for men but increased lifetime migration for women associated with earlier ages at moving in adulthood and a compression of intervals between consecutive moves. The proposed cohort measures provide a more comprehensive picture of migration behavior and should be used to complement period measures in exploring long-term trends. Increasing availability of retrospective and longitudinal survey data means that researchers can now apply the proposed measures to a wide range of countries.

  6. Transplanted human pancreatic islets after long-term insulin independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Y D; Gupta, Shashank; Morel, P

    2013-01-01

    Long-term insulin independence after islets of Langerhans transplantation is rarely achieved. The aims of this study were to identify the histological and immunological features of islets transplanted in a type 1 diabetic patient who died of a cerebral hemorrhage after >13 years insulin independe......Long-term insulin independence after islets of Langerhans transplantation is rarely achieved. The aims of this study were to identify the histological and immunological features of islets transplanted in a type 1 diabetic patient who died of a cerebral hemorrhage after >13 years insulin...... independence. Islets were pooled from two donors with respectively one and five HLA mismatches. Insulin-positive islets were found throughout the right and left liver, and absent in the pancreas. Two- and three-dimensional analysis showed that islets lost their initial rounded and compact morphology, had...... microdissection samples, compared to 1/23 for the least matched donor. This case report demonstrates that allogeneic islets can survive over 13 years while maintaining insulin independence. Allogeneic islets had unique morphologic features and implanted in the liver regardless of their size. Finally, our results...

  7. The histone deacetylase HDAC4 regulates long-term memory in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L Fitzsimons

    Full Text Available A growing body of research indicates that pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs correlates with enhancement of long-term memory and current research is concentrated on determining the roles that individual HDACs play in cognitive function. Here, we investigate the role of HDAC4 in long-term memory formation in Drosophila. We show that overexpression of HDAC4 in the adult mushroom body, an important structure for memory formation, resulted in a specific impairment in long-term courtship memory, but had no affect on short-term memory. Overexpression of an HDAC4 catalytic mutant also abolished LTM, suggesting a mode of action independent of catalytic activity. We found that overexpression of HDAC4 resulted in a redistribution of the transcription factor MEF2 from a relatively uniform distribution through the nucleus into punctate nuclear bodies, where it colocalized with HDAC4. As MEF2 has also been implicated in regulation of long-term memory, these data suggest that the repressive effects of HDAC4 on long-term memory may be through interaction with MEF2. In the same genetic background, we also found that RNAi-mediated knockdown of HDAC4 impairs long-term memory, therefore we demonstrate that HDAC4 is not only a repressor of long-term memory, but also modulates normal memory formation.

  8. The histone deacetylase HDAC4 regulates long-term memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Helen L; Schwartz, Silvia; Given, Fiona M; Scott, Maxwell J

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research indicates that pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) correlates with enhancement of long-term memory and current research is concentrated on determining the roles that individual HDACs play in cognitive function. Here, we investigate the role of HDAC4 in long-term memory formation in Drosophila. We show that overexpression of HDAC4 in the adult mushroom body, an important structure for memory formation, resulted in a specific impairment in long-term courtship memory, but had no affect on short-term memory. Overexpression of an HDAC4 catalytic mutant also abolished LTM, suggesting a mode of action independent of catalytic activity. We found that overexpression of HDAC4 resulted in a redistribution of the transcription factor MEF2 from a relatively uniform distribution through the nucleus into punctate nuclear bodies, where it colocalized with HDAC4. As MEF2 has also been implicated in regulation of long-term memory, these data suggest that the repressive effects of HDAC4 on long-term memory may be through interaction with MEF2. In the same genetic background, we also found that RNAi-mediated knockdown of HDAC4 impairs long-term memory, therefore we demonstrate that HDAC4 is not only a repressor of long-term memory, but also modulates normal memory formation.

  9. Long term behaviour of singularly perturbed parabolic degenerated equation

    OpenAIRE

    Faye, Ibrahima; Frenod, Emmanuel; Seck, Diaraf

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider models for short-term, mean-term and long-term morphodynamics of dunes and megariples. We give an existence and uniqueness result for long term dynamics of dunes. This result is based on a time-space periodic solution existence result for degenerated parabolic equation that we set out. Finally the mean-term and long-term models are homogenized.

  10. Assessment of Long-Term Mate Preferences in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Atari

    2017-01-01

    Previous research suggests that assessment of mate preferences has received relatively little psychometric attention from researchers, particularly in non-Western cultures. The current research was designed to (1) extend previous findings on long-term mate preferences by using a qualitative strategy, (2) develop a psychometrically sound scale for assessment of long-term mate preferences in men, and (3) develop a sex-neutral scale for assessment of long-term mate preferences. Six dimensions of...

  11. Long-term results of forward intensity-modulated radiation therapy for patients with early-stage breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Boram; Suh, Hyun Suk; Lee, Ji Hae; Lee, Kyung Ja; Lee, Rena; Moon, Byung In [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    To observe long-term clinical outcomes for patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with forward intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), including local control and clinical toxicities. We retrospectively analyzed a total of 214 patients with stage I-II breast cancer who were treated with breast conserving surgery followed by adjuvant breast radiation therapy between 2001 and 2008. All patients were treated using forward IMRT. The whole breast was irradiated to a dose of 50 to 50.4 Gy followed by an 8 to 12 Gy electron boost to the surgical bed. The median age was 46 years (range, 21 to 82 years) and the medial follow-up time was 7.3 years (range, 2.4 to 11.7 years). Stage T1 was 139 (65%) and T2 was 75 (35%), respectively. Ipsilateral breast recurrence was observed in 3 patients. The 5- and 10-year local control rates were 99.1% and 97.8%, respectively. The cosmetic outcome was evaluated according to the Harvard scale and 89.4% of patients were scored as excellent or good. The whole breast radiation therapy as an adjuvant treatment using a forward IMRT technique showed excellent long-term local control as well as favorable outcomes of toxicity and cosmesis.

  12. Audit of long-term and short-term liabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Korinko M.D.; Kushnir Y.O.

    2017-01-01

    The article determines the importance of long-term and short-term liabilities for the management of financial and material resources of an enterprise. It reviews the aim, objects and information generators for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations. The organizing and methodical providing of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities of an enterprise are generalized. The authors distinguish the stages of realization of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities, th...

  13. Unemployment and Long-Term Unemployment of Immigrants in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerija Botrić

    2016-04-01

    workers, and plant and machine operators are connected with increased probability of being unemployed for the immigrant population. This clearly shows that it is important to identify the activities of future increased labour demand and supplement this information with skills and competencies in order to support active immigration policy. Furthermore, the higher probability of unemployment for the young and the old suggests that it is important to design specific measures to target the more active inclusion of this population in the labour market activities. Relying on prime-age population will not yield sufficient efforts to revive the labour market. The results in the paper show that there are important differences in the predictors of labour market status of immigrants that have evolved in the course of the profound effects the latest economic crisis has had in Croatia. The identified predictors of unemployment or long-term unemployment for immigrants seem to be mostly similar to those of the domicile population. These results imply that the crisis has affected both population subgroups similarly, and that no additional segmentation of the labour market has occurred in that respect. However, the analysis has also pointed to the specific subgroups of both immigrant and native population (like the old, the young, persons without prior working experience, that seem to be adversely affected by the crisis. The results presented strongly suggest that active immigration policy should also incorporate labour market policy measures and that these should be developed in parallel.

  14. Variability and long-term change in Australian temperature and precipitation extremes

    OpenAIRE

    Dörte Jakob; David Walland

    2016-01-01

    Risks from weather and climate extremes to governments, industries and communities are increasing and, at present, are not well quantified. In the presence of climate variability and long-term change, it may not be appropriate to base an assessment of the likelihood of climate hazards on the long-term averages. Many weather and climate extremes have increased in frequency and/or intensity in recent decades with climate model projections showing that several trends are likely to continue. The ...

  15. Effect of porcine plasma protein hydrolysates on long-term retrogradation of corn starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Haili; Zhang, Mingcheng; Xia, Xiufang; Liu, Qian; Kong, Baohua

    2018-01-15

    The potential effect of porcine plasma protein hydrolysates (PPPH) on the long-term retrogradation of corn starch (CS) was investigated. The differential scanning calorimetry results showed that PPPH significantly reduced the retrogradation enthalpies (ΔHr) of CS (Pstarch. The results demonstrated that the addition of PPPH apparently played a crucial role in retarding the long-term retrogradation of CS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cosmetic Evaluation of long term results following intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) of conservative surgery for breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fussl, C. M.

    2009-01-01

    % good, 5% moderate and 2% bad cosmetic findings. The subgroup analysis resulted in around 65% excellent, 26% good, 5% moderate and 3% bad scorings. The worst criterion 'Complications' was rated once by one patient (both groups). In the physicians' evaluation the rounded findings in group 1 amounted to 13% excellent, 51% good, 31% moderate, and 5% bad ratings and in group 2 11%, 52%, 31%, 5%, respectively. No physician scored 'Complications'. No telangiectasia were described. In the summarizing categories 'Satisfactory' (Excellent/Good), 'Acceptable' (Excellent/ Good/Moderate) and 'Inacceptable' (Bad/Complications) following findings (rounded; in each case in above-named order) were offered: patients evaluation 93%, 98%, 2% (group 1) and 91%, 97%, 3% (group 2) and physicians' evaluation 64%, 95%, 5% (both groups), respectively. On the basis of the rank correlation coefficients there is a statistically significant positive correlation between patients' and physicians' evaluation. Age and applicator diameter had a significant negative impact on the cosmetic outcome. Tumor-stage (T-, N-, UICC-stage), grading, electron energy, boost-volume (90%-, 50%-isodose) and time delay (IOERT to WBRT, IOERT to time of evaluation) had no significant impact on the cosmetic result. Conclusion IOERT as a 10-Gy-boost within BCT shows in the longer follow-up excellent cosmetic results. Factors attributable to IOERT with negative impact on cosmetic long-term-outcome were not identified. (author) [de

  17. Stent implantation of left main coronary artery stenosis in an infant: Effective long-term treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Paech

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery stenosis is a rare phenomenon in children. Coronary stent implantation is generally not considered a standard treatment option due to technical difficulties and potential complications in this group of patients. Nevertheless, several pediatric cases reporting successful implantation with acceptable short-term experiences have been described. The following case presents a successful stent implantation for left main coronary artery (LMCA stenosis early after surgery for anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery (ALCAPA at the age of 6 months. The excellent mid-term results and notably the procedure′s potential as a long-term treatment in small children are highlighted. A 6-month-old infant underwent surgery for ALCAPA. Due to sudden postoperative deterioration, cardiac catheterization was performed. Coronary angiography revealed severe (90% ostial LMCA stenosis. A PROMUS drug-eluting stent (Promus Element AL3.0 Χ 8 mm, Boston Scientific, Natick, Massachusetts, USA was implanted. The procedure was performed without complications. Antiplatelet therapy with acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel was initiated. Subsequently, cardiac function improved slowly. Cardiac catheterization 3 years 8 months after stent implantation showed no restenosis with a proximal LMCA diameter still at the 50 th percentile for age. Neither were signs of heart failure reported at the last follow-up at 7 years of age. Presupposing normal growth, the implanted stent would thus provide sufficient myocardial perfusion with a LMCA lumen at the 40 th percentile at the age of 16 years. In selected cases, coronary stent implantation may be an effective mid- to long-term treatment of coronary artery stenosis even in very young children.

  18. The long-term persistence of phytoplankton resting stages in aquatic "seed banks"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Marianne; Ribeiro, Sofia

    2018-01-01

    to terrestrial seed beds of vascular plants, but are much less studied. It is therefore timely to review the phenomenon of long-term persistence of aquatic resting stages in sediment seed banks. Herein we compare function, morphology and physiology of phytoplankton resting stages to factors central......In the past decade, research on long-term persistence of phytoplankton resting stages has intensified. Simultaneously, insight into life-cycle variability in the diverse groups of phytoplankton has also increased. Aquatic 'seed banks' have tremendous significance and show many interesting parallels...... for persistence of terrestrial seeds. We review the types of resting stages found in different groups of phytoplankton and focus on the groups for which long-term (multi-decadal) persistence has been shown: dinoflagellates, diatoms, green algae and cyanobacteria. We discuss the metabolism of long-term dormancy...

  19. Long-term meditation: the relationship between cognitive processes, thinking styles and mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabio, Rosa Angela; Towey, Giulia Emma

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between meditation and cognitive functions. More in depth the purpose is to demonstrate that long-term meditation practice improves attention skills and cognitive flexibility. Eighteen long-term meditation practitioners were compared to a matched control group, who never practiced meditation. Each subject was tested, using computerized software (Presentation Software 9.90), which measured: attention, visual search abilities, working memory and Stroop's interference tasks. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between long-term meditation practice, mindfulness skills and thinking styles, namely styles of processing information. The results showed significant differences between the two groups, demonstrating that long-term meditation is linked to improvements of attentional functions, working memory and cognitive flexibility.

  20. Safety analysis SFR 1. Long-term safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    An updated assessment of the long-term safety of SKB's final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1, is presented in this report. The report is included in the safety analysis report for SFR 1. The most recent account of long-term safety was submitted to the regulatory authorities in 2001. The present report has been compiled on SKB's initiative to address the regulatory authorities' viewpoints regarding the preceding account of long-term safety. Besides the new mode of working with safety functions there is another important difference between the 2001 safety assessment and the current assessment: The time horizon in the current assessment has been extended to 100,000 years in order to include the effect of future climate changes. The purpose of this renewed assessment of the long-term safety of SFR 1 is to show with improved data that the repository is capable of protecting human health and the environment against ionizing radiation in a long-term perspective. This is done by showing that calculated risks lie below the risk criteria stipulated by the regulatory authorities. SFR 1 is built to receive, and after closure serve as a passive repository for, low. and intermediate-level radioactive waste. The disposal chambers are situated in rock beneath the sea floor, covered by about 60 metres of rock. The underground part of the facility is reached via two tunnels whose entrances are near the harbour. The repository has been designed so that it can be abandoned after closure without further measures needing to be taken to maintain its function. The waste in SFR 1 is short-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. After 100 years the activity is less than half, and after 1,000 years only about 2% of the original activity remains. The report on long-term safety comprises eleven chapters. Chapter 1 Introduction. The chapter describes the purpose, background, format and contents of SAR-08, applicable regulations and injunctions, and the regulatory

  1. Safety analysis SFR 1. Long-term safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    An updated assessment of the long-term safety of SKB's final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1, is presented in this report. The report is included in the safety analysis report for SFR 1. The most recent account of long-term safety was submitted to the regulatory authorities in 2001. The present report has been compiled on SKB's initiative to address the regulatory authorities' viewpoints regarding the preceding account of long-term safety. Besides the new mode of working with safety functions there is another important difference between the 2001 safety assessment and the current assessment: The time horizon in the current assessment has been extended to 100,000 years in order to include the effect of future climate changes. The purpose of this renewed assessment of the long-term safety of SFR 1 is to show with improved data that the repository is capable of protecting human health and the environment against ionizing radiation in a long-term perspective. This is done by showing that calculated risks lie below the risk criteria stipulated by the regulatory authorities. SFR 1 is built to receive, and after closure serve as a passive repository for, low. and intermediate-level radioactive waste. The disposal chambers are situated in rock beneath the sea floor, covered by about 60 metres of rock. The underground part of the facility is reached via two tunnels whose entrances are near the harbour. The repository has been designed so that it can be abandoned after closure without further measures needing to be taken to maintain its function. The waste in SFR 1 is short-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. After 100 years the activity is less than half, and after 1,000 years only about 2% of the original activity remains. The report on long-term safety comprises eleven chapters. Chapter 1 Introduction. The chapter describes the purpose, background, format and contents of SAR-08, applicable regulations and injunctions, and the

  2. Immunostimulatory and Other Haematological Effects of Long Term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carica papaya Linn. (Caricaceae)is used traditionally to treat malaria, hypertension, sickle cell anemia and diabetes. Its long-term hypoglycaemic and anti-obesity effects in normal rabbits are documented. This study assessed the long term immunostimulatory and other haematological effects of aqueous C. papaya leaf ...

  3. Sacrococcygeal teratoma: Clinical characteristics and long-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... Background/Purpose:The excision of sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) may be associated with significant long-term morbidity for the child. We reviewed our experience with SCT in a tertiary health care facility in a developing country with particular interest on the long-term sequelae. Methods: Between ...

  4. Sacrococcygeal teratoma: Clinical characteristics and long-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Purpose : The excision of sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) may be associated with significant long-term morbidity for the child. We reviewed our experience with SCT in a tertiary health care facility in a developing country with particular interest on the long-term sequelae. Methods : Between January 1990 and ...

  5. Long-Term Gowth Opportunities in Ethiopia | Alemu | Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Economics ... The paper attempts to investigate the role of institutions in the long-term growth performance of Ethiopia. In this study, it is hypothesized that the long-term growth of the country, apart from traditional factors of production i.e. capital and labor is largely influenced by institutional factors.

  6. Long-term sealability of spent fuel casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, O.; Kosaki, A.; Ito, C.; Ozaki, S.; Iitsuka, S.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of long-term sealability test of full-scale model casks which have been in progress since 1990. (O.Kato and C.Ito 1992) The purpose is to confirm the long-term sealability of the casks. (J.P.N.)

  7. How Does Long-Term Finance Affect Economic Volatility?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirgüç-Kunt, A.; Horváth, Bálint; Huizinga, Harry

    2016-01-01

    In an approach analogous to Rajan and Zingales (1998), we examine how the ability to access long-term debt affects firm-level growth volatility. We find that firms in industries with stronger preference to use long-term finance relative to short-term finance experience lower growth volatility in

  8. Long-Term Mortality of Emergency Medical Services Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtker, Morten Thingemann; Terkelsen, Christian J; Sørensen, Jan N.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Emergency medical services (EMS) provides out-of-hospital care to patients with life-threatening conditions, but the long-term outcomes of EMS patients are unknown. We seek to determine the long-term mortality of EMS patients in Denmark. METHODS: We analyzed linked EMS, hospital...

  9. Private Placements as Sources of Long Term Funds for publicly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Private Placements as Sources of Long Term Funds for publicly quoted firms in the Nigerian Capital Market. ... AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities ... Abstract. Private placements are gradually becoming means of raising long-term funds in the Nigerian capital market by publicly quoted companies.

  10. Long-term forest ecosystem research: a programmatic view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Swank; James Vose

    2010-01-01

    Long-term research provides the building blocks of knowledge needed to address natural resource and environmental issues. "Long-term" has frequently been considered to span decades with a time frame that usually encompasses at least one generation of scientists and frequently two or more generations. In the rich history of forest science, the origin of long-...

  11. Psychological symptoms as long-term consequences of war experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, S.; Jankovic Gavrilovic, J.; Bremner, S.; Ajdukovic, D.; Franciskovic, T.; Galeazzi, G.M.; Kucukalic, A.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Morina, N.; Popovski, M.; Schützwohl, M.; Bogic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: War experiences can affect mental health, but large-scale studies on the long-term impact are rare. We aimed to assess long-term mental health consequences of war in both people who stayed in the conflict area and refugees. Method: On average 8 years after the war in former

  12. Factors associated with long-term mortality in acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Camilla; Matzen, Peter; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the long-term prognosis of acute pancreatitis (AP) is limited. The aims were to investigate: (1) prognostic factors associated with long-term mortality in patients with AP; (2) whether or not the level of serum (S-)amylase at admission had an impact on the prognosis; (3) causes...

  13. Albumin: Creatinine Ratio during long term Diabetes Mellitus in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albumin: Creatinine Ratio during long term Diabetes Mellitus in the Assessment of early Nephropathy in Sudanese Population. ... Further studies with 24 hour urine sample are recommended for assessment of Microalbuminuria in long term Diabetic patients, provided that the patients are on a normal diet with regular ...

  14. Long-term hearing preservation in vestibular schwannoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Thomsen, Jens; Tos, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term hearing during "wait and scan" management of vestibular schwannomas.......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term hearing during "wait and scan" management of vestibular schwannomas....

  15. Quantification of long term emission potential from landfills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimovaara, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Novel approaches for the after-care of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills are based on technological measures to reduce the long term emission potential in a short time period. Biological degradation in landfills is a means to significantly reduce the long term emission potential. Leachate

  16. Long-term effects of a preoperative smoking cessation programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villebro, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Tom; Møller, Ann M

    2008-01-01

    Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation.......Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation....

  17. Long-Term Follow Up of Superficial Bladder Tumors | Shelbaia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The treatment of superficial TCC may be done by relatively minor endoscopic procedures, but the disease itself is a serious condition that merits close long-term follow-up. Key words: bladder tumors, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), ND: YAG lasers, transurethral resection (TURT) Suivi à long terme des ...

  18. Long Term Incentives for Residential Customers Using Dynamic Tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews several grid tariff schemes, including flat tariff, time-of-use, time-varying tariff, demand charge and dynamic tariff (DT), from the perspective of the long term incentives. The long term incentives can motivate the owners of flexible demands to change their energy consumption...

  19. Inflammatory markers in relation to long-term air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostafavi Montazeri, Nahid|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375290575; Vlaanderen, Jelle|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31403160X; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Modig, Lars; Palli, Domenico; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios Α; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620

    Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution can lead to chronic health effects such as cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Systemic inflammation has been hypothesized as a putative biological mechanism contributing to these adverse health effects. We evaluated the effect of long-term

  20. Long term physical and chemical stability of polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Grooth, Joris; Haakmeester, Brian; Wever, Carlos; Potreck, Jens; de Vos, Wiebe Matthijs; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a detailed investigation into the long term stability of polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) modified membranes, a key factor for the application of these membranes in water purification processes. Although PEM modified membranes have been frequently investigated, their long term

  1. Long-term effects of childbirth in MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M.B.; Nagels, G.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The uncertainty about long-term effects of childbirth presents MS patients with dilemmas. Methods: Based on clinical data of 330 female MS patients, the long-term effects of childbirth were analysed, using a cross-sectional study design. Four groups of patients were distinguished: (1)

  2. Long-term follow-up of obstetric studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teune, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on long-term child follow-up after obstetric studies. Obstetric randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) are performed to evaluate the effectiveness of perinatal interventions. However, most often only short-term outcomes are reported, while long-term outcomes are just as

  3. Naturalization fosters the long-term political integration of immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainmueller, Jens; Hangartner, Dominik; Pietrantuono, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Does naturalization cause better political integration of immigrants into the host society? Despite heated debates about citizenship policy, there exists almost no evidence that isolates the independent effect of naturalization from the nonrandom selection into naturalization. We provide new evidence from a natural experiment in Switzerland, where some municipalities used referendums as the mechanism to decide naturalization requests. Balance checks suggest that for close naturalization referendums, which are decided by just a few votes, the naturalization decision is as good as random, so that narrowly rejected and narrowly approved immigrant applicants are similar on all confounding characteristics. This allows us to remove selection effects and obtain unbiased estimates of the long-term impacts of citizenship. Our study shows that for the immigrants who faced close referendums, naturalization considerably improved their political integration, including increases in formal political participation, political knowledge, and political efficacy. PMID:26417099

  4. Long-term clinical performance of esthetic primary molar crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Diana; Fuks, Anna B; Eidelman, Eliecer

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to report the long-term clinical performance of esthetic primary molar crowns and compare them to that of stainless steel crowns (SSC). Twenty crowns (10 conventional and 10 esthetic) placed in 10 children who had participated in a previously reported study, were assessed again after 4 years. The crowns were evaluated clinically and radiographically according to the following parameters: gingival health, marginal extension, crown adequacy, proper occlusion, proximal contact, chipping of the facing (for esthetic crowns only), and cement removal. At the 4 year evaluation, all the esthetic crowns showed chipping of the facing. No difference was found for marginal extension, occlusion, crown adequacy and periodontal health between SSCs and the esthetic crowns. After 4 years, all the esthetic crowns presented chipping of the facing and, consequently, a very poor esthetic appearance.

  5. Naturalization fosters the long-term political integration of immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainmueller, Jens; Hangartner, Dominik; Pietrantuono, Giuseppe

    2015-10-13

    Does naturalization cause better political integration of immigrants into the host society? Despite heated debates about citizenship policy, there exists almost no evidence that isolates the independent effect of naturalization from the nonrandom selection into naturalization. We provide new evidence from a natural experiment in Switzerland, where some municipalities used referendums as the mechanism to decide naturalization requests. Balance checks suggest that for close naturalization referendums, which are decided by just a few votes, the naturalization decision is as good as random, so that narrowly rejected and narrowly approved immigrant applicants are similar on all confounding characteristics. This allows us to remove selection effects and obtain unbiased estimates of the long-term impacts of citizenship. Our study shows that for the immigrants who faced close referendums, naturalization considerably improved their political integration, including increases in formal political participation, political knowledge, and political efficacy.

  6. Long-term, global-scale statistics of sound propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheinet, Sylvain

    2014-05-01

    The near-surface sound levels emitted due to a point source show a large variability caused by sound propagation through changing meteorological conditions. To assess this variability, this study uses a numerical model of sound propagation which accounts for ground reflection, atmospheric refraction, and turbulence effects. The atmospheric inputs to the model-including turbulence-are calculated from Numerical Weather Prediction data. The method is used to investigate the relative sound levels at a range of 1.5 km from a 40 Hz sound source. The outstanding diversity of sound propagation conditions is illustrated over the globe. Over the long term, the sound propagation climates at selected sites are found to be modulated by the dominant wind regimes, the seasonal and diurnal cycles. The explored sensitivities stress the need for a careful assessment of sound scattering by turbulence and absorption by the surface.

  7. Long-term results of proton beam irradiated uveal melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gragoudas, E.S.; Seddon, J.M.; Egan, K.

    1987-01-01

    The first 128 consecutive patients with uveal melanomas treated with proton beam irradiation were studied in order to evaluate survival and visual acuity status of patients with relatively long-term follow-up. The median follow-up was 5.4 years, and no patient was lost to follow-up. All tumors showed regression. The most recent visual acuity was 20/40 or better in 35% and 20/100 or better in 58%. Eight eyes were enucleated because of complications. Metastasis developed in 26 patients (20.5%) from 3 months to 7 years after treatment. Results indicate that proton irradiation is quite successful for achieving local control of uveal melanomas. A large proportion of the treated eyes maintained useful vision. Five-year follow-up data indicate that proton irradiation has no deleterious effect on the likelihood of the development of metastasis

  8. Hyperemesis gravidarum and long-term health of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyavoo, Ahila; Derraik, José G B; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2014-06-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is a very common occurrence, but the reported incidence of hyperemesis gravidarum (a more severe form of vomiting in pregnancy) is much lower, estimated to vary from 0.3-3.6%. Studies have shown that nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is associated with improved fetal outcomes, such as lower rates of miscarriage. However, there are limited data on outcomes associated with hyperemesis gravidarum, which have focused on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Recently, studies showed adverse health outcomes, such as a reduction in insulin sensitivity in childhood and increased incidence of psychological disorders in adulthood. The effects of hyperemesis gravidarum in the offspring need to be further examined throughout childhood, adolescence, and into adulthood, so that long-term disease risks can be evaluated. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vertebral sarcoidosis: long-term follow-up with MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefere, M. [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Larbi, A.; Malghem, J.; Vande Berg, B.; Dallaudiere, B. [University Hospitals St Luc, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-08-15

    Vertebral involvement in sarcoidosis is rare and its clinical and imaging features are non-specific. Indeed, because the lesions are hard to differentiate from metastatic disease based on imaging alone, a histological confirmation is advised. Fatty replacement is a well-known finding indicating stabilization and healing in both benign and malignant conditions. It can be used as an indicator of a favorable disease course and response to treatment. We report the case of a 43-year-old woman with multifocal vertebral sarcoidosis lesions and long-term follow-up showing progressive and gradual fatty involution on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during 4 years of steroid treatment with a final favorable outcome. (orig.)

  10. Experimental Neonatal Sepsis Causes Long-Term Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comim, Clarissa M; Bussmann, Regina M; Simão, Silvia R; Ventura, Letícia; Freiberger, Viviane; Patrício, Janini J; Palmas, Daphne; Mendonça, Bruna P; Cassol, Omar J; Quevedo, João

    2016-11-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units. Treatment with antibiotics reduces mortality and morbidity, but neonatal sepsis remains a serious life-threatening condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate cognitive impairment in adult mice submitted to sepsis in the neonatal period. To this aim, 2-day-old male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to sepsis by injection of 25 μg of LPS. Sixty days after, the learning and memory were evaluated. It was observed that the mice submitted to neonatal sepsis presented impairment of habituation, aversive, and object recognition memories, and had an increase of immobility time in forced swimming test in adulthood. In conclusion, this study shows that the neonatal sepsis causes long-term brain alterations. These alterations can persist to adulthood in an animal model due to a vulnerability of the developing brain.

  11. Induction of synaptic long-term potentiation after opioid withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drdla, Ruth; Gassner, Matthias; Gingl, Ewald; Sandkühler, Jürgen

    2009-07-10

    mu-Opioid receptor (MOR) agonists represent the gold standard for the treatment of severe pain but may paradoxically also enhance pain sensitivity, that is, lead to opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). We show that abrupt withdrawal from MOR agonists induces long-term potentiation (LTP) at the first synapse in pain pathways. Induction of opioid withdrawal LTP requires postsynaptic activation of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and a rise of postsynaptic calcium concentrations. In contrast, the acute depression by opioids is induced presynaptically at these synapses. Withdrawal LTP can be prevented by tapered withdrawal and shares pharmacology and signal transduction pathways with OIH. These findings provide a previously unrecognized target to selectively combat pro-nociceptive effects of opioids without compromising opioid analgesia.

  12. Long-term variations of noctilucent clouds at ALOMAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Jens; Baumgarten, Gerd; Berger, Uwe; Lübken, Franz-Josef

    2017-09-01

    Noctilucent clouds (NLC) are measured by the Rayleigh/Mie/Raman-lidar at the ALOMAR research facility in Northern Norway (69°N, 16°E) since 1994. The data set contains about 2860 h of NLC detections and is investigated for the first time regarding trends. NLC properties depend on cloud brightness which is taken into account by the use of several cloud classes, related to brightness ranges. For NLC brighter than the long-term detection limit and strong NLC, respectively, the trend terms show increasing occurrence frequency (+9%/dec and+5%/dec) and brightness (+1.7×10-10 m-1 sr-1/dec and +1.5×-10 m-1 sr-1/dec) from 1998 to 2015. In the same period the altitude of faint and long-term limit clouds decreases (-66 m/dec and -108 m/dec). Over the entire time period of 22 years strong clouds show an increasing altitude by +76 m/dec. NLC properties are affected differently by solar and atmospheric parameters. In general, Lyman-α and stratospheric ozone impact all three NLC parameters, temperature at 83 km impacts mainly the NLC altitude. Time series of RMR lidar and SBUV satellite instruments match best for NLC occurrence frequency and brightness when restricting SBUV to the morning data at longitudes around ALOMAR (64-74°N, 8-24°E/0-9 LT). This suggests longitudinal dependent trends, which is confirmed by trend investigations of longitudinal subsets of the SBUV data set.

  13. Environmental Management Long-Term Stewardship Transition Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after the completion of facility cleanup. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. This report describes the background of long-term stewardship and gives general guidance about considerations when ownership and/or responsibility of a site should be transferred to a long-term stewardship program. This guidance document will assist the U.S. Department of Energy in: (a) ensuring that the long-term stewardship program leads transition planning with respect to facility and site areas, and (b) describing the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete.

  14. Long-term stability of bentonite. A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, H.; Karttunen, P.

    2010-07-01

    The long-term thermodynamic stability of the bentonite buffer in the evolving chemical, thermal and hydrological conditions at Olkiluoto has been evaluated by reviewing the relevant experimental data and natural occurrences of bentonite that could serve as analogues for the long-term bentonite stability in the expected repository conditions, especially focussing on mineral transformations due, among others, to thermal effects including cementation. Natural occurrences with stable smectite have been reviewed and compared with Olkiluoto groundwater compositions at present and during the expected hydrogeochemical evolution of the repository. Alteration of the bentonite buffer is expected to be insignificant for natural groundwater conditions at present and for the evolving groundwater conditions at the expected thermal boundary conditions caused by the heat induced from the fuel canisters ( + and SiO 2 and elevated pH due to degradation and dissolution processes. These may alter the conditions in the repository that may favour alteration and cementation processes. The amounts of foreign materials to be used in the repository will be updated along with the progress of the construction. Also the information on their impact on the barriers needs to be evaluated in more detail, including the degradation rate, mobility or dilution of the foreign materials in the repository environment. The exchangeable cation composition of the buffer bentonite is expected to equilibrate with the surrounding groundwater during and after saturation. This process is expected to lead towards Ca-dominant exchangeable cation composition within the montmorillonite interlayer spaces in the buffer. In general it seems that the transformation towards Ca-dominated composition would favour the long-term stability of the buffer as Ca-dominated smectite (compared to Na-dominated type) has larger water retention capacity and anion incorporation to the interlayer space of montmorillonite is more

  15. Simulated Climate Response to Long-term Solar Geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, L.; Bala, G.; Caldeira, K.; Duan, L.

    2016-12-01

    Many climate modeling studies have been conducted to explore various climate effects of solar geoengineering. However, most studies, including the GeoengineeringModel Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP), conducted geoengineering simulations for only several decades, and thus neglect feedbacks from the deep ocean dynamics. Given the long lifetime of anthropogenic CO2 and long-term climate commitment to CO2 emissions, there is a need to understand climate response to solar geoengineering over long terms. For example, The National Research Council's report on solar geoengineering wrote, "Because the GeoMIP simulations are of limited duration (under a century), the deep ocean does not have time to come into equilibrium with the climate forcing. These G1 (simulations in which solar irradiance is reduced uniformly to offset warming effect from 4 × CO2) and 4 × CO2 simulations therefore do not provide an indication of how the climate would evolve if the albedo modification was maintained for centuries, allowing the deep ocean to respond …". We used Hadley Center Climate model, HadCM3L, to perform a 1000-year idealized solar geoengineering simulation in which solar irradiance is uniformly reduced by 4% to approximately offset global mean warming resulting from an abrupt quadrupling of atmospheric CO2. We contrast this solar geoengineering simulation with the control preindustrial simulation and the 4×CO2 simulation. Our results show that during the 1000 year simulation period, modeled global climate, including temperature, hydrological cycle, sea ice, and ocean circulation of the high-CO2 simulation departs substantially from that of the control preindustrial simulation, whereas the climate of the geoengineering simulation remains much closer to that of the preindustrial state with little drift. In particular, solar geoeningeering simulation stabilizes large-scale ocean meridional circulation throughout the 1000-year period. We do not use the simulation results to argue

  16. Long-term availability of global uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnet, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    From a global perspective, a low-carbon path to development driven by a growth of nuclear power production raises issues about the availability of uranium resources. Future technologies allowing nuclear reactors to overcome the need for natural uranium will take time to fully deploy. To address these issues, we analyze the conditions of availability of uranium in the 21. century. The first two conditions are technical accessibility and economic interest, both related to the cost of production. We study them using a model that estimates the ultimate uranium resources (amounts of both discovered and undiscovered resources) and their costs. This model splits the world into regions and the resource estimate for each region derives from the present knowledge of the deposits and economic filtering. The output is a long-term supply curve that illustrates the quantities of uranium that are technically accessible as a function of their cost of production. We identify the main uncertainties of these estimates and we show that with no regional breakdown, the ultimate resources are underestimated. The other conditions of availability of uranium covered in our study are related to the market dynamics, i.e. they derive from the supply and demand clearing mechanism. To assess their influence, they are introduced as dynamic constraints in a partial equilibrium model. This model of the uranium market is deterministic, and market players are represented by regions. For instance, it takes into account the short-term correlation between price and exploration expenditures, which is the subject of a dedicate econometric study. In the longer term, constraints include anticipation of demand by consumers and a gradual depletion of the cheapest ultimate resources. Through a series of prospective simulations, we demonstrate the strong influence on long-term price trends of both the growth rate of demand during the 21. century and its anticipation. Conversely, the uncertainties related to the

  17. Satisfaction in Long-Term Marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Nina S.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the impact of sexual satisfaction and the congruence of mates' perceptions on overall marital satisfaction in 290 people who had been married 18 to 32 years. Results showed respondents were, overall, satisfied with their marriages. The relationsihps were enhanced by empathy and congruence of perceptions. (Author/JAC)

  18. Assisted Living Facilities - CARE_LONG_TERM_FACILITIES_ISDH_IN: Residential Care Facilities, Nursing Homes, and Hospices in Indiana in 2007 (Indiana State Department of Health, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — CARE_LONG_TERM_FACILITIES_ISDH_IN is a point shapefile showing the locations of 86 residential care facilities, 525 long-term care facilities (nursing homes), and 81...

  19. BUSINESS EXCELLENCE AS A CRUCIAL COMPONENT FOR ORGANIZATION COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljko Pozega

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Business excellence represents one of the most valuable management means of achieving competitive advantage of organizations. Modern and global market demands new organizational approaches for the long-term improvement at all organization levels. Objectives: This paper is concerned with the level of business excellence in Sibenik-Knin County and the level of knowledge about the EFQM model. Moreover, this paper is concerned with the level of knowledge of the top management concerning the business excellence and quality principles. Methods/Approach: For the purpose of this paper, the research was conducted among organizations in Sibenik-Knin County. Results: The results showed that the organizations in Sibenik-Knin County lack the initiatives for the systematic approach and implementation of business excellence model, but poses the knowledge about the basic concepts of business excellence. Conclusions: The research had showed that the organizations believe that the ISO certification is sufficient for strengthening competitive advantage and organization success.

  20. Fear of recurrence in long-term testicular cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaali, Tone; Fosså, Sophie D; Bremnes, Roy; Dahl, Olav; Haaland, Carl Fredrik; Hauge, Erik Rønneberg; Klepp, Olbjørn; Oldenburg, Jan; Wist, Erik; Dahl, Alv A

    2009-06-01

    To explore fear of recurrence (FoR) in long-term testicular cancer survivors (TCSs) since FoR hardly has been examined in TCSs. In a cross-sectional questionnaire study, 1336 TCSs at a mean of 11.4 years (SD 4.2) after diagnosis gave information about their medical and social situation, and completed measures on mental distress, fatigue, quality of life, coping, self-esteem and neuroticism. FoR during the last week was explored with one question, with the response categories rated on a 4-point Likert scale. Nine percent of the TCSs had a structured psychiatric interview. Twenty-four percent of the TCSs reported 'quite a bit' FoR and 7% reported 'very much' FoR during the last week. The FoR question showed moderate correlations (0.22-0.51) with established psychological measures. The level of FoR was significantly positively correlated with mental distress, fatigue and neuroticism and significantly negatively correlated with quality of life, self-esteem and coping. In univariate analyses, neurotoxic side effects and somatic symptoms, but not treatment modality, were significantly associated with level of FoR. In a multivariate analysis, a medium educational level, increasing levels of traumatic cancer-related stress symptoms and of neuroticism were significantly associated with rising FoR. Among those who had a psychiatric interview, the presence of at least one current mental disorder was significantly associated with FoR. High levels of FoR in long-term TCSs are not uncommon. Levels of mental and somatic problems are associated with the levels of FoR. Clinical consequences of these findings for TCSs are discussed.

  1. 20 year long term air quality trends in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Israeli air monitoring network was established in the mid 1990's with dozens of measuring sites near most populated areas. During these past 20 years the Israel economy has increased significantly. The population grew by 30%, energy consumption and power generation by more than 40% and the number of motor vehicles increased by nearly 50%. Most of the fossil energy is consumed by the electric power industry that has changed immensely during this period. Until the early 2000's the vast majority of the electricity was generated from coal and heavy oil. However, during the last ten years natural gas has gradually becomes the major source for power generation and for most of the heavy industry. In the present study we examined the impact of these economic trends on the major criteria air pollution parameters; O3, NOx, SO2 and PM10. The analyses was based on the long term trend of median value (50th percentile) and the 90th percentile. The results revealed that SO2 levels throughout the country decreased to very low levels, with the 90th percentile near the detection limit. The levels of PM10, that are relatively high compare with other global regions, did not show any trend during the 20 year period. This is consistent with the fact that most particulate matter results from long range transport of dust from the surrounding deserts. The long term trend of NOx indicates a gradual and steady increase at most measuring sites, which is consistent with the increase of fossil fuel consumption. The increase in NOx levels is most likely the cause for the significant increase in O3 levels found at most sites in a few of them to levels that are considered as an environmental hazard.

  2. Prediction of long-term failure in Kevlar 49 composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstle, F.P. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Creep rupture data in Kevlar 49 epoxy usually exhibit considerable scatter: the coefficient of variation (CV) about the mean failure time at a given stress exceeds 100%. Quasi-static strength data, in contrast, shows little scatter: <4% CV for pressure vessels and <10% for impregnated strands. In this paper analysis of existing creep rupture data on Kevlar epoxy vessels at four storage pressures has produced an interesting and useful result. It was found that a significant portion of the scatter in failure times for pressure vessels is due to spool-to-spool variation in the eight spools of Kevlar fibers used to wind the vessels. The order rank of mean times to failure was consistent over a pressure range from 3400 to 4300 psi, 68 to 86% of short term burst. Also, the coefficient of variation about the mean failure time for each spool was less than that for the total sample. The statistical inference that the sample is nonhomogeneous was supported by a nonparametric check using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and by a parametric analysis of variance. The order rank found in long-term tests did not unequivocally agree with static strength ranks; several spool sets were distinctly high or low. The implication is that, while static strengths are not valid predictors of long-term behavior, short term creep rupture tests at high stress definitely are. The material difference which causes the spool-to-spool variations has not yet been identified for all eight spools. However, it appears that Kevlar behavior at lower pressures may be predicted through the use of curves fitted to the data for each spool. A power law relating failure time to pressure, t = t/sub 0/(p/p/sub 0/)/sup m/, was found to fit the data reasonably well. The implication is that, both in composite vessel design and in creep rupture experiments, the pressure (or stress) level be carefully controlled.

  3. Backcasting long-term climate data: evaluation of hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghafian, Bahram; Aghbalaghi, Sara Ghasemi; Nasseri, Mohsen

    2018-05-01

    Most often than not, incomplete datasets or short-term recorded data in vast regions impedes reliable climate and water studies. Various methods, such as simple correlation with stations having long-term time series, are practiced to infill or extend the period of observation at stations with missing or short-term data. In the current paper and for the first time, the hypothesis on the feasibility of extending the downscaling concept to backcast local observation records using large-scale atmospheric predictors is examined. Backcasting is coined here to contrast forecasting/projection; the former is implied to reconstruct in the past, while the latter represents projection in the future. To assess our hypotheses, daily and monthly statistical downscaling models were employed to reconstruct past precipitation data and lengthen the data period. Urmia and Tabriz synoptic stations, located in northwestern Iran, constituted two case study stations. SDSM and data-mining downscaling model (DMDM) daily as well as the group method of data handling (GMDH) and model tree (Mp5) monthly downscaling models were trained with National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) data. After training, reconstructed precipitation data of the past was validated against observed data. Then, the data was fully extended to the 1948 to 2009 period corresponding to available NCEP data period. The results showed that DMDM performed superior in generation of monthly average precipitation compared with the SDSM, Mp5, and GMDH models, although none of the models could preserve the monthly variance. This overall confirms practical value of the proposed approach in extension of the past historic data, particularly for long-term climatological and water budget studies.

  4. Backcasting long-term climate data: evaluation of hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghafian, Bahram; Aghbalaghi, Sara Ghasemi; Nasseri, Mohsen

    2017-04-01

    Most often than not, incomplete datasets or short-term recorded data in vast regions impedes reliable climate and water studies. Various methods, such as simple correlation with stations having long-term time series, are practiced to infill or extend the period of observation at stations with missing or short-term data. In the current paper and for the first time, the hypothesis on the feasibility of extending the downscaling concept to backcast local observation records using large-scale atmospheric predictors is examined. Backcasting is coined here to contrast forecasting/projection; the former is implied to reconstruct in the past, while the latter represents projection in the future. To assess our hypotheses, daily and monthly statistical downscaling models were employed to reconstruct past precipitation data and lengthen the data period. Urmia and Tabriz synoptic stations, located in northwestern Iran, constituted two case study stations. SDSM and data-mining downscaling model (DMDM) daily as well as the group method of data handling (GMDH) and model tree (Mp5) monthly downscaling models were trained with National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) data. After training, reconstructed precipitation data of the past was validated against observed data. Then, the data was fully extended to the 1948 to 2009 period corresponding to available NCEP data period. The results showed that DMDM performed superior in generation of monthly average precipitation compared with the SDSM, Mp5, and GMDH models, although none of the models could preserve the monthly variance. This overall confirms practical value of the proposed approach in extension of the past historic data, particularly for long-term climatological and water budget studies.

  5. Abstracts 1987. New Horizons in Long Term Care: A Report on the Long Term Care Research and Demonstration Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Aid, Springfield.

    This booklet provides a description of 14 projects which were awarded funds during fiscal year 1987 for collaborative research in long-term care to find new ways to treat long-term care patients in Illinois nursing homes. It includes the organization or institution receiving the award, an abstract of the research proposal, and the name of the…

  6. Evaluation of initial function and long-term prognosis of renal allografts by means of computer-assisted gamma-camera scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, J.H.; Lassen, E.

    1981-01-01

    Seventy-eight renal transplanted patients were examined with computer-assisted gamma-camera scintigraphy in an attempt to evaluate the initial graft function and long-term graft prognosis. The scintigrams were quantitated according to the value of the uptake ratio and excretion ratio. The results showed a correlation between the pattern of the first post-operative scintigram and the fact that the graft had immediate, delayed or no function. Additionally a correlation was found between the first post-operative scintigram and the renal graft function at the time of discharge from the hospital. The long-term graft prognosis was found to be best in grafts with an excellent uptake and excretion ratio. (author)

  7. Long term performance stability of silicon sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, R.; Betancourt, C.; Kühn, S.; Hauser, M.; Messmer, I.; Hasenfratz, A.; Thomas, M.; Lohwasser, K.; Parzefall, U.; Jakobs, K.

    2015-10-01

    The HL-LHC investigations on silicon particle sensor performance are carried out with the intention to reproduce the harsh environments foreseen, but usually in individual short measurements. Recently, several groups have observed a decrease in the charge collection of silicon strip sensors after several days, in particular on sensors showing charge multiplication. This phenomenon has been explained with a surface effect, the increase of charge sharing due to the increment of positive charge in the silicon oxide coming from the source used for charge collection measurements. Observing a similar behaviour in other sensors for which we can exclude this surface effect, we propose and investigate alternative explanations, namely trapping related effects (change of polarization) and annealing related effects. Several n-on-p strip sensors, as-processed and irradiated with protons and neutrons up to 5 ×1015neq /cm2, have been subjected to charge collection efficiency measurements for several days, while parameters like the impedance have been monitored. The probable stressing conditions have been changed in an attempt to recover the collected charge in case of a decrease. The results show that for the investigated sensors the effect of charge sharing induced by a radioactive source is not important, and a main detrimental factor is due to very high voltage, while at lower voltages the performance is stable.

  8. Long-term quality of life after esophagectomy with gastric pull-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantoan, Silvia; Cavallin, Francesco; Pinto, Eleonora; Saadeh, Luca M; Alfieri, Rita; Cagol, Matteo; Bellissimo, Maria C; Castoro, Carlo; Scarpa, Marco

    2018-02-06

    Data on long-term health-related quality of life (HRQL) after esophagectomy for cancer show contradictory results. The aim was to analyze long-term HRQL at 3 or more years after esophagectomy. Survivors were identified among patients who had undergone esophagectomy during 2007-2013 using the local clinic database. Quality of life was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and OG25 questionnaires. Specific aspects were selected a priori and compared with published scores from European healthy subjects (mean difference, MD). Sixty-five long-term survivors (median follow-up 4 years) were identified. All functional scales and most symptom scales were clinically similar between EC long-term survivors and European healthy subjects. Survivors reported more problems concerning eating (MD 13.1, 95% C.I. 10.6-15.6) and reflux (MD 19.7, 95% C.I. 15.9-23.5). HQRL variation from discharge to long term was available in 27 participants who reported improvements in role functioning (MD 40.1, 95%C.I. 24.3-56.0) and dysphagia (MD -41.9, 95% C.I. -51.7 to 32.0). Long-term HRQL after esophagectomy is similar between EC survivors and European healthy subjects, despite persisting reflux and eating problems. Further research may focus on improvements of postoperative alimentary habits. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Long-Term Stability of Oxide Nanowire Sensors via Heavily Doped Oxide Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hao; Takahashi, Tsunaki; Kanai, Masaki; Zhang, Guozhu; He, Yong; Nagashima, Kazuki; Yanagida, Takeshi

    2017-12-22

    Long-term stability of a chemical sensor is an essential quality for long-term collection of data related to exhaled breath, environmental air, and other sources in the Internet of things (IoT) era. Although an oxide nanowire sensor has shown great potential as a chemical sensor, the long-term stability of sensitivity has not been realized yet due to electrical degradation under harsh sensing conditions. Here, we report a rational concept to accomplish long-term electrical stability of metal oxide nanowire sensors via introduction of a heavily doped metal oxide contact layer. Antimony-doped SnO 2 (ATO) contacts on SnO 2 nanowires show much more stable and lower electrical contact resistance than conventional Ti contacts for high temperature (200 °C) conditions, which are required to operate chemical sensors. The stable and low contact resistance of ATO was confirmed for at least 1960 h under 200 °C in open air. This heavily doped oxide contact enables us to realize the long-term stability of SnO 2 nanowire sensors while maintaining the sensitivity for both NO 2 gas and light (photo) detections. The applicability of our method is confirmed for sensors on a flexible polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate. Since the proposed fundamental concept can be applied to various oxide nanostructures, it will give a foundation for designing long-term stable oxide nanomaterial-based IoT sensors.

  10. Prognostic Factors and Decision Tree for Long-term Survival in Metastatic Uveal Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Daniel; Ochoa, María; Piulats, Josep Maria; Gutiérrez, Cristina; Arias, Luis; Català, Jaum; Grau, María; Peñafiel, Judith; Cobos, Estefanía; Garcia-Bru, Pere; Rubio, Marcos Javier; Padrón-Pérez, Noel; Dias, Bruno; Pera, Joan; Caminal, Josep Maria

    2017-12-04

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the existence of a bimodal survival pattern in metastatic uveal melanoma. Secondary aims were to identify the characteristics and prognostic factors associated with long-term survival and to develop a clinical decision tree. The medical records of 99 metastatic uveal melanoma patients were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were classified as either short (≤ 12 months) or long-term survivors (> 12 months) based on a graphical interpretation of the survival curve after diagnosis of the first metastatic lesion. Ophthalmic and oncological characteristics were assessed in both groups. Of the 99 patients, 62 (62.6%) were classified as short-term survivors, and 37 (37.4%) as long-term survivors. The multivariate analysis identified the following predictors of long-term survival: age ≤ 65 years (p=0.012) and unaltered serum lactate dehydrogenase levels (p=0.018); additionally, the size (smaller vs. larger) of the largest liver metastasis showed a trend towards significance (p=0.063). Based on the variables significantly associated with long-term survival, we developed a decision tree to facilitate clinical decision-making. The findings of this study demonstrate the existence of a bimodal survival pattern in patients with metastatic uveal melanoma. The presence of certain clinical characteristics at diagnosis of distant disease is associated with long-term survival. A decision tree was developed to facilitate clinical decision-making and to counsel patients about the expected course of disease.

  11. Modeling long-term dynamics of electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsina, Fernando; Garces, Francisco; Haubrich, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade, many countries have restructured their electricity industries by introducing competition in their power generation sectors. Although some restructuring has been regarded as successful, the short experience accumulated with liberalized power markets does not allow making any founded assertion about their long-term behavior. Long-term prices and long-term supply reliability are now center of interest. This concerns firms considering investments in generation capacity and regulatory authorities interested in assuring the long-term supply adequacy and the stability of power markets. In order to gain significant insight into the long-term behavior of liberalized power markets, in this paper, a simulation model based on system dynamics is proposed and the underlying mathematical formulations extensively discussed. Unlike classical market models based on the assumption that market outcomes replicate the results of a centrally made optimization, the approach presented here focuses on replicating the system structure of power markets and the logic of relationships among system components in order to derive its dynamical response. The simulations suggest that there might be serious problems to adjust early enough the generation capacity necessary to maintain stable reserve margins, and consequently, stable long-term price levels. Because of feedback loops embedded in the structure of power markets and the existence of some time lags, the long-term market development might exhibit a quite volatile behavior. By varying some exogenous inputs, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to assess the influence of these factors on the long-run market dynamics

  12. Audit of long-term and short-term liabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korinko M.D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article determines the importance of long-term and short-term liabilities for the management of financial and material resources of an enterprise. It reviews the aim, objects and information generators for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations. The organizing and methodical providing of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities of an enterprise are generalized. The authors distinguish the stages of realization of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities, the aim of audit on each of the presented stages, and recommend methodical techniques. It is fixed that it is necessary to conduct the estimation of the systems of internal control and record-keeping of an enterprise by implementation of public accountant procedures for determination of volume and maintenance of selection realization. After estimating the indicated systems, a public accountant determines the methodology for realization of public accountant verification of long-term and short-term liabilities. The analytical procedures that public accountants are expedient to use for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations are determined. The authors suggest the classification of the educed defects on the results of the conducted public accountant verification of short-term and long-term obligations.

  13. Long-Term Resource Adequacy, Long-Term Flexibility Requirements, and Revenue Sufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [Electric Power Research Institute; Botterud, Audun [Argonne National Laboratory; Levin, Todd [Argonne National Laboratory

    2018-02-15

    Variable generation (VG) can reduce market prices over time and also the energy that other suppliers can sell in the market. The suppliers that are needed to provide capacity and flexibility to meet the long-term reliability requirements may, therefore, earn less revenue. This chapter discusses the topics of resource adequacy and revenue sufficiency - that is, determining and acquiring the quantity of capacity that will be needed at some future date and ensuring that those suppliers that offer the capacity receive sufficient revenue to recover their costs. The focus is on the investment time horizon and the installation of sufficient generation capability. First, the chapter discusses resource adequacy, including newer methods of determining adequacy metrics. The chapter then focuses on revenue sufficiency and how suppliers have sufficient opportunity to recover their total costs. The chapter closes with a description of the mechanisms traditionally adopted by electricity markets to mitigate the issues of resource adequacy and revenue sufficiency and discusses the most recent market design changes to address these issues.

  14. Endoscopic resection for gastric schwannoma with long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ming-Yan; Xu, Jia-Xin; Zhou, Ping-Hong; Xu, Mei-Dong; Chen, Shi-Yao; Hou, Jun; Zhong, Yun-Shi; Zhang, Yi-Qun; Ma, Li-Li

    2016-09-01

    Gastric schwannoma is not so recognized by clinicians as its counterparts. The efficacy of endoscopic resection has not been described yet. Our aim was to assess the efficacy and safety of endoscopic resection in the management of gastric schwannoma. Retrospective data were reviewed from January 2008 to December 2013 in our center. Fourteen patients who had endoscopic resection with the final pathology result of gastric schwannoma were included in the study. Of the 14 patients, there were 12 females and two males. The median age was 59 years (range 32-83). Thirteen tumors (92.9 %) were from the muscularis propria and one located in the submucosa. Endoscopic en bloc resection was achieved in 12 patients (12/14, 85.7 %), including seven cases of endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR). The mean resected tumor size was 1.73 ± 1.10 cm (range 0.3-4.0 cm). In one case, endoscopic resection was suspended due to the limited experience of EFTR during the early period of the study. In another case, due to the difficult tumor location (gastric angle) and extraluminal growth pattern, the patient was referred to laparoscopic surgery. In the 12 successful endoscopic resection cases, during the median follow-up time of 4 years (range 17-77 months, one patient lost), no tumor residue, recurrence or metastasis was found. Endoscopic resection is safe and effective in treating gastric schwannoma with excellent long-term outcomes. However, it should be performed with caution because schwannoma is mainly located in the deep muscular layer, which leads to the full-thickness resection of gastric wall.

  15. Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

  16. Trend analysis of long-term rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio de Oliveira Sanches

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Pampas Region in the southwest of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, there are areas that show fragility in relation to soil and climatic characteristics. The sandy areas of this region have attracted special attention in the recent decades due to historical, socio economic and environmental issues. An increase in the amount of sand, or “sandization”, occurred due to natural phenomena such as rainfall and wind. Therefore, the sandization process could be influenced by an increase of precipitation in the area. The goal of this work was to analyze precipitation during different time periods in Alegrete, Rio Grande do Sul, from 1928 to 2009 in order to identify evidence of changes in rainfall behavior. Rainfall data from the Brazilian National Water Agency (Portuguese acronym ANA provided by the system hidroweb (http://hidroweb.ana.gov.br were analyzed. After the data were organized on total monthly, trimestral and annual values, they were analyzed for their linear trend over time. The Mann-Kendall test was used to quantitatively evaluate positive and negative trends; however, the data did not provide evidence of climatic changes, but rather of normal random weather events during the time period studied.

  17. Fetal malnutrition and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Caroline H D

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that lower birthweight is associated with a wide range of adverse outcomes in later life, including poorer 'human capital' (shorter stature, lower cognitive performance), increased risk factors for later disease (higher blood pressure and reduced glucose tolerance, and lung, kidney and immune function), clinical disease (diabetes, coronary heart disease, chronic lung and kidney disease), and increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Higher birthweight is associated with an increased risk of cancer and (if caused by gestational diabetes) obesity and diabetes. The 'developmental origins of health and disease' hypothesis proposes that fetal nutrition has permanent effects on growth, structure and metabolism ('programming'). This is supported by studies in animals showing that maternal under- and overnutrition during pregnancy can produce similar abnormalities in the adult offspring. Common chronic diseases could potentially be prevented by achieving optimal fetal nutrition, and this could have additional benefits for survival and human capital. Recent follow-up of children born after randomized nutritional interventions in pregnancy provides weak evidence of beneficial effects on growth, vascular function, lipid concentrations, glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Animal studies indicate that epigenetic phenomena may be an important mechanism underlying programming, and that nutritional interventions may need to start preconceptionally. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Evaluation of long-term cosmetic results and complications following breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujishiro, Satsuki; Mitsumori, Michihide; Kokubo, Masaki; Nagata, Yasushi; Sasai, Keisuke; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hospital; Kodama, Hiroshi

    1999-12-01

    Long-term cosmetic outcomes and complications were evaluated in 109 patients with breast cancer who had been treated by breast conservation therapy. Patients received radiation therapy at Kyoto University Hospital following quadrantectomy and level II or III axillary node dissection. Factors that might influence long-term cosmetic results were also analyzed. Irradiation to the breast was administered in 2 Gy fractions, 5 times a week for a total of 50 Gy in all patients. Cobalt-60 {gamma}-rays were used in 108 patients with the exception of 1 patient who received 6 Mev X-ray. Some patients with positive or close margins received boost irradiation of 10 Gy using electron beams to the primary tumor bed. Cosmetic outcome was assessed by both a scoring method and breast retraction assessment (BRA). Forty-seven percent of patients were assessed as excellent to good before radiation therapy. The percent of excellent to good decreased shortly after termination of radiation therapy, but gradually improved and stabilized by 3 years. Seventy percent of patients showed a score of excellent to good 5 years after treatment. The average BRA of the 109 patients was 3.0 cm. This did not change between 3 and 5 years after treatment. A significant correlation between cosmetic score and BRA was shown at all follow-up times. Factors such as age over 50 years (p=0.008), tumor location in the outer quadrant (p=0.02) and boost irradiation (p=0.03) significantly affected the cosmetic score. Arm edema and restriction of shoulder movement were observed in 22% and 49% at the start of radiation therapy, these improved within approximately 3 years and 1 year after treatment, respectively. Mild skin change was observed in 60% of patients even 5 years after treatment. The results indicate that cosmetic outcome after breast conservation therapy is clinically acceptable, and the complication rate is low. (author)

  19. Evaluation of long-term cosmetic results and complications following breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujishiro, Satsuki; Mitsumori, Michihide; Kokubo, Masaki; Nagata, Yasushi; Sasai, Keisuke; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Kodama, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    Long-term cosmetic outcomes and complications were evaluated in 109 patients with breast cancer who had been treated by breast conservation therapy. Patients received radiation therapy at Kyoto University Hospital following quadrantectomy and level II or III axillary node dissection. Factors that might influence long-term cosmetic results were also analyzed. Irradiation to the breast was administered in 2 Gy fractions, 5 times a week for a total of 50 Gy in all patients. Cobalt-60 γ-rays were used in 108 patients with the exception of 1 patient who received 6 Mev X-ray. Some patients with positive or close margins received boost irradiation of 10 Gy using electron beams to the primary tumor bed. Cosmetic outcome was assessed by both a scoring method and breast retraction assessment (BRA). Forty-seven percent of patients were assessed as excellent to good before radiation therapy. The percent of excellent to good decreased shortly after termination of radiation therapy, but gradually improved and stabilized by 3 years. Seventy percent of patients showed a score of excellent to good 5 years after treatment. The average BRA of the 109 patients was 3.0 cm. This did not change between 3 and 5 years after treatment. A significant correlation between cosmetic score and BRA was shown at all follow-up times. Factors such as age over 50 years (p=0.008), tumor location in the outer quadrant (p=0.02) and boost irradiation (p=0.03) significantly affected the cosmetic score. Arm edema and restriction of shoulder movement were observed in 22% and 49% at the start of radiation therapy, these improved within approximately 3 years and 1 year after treatment, respectively. Mild skin change was observed in 60% of patients even 5 years after treatment. The results indicate that cosmetic outcome after breast conservation therapy is clinically acceptable, and the complication rate is low. (author)

  20. Long-term integrity of copper overpack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstroem, Stefan; Salonen, Jorma; Auerkari, Pertti; Saukk onen, Tapio

    2007-05-01

    The results from extended uniaxial and multiaxial creep testing confirm the earlier indications of microstructural changes at relatively low temperatures (150-175 deg C) in Cu-OFP. These changes are probably related to recovery processes directed by the favourable crystallographic orientation on one side the related grain boundary, resulting in characteristically widening grain boundary zones. With further straining, these zones become chains of small grains decorating the original grain boundaries. The observed microstructural changes do not appear to represent particular disadvantages in terms of remaining life. In creep testing with natural weld defects (FSW, inclusion sheet 20% of cross-section), the results show much faster decreasing creep strength in time than what is observed for base material or welds without defects. However, extrapolation to 50 MPa stress level across such a defective region would still suggest a safe life of approximately 26,000 years in spite of much elevated testing temperature (175 deg C) from expected service temperature (below 100 deg C). For predicting mechanical behaviour, a creep model has been developed to include the full creep curves in a simple and robust manner. The model has been adapted to the most recent creep testing results (up to about 48,000 h in uniaxial testing). Applying this model for the extrapolated case of steady loading at 100 deg C / 50 MPa predicts time to 10% strain of about one million years. For comparison on creep ductility, also a testing program on low-phosphorus (OFHC) copper was initiated. The testing program with model vessels was completed after confirming safe short term limit load predictions. This program continues with compact tension specimens to study the potential combined effect of creep and corrosion in simulated groundwater

  1. The long-term power purchase: Recovery of capacity costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, P.S.

    1990-01-01

    As electric utilities increase their reliance on the long-term power purchase as an alternative to utility-owned generation, the appropriate rate treatment of the costs established in the purchase agreement assumes growing importance. In the November 9, 1989, issue, the authors examined the recent trend among state regulators to treat the long-term purchase in a manner similar to the addition by a utility of a new plant, including a full-scale prudence review. This installment will review recent rulings on the related issue of rate recovery of long-term capacity costs through the fuel cost adjustment clause

  2. Cyclic and Long-Term Variation of Sunspot Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-15

    AFRL-RV-PS- TP-2014-0009 AFRL-RV-PS- TP-2014-0009 CYCLIC AND LONG-TERM VARIATION OF SUNSPOT MAGNETIC FIELDS Alexei A. Pevtsov, et al. 15...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cyclic and Long-Term Variation of Sunspot Magnetic Fields 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F...from the Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) were used to study the long-term variations of sunspot field strengths from 1920 to 1958. Following a modified

  3. A Relativistic Long-term Precession of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, K.

    2016-05-01

    A long-term precession represents a secular motion of the ecliptic and th equator in a long time interval. With Vondrák et al. (2011), we assume that precession covers all periods longer than 100 centuries, while the shorter ones are included in the nutation. This thesis deals with the long-term precession in a relativistic framework. Compared with the P03 precession theory which is only valid for several centuries around the epoch J2000.0, the new theory better reflects the realistic long-term behavior of precession. All previous works are not fully consistent with General Relativity. They only consider the dominant relativistic corrections: the first-order post-Newtonian corrections due to the Sun and the geodetic precession. Their standard way to account for the geodetic precession is to solve the purely Newtonian equations of rotational motion and add the geodetic precession as a correction to the solution. In this thesis, we aim to determine the acceleration of the SSB from astrometric and geodetic observations obtained by Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), which is a technique using the telescopes globally distributed on the Earth to observe a radio source simultaneously, and with the capacity of angular positioning for compact radio sources at 10-milliarcsecond level. The method of the global solution, which allows the acceleration vector to be estimated as a global parameter in the data analysis, is developed. Through the formal error given by the solution, this method shows directly the VLBI observations' capability to constrain the acceleration of the SSB, and demonstrates the significance level of the result. In the next step, the impact of the acceleration on the ICRS is studied in order to obtain the correction of the celestial reference frame (CRF) orientation. Recently, Klioner, Gerlach, and Soffel (2010) have constructed a relativistic theory of Earth's rotation. According to the post-Newtonian equations of rotational motion given by Klioner

  4. Long-term Outcomes of Bariatric Surgery: A National Institutes of Health Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courcoulas, Anita P.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Bonds, Denise; Eggerman, Thomas L.; Horlick, Mary; Staten, Myrlene A.; Arterburn, David E.

    2017-01-01

    Importance The clinical evidence base demonstrating bariatric surgery’s health benefits is much larger than it was when the NIH last held a Consensus Panel in 1991. Still, it remains unclear whether ongoing studies will address critical questions about long-term complication rates and the sustainability of weight loss and comorbidity control. Objective The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a multidisciplinary workshop in May 2013 to summarize the current state of knowledge of bariatric surgery, review research findings on the long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery, and establish priorities for future research directions. Evidence Review The evidence presented at the workshop was selected by the planning committee for both its quality and duration of follow up. The data review emphasized RCTs and large observational studies with long-term follow up, with or without a control group. Findings Several small RCTs showed greater weight loss and T2DM remission compared to non-surgical treatments within the first 2 years of follow-up after bariatric surgery. Large, long-term observational studies show durable (>5 years) weight loss, diabetes and lipid improvements with bariatric surgery. Still unclear are predictors of outcomes, long-term complications, long-term survival, micro- and macro-vascular events, mental health outcomes, and costs. The studies needed to address these knowledge gaps would be expensive and logistically difficult to perform. Conclusions and Relevance High-quality evidence shows that bariatric surgical procedures result in greater weight loss than non-surgical treatments and are more effective at inducing initial T2DM remission in obese patients. More information is needed about the long term durability of comorbidity control and complications after bariatric procedures and this evidence will most likely come from carefully designed

  5. Long-term sickness absence from work due to physical inactivity: A registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgsbro, Cecilie; Davidsen, Michael; Sørensen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between leisure-time physical inactivity and long-term sickness absence in a representative sample of individuals aged 16-54 years, within the labour market and in good health. It was hypothesised that physically inactive individuals have a higher risk of long-term sickness absence and longer duration of sickness absence. The study population was identified from the National Health and Morbidity Survey, 2010. Weekly data on long-term sickness absence were obtained from the National Register on Social Transfer Payments (the DREAM registry). The association of incidence and duration of long-term sickness absence with physical inactivity was explored using logistic and Poisson regression. Data were fitted to models with levels of physical activity, demographic, social and lifestyle characteristics as independent variables. A combined hurdle model was used to estimate the difference in mean number of absence weeks. Logistic regression showed that physically inactive individuals had a 27% higher incidence of long-term sickness absence compared with physically active individuals. The Poisson regression showed that long-term sickness absence was only slightly shorter (1 week less) for moderately active individuals compared with inactive individuals. The hurdle model estimated longer absence periods for inactive individuals (additional 2.5 weeks) in comparison with moderately and highly active individuals. The study showed that physically inactive individuals have a higher incidence of long-term absence and that physically inactive individuals have longer periods with sickness absence than moderately and highly active individuals. When adjustments for social and health behaviour were included, the estimated associations became statistically insignificant.

  6. Both NR2A and NR2B Subunits of the NMDA Receptor Are Critical for Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression in the Lateral Amygdala of Horizontal Slices of Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Tobias; Albrecht, Doris; Gebhardt, Christine

    2009-01-01

    The lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) is implicated in emotional and social behaviors. We recently showed that in horizontal brain slices, activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) is a requirement for persistent synaptic alterations in the LA, such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). In the LA, NR2A- and NR2B-type NMDRs…

  7. Long-Term Survival of the Native Hip After a Minimally Displaced, Nonoperatively Treated Acetabular Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke-Jenssen, John; Wikerøy, Annette K B; Røise, Olav; Øvre, Stein Arne; Madsen, Jan Erik

    2016-08-17

    Few studies have evaluated the long-term results for nonoperatively treated acetabular fractures. The purpose of this study was to describe the long-term survival of the native acetabulum as well as the clinical and radiographic outcome for patients with nonoperatively treated acetabular fractures. All patients with acetabular fractures are prospectively registered in our acetabular fracture database and followed up at regular intervals for up to 20 years. We identified 236 patients (237 fractures) who had been treated nonoperatively between 1994 and 2004; 51 patients with incomplete data were excluded. For the survival analysis, 186 fractures with an average follow-up of 9 years (range, 1 to 20 years) were included. For the long-term clinical outcome, 104 patients with an average follow-up of 12.1 years (range, 9 to 20 years) were included. The 10-year survival of the native hips was 94% (111 hips were at risk). Eighty-nine percent of the patients had a good or excellent Harris hip score, and 88% had a good or excellent Merle d'Aubigné and Postel score. The most important negative predictor for clinical outcome and survival of the hip was a fracture step-off of ≥2 mm measured in the obturator oblique radiograph. Nonoperative treatment of minimally displaced acetabular fractures yields good to excellent long-term results. For patients with a questionable indication for fracture surgery, oblique radiographs (Judet views) are a helpful tool in the decision-making process, as a fracture step-off of ≥2 mm is a strong predictor for a poor clinical and radiographic result at 10 years. Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2016 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  8. Equity of access under Korean national long-term care insurance: implications for long-term care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju Moon

    2015-09-15

    The national long-term care insurance was implemented in July 2008. Few studies have been conducted with representative national survey data since the long-term care insurance was introduced. Therefore, this study examines the extent to which equity in the use of long-term care has been achieved in Korea. The Aday-Andersen model was used as a conceptual model, based on the Korean Health Panel Study which was conducted in 2011. Descriptive and logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between the dependent and independent variables and the relative importance of factors as predictors of utilization. The results of this study indicated that those who rated his or her health to be fair, good, and very good, had no limited activities, were disabled, and had insurance coverage were more likely to use long-term care services, respectively. Their decision to use long-term care was primarily affected by need (health status, limited activity, disability) and enabling (insurance coverage) factors. The findings also indicated that the introduction of a national long-term care insurance program did not yield a fully equitable distribution of services. Long-term care reforms in Korea should continue to concentrate on expanding insurance coverage and reducing the inequities reflected in disparities in consumer cost-sharing and associated patterns of utilization across plans. The subsequent impact on managed care and expenditures need to be more fully understood.

  9. Long-Term Course of Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Michael H

    Information concerning the longitudinal course of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) derives mainly from (a) long-term (10 to 25 year) retrospective follow-up studies, primarily those conducted during the 1980s/1990s, (b) brief (1 to 3 year) follow-up studies of recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of several different treatment approaches, and (c) prospective follow-up studies. The patients contacted in the retrospective studies had been treated mostly by psychoanalytically informed approaches or supportive. Though there was a significant suicide rate of 3 to 9%, about two-thirds of the BPD patients eventually achieved a global assessment score in the 60s or beyond. BPD represents a heterogeneous group of patients, whose outcome is a function of many variables, including personality traits (paranoid and narcissistic conducing to less favorable outcomes), cultural differences, socio-economic level, intelligence level, gender, and age of onset. The RCT studies focused on amelioration of the symptom components of BPD, especially tendencies to self-injury and suicide. The currently favored treatment methods showed in a large percentage of patients, a lessening of these self-destructive behaviors after a year or two of treatment. The time spans were too brief to allow assessment of improvement in key life areas (attainment of self-sufficiency in work, widening of the circle of friends, and success in forming satisfactory intimate partnerships). The prospective studies are based on reassessments at regular intervals of BPD patients and a control group with other personality disorders. Over the past 16 years the BPD patients, compared with controls, were slower to achieve remission, and more apt to show cognitive peculiarities initially-though they showed appreciable improvement over time. The "recovered" BPD patients, compared with the non-recovered patients, showed twice the likelihood of achieving a successful intimate relationship. At 16 years the Mc

  10. In search of the elusive long-term price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, M.J.; Combs, J.

    1989-01-01

    The Uranium Institute, WNFM, and past USCEA sessions described and compared existing price reporting systems. The McGraw-Hill conference led to a rather heated discussion as to the propriety of spot prices having the influence they do on amounts paid in long-term contracts. The Ux representative proposed a future's market as a way that producers could hedge against some of the uncertainty of volatile spot market. In discussing the search for the elusive long-term price, there are two interrelated issues. The first is obvious-the search for a starting or initializing price that is representative of recently-signed or pending long-term contracts. The second is less obvious, but perhaps more important-the search for a successful mechanism for determining later delivery values in long-term contracts. This paper addresses the question of pricing mechanisms first

  11. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Haney R. VanHorn

    2007-01-01

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used to determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality

  12. Radiation effects after low dose chronic long-term exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.; Friesecke, I.

    1997-01-01

    This document approaches the radiation effects after low dose chronic long-term exposure, presenting examples occurred, the pathophysiologic mechanisms for cell system tolerance in elevated radiation fields, and the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities

  13. Advancing an ethical framework for long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Mary Whelan

    2002-02-01

    This article represents an effort to formulate an ethical framework for long-term care with the explicit purpose of providing a catalyst to promote further discourse and expand consideration of what an ethic of long-term care might entail. Grounding the discussion, an introduction to traditional ethical philosophy is presented, focusing mainly on the fundamentals of deontological and teleological ethical theories. Attention then shifts to a review of the more frequently cited principles found in the long-term care ethics literature, followed by a critique of the current reliance upon principlism to resolve ethical dilemmas in long-term care. In response to this criticism, an agent-driven ethical framework stressing dignity and respect for personhood, drawn from the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, is advanced.

  14. Strategies to meet the need for long-term data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Borghi, Claudio; Manolis, Athanasios; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Chronic diseases afflict patients for many years, often to the end of life, and there is increasing need for estimating lifelong risk and for evaluating the effects of treatment in the long term. Yet recommendations for lifelong treatment are most frequently based on findings from randomized clinical trials lasting only a few years. There is therefore a clear need for much longer term data, and here we present the advantages and disadvantages of many strategies, including the use of long-term posttrial follow-up, of long-term prospective cohort studies, registry databases, and of administrative databases. We also emphasize the need for long-term cost-effectiveness studies. One of the most promising strategies comes from linkage of data gathered through the ever-expanding pool of administrative databases worldwide with data from other sources, including randomized trials and the many forms of observational study.

  15. Long-term bridge performance high priority bridge performance issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Bridge performance is a multifaceted issue involving performance of materials and protective systems, : performance of individual components of the bridge, and performance of the structural system as a whole. The : Long-Term Bridge Performance (LTBP)...

  16. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Haney

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  17. Long-Term Quiescent Fibroblast Cells Transit into Senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marthandan, Shiva; Priebe, Steffen; Hemmerich, Peter; Klement, Karolin; Diekmann, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Cellular senescence is described to be a consequence of telomere erosion during the replicative life span of primary human cells. Quiescence should therefore not contribute to cellular aging but rather extend lifespan. Here we tested this hypothesis and demonstrate that cultured long-term quiescent human fibroblasts transit into senescence due to similar cellular mechanisms with similar dynamics and with a similar maximum life span as proliferating controls, even under physiological oxygen conditions. Both, long-term quiescent and senescent fibroblasts almost completely fail to undergo apoptosis. The transition of long-term quiescent fibroblasts into senescence is also independent of HES1 which protects short-term quiescent cells from becoming senescent. Most significantly, DNA damage accumulates during senescence as well as during long-term quiescence at physiological oxygen levels. We suggest that telomere-independent, potentially maintenance driven gradual induction of cellular senescence during quiescence is a counterbalance to tumor development. PMID:25531649

  18. Ethical Dimensions of Autonomy in Long-Term Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collopy, Bart J.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term care of the elderly raises conflicts between personal autonomy and well-being. Assessments of decision-making capacity and definitions of negative and positive autonomy pose value-laden dilemmas for caregivers. (SK)

  19. Long-term Outcomes of Childhood Onset Nephrotic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorten, Rebecca; Anwar, Zohra; Reidy, Kimberly Jean

    2016-01-01

    There are limited studies on long-term outcomes of childhood onset nephrotic syndrome (NS). A majority of children with NS have steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is associated with a high risk of developing end-stage renal disease. Biomarkers and analysis of genetic mutations may provide new information for prognosis in SRNS. Frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent NS is associated with long-term complications, including dyslipidemia, cataracts, osteoporosis and fractures, obesity, impaired growth, and infertility. Long-term complications of SSNS are likely to be under-recognized. There remain many gaps in our knowledge of long-term outcomes of childhood NS, and further study is indicated.

  20. Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT1ESWTR) builds on the requirements of the Surface Water Treatment Rule and specifies treatment requirements to address Cryptosporidium m and other microbial contaminants in public water systems.

  1. Modelled long term trends of surface ozone over South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available timescale seeks to provide a spatially comprehensive view of trends while also creating a baseline for comparisons with future projections of air quality through the forcing of air quality models with modelled predicted long term meteorology. Previous...

  2. A study of the long-term effect of malar fat repositioning in face lift surgery: short-term success but long-term failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamra, Sam T

    2002-09-01

    In 1990, the author reported on a series of 403 cases of deep plane face lifts, the first published technique describing the repositioning of the cheek fat, known as malar fat, in face lift surgery. This study examines the long-term results of 20 of the original series in an attempt to determine what areas of the rejuvenated face (specifically, the malar fat) showed long-term improvement. The results were judged by comparing the preoperative and long-term postoperative views in a half-and-half same-side hemiface photograph. The anatomy of the jawline (superficial musculoaponeurotic system [SMAS]), the nasolabial fold (malar fat), and the periorbital diameter were evaluated. The results confirmed that repositioning of the SMAS remained for longer than improvement in the nasolabial fold and that the vertical diameter of the periorbit did not change at all. The early results of malar fat repositioning shown at 1 to 2 years were successful, but the long-term results showed failure of the early improvement, manifested by recurrence of the nasolabial folds. There was, however, continuation of the improved results of the forehead lift and SMAS maneuvers of the original procedure. The conclusion is that only a direct excision will produce a permanent correction of the aging nasolabial fold.

  3. Long-Term Care Insurance and Life Insurance Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Volker Meier

    1998-01-01

    This article investigates the interaction between life insurance and long-term care insurance markets on the demand side. In the model utility depends on both consumption and bequest, and utility from consumption is contingent on the state of health. While the demand for life insurance increases both with decreasing income and with a rising degree of altruism, the influences of these two parameters on the demand for long-term care insurance are ambiguous. If the utility shock arising from dis...

  4. Long-Term Prognosis of Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Varona, Jose F.

    2010-01-01

    There is limited information about long-term prognosis of ischemic stroke in young adults. Giving the potentially negative impact in physical, social, and emotional aspects of an ischemic stroke in young people, providing early accurate long-term prognostic information is very important in this clinical setting. Moreover, detection of factors associated with bad outcomes (death, recurrence, moderate-to-severe disability) help physicians in optimizing secondary prevention strategies. The prese...

  5. Long-term patient survival in ANCA-associated vasculitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flossmann, Oliver; Berden, Annelies; de Groot, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis are antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides with significant morbidity and mortality. The long-term survival of patients with ANCA associated vasculitis treated with current regimens is uncertain.......Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis are antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides with significant morbidity and mortality. The long-term survival of patients with ANCA associated vasculitis treated with current regimens is uncertain....

  6. Long term acroecosystem research in the Southern Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean L. Steiner; Patrick J. Starks; Jurgen Garbrecht; Daniel Moriasi; Paul Bartholomew; Jim Neel; Kenneth E. Turner; Brian Northup

    2016-01-01

    The Southern Plains (SP) site of the Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is headquartered at the USDA-ARS Grazinglands Research Laboratory (GRL) in El Reno, Oklahoma. The GRL was established in 1948. A long-term watershed and climate research program was established in the Little Washita River Experimental Watershed (LWREW) in 1961 and in the Fort Cobb...

  7. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: Angiographic Follow-Up and Long-Term Clinical Outcome in a Predominantly Medically Treated Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, Sebastian; Maeder, Micha T; Weilenmann, Daniel; Haager, Philipp K; Ammann, Peter; Rohner, Franziska; Joerg, Lucas; Rickli, Hans

    2017-01-01

    We sought to assess the angiographic and long-term clinical outcomes in a predominantly medically treated population with spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD). There are little data on the angiographic and long-term outcome in patients with SCAD. We studied 64 patients with SCAD (mean age 53 years, 94% females, three peripartum) with acute coronary syndrome who were treated using coronary bypass grafting (n = 1), percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 7), or medical therapy (n = 56). A repeat angiogram was performed in 40/64 (63%) patients. The median clinical follow-up was 4.5 years. Five (8%) patients had a major cardiac event. One patient with peripartum left main SCAD and cardiogenic shock died during PCI. One patient with conservatively treated SCAD of the posterior descending artery suffered out-of-hospital cardiac arrest 16 days after the initial angiogram but survived. Three patients experienced a second SCAD in another vessel 3.7, 4.7, and 7.9 years after the index event while the initial dissection had healed. Thirty medically treated patients underwent a scheduled repeat angiogram showing healing of the dissection in all but one patient. After a median follow-up of 4.5 (1.8-8.4) years, all 63 patients surviving the index event were alive and free of symptoms suggestive of myocardial ischemia. In general, the long-term outcome of patients with SCAD is excellent, and medical therapy can be safely applied in the majority of patients. However, SCAD can be a life-threatening and sometimes catastrophic event, and some patients experience early or late complications including SCAD of another vessel. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Long-Term Prognostic Value of Coronary CT Angiography in Asymptomatic Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Se Hun; Park, Gyung-Min; Lee, Seung-Whan; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Kim, Young-Hak; Cho, Young-Rak; Park, Hyun Woo; Suh, Jon; Yang, Dong Hyun; Kang, Joon-Won; Lim, Tae-Hwan; Jung, Chang Hee; Koh, Eun Hee; Lee, Woo Je; Kim, Min-Seon; Lee, Ki-Up; Park, Joong-Yeol

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to evaluate the long-term prognostic value of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. There are limited data on the long-term prognostic impact of coronary CTA in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study analyzed clinical outcomes of 591 consecutive asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who underwent coronary CTA (mean age 62.2 ± 8.3 years and 352 men [59.6%]). A cardiac event was defined as a composite of cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina requiring hospitalization, or late coronary revascularization. Patients were categorized into 3 groups according to severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) on coronary CTA: normal coronary arteries, nonobstructive CAD (28.4%) had normal coronary arteries, whereas 236 (39.9%) patients had nonobstructive CAD and 187 (31.6%) had obstructive CAD. During the follow-up period (median 5.3 years [interquartile range: 4.7 to 5.8 years]), 37 cardiac events occurred in 29 patents: 10 cardiac deaths, 2 nonfatal myocardial infarctions, 8 cases of unstable angina, and 17 late coronary revascularizations. The 6-year event-free survival rates were 99.3 ± 0.7% in patients with normal coronary arteries, 96.7 ± 1.2% in patients with nonobstructive CAD, and 86.2 ± 3.0% in patients with obstructive CAD (log-rank p type 2 diabetes mellitus with normal coronary arteries or nonobstructive CAD on coronary CTA show excellent clinical outcomes over a follow-up period of more than 5 years, whereas prognosis is worse in patients with obstructive CAD. These findings suggest long-term prognostic value of coronary CTA for asymptomatic type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cherubism - A case report with long term follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi V Chavali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cherubism is a rare non-neoplastic disease of the bone characterized by bilateral painless enlargement of the jaws giving a cherubic appearance to the patient. It is an autosomal dominant disorder but may occur sporadically. In this paper, we have tried to explain about the clinical, radiological and histopathologic features of cherubism by presenting a case study. A case study of a 7 year old male patient, who first presented with mandibular bilateral swellings to our department in 1998, has been presented. In-depth clinical, radiological and histopathologic examination was done. An extensive long-term follow-up till 11 years was maintained. When presented for the first time, radiological investigation showed characteristic multilocular lytic lesions of the mandible bilaterally. Histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen showed proliferating fibrous connective tissue interspersed by multinucleated giant cells. It was diagnosed as a case nonfamilial cherubism. Follow-up after 5 years showed involvement of the maxilla as well, which was then corrected by surgical methods. Upon follow up 11 years after the first presentation, it was seen that the lesion was regressing by itself and there was improvement in facial contour. The natural course of Cherubism through its progression, stabilization and involution of the disease after puberty, has been highlighted in this case. More, in-depth studies to understand the nature and the pathogenesis of this condition better are required.

  10. Changing incentives for long-term gas contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    There is much concern about the absence of long-term gas contracts with fixed price and quantity conditions, which until recent years was the standard way of doing business in the gas industry. These types of contracts performed a valuable service in the development of the gas industry, and there comparative absence today is sometimes thought to be one reason for the current malaise in the industry. One hears the argument that there must be some kind of 'market failure' that prevents buyers and sellers from entering into these long term arrangements, and recent changes in state and federal regulations are often cited as the cause of the problem. The purpose of the author's remarks is to argue that what is taken as a breakdown in the market may be simply a reaction to a decline in economic incentives to enter into long-term contracts with rigid price and quantity terms. This is, in other words, simply one more aspect of change in the gas business that Frank Heintz referred to in his opening remarks this morning. The author starts by giving a brief description of the motives for engaging in long-term contracts, and then describes how incentives to use long-term contracts have declined for both gas buyers and gas sellers. He concludes that the decline in the use of long-term contracts is not cause for regulatory concern, but a result of the continuing transformation of the gas business to one that more closely resembles other commodity markets

  11. Subjective social status predicts long-term smoking abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Lorraine R; Businelle, Michael S; Kendzor, Darla E; Li, Yisheng; Cao, Yumei; Castro, Yessenia; Mazas, Carlos A; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2011-02-25

    The relationship between subjective social status (SSS), a person's perception of his/her relative position in the social hierarchy, and the ability to achieve long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between SSS and long-term smoking abstinence among 421 racially/ethnically diverse smokers undergoing a specific quit attempt, as well as the interactive effects of race/ethnicity and sex. The main effects and moderated relationships of SSS on biochemically-confirmed, continuous smoking abstinence through 26 weeks post-quit were examined using continuation ratio logit models adjusted for sociodemographics and smoking characteristics. Even after adjusting for the influence of socioeconomic status and other covariates, smokers endorsing lower SSS were significantly less likely to maintain long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt than those with higher SSS (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.28; p = 0.044). The statistical significance of this relationship, however, did not vary by race/ethnicity or sex. SSS independently predicts long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt. SSS may be a useful screener to identify smokers at elevated risk of relapse who may require additional attention to facilitate long-term abstinence. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying the relationship between SSS and long-term smoking abstinence in order to appropriately tailor treatment to facilitate abstinence among lower SSS smokers.

  12. Molecular Correlates of Cortical Network Modulation by Long-Term Sensory Experience in the Adult Rat Barrel Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallès, Astrid; Granic, Ivica; De Weerd, Peter; Martens, Gerard J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of cortical network connectivity is crucial for an adaptive response to experience. In the rat barrel cortex, long-term sensory stimulation induces cortical network modifications and neuronal response changes of which the molecular basis is unknown. Here, we show that long-term somatosensory stimulation by enriched environment…

  13. Application of single background quality control chart in monitoring the long-term stability of RIA counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jianwen; Zhang Qin; Wang Xufu; Wang Guoming; Zuo Shuyao; Li Yusheng

    2004-01-01

    The method of making a single background quality control charge and its application in the long-term stability of RIA counter are studied. The results show that the method can be regarded as an index of the long-term stability checking and quantification

  14. What Three-Year-Olds Remember from Their Past: Long-Term Memory for Persons, Objects, and Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirte, Monika; Graf, Frauke; Kim, Ziyon; Knopf, Monika

    2017-01-01

    From birth on, infants show long-term recognition memory for persons. Furthermore, infants from six months onwards are able to store and retrieve demonstrated actions over long-term intervals in deferred imitation tasks. Thus, information about the model demonstrating the object-related actions is stored and recognition memory for the objects as…

  15. Temporary-tattoo for long-term high fidelity biopotential recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareket, Lilach; Inzelberg, Lilah; Rand, David; David-Pur, Moshe; Rabinovich, David; Brandes, Barak; Hanein, Yael

    2016-05-01

    Electromyography is a non-invasive method widely used to map muscle activation. For decades, it was commonly accepted that dry metallic electrodes establish poor electrode-skin contact, making them impractical for skin electromyography applications. Gelled electrodes are therefore the standard in electromyography with their use confined, almost entirely, to laboratory settings. Here we present novel dry electrodes, exhibiting outstanding electromyography recording along with excellent user comfort. The electrodes were realized using screen-printing of carbon ink on a soft support. The conformity of the electrodes helps establish direct contact with the skin, making the use of a gel superfluous. Plasma polymerized 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene was used to enhance the impedance of the electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry measurements revealed an increase in electrode capacitance by a factor of up to 100 in wet conditions. Impedance measurements show a reduction factor of 10 in electrode impedance on human skin. The suitability of the electrodes for long-term electromyography recordings from the hand and from the face is demonstrated. The presented electrodes are ideally-suited for many applications, such as brain-machine interfacing, muscle diagnostics, post-injury rehabilitation, and gaming.

  16. Long Term Outcomes of Total Hip Arthroplasty in Young Patients under 30

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilios Pakos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:  We aimed to report outcomes of total hip arthroplasty (THA in very young patients under the year of 30.   Methods:  Thirty patients (45 hips with various indications for THA were retrospectively reviewed radiologically and clinically and analyzed regarding survival, reasons of failure, factors associated with outcomes and postoperative complications.   Results:  Within a mean follow-up time of 116 months the 10-year survival rate was 90.3%. All hips were revised due to aseptic loosening. No association was found among the tested parameters with increased revision rates.Three complications associated with the THA were recorded and managed conservatively. All patients had statistically significant improved clinical scores compared to the pre-operative period, despite the underlying disorder that compromised the condition in the majority of the patients. Conclusions:  Our study showed excellent long term outcomes of THA in patients younger than 30 years of age, comparable with those in older patients.

  17. Temporary-tattoo for long-term high fidelity biopotential recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareket, Lilach; Inzelberg, Lilah; Rand, David; David-Pur, Moshe; Rabinovich, David; Brandes, Barak; Hanein, Yael

    2016-05-12

    Electromyography is a non-invasive method widely used to map muscle activation. For decades, it was commonly accepted that dry metallic electrodes establish poor electrode-skin contact, making them impractical for skin electromyography applications. Gelled electrodes are therefore the standard in electromyography with their use confined, almost entirely, to laboratory settings. Here we present novel dry electrodes, exhibiting outstanding electromyography recording along with excellent user comfort. The electrodes were realized using screen-printing of carbon ink on a soft support. The conformity of the electrodes helps establish direct contact with the skin, making the use of a gel superfluous. Plasma polymerized 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene was used to enhance the impedance of the electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry measurements revealed an increase in electrode capacitance by a factor of up to 100 in wet conditions. Impedance measurements show a reduction factor of 10 in electrode impedance on human skin. The suitability of the electrodes for long-term electromyography recordings from the hand and from the face is demonstrated. The presented electrodes are ideally-suited for many applications, such as brain-machine interfacing, muscle diagnostics, post-injury rehabilitation, and gaming.

  18. Long-term safety of biologics in the treatment of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchal MR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Manisha R Panchal,1 Helen Coope,2 D John McKenna,3 Anton B Alexandroff31Department of Dermatology, Sherwood Forest Hospitals, Kingsmill Hospital, Nottinghamshire, 2Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd, West Sussex, 3Department of Dermatology, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, UKAbstract: Biologics are novel and important agents in the treatment of severe psoriasis. These agents block specific molecular steps in the inflammatory cascade, thereby reducing activation and proliferation of keratinocytes. Prescreening for biologic agents and careful monitoring of patients is important. There are four biologics currently licensed and used in the treatment of psoriasis in the European Union. This is an evidence-based review examining clinical trials and focusing on the long-term safety data for four biologic agents. Current British Association of Dermatology guidance for the use of biologics in psoriasis and guidelines on the management of psoriasis from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence have been used. Advances on safety information since 2009 in clinical trials are reviewed. The results show that overall there is no statistical significance in the incidence of adverse effects of biologics versus placebo. However, there are serious adverse effects that are reported for biologics that need to be assessed for and addressed promptly. Results of studies discussing major adverse cardiovascular events are also reviewed.Keywords: psoriasis, biologic agents, safety profile, major cardiovascular events

  19. Esophageal atresia: long-term interdisciplinary follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia B. Giúdici

    2016-07-01

    -hospitalization for clinical causes: 0; surgical reinterventions: 7%.Conclusions: Patients with EA are at risk for long-term morbidity and impairments. Long-term follow-up should be warranted for them.

  20. [Osteonecrosis of the jaws by long term therapy with bisphosphonates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piesold, Jörn-Uwe; Al-Nawas, Bilal; Grötz, Knut A

    2006-09-01

    For several decades bisphosphonates have been used to reduce skeletal related events in patients with both osteoporosis or bone metastases. Under long term application, besides the known therapy side effects, a new clinical picture has been described within the last few years. This is osteonecrosis of the jaws, which is characterized by its difficulty in treatment. Besides exposed jaw bone, the start of the disease usually lacks any symptoms. The typical clinical symptoms then are foetor ex ore, swelling, exsudation, loosening of teeth, pain or paresthesia. Later oro-antral/nasal or oro-cutaneous fistula can develop. The X-ray shows persisting tooth sockets after extractions and later cloudy radio-lucency, sequestra or fractures. The patient exposed to bisphosphonate can be grouped according to the risk for osteonecrosis: high risk patients with intravenous bisphosphonate therapy and additional chemo-, radiation or corticoid therapy--predominantly patients with a malignant underlying disease and bone metastases low risk patients with an oral bisphosphonate therapy without additional chemo-, radiation or corticoid therapy--preferably patients with non-corticoid-induced osteoporosis. Before starting a bisphosphonate therapy possible causes of infection should be treated and risk of injuries to the mucosa should be reduced according to the individual risk profile. This is supplemented by information of the patient about the risk of necrosis and the possibilities for prevention. Regular dental recall under bisphophonate therapy is emphasised for early recognition of possible problems. Prophylaxis is recommended for the prevention of periodontal infection combined with a follow up of removable denture for possible ulcera. Generally, conservative treatment measures are preferred to surgical ones. Inevitable operations are carried out non-traumatically using broad spectrum antibiotic prophylaxis until the day of suture removal (not before day 10). Long term follow up

  1. Incorporating C60 as Nucleation Sites Optimizing PbI2 Films To Achieve Perovskite Solar Cells Showing Excellent Efficiency and Stability via Vapor-Assisted Deposition Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Bin; Ding, Xi-Hong; Pan, Xu; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Ding, Yong; Dai, Song-Yuan

    2018-01-24

    To achieve high-quality perovskite solar cells (PSCs), the morphology and carrier transportation of perovskite films need to be optimized. Herein, C 60 is employed as nucleation sites in PbI 2 precursor solution to optimize the morphology of perovskite films via vapor-assisted deposition process. Accompanying the homogeneous nucleation of PbI 2 , the incorporation of C 60 as heterogeneous nucleation sites can lower the nucleation free energy of PbI 2 , which facilitates the diffusion and reaction between PbI 2 and organic source. Meanwhile, C 60 could enhance carrier transportation and reduce charge recombination in the perovskite layer due to its high electron mobility and conductivity. In addition, the grain sizes of perovskite get larger with C 60 optimizing, which can reduce the grain boundaries and voids in perovskite and prevent the corrosion because of moisture. As a result, we obtain PSCs with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.33% and excellent stability. The PCEs of unsealed devices drop less than 10% in a dehumidification cabinet after 100 days and remain at 75% of the initial PCE during exposure to ambient air (humidity > 60% RH, temperature > 30 °C) for 30 days.

  2. Prosthesis-Patient Mismatch After Aortic Valve Replacement: Effect on Long-Term Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinkels, Ben M; de Mol, Bas A; Kelder, Johannes C; Vermeulen, Freddy E; ten Berg, Jurriën M

    2016-04-01

    Mean follow-up in previous studies on the effect of prosthesis-patient mismatch on long-term survival after aortic valve replacement (AVR) is confined to a maximum of one decade. This retrospective longitudinal cohort study was performed to determine the effect on long-term survival of prosthesis-patient mismatch after AVR with a mean follow-up of almost two decades. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to determine long-term survival after AVR in a cohort of 673 consecutive patients, divided into 163 patients (24.2%) with prosthesis-patient mismatch (indexed effective orifice area ≤ 0.85 cm(2)/m(2)) and 510 patients (75.8%) without prosthesis-patient mismatch (indexed effective orifice area >0.85 cm(2)/m(2)). Effective orifice area values of the prosthetic valves were retrieved from the literature or obtained from the charts of the prosthetic valve manufacturers. Cox multiple regression analysis was used to identify possible independent predictors, including prosthesis-patient mismatch, of decreased long-term survival. Median sizes of the implanted mechanical (n = 430) and biologic (n = 243) prostheses were 25 and 23 mm, respectively. Mean follow-up after AVR was 17.8 ± 1.8 years. Prosthesis-patient mismatch was not an independent predictor of decreased long-term survival (hazard ratio, 0.828; 95% confidence interval, 0.669 to 1.025; p = 0.083). Severe prosthesis-patient mismatch (indexed effective orifice area ≤ 0.65 cm(2)/m(2)), occurring in only 17 patients (2.5%), showed an insignificant trend toward decreased long-term survival (hazard ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.97 to 2.91; p = 0.066). Prosthesis-patient mismatch was not an independent predictor of decreased long-term survival after AVR. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term outcome of presymptomatic testing in Huntington disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Marcela; Lejeune, Séverine; Tanguy, Marie-Laure; Lahlou-Laforêt, Khadija; Faudet, Anne; Cohen, David; Feingold, Josué; Durr, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Our study on long-term outcome of presymptomatic testing for Huntington disease had two aims: the comparison of the psychological well-being and social adjustment of carriers and non-carriers of the mutation, and the identification of psychological determinants to improve care/support of testees. We performed a cross-sectional study of 351 persons who underwent presymptomatic testing. Those who had motor signs were excluded from the comparison of asymptomatic carrier and non-carriers. A structured interview including five self-report scales and the MINI (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory) was proposed to detect a psychopathology or problem with social adjustment. We interviewed 119 testees (53%), 62 non-carriers and 57 carriers after a mean delay of 3.7 years (range: 0.32 to 8.9) after their result. Depression was frequent in asymptomatic carriers (58%). Interestingly, the self reported impact of the test showed that 27% of non-carriers did not cope well with a favourable result, and a significant percentage of non-carriers (24%) were depressed during follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed that only a previous episode of depression was predictive of depression after genetic testing in both carriers and non-carriers of the HD mutation (P<0.0001). Psychological support is necessary for all testees regardless of the result of their presymptomatic test, because psychiatric care is often needed by both carriers and non-carriers. PMID:18716614

  4. Long-Term Mechanical Behavior of Nano Silica Sol Grouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjiang Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The longevity of grouting has a significant effect on the safe and sustainable operation of many engineering projects. A 500-day experiment was carried out to study the long-term mechanical behavior of nano silica sol grouting. The nano silica sol was activated with different proportions of a NaCl catalyst and cured under fluctuating temperature and humidity conditions. The mechanical parameters of the grout samples were tested using an electrohydraulic uniaxial compression tester and an improved Vicat instrument. Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and ultrasonic velocity tests were carried out to analyze the strength change micro-mechanism. Tests showed that as the catalyst dosage in the grout mix is decreased, the curves on the graphs showing changes in the weight and geometric parameters of the samples over time could be divided into three stages, a shrinkage stage, a stable stage, and a second shrinkage stage. The catalyst improved the stability of the samples and reduced moisture loss. Temperature rise was also a driving force for moisture loss. Uniaxial compressive stress-strain curves for all of the samples were elastoplastic. The curves for uniaxial compression strength and secant modulus plotted against time could be divided into three stages. Sample brittleness increased with time and the brittleness index increased with higher catalyst dosages in the latter part of the curing time. Plastic strength-time curves exhibit allometric scaling. Curing conditions mainly affect the compactness, and then affect the strength.

  5. Long-term changes in the surface conditions of PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.A.; Dylla, H.F.; Rossnagel, S.M.; Picraux, S.T.; Borders, J.A.; Magee, C.W.

    1978-06-01

    Long-term changes in the surface conditions of the PLT vacuum vessel wall have been monitoried by the periodic analysis of a variety of sample substrates (stainless steel, alumina, silicon), exposed to PLT discharges for periods of up to several months and subsequently removed for analysis by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA), ion backscattering, nuclear reaction analysis, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and scanning electron microscopy. Samples exposed for extended time periods (2 to 6 months) showed deposited films containing limiter (W) and liner constituent metals (Fe, Cr, and Ni) and C and O. The film thicknesses ranged between 100 to 200 A with 2 to 15 atomic percent W and 5 to 40 percent Fe as determined by sputter-AES and ion backscattering measurements. Increased deposition of metallic impurities (W, Fe) was noted following the first extensive application of low power discharge cleaning. We discuss possible mechanisms responsible for the deposition of metals onto the sample surfaces. Deuterium retention was observed in all the exposed samples with the deuterium depth profiles restricted primarily to the deposited films on the stainless steel substrates and extending deeper for Si. The deuterium retained in the exposed samples shows a saturation at (1 to 11) x 10 15 D atoms/cm 2 for an estimated variation in the deuterium fluence of 10 17 to 10 19 D atoms/cm 2

  6. Long term waste management: Historical considerations and societal risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buser, M.

    2003-01-01

    In the past decade, the concept of deep geological disposal of radioactive waste has been revised. The following paper presents the state of discussion on radioactive waste disposal strategies in the deep geological formations and at surface facilities. It considers ethical, social and technical criteria, and shows the advantages and weaknesses of the different concepts. Based on a discussion of methodology, the predictability of models - and, therefore, of waste disposal or storage strategies - is discussed, for natural as well as for social systems and for different periods of prediction. Historical considerations about the resistance and durability of materials or structures as well as about the breakdown of structures by natural or social events shows that the safety of human-made structures is less influenced by natural catastrophes than by social effects. Finally, the paper discusses the concept of monitored long term geological disposal (the EKRA concept) developed by a commission of the Swiss Federal Department of Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication in order to assess the advantages of a deep underground repository and monitoring of the repository site. The combination of definitive disposal and deep underground monitored waste disposal sites should ensure a safety optimum of the disposal facility and provide better acceptance of disposal projects. (author)

  7. Long-term courses of hearing loss in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakigi, Akinobu; Nakatani, Hiroaki; Takeda, Taizo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the long-term prognosis of young children with congenital or acquired hearing loss. The subjects consisted of 9 young children (18 ears) in whom auditory training was performed in the Kochi Prefectural Center for Hearing Impaired Children, and the course of hearing could be observed until the age of at least 10 years. The annual course of hearing was evaluated based on the results of play audiometry and pure-tone audiometry that facilitated the differentiation of hearing between the left and right ears. In the first examination, stable values were obtained after some tests and used as reference values. As the representative value at each age, the arithmetic mean of the pure-tone averages obtained by all hearing tests performed during the year was used. The course of hearing was observed from 2 to 24 years of age, and the observation period was 6-18 years (mean 13.2 years). Hearing was aggravated in 13 ears, of which 8 (4 patients) showed marked and 5 (3 patients) showed slight aggravation. Hearing was unchanged in 5 ears (3 patients). Hearing loss often progressed bilaterally. There were two progression patterns: rapid aggravation during early childhood, followed by gradual aggravation, and gradual aggravation over the entire course. The aggravation of hearing may be associated with the degree of impairment and vulnerability of the auditory organs.

  8. Long-term optical-infrared color variability of blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bing-Kai; Zhou, Xiao-Shan; Zhao, Xiao-Yun; Dai, Ben-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The long-term optical and infrared color variability of blazars has been investigated with monitoring data from the Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS). The sample in this study consists of 49 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and 22 BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs). The fractional variability amplitudes of each source have been calculated in both optical R band and infrared J band. Overall, the variability amplitudes of FSRQs are larger than those of BL Lacs. The results also suggest that the variability amplitude of most FSRQs is larger at a lower energy band (J band) than at a higher one (R band), but the variability amplitude of BL Lacs is larger at the higher energy band. Both types of blazars display color variation along with variability in brightness. However, they show different variation behaviors in general. In the whole data set, 35 FSRQs exhibit redder-when-brighter trends, and 11 FSRQs exhibit opposite trends; 11 BL Lacs follow bluer-when-brighter trends, and seven BL Lacs follow opposite trends. A detailed examination indicates that there are 10 blazars showing redder-when-brighter trends in their low state, and bluer-when-brighter or stable-when-brighter trends in their high state. Some more complicated color behaviors have also been detected in several blazars. The non-thermal jet emission and the thermal emission from the accretion disk are employed to explain the observed color behaviors. (paper)

  9. Creating a Long-Term Diabetic Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianpu Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to create a long-term rabbit model of diabetes mellitus for medical studies of up to one year or longer and to evaluate the effects of chronic hyperglycemia on damage of major organs. A single dose of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg was given intravenously to 20 young New Zealand White rabbits. Another 12 age-matched normal rabbits were used as controls. Hyperglycemia developed within 48 hours after treatment with alloxan. Insulin was given daily after diabetes developed. All animals gained some body weight, but the gain was much less than the age-matched nondiabetic rabbits. Hyperlipidemia, higher blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were found in the diabetic animals. Histologically, the pancreas showed marked beta cell damage. The kidneys showed significantly thickened afferent glomerular arterioles with narrowed lumens along with glomerular atrophy. Lipid accumulation in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes appeared as vacuoles. Full-thickness skin wound healing was delayed. In summary, with careful management, alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits can be maintained for one year or longer in reasonably good health for diabetic studies.

  10. Long-term biases in geomagnetic K and aa indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis is made of the geomagnetic-activity aa index and its source K-index data from groups of ground-based observatories in Britain, and Australia, 1868.0-2009.0, solar cycles 11-23. The K data show persistent biases, especially for high (low) K-activity levels at British (Australian) observatories. From examination of multiple subsets of the K data we infer that the biases are not predominantly the result of changes in observatory location, localized induced magnetotelluric currents, changes in magnetometer technology, or the modernization of K-value estimation methods. Instead, the biases appear to be artifacts of the latitude-dependent scaling used to assign K values to particular local levels of geomagnetic activity. The biases are not effectively removed by weighting factors used to estimate aa. We show that long-term averages of the aa index, such as annual averages, are dominated by medium-level geomagnetic activity levels having K values of 3 and 4. ?? 2011 Author(s).

  11. Medulloblastoma in childhood: long-term results of treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadbent, V.A.; Barnes, N.D.; Wheeler, T.K.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-one children under the age of 15 years with verified medulloblastoma were treated at Addenbrookes Hospital from 1940 to 1976. In addition to surgical treatment, all received high dose irradiation to the whole neuraxis. Nine were still alive in 1979, of whom eight were examined. All these patients showed some residual problems, but five were leading active lives and had only minor physical disability. There was evidence of disturbance in growth, with shortening of the spine in relation to the limbs, in all the children. The height centile was lower than expected from parental height in four and one was severely dwarfed. Growth hormone secretion in response to exercise was, however, normal in five of six patients tested. Three children also showed failure of growth of the jaw sufficiently severe to be a cosmetic problem. Frank mental retardation was present in three children. A raised resting TSH level was found in two children, one of whom had a multinodular goiter. Of the three children with severe problems, two had been treated when under two years of age. Long-term follow-up of children who survive medulloblastoma is clearly necessary and consideration should perhaps be given to revision of current treatment regimes in very young children

  12. Benefits from Long-Term Treatment in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Evangelista

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a chronic disease of cyclic nature characterized by recurrent symptoms. IBS patients should receive, as initial therapeutic approach a short course of treatment which, if effective, has the additional value of confirming the diagnosis. Long-term treatment should be reserved to diagnosed IBS patients with recurrent symptoms. Clinical trials with stabilized therapies and new active treatments showed an improvement of the symptoms over placebo that is often time-dependent but with high relapse rates (around 40%–50% when stopping treatment. Relapse is not always immediate after stopping treatment and the recent data from OBIS trial with otilonium bromide or with psychotherapy, showed that due to different chemico-physical characteristics of the drugs or the psychosomatic impact to the disease not all treatment gave the same relapsing rate if compared to placebo. Results of IBS clinical trials with different therapies tailored to the patient needs indicate that a cyclic treatment therapy is advisable to counteract the nature of the disease.

  13. Long term sleep disturbance due to traffic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, M.; Gagneux, J.-M.; Blanchet, V.; Favre, B.; Labiale, G.

    1983-09-01

    This contribution to the evaluation of the effects of traffic noise on sleep disturbance is focused on the responses of people living near a main road. Experiments were carried out in the homes of subjects who had habitually been exposed to noise for periods of more than four years. The chronic changes in overall sleep patterns and the temporary sleep responses to particular noise events caused by traffic are demonstrated. Young people show mainly stage 3 and 4 deficits whilst older people show REM sleep deficits. The cardiac response to noise during sleep was also examined. These results highlight that both long term average and peak levels are important in assessing sleep disturbance. The threshold levels, measured inside the bedroom and above which sleep quality starts to become impaired, are 37 Leq(A) and 45 dB (A) Lp max , respectively. For the type of traffic studied these two levels are coherent and it is therefore possible that a single noise index, Leq(A), is sufficient to scale sleep disturbance.

  14. Considering extraction constraints in long-term oil price modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehrl, Tobias; Friedrich, Rainer; Voss, Alfred

    2005-01-01

    Apart from divergence about the remaining global oil resources, the peak oil discussion can be reduced to a dispute about the time rate at which these resources can be supplied. On the one hand it is problematic to project oil supply trends without taking both - prices as well as supply costs - explicitly into account. On the other hand are supply cost estimates however itself heavily dependent on the underlying extraction rates and are actually only valid within a certain business-as-usual extraction rate scenario (which itself is the task to determine). In fact, even after having applied enhanced recovery technologies, the rate at which an oil field can be exploited is quite restricted. Above a certain level an additional extraction rate increase can only be costly achieved at risks of losses in the overall recoverable amounts of the oil reservoir and causes much higher marginal cost. This inflexibility in extraction can be overcome in principle by the access to new oil fields. This indicates why the discovery trend may roughly form the long-term oil production curve, at least for price-taking suppliers. The long term oil discovery trend itself can be described as a logistic process with the two opposed effects of learning and depletion. This leads to the well-known Hubbert curve. Several attempts have been made to incorporate economic variables econometrically into the Hubbert model. With this work we follow a somewhat inverse approach and integrate Hubbert curves in our Long-term Oil Price and EXtraction model LOPEX. In LOPEX we assume that non-OPEC oil production - as long as the oil can be profitably discovered and extracted - is restricted to follow self-regulative discovery trends described by Hubbert curves. Non-OPEC production in LOPEX therefore consists of those Hubbert cycles that are profitable, depending on supply cost and price. Endogenous and exogenous technical progress is extra integrated in different ways. LOPEX determines extraction and price

  15. Long-term evolution and stability of planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juric, Mario

    This dissertation studies the dynamical evolution and stability of planetary systems over long time spans (10 8 -10 9 years). I investigated the dynamical evolution of few-planet systems by simulating ensembles of systems consisting of hundreds to thousands of randomly constructed members. I looked at ways to classify the systems according to their dynamical activity, and found the median Hill separation of an ensemble to be a sufficiently good criterion for separation into active (those exhibiting frequent planetary close encounters, collisions or ejections) and inactive ensembles. I examined the evolution of dynamical parameters in active systems. I found that in ensembles of dynamically active (initially unstable) systems the eccentricity distribution evolves towards the same equilibrium form, irrespective of the distribution it began with. Furthermore, this equilibrium distribution is indistinguishable, within observational errors, from the distribution found in extrasolar planets. This is to my knowledge the first successful detailed theoretical reproduction of the form of observed exoplanet eccentricity distribution. I further looked for quantities that can be used as indicators of long-term stability of planetary systems, specifically the angular momentum deficit (AMD) as originally proposed by Laskar. I found that the quantity Q , defined as the ratio of minimum AMD required for a planetary collision to occur in secular theory and the total AMD of the system, may be used to predict the likelihood of decay of a planetary system. Qualitatively, the decay in systems having Q [Special characters omitted.] 1 is highly probable, while systems with Q [Special characters omitted.] 1 were found to be stable. To conduct the above investigations, I developed a new integrator package (VENUS), and the HYBRID/EE integration scheme designed for nearly-symplectic long-term integrations. VENUS implements integration algorithms for few-body planetary system integrations

  16. Long-term management of chronic spontaneous urticaria with omalizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Gouveia, M; Gameiro, A; Pinho, A; Gonçalo, M

    2017-10-01

    Clinical trials have shown the efficacy of omalizumabs efficacy in refractory chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) and chronic inducible urticaria (CIndU), but real-life management strategies are lacking. To assess the long-term efficacy and safety of omalizumab, and to identify predictive factors and optimum dosage regimens. This was a prospective study of 13 patients (11 women, 2 men) with severe CSU [weekly urticaria activity score (UAS7) > 28] resistant to anti-H1 antihistamines. Patients were started on omalizumab 150 mg subcutaneously every 4 weeks. Dose and interval between administrations were adjusted according to clinical response (189 administrations; treatment duration range 2-38 months). Mean UAS7 was 36.3 ± 5.4. Of the 13 patients, all had experienced angio-oedema, while in addition, 7 had delayed pressure urticaria (DPU) and 1 had solar urticaria (SU). After omalizumab treatment, 4 (30.8%) of the 13 patients had complete response (CR), and the remaining 8 (61.5%) had partial response. CR was achieved with a dose of 150 mg every 4 (n = 2 patients) or 5 (n = 2) weeks. One of these patients remained disease-free after stopping treatment. Partial responses were achieved with 150 mg every 4 weeks (n = 4) and with 300 mg (n = 4) at intervals of 5 weeks (n = 1), 4 weeks (n = 2) or 3 weeks (n = 1). Only one patient (7.7%) did not show significant improvement, despite a dose of 300 mg every 4 weeks. There were no significant differences in epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data between the different response groups. Only two adverse events were observed: one was mild headache and the other was severe angio-oedema and aggravation of urticaria within 6 h of omalizumab administration. Omalizumab dose and interval between administrations could be individualized for long-term management of CSU. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Long-term visual changes following pituitary irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movsas, Benjamin; Movsas, Tammy Z.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Okunieff, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze possible long-term effects of pituitary irradiation on visual fields and acuity. Methods and Materials: Eighty-six patients were treated with radiotherapy for pituitary tumors at the National Cancer Institute between 1980 and 1991. Twenty-one patients had baseline preradiation and long-term follow-up visual fields. Eyes were followed with serial Goldmann or Humphrey visual field testing. Neuroradiologic correlation was made with the available brain scans. There were 12 females and 9 males with an median age of 44. Eighteen patients had hormone-secreting tumors and three had chromophobe adenomas. All but one patient with an inoperable invasive macroadenoma were irradiated after one or more transphenoidal resections or a craniotomy. The indications for radiation in the operable patients were: nine patients, partial tumor resection; nine patients, tumor recurrence; and two patients, persistent hormonal elevation after surgery. The median dose delivered was 50 Gy (45-59.4 Gy). The average field size was 6 x 6 cm (5 x 5 cm to 10 x 12.5 cm). Results: With a median follow-up of 48 months (14-128) after radiotherapy, 1 out of 21 patients has recurred (at 8 months) and all patients are alive. Of the 38 sighted eyes, 27 had normal visual fields before and after radiation, 7 eyes showed improvement, and 4 eyes had a stable defect, mostly in the superior temporal region. There were no cases of radiation-induced visual field or acuity deterioration. Six out of 21 patients (29%) had neurologic symptoms in follow-up, most of which appeared vascular in nature. Four patients complained of atypical migranous-like headaches that first began 1.5-3 years following treatment. One patient complained of recurrent vertical diplopia and one patient had a cerebral vascular accident 7 years following therapy. A dose-related association with these neurovascular symptoms approached statistical significance. Only 1 out of 11 (9%) patients who received doses less than or equal

  18. Long-term costs of colorectal cancer treatment in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Julieta; Castells, Xavier; Molins, Eduard; Chiarello, Pietro; Borras, Josep Maria; Cots, Francesc

    2016-02-16

    Assessing the long-term cost of colorectal cancer (CRC) increases our understanding of the disease burden. The aim of this paper is to estimate the long-term costs of CRC care by stage at diagnosis and phase of care in the Spanish National Health Service. Retrospective study on resource use and direct medical cost of a cohort of 699 patients diagnosed and treated for CRC in 2000-2006, with follow-up until 30 June 2011, at Hospital del Mar (Barcelona). The Kaplan-Meier sample average estimator was used to calculate observed 11-year costs, which were then extrapolated to 16 years. Bootstrap percentile confidence intervals were calculated for the mean long-term cost per patient by stage. Phase-specific, long-term costs for the entire CRC cohort were also estimated. With regard to stage at diagnosis, the mean long-term cost per patient ranged from €20,708 (in situ) to €47,681 (stage III). The estimated costs increased at more advanced stages up to stage III and then substantially decreased in stage IV. In terms of treatment phase, the mean cost of the initial period represented 24.8 % of the total mean long-term cost, whereas the cost of continuing and advanced care phases represented 16.9 and 58.3 %, respectively. This study is the first to provide long-term cost estimates for CRC treatment, by stage at diagnosis and phase of care, based on data from clinical practice in Spain, and it will contribute useful information for future studies on cost-effectiveness and budget impact of different therapeutic innovations in Spain.

  19. Long-term childhood outcomes after interventions for prevention and management of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sarah R; Stock, Sarah J; Norman, Jane E

    2017-12-01

    Globally, preterm birth rates are rising and have a significant impact on neonatal morbidity and mortality. Preterm birth remains difficult to prevent and a number of strategies for preterm birth prevention (progesterone, cervical pessaries, cervical cerclage, tocolytics, and antibiotics) have been identified. While some of these show more promise, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the long-term effects of these strategies on childhood outcomes. Strategies used to improve the health of babies if born preterm, such as antenatal magnesium sulfate for fetal neuroprotection and antenatal corticosteroids for fetal lung maturation, show evidence of short-term benefit but lack large-scale follow-up data of long-term childhood outcomes. Future research on preterm birth interventions should include long-term follow-up of the children, ideally with similar outcome measures to allow for future meta-analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 3D Holographic Observatory for Long-term Monitoring of Complex Behaviors in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Santosh; Sun, Yaning; Zou, Sige; Hong, Jiarong

    2016-09-01

    Drosophila is an excellent model organism towards understanding the cognitive function, aging and neurodegeneration in humans. The effects of aging and other long-term dynamics on the behavior serve as important biomarkers in identifying such changes to the brain. In this regard, we are presenting a new imaging technique for lifetime monitoring of Drosophila in 3D at spatial and temporal resolutions capable of resolving the motion of limbs and wings using holographic principles. The developed system is capable of monitoring and extracting various behavioral parameters, such as ethograms and spatial distributions, from a group of flies simultaneously. This technique can image complicated leg and wing motions of flies at a resolution, which allows capturing specific landing responses from the same data set. Overall, this system provides a unique opportunity for high throughput screenings of behavioral changes in 3D over a long term in Drosophila.

  1. Recognition-induced forgetting of faces in visual long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugo, Kelsi F; Tamler, Kendall N; Woodman, Geoffrey F; Maxcey, Ashleigh M

    2017-10-01

    Despite more than a century of evidence that long-term memory for pictures and words are different, much of what we know about memory comes from studies using words. Recent research examining visual long-term memory has demonstrated that recognizing an object induces the forgetting of objects from the same category. This recognition-induced forgetting has been shown with a variety of everyday objects. However, unlike everyday objects, faces are objects of expertise. As a result, faces may be immune to recognition-induced forgetting. However, despite excellent memory for such stimuli, we found that faces were susceptible to recognition-induced forgetting. Our findings have implications for how models of human memory account for recognition-induced forgetting as well as represent objects of expertise and consequences for eyewitness testimony and the justice system.

  2. The Long Term Features of Tropical Cyclones Nearby Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yueh-Shyuan; Lee, Cheng-Shang

    2017-04-01

    Tropical cyclone (TC) activity is affected by several factors. The variability of TC activity over the western North Pacific (WNP) has been examined in the past decade. Previous studies showed that TC activity (such as TC number, intensity and tracks) has multiscale variation or affected by natural oscillation of different scales. However, most of these studies focused mainly on the entire WNP. Very few studies examined the variability of annual TC track or the variability of TC number in the area nearby Taiwan, which caused severe economic loss and life damage to Taiwan in the typhoon season. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the variation of TC activity nearby Taiwan to address its long term features, and also the possible relationship with the associated flow patterns. Preliminary results of wavelet analysis showed that the TC number nearby Taiwan during 1970-2014 had multiscale variations. The following analysis focused on the scale about 4- and 11-year signals, in the targeted area of 118o-125oE, 20o-27oN. The positive phases of both scale 4 and scale 11 showed a tendency of TC tracks toward Taiwan area, while the negative phases showed a lower tendency toward Taiwan. An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was applied on the 4-yr and the 11-yr filtered 500-hPa wind fields and geopotential heights. Results showed that the 4-yr signal was mostly dominated by the 500-hPa U- and V-wind fields, suggesting that the TC track patterns were affected mainly by the midlevel steering flow. On the other hand, the 11-yr signal was mostly dominated by the 500-hPa U-wind field and geopotential anomalies, indicating that the main cause of the difference in TC occurrence nearby Taiwan was the location of TC formation.

  3. Long-term scenarios for sustainable energy use in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischedick, M.; Nitsch, J.; Lechtenboehmer, S.; Hanke, T.; Barthel, C.; Jungbluth, C.; Assmann, D.; Brueggen, T. vor der; Trieb, F.; Nast, M.; Langniss, O.; Brischke, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    The study was able to show, and explain vividly through scenarios describing change processes, that a sustainable use of energy (aimed, among other things, at reducing CO 2 emissions by 80% by 2050 compared with 1990 levels) is technically feasible, economically viable, compatible with farther-reaching objectives of energy policy (e.g. supply security), and does not, in spite of the substantial need for change, present the players involved with any insurmountable problems but, rather, constitutes both a challenge and an opportunity. Such a development is possible only if the efforts launched to give momentum to the increased use of renewable energy sources are continued consistently, the impending need for replacement and renewal within the generation system is consistently utilised for increasing efficiency and a reorientation mainly towards combined heat and power production, and energy saving is made a new focal point of energy policy. Furthermore, with regard to long-term infrastructure requirements (decentralisation, new fuels), the necessary decisions must be prepared at an early stage and sufficiently robust lines of development must be identified and followed. (orig.) [de

  4. The design of long term care insurance contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Helmuth; Lozachmeur, Jean-Marie; Pestieau, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    This paper studies the design of long term care (LTC) insurance contracts in the presence of ex post moral hazard. While this problem bears some similarity with the study of health insurance (Blomqvist, 1997) the significance of informal LTC affects the problem in several crucial ways. It introduces the potential crowding out of informal care by market care financed through insurance coverage. Furthermore, the information structure becomes more intricate. Informal care is not publicly observable and, unlike the insurer, caregivers know the true needs of their relatives. We determine the optimal second-best contract and show that the optimal reimbursement rate can be written as an A-B-C expression à la Diamond (1998). These terms respectively reflect the efficiency loss as measured by the inverse of the demand elasticity, the distribution of needs and the preferences for risk sharing. Interestingly, informal care directly affects only the first term. More precisely the first term decreases with the presence and significance of informal care. Roughly speaking this means that an efficient LTC insurance contract should offer lower (marginal) reimbursement rates than its counterpart in a health insurance context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Family ties after divorce: long-term implications for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrons, Constance R

    2007-03-01

    Drawing on the data from the longitudinal Binuclear Family Study, 173 grown children were interviewed 20 years after their parents' divorce. This article addresses two basic questions: (1) What impact does the relationship between parents have on their children 20 years after the divorce? and (2) When a parent remarries or cohabits, how does it impact a child's sense of family? The findings show that the parental subsystem continues to impact the binuclear family 20 years after marital disruption by exerting a strong influence on the quality of relationships within the family system. Children who reported that their parents were cooperative also reported better relationships with their parents, grandparents, stepparents, and siblings. Over the course of 20 years, most of the children experienced the remarriage of one or both parents, and one third of this sample remembered the remarriage as more stressful than the divorce. Of those who experienced the remarriage of both of their parents, two thirds reported that their father's remarriage was more stressful than their mother's. When children's relationships with their fathers deteriorated after divorce, their relationships with their paternal grandparents, stepmother, and stepsiblings were distant, negative, or nonexistent. Whether family relationships remain stable, improve, or get worse is dependent on a complex interweaving of many factors. Considering the long-term implications of divorce, the need to emphasize life course and family system perspectives is underscored.

  6. Grassland biodiversity bounces back from long-term nitrogen addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storkey, J; Macdonald, A J; Poulton, P R; Scott, T; Köhler, I H; Schnyder, H; Goulding, K W T; Crawley, M J

    2015-12-17

    The negative effect of increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) pollution on grassland biodiversity is now incontrovertible. However, the recent introduction of cleaner technologies in the UK has led to reductions in the emissions of nitrogen oxides, with concomitant decreases in N deposition. The degree to which grassland biodiversity can be expected to 'bounce back' in response to these improvements in air quality is uncertain, with a suggestion that long-term chronic N addition may lead to an alternative low biodiversity state. Here we present evidence from the 160-year-old Park Grass Experiment at Rothamsted Research, UK, that shows a positive response of biodiversity to reducing N addition from either atmospheric pollution or fertilizers. The proportion of legumes, species richness and diversity increased across the experiment between 1991 and 2012 as both wet and dry N deposition declined. Plots that stopped receiving inorganic N fertilizer in 1989 recovered much of the diversity that had been lost, especially if limed. There was no evidence that chronic N addition has resulted in an alternative low biodiversity state on the Park Grass plots, except where there has been extreme acidification, although it is likely that the recovery of plant communities has been facilitated by the twice-yearly mowing and removal of biomass. This may also explain why a comparable response of plant communities to reduced N inputs has yet to be observed in the wider landscape.

  7. Development of a Long Term Cooling Analysis Methodology Using Rappel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. I.; Jeong, J. H.; Ban, C. H.; Oh, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Since the revision of the 10CFR50.46 in 1988, which allowed BE (Best-Estimate) method in analyzing the safety performance of a nuclear power plant, safety analysis methodologies have been changed continuously from conservative EM (Evaluation Model) approaches to BE ones. In this context, LSC (Long-Term core Cooling) methodologies have been reviewed by the regulatory bodies of USA and Korea. Some non-conservatism and improperness of the old methodology have been identified, and as a result, USNRC suspended the approval of CENPD-254-P-A which is the old LSC methodology for CE-designed NPPs. Regulatory bodies requested to remove the non-conservatisms and to reflect system transient behaviors in all the LSC methodologies used. In the present study, a new LSC methodology using RELAP5 is developed. RELAP5 and a newly developed code, BACON (Boric Acid Concentration Of Nuclear power plant) are used to calculate the transient behavior of the system and the boric acid concentration, respectively. Full range of break spectrum is considered and the applicability is confirmed through plant demonstration calculations. The result shows a good comparison with the old-fashioned ones, therefore, the methodology could be applied with no significant changes of current LSC plans

  8. Long-term evaluation of opioid treatment in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaomei; Robinson, Rebecca L; Mease, Philip; Kroenke, Kurt; Williams, David A; Chen, Yi; Faries, Douglas; Wohlreich, Madelaine; McCarberg, Bill; Hann, Danette

    2015-01-01

    In a 12-month observational study, we evaluated the effect of opioid use on the outcomes in 1700 adult patients with fibromyalgia. Data were evaluated using propensity score matching after patients were divided into cohorts based on their baseline medication use: (1) taking an opioid (concurrent use of tramadol was permitted); (2) taking tramadol (but no opioids); and (3) not taking opioids or tramadol. Changes in outcomes were assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory for severity and pain-related interference (BPI-S, BPI-I), Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Patient Health Questionnaire for depression (PHQ-8), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), and economic factors. Time-to-opioid or tramadol discontinuation was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. Compared with the opioid cohort, the nonopioid cohort demonstrated significantly greater reductions (Pinsomnia. Overall, the findings show little support for the long-term use of opioid medications in patients with fibromyalgia given the poorer outcomes across multiple assessment domains associated with this cohort.

  9. Microscopic study of rock for estimating long-term behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yasuaki

    1997-03-01

    One must consider micro-structures of rock and rock mass in order to predict the long-term behavior for more than ten thousand years. First we observe the micro-crack distribution of granite which is commonly distributed in Japan, and is widely used for several structures. The creep under constant load and the relaxation under constant displacement are typical time dependent phenomena, and we performed a series of relaxation tests under microscope observation in laboratory. The specimen that is preserved in water is granite as mentioned above. The aim of this experiment is to observe the sequential propagation of micro-cracks and its affect to the macroscopic response of the rock material under relaxation state. Next, a viscoelastic homogenization method is applied for analyzing the behavior of granite that is composed of several kinds of minerals (i.e., a polycrystalline material). The homogenization method developed for analyzing mechanics of composite materials is a mathematical theory that can describe the macroscopic behavior accounting for the microscopic characteristics with periodic microstructures. In this study, it is applied to a polycrystalline rock which involves a few minerals and micro-cracks. Furthermore, it is required to apply the homogenization analysis for rock materials which show a nonlinear time dependent behavior, so we develop a new elasto-visco-plastic homogenization theory, and its validity is checked for some ground structures made by clay. (author)

  10. Long-term effects of guar gum on blood lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIvor, M E; Cummings, C C; Van Duyn, M A; Leo, T A; Margolis, S; Behall, K M; Michnowski, J E; Mendeloff, A I

    1986-04-01

    While guar gum has been shown to lower total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in diabetic patients over the short-term, the long-term effects are less well studied and may be unpredictable. Granola bars with and without 6.6 g guar gum were developed and fed to 16 adult volunteers with Type II diabetes mellitus who had been randomized in a double-blind fashion into guar and placebo groups of equal size. Four to six bars were consumed daily with an ad lib diet over a 6-month period. Total cholesterol, total high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), subfractions HDL2-C and HDL3-C, LDL-C, and beta-apoprotein were measured at 0 and 6 months. Although LDL-C was lower and triglycerides higher at 6 months than at baseline, these changes were of equal magnitude and direction in both guar and placebo groups. Using each subject as his own control, only the change in triglycerides was statistically significant (P less than 0.025). When male subjects alone were analyzed, the guar group showed a statistically significant decrease in LDL, while the placebo group did not. Other lipid parameters were not significantly changed during the study, despite a positive effect on carbohydrate metabolism from the guar bars. The data suggest either that the hypolipemic effects of guar gum in patients with Type II diabetes mellitus are not sustained for 6 months, or the effects occur only in men.

  11. Long-term integrity of buildings and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoine, P.

    1985-01-01

    The present study relates to the conditions of holding nuclear power stations in a safe state after their final shutdown. To assess the reasonable duration of the waiting period before complete dismantling of the installations, it was deemed necessary: to investigate the causes and consequences of the ageing of a nuclear power station, with particular regard to the safety-relevant constituents such as the barriers against the dispersion of contamination, and to evaluate the possible problems of safety, maintenance and decommissioning cost. In the present document, the methodology is developed that is to apply in the particular case of a power station finally shut down which is to be decommissioned and dismantled later. For a detailed exercise of this methodology, the Framatome 900 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor station has been taken as a reference plant. The plan which has been elaborated for this study and for the examination of the technical problems has been conceived so as to suggest to the author of a similar study for a particular power station, all the points he has to consider. One chapter of this document has been devoted to showing the basic differences between the 900 MWe PWR reference plant and the other types of nuclear power station existing in the European Community (e.g., BWR, GCR, FBR) and to identify the consequences concerning the decommissioning and the long-term integrity of the installations. 84 refs [fr

  12. [Surgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Long term results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueras, Juan; Ramos, Emilio; Ibáñez, Luis; Valls, Carles; Serrano, Teresa; Rafecas, Antonio; Casanovas, Teresa; Fabregat, Juan; Xiol, Xavier; Torras, Jaume; Baliellas, Carmen; Jaurrieta, Eduardo; Casais, Luis

    2002-03-30

    Surgical treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma remains controversial due to a lack of prospective randomized studies. Between January 1990 and December 2000, 121 liver transplantations (group 1) and 52 hepatectomies (group 2) were performed for hepatocellular carcinoma. Each surgical treatment was carried out depending on patients' and tumor's characteristics. Patients from group 1 had a more advanced tumoral grade, with higher involvement of two lobes (19 vs 4%; p = 0.015) and higher number of nodules (1.9 DE [2] vs 1.2 [0.6]; p = 0.001); yet the mean tumor size was lower (3 cm [1.5] vs 4.2 [3.2]; p = 0.006). Operative mortality (4% vs 2%; p = 0.66) and 5- and 10-years survival (68% and 42% vs 63% and 45%; p = 0.23) were similar between both groups. Nevertheless, 5- and 10-years recurrence rates (10.6% and 10.6% vs 50% and 65.5%; p < 0.0001) were more favourable in group 1. Prognostic factors of recurrence included microscopic vascular invasion (RR = 12.12; CI, 2.02-75.52) and alpha-fetoprotein levels higher than 300 ng/mL (RR = 7.12; 95% CI, 1.08-47.02) in group 1, and the pT3-4 stage (RR = 3.86; 95% CI, 1.06-14.03) in group 2. Mean time on waiting lists for liver transplantation was 3.06 (2.66) months and it has increased significantly in last years, especially among blood group 0 patients. However, this fact has not been associated with a worsening of survival rates (p = 0.98). After a good patient selection, either liver transplantation or hepatectomy achieve excellent long term survival rates in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, though the former allows a better control of the tumoral disease. The increase of mean time on waiting lists for liver transplantation during the last years has not led to a worsening of survival results.

  13. Comparison of two humidification systems for long-term noninvasive mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, S; Cirio, S; Fanfulla, F; Carlucci, A; Navarra, A; Negri, A; Ceriana, P

    2008-08-01

    There is no consensus concerning the best system of humidification during long-term noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV). In a technical pilot randomised crossover 12-month study, 16 patients with stable chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure received either heated humidification or heat and moisture exchanger. Compliance with long-term NIMV, airway symptoms, side-effects and number of severe acute pulmonary exacerbations requiring hospitalisation were recorded. Two patients died. Intention-to-treat statistical analysis was performed on 14 patients. No significant differences were observed in compliance with long-term NIMV, but 10 out of 14 patients decided to continue long-term NIMV with heated humidification at the end of the trial. The incidence of side-effects, except for dry throat (significantly more often present using heat and moisture exchanger), hospitalisations and pneumonia were not significantly different. In the present pilot study, the use heated humidification and heat and moisture exchanger showed similar tolerance and side-effects, but a higher number of patients decided to continue long-term noninvasive mechanical ventilation with heated humidification. Further larger studies are required in order to confirm these findings.

  14. Retention of gene expression in porcine islets after agarose encapsulation and long-term culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumpala, Pradeep R., E-mail: pdumpala@rixd.org [The Rogosin Institute – Xenia Division, 740 Birch Road, Xenia, OH 45385 (United States); Holdcraft, Robert W.; Martis, Prithy C.; Laramore, Melissa A. [The Rogosin Institute – Xenia Division, 740 Birch Road, Xenia, OH 45385 (United States); Parker, Thomas S.; Levine, Daniel M. [The Rogosin Institute, 505 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Smith, Barry H. [The Rogosin Institute, 505 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States); NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Gazda, Lawrence S. [The Rogosin Institute – Xenia Division, 740 Birch Road, Xenia, OH 45385 (United States)

    2016-08-05

    Agarose encapsulation of porcine islets allows extended in vitro culture, providing ample time to determine the functional capacity of the islets and conduct comprehensive microbiological safety testing prior to implantation as a treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the effect that agarose encapsulation and long-term culture may have on porcine islet gene expression is unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the transcriptome of encapsulated porcine islets following long-term in vitro culture against free islets cultured overnight. Global gene expression analysis revealed no significant change in the expression of 98.47% of genes. This indicates that the gene expression profile of free islets is highly conserved following encapsulation and long-term culture. Importantly, the expression levels of genes that code for critical hormones secreted by islets (insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin) as well as transcripts encoding proteins involved in their packaging and secretion are unchanged. While a small number of genes known to play roles in the insulin secretion and insulin signaling pathways are differentially expressed, our results show that overall gene expression is retained following islet isolation, agarose encapsulation, and long-term culture. - Highlights: • Effect of agarose encapsulation and 8 week culture on porcine islets was analyzed. • Transcriptome analysis revealed no significant change in a majority (98%) of genes. • Agarose encapsulation allows for long-term culture of porcine islets. • Islet culture allows for functional and microbial testing prior to clinical use.

  15. Long-term care: the family, post-modernity, and conflicting moral life-worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, H Tristram

    2007-01-01

    Long-term care is controversial because it involves foundational disputes. Some are moral-economic, bearing on whether the individual, the family, or the state is primarily responsible for long-term care, as well as on how one can establish a morally and financially sustainable long-term-care policy, given the moral hazard of people over-using entitlements once established, the political hazard of media democracies promising unfundable entitlements, the demographic hazard of relatively fewer workers to support those in need of long-term care, the moral hazard to responsibility of shifting accountability to third parties, and the bureaucratic hazard of moving from individual and family choice to bureaucratic oversight. These disputes are compounded by controversies regarding the nature of the family (Is it to be regarded primarily as a socio-biological category, a fundamental ontological category of social reality, or a construct resulting from the consent of the participants?), as well as its legal and moral autonomy and authority over its members. As the disputes show, there is no common understanding of respect and human dignity that will easily lead out of these disputes. The reflections on long-term care in this issue underscore the plurality of moralities defining bioethics.

  16. Accumulation of Cd in agricultural soil under long-term reclaimed water irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Weiping; Lu, Sidan; Peng, Chi; Jiao, Wentao; Wang, Meie

    2013-01-01

    Safety of agricultural irrigation with reclaimed water is of great concern as some potential hazardous compounds like heavy metals may be accumulated in soils over time. Impacts of long-term reclaimed water on soil Cd pollution were evaluated based on the field investigation in two main crop areas in Beijing with long irrigation history and on simulation results of STEM-profile model. Under long-term reclaimed water, Cd content in the top 20 cm soil layer was greatly elevated and was more than 2 times higher than that in the deep soil layer. There was very small differences between the field measured and model simulated Cd content in the plow layer (top 20 cm) and entire soil layer. Long-term model prediction showed that reclaimed water irrigation had a low environmental risk of soil Cd pollution, but the risk would be aggravated when there were high metal loading from other sources. The risk is also depending on the soil and plant properties. -- Highlights: •Root zone soil Cd content was elevated by one time under long-term reclaimed water irrigation. •The STEM-profile model can well track the Cd balance in the soil profile. •Reclaimed water irrigation plays a limited role on soil Cd accumulation in Beijing croplands. -- There was a low risk of soil Cd pollution under long-term reclaimed water irrigation

  17. Retention of gene expression in porcine islets after agarose encapsulation and long-term culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumpala, Pradeep R.; Holdcraft, Robert W.; Martis, Prithy C.; Laramore, Melissa A.; Parker, Thomas S.; Levine, Daniel M.; Smith, Barry H.; Gazda, Lawrence S.

    2016-01-01

    Agarose encapsulation of porcine islets allows extended in vitro culture, providing ample time to determine the functional capacity of the islets and conduct comprehensive microbiological safety testing prior to implantation as a treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the effect that agarose encapsulation and long-term culture may have on porcine islet gene expression is unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the transcriptome of encapsulated porcine islets following long-term in vitro culture against free islets cultured overnight. Global gene expression analysis revealed no significant change in the expression of 98.47% of genes. This indicates that the gene expression profile of free islets is highly conserved following encapsulation and long-term culture. Importantly, the expression levels of genes that code for critical hormones secreted by islets (insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin) as well as transcripts encoding proteins involved in their packaging and secretion are unchanged. While a small number of genes known to play roles in the insulin secretion and insulin signaling pathways are differentially expressed, our results show that overall gene expression is retained following islet isolation, agarose encapsulation, and long-term culture. - Highlights: • Effect of agarose encapsulation and 8 week culture on porcine islets was analyzed. • Transcriptome analysis revealed no significant change in a majority (98%) of genes. • Agarose encapsulation allows for long-term culture of porcine islets. • Islet culture allows for functional and microbial testing prior to clinical use.

  18. INTRAARTICULAR INJECTION OF HYALURONIC ACID AFTER ARTHROSCOPIC LAVAGE OF THE KNEE: LONG-TERM RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Vladimirovna Luchikhina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of arthroscopic lavage in combination with subsequent injection of hyaluronic acid into the joint cavity at shortand long-term follow-ups. Subjects and methods. Eighty-two patients with knee osteoarthrosis (OA were examined in accordance with the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Group 1 consisted of 40 patients only after arthroscopic lavage; Group 2 comprised 42 patients who were administered hyaluronic acid after arthroscopic lavage. Clinical evaluation encompassed pain while walking, resting, and moving (by a visual analogue scale, limited ability in covering 100 m (by a 5-point scale, general clinical evaluation (by a 5-point ordinal scale, the presence or absence of pain after 100-m walking, as well as resting pain (its presence or absence. Results. The treatment effect evaluated using different indicators was comparably positive in both groups within 3 months. Following 3 months of therapy, its effect remained stable and even better in Group 2. The latter showed a particularly noticeable superiority a year later. Thus, there were excellent and good results in 88 and 47.5% in Groups 2 and 1, respectively. The clinical symptoms of the disease were absent in 58% in Group 2 and in only 15% in Group 1. Moreover, Group 1 showed worsening and 20% of the patients had no effect. This trend was also seen while evaluating the therapeutic effectiveness in different periods. Thus, after therapy, no substantial difference was found in both groups, but 3 months later this difference was as many as 0.8 scores and a year later Group 2 had many points in its favor (1.2 scores. Conclusion. Arthroscopic lavage followed by the administration of hyaluronic acid makes it possible to prevent the negative effect of a washing liquid on the metabolism and structure of the articular cartilage and to achieve a long-term effect against the major clinical symptoms (joint pain and function affecting the quality of life. The

  19. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  20. ERDA's long-term waste management goals and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perge, A.F.; Trice, V.G. Jr.; Walton, R.D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the ERDA's major program for the long-term waste management of radioactive waste and provides a perspective for symposium participants with regard to the interrelationship of specific components of the program that are discussed in detail in other ERDA-sponsored papers. Needs, goals, and plans are reviewed for ERDA's management of the commercially generated wastes which are expected to be delivered to ERDA in accordance with Federal regulations. At present, ERDA responsibilities include long-term management of commercial-level wastes. Possible future regulations may give ERDA responsibility for the long-term management of commercial low-level solid wastes contaminated with transuranic nuclides. Primary planning goals and programs for the development of terminal storage facilities and waste processing technology to produce acceptable waste forms for long-term management are reviewed for each of the waste types identified above. The status of development programs for the long-term management of airborne radionuclides, which may be required at some time in the future, is also reviewed. (author)

  1. Mesozoic long-term eustatic cycles and their uncertain hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Ruban

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Global sea-level has changed in a cyclic manner through geologic history, but the regularities of these changes are yet to be fully understood. Despite certain (and sometimes significant differences, the available Mesozoic eustatic curves permit the outlining of long-term eustatic cycles, which are provisionally defined as cycles recognizable at the stage level and higher. Interpretation of the Triassic eustatic curves indicates two orders of long-term cycles and a 1st-order sea-level rise throughout the entire period. The Jurassic eustatic curves imply cyclicity of one or two orders, and a 1st-order eustatic rise during the entire period is also evident. Most challenges are interpretations for the Cretaceous; two to four orders of long-term eustatic cycles can be established for this period. Generally, the hierarchy of the long-term eustatic cycles might have changed through the Mesozoic. If so, and if one considers differences of cycles of the same order between the periods of this era, it is difficult to apply “standard” hierarchical classifications to the documented cycles. The hypothetical uncertainty of the hierarchy of the Mesozoic long-term eustatic cycles is an important challenge for modern researchers.

  2. Common Calibration Source for Monitoring Long-term Ozone Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Accurate long-term satellite measurements are crucial for monitoring the recovery of the ozone layer. The slow pace of the recovery and limited lifetimes of satellite monitoring instruments demands that datasets from multiple observation systems be combined to provide the long-term accuracy needed. A fundamental component of accurately monitoring long-term trends is the calibration of these various instruments. NASA s Radiometric Calibration and Development Facility at the Goddard Space Flight Center has provided resources to minimize calibration biases between multiple instruments through the use of a common calibration source and standardized procedures traceable to national standards. The Facility s 50 cm barium sulfate integrating sphere has been used as a common calibration source for both US and international satellite instruments, including the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet 2 (SBUV/2) instruments, Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV), Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) (ESA), Scanning Imaging SpectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY) (ESA), and others. We will discuss the advantages of using a common calibration source and its effects on long-term ozone data sets. In addition, sphere calibration results from various instruments will be presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the long-term characterization of the source itself.

  3. Long-term psychosocial consequences of surgical congenital malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseth, Trond H; Emblem, Ragnhild

    2017-10-01

    Surgical congenital malformations often represent years of treatment, large number of hospital stays, treatment procedures, and long-term functional sequels affecting patients' psychosocial functioning. Both functional defects and psychosocial difficulties that occur commonly in childhood may pass through adolescence on to adulthood. This overview presents reports published over the past 3 decades to elucidate the long-term psychosocial consequences of surgical congenital malformations. Literature searches conducted on PubMed database revealed that less than 1% of all the records of surgical congenital malformations described long-term psychosocial consequences, but with diverse findings. This inconsistency may be due to methodological differences or deficiencies; especially in study design, patient sampling, and methods. Most of the studies revealed that the functional deficits may have great impact on patients' mental health, psychosocial functioning, and QoL; both short- and long-term negative consequences. Factors other than functional problems, e.g., repeated anesthesia, multiple hospitalization, traumatic treatment procedures, and parental dysfunctioning, may also predict long-term mental health and psychosocial functioning. Through multidisciplinary approach, pediatric surgeons should also be aware of deficits in emotional and psychosocial functioning. To achieve overall optimal psychosocial functioning, the challenge is to find a compromise between physically optimal treatment procedures and procedures that are not psychologically detrimental. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Numerical simulation of gender differences in a long-term microgravity exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni

    The objective of this work is to analyse and simulate gender differences when individuals are exposed to long-term microgravity. Risk probability of a health impairment which may put in jeopardy a long-term mission is also evaluated. Computer simulations are becoming a promising research line of work, as physiological models become more and more sophisticated and reliable. Technological advances in state-of-the-art hardware technology and software allow nowadays for better and more accurate simulations of complex phenomena, such as the response of the human cardiovascular system to long-term exposure to microgravity. Experimental data for long-term missions are difficult to achieve and reproduce, therefore the predictions of computer simulations are of a major importance in this field. Our approach is based on a previous model developed and implemented in our laboratory (NELME: Numerical Evaluation of Long-term Microgravity Effects). The software simulates the behaviour of the cardiovascular system and different human organs, has a modular architecture, and allows to introduce perturbations such as physical exercise or countermeasures. The implementation is based on a complex electricallike model of this control system, using inexpensive software development frameworks, and has been tested and validated with the available experimental data. Gender differences have been implemented for this specific work, as an adjustment of a number of parameters that are included in the model. Women versus men physiological differences have been therefore taken into account, based upon estimations from the physiology bibliography. A number of simulations have been carried out for long-term exposure to microgravity. Gravity varying from Earth-based to zero, and time exposure are the two main variables involved in the construction of results, including responses to patterns of physical aerobical exercise, and also thermal stress simulating an extra-vehicular activity. Results show

  5. Long-Term Follow-Up of Lateral Canthal Resuspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Sathyadeepak; Gupta, Adit; Rootman, Daniel Benson; Goldberg, Robert Alan

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term results of lateral canthal resuspension over time. A cohort study of adults (n = 25, 45 eyelids) undergoing lateral canthal resuspension. Marginal reflex distance 2 (MRD2), inferior scleral show, lateral canthal height, lateral canthal angle, horizontal palpebral aperture, and lateral scleral triangle area were measured preoperatively and at postoperative week 1, month 3, and the final follow-up visit. Minimum follow-up time was 6 months (mean, 15.1 months). At the final follow-up visit, MRD2 decreased by 0.41 ± 0.14 mm, inferior scleral show decreased by 0.27 ± 0.05 mm, and lateral canthal height increased by 0.81 ± 0.15 mm. The overall function of time was found to be significant for change in MRD2 (P < 0.01). In multiple comparisons, all time point values were significantly different from one another (Bonferroni corrected, P < 0.05), except for 3 months and the final position, which were not. Similarly, the overall effect of time on lateral canthus position was also significant (P < 0.01). All time points were significantly different from one another (Bonferroni corrected, P < 0.05). The overall effect of time on inferior scleral show was also significant (P < 0.01). Differences were significant from preoperative to final postoperative position, although the other time points were not significant (Bonferroni corrected, P < 0.05). No complications were noted. Minimally invasive lateral canthal resuspension provides durable, albeit modest, improvements in MRD2, inferior scleral show, and lateral canthal height without significantly changing lateral canthal angle, horizontal palpebral aperture, or lateral scleral triangle area. Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  6. Long-Term Outcomes of Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation Treated with Percutaneous Discectomy: Comparative Study with Microendoscopic Discectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wengui; Wu Xiaotao; Guo Jinhe; Zhuang Suyang; Teng Gaojun

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the long-term outcomes of patients with lumbar disc herniation treated with percutaneous lumbar discectomy (PLD) or microendoscopic discectomy (MED). A retrospective study was performed in consecutive patients with lumbar disc herniation treated with PLD (n = 129) or MED (n = 101) in a single hospital from January 2000 to March 2002. All patients were followed up with MacNab criteria and self-evaluation questionnaires comprising the Oswestry Disability Index and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Several statistical methods were used for analyses of the data, and a p value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. A total of 104 patients (80.62%) with PLD and 82 patients (81.19%) with MED were eligible for analyses, with a mean follow-up period of 6.64 ± 0.67 years and 6.42 ± 0.51 years, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups in age, number of lesions, major symptoms and physical signs, and radiological findings. According to the MacNab criteria, 75.96% in the PLD group and 84.15% in the MED group achieved excellent or good results, respectively, this was statistically significant (p = 0.0402). With the Oswestry Disability Index questionnaires, the average scores and minimal disability, respectively, were 6.97 and 71.15% in the PLD group and 4.89 and 79.27% in the MED group. Total average scores of Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey were 75.88 vs. 81.86 in PLD group vs. MED group (p = 0.0582). The cost and length of hospitalization were higher or longer in MED group, a statistically significant difference (both p < 0.0001). Long-term complications were observed in two patients (2.44%) in the MED group, no such complications were observed in the PLD group. Both PLD and MED show an acceptable long-term efficacy for treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Compared with MED patients, long-term satisfaction is slightly lower in the PLD patients; complications

  7. Influence of long-term fertilization on soil physicochemical properties in a brown soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Luo, Peiyu; Han, Xiaori; Yang, Jinfeng

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to explore the influence on soil physicochemical properties under a 38-y long-term fertilization in a brown soil. Soil samples (0-20 cm)were taken from the six treatments of the long-term fertilization trial in October 2016:no fertilizer (CK), N1(mineral nitrogen fertilizer), N1P (mineral nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer), N1PK (mineral nitrogen, phosphate and potassic fertilizer), pig manure (M2), M2N1P (pig manure, mineral nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer).The results showed thatthe long-term application of chemical fertilizers reduced soil pH value, while the application of organic fertilizers increased pH value. Fertilization significantly increased the content of AHN, TN and SOM. Compared with the CK treatment and chemical fertilizer treatments, organic fertilizer treatments significantly increased the content of AP and TP. The content of AK and TK were no significant difference in different treatment.

  8. Long-term benefits of full-day kindergarten: a longitudinal population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, M D; Nickel, N C; Chateau, D; Martens, P J; Taylor, C; Crockett, L; Katz, A; Sarkar, J; Burland, E; Goh, C Y

    2015-02-01

    In the first longitudinal, population-based study of full-day kindergarten (FDK) outcomes beyond primary school in Canada, we used linked administrative data to follow 15 kindergarten cohorts ( n ranging from 112 to 736) up to grade 9. Provincial assessments conducted in grades 3, 7, and 8 and course marks and credits earned in grade 9 were compared between FDK and half-day kindergarten (HDK) students in both targeted and universal FDK programmes. Propensity score matched cohort and stepped-wedge designs allowed for stronger causal inferences than previous research on FDK. We found limited long-term benefits of FDK, specific to the type of programme, outcomes examined, and subpopulations. FDK programmes targeted at low-income areas showed long-term improvements in numeracy for lower income girls. Our results suggest that expectations for wide-ranging long-term academic benefits of FDK are unwarranted.

  9. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Adolescent Alcohol Access: Evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Nilsson, Anton; Kedir, Abdu

    We exploit changes in minimum legal alcohol purchasing ages in Denmark in order to estimate effects on short- and long-term health outcomes, as well as on human capital formation. Employing a difference-in-differences approach for immediate outcomes and a “regression kink design” for long......-term outcomes, we bring comprehensive evidence on the health and education effects of three reforms, which affected alcohol availability along different dimensions and margins – 1) establishing an off-premise alcohol purchase age of 15 (1998), 2) raising the off-premise alcohol purchase age to 16 (2004), and 3......) increasing the purchase age of beverages exceeding 16.5% in alcohol content from 16 to 18 (2011). Our findings show significant short-term effects of the first and third reforms in terms of reducing injuries and alcohol-related conditions, and some long-term effects of the first reform in terms of reducing...

  10. Long-term stability of bioelectricity generation coupled with tetrathionate disproportionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulonen, Mira L K; Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Kokko, Marika E; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2016-09-01

    To prevent uncontrolled acidification of the environment, reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (RISCs) can be bioelectrochemically removed from water streams. The long-term stability of bioelectricity production from tetrathionate (S4O6(2-)) was studied in highly acidic conditions (pH<2.5) in two-chamber fed-batch microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The maximum current density was improved from previously reported 80mAm(-2) to 225mAm(-2) by optimizing the external resistance. The observed reaction products of tetrathionate disproportionation were sulfate and elemental sulfur. In long-term run, stable electricity production was obtained for over 700days with the average current density of 150mAm(-2). The internal resistance of the MFC decreased over time and no biofouling was observed. This study shows that tetrathionate is an efficient substrate also for long-term bioelectricity production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Long Term Expected Revenue of Wind Farms Considering the Bidding Admission Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashi, Mazaher Haji; Yousefi, G.R.; Bak, Claus Leth

    2016-01-01

    As a long term bidding behavior, bid shading is exhibited by wind farms participating in real Uniform Price (UP) markets. This signifies that the wind farm owners bid far below their true long run marginal cost. In this paper, a method is proposed to consider the uncertainty of bidding admission...... in the long term expected revenue of wind farms. We show that this consideration could perfectly explain the observed bid shading behavior of wind farm owners. We use a novel market price model with a stochastic model of a wind farm to derive indices describing the uncertainty of bidding admission....... The optimal behavior of the wind farm is then obtained by establishing a multi objective optimization problem and subsequently solved using genetic algorithm. The method is applied to the analysis of long term bidding behavior of a wind farm participating in a Pay-as-Bid (PAB) auction such as Iran Electricity...

  12. Price-signals and long term equilibrium. Reconsidering the organisation of electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, Dominique; Defeuilley, Christophe; Marty, Frederic

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to show that the reform of the electricity sector, based on a framework of interpretation in which the short-term/long-term articulation is made by the market price, does not result in an efficient result in terms of investment. After a presentation of a bibliographical review on investment in an uncertain context, the authors present a model of decentralised electricity markets which backs reforms. They highlight issues related to production investment which remain unresolved, and which may result in socially inefficient choices on the long term. They report an analysis of two solutions of industrial organisations, long term contracts and vertical and horizontal integration, which could solve these problems

  13. Effect of mold temperature on short and long-term mechanical properties of PBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of mold temperature variation on the short-term mechanical properties obtained from the tensile and Charpy impact tests, and the long-term mechanical properties obtained from dynamic mechanical loading and flexural creep of injection molded polybutylene terepthalate (PBT are reported. It has been observed that the effect of changing the processing condition viz. mold temperature on the viscoelastic properties are more pronounced when their long-term behavior is tested. The tensile and impact properties showed only a negligible effect to the change in mold temperature. Further, analysis of the creep curves by applying a four-element Burger model presented a comprehensive understanding of their long-term viscoelastic behavior with respect to the change in mold temperature.

  14. Long-term variations in the surface air 7Be concentration and climatic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwen, Liu; Starovoitova, Valeriia N; Wells, Douglas P

    2013-02-01

    We have used EML Surface Air Sampling Program (SASP) data to analyze the long-term trend in (7)Be surface concentration and address possible correlation between this long-term trend and climatic changes, namely changes in precipitation patterns and temperature. In this paper we present (7)Be concentration data from 23 sites, spanning over 25 years, all over the world, and extract long-term trend parameter using two independent techniques. The (7)Be concentrations in most stations show a pronounced decreasing trend, potentially corresponding to statistically significant changes in transporting (7)Be from upper atmosphere source to these sites. Weak negative correlation between (7)Be concentration and amount of precipitation was also observed. However, more data from more representative sites around the world are needed the statistical robustness of this trend. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Effect of the Danish return-to-work program on long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Otto M; Aust, Birgit; Bjørner, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Danish return-to-work (RTW) program on long-term sickness absence in a randomized controlled trial in three municipalities. METHODS: The intervention group comprised 1948 participants while the control group comprised 1157...... participant receiving ordinary sickness benefit management (OSM). Study participants were working-age adults receiving long-term (≥8 weeks or more) benefits, included regardless of reason for sickness absence or employment status. Each beneficiary was followed-up for a maximum period of 52 weeks. Cox...... increased rate of recovery from long-term sickness absence (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.31-1.74). In the other two municipalities, the intervention did not show a statistically significant effect (HR M11.12, 95% CI 0.97-1.29, and HR M30.80, 95% CI 0.63-1.03, respectively). Adjustment for a series of possible...

  16. Dystrophic Cutaneous Calcification and Metaplastic Bone Formation due to Long Term Bisphosphonate Use in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Murat Tatlı

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates are widely used in the treatment of breast cancer with bone metastases. We report a case of a female with breast cancer presented with a rash around a previous mastectomy site and a discharge lesion on her right chest wall in August 2010. Biopsy of the lesion showed dystrophic calcification and metaplastic bone formation. The patient’s history revealed a long term use of zoledronic acid for the treatment of breast cancer with bone metastasis. We stopped the treatment since we believed that the cutaneous dystrophic calcification could be associated with her long term bisphosphonate therapy. Adverse cutaneous events with bisphosphonates are very rare, and dystrophic calcification has not been reported previously. The dystrophic calcification and metaplastic bone formation in this patient are thought to be due to long term bisphosphonate usage.

  17. Unified pre- and postsynaptic long-term plasticity enables reliable and flexible learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rui Ponte; Froemke, Robert C; Sjöström, P Jesper; van Rossum, Mark Cw

    2015-08-26

    Although it is well known that long-term synaptic plasticity can be expressed both pre- and postsynaptically, the functional consequences of this arrangement have remained elusive. We show that spike-timing-dependent plasticity with both pre- and postsynaptic expression develops receptive fields with reduced variability and improved discriminability compared to postsynaptic plasticity alone. These long-term modifications in receptive field statistics match recent sensory perception experiments. Moreover, learning with this form of plasticity leaves a hidden postsynaptic memory trace that enables fast relearning of previously stored information, providing a cellular substrate for memory savings. Our results reveal essential roles for presynaptic plasticity that are missed when only postsynaptic expression of long-term plasticity is considered, and suggest an experience-dependent distribution of pre- and postsynaptic strength changes.

  18. Land-atmosphere coupling and soil moisture memory contribute to long-term agricultural drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Newman, M.; Lawrence, D. M.; Livneh, B.; Lombardozzi, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    We assessed the contribution of land-atmosphere coupling and soil moisture memory on long-term agricultural droughts in the US. We performed an ensemble of climate model simulations to study soil moisture dynamics under two atmospheric forcing scenarios: active and muted land-atmosphere coupling. Land-atmosphere coupling contributes to a 12% increase and 36% decrease in the decorrelation time scale of soil moisture anomalies in the US Great Plains and the Southwest, respectively. These differences in soil moisture memory affect the length and severity of modeled drought. Consequently, long-term droughts are 10% longer and 3% more severe in the Great Plains, and 15% shorter and 21% less severe in the Southwest. An analysis of Coupled Model Intercomparsion Project phase 5 data shows four fold uncertainty in soil moisture memory across models that strongly affects simulated long-term droughts and is potentially attributable to the differences in soil water storage capacity across models.

  19. Influence of Whipping on Long term Vertical Bending Moment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baarholm, G. S.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2004-01-01

    approach. Effect of whipping is included by assuming that the whipping and wave induced response are independent, but the effect of correlation of the long term extreme value is also studied. Numerical calculations are performed using a nonlinear, hydroelastic strip theory as suggested by (Xia et al 1998...... to introduce ways to improve the efficiency in the calculation. A method to determine the long term extremes by considering only a few short term sea state is applied. Long term extreme values are estimated using a set of sea states which have a certain probability of occurrence, known as the contour line......This paper is concerned with estimating the response value corresponding to a long return period, say a twenty years. Time domain simulation is required to obtain the nonlinear response, and long time series are required to limit the statistical uncertainty in the simulations. It is crucial...

  20. Sexuality and physical intimacy in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long-term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long-term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders, it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literature on sexuality and aging, examines some of the clinical practices and guidelines regarding sexual expression in long-term care, and presents two case examples. A semistructured interview and decision tree is presented to assist therapists in making careful and informed decisions and thereby balancing the needs for protection with the needs for autonomy.

  1. Sexuality and Physical Intimacy in Long Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literature on sexuality and aging, examines some of the clinical practices and guidelines regarding sexual expression in long term care and presents two case examples. A semi-structured interview and decision tree is presented to assist therapists in making careful and informed decisions and thereby balancing needs for protection with needs for autonomy. PMID:24354331

  2. Long-term multipactor discharge in multicarrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gimeno, B.; Boria, V. E.; Armendariz, J.

    2007-01-01

    A new mechanism of long-term multipactor in multicarrier systems is studied employing both analytical and numerical methods. In particular, the investigation is focused on the impact that a realistic secondary emission yield at low energies produces on the development of long term multipactor. A novel analytical model for this interperiod charge accumulation is presented using the traditional multipactor theory for parallel plates, and approximating the multicarrier signal as a single-carrier signal modulated by a pulsed signal envelope. The analytical predictions are verified by numerical simulations for a typical rectangular waveguide. The analytical and numerical results demonstrate that the susceptibility of the system to develop a long-term multipactor discharge increases with higher values of low-energy secondary emission yield

  3. Long-term visual associations affect attentional guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivers, Christian N L

    2011-06-01

    When observers perform a visual search task, they are assumed to adopt an attentional set for what they are looking for. The present experiment investigates the influence of long-term visual memory associations on this attentional set. On each trial, observers were asked to search a display for a grayscale version of a known traffic sign. On each trial, a distractor sign was drawn in full color. This color could either be related or unrelated to the target sign. Distractors interfered more with search when their color was related (e.g. red when the target was a stop sign), implying that long-term color associations resulted in inadvertent attentional guidance, even though color was irrelevant to the task. The results add to the growing body of evidence that long-term memory representations automatically affect attentional orienting. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethics and Intimate Sexual Activity in Long-Term Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Eran

    2017-07-01

    A case is presented in which the staff of a long-term care facility discovers that the husband of a resident with dementia is engaged in sexual activity with her. The case illustrates a dilemma for long-term care facilities that create a home-like environment with a goal of maximizing residents' autonomy while ensuring their safety. An approach to assessing capacity to consent to intimate sexual activity is described, followed by guidelines that nursing homes can implement to support residents who wish to engage in sexual activity. Recommendations are also offered for supporting long-term care staff and family members of residents who are interested in intimate sexual activity. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Long-term impact of sales promotion on brand image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Mandić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sales promotion (SP is an inevitable tool in the marketing communications mix, especially in the FMCG markets, due to pressures such as retailers’ growing demands and increasing competition. This has proven to be an issue for many companies, especially those with a premium brand positioning and those concerned about the impact that SP might have on the long-term image of the company. Despite the fact that literature is replete with research on SP, it seems to be vastly generalized and mostly focused on price reductions. Thus, this paper aims to analyze and discuss the issue of the long-term impact that SP has on companies, especially on premium brands in the FMCG markets. It concludes that, when used properly and strategically, SP may have a positive long-term impact on brands.

  6. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellman, M.; Valkiainen, M.

    1985-10-01

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are ralated to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product. (author)

  7. Acute and long-term psychiatric side effects of mefloquine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringqvist, Åsa; Bech, Per; Glenthøj, Birte

    2015-01-01

    psychiatric side effects were retrospectively assessed using the SCL-90-R and questions based on Present State Examination (PSE). Subjects reporting suspected psychotic states were contacted for a personal PSE interview. Electronic records of psychiatric hospitalizations and diagnoses were cross-checked. Long-term......BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the profile of acute and long-term psychiatric side effects associated with mefloquine. METHODS: Subjects (n = 73) reported to a Danish national register during five consecutive years for mefloquine associated side effects were included. Acute...... symptoms were found in 15% and were time-limited. Illusions/hallucinations were more frequently observed among women. Cases of hypomania/mania in the acute phase were 5.5%. Significant long-term mental health effects were demonstrated for the SF-36 subscales mental health (MH), role emotional (RE...

  8. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellman, M.; Valkiainen, M.

    1985-10-01

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for the long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are related to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product

  9. Winning market positioning strategies for long term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, L F; Weinstein, K; Arndt, K

    1997-01-01

    The decision to develop an aggressive marketing strategy for its long term care facility has become a priority for the management of a one-hundred bed facility in the Rocky Mountain West. Financial success and lasting competitiveness require that the facility in question (Deer Haven) establish itself as the preferred provider of long term care for its target market. By performing a marketing communications audit, Deer Haven evaluated its present market position and created a strategy for solidifying and dramatizing this position. After an overview of present conditions in the industry, we offer a seven step process that provides practical guidance for positioning a long term care facility. We conclude by providing an example application.

  10. How to improve long-term outcome after liver transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, François

    2018-02-01

    The outcome of liver transplantation has markedly improved in the last 3 decades. Although early post-transplantation outcomes have improved over time, this is not true of the long-term outcome. The majority of late deaths are not related to graft dysfunction, and with the advent of new antiviral agents, recurrence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C after transplantation may no longer represent a source of graft loss and patient's death in the long term. The complications of metabolic syndrome may represent an increasing source of morbidity and mortality after transplantation. This study discusses these modifiable factors associated with late mortality to improve the long-term results of transplantation. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Climate change and population dynamics at the tree line: the importance of long-term studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anfodillo T

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature-limited ecosystems are believed to be extremely sensitive to global warming and the upward treeline migration is one of the most relevant phenomenon. Long term monitoring of demographic trends appears essential in order to understand possible effects of higher temperatures on cold ecosystems. Long-term monitoring of natality and mortality of a Pinus sylvestris population in the Swedish Scandes from 1973 to 2005 (Kullman 2007 showed that number of trees increased in the study plots due to higher natality rate, especially in the last decade. This reverses a natural trend of treeline decline and recession occurred in the past.

  12. Long-term meditation is associated with increased gray matter density in the brain stem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter; Beek, Martijn van; Skewes, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    density in lower brain stem regions of experienced meditators compared with age-matched nonmeditators. Our findings show that long-term practitioners of meditation have structural differences in brainstem regions concerned with cardiorespiratory control. This could account for some......Extensive practice involving sustained attention can lead to changes in brain structure. Here, we report evidence of structural differences in the lower brainstem of participants engaged in the long-term practice of meditation. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we observed higher gray matter...

  13. Strategic implementation and accountability: the case of the long-term care alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Al; Elias, Maria; O'Neill, Bill; Yatabe, Karen

    2010-01-01

    A group of chief executives of long-term care homes formed an alliance in order to tap the resources residing within their management teams. Adopting a strategic implementation project based on a framework of accountability, the executives were able to better understand the uncertainties of the environment and potentially structure their strategic implementation to best use scarce resources. The framework of accountability allowed the homes to recognize the need for a strong business approach to long-term care. Communication improved throughout the organizations while systems and resources showed improved utilization. Quality became the driving force for all actions taken to move the organizations toward achieving their visions.

  14. Prediction of long-term prestress loss in concrete box girder bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seung Dae

    2009-01-01

    Post-tensioned cast-in-place concrete box girder bridges are the most popular type for new bridge construction in California since this class of bridges shows an increased ability to resist and dissipate seismic loads for long- span structures. However, due to the long-term behavior of the construction materials .i.e. concrete and steel, tension forces induced by prestressing decrease over time as a result of creep and shrinkage of concrete and steel relaxation, which is called long-term pres...

  15. Long-Term Stability of PEG-Based Antifouling Surfaces in a Marine Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noguer, Albert Camós; Kiil, Søren; Hvilsted, Søren

    The work presented here concerns the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to reduce marine biofouling on ship hulls. The long-term stability of PEG towards degradation in a marine environment is reviewed, and the results of experiments designed to test the degradation of polyethylene glycol moieties...... structure and the end-group on the degradation of different PEG-containing compounds in accelerated conditions, while showing very little degradation in real exposure tests in seawater after 3 months. Further experiments will be discussed involving long-term stability and degradation pathways involved...

  16. REGULAR REHEARSAL HELPS IN CONSOLIDATION OF LONG TERM MEMORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Parle

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Memory, one of the most complex functions of the brain comprises of multiple components such as perception, registration, consolidation, storage, retrieval and decay. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of different training sessions on the retention capacity of rats. The capacity of retention of learnt task was measured using exteroceptive behavioral models such as Hexagonal swimming pool apparatus, Hebb-Williams maze and Elevated plus-maze. A total of 150 rats divided into fifteen groups were employed in the present study. The animals were subjected to different training sessions during first three days. The ability to retain the learned task was tested after single, sub-acute, acute, sub-chronic and chronic exposure to above exteroceptive memory models in separate groups of animals. The memory score of all animals was recorded after 72 h, 192 h and 432 h of their last training trial. Rats of single exposure group did not show any effect on memory. Sub-acute training group animals showed improved memory up to 72 h only, where as in acute and sub-chronic training groups this memory improvement was extended up to 192 h. The rats, which were subjected to chronic exposures showed a significant improvement in retention capacity that lasted up to a period of eighteen days. These observations suggest that repeated rehearsals at regular intervals are probably necessary for consolidation of long-term memory. It was observed that sub-acute, acute and sub-chronic exposures, improved the retrieval ability of rats but this memory improving effect was short lived. Thus, rehearsal or training plays a crucial role in enhancing one's capacity of retaining the learnt information

  17. Subjective social status predicts long-term smoking abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cofta-Woerpel Ludmila

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between subjective social status (SSS, a person's perception of his/her relative position in the social hierarchy, and the ability to achieve long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between SSS and long-term smoking abstinence among 421 racially/ethnically diverse smokers undergoing a specific quit attempt, as well as the interactive effects of race/ethnicity and sex. Methods The main effects and moderated relationships of SSS on biochemically-confirmed, continuous smoking abstinence through 26 weeks post-quit were examined using continuation ratio logit models adjusted for sociodemographics and smoking characteristics. Results Even after adjusting for the influence of socioeconomic status and other covariates, smokers endorsing lower SSS were significantly less likely to maintain long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt than those with higher SSS (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.28; p = 0.044. The statistical significance of this relationship, however, did not vary by race/ethnicity or sex. Conclusions SSS independently predicts long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt. SSS may be a useful screener to identify smokers at elevated risk of relapse who may require additional attention to facilitate long-term abstinence. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying the relationship between SSS and long-term smoking abstinence in order to appropriately tailor treatment to facilitate abstinence among lower SSS smokers.

  18. Effects of Long-Term Ayahuasca Administration on Memory and Anxiety in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Vanessa Manchim; Yonamine, Maurício; Soares, Juliana Carlota Kramer; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage that combines the action of the 5-HT2A/2C agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from Psychotria viridis with the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) induced by beta-carbonyls from Banisteriopsis caapi. Previous investigations have highlighted the involvement of ayahuasca with the activation of brain regions known to be involved with episodic memory, contextual associations and emotional processing after ayahuasca ingestion. Moreover long term users show better performance in neuropsychological tests when tested in off-drug condition. This study evaluated the effects of long-term administration of ayahuasca on Morris water maze (MWM), fear conditioning and elevated plus maze (EPM) performance in rats. Behavior tests started 48h after the end of treatment. Freeze-dried ayahuasca doses of 120, 240 and 480 mg/kg were used, with water as the control. Long-term administration consisted of a daily oral dose for 30 days by gavage. The behavioral data indicated that long-term ayahuasca administration did not affect the performance of animals in MWM and EPM tasks. However the dose of 120 mg/kg increased the contextual conditioned fear response for both background and foreground fear conditioning. The tone conditioned response was not affected after long-term administration. In addition, the increase in the contextual fear response was maintained during the repeated sessions several weeks after training. Taken together, these data showed that long-term ayahuasca administration in rats can interfere with the contextual association of emotional events, which is in agreement with the fact that the beverage activates brain areas related to these processes.

  19. Effects of Long-Term Ayahuasca Administration on Memory and Anxiety in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Manchim Favaro

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage that combines the action of the 5-HT2A/2C agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT from Psychotria viridis with the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs induced by beta-carbonyls from Banisteriopsis caapi. Previous investigations have highlighted the involvement of ayahuasca with the activation of brain regions known to be involved with episodic memory, contextual associations and emotional processing after ayahuasca ingestion. Moreover long term users show better performance in neuropsychological tests when tested in off-drug condition. This study evaluated the effects of long-term administration of ayahuasca on Morris water maze (MWM, fear conditioning and elevated plus maze (EPM performance in rats. Behavior tests started 48h after the end of treatment. Freeze-dried ayahuasca doses of 120, 240 and 480 mg/kg were used, with water as the control. Long-term administration consisted of a daily oral dose for 30 days by gavage. The behavioral data indicated that long-term ayahuasca administration did not affect the performance of animals in MWM and EPM tasks. However the dose of 120 mg/kg increased the contextual conditioned fear response for both background and foreground fear conditioning. The tone conditioned response was not affected after long-term administration. In addition, the increase in the contextual fear response was maintained during the repeated sessions several weeks after training. Taken together, these data showed that long-term ayahuasca administration in rats can interfere with the contextual association of emotional events, which is in agreement with the fact that the beverage activates brain areas related to these processes.

  20. Long-term stability scintillation tiles for LHCb detector

    CERN Document Server

    Grinyov, B V; Khlapova, N P; Lebedev, V N; Melnychuk, S V; Senchyshyn, V G

    2004-01-01

    Accelerated thermal aging tests of materials-UPS-923A, UPS-96G, UPS-96GM and their analogues, SCSN-81 (Kuraray) and BC-408 (Bicron)- were made. A forecast of tile lifetime was made for normal conditions of usage (20% reduction of light output and 50% reduction of the bulk attenuation length (BAL) and technical attenuation length (TAL). Scintillator UPS-96GM has the most long-term stability of parameters- more than 11 yr. BC-408 samples have the minimum lifetime ~7 yr. The long-term stability, calculated by light yield reduction, of UPS-96G, UPS-923A and SCSN-81 is 10, 9 and 8 yr, respectively.

  1. Long-term stability scintillation tiles for LHCb detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinyov, B.V.; Khlapova, N.P.; Senchyshyn, V.G.; Lebedev, V.N.; Adadurov, A.F.; Melnychuk, S.V.

    2004-01-01

    Accelerated thermal aging tests of materials - UPS-923A, UPS-96G, UPS-96GM and their analogues, SCSN-81 (Kuraray) and BC-408 (Bicron) - were made. A forecast of tile lifetime was made for normal conditions of usage (20% reduction of light output and 50% reduction of the bulk attenuation length (BAL) and technical attenuation length (TAL). Scintillator UPS-96GM has the most long-term stability of parameters--more than 11 yr. BC-408 samples have the minimum lifetime ∼7 yr. The long-term stability, calculated by light yield reduction, of UPS-96G, UPS-923A and SCSN-81 is 10, 9 and 8 yr, respectively

  2. Long-term recurrence and death rates after acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Helle; Tønnesen, Hanne; Tønnesen, Maja Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare long-term recurrence and death rates after a first episode of acute pancreatitis in patients with and without gallstones. Additionally, it was of interest to find out if there were factors predictive of readmission or death.......The aim of this study was to compare long-term recurrence and death rates after a first episode of acute pancreatitis in patients with and without gallstones. Additionally, it was of interest to find out if there were factors predictive of readmission or death....

  3. On the long-term analysis with finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyris, J.H.; Szimmat, J.; Willam, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Following a presentation of concrete creep, a brief summary of the direct and incremental calculation methods on long-term behaviour is given. This is followed by a survey of the method of the inner state variables, which on the one hand gives a uniform framework for the various formulations of concrete creep, and on the other hand leads to a computer-ready calculation process. Two examples on long-term behaviour illustrate the regions of application of the computer methods. (orig./LH) [de

  4. Long-term creep test with finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyris, J.H.; Szimmat, J.; Willam, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Following a presentation of concrete creep, a brief summary of the direct and incremental calculation methods for long-term creep behaviour is given. In addition, a survey on the methods of the inner state variables is given which, on the one hand, gives a uniform framework for the various formulations of concrete creep, and on the other hand leads to a computable calculation method. Two examples on long-term creep behaviour illustrate the application field of the calculation method. (orig./LH) [de

  5. Long-term risks of kidney living donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggiore, Umberto; Budde, Klemens; Heemann, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Two recent matched cohort studies from the USA and Norway published in 2014 have raised some concerns related to the long-term safety of kidney living donation. Further studies on the long-term risks of living donation have since been published. In this position paper, Developing Education Science...... to the confounding effect related to a family history of renal disease. DESCARTES board members emphasize the importance of optimal risk–benefit assessment and proper information to the prospective donor, which should also include recommendations on health-promoting behaviour post-donation....

  6. General practitioners and long-term neurological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) can have a significant role to play in the management of individuals with long-term neurological conditions (LTNC). This paper looks at various roles and responsibilities of GPs in the management of these patients. This paper is based on a Medline literature search using the key words 'general practitioner;''rehabilitation;''long-term;' and 'neurological'. The findings are broadly divided into diagnostic, supportive and palliative roles. GPs have a lot to offer individuals with LTNC, but recent changes in the way they work, especially in the UK, may hamper their role.

  7. The Challenge of Long-Term Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselmann, K.; Latif, M.; Hooss, G.; Azar, C.; Edenhofer, O.; Jaeger, C. C.; Johannessen, O. M.; Kemfert, C.; Welp, M.; Wokaun, A.

    2003-12-01

    Climate policy needs to address the multidecadal to centennial time scale of climate change. Although the realization of short-term targets is an important first step, to be effective climate policies need to be conceived as long-term programs that will achieve a gradual transition to an essentially emission-free economy on the time scale of a century. This requires a considerably broader spectrum of policy measures than the primarily market-based instruments invoked for shorter term mitigation policies. A successful climate policy must consist of a dual approach focusing on both short-term targets and long-term goals.

  8. Mapping long-term wetland response to climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q.; Gallant, A.; Rover, J.

    2016-12-01

    Wetlands provide unique feeding and breeding habitat for numerous waterfowl species. The distribution of wetlands has been considerably changed due to agricultural land conversion and hydrologic modification. Climate change may further impact wetlands through altered moisture regimes. This study characterized long-term variation in wetland conditions by using dense time series from all available Landsat data from 1985 to 2014. We extracted harmonic frequencies from 30 years to two years to delineate the long-term variation in all seven Landsat bands. A cluster analysis and unsupervised classification then enabled us to map different classes of wetland response. We demonstrated the method in the Prairie Pothole Region in North Dakota.

  9. A NOVEL APPROACH FOR LONG TERM SOLAR RADIATION PREDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Khanna

    2018-10-01

    Full Text Available With present stress, being laid on green energy worldwide, harnessing solar energy for commercial use has importance in sizing and long-term prediction of solar radiation. However, with continuous changing environment parameters, it is quite difficult for long-term prediction of solar radiation. In the past research scholars, have carried out solar prediction only for a few days, which is insufficient to exploit the radiation for sizing and harnessing the solar energy for commercial use. To overcome this gap, present work utilizes application of lifting wavelet transform along with ANFIS to predict the radiation for long duration.

  10. Long-term outcome in patients with juvenile dermatomyositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, P; Hegaard, H; Herlin, Troels

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate a group of 53 patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), on average 13.9 years after disease onset, in order to describe the long-term disease outcome and to identify disease-related parameters associated with poor disease outcome.......To evaluate a group of 53 patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), on average 13.9 years after disease onset, in order to describe the long-term disease outcome and to identify disease-related parameters associated with poor disease outcome....

  11. Towards The Long-Term Preservation of Building Information Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beetz, Jacob; Dietze, Stefan; Berndt, René

    2013-01-01

    primarily been on textual and audio-visual media types. With the recent paradigm shift in architecture and construction from analog 2D plans and scale models to digital 3D information models of buildings, long-term preservation efforts must turn their attention to this new type of data. Currently......, no existing approach is able to provide a secure and efficient long-term preservation solution covering the broad spectrum of 3D architectural data, while at the same time taking into account the demands of institutional collectors like architecture libraries and archives as well as those of the private...

  12. A multifunctional three-fold interpenetrated coordination polymer showing excellent luminescent sensing for Cr(VI)/ Fe(III) and photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zheng; Wang, Mei; Xu, Cun-gang; Zong, Zi-ao; Zhang, Dong-mei; Bi, Shuang-yu; Fan, Yu-hua

    2017-12-01

    A three-fold interpenetrated coordination polymer [Cd2(L)(bibp)3]n (1) (H4L = 5,5‧-(1,4-phenylenebis(methoxy))diisophthalic acid, bibp = 4,4'-bis(imidazolyl)biphenyl) has been rationally constructed, successfully solvothermally synthesized and fully characterized. Complex 1 shows a 3D three-fold interpenetrated novel topological framework with the point symbol (4. 69)2(42. 62. 7. 8), and represents a variety of potential applications. Luminescence studies demonstrate that 1 has high selectivity and sensitivity for pollutant Cr(VI) (CrO42- and Cr2O72-) anion and Fe(III) cation; Photocatalytic studies show that 1 exhibits great degradation activity of three organic dyes (methylene blue (MB), Rhodamine B (RhB) and MalachiteGreen oxalate (MGO)). Furthermore, the possible mechanisms of the luminescent quench and photocatalytic properties have been deduced.

  13. Long term patient satisfaction and quality of life with AMS700CX inflatable penile prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vitarelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Penile prosthesis implantation is the solution of choice in patients who have failed or present contraindication to the use of all conservative treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED. Overall, satisfaction rates are high, with more than 80% of patients and partners fully satisfied with cosmetic and functional result of surgery. Chronic postoperative pain, penile shortening, soft or hyposensitive glans, pencil like penis syndrome and difficulty to cycle the device represent the most common causes of patient’s dissatisfaction. Satisfaction rates are better assessed with the use of validated questionnaires such as the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF and the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS The aim of our study was to analyze the long-term mechanical reliability of the AMS 700CX/CXM inflatable penile prosthesis and the patient’s satisfaction rate using IIEF and EDITS questionaire as standard reference. Materials and methods: A retrospective case notes review of all patients who have undergone implantation of a three pieces inflatable penile prosthesis AMS 700 CX and CXR between October 1997 and December 2010. Overall, 80 patients have undergone implantation of 3 pieces inflatable penile prosthesis AMS 700 CX InhibiZone. Patients have been administered the IIEF-5 and EDITS questionnaires in combination with a non validated 9 domain questionnaire that assesses penile rigidity, sensation, orgasmic function, frequency of intercourse, impact of surgery on the quality of life, satisfaction rate. Results: Overall 10 years survival estimate according to the Kaplan Meier method of AMS 700 CX touch pump and AMS 700 CX momentary squeeze pump are respectively 77.6% and 82.5%. The median postoperative IIEF5 and EDITS score were respectively 21.46 and 73.11, which show a high level of satisfaction. 59 patients (90.8% were able to cycle the device and were engaging in penetrative sexual intercourse

  14. Long-Term Outcomes After Proton Beam Therapy for Sinonasal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Andrea L.; Adams, Judith A.; Weyman, Elizabeth A.; Busse, Paul M.; Goldberg, Saveli I. [Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Varvares, Mark; Deschler, Daniel D.; Lin, Derrick T. [Head and Neck Surgical Oncology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Delaney, Thomas F. [Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chan, Annie W., E-mail: awchan@partners.org [Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common sinonasal cancer and is associated with one of the poor outcomes. Proton therapy allows excellent target coverage with maximal sparing of adjacent normal tissues. We evaluated the long-term outcomes in patients with sinonasal SCC treated with proton therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2008, 54 patients with Stage III and IV SCC of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus received proton beam therapy at our institution to a median dose of 72.8 Gy(RBE). Sixty-nine percent underwent prior surgical resection, and 74% received elective nodal radiation. Locoregional control and survival probabilities were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional-hazards model. Treatment toxicity was scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Results: With a median follow-up time of 82 months in surviving patients, there were 10 local, 7 regional, and 11 distant failures. The 2-year and 5-year actuarial local control rate was 80%. The 2-year and 5-year rates of overall survival were 67% and 47%, respectively. Only smoking status was predictive for worse locoregional control, with current smokers having a 5-year rate of 23% compared with 83% for noncurrent smokers (P=.004). Karnofsky performance status ≤80 was the most significant factor predictive for worse overall survival in multivariate analysis (adjusted hazard ratio 4.5, 95% confidence interval 1.6-12.5, P=.004). There were nine grade 3 and six grade 4 toxicities, and no grade 5 toxicity. Wound adverse events constituted the most common grade 3-4 toxicity. Conclusions: Our long-term results show that proton radiation therapy is well tolerated and yields good locoregional control for SCC of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus. Current smokers and patients with poor performance status had inferior outcomes. Prospective study is necessary to compare IMRT with proton

  15. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged...

  16. Diagnosis, treatment and long-term outcome in fetal hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Mami; Nonaka, Masahiro; Bamba, Yohei; Teramoto, Chika; Ban, Chiaki; Pooh, Ritsuko

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the method of prenatally estimating an appropriate clinical outcome in fetal hydrocephalus. Retrospective study, single institute (Osaka National Hospital). Hundred and seventeen cases with fetal hydrocephalus treated at Osaka National Hospital from 1992 to 2010 were analysed. Of the 117 cases analysed, 38% are diagnosed as isolated ventriculomegaly (IVM), 51% as other types of malformation (30 cases of myelomeningocele, 4 cases of holoprosencephaly, 4 of Dandy Walker syndrome, 10 of arachnoid cyst and 6 of encephalocele etc.) and 11% as secondary hydrocephalus. They are diagnosed between 17 and 40 weeks of gestation (average 27 weeks), 17% diagnosed between 17 and 21 weeks, 30% between 22 and 27 weeks and 53% after 28 weeks. With the exception of 9 aborted cases and 30 unknown cases too young to be evaluated or lost due to lack of follow-up, final outcome was analyzed in 78 cases. Of these 78 cases, 15% died in utero or after birth, 23% showed severe retardation, 17% moderate retardation, 26% mild retardation, and 19% showed good outcome. Long term consequences were mostly influenced by basic disease and accompanied anomalies. Hydrocephalus associated with arachnoid cyst, atresia of Monro, corpus callosum agenesis and hydrocephalus due to fetal intracranial hemorrhage are categorized in the good outcome group. On the other hand, holoprosencephaly, hydrocephalus associated with encephalocele, syndromic hydrocephalus and hydrocephalus due to fetal virus infection are categorized in the poor outcome group. In order to accurate diagnosis and proper counseling, establishment of diagnosis protocol and treatment policy for fetal hydrocephalus including not only fetal sonography, fetal MRI, toxoplasma, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex (TORCH) screening test but also chromosomal and gene testing is required. (author)

  17. Long-term liposteroid therapy for idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Takehiko; Ohga, Shouichi; Ishimura, Masataka; Takada, Hidetoshi; Ishii, Kanako; Ihara, Kenji; Nagai, Hideyuki; Hara, Toshiro

    2013-11-01

    Control of refractory bleeding in idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is challenging. Based on the effect of liposteroid (dexamethasone palmitate) for acute bleeding in two reported cases, the long-term utility was assessed in all nine IPH children (including the first two cases) treated in a tertiary center for 20 years. The median at disease onset was 2.3 years (range, 1.2 to 8.6). All had life-threatening and/or repetitive bleeding on prednisolone (PSL) therapy. Liposteroid was intravenously infused at 0.8 mg/kg/day for three consecutive days at the time of acute bleeding. Single infusion was followed by a longer interval from weekly to monthly accompanied by low-dose PSL (less than 0.3 mg/kg/day). Monthly infusion as maintenance therapy was continued for prophylaxis of bleeding. Treatment outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. During the observation period of a median of 11.0 years (range 2.4-16.9 years), no one died. Five patients were weaned and the other one was being weaned from liposteroid for the cure or long remission (median, 5.5 years). Three others were on liposteroid therapy because of active disease. Neither patient had respiratory symptoms, although three showed subnormal %vital capacity. Serum levels of KL-6 and ferritin were normal in all and all but one patient(s), respectively. Four patients (three on liposteroid therapy) showed low bone mineral density. There were no obese patients. Height SD score did not significantly decrease except for one patient. The liposteroid therapy might improve the survival of IPH patients with reducing the adverse effects of steroids, although prospective control studies are needed.

  18. Topographic evolution of orogens: The long term perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Jörg; Hergarten, Stefan; Prasicek, Günther

    2017-04-01

    The landscape of mountain ranges reflects the competition of tectonics and climate, that build up and destroy topography, respectively. While there is a broad consensus on the acting processes, there is a vital debate whether the topography of individual orogens reflects stages of growth, steady-state or decay. This debate is fuelled by the million-year time scales hampering direct observations on landscape evolution in mountain ranges, the superposition of various process patterns and the complex interactions among different processes. In this presentation we focus on orogen-scale landscape evolution based on time-dependent numerical models and explore model time series to constrain the development of mountain range topography during an orogenic cycle. The erosional long term response of rivers and hillslopes to uplift can be mathematically formalised by the stream power and mass diffusion equations, respectively, which enables us to describe the time-dependent evolution of topography in orogens. Based on a simple one-dimensional model consisting of two rivers separated by a watershed we explain the influence of uplift rate and rock erodibility on steady-state channel profiles and show the time-dependent development of the channel - drainage divide system. The effect of dynamic drainage network reorganization adds additional complexity and its effect on topography is explored on the basis of two-dimensional models. Further complexity is introduced by coupling a mechanical model (thin viscous sheet approach) describing continental collision, crustal thickening and topography formation with a stream power-based landscape evolution model. Model time series show the impact of crustal deformation on drainage networks and consequently on the evolution of mountain range topography (Robl et al., in review). All model outcomes, from simple one-dimensional to coupled two dimensional models are presented as movies featuring a high spatial and temporal resolution. Robl, J., S

  19. Effect of a Long Term Treatment by Algerian Propolis Flavonoids on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our study carried out in vivo, using liver mitochondria isolated from albinos rats, treats the effect of a long term treatment by Algerian propolis ethanolic extract and their flavonic aglycones and glycosides to the amount of 100 mg/kg on mitochondrial antioxidant-prooxidant balance. Our results showed that all extracts ...

  20. Long-term effects of climate change on Europe's water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domnisoru, A.

    2006-01-01

    Climate variations from last century show a global warming trend. Evidence from the past reveals that the anthropogenic greenhouse effect caused changes in climate parameters (temperature, precipitation and evaporation) at the European scale as well. On long-term this might have essential impact on

  1. Long-Term Trends in Calcifying Plankton and pH in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beare, D.J.; McQuatters-Gollop, A.; Hammen, van der T.; Machiels, M.A.M.; Teoh, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between six calcifying plankton groups and pH are explored in a highly biologically productive and data-rich area of the central North Sea using time-series datasets. The long-term trends show that abundances of foraminiferans, coccolithophores, and echinoderm larvae have risen over

  2. Long-term health effects on the next generation of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, R.

    2009-01-01

    Each year, many pregnant women fast from dawn to sunset during the Islamic holy month of Ramadan. Medical theory suggests that this may have negative long-term health effects on their offspring. Building upon the work of Almond and Mazumder (2008), and using Indonesian crosssectional data, I show

  3. Enhanced AMPA receptor function promotes cerebellar long-term depression rather than potentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J. van Beugen (Boeke); X. Qiao (Xin); D.H. Simmons (Dana H.); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris); C.R.W. Hansel (Christian)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAmpakines are allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors that facilitate hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and learning, and have been considered for the treatment of cognition and memory deficits. Here, we show that the ampakine CX546 raises the amplitude and slows the decay time of

  4. Enhanced AMPA Receptor Function Promotes Cerebellar Long-Term Depression Rather than Potentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beugen, Boeke J.; Qiao, Xin; Simmons, Dana H.; De Zeeuw, Chris I.; Hansel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Ampakines are allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors that facilitate hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and learning, and have been considered for the treatment of cognition and memory deficits. Here, we show that the ampakine CX546 raises the amplitude and slows the decay time of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) at cerebellar…

  5. The Long-Term Effects of Childhood Music Instruction on Intelligence and General Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews research on the effects of music instruction on general cognitive abilities. The review of more than 75 reports shows (1) the consistency in results pertaining to the short-term effects of music instruction on cognitive abilities and the lack of clear evidence on the long-term effects on intelligence; (2) the complex nature of…

  6. Enhanced AMPA receptor function promotes cerebellar long-term depression rather than potentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beugen, Boeke J; Qiao, Xin; Simmons, Dana H; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Hansel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Ampakines are allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors that facilitate hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and learning, and have been considered for the treatment of cognition and memory deficits. Here, we show that the ampakine CX546 raises the amplitude and slows the decay time of excitatory

  7. Long-Term Memory for Music: Infants Remember Tempo and Timbre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Laurel J.; Wu, Luann; Tsang, Christine D.

    2004-01-01

    We show that infants' long-term memory representations for melodies are not just reduced to the structural features of relative pitches and durations, but contain surface or performance tempo- and timbre-specific information. Using a head turn preference procedure, we found that after a one week exposure to an old English folk song, infants…

  8. Long-Term Visuo-Gustatory Appetitive and Aversive Conditioning Potentiate Human Visual Evoked Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Gert Rene Juul; Laugesen, Jakob Lund; Møller, Per

    2017-01-01

    cortical regions—from primary visual areas and into the inferior temporal gyrus (ITG). These learning-induced changes were seen after both appetitive and aversive training while a sham trained control group showed no changes. It is concluded that long-term visuo-gustatory conditioning potentiated the N2-P3...

  9. Decadal and long-term sea level variability in the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nidheesh, A.G.; Lengaigne, M.; Vialard, J.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Dayan, H.

    and in the Bay of Bengal are weakly correlated to variability in the Pacific Ocean. Even though the wind variability is coherent among various wind products at decadal timescales, they show a large contrast in long-term wind stress changes, suggesting that long...

  10. Diabetes incidence and long-term exposure to air pollution: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Ketzel, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Animal and cross-sectional epidemiological studies suggest a link between air pollution and diabetes, whereas the limited prospective data show mixed results. We studied the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and incidence of diabetes....

  11. The long-term effect of the timing of fertility decline on population size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Neill, BC; Scherbov, S; Lutz, W

    1999-01-01

    Existing long-range population projections imply that the timing of the fertility transition has a relatively unimportant effect on long-term population size when compared with the impact of the level at which fertility is assumed eventually to stabilize. However, this note shows that the effect of

  12. Bilateral high frequency subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease: long-term neurological follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romito, L. M.; Scerrati, M.; Contarino, M. F.; Iacoangeli, M.; Bentivoglio, A. R.; Albanese, A.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: High frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is gaining recognition as a new symptomatic treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). The first available long-term observations show the stability of the efficacy of this procedure in time. METHODS: Quadripolar leads were implanted

  13. Tree ring imprints of long-term changes in climate in western ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-10-26

    Oct 26, 2009 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 34; Issue 5. Tree ring imprints of long-term changes in climate in western Himalaya, Indi. R R Yadav ... Tree-ring analyses from semi-arid to arid regions in western Himalaya show immense potential for developing millennia long climate records. Millennium ...

  14. Excel simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Verschuuren, Gerard M

    2013-01-01

    Covering a variety of Excel simulations, from gambling to genetics, this introduction is for people interested in modeling future events, without the cost of an expensive textbook. The simulations covered offer a fun alternative to the usual Excel topics and include situations such as roulette, password cracking, sex determination, population growth, and traffic patterns, among many others.

  15. [Diseases requiring severe-level care certification for long-term care insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kyoko; Tsukishima, Eri

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Extending health expectancy is important; however, health and welfare programs in local areas and communities present their own issues. This study aimed to identify main diseases requiring severe-level care certification for long-term care insurance based on information gathered from opinion papers prepared by primary doctors.Methods Data were obtained for 4,089 patients aged ≧65 years who were certified for long-term care insurance for the first time between April 1, 2013, and March 31, 2015. Their disorders were categorized into the groups used in the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions long-term care questionnaire. The subjects were categorized into "mild" and "severe" groups according to their long-term care insurance levels. Subjects in the severe group were long-term care insurance levels 2-5. The associations with diseases in the two groups were examined using chi-square tests according to gender. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted for those diseases which showed significant associations by chi-square test for the dependent variables after adjusting for age.Results Malignancy was the most frequent disorder in men, whereas joint disease was most frequent in mild group women. In men, there was a significant difference in the frequency of diseases between the mild and severe groups for stroke (Pinsurance, while joint disease and hypertension were negatively associated. In women, stroke, malignancy, dementia, and Parkinson's disease were significantly associated with severe long-term care insurance level, while joint disease and hypertension were negatively associated.Conclusion The main diseases requiring severe-level care in both men and women were stroke and malignancy. These diseases occurred in large numbers among those less than 74 years of age. This finding suggests the importance of preventing lifestyle-related diseases before the age of 65 years in order to avoid requiring nursing care.

  16. Long-term urban particulate air pollution, traffic noise, and arterial blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuks, Kateryna; Moebus, Susanne; Hertel, Sabine; Viehmann, Anja; Nonnemacher, Michael; Dragano, Nico; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Jakobs, Hermann; Kessler, Christoph; Erbel, Raimund; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have shown an association of short-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) with transient increases in blood pressure (BP), but it is unclear whether long-term exposure has an effect on arterial BP and hypertension. We investigated the cross-sectional association of residential long-term PM exposure with arterial BP and hypertension, taking short-term variations of PM and long-term road traffic noise exposure into account. We used baseline data (2000-2003) on 4,291 participants, 45-75 years of age, from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, a population-based prospective cohort in Germany. Urban background exposure to PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) and ≤ 10 μm (PM(10)) was assessed with a dispersion and chemistry transport model. We used generalized additive models, adjusting for short-term PM, meteorology, traffic proximity, and individual risk factors. An interquartile increase in PM2.5 (2.4 μg/m(3)) was associated with estimated increases in mean systolic and diastolic BP of 1.4 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.5, 2.3] and 0.9 mmHg (95% CI: 0.4, 1.4), respectively. The observed relationship was independent of long-term exposure to road traffic noise and robust to the inclusion of many potential confounders. Residential proximity to high traffic and traffic noise exposure showed a tendency toward higher BP and an elevated prevalence of hypertension. We found an association of long-term exposure to PM with increased arterial BP in a population-based sample. This finding supports our hypothesis that long-term PM exposure may promote atherosclerosis, with air-pollution-induced increases in BP being one possible biological pathway.

  17. Constitutive relation for rheological processes with known loading history. Creep and long-term strength curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlov, A. V.

    2008-04-01

    In the present paper, we propose and study a nonlinear constitutive relation for describing the one-dimensional isothermal rheological processes with monotone loading history in viscoelastoplastic materials. This relation presents the strain at any time moment in terms of the history of variations in the stress and its derivative by means of two integral operators and contains two material functions of the same real argument and ten material parameters determined by the results of tests on material creeping, long-term strength, and strain at a constant loading rate. Under minimal a priori restrictions on the material parameters of the model, we derive the equations of strain, creep, relaxation, and long-term strength curves, analytically study the dependencies of their properties on parameters, and find necessary restrictions on the material parameters and functions ensuring an adequate description of the mechanical behavior of materials (the typical qualitative properties of experimental strain, creep, relaxation, and long-term strength curves). To model the long-term strength in creeping, we propose two parametric families of fracture criteria under monotone uniaxial strain, which are related to the strain criterion but take into account the history of the strain increase by means of special integral operators relating this history to the damage measure. We prove that the constitutive relation thus constructed, along with the proposed fracture criteria, leads to theoretical long-term strength curves with the same qualitative properties as the experimental curves of a majority of metals. Thus, an analysis of the properties of the proposed constitutive relation shows that it allows one to perform an adequate simulation not only of several effects of rheological behavior of viscoelastoplastic materials but of the entire complex of effects such as the strain dependence on the stress and the stress rate, relaxation, creeping, the creep rate dependence on the stress

  18. Long-term observations of operated and irradiated breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker-Mroz, G.; Schroeder, R.

    1983-01-01

    498 patients with histologically established and surgically removed breast carcinomas received post-operative irradiation treatment at Moabit hospital, Berlin, between 1965 and 1975. The long-term results of this largely standardized therapy have been compiled and evaluated. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Long-term followup of hypospadias: functional and cosmetic results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rynja, Sybren P.; Wouters, Gerlof A.; van Schaijk, Maaike; Kok, Esther T.; de Jong, Tom P.; de Kort, Laetitia M.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed long-term results after hypospadias surgery with respect to urinary and sexual function, cosmetic appearance and intimate relationships. We contacted 116 patients who are now adults and who underwent surgery between 1987 and 1992. Participation included mailed questionnaires containing

  20. Long-term outcomes of young people who attempted suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grisham, Jessica R; Williams, Alishia D

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Suicidal behavior has increased since the onset of the global recession, a trend that may have long-term health and social implications. OBJECTIVE To test whether suicide attempts among young people signal increased risk for later poor health and social functioning above and beyond a

  1. Long-Term Outcome in Guillain-Barre Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The long-term sequelae and early predictors of sequelae were determined in a chart review of 47 children with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS of whom 30 had been treated with intravenous gammaglobulin (IVIG at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.

  2. Subintimal angioplasty: predictors of long-term success.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Aoife N

    2009-08-01

    To determine the clinical outcomes and success rates after percutaneous subintimal angioplasty (SIA) in patients with lower-limb occlusive lesions causing intermittent claudication (IC) or critical limb ischemia (CLI) at midterm to long-term follow-up. The secondary aim was to elicit factors predictive of a successful outcome.

  3. Long-Term Effects of a Psycholinguistic Treatment for Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijms, Jurgen; Hoeks, Jan J. W. M.; Paulussen-Hoogeboom, Marja C.; Smolenaars, Anton J.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates short- and long-term effects of a treatment for dyslexia. Notes that the treatment focuses on learning to recognize and to make use of the phonological and morphological structure of Dutch words. Finds that the results of the treatment were clear improvements in reading words, reading text and spelling. (SG)

  4. Long-term hepatotoxicity and hypoglycaemic study of Aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of Carica papaya extracts as an anti-diabetic remedy in Nigeria is well documented. Since these extracts are usually taken for long periods of time, it is important to assess their long term biochemical effects so as to ascertain their safety. In this study, the effects of aqueous extracts of C. papaya leaves, orally ...

  5. Long term nitrogen and phosphorus application to veld. | Donaldson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The long term effects of a 5N x 3P factorial fertiliser application trial on hay yield, botanical composition and soil properties of veld are presented. Significant increases in hay yields were recorded during most years. There was a strong correlation (r = 0,757) between mean (over all 15 treatment combinations) annual hay ...

  6. The long-term consequences of anaesthetic management | Sessler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, it is reasonable to ask to what extent anaesthetic management might influence long-term outcomes. The distinction being made here is between the classical definition of anaesthetic complications, which is restricted to the immediate perioperative period, perhaps extending to a few days after surgery, and the ...

  7. Universal Preschool Programs and Long-Term Child Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens; Kristiansen, Ida Lykke; Viinholt Nielsen, Bjørn Christian

    2018-01-01

    This systematic review included 25 studies using natural experiments to estimate the effects of universal preschool programs for children aged 0-6 years on child outcomes measured from third grade to adulthood. Studies comparing preschool with parental, family, or other informal modes of care...... alternative types of universal preschool programs in terms of long-term outcomes....

  8. Long-Term Adaptation to Institutionalization in Dementia Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaugler, Joseph E.; Pot, Anne Margriet; Zarit, Steven H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Longitudinal research in dementia has acknowledged the importance of transitions during the course of family caregiving. However, long-term adaptation to institutionalization has received little attention. This study attempts to describe caregivers' adaptation (changes in stress, well-being, and psychosocial resources) to placement up to…

  9. Archiving primary data : Solutions for long-term studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, James A.; Teplitsky, Celine; Arroyo, Beatriz; Charmantier, Anne; Becker, Peter. H.; Birkhead, Tim R.; Bize, Pierre; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Bonenfant, Christophe; Boutin, Stan; Bushuev, Andrey; Cam, Emmanuelle; Cockburn, Andrew; Cote, Steeve D.; Coulson, John C.; Daunt, Francis; Dingemanse, Niels J.; Doligez, Blandine; Drummond, Hugh; Espie, Richard H. M.; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Frentiu, Francesca; Fitzpatrick, John W.; Furness, Robert W.; Garant, Dany; Gauthier, Gilles; Grant, Peter R.; Griesser, Michael; Gustafsson, Lars; Hansson, Bengt; Harris, Michael P.; Jiguet, Frederic; Kjellander, Petter; Korpimaki, Erkki; Krebs, Charles J.; Lens, Luc; Linne, John D. C.; Low, Matthew; McAdam, Andrew; Margalida, Antoni; Merila, Juha; Moller, Anders P.; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nilsson, Jan-Ake; Nisbet, Ian C. T.; van Noordwijk, Arie J.; Oro, Daniel; Part, Tomas; Pelletier, Fanie; Potti, Jaime; Pujol, Benoit; Reale, Denis; Rockwel, Robert F.; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Roulin, Alexandre; Sedinger, James S.; Swenson, Jon E.; Thebaud, Christophe; Visser, Marcel E.; Wanless, Sarah; Westneat, David F.; Wilson, Alastair J.; Zedrosser, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The recent trend for journals to require open access to primary data included in publications has been embraced by many biologists, but has caused apprehension amongst researchers engaged in long-term ecological and evolutionary studies. A worldwide survey of 73 principal investigators (PIs) with

  10. Input reduction for long-term morphodynamic simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, D.J.R.; Ruessink, G.; Hoekstra, R.; Tonnon, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Input reduction is imperative to long-term (> years) morphodynamic simulations to avoid excessive computation times. Here, we discuss the input-reduction framework for wave-dominated coastal settings introduced by Walstra et al. (2013). The framework comprised 4 steps, viz. (1) the selection of the

  11. LONG-TERM EFFICACY OF MACROPLASTIQUE INJECTION FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective To evaluate the long-term efficacy of endoscopic injection of Macroplastique (Polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS)in male and female urinary incontinence (UI). Patients and Methods A total of 87 patients with different causes of urinary incontinence have been treated by endoscopic injection of PDMS at our department ...

  12. Long-term human-robot interaction with young users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baxter, P.; Belpaeme, T.; Canamero, L.; Cosi, P.; Demiris, Y.; Enescu, V.; Et al.

    2011-01-01

    Artificial companion agents have the potential to combine novel means for effective health communication with young patients support and entertainment. However, the theory and practice of long-term child-robot interaction is currently an underdeveloped area of research. This paper introduces an

  13. The Long-Term Effects of Youth Unemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Thomas A.; Savage, Timothy H.

    2006-01-01

    Using NLSY data, we examine the long-term effects of youth unemployment on later labor market outcomes. Involuntary unemployment may yield suboptimal investments in human capital in the short run. A theoretical model of dynamic human capital investment predicts a rational "catch-up" response. Using semiparametric techniques to control for the…

  14. Long-term implant performance and patients' satisfaction in oligodontia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filius, Marieke A. P.; Vissink, Arjan; Cune, Marco S.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Visser, Anita

    Objectives: To assess long-term (>= 10 years) implant survival, peri-implant health, patients' satisfaction and oral health related quality of life (OHQoL) in oligodontia patients rehabilitated with implant-based fixed prosthodontics. Methods: All oligodontia patients treated >= 10 years previously

  15. Areas of Marital Dissatisfaction among Long-Term Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duba, Jill D.; Hughey, Aaron W.; Lara, Tracy; Burke, Monica G.

    2012-01-01

    To better understand relational dissatisfaction and duration of long-term married couples, this study surveyed 30 couples married at least 40 years with the Marital Satisfaction Inventory. Findings suggest various areas of dissatisfaction (e.g., affective communication, conflict over child rearing) and relationship among and link to other areas of…

  16. Long-Term Mean Wind Profiles Based on Similarity Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Mark C.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2010-01-01

    We provide general forms for long-term mean wind profiles from similarity-based wind profiles, beginning with a probabilistic adaptation of Monin–Obukhov similarity theory. We develop an analytical formulation for the stability distributions prevailing in the atmospheric surface layer, which...

  17. A cross cultural comparison of long-term supply relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Gjalt de; Nooteboom, Bart

    2003-01-01

    This paper challenges the received view that long-term supply relationships are a typically Japanese feature, embedded and developed in a typically Japanese society characterized by high levels of trust and cooperation, and for that reason cannot be established in the typically a-cooperative,

  18. Long-term changes and trends in the lower ionosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 27, - (2002), s. 497-507 ISSN 1474-7065 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3042101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : lower ionosphere * long-term trends Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  19. Investment in Skills Must Be for the Long Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980s, researchers have formed a much better understanding of how unemployment scars people's lives, not just in the short term, but sometimes for years ahead. Researchers differ on the details, but no one disagrees that the negative effects are serious and long term. In the recession of the 1980s, government schemes to improve people's…

  20. Long-term prevention of diabetic nephropathy: an audit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoedt, K.J.; Hansen, H.P.; Tarnow, L.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In type 1 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria not receiving antihypertensive treatment, an increase in urinary AER (UAER) of 6-14%/year and a risk of developing diabetic nephropathy (DN) of 3-30%/year have been reported. We audited the long-term effect of blocking the renin...

  1. Long-term monitoring of the HPC Charenton Canal Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    The report contains long-term monitoring data collection and analysis of the first fully high : performance concrete (HPC) bridge in Louisiana, the Charenton Canal Bridge. The design of this : bridge started in 1997, and it was built and opened to tr...

  2. Long term performance evaluation of the TACTIC imaging telescope ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Although we used Crab Nebula data partially, in some of the reported results, primarily for testing the validity of the full data analysis chain, the main aim of this work is to study the long term performance of the TACTIC telescope by using consolidated data collected between 2003 and 2010. The total on-source data, ...

  3. Long-term outcomes of an urban farming internship program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Falxa Sonti; Lindsay Campbell; Michelle Johnson; S. Daftary-Steel

    2016-01-01

    Long-term impacts of an urban farming youth internship were evaluated in Brooklyn, New York. Alumni surveyed 1 to 9 years after program completion were enrolled in college or graduate school at higher rates than their peers and reported connections to the environment and healthy eating. Participants reported learning job skills through the internship, including farming...

  4. Medium and long-term perspectives of international bioenergy trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranzl, Lukas; Daioglou, Vasileios; Faaij, Andre; Junginger, Martin; Keramidas, Kimon; Matzenberger, Julian; Tromborg, Erik

    2014-01-01

    In the coming decades, huge challenges in the global energy system are expected. Scenarios indicate that bioenergy will play a substantial role in this process. However, up to now there is very limited insight regarding the implication this may have on bioenergy trade in the long term. The

  5. Spent fuel, plutonium and nuclear waste: long-term management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, G.

    1998-11-01

    Different options for the management of nuclear waste arising from the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. Special emphasis is on reprocessing followed by geological disposal, geological disposal of reprocessing waste, direct geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel, long term storage. Particular emphasis is on the management of plutonium including recycling, immobilisation and disposal, partitioning and transmutation

  6. Long-Term Forest Hydrologic Monitoring in Coastal Carolinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Ge Sun; Carl C. Trettin; R. Wayne Skaggs

    2003-01-01

    Long-term hydrologic data are essential for understanding the hydrologic processes, as base line data for assessment of impacts and conservation of regional ecosystems, and for developing and testing eco-hydrological models. This study presents 6-year (1996-2001) of rainfall, water table and outflow data from a USDA Forest Service coastal experimental watershed on a...

  7. Recognition of ships for long-term tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, S.P. van den; Bouma, H.; Veerman, H.E.T.; Benoist, K.W.; Hollander, R.J.M. den; Schwering, P.B.W.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term tracking is important for maritime situational awareness to identify currently observed ships as earlier encounters. In cases of, for example, piracy and smuggling, past location and behavior analysis are useful to determine whether a ship is of interest. Furthermore, it is beneficial to

  8. Long term agro-ecosystem research: The Southern Plains partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is coordinating ten well-established research sites as a Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network. The goal of the LTAR is to sustain a land-based infrastructure for research, environmental management testing, and education, that enables understan...

  9. Are long-term bisphosphonate users a reality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of long-term bisphosphonate use may be low due to low refill compliance and gaps in treatment. An analysis of the prescription history of 58,674 bisphosphonate users in Denmark found that only 2.8 % had received ten dose years of treatment or above. INTRODUCTION: This study aims...... to describe the demographics of present bisphosphonate (BP) users, to determine the prevalence of long-term BP use, and to establish if long-term use (a 10-year history of osteoporosis treatment) translated to ten dose years of bisphosphonate prescriptions filled, given the propensity for treatment gaps...... more than ten dose years of a BP. For any osteoporosis drug, 3.0 % had received ten dose years or more, while 23.2 % had received between 5 and 10 years of treatment. CONCLUSION: Long-term users with ten dose years or more of a BP are rare due to periods of low compliance and gaps, with a discrepancy...

  10. Gap filling strategies for long term energy flux data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falge, E.; Baldocchi, D.; Olson, R.; Anthoni, P.; Aubinet, M.; Bernhofer, C.; Burba, G.; Ceulemans, R.; Clement, R.; Dolman, H.; Granier, A.; Gross, P.; Grünwald, T.; Hollinger, D.; Jensen, N.O.; Katul, G.; Keronen, P.; Kowalski, A.; Lai, C.T.; Law, B.E.; Meyers, T.; Moncrieff, J.; Moors, E.J.; Munger, J.W.; Pilegaard, K.; Rebmann, C.; Suyker, A.; Tenhunen, J.; Tu, K.

    2001-01-01

    At present a network of over 100 field sites are measuring carbon dioxide, water vapor and sensible heat fluxes between the biosphere and atmosphere, on a nearly continuous basis. Gaps in the long term measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux must be filled before these data can be used

  11. Histological effects of long term administration of piliostigma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological effects of long term administration of piliostigma thonningii stem bark on the liver of adult Wistar rats. ... Anatomy Journal of Africa ... by cervical dislocation on the twenty nine day of the experiment and the liver was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for further routine histological study.

  12. Long-term persistence of de Brazza's Monkey ( Cercopithecus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-term persistence of de Brazza's Monkey (Cercopithecus Neglectus) in a Kenyan Forest Fragment. Faith M Walker, Nixon K Sajita. Abstract. Tropical forests are at the forefront of species-extinction crises as a consequence of widespread habitat loss and alteration. Knowledge of how populations respond to a particular ...

  13. Long-term protection of hepatitis B vaccination among Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis B Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Objective: to detect the long-term immunogenicity of the vaccine in Egyptian children after five and ten years of vaccination. Methods: Two hundreds healthy children were recruited. They were divided into two ...

  14. The role of universities in managing Long Term Athlete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long Term Athlete Development as a conceptual framework for the research represents a sport development pathway that articulates with progressive human growth and development. The differential layering of the development phases relates to the socialisation process (into and through sport) which underpins the elite ...

  15. Long-Term Effects of Neurofeedback Treatment in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van Schie, Hein T.

    2009-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated significant improvement of executive functions and social behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) treated with 40 sessions of EEG neurofeedback in a nonrandomized waiting list control group design. In this paper we extend these findings by reporting the long-term results of neurofeedback treatment in…

  16. Target for LOFAR Long Term Archive : Architecture and Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belikov, A.; Boxhoorn, D.; Dijkstra, Fokke; Holties, H. A.; Vriend, W. -J; Ballester, P.; Egret, D.; Lorente, N. P. F.; Ballester, P.; Egret, D.; Lorente, N.P.F.

    The LOFAR Long-Term Archive (LTA) is a multi-Petabyte scale data storage for the processed data of LOFAR telescope. We describe the adaptation of the WISE concept implemented by Target consortium for the LOFAR LTA and changes we introduced to it to accommodate LOFAR data. This paper describes an

  17. Long-term psychological sequelae of augmentation mammoplasty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A request for elective surgery for augmentation mammoplasty (AM) is often associated with underlying psychopathology and high expectations of a positive psychological outcome. This study was designed to ascertain the long-term psychological sequelae of AM in a group of patients who were reassessed 3 years or more ...

  18. Long-term brain slice culturing in a microfluidic platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Avaliani, N.; Tønnesen, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present the development of a transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microfluidic culture system for handling long-term brain slice cultures independent of an incubator. The different stages of system development have been validated by culturing GFP producing brain...... brain slice culturing for 16 days....

  19. Persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy: long-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term outcome of six children with persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PHHI) after pancreatectomy who have been followed since 1990 at the Riyadh Military Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods Data from six patients were ...

  20. Risk assessment for long-term post-accident sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducamp, F.

    1987-01-01

    Probabilistic risk analysis, currently conducted by the CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission) for the French replicate series of 900 MWe power plants, has identified accident sequences requiring long-term operation of some systems after the initiating event. They have been named long-term sequences. Quantification of probabilities of such sequences cannot rely exclusively on equipment failure-on-demand data: it must also take into account operating failures, the probability of which increase with time. Specific studies have therefore been conducted for a number of plant systems actuated during these long-term sequences. This has required: Definition of the most realistic equipment utilization strategies based on existing emergency procedures for 900 MWe French plants. Evaluation of the potential to repair failed equipment, given accessibility, repair time, and specific radiation conditions for the given sequence. Definition of the event bringing the long-term sequence to an end. Establishment of an appropriate quantification method, capable of taking into account the evolution of assumptions concerning equipment utilization strategies or repair conditions over time. (orig.)