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Sample records for show wrong encapsulation

  1. Wrong assumptions in the financial crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to show how some of the assumptions about the current financial crisis are wrong because they misunderstand what takes place in the mortgage market. Design/methodology/approach - The paper discusses four wrong assumptions: one related to regulation, one to

  2. Úvod do problematiky "wrongful birth" a "wrongful life" žalob

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2013), s. 4-12 ISSN 1804-8137 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : wrongful life * wrongful conception * wrongful birth Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://www.ilaw.cas.cz/medlawjournal/index.php/medlawjournal/article/view/55

  3. Wrong-way driving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    Wrong-way driving is a phenomenon that mainly happens on motorways. Although the number of wrong-way crashes is relatively limited, their consequences are much more severe than the consequences of other motorway injury crashes. The groups most often causing wrong-way driving accidents are young,

  4. Do encapsulated heat storage materials really retain their original thermal properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyasat, Preeyaporn; Noppalit, Sayrung; Okubo, Masayoshi; Chaiyasat, Amorn

    2015-01-14

    The encapsulation of Rubitherm®27 (RT27), which is one of the most common commercially supplied heat storage materials, by polystyrene (PS), polydivinyl benzene (PDVB) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was carried out using conventional radical microsuspension polymerization. The products were purified to remove free RT27 and free polymer particles without RT27. In the cases of PS and PDVB microcapsules, the latent heats of melting and crystallization for RT27 ( and , J/g-RT27) were clearly decreased by the encapsulation. On the other hand, those of the PMMA microcapsules were the same as pure RT27. A supercooling phenomenon was observed not only for PS and PDVB but also for the PMMA microcapsules. These results indicate that the thermal properties of the heat storage materials encapsulated depend on the type of polymer shells, i.e., encapsulation by polymer shell changes the thermal properties of RT27. This is quite different from the idea of other groups in the world, in which they discussed the thermal properties based on the ΔHm and ΔHc values expressed in J/g-capsule, assuming that the thermal properties of the heat storage materials are not changed by the encapsulation. Hereafter, this report should raise an alarm concerning the "wrong" common knowledge behind developing the encapsulation technology of heat storage materials.

  5. Investigation of the contributors to wrong unit or wrong train events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persinko, D.; Ramey-Smith, A.

    1986-04-01

    This report presents information on human error in nuclear power plants causing actions to be performed on the wrong train of systems with redundant trains or on the wrong unit of a multi-unit facility. 10 refs

  6. Wrong vertex displacements due to Lee-Wick resonances at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, E.; Schat, C.; Rold, L. da; Szynkman, A.

    2009-01-01

    We show how a resonance from the recently proposed Lee-Wick Standard Model could lead to wrong vertex displacements at LHCb. We study which could be the possible 'longest lived' Lee-Wick particle that could be created at LHC, and we study its possible decays and detections. We conclude that there is a region in the parameter space which would give wrong vertex displacements as a unique signature of the Lee-Wick Standard Model at LHCb. Further numerical simulation shows that LHC era could explore these wrong vertex displacements through Lee-Wick leptons below 500 GeV. (author)

  7. Encapsulation layer design and scalability in encapsulated vertical 3D RRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Muxi; Fang, Yichen; Wang, Zongwei; Chen, Gong; Pan, Yue; Yang, Xue; Yin, Minghui; Yang, Yuchao; Li, Ming; Cai, Yimao; Huang, Ru

    2016-01-01

    Here we propose a novel encapsulated vertical 3D RRAM structure with each resistive switching cell encapsulated by dielectric layers, contributing to both the reliability improvement of individual cells and thermal disturbance reduction of adjacent cells due to the effective suppression of unwanted oxygen vacancy diffusion. In contrast to the traditional vertical 3D RRAM, encapsulated bar-electrodes are adopted in the proposed structure substituting the previous plane-electrodes, thus encapsulated resistive switching cells can be naturally formed by simply oxidizing the tip of the metal bar-electrodes. In this work, TaO x -based 3D RRAM devices with SiO 2 and Si 3 N 4 as encapsulation layers are demonstrated, both showing significant advantages over traditional unencapsulated vertical 3D RRAM. Furthermore, it was found thermal conductivity and oxygen blocking ability are two key parameters of the encapsulation layer design influencing the scalability of vertical 3D RRAM. Experimental and simulation data show that oxygen blocking ability is more critical for encapsulation layers in the relatively large scale, while thermal conductivity becomes dominant as the stacking layers scale to the sub-10 nm regime. Finally, based on the notable impacts of the encapsulation layer on 3D RRAM scaling, an encapsulation material with both excellent oxygen blocking ability and high thermal conductivity such as AlN is suggested to be highly desirable to maximize the advantages of the proposed encapsulated structure. The findings in this work could pave the way for reliable ultrahigh-density storage applications in the big data era. (paper)

  8. Analysing the Wrongness of Killing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth analysis of the wrongness of killing by comparing different versions of three influential views: the traditional view that killing is always wrong; the liberal view that killing is wrong if and only if the victim does not want to be killed; and Don Marquis‟ future...... of value account of the wrongness of killing. In particular, I illustrate the advantages that a basic version of the liberal view and a basic version of the future of value account have over competing alternatives. Still, ultimately none of the views analysed here are satisfactory; but the different...

  9. Wrongful birth and wrongful life: An outlook on Zoja's Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanikić-Mirić Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the controversial subject of pecuniary and non-pecuniary losses in wrongful birth and wrongful life cases. The author addresses these issues from a comparative perspective, presents the main arguments for and against awarding damages, and offers a critical analysis of the newly enacted rules of Serbian tort law concerning the birth of a child who would not have been born were it not for negligence on the part of a medical doctor.

  10. Wrongful life, wrongful birth žaloby - etické a právní úvahy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2013), s. 38-57 ISSN 1804-8137 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : wrongful life actions * wrongful birth actions * bioethics Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://www.ilaw.cas.cz/medlawjournal/index.php/medlawjournal/article/view/58

  11. Preimplantation and prenatal diagnosis, wrongful birth and wrongful life: a global view of bioethical and legal controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, Paola; Fineschi, Vittorio; Di Sanzo, Mariantonia; La Russa, Raffaele; Scopetti, Matteo; Severi, Filiberto M; Turillazzi, Emanuela

    2017-05-01

    Prenatal diagnosis based on different technologies is increasingly used in developed countries and has become a common strategy in obstetric practice. The tests are crucial in enabling mothers to make informed decisions about the possibility of terminating pregnancy. They have generated numerous bioethical and legal controversies in the field of 'wrongful life' claims (action brought by or on behalf of a child against the mother or other people, claiming that he or she has to endure a not-worth-living existence) and 'wrongful birth' claims (action brought by the mother or parents against the physician for being burdened with an unwanted, often disabled child, which could have been avoided). The possibility which exists nowadays to intervene actively by programming and deciding the phases linked to procreation and birth has raised several questions worldwide. The mother's right to self-determination could be an end but whether or not this right is absolute is debatable. Freedom could, with time, act as a barrier that obstructs intrusion into other people's lives and their personal choices. Therapeutic choices may be manageable in a liberal sense, and the sanctity of life can be inflected in a secular sense. These sensitive issues and the various points of view to be considered have motivated this review. Literature searches were conducted on relevant demographic, social science and medical science databases (SocINDEX, Econlit, PopLine, Medline, Embase and Current Contents) and via other sources. Searches focused on subjects related to bioethical and legal controversies in the field of preimplantation and prenatal diagnosis, wrongful birth and wrongful life. A review of the international state of law was carried out, focusing attention on the peculiar issue of wrongful life and investigating the different jurisdictional solutions of wrongful life claims in a comparative survey. Courts around the world are generally reluctant to acknowledge wrongful life claims due to

  12. Wrong for the Right Reasons

    CERN Document Server

    Buchwald, Jed Z

    2005-01-01

    The rapidity with which knowledge changes makes much of past science obsolete, and often just wrong, from the present's point of view. We no longer think, for example, that heat is a material substance transferred from hot to cold bodies. But is wrong science always or even usually bad science? The essays in this volume argue by example that much of the past's rejected science, wrong in retrospect though it may be - and sometimes markedly so - was nevertheless sound and exemplary of enduring standards that transcend the particularities of culture and locale.

  13. Application of human error theory in case analysis of wrong procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Elizabeth A

    2010-06-01

    The goal of this study was to contribute to the emerging body of literature about the role of human behaviors and cognitive processes in the commission of wrong procedures. Case analysis of 5 wrong procedures in operative and nonoperative settings using James Reason's human error theory was performed. The case analysis showed that cognitive underspecification, cognitive flips, automode processing, and skill-based errors were contributory to wrong procedures. Wrong-site procedures accounted for the preponderance of the cases. Front-line supervisory staff used corrective actions that focused on the performance of the individual without taking into account cognitive factors. System fixes using human cognition concepts have a greater chance of achieving sustainable safety outcomes than those that are based on the traditional approach of counseling, education, and disciplinary action for staff.

  14. Problematika příčinné souvislosti při wrongful birth a wrongful life žalobách

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2013), s. 58-67 ISSN 1804-8137 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP408/12/2574 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : wrongful life * wrongful birth * wrongful conception Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://www.ilaw.cas.cz/medlawjournal/index.php/medlawjournal/article/view/59

  15. Receiving right/wrong feedback: consequences for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Lisa K; Huelser, Barbie J; Johnson, Aaron; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2010-04-01

    Prior work suggests that receiving feedback that one's response was correct or incorrect (right/wrong feedback) does not help learners, as compared to not receiving any feedback at all (Pashler, Cepeda, Wixted, & Rohrer, 2005). In three experiments we examined the generality of this conclusion. Right/wrong feedback did not aid error correction, regardless of whether participants learned facts embedded in prose (Experiment 1) or translations of foreign vocabulary (Experiment 2). While right/wrong feedback did not improve the overall retention of correct answers (Experiments 1 and 2), it facilitated retention of low-confidence correct answers (Experiment 3). Reviewing the original materials was very useful to learners, but this benefit was similar after receiving either right/wrong feedback or no feedback (Experiments 1 and 2). Overall, right/wrong feedback conveys some information to the learner, but is not nearly as useful as being told the correct answer or having the chance to review the to-be-learned materials.

  16. Wrong site surgery! How can we stop it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwanath Hanchanale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: "Primum non nocere" (first do no harm: Hippocrates (c. 460 BC-377 BC. Wrong site surgery is the fourth commonest sentinel event after patient suicide, operative and post-operative complications, and medication errors. Misinterpretation of the clinic letters or radiology reports is the commonest reason for the wrong site being marked before surgery. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 50 cases each of operations carried out on the kidney, ureter, and the testis. The side mentioned on clinic letters, the consent form, and radiology reports lists were also studied. The results were analyzed in detail to determine where the potential pitfalls were likely to arise. Results: A total of 803 clinic letters from 150 cases were reviewed. The side of disease was not documented in 8.71% and five patients had the wrong side mentioned in one of their clinic letters. In the radiology reports, the side was not mentioned in three cases and it was reported wrongly in two patients. No wrong side was ever consented for and no wrong side surgery was performed. Conclusion: The side of surgery was not always indicated in clinic letter, theatre list, or the consent form despite the procedure being carried on a bilateral organ. As misinterpretation is a major cause of wrong side surgery, it is prudent that the side is mentioned every time in every clinic letter, consent form, and on the theatre list. The WHO surgical safety checklist has already been very effective in minimizing the wrong site surgery in the National Health Service.

  17. Wrongful life: the problem of causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J K

    2004-01-01

    The paper considers the status of the wrongful life action particularly in the light of the recent acceptance of such actions in continental Europe. It is considered that the hurdle of causation is still not adequately overcome in these cases and, in a search for an answer to the difficulty, the author re-examines the Canadian case of Cherry v Borsman. This case was originally thought of as one of wrongful life associated with a negligently performed abortion and the paper attempts to overcome the problems of causation by comparing and contrasting the roles of the genetic counsellor and the abortionist. While the attempt is by no means wholly successful, it also serves to draw attention to some significant differences between wrongful life actions based on physical and mental disability in the neonate.

  18. Encapsulation Efficiency, Oscillatory Rheometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Mohammad Hassani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoliposomes are one of the most important polar lipid-based nanocarriers which can be used for encapsulation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic active compounds. In this research, nanoliposomes based on lecithin-polyethylene glycol-gamma oryzanol were prepared by using a modified thermal method. Only one melting peak in DSC curve of gamma oryzanol bearing liposomes was observed which could be attributed to co-crystallization of both compounds. The addition of gamma oryzanol, caused to reduce the melting point of 5% (w/v lecithin-based liposome from 207°C to 163.2°C. At high level of lecithin, increasing of liposome particle size (storage at 4°C for two months was more obvious and particle size increased from 61 and 113 to 283 and 384 nanometers, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency of gamma oryzanol increased from 60% to 84.3% with increasing lecithin content. The encapsulation stability of oryzanol in liposome was determined at different concentrations of lecithin 3, 5, 10, 20% (w/v and different storage times (1, 7, 30 and 60 days. In all concentrations, the encapsulation stability slightly decreased during 30 days storage. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM images showed relatively spherical to elliptic particles which indicated to low extent of particles coalescence. The oscillatory rheometry showed that the loss modulus of liposomes were higher than storage modulus and more liquid-like behavior than solid-like behavior. The samples storage at 25°C for one month, showed higher viscoelastic parameters than those having been stored at 4°C which were attributed to higher membrane fluidity at 25°C and their final coalescence.Nanoliposomes are one of the most important polar lipid based nanocarriers which can be used for encapsulation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic active compounds. In this research, nanoliposomes based on lecithin-polyethylene glycol-gamma oryzanol were prepared by using modified thermal method. Only one

  19. Encapsulation of nodal segments of lobelia chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Hing Thong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lobelia chinensis served as an important herb in traditional chinese medicine. It is rare in the field and infected by some pathogens. Therefore, encapsulation of axillary buds has been developed for in vitro propagation of L. chinensis. Nodal explants of L. chinensis were used as inclusion materials for encapsulation. Various combinations of calcium chloride and sodium alginate were tested. Encapsulation beads produced by mixing 50 mM calcium chloride and 3.5% sodium alginate supported the optimal in vitro conversion potential. The number of multiple shoots formed by encapsulated nodal segments was not significantly different from the average of shoots produced by non-encapsulated nodal segments. The encapsulated nodal segments regenerated in vitro on different medium. The optimal germination and regeneration medium was Murashige-Skoog medium. Plantlets regenerated from the encapsulated nodal segments were hardened, acclimatized and established well in the field, showing similar morphology with parent plants. This encapsulation technology would serve as an alternative in vitro regeneration system for L. chinensis.

  20. How Justice System Officials View Wrongful Convictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brad; Zalman, Marvin; Kiger, Angie

    2011-01-01

    The wrongful conviction of factually innocent people is a growing concern within the United States. Reforms generated by this concern are predicated in part on the views of justice system participants. The authors surveyed judges, police officials, prosecutors, and defense lawyers in Michigan regarding their views of why wrongful convictions…

  1. Wrong-way driving crashes on French divided roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemel, Emmanuel

    2015-02-01

    The objective of divided roads is to increase users' safety by posting unidirectional traffic flows. It happens however that drivers proceed in the wrong direction, endangering themselves as well as other users. The crashes caused by wrong-way drivers are generally spotlighted by the media and call for public intervention. This paper proposes a characterization of wrong-way driving crashes occurring on French divided road on the 2008-2012 period. The objective is to identify the factors that delineate between wrong-way driving crashes and other crashes. Building on the national injury road crash database, 266 crashes involving a wrong-way driver were identified. Their characteristics (related to timing, location, vehicle and driver) are compared to those of the 22,120 other crashes that occurred on the same roads over the same period. The comparison relies on descriptive statistics, completed by a logistic regression. Wrong-way driving crashes are rare but severe. They are more likely to occur during night hours and on non-freeway roads than other crashes. Wrong-way drivers are older, more likely to be intoxicated, to be locals, to drive older vehicles, mainly passenger cars without passengers, than other drivers. The differences observed across networks can help prioritizing public intervention. Most of the identified WW-driving factors deal with cognitive impairment. Therefore, the specific countermeasures such as alternative road signs should be designed for and tested on cognitively impaired drivers. Nevertheless, WW-driving factors are also risk factors for other types of crashes (e.g. elderly driving, drunk driving and age of the vehicle). This suggests that, instead of (or in addition to) developing WW-driving specific countermeasures, managing these risk factors would help reducing a larger number of crashes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Patient Safety in Spine Surgery: Regarding the Wrong-Site Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Ji-Sup; Jeong, Yoo-Chul; Kwak, Dae-Kyung; Chun, Ja-Hae; Lee, Hwan-Mo

    2013-01-01

    Patient safety regarding wrong site surgery has been one of the priority issues in surgical fields including that of spine care. Since the wrong-side surgery in the DM foot patient was reported on a public mass media in 1996, the wrong-site surgery issue has attracted wide public interest as regarding patient safety. Despite the many wrong-site surgery prevention campaigns in spine care such as the operate through your initial program by the Canadian Orthopaedic Association, the sign your sit...

  3. Wrong drug administration errors amongst anaesthetists in a South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    stage during their career.1,2,3 Although the majority of wrong drug ... to investigate the incidence, nature and possible causes of wrong ... involved muscle relaxants with suxamethonium chloride administered instead of fentanyl accounting for.

  4. Voluntary euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and the right to do wrong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelius, Jukka

    2013-09-01

    It has been argued that voluntary euthanasia (VE) and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) are morally wrong. Yet, a gravely suffering patient might insist that he has a moral right to the procedures even if they were morally wrong. There are also philosophers who maintain that an agent can have a moral right to do something that is morally wrong. In this article, I assess the view that a suffering patient can have a moral right to VE and PAS despite the moral wrongness of the procedures in light of the main argument for a moral right to do wrong found in recent philosophical literature. I maintain that the argument does not provide adequate support for such a right to VE and PAS.

  5. Search for wrong-sign D0 decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abachi, S.; Baringer, P.; Bylsma, B.G.; Debonte, R.; Koltick, D.; Loeffler, F.J.; Low, E.H.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Ng, C.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Akerlof, C.; Chapman, J.; Errede, D.; Meyer, D.I.; Nitz, D.; Seidl, A.; Thun, R.; Blockus, D.; Brabson, B.; Brom, J.M.; Ogren, H.; Rust, D.R.; Snyder, A.; Cork, B.; Derrick, M.; Kooijman, P.; Musgrave, B.; Price, L.E.; Repond, J.; Sugano, K.; Gan, K.K.; Jung, C.; Kesten, P.; Loos, J.S.; Rangan, L.K.; Wood, D.E.; Weiss, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 300 pb -1 obtained at PEP with the High Resolution Spectrometer, the wrong-sign decay D 0 →K + π - has been searched for using a sample of D * →D 0 π events. A 4% upper limit is obtained at the 90% confindence level for the ratio of the wrong sign to the right sign decay rate in the Kπ mode. (orig.)

  6. The concept of wrongful life in the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, A S

    1983-01-01

    was born with Tay-Sachs. This was the 1st case in which a court established that a child has a cause of action, separate from its parents, for a claim of wrongful life. In recognizing the child as an independent plaintiff the court established the child's right to allege that its life is wrongful, i.e., it should never have been born. The court in Curlender affirmed that the child's life, on its own, is of legitimate concern to the courts. A most forceful social issue raised here is the concept of quality of life and whether or not a life is worth living if burdened by debilitating injury. The court did not address the problems inherent in measuring quality of life from individual to individual, nor did it decide how a child must show injury to warrant recovery in court. The Curlender decision referred to the Roe v. Wade decision as a woman's legal right not to have a child, and by inference, as a child's legal right to be free of damage. By extension, Roe v. Wade could be interpreted as a legal right not to be born.

  7. What's Wrong with Economics Textbooks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culyer, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    Many things are wrong with college level economics textbooks. For example, they are too ahistorical, too particularist, or unsystematically eclectic. The requirements of a good college economics textbook are examined. (RM)

  8. Experiment, right or wrong

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Allan

    2008-01-01

    In Experiment, Right or Wrong, Allan Franklin continues his investigation of the history and philosophy of experiment presented in his previous book, The Neglect of Experiment. In this new study, Franklin considers the fallibility and corrigibility of experimental results and presents detailed histories of two such episodes: 1) the experiment and the development of the theory of weak interactions from Fermi's theory in 1934 to the V-A theory of 1957 and 2) atomic parity violation experiments and the Weinberg-Salam unified theory of electroweak interactions of the 1970s and 1980s. In these episodes Franklin demonstrates not only that experimental results can be wrong, but also that theoretical calculations and the comparison between experiment and theory can also be incorrect. In the second episode, Franklin contrasts his view of an "evidence model" of science in which questions of theory choice, confirmation, and refutation are decided on the basis of reliable experimental evidence, with that proposed by the ...

  9. Broadening the future of value account of the wrongness of killing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2015-01-01

    On Don Marquis's future of value account of the wrongness of killing, 'what makes it wrong to kill those individuals we all believe it is wrong to kill, is that killing them deprives them of their future of value'. Marquis has recently argued for a narrow interpretation of his future of value...... account of the wrongness of killing and against the broad interpretation that I had put forward in response to Carson Strong. In this article I argue that the narrow view is problematic because it violates some basic principles of equality and because it allows for some of the very killing that Marquis...

  10. When experiments go wrong: the U.S. perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capron, Alexander M

    2004-01-01

    The view that once prevailed in the U.S.--that research is no more dangerous than the activities of daily life--no longer holds in light of recent experience. Within the past few years, a number of subjects (including normal volunteers) have been seriously injured or killed in research conducted at prestigious institutions. Plainly, when we are talking about research going wrong, we're talking about something very important. We have seen that experiments can go wrong in several ways. Subjects can be injured--physically, mentally, or by having other interests violated. Investigators can commit fraud in data collection or can abuse subjects. And review mechanisms--such as IRBs--don't always work. The two major issues when research goes wrong in any of these ways are, first: What will be done for subjects who have suffered an injury or other wrong? and second: How will future problems be prevented? The present system in the U.S. is better at the second task than the first one. Part of the difficulty in addressing the first lies in knowing what "caused" an apparent injury. Moreover, since until recently the problem of research-related injuries was thought to be a small one, there was considerable resistance to setting up a non-fault compensation system, for fear that it would lead to payment in many cases where such compensation was not deserved. Now, with a further nudge from the NBAC there is renewed interest in developing a formal system to compensate for research injuries. Finally, I have tried to show that our system of local oversight is only partially effective in improving the design of experiments and the consent process in light of "unexpected (adverse) results." As many observers, including the federal General Accounting Office (GAO), have reported, the requirement for "continuing review" of approved research projects is the weak point in the IRB system. The probable solution would be to more strictly apply the requirement that investigators report back any

  11. Antidiabetic Activity from Gallic Acid Encapsulated Nanochitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purbowatiningrum; Ngadiwiyana; Ismiyarto; Fachriyah, E.; Eviana, I.; Eldiana, O.; Amaliyah, N.; Sektianingrum, A. N.

    2017-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a health problem in the world because it causes death. One of the phenolic compounds that have antidiabetic activity is gallic acid. However, the use of this compound still provides unsatisfactory results due to its degradation during the absorption process. The solution offered to solve the problem is by encapsulated it within chitosan nanoparticles that serve to protect the bioactive compound from degradation, increases of solubility and delivery of a bioactive compound to the target site by using freeze-drying technique. The result of chitosan nanoparticle’s Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed that chitosan nanoparticle’s size is uniform and it is smaller than chitosan. The value of encapsulation efficiency (EE) of gallic acid which encapsulated within chitosan nanoparticles is about 50.76%. Inhibition test result showed that gallic acid-chitosan nanoparticles at 50 ppm could inhibite α-glucosidase activity in 28.87% with 54.94 in IC50. So it can be concluded that gallic acid can be encapsulated in nanoparticles of chitosan and proved that it could inhibit α-glucosidase.

  12. Thin film Encapsulations of Flexible Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Fa-Ta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various encapsulated films for flexible organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs were studied in this work, where gas barrier layers including inorganic Al2O3 thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition, organic Parylene C thin films prepared by chemical vapor deposition, and their combination were considered. The transmittance and water vapor transmission rate of the various organic and inorgabic encapsulated films were tested. The effects of the encapsulated films on the luminance and current density of the OLEDs were discussed, and the life time experiments of the OLEDs with these encapsulated films were also conducted. The results showed that the transmittance are acceptable even the PET substrate were coated two Al2O3 and Parylene C layers. The results also indicated the WVTR of the PET substrate improved by coating the barrier layers. In the encapsulation performance, it indicates the OLED with Al2O3 /PET, 1 pair/PET, and 2 pairs/PET presents similarly higher luminance than the other two cases. Although the 1 pair/PET encapsulation behaves a litter better luminance than the 2 pairs/PET encapsulation, the 2 pairs/PET encapsulation has much better life time. The OLED with 2 pairs/PET encapsulation behaves near double life time to the 1 pair encapsulation, and four times to none encapsulation.

  13. Lessons learned: wrong intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Oliver D; Banta, James T; Chen, Teresa C; Pritzker, Scott; Schachat, Andrew P

    2012-10-01

    To report cases involving the placement of the wrong intraocular lens (IOL) at the time of cataract surgery where human error occurred. Retrospective small case series, convenience sample. Seven surgical cases. Institutional review of errors committed and subsequent improvements to clinical protocols. Lessons learned and changes in procedures adapted. The pathways to a wrong IOL are many but largely reflect some combination of poor surgical team communication, transcription error, lack of preoperative clarity in surgical planning or failure to match the patient, and IOL calculation sheet with 2 unique identifiers. Safety in surgery involving IOLs is enhanced both by strict procedures, such as an IOL-specific "time-out," and the fostering of a surgical team culture in which all members are encouraged to voice questions and concerns. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. WRONGFUL TRADING: COMPARATIVE APPROACH (ENGLAND AND WALES, RUSSIA AND THE USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Konstantinov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is designed to discover legal rules addressing insolvency trading in three jurisdictions: England and Wales, Russia and the USA. Originally it was a master’s dissertation written under supervision of Ms. Sarah Paterson, who was extremely helpful and patient. The key jurisdiction for the research is England and Wales, whose wrongful trading provision apparently was the very first insolvency regulation in the field. Here, we will give particular attention to the factual circumstances of insolvency trading and research how the concept of wrongful trading addresses them. The next question will be how the American concept of deepening insolvency and the Russian concept of subsidiary liability are comparable with wrongful trading. Later, we will focus on the functions that should be performed by the regulations. Also, the effectiveness of wrongful trading and similar overseas provisions will be examined. Finally, this paper attempts to find obstacles to the wide application of wrongful trading provision.

  15. Where physics went wrong

    CERN Document Server

    Lavenda, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The book points out what has gone wrong with physics since Einstein's formulation of this theory of general relativity a century ago. It points out inconsistencies and fallacies in the standard model of the big bang and the inflationary scenario which was supposed to have overcome those shortcomings, the evolution of string theory from a theory of the strong interaction to a theory of gravitation and quantum mechanics which has not produced a single verifiable prediction, and what it has accomplished is reaffirming wrong results like the entropy of a black hole, which is not an entropy at all. There have even been attempts to demote gravity to an emergent phenomenon with catastrophic effects. We know exactly what happened at 10-34 seconds after the big bang, but do not know how fast gravity propagates, whether gravitational waves exist, and what are the limits of Newton's law. Attempts to rectify this are the prediction of dark energy/matter, which has never been observed nor ever will, and MOND. The latter i...

  16. Activity of encapsulated Lactobacillus bulgaricus in alginate-whey protein microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Yan Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, alginate-whey protein was used as wall materials for encapsulating Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus. The characteristics of encapsulated and free L. bulgaricus showed that the free L. bulgaricus lost viability after 1 min exposure to simulated gastric fluid (SGF at pH 2.0 and 2.5. However, the viability of encapsulated L. bulgaricus did not decrease in SGF at pH 2.5 for 2 h incubation. The viable numbers of encapsulated L. bulgaricus decreased less than 1.0 log unit for 2 h incubation in SGF at pH 2.0. For bile stability, only 1.2 log units and 2.0 log units viability of the encapsulated L. bulgaricus was lost in 1 and 2% bile for 1 h exposure, respectively, compared with no survival of free L. bulgaricus under the same conditions. Encapsulated L. bulgaricus was completely released from the microspheres in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF, pH 6.8 in 3 h. The viability of the encapsulated L. bulgaricus retained more 8.0 log CFU/g after stored at 4°C for four weeks. However, for free L. bulgaricus, only around 3.0 log CFU/mL was found at the same storage conditions. Results showed that the encapsulation could improve the stability of L. bulgaricus.

  17. Steel Bar corrosion monitoring based on encapsulated piezoelectric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Tang, Tianyou

    2018-05-01

    The durability of reinforced concrete has a great impact on the structural bearing capacity, while the corrosion of steel bars is the main reason for the degradation of structural durability. In this paper, a new type of encapsulated cement based piezoelectric sensor is developed and its working performance is verified. The consistency of the finite element simulation and the experimental results shows the feasibility of monitoring the corrosion of steel bars using encapsulated piezoelectric sensors. The research results show that the corrosion conditions of the steel bars can be determined by the relative amplitude of the measured signal through the encapsulated piezoelectric sensor.

  18. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystroem, Anders

    2007-08-01

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate report

  19. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystroem, Anders

    2007-08-15

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate

  20. Electromagnetic properties of conducting polymers encapsulated in an insulating matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esnouf, Stephane

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the electronic properties of conducting polymers encapsulated in zeolite. We studied two kinds of polymers: intrinsic conducting polymers (poly-pyrrole) and pyrolyzed polymers (polyacrylonitrile and poly-furfuryl alcohol). These systems were characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance and microwave conductivity measurements. In the first part, we present the preparation and the characterization of encapsulated poly-pyrrole. Conductivity measurements show that the encapsulated material is insulating, certainly because a strong interaction with the zeolite traps the charge carriers. In the second part, we focus on pyrolyzed encapsulated polyacrylonitrile. This system has a metal-like susceptibility at room temperature and a relatively high microwave conductivity. These results demonstrate the formation during the pyrolysis of extended aromatic clusters. Finally, we study pyrolyzed encapsulated poly-furfuryl alcohol. We show that the only effect of the pyrolysis is to fragment the polymers. We also discuss the spin relaxation and the EPR line broadening. (author) [fr

  1. Photopolymerizable liquid encapsulants for microelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikerikar, Kiran K.

    2000-10-01

    of a thermal initiator on the thermal and mechanical properties of the final cured encapsulants have been investigated. The results show that the material properties of the PLEs are the same, if not better, than those exhibited by conventional transfer molding compounds and demonstrate the potential of using PLEs for encapsulating microelectronic devices.

  2. Encapsulation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, O.; Plows, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for encapsulating a particular radioactive waste which consists of suspending the waste in a viscous liquid encapsulating material, of synthetic resin monomers or prepolymers, and setting the encapsulating material by addition or condensation polymerization to form a solid material in which the waste is dispersed. (author)

  3. Teacher Professionalism: The Wrong Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, David; Orme, Liz

    2000-01-01

    Defining teachers as professionals in the same way that doctors or engineers are professionals is reductionist because such definition generally distorts the moral dimensions of teaching by using the wrong language (clients, customers), focusing on limited forms of knowledge, and ignoring the fundamental democratic character of education.…

  4. Selective encapsulation by Janus particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei, E-mail: wel208@mrl.ucsb.edu [Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Ruth, Donovan; Gunton, James D. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Rickman, Jeffrey M. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States)

    2015-06-28

    We employ Monte Carlo simulation to examine encapsulation in a system comprising Janus oblate spheroids and isotropic spheres. More specifically, the impact of variations in temperature, particle size, inter-particle interaction range, and strength is examined for a system in which the spheroids act as the encapsulating agents and the spheres as the encapsulated guests. In this picture, particle interactions are described by a quasi-square-well patch model. This study highlights the environmental adaptation and selectivity of the encapsulation system to changes in temperature and guest particle size, respectively. Moreover, we identify an important range in parameter space where encapsulation is favored, as summarized by an encapsulation map. Finally, we discuss the generalization of our results to systems having a wide range of particle geometries.

  5. Does Wrongful Conviction Lower Deterrence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    lowerthe threat of being sanctioned for a crime one commits, if two sanctions are not twiceas threatening as one. Second, if wrongful conviction halts further investigations thatmay lead to the true offender, and third, if a potential offender thinks that if he or shedoes not take advantage of a crime...

  6. Polycaprolactone Thin-Film Micro- and Nanoporous Cell-Encapsulation Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyitray, Crystal E; Chang, Ryan; Faleo, Gaetano; Lance, Kevin D; Bernards, Daniel A; Tang, Qizhi; Desai, Tejal A

    2015-06-23

    Cell-encapsulating devices can play an important role in advancing the types of tissue available for transplantation and further improving transplant success rates. To have an effective device, encapsulated cells must remain viable, respond to external stimulus, and be protected from immune responses, and the device itself must elicit a minimal foreign body response. To address these challenges, we developed a micro- and a nanoporous thin-film cell encapsulation device from polycaprolactone (PCL), a material previously used in FDA-approved biomedical devices. The thin-film device construct allows long-term bioluminescent transfer imaging, which can be used for monitoring cell viability and device tracking. The ability to tune the microporous and nanoporous membrane allows selective protection from immune cell invasion and cytokine-mediated cell death in vitro, all while maintaining typical cell function, as demonstrated by encapsulated cells' insulin production in response to glucose stimulation. To demonstrate the ability to track, visualize, and monitor the viability of cells encapsulated in implanted thin-film devices, we encapsulated and implanted luciferase-positive MIN6 cells in allogeneic mouse models for up to 90 days. Lack of foreign body response in combination with rapid neovascularization around the device shows promise in using this technology for cell encapsulation. These devices can help elucidate the metrics required for cell encapsulation success and direct future immune-isolation therapies.

  7. Search for wrong sign D0 decays with the HRS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abachi, S.; Akerlof, C.; Barringer, P.

    1986-01-01

    Using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 300pb -1 obtained at PEP with the HRS detector we have searched for the wrong sign decay of D 0 mesons in the decays D* → D 0 π. We obtain a 90% confidence level limit of 4.0% on the ratio of the wrong sign to the right sign decay rate in the Kπ mode. This is the best model independent limit on mixing currently available and constrains the nature of the wrong sign signal recently reported by the MARK III group. 10 refs., 2 figs

  8. Cytokine production induced by non-encapsulated and encapsulated Porphyromonas gingivalis strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, A.; Dekker, D.C.; van Pampus, M.G.; Harmsen, H.J.; Aarnoudse, J.G.; Abbas, F.; Faas, M.M.

    Objective: Although the exact reason is not known, encapsulated gram-negative Porphyromonas gingivalis strains are more virulent than non-encapsulated strains. Since difference in virulence properties may be due to difference in cytokine production following recognition of the bacteria or their

  9. Polymer encapsulated dopaminergic cell lines as "alternative neural grafts".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, C B; Greene, L A; Tresco, P A; Winn, S R; Aebischer, P

    1990-01-01

    Our preliminary findings (Jaeger et al., 1988; Aebischer et al., 1989; Tresco et al., 1989) and the studies in progress show that encapsulated dopaminergic cell lines survive enclosure within a semi-permeable membrane. The encapsulated cells remained viable for extended time periods when maintained in vitro. Moreover, encapsulated PC12 and T28 cells have the potential to survive following their implantation into the forebrain of rats. Cell lines are essentially "immortal" because they continue to divide indefinitely. This property allows perpetual "self-renewal" of a given cell population. However, the capacity of continuous uncontrolled cell division may also lead to tumor formation. This in fact is the case for unencapsulated PC12 cell implants placed into the brain of young Sprague Dawley rats (Jaeger, 1985). Cell line encapsulation has the potential to prevent tumor growth (Jaeger et al., 1988). Survival for 6 months in vitro suggests that encapsulation does not preclude long-term maintenance of an homogeneous cell line like PC12 cells. The presence of mitotic figures in the capsules further supports the likelihood of propagation and self renewal of the encapsulated population. Another significant property of cell lines is that they consist of a single, genetically homogeneous cell type. They do not require specific synaptic interactions for their survival. In the case of PC12 and T28 lines, the cells synthesize and release neurotransmitters. Our data show that PC12 and T28 cells continue to release dopamine spontaneously and to express specific transmitters and enzymes following encapsulation. Thus, cell lines such as these may constitute relatively simple "neural implants" exerting their function via humoral release.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Liability for wrongful terminations: are hospitals at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, D S

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which the three principal exceptions to the common-law doctrine of employment-at-will--namely the public policy, implied contract, and good faith and fair dealing exceptions--have been recognized in hospital termination cases. State supreme court and appellate court cases are analyzed to illustrate the type of conduct that precipitated wrongful termination claims against hospitals during the 1980s, how the courts disposed of these claims, and the rationale underlying their decisions. Suggestions, based on these and related cases, for avoiding or at least minimizing liability for wrongfully terminating hospital employees, are presented.

  11. Wrong signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nillesen, P.H.L.; Telling, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    The Netherlands Electricity Regulatory Service (Dte, abbreviated in Dutch) bases the determination of the efficiency of electricity network businesses on the possibility of businesses to adjust their production capacity on a short term. In reality, however, the production capacity of electricity networks is fixed. By adjusting the model, by means of which the efficiency is determined, to the assumption of Dte, other efficiency scores will be produced. As a result of the output of the present model, many businesses receive the wrong stimuli. In this article the method of Dte is assessed. By putting the method in an international context it is determined whether the aim of the regulation is realized. The production process of the Dutch market is specified and compared internationally.1 ref

  12. Encapsulation by Janus spheroids

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wei; Liu, Ya; Brett, Genevieve; Gunton, James D.

    2011-01-01

    The micro/nano encapsulation technology has acquired considerable attention in the fields of drug delivery, biomaterial engineering, and materials science. Based on recent advances in chemical particle synthesis, we propose a primitive model of an encapsulation system produced by the self-assembly of Janus oblate spheroids, particles with oblate spheroidal bodies and two hemi-surfaces coded with dissimilar chemical properties. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we investigate the encapsulation sys...

  13. The interaction of encapsulated pharmaceutical drugs with a silica matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Everton C; Correa, Gabriel G; Brambilla, Rodrigo; Radtke, Claudio; Baibich, Ione Maluf; dos Santos, João Henrique Z

    2013-03-01

    A series of seven drugs, namely, fluoxetine, gentamicin, lidocaine, morphine, nifedipine, paracetamol and tetracycline, were encapsulated. The encapsulated systems were characterized using a series of complementary techniques: Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), diffusive reflectance spectroscopy in the UV-vis region (DRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). According to the DRS spectra, most of the encapsulated systems showed a band shift of the maximum absorption when compared with the corresponding bare pharmaceutical. Additionally, after encapsulation, the drugs exhibited infrared band shifts toward higher wavenumbers, which in turn provided insight into potential sites for interaction with the silica framework. The amine group showed a band shift in the spectra of almost all the drugs (except nifedipine and tetracycline). This finding indicates the possibility of a hydrogen bonding interaction between the drug and the silica via electron donation from the amine group to the silica framework. XPS confirmed this interaction between the pharmaceuticals and the silica through the amine group. A correlation was observed between the textural characteristics of the solids and the spectroscopic data, suggesting that the amine groups from the pharmaceuticals were more perturbed upon encapsulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Critical factors affecting cell encapsulation in superporous hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Esha S; Tang, Mary Y; Gemeinhart, Richard A; Ross, Amy E

    2012-01-01

    We recently showed that superporous hydrogel (SPH) scaffolds promote long-term stem cell viability and cell driven mineralization when cells were seeded within the pores of pre-fabricated SPH scaffolds. The possibility of cell encapsulation within the SPH matrix during its fabrication was further explored in this study. The impact of each chemical component used in SPH fabrication and each step of the fabrication process on cell viability was systematically examined. Ammonium persulfate, an initiator, and sodium bicarbonate, the gas-generating compound, were the two components having significant toxicity toward encapsulated cells at the concentrations necessary for SPH fabrication. Cell survival rates were 55.7% ± 19.3% and 88.8% ± 9.4% after 10 min exposure to ammonium persulfate and sodium bicarbonate solutions, respectively. In addition, solution pH change via the addition of sodium bicarbonate had significant toxicity toward encapsulated cells with cell survival of only 50.3% ± 2.5%. Despite toxicity of chemical components and the SPH fabrication method, cells still exhibited significant overall survival rates within SPHs of 81.2% ± 6.8% and 67.0% ± 0.9%, respectively, 48 and 72 h after encapsulation. This method of cell encapsulation holds promise for use in vitro and in vivo as a scaffold material for both hydrogel matrix encapsulation and cell seeding within the pores. (paper)

  15. Simultant encapsulation of vitamin C and beta-carotene in sesame (Sesamum indicum l.) liposomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudiyanti, D.; Fawrin, H.; Siahaan, P.

    2018-04-01

    In this study sesame liposomes were used to encapsulate both vitamin C and beta-carotene simultaneously. Liposomes were prepared with addition of cholesterol. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of sesame liposomes for vitamin C in the present of beta-carotene was 77%. The addition of cholesterol increased the encapsulation efficiency. The highest encapsulation efficiency was 89% obtained in liposomes with 10% and 20% cholesterol. Contrary to that, the highest beta-carotene encapsulation efficiency of 78%, was found in the sesame liposomes prepared without the added cholesterol. Results showed that sesame liposomes can be used to encapsulate beta-carotene and vitamin C simultaneously. When beta-carotene and vitamin C were encapsulated concurrently, cholesterol intensified the efficiency of vitamin C encapsulation on the contrary it diminished the efficiency of beta-carotene encapsulation.

  16. A Comparative Cytotoxic Evaluation of Disulfiram Encapsulated PLGA Nanoparticles on MCF-7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasehee, Hamidreza; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Ghaffari, Seyed-Hamidollah; Faghihi, Shahab

    2017-04-01

    Background: Disulfiram is oral aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) inhibitor that has been used in the treatment of alcoholism. Recent studies show that this drug has anticancer properties; however, its rapid degradation has limited its clinical application. Encapsulation of disulfiram polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) may improve its anticancer activities and protect rapid degradation of the drug. Materials and Methods: A poly (lactide-co-Glycolide) (PLGA) was developed for encapsulation of disulfiram and its delivery into breast cancer cells. Disulfiram encapsulated PLGA NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method and were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The loading and encapsulation efficiency of NPs were determined using UV-Visible spectroscopy. Cell cytotoxicity of free and encapsulated form of disulfiram is also determined using MTT assay. Results: Disulfiram encapsulated PLGA NPs had uniform size with 165 nm. Drug loading and entrapment efficiency were 5.35 ±0.03% and 58.85±1.01%. The results of MTT assay showed that disulfiram encapsulated PLGA NPs were more potent in induction of apoptosis compare to free disulfiram. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained in the present study it can be concluded that encapsulation of disulfiram with PLGA can protect its degradation in improve its cytotoxicity on breast cancer cells.

  17. Micro-Encapsulated Phase Change Materials: A Review of Encapsulation, Safety and Thermal Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hassan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCMs have been identified as potential candidates for building energy optimization by increasing the thermal mass of buildings. The increased thermal mass results in a drop in the cooling/heating loads, thus decreasing the energy demand in buildings. However, direct incorporation of PCMs into building elements undermines their structural performance, thereby posing a challenge for building integrity. In order to retain/improve building structural performance, as well as improving energy performance, micro-encapsulated PCMs are integrated into building materials. The integration of microencapsulation PCMs into building materials solves the PCM leakage problem and assures a good bond with building materials to achieve better structural performance. The aim of this article is to identify the optimum micro-encapsulation methods and materials for improving the energy, structural and safety performance of buildings. The article reviews the characteristics of micro-encapsulated PCMs relevant to building integration, focusing on safety rating, structural implications, and energy performance. The article uncovers the optimum combinations of the shell (encapsulant and core (PCM materials along with encapsulation methods by evaluating their merits and demerits.

  18. Enhanced structural stability of DNA origami nanostructures by graphene encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matković, Aleksandar; Vasić, Borislav; Pešić, Jelena; Gajić, Radoš; Prinz, Julia; Bald, Ilko; Milosavljević, Aleksandar R

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that a single-layer graphene replicates the shape of DNA origami nanostructures very well. It can be employed as a protective layer for the enhancement of structural stability of DNA origami nanostructures. Using the AFM based manipulation, we show that the normal force required to damage graphene encapsulated DNA origami nanostructures is over an order of magnitude greater than for the unprotected ones. In addition, we show that graphene encapsulation offers protection to the DNA origami nanostructures against prolonged exposure to deionized water, and multiple immersions. Through these results we demonstrate that graphene encapsulated DNA origami nanostructures are strong enough to sustain various solution phase processing, lithography and transfer steps, thus extending the limits of DNA-mediated bottom-up fabrication. (paper)

  19. Suitability of cement encapsulated ILW for transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, J.

    1989-01-01

    ILW arising during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel is to be encapsulated in cement in nominal 500-litre drums. It is important that the waste package produced can be safely transported to a deep repository. Preliminary assessments of the performances of waste packages during transport for a number of the ILW streams to be generated at Sellafield have been carried out. The results show that the proposed encapsulation process produces a waste package which can be transported to an acceptable standard of safety and which does not prejudice any aspects of transport. (author)

  20. We're Assigning the Wrong Freud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shusterman, Noah

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author, a lecturer in Temple University's intellectual-heritage program, explains why colleges are teaching undergraduates the wrong Freud. Though the book "Civilization and Its Discontents" (1930), which most professors use, is Freud's most consistent and most convincing attempt to apply psychoanalytic theory to society as a…

  1. Fragrance encapsulation in polymeric matrices by emulsion electrospinning

    OpenAIRE

    Camerlo Agathe; Vebert-Nardin Corinne; Rossi René Michel; Popa Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    We present the successful application of emulsion electrospinning for the encapsulation of a model for highly volatile fragrances namely (R) (+) limonene in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fibrous matrix. The influence of the emulsion formulation and of its colloidal properties on the fiber morphology as well as on the limonene encapsulation efficiency is described. The release profile of the fragrance from the electrospun nanofibers over a fifteen days range shows that this type of nanofibrous m...

  2. 7 CFR 1.51 - Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission. 1.51 Section 1.51 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Claims § 1.51 Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission. (a) Authority of the Department...

  3. Process engineering of high voltage alginate encapsulation of mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryshkov, Oleksandr; Pogozhykh, Denys; Zernetsch, Holger; Hofmann, Nicola; Mueller, Thomas; Glasmacher, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Encapsulation of stem cells in alginate beads is promising as a sophisticated drug delivery system in treatment of a wide range of acute and chronic diseases. However, common use of air flow encapsulation of cells in alginate beads fails to produce beads with narrow size distribution, intact spherical structure and controllable sizes that can be scaled up. Here we show that high voltage encapsulation (≥ 15 kV) can be used to reproducibly generate spherical alginate beads (200–400 μm) with narrow size distribution (± 5–7%) in a controlled manner under optimized process parameters. Flow rate of alginate solution ranged from 0.5 to 10 ml/h allowed producing alginate beads with a size of 320 and 350 μm respectively, suggesting that this approach can be scaled up. Moreover, we found that applied voltages (15–25 kV) did not alter the viability and proliferation of encapsulated mesenchymal stem cells post-encapsulation and cryopreservation as compared to air flow. We are the first who employed a comparative analysis of electro-spraying and air flow encapsulation to study the effect of high voltage on alginate encapsulated cells. This report provides background in application of high voltage to encapsulate living cells for further medical purposes. Long-term comparison and work on alginate–cell interaction within these structures will be forthcoming. - Highlights: • High voltage alginate encapsulation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was designed. • Reproducible and spherical alginate beads were generated via high voltage. • Air flow encapsulation was utilized as a comparative approach to high voltage. • High voltage did not alter the viability and proliferation of encapsulated MSCs. • High voltage encapsulation can be scaled up and applied in cell-based therapy

  4. Ultrasonographic findings of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jong Kyu; Lee, Hae Kyung; Moon, Chul; Hong, Hyun Sook; Kwon, Kwi Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin [Soonchunhyangi University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of the patients with sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP). Thirteen patients with surgically confirmed sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis were involved in this study. Because of intestinal obstruction, all patients had received operations. Among 13 patients, 12 cases had continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) for 2 months-12 years and 4 months from (mean; 6 years and 10 months), owing to chronic renal failure and one patient had an operation due to variceal bleeding caused by liver cirrhosis. On ultrasonographic examination, all patients showed loculated ascites which were large (n=7) or small (n=6) in amount with multiple separations. The small bowel loops were tethered posteriorly perisaltic movement and covered with the thick membrane. The ultrasonographic of findings of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis were posteriorly tethered small bowels covered with a thick membrane and loculated ascites with multiple septa. Ultrasonographic examination can detect the thin membrane covering the small bowel loops in the early phase of the disease, therefore ultrasonography would be a helpful modality to diagnose SEP early.

  5. Improvement of Stability and Antioxidant Activities by Using Phycocyanin - Chitosan Encapsulation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzery, Meiny; Hadiyanto; Majid, Dian; Setyawan, Deny; Sutanto, Heri

    2017-02-01

    Encapsulation is a coating process to improve the stability of bioactive compounds. Phycocyanin with high antioxidant activity has been encapsulated with chitosan in microcapsules form. In this study aims to determine the best conditions in the encapsulation process using the extrusion method, characterization of the physicochemical properties of the microcapsules, antioxidant activity test using DPPH, in vitro release performance and evaluate the storage stability against temperature. The results of the encapsulation process is obtained: Na-TPP is better than Na-citrate as crosslinker and chitosan content 3% as a coating with ratio of chitosan to phycocyanin ratio 1: 1. Test of antioxidant activity also showed encapsulation with chitosan content 3% has the highest antioxidant activity. Morphological analysis microcapsules were found to have compact spherical shape with diameter range 900-1000 µm. In vitro release testing showed a quick release in an acidic environment (SGF) for 2 hours and slowly release under alkaline conditions (SIF) for 8 hours under mechanical stirring at 37°C. Phycocyanin much more stable against temperature during storage in microcapsules.

  6. Encapsulation process for diffraction gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzsch, Stephan; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas; Szeghalmi, Adriana

    2015-07-13

    Encapsulation of grating structures facilitates an improvement of the optical functionality and/or adds mechanical stability to the fragile structure. Here, we introduce novel encapsulation process of nanoscale patterns based on atomic layer deposition and micro structuring. The overall size of the encapsulated structured surface area is only restricted by the size of the available microstructuring and coating devices; thus, overcoming inherent limitations of existing bonding processes concerning cleanliness, roughness, and curvature of the components. Finally, the process is demonstrated for a transmission grating. The encapsulated grating has 97.5% transmission efficiency in the -1st diffraction order for TM-polarized light, and is being limited by the experimental grating parameters as confirmed by rigorous coupled wave analysis.

  7. The Use and Influence of Comparative Law in ‘Wrongful Life’ Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Giesen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In analysing 'wrongful life' cases, comparative law is used extensively. This article examines these wrongful life cases, especially in light of the contradicting outcomes in different jurisdictions across the world, with the Dutch Kelly case and the South African decision in Stewart v Botha as its main examples. I will test the hypothesis that it is not so much the outcomes and (more importantly the arguments found elsewhere through the comparative law method that are decisive in highly debated cases like those concerning wrongful life, but that instead it is something else that decides the issue, something I would define as the cultural background of, or the legal policies within a tort law system.

  8. Antidiabetic activity from cinnamaldydhe encapsulated by nanochitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purbowatingrum; Ngadiwiyana; Fachriyah, E.; Ismiyarto; Ariestiani, B.; Khikmah

    2018-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and metabolic disorders of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats due to reduced function of insulin. Treatment of diabetes can be done by insulin therapy or hypoglycemic drugs. Hypoglycemic drugs usually contain compounds that can inhibit the action of α-glucosidase enzymes that play a role in breaking carbohydrates into blood sugar. Cinnamaldehyde has α-glucosidase inhibit activity because it has a functional group of alkene that is conjugated with a benzene ring and a carbonyl group. However, the use of this compound still provides unsatisfactory results due to its degradation during the absorption process. The solution offered to solve the problem is by encapsulated it within chitosan nanoparticles that serve to protect the bioactive compound from degradation, increases of solubility and delivery of a bioactive compound to the target site by using freeze-drying technique. The value of encapsulation efficiency (EE) of cinnamaldyhde which encapsulated within chitosan nanoparticles is about 74%. Inhibition test result showed that cinnamaldehyde-chitosan nanoparticles at 100 ppm could inhibit α-glucosidase activity in 23.9% with 134,13 in IC50. So it can be concluded that cinnamaldehyde can be encapsulated in nanoparticles of chitosan and proved that it could inhibit α-glucosidase.

  9. Exploring encapsulation mechanism of DNA and mononucleotides in sol-gel derived silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusuz, Derya; Durucan, Caner

    2017-07-01

    The encapsulation mechanism of DNA in sol-gel derived silica has been explored in order to elucidate the effect of DNA conformation on encapsulation and to identify the nature of chemical/physical interaction of DNA with silica during and after sol-gel transition. In this respect, double stranded DNA and dAMP (2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-monophosphate) were encapsulated in silica using an alkoxide-based sol-gel route. Biomolecule-encapsulating gels have been characterized using UV-Vis, 29 Si NMR, FTIR spectroscopy and gas adsorption (BET) to investigate chemical interactions of biomolecules with the porous silica network and to examine the extent of sol-gel reactions upon encapsulation. Ethidium bromide intercalation and leach out tests showed that helix conformation of DNA was preserved after encapsulation. For both biomolecules, high water-to-alkoxide ratio promoted water-producing condensation and prevented alcoholic denaturation. NMR and FTIR analyses confirmed high hydraulic reactivity (water adsorption) for more silanol groups-containing DNA and dAMP encapsulated gels than plain silica gel. No chemical binding/interaction occurred between biomolecules and silica network. DNA and dAMP encapsulated silica gelled faster than plain silica due to basic nature of DNA or dAMP containing buffer solutions. DNA was not released from silica gels to aqueous environment up to 9 days. The chemical association between DNA/dAMP and silica host was through phosphate groups and molecular water attached to silanols, acting as a barrier around biomolecules. The helix morphology was found not to be essential for such interaction. BET analyses showed that interconnected, inkbottle-shaped mesoporous silica network was condensed around DNA and dAMP molecules.

  10. Review of encapsulation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaulis, L.

    1996-09-01

    The use of encapsulation technology to produce a compliant waste form is an outgrowth from existing polymer industry technology and applications. During the past 12 years, the Department of Energy (DOE) has been researching the use of this technology to treat mixed wastes (i.e., containing hazardous and radioactive wastes). The two primary encapsulation techniques are microencapsulation and macroencapsulation. Microencapsulation is the thorough mixing of a binding agent with a powdered waste, such as incinerator ash. Macroencapsulation coats the surface of bulk wastes, such as lead debris. Cement, modified cement, and polyethylene are the binding agents which have been researched the most. Cement and modified cement have been the most commonly used binding agents to date. However, recent research conducted by DOE laboratories have shown that polyethylene is more durable and cost effective than cements. The compressive strength, leachability, resistance to chemical degradation, etc., of polyethylene is significantly greater than that of cement and modified cement. Because higher waste loads can be used with polyethylene encapsulant, the total cost of polyethylene encapsulation is significantly less costly than cement treatment. The only research lacking in the assessment of polyethylene encapsulation treatment for mixed wastes is pilot and full-scale testing with actual waste materials. To date, only simulated wastes have been tested. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site had planned to conduct pilot studies using actual wastes during 1996. This experiment should provide similar results to the previous tests that used simulated wastes. If this hypothesis is validated as anticipated, it will be clear that polyethylene encapsulation should be pursued by DOE to produce compliant waste forms

  11. Psychopaths know right from wrong but don’t care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnaer, Franca; Hauser, Marc D.

    2010-01-01

    Adult psychopaths have deficits in emotional processing and inhibitory control, engage in morally inappropriate behavior, and generally fail to distinguish moral from conventional violations. These observations, together with a dominant tradition in the discipline which sees emotional processes as causally necessary for moral judgment, have led to the conclusion that psychopaths lack an understanding of moral rights and wrongs. We test an alternative explanation: psychopaths have normal understanding of right and wrong, but abnormal regulation of morally appropriate behavior. We presented psychopaths with moral dilemmas, contrasting their judgments with age- and sex-matched (i) healthy subjects and (ii) non-psychopathic, delinquents. Subjects in each group judged cases of personal harms (i.e. requiring physical contact) as less permissible than impersonal harms, even though both types of harms led to utilitarian gains. Importantly, however, psychopaths’ pattern of judgments on different dilemmas was the same as those of the other subjects. These results force a rejection of the strong hypothesis that emotional processes are causally necessary for judgments of moral dilemmas, suggesting instead that psychopaths understand the distinction between right and wrong, but do not care about such knowledge, or the consequences that ensue from their morally inappropriate behavior. PMID:20053752

  12. The improved stability of enzyme encapsulated in biomimetic titania particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yanjun; Sun Qianyun; Jiang Zhongyi; Zhang Lei; Li Jian; Li Lin; Sun Xiaohui

    2009-01-01

    This study demonstrates a novel biomimetic approach for the entrapment of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) within titania nanoparticles to improve its stability. Protamine was as the template and catalyst for the condensation of titanium (IV) bis(ammonium lactato) dihydroxide (Ti-BALDH) into titania nanoparticles in which YADH was trapped. The as-prepared titania/protamine/YADH composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The mechanism of YADH encapsulation was tentatively proposed from a series of experimental results. The preliminary investigation showed that encapsulated YADH could retain most of its initial activity. Compared to free YADH, encapsulated YADH exhibited significantly improved thermal, pH and recycling stability. After 5 weeks storage, no substantial loss of catalytic activity for encapsulated YADH was observed

  13. Co-encapsulation of lyoprotectants improves the stability of protein-loaded PLGA nanoparticles upon lyophilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonte, Pedro; Araújo, Francisca; Seabra, Vítor

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the influence of the co-encapsulation of lyoprotectants with insulin into PLGA nanoparticles, on the stability of the protein and nanoparticles upon lyophilization. Different lyoprotectants were used, namely trehalose, glucose, sucrose, fructose and sorbitol...... formulations with externally added lyoprotectants, except trehalose, showed crystallinity. FTIR assessment showed that co-encapsulating lyoprotectants better preserved insulin structure upon lyophilization with a spectral area overlap of 82-87%, compared to only 72% in lyoprotectant absence. These results were...... confirmed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Surprisingly, the simultaneous co-encapsulation and addition of lyoprotectants was detrimental to protein stabilization. The insulin in vitro release studies demonstrated that formulations with co-encapsulated trehalose, glucose, sucrose, fructose and sorbitol...

  14. The Growing Acknowledgement of Wrongful Conviction – The Australian Response Within an International Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Weathered

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The wrongful conviction of innocent people is being acknowledged in an increasing number of countries around the world. The problem of wrongful conviction is now framed as an international human rights issue. More attention is being given to whether criminal justice systems are providing sufficient measures for the effective review and rectification of wrongful convictions and whether international obligations in that regard are being met. England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Norway, Canada and the United States have substantial new mechanisms in place to better identify and correct wrongful convictions but Australia has been slower to respond. While some Australian states have introduced reforms such as DNA innocence testing and a new appeal avenue, many issues remain as highlighted in recent debates as to whether Australia should establish a Criminal Cases Review Commission.

  15. The causal cognition of wrong doing: incest, intentionality and morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita eAstuti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the role of intentionality in reasoning about wrong doing. Anthropologists have claimed that, in certain non-western societies, people ignore whether an act of wrong doing is committed intentionally or accidentally. To examine this proposition, we look at the case of Madagascar. We start by analyzing how Malagasy people respond to incest, and we find that in this case they do not seem to take intentionality into account: catastrophic consequences follow even if those who commit incest are not aware that they are related as kin; punishment befalls on innocent people; and the whole community is responsible for repairing the damage. However, by looking at how people reason about other types of wrong doing, we show that the role of intentionality is well understood, and that in fact this is so even in the case of incest. We therefore argue that, when people contemplate incest and its consequences, they simultaneously consider two quite different issues: the issue of intentionality and blame, and the much more troubling and dumbfounding issue of what society would be like if incest were to be permitted. This entails such a fundamental attack on kinship and on the very basis of society thatissues of intentionality and blame become irrelevant. Using the insights we derive from this Malagasy case study, we re-examine the results of Haidt’s psychological experiment on moral dumbfoundedness, which uses a story about incest between siblings as one of its test scenarios. We suggest that the dumbfoundedness that was documented among North American students may be explained by the same kind of complexity that we found in Madagascar. In light of this, we discuss the methodological limitations of experimental protocols, which are unable to grasp multiple levels of response. We also note the limitations of anthropological methods and the benefits of closer cross-disciplinary collaboration.

  16. Dysprosium Acetylacetonato Single-Molecule Magnet Encapsulated in Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Nakanishi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dy single-molecule magnets (SMMs, which have several potential uses in a variety of applications, such as quantum computing, were encapsulated in multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs by using a capillary method. Encapsulation was confirmed by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. In alternating current magnetic measurements, the magnetic susceptibilities of the Dy acetylacetonato complexes showed clear frequency dependence even inside the MWCNTs, meaning that this hybrid can be used as magnetic materials in devices.

  17. Encapsulation of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.L.; Boyle, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Toxic waste materials are encapsulated by the method wherein the waste material in liquid or finely divided solid form is uniformly dispersed in a vinyl ester resin or an unsaturated polyester and the resin cured under conditions that the exotherm does not rise above the temperature at which the integrity of the encapsulating material is destroyed

  18. Transport of encapsulated nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broman, Ulrika; Dybeck, Peter; Ekendahl, Ann-Mari

    2005-12-01

    The transport system for encapsulated fuel is described, including a preliminary drawing of a transport container. In the report, the encapsulation plant is assumed to be located to Oskarshamn, and the repository to Oskarshamn or Forsmark

  19. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) encapsulated hydroxyapatite microspheres for sustained release of doxycycline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoyun; Xu Hui; Zhao Yanqiu; Wang Shaoning; Abe, Hiroya; Naito, Makio; Liu Yanli; Wang Guoqing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PLGA encapsulated HAP-MSs were used for the sustained delivery of Doxycycline (Doxy, a broad spectrum tetracycline antibiotic). ► Sustained Doxy release without obvious burst was observed. ► Mechanism of the sustained Doxy release was illustrated. ► Sustained Doxy release character in vivo was also obtained, the plasma Doxy levels were relatively lower and steady compared to that of the un-encapsulated HAP-MSs. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to prepare a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) encapsulated hydroxyapatite microspheres (HAP-MSs) as injectable depot for sustained delivery of Doxycycline (Doxy). Doxy loaded HAP-MSs (Doxy-HAP-MSs) were encapsulated with PLGA by solid-in-oil-in-water (S/O/W) emulsion-solvent evaporation technique, the effects of the PLGA used (various intrinsic viscosity and LA/GA ratio) and ratio of PLGA/HAP-MSs on the formation of Doxy-HAP-MSs and in vitro release of Doxy were studied. The results showed that sustained drug release without obvious burst was obtained by using PLGA encapsulated HAP-MSs as the carrier, also the drug release rate could be tailored by changing the ratio of PLGA/HAP-MSs, or PLGA of various intrinsic viscosities or LA/GA ratio. Lower ratio of PLGA/HAP-MSs corresponded faster Doxy release, e.g. for the microspheres of PLGA/HAP-MSs ratio of 8 and 0.25, the in vitro Doxy release percents at the end of 7days were about 23% and 76%, respectively. Higher hydrophilicity (higher ratio of GA to LA) and lower molecular weight of PLGA corresponded to higher Doxy release rates. For in vivo release study, PLGA encapsulated HAP-MSs were subcutaneously injected to the back of mice, and the results showed good correlation between the in vivo and in vitro drug release. Meanwhile, the plasma Doxy levels after subcutaneous administration of PLGA encapsulated Doxy-HAP-MSs were relatively lower and steady compared to that of the un-encapsulated microspheres. In conclusion, PLGA encapsulated HAP-MSs may

  20. Legal liability for failure to prevent pregnancy (wrongful pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lodewicus Charl Coetzee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Can the conception of a child ever constitute damage recoverable in law? This article considers the liability of healthcare practitioners for failing to prevent a pregnancy. Developments leading to the recognition of wrongful pregnancy as a cause of (legal action in South Africa (SA, are briefly outlined. The salient points of the relevant judgments by SA courts are set out to expose the rationale underlying the judgments and to highlight that recognition of liability for wrongful pregnancy resulted from an application of fair and equitable principles of general application. Conduct that could expose practitioners to liability is identified from reported cases and inferred from general principles laid down in case law.

  1. OSR encapsulation basis -- 100-KW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meichle, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis for a change in the Operations Safety Requirement (OSR) encapsulated fuel storage requirements in the 105 KW fuel storage basin which will permit the handling and storing of encapsulated fuel in canisters which no longer have a water-free space in the top of the canister. The scope of this report is limited to providing the change from the perspective of the safety envelope (bases) of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and Operations Safety Requirements (OSR). It does not change the encapsulation process itself

  2. Micro-Encapsulation of Probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiners, Jean-Antoine

    Micro-encapsulation is defined as the technology for packaging with the help of protective membranes particles of finely ground solids, droplets of liquids or gaseous materials in small capsules that release their contents at controlled rates over prolonged periods of time under the influences of specific conditions (Boh, 2007). The material encapsulating the core is referred to as coating or shell.

  3. Encapsulation of Clay Platelets inside Latex Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, D.J.; Ming, W.; Herk, van A.M.; Fernando, R.H.; Sung, Li-Piin

    2009-01-01

    We present our recent attempts in encapsulating clay platelets inside latex particles by emulsion polymerization. Face modification of clay platelets by cationic exchange has been shown to be insufficient for clay encapsulation, leading to armored latex particles. Successful encapsulation of

  4. Energy policy - way out and wrong way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The way out, i.e. the right solution of the energy supply problem, is solar energy. The wrong way are high-temperature reactors and nuclear fusion. Arguments are put forward that nuclear fusion, considered an alternative to the harmful nuclear fission even by some nuclear opponents, is in fact equally harmful. (qui)

  5. Use of integrin-linked kinase to extend function of encapsulated pancreatic tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchette, James O; Langer, Steven J; Leinwand, Leslie L; Sahai, Suchit; Topiwala, Pritesh S; Anseth, Kristi S

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the impact of overexpression of an intracellular signaling protein, integrin-linked kinase (ILK), on the survival and function of encapsulated islet tissue used for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. The dimensions of the encapsulated tissue can impact the stresses placed on the tissue and ILK overexpression shows the ability to extend function of dissociated cells as well as intact islets. These results suggest that lost cell-extracellular matrix interactions in cell encapsulation systems can lead to decreased insulin secretion and ILK signaling is a target to overcome this phenomenon. (communication)

  6. Use of integrin-linked kinase to extend function of encapsulated pancreatic tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchette, James O [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Langer, Steven J; Leinwand, Leslie L [Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Sahai, Suchit; Topiwala, Pritesh S [Biomedical Engineering Program, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Anseth, Kristi S, E-mail: blanchej@cec.sc.ed [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We have studied the impact of overexpression of an intracellular signaling protein, integrin-linked kinase (ILK), on the survival and function of encapsulated islet tissue used for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. The dimensions of the encapsulated tissue can impact the stresses placed on the tissue and ILK overexpression shows the ability to extend function of dissociated cells as well as intact islets. These results suggest that lost cell-extracellular matrix interactions in cell encapsulation systems can lead to decreased insulin secretion and ILK signaling is a target to overcome this phenomenon. (communication)

  7. Encapsulation methods for organic electrical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Yigal D.; Chu, William Siu-Keung; MacQueen, David Brent; Shi, Yijian

    2013-06-18

    The disclosure provides methods and materials suitable for use as encapsulation barriers in electronic devices. In one embodiment, for example, there is provided an electroluminescent device or other electronic device encapsulated by alternating layers of a silicon-containing bonding material and a ceramic material. The encapsulation methods provide, for example, electronic devices with increased stability and shelf-life. The invention is useful, for example, in the field of microelectronic devices.

  8. The Reputational Consequences of Failed Replications and Wrongness Admission among Scientists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam K Fetterman

    Full Text Available Scientists are dedicating more attention to replication efforts. While the scientific utility of replications is unquestionable, the impact of failed replication efforts and the discussions surrounding them deserve more attention. Specifically, the debates about failed replications on social media have led to worry, in some scientists, regarding reputation. In order to gain data-informed insights into these issues, we collected data from 281 published scientists. We assessed whether scientists overestimate the negative reputational effects of a failed replication in a scenario-based study. Second, we assessed the reputational consequences of admitting wrongness (versus not as an original scientist of an effect that has failed to replicate. Our data suggests that scientists overestimate the negative reputational impact of a hypothetical failed replication effort. We also show that admitting wrongness about a non-replicated finding is less harmful to one's reputation than not admitting. Finally, we discovered a hint of evidence that feelings about the replication movement can be affected by whether replication efforts are aimed one's own work versus the work of another. Given these findings, we then present potential ways forward in these discussions.

  9. The Reputational Consequences of Failed Replications and Wrongness Admission among Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Adam K; Sassenberg, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Scientists are dedicating more attention to replication efforts. While the scientific utility of replications is unquestionable, the impact of failed replication efforts and the discussions surrounding them deserve more attention. Specifically, the debates about failed replications on social media have led to worry, in some scientists, regarding reputation. In order to gain data-informed insights into these issues, we collected data from 281 published scientists. We assessed whether scientists overestimate the negative reputational effects of a failed replication in a scenario-based study. Second, we assessed the reputational consequences of admitting wrongness (versus not) as an original scientist of an effect that has failed to replicate. Our data suggests that scientists overestimate the negative reputational impact of a hypothetical failed replication effort. We also show that admitting wrongness about a non-replicated finding is less harmful to one's reputation than not admitting. Finally, we discovered a hint of evidence that feelings about the replication movement can be affected by whether replication efforts are aimed one's own work versus the work of another. Given these findings, we then present potential ways forward in these discussions.

  10. Melting of Pb clusters encapsulated in large fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delogu, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Encapsulation significantly increases the melting point of nanometer-sized Pb particles with respect to the corresponding unsupported ones. Highlights: → Nanometer-sized Pb particles are encapsulated in fullerene cages. → Their thermal behavior is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. → Encapsulated particles undergo a pressure rise as temperature increases. → Encapsulated particles melt at temperatures higher than unsupported ones. - Abstract: Molecular dynamics simulations have been employed to explore the melting behavior of nanometer-sized Pb particles encapsulated in spherical and polyhedral fullerene cages of suitable size. The encapsulated particles, as well as the corresponding unsupported ones for comparison, were submitted to a gradual temperature rise. Encapsulation is shown to severely affect the thermodynamic behavior of Pb particles due to the different thermal expansion coefficients of particles and cages. This determines a volume constraint that induces a rise of pressure inside the fullerene cages, which operate for particles as rigid confinement systems. The result is that surface pre-melting and melting processes occur in encapsulated particles at temperatures higher than in unsupported ones.

  11. Photoinduced charge transfer within polyaniline-encapsulated quantum dots decorated on graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kim Truc; Li, Dehui; Borah, Parijat; Ma, Xing; Liu, Zhaona; Zhu, Liangliang; Grüner, George; Xiong, Qihua; Zhao, Yanli

    2013-08-28

    A new method to enhance the stability of quantum dots (QDs) in aqueous solution by encapsulating them with conducting polymer polyaniline was reported. The polyaniline-encapsulated QDs were then decorated onto graphene through π-π interactions between graphene and conjugated polymer shell of QDs, forming stable polyaniline/QD/graphene hybrid. A testing electronic device was fabricated using the hybrid in order to investigate the photoinduced charge transfer between graphene and encapsulated QDs within the hybrid. The charge transfer mechanism was explored through cyclic voltammetry and spectroscopic studies. The hybrid shows a clear response to the laser irradiation, presenting a great advantage for further applications in optoelectronic devices.

  12. Nanoprecipitation process: From encapsulation to drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Rivas, Claudia Janeth; Tarhini, Mohamad; Badri, Waisudin; Miladi, Karim; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Nazari, Qand Agha; Galindo Rodríguez, Sergio Arturo; Román, Rocío Álvarez; Fessi, Hatem; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2017-10-30

    Drugs encapsulation is a suitable strategy in order to cope with the limitations of conventional dosage forms such as unsuitable bioavailability, stability, taste, and odor. Nanoprecipitation technique has been used in the pharmaceutical and agricultural research as clean alternative for other drug carrier formulations. This technique is based on precipitation mechanism. Polymer precipitation occurs after the addition of a non-solvent to a polymer solution in four steps mechanism: supersaturation, nucleation, growth by condensation, and growth by coagulation that leads to the formation of polymer nanoparticles or aggregates. The scale-up of laboratory-based nanoprecipitation method shows a good reproducibility. In addition, flash nanoprecipitation is a good strategy for industrial scale production of nanoparticles. Nanoprecipitation is usually used for encapsulation of hydrophobic or hydrophilic compounds. Nanoprecipitation was also shown to be a good alternative for the encapsulation of natural compounds. As a whole, process and formulation related parameters in nanoprecipitation technique have critical effect on nanoparticles characteristics. Biodegradable or non-biodegradable polymers have been used for the preparation of nanoparticles intended to in vivo studies. Literature studies have demonstrated the biodistribution of the active loaded nanoparticles in different organs after administration via various routes. In general, in vitro drug release from nanoparticles prepared by nanoprecipitation includes two phases: a first phase of "burst release" which is followed by a second phase of prolonged release. Moreover, many encapsulated active molecules have been commercialized in the pharmaceutical market. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) encapsulated hydroxyapatite microspheres for sustained release of doxycycline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaoyun [School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103, Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Department of Pharmacy, Shandong Drug and Food Vocational College, Science and Technology Town, Hightech Industrial Development Zone, Weihai 264210 (China); Xu Hui; Zhao Yanqiu [School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103, Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang Shaoning, E-mail: wsn-xh@126.com [School of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103, Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Abe, Hiroya; Naito, Makio [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1, Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Liu Yanli [School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103, Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang Guoqing [School of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103, Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PLGA encapsulated HAP-MSs were used for the sustained delivery of Doxycycline (Doxy, a broad spectrum tetracycline antibiotic). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustained Doxy release without obvious burst was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanism of the sustained Doxy release was illustrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustained Doxy release character in vivo was also obtained, the plasma Doxy levels were relatively lower and steady compared to that of the un-encapsulated HAP-MSs. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to prepare a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) encapsulated hydroxyapatite microspheres (HAP-MSs) as injectable depot for sustained delivery of Doxycycline (Doxy). Doxy loaded HAP-MSs (Doxy-HAP-MSs) were encapsulated with PLGA by solid-in-oil-in-water (S/O/W) emulsion-solvent evaporation technique, the effects of the PLGA used (various intrinsic viscosity and LA/GA ratio) and ratio of PLGA/HAP-MSs on the formation of Doxy-HAP-MSs and in vitro release of Doxy were studied. The results showed that sustained drug release without obvious burst was obtained by using PLGA encapsulated HAP-MSs as the carrier, also the drug release rate could be tailored by changing the ratio of PLGA/HAP-MSs, or PLGA of various intrinsic viscosities or LA/GA ratio. Lower ratio of PLGA/HAP-MSs corresponded faster Doxy release, e.g. for the microspheres of PLGA/HAP-MSs ratio of 8 and 0.25, the in vitro Doxy release percents at the end of 7days were about 23% and 76%, respectively. Higher hydrophilicity (higher ratio of GA to LA) and lower molecular weight of PLGA corresponded to higher Doxy release rates. For in vivo release study, PLGA encapsulated HAP-MSs were subcutaneously injected to the back of mice, and the results showed good correlation between the in vivo and in vitro drug release. Meanwhile, the plasma Doxy levels after subcutaneous administration of PLGA encapsulated Doxy-HAP-MSs were relatively lower and steady

  14. Modeling wrong-way crashes and fatalities on arterials and freeways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj V. Ponnaluri

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Wrong way driving (WWD research and mitigation measures have primarily focused on limited access facilities. This is most likely due to the higher incidence of fatal WWD crashes with dramatic consequences on freeways, media attention, and a call for innovative solutions to address the problem. While public agencies and published literature address WWD incidence on freeway systems, the crash analyses on non-limited access facilities, i.e., arterial corridors, remains untouched. This research extends previous works and attempts to provide many new perspectives on arterial WWD incidence. In particular, one work showed that while WWD fatalities are more likely to occur on freeways, the likelihood of these crashes is higher on arterials. Hence this work with univariate and multivariate analyses of WWD and non-WWD crashes, and fatal and non-fatal WWD incidents. Results show the impressive negative impacts of alcohol use, driver defect, nighttime and weekend incidence, poor street lighting, low traffic volumes, rural geography, and median and shoulder widths. The objective here is to highlight the need for paying greater attention to WWD crashes on arterial corridors as is done with fatal WWD incidents on freeway systems. It suffices to say that while engineering countermeasures should evolve from the traditional signing and pavement markings to connected vehicle technology applications, there is a clear and compelling need to focus on educational campaigns specifically targeting drunken driving, and enforcement initiatives with an objective to mitigate WWD in the most efficient manner possible. Keywords: Wrong-way driving, Modeling, Arterials and freeways, Logistic regression, Likelihood

  15. Stabilization of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase from Rhodotorula glutinis by Encapsulation in Polyethyleneimine-Mediated Biomimetic Silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jiandong; Liang, Longhao; Han, Cong; Lin Liu, Rong

    2015-06-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) from Rhodotorula glutinis was encapsulated within polyethyleneimine-mediated biomimetic silica. The main factors in the preparation of biomimetic silica were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Compared to free PAL (about 2 U), the encapsulated PAL retained more than 43 % of their initial activity after 1 h of incubation time at 60 °C, whereas free PAL lost most of activity in the same conditions. It was clearly indicated that the thermal stability of PAL was improved by encapsulation. Moreover, the encapsulated PAL exhibited the excellent stability of the enzyme against denaturants and storage stability, and pH stability was improved by encapsulation. Operational stability of 7 reaction cycles showed that the encapsulated PAL was stable. Nevertheless, the K m value of encapsulated PAL in biomimetic silica was higher than that of the free PAL due to lower total surface area and increased mass transfer resistance.

  16. Hybrid chip-on-board LED module with patterned encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soer, Wouter Anthon; Helbing, Rene; Huang, Guan

    2018-02-27

    Different wavelength conversion materials, or different concentrations of a wavelength conversion material are used to encapsulate the light emitting elements of different colors of a hybrid light emitting module. In an embodiment of this invention, second light emitting elements (170) of a particular color are encapsulated with a transparent second encapsulant (120;420;520), while first light emitting elements (160) of a different color are encapsulated with a wavelength conversion first encapsulant (110;410;510). In another embodiment of this invention, a particular second set of second and third light emitting elements (170,580) of different colors is encapsulated with a different encapsulant than another first set of first light emitting elements (160).

  17. Acoustically excited encapsulated microbubbles and mitigation of biofouling

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan

    2017-08-31

    Provided herein is a universally applicable biofouling mitigation technology using acoustically excited encapsulated microbubbles that disrupt biofilm or biofilm formation. For example, a method of reducing biofilm formation or removing biofilm in a membrane filtration system is provided in which a feed solution comprising encapsulated microbubbles is provided to the membrane under conditions that allow the encapsulated microbubbles to embed in a biofilm. Sonication of the embedded, encapsulated microbubbles disrupts the biofilm. Thus, provided herein is a membrane filtration system for performing the methods and encapsulated microbubbles specifically selected for binding to extracellular polymeric substances (EFS) in a biofilm.

  18. Perspective of metal encapsulation of waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual flow sheet is presented for encapsulating solid, stabilized calcine (e.g., supercalcine) in a solid lead alloy, using existing or developing technologies. Unresolved and potential problem areas of the flow sheet are outlined and suggestions are made as how metal encapsulation might be applied to other solid wastes from the fuel cycle. It is concluded that metal encapsulation is a technique applicable to many forms of solid wastes and is likely to meet future waste isolation criteria and regulations

  19. The Effect of Alcohol on Bead Performance of Encapsulated Iron Using Deacetylated Glucomannan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardhani Dyah H.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of encapsulation to protect iron from inhibitor degradation or oxidation depends on many factors including the excipient characteritics. Glucomannan, a neutral heterosaccharide, has a potential for the excipient. To improve the excipient performances, glucomannan is deacetylated to remove the acetyl groups by reacted with Na2CO3. This deacylated glucomannan is subject to bead formation after iron loading. The alcohol solution is commonly used in bead forming as dehydration medium during the encapsulation process. The objective of this work was to study the effect of alcohol on the bead performance of encapsulated iron using deacetylated glucomannan. The bead forming was conducted by dropping the excipient into ethanol and isopropyl alcohol (IPA solution at various concentrations (50, 60, 70, 80 and 90% and two condition temperatures (27-30° and 7-10°C. The encapsulation samples were subject to yield (YE and efficiency of encapsulation (EE. The concentration of alcohol showed a positive impact on the yield and efficiency of encapsulation. Ethanol has a better performance compared with that of IPA regarding yield and efficiency of encapsulation. The optimum of yield bead formation (69.67% and highest EE (66.80% were obtained at 90% ethanol. Temperature of dehydration did not affect the YE and EE significantly.

  20. High throughput single-cell and multiple-cell micro-encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagus, Todd P; Edd, Jon F

    2012-06-15

    Microfluidic encapsulation methods have been previously utilized to capture cells in picoliter-scale aqueous, monodisperse drops, providing confinement from a bulk fluid environment with applications in high throughput screening, cytometry, and mass spectrometry. We describe a method to not only encapsulate single cells, but to repeatedly capture a set number of cells (here we demonstrate one- and two-cell encapsulation) to study both isolation and the interactions between cells in groups of controlled sizes. By combining drop generation techniques with cell and particle ordering, we demonstrate controlled encapsulation of cell-sized particles for efficient, continuous encapsulation. Using an aqueous particle suspension and immiscible fluorocarbon oil, we generate aqueous drops in oil with a flow focusing nozzle. The aqueous flow rate is sufficiently high to create ordering of particles which reach the nozzle at integer multiple frequencies of the drop generation frequency, encapsulating a controlled number of cells in each drop. For representative results, 9.9 μm polystyrene particles are used as cell surrogates. This study shows a single-particle encapsulation efficiency P(k=1) of 83.7% and a double-particle encapsulation efficiency P(k=2) of 79.5% as compared to their respective Poisson efficiencies of 39.3% and 33.3%, respectively. The effect of consistent cell and particle concentration is demonstrated to be of major importance for efficient encapsulation, and dripping to jetting transitions are also addressed. Continuous media aqueous cell suspensions share a common fluid environment which allows cells to interact in parallel and also homogenizes the effects of specific cells in measurements from the media. High-throughput encapsulation of cells into picoliter-scale drops confines the samples to protect drops from cross-contamination, enable a measure of cellular diversity within samples, prevent dilution of reagents and expressed biomarkers, and amplify

  1. Dendrimer encapsulated Silver nanoparticles as novel catalysts for reduction of aromatic nitro compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asharani, I. V.; Thirumalai, D.; Sivakumar, A.

    2017-11-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) core dendrimer encapsulated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized through normal chemical reduction method, where dendrimer acts as reducing and stabilizing agent. The encapsulated AgNPs were well characterized using TEM, DLS and XPS techniques. The synthesized AgNPs showed excellent catalytic activity towards the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds with sodium borohydride as reducing agent and the results substantiate that dendrimer encapsulated AgNPs can be an effective catalyst for the substituted nitro aromatic reduction reactions. Also the kinetics of different nitro compounds reductions was studied and presented.

  2. Polypeptide-based nanogels co-encapsulating a synergistic combination of doxorubicin with 17-AAG show potent anti-tumor activity in ErbB2-driven breast cancer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desale, Swapnil S; Raja, Srikumar M; Kim, Jong Oh; Mohapatra, Bhopal; Soni, Kruti S; Luan, Haitao; Williams, Stetson H; Bielecki, Timothy A; Feng, Dan; Storck, Matthew; Band, Vimla; Cohen, Samuel M; Band, Hamid; Bronich, Tatiana K

    2015-06-28

    ErbB2-driven breast cancers constitute 20-25% of the cases diagnosed within the USA. The humanized anti-ErbB2 monoclonal antibody, Trastuzumab (Herceptin™; Genentech), with chemotherapy is the current standard of treatment. Novel agents and strategies continue to be explored, given the challenges posed by Trastuzumab-resistance development in most patients. The HSP90 inhibitor, 17-allylaminodemethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), which induces ErbB2 degradation and attenuates downstream oncogenic signaling, is one such agent that showed significant promise in early phase I and II clinical trials. Its low water solubility, potential toxicities and undesirable side effects observed in patients, partly due to the Cremophor-based formulation, have been discouraging factors in the advancement of this promising drug into clinical use. Encapsulation of 17-AAG into polymeric nanoparticle formulations, particularly in synergistic combination with conventional chemotherapeutics, represents an alternative approach to overcome these problems. Herein, we report an efficient co-encapsulation of 17-AAG and doxorubicin, a clinically well-established and effective modality in breast cancer treatment, into biodegradable and biocompatible polypeptide-based nanogels. Dual drug-loaded nanogels displayed potent cytotoxicity in a breast cancer cell panel and exerted selective synergistic anticancer activity against ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines. Analysis of ErbB2 degradation confirmed efficient 17-AAG release from nanogels with activity comparable to free 17-AAG. Furthermore, nanogels containing both 17-AAG and doxorubicin exhibited superior antitumor efficacy in vivo in an ErbB2-driven xenograft model compared to the combination of free drugs. These studies demonstrate that polypeptide-based nanogels can serve as novel nanocarriers for encapsulating 17-AAG along with other chemotherapeutics, providing an opportunity to overcome solubility issues and thereby exploit its full

  3. Elevating bioavailability of curcumin via encapsulation with a novel formulation of artificial oil bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Tsung; Tsai, Tong-Rong; Lee, Chun-Yann; Wei, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Ying-Jie; Chen, Chun-Ren; Tzen, Jason T C

    2013-10-09

    Utilization of curcumin has been limited due to its poor oral bioavailability. Oral bioavailability of hydrophobic compounds might be elevated via encapsulation in artificial seed oil bodies. This study aimed to improve oral bioavailability of curcumin via this encapsulation. Unfortunately, curcumin was indissoluble in various seed oils. A mixed dissolvent formula was used to dissolve curcumin, and the admixture was successfully encapsulated in artificial oil bodies stabilized by recombinant sesame caleosin. The artificial oil bodies of relatively small sizes (150 nm) were stably solidified in the forms of powder and tablet. Oral bioavailability of curcumin with or without encapsulation in artificial oil bodies was assessed in Sprague-Dawley male rats. The results showed that encapsulation of curcumin significantly elevated its bioavailability and provided the highest maximum whole blood concentration (Cmax), 37 ± 28 ng/mL, in the experimental animals 45 ± 17 min (t(max)) after oral administration. Relative bioavailability calculated on the basis of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) was increased by 47.7 times when curcumin was encapsulated in the artificial oil bodies. This novel formulation of artificial oil bodies seems to possess great potential to encapsulate hydrophobic drugs for oral administration.

  4. Optimization of NMR spectroscopy of encapsulated proteins dissolved in low viscosity fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucci, Nathaniel V.; Marques, Bryan S.; Bédard, Sabrina; Dogan, Jakob; Gledhill, John M.; Moorman, Veronica R.; Peterson, Ronald W.; Valentine, Kathleen G.; Wand, Alison L.; Wand, A. Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive application of solution NMR spectroscopy to studies of macromolecules remains fundamentally limited by the molecular rotational correlation time. For proteins, molecules larger than 30 kDa require complex experimental methods, such as TROSY in conjunction with isotopic labeling schemes that are often expensive and generally reduce the potential information available. We have developed the reverse micelle encapsulation strategy as an alternative approach. Encapsulation of proteins within the protective nano-scale water pool of a reverse micelle dissolved in ultra-low viscosity nonpolar solvents overcomes the slow tumbling problem presented by large proteins. Here, we characterize the contributions from the various components of the protein-containing reverse micelle system to the rotational correlation time of the encapsulated protein. Importantly, we demonstrate that the protein encapsulated in the reverse micelle maintains a hydration shell comparable in size to that seen in bulk solution. Using moderate pressures, encapsulation in ultra-low viscosity propane or ethane can be used to magnify this advantage. We show that encapsulation in liquid ethane can be used to reduce the tumbling time of the 43 kDa maltose binding protein from ∼23 to ∼10 ns. These conditions enable, for example, acquisition of TOCSY-type data resolved on the adjacent amide NH for the 43 kDa encapsulated maltose binding protein dissolved in liquid ethane, which is typically impossible for proteins of such size without use of extensive deuteration or the TROSY effect.

  5. Nanovesicle encapsulation of antimicrobial peptide P34: physicochemical characterization and mode of action on Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Malheiros, Patrícia; Sant'Anna, Voltaire; Micheletto, Yasmine Miguel Serafini; da Silveira, Nadya Pesce; Brandelli, Adriano

    2011-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptide P34, a substance showing antibacterial activity against pathogenic and food spoilage bacteria, was encapsulated in liposomes prepared from partially purified soybean phosphatidylcholine, and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity was estimated by agar diffusion assay using Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 as indicator strain. A concentration of 3,200 AU/mL of P34 was encapsulated in nanovesicles and stocked at 4 °C. No significant difference ( p > 0.05) in the biological activity of free and encapsulated P34 was observed through 24 days. Size and PDI of liposomes, investigated by light scattering analysis, were on average 150 nm and 0.22 respectively. Zeta potential was -27.42 mV. There was no significant change ( p > 0.05) in the physicochemical properties of liposomes during the time of evaluation. The liposomes presented closed spherical morphology as visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mode of action of liposome-encapsulated P34 under L. monocytogenes cells was investigated by TEM. Liposomes appeared to adhere but not fuse with the bacterial cell wall, suggesting that the antimicrobial is released from nanovesicles to act against the microorganism. The effect of free and encapsulated P34 was tested against L. monocytogenes, showing that free bacteriocin inhibited the pathogen more quickly than the encapsulated P34. Liposomes prepared with low-cost lipid showed high encapsulation efficiency for a new antimicrobial peptide and were stable during storage. The mode of action against the pathogen L. monocytogenes was characterized.

  6. Polymeric nanoparticles encapsulating white tea extract for nutraceutical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Vanna; Lubinu, Giuseppe; Madau, Pierluigi; Pala, Nicolino; Nurra, Salvatore; Mariani, Alberto; Sechi, Mario

    2015-02-25

    With the aim to obtain controlled release and to preserve the antioxidant activity of the polyphenols, nanoencapsulation of white tea extract into polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and alginate was successfully performed. NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method and were characterized in terms of morphology and chemical properties. Total polyphenols and catechins contents before and after encapsulation were determined. Moreover, in vitro release profiles of encapsulated polyphenols from NPs were investigated in simulated gastrointestinal fluids. The antioxidant activity and stability of encapsulated extract were further evaluated. Interestingly, NPs released 20% of the polyphenols in simulated gastric medium, and 80% after 5 h at pH 7.4, showing a good capacity to control the polyphenols delivery. Furthermore, DPPH(•) assay confirmed that white tea extract retained its antioxidant activity and NPs protected tea polyphenols from degradation, thus opening new perspectives for the exploitation of white tea extract-loaded NPs for nutraceutical applications.

  7. Encapsulation of strontium aluminate phosphors to enhance water resistance and luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yong; Zeng Jianghua; Li Wenyu; Xu Li; Guan Qiu; Liu Yingliang

    2009-01-01

    Strontium aluminate SrAl 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ ,Dy 3+ phosphors are chemically unstable against water or even moisture. To enhance the water resistance of the phosphors, an encapsulation was performed by direct surface reactions with phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ). The morphology, surface structure, surface element composition, water resistance, luminescence, and photoacoustic spectrum of the phosphors before and after encapsulation were discussed. Experimental results showed that phosphors were perfectly encapsulated by amorphous layers in nanoscale and crystalline layers in microscale under different conditions. The water resistance of phosphors was greatly enhanced by the two types of layer. More importantly, the amorphous layers enhanced the luminescence of phosphors markedly. The possible mechanism for the enhancements was also proposed.

  8. Encapsulation of metalloporphyrins improves their capacity to block the viability of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Eduardo; Iglesias, Bernardo A; Deda, Daiana K; Budu, Alexandre; Matias, Tiago A; Bueno, Vânia B; Maluf, Fernando V; Guido, Rafael V C; Oliva, Glaucius; Catalani, Luiz H; Araki, Koiti; Garcia, Celia R S

    2015-02-01

    Several synthetic metallated protoporphyrins (M-PPIX) were tested for their ability to block the cell cycle of the lethal human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. After encapsulating the porphyrin derivatives in micro- and nanocapsules of marine atelocollagen, their effects on cultures of red blood cells infected (RBC) with P. falciparum were verified. RBCs infected with synchronized P. falciparum incubated for 48 h showed a toxic effect over a micromolar range. Strikingly, the IC50 of encapsulated metalloporphyrins reached nanomolar concentrations, where Zn-PPIX showed the best antimalarial effect, with an IC50=330 nM. This value is an 80-fold increase in the antimalarial activity compared to the antimalarial effect of non-encapsulated Zn-PPIX. These findings reveal that the incubation of P. falciparum infected-RBCs with 20 μM Zn-PPIX reduced the size of hemozoin crystal by 34%, whereas a 28% reduction was noticed with chloroquine, confirming the importance of heme detoxification pathway in drug therapy. In this study, synthetic metalloporphyrins were tested as therapeutics that target Plasmodium falciparum. The IC50 of encapsulated metalloporphyrins was found to be in the nanomolar concentration range, with encapsulated Zn-PPIX showing an 80-fold increase in its antimalarial activity compared to the non-encapsulated form. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Limonene encapsulation in freeze dried gellan systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evageliou, Vasiliki; Saliari, Dimitra

    2017-05-15

    The encapsulation of limonene in freeze-dried gellan systems was investigated. Surface and encapsulated limonene content was determined by measurement of the absorbance at 252nm. Gellan matrices were both gels and solutions. For a standard gellan concentration (0.5wt%) gelation was induced by potassium or calcium chloride. Furthermore, gellan solutions of varying concentrations (0.25-1wt%) were also studied. Limonene was added at two different concentrations (1 and 2mL/100g sample). Gellan gels encapsulated greater amounts of limonene than solutions. Among all gellan gels, the KCl gels had the greater encapsulated limonene content. However, when the concentration of limonene was doubled in these KCl gels, the encapsulated limonene decreased. The surface limonene content was significant, especially for gellan solutions. The experimental conditions and not the mechanical properties of the matrices were the dominant factor in the interpretation of the observed results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Preliminary investigation of cryopreservation by encapsulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of Brassidium Shooting Star, a new commercial ornamental orchid hybrid, were cryopreserved by an encapsulation-dehydration technique. The effects of PLB size, various sucrose concentrations in preculture media and sodium alginate concentration for encapsulation were the main ...

  11. UV-screening chitosan nanocontainers: increasing the photostability of encapsulated materials and controlled release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anumansirikul, Nattaporm; Wittayasuporn, Mayura; Klinubol, Patcharawalai; Tachaprutinun, A; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason P

    2008-01-01

    Methyl ether terminated poly(ethylene glycol)-4-methoxycinnamoylphthaloylchitosan (PCPLC), a UV absorptive polymer, and methyl ether terminated poly(ethylene glycol)-phthaloylchitosan (PPLC) were synthesized, characterized and self-assembled into stable water-dispersible spherical nanoparticles. The encapsulation of a model compound, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), was carried out to give particles with 67% (w/w) EHMC loading. The E to Z photoisomerization of EHMC encapsulated inside both particles was monitored and compared to non-encapsulated EHMC. Minimal E to Z photoisomerization was observed when EHMC was encapsulated in PCPLC particles prepared from a polymer with a maximum degree of 4-methoxycinnamoyl substitution. The results indicated that the grafted UVB absorptive chromophore, 4-methoxycinnamoyl moieties, situated at the shell of PCPLC nanoparticles acted as a UV-filtering barrier, protecting the encapsulated EHMC from the UVB radiation, thus minimizing its photoisomerization. In vitro experiments revealed the pH-dependent controlled release of EHMC from PCPLC and PPLC particles. Ex vivo experiments, using a Franz diffusion cell with baby mouse skin, indicated that neither PPLC nor PCPLC particles could penetrate the skin into the receptor medium after a 24 h topical application. When applied on the baby mouse skin, both EHMC-encapsulated PPLC and EHMC-encapsulated PCPLC showed comparable controlled releases of the EHMC. The released EHMC could transdermally penetrate the baby mouse skin

  12. UV-screening chitosan nanocontainers: increasing the photostability of encapsulated materials and controlled release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumansirikul, Nattaporm; Wittayasuporn, Mayura; Klinubol, Patcharawalai; Tachaprutinun, A.; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason P.

    2008-05-01

    Methyl ether terminated poly(ethylene glycol)-4-methoxycinnamoylphthaloylchitosan (PCPLC), a UV absorptive polymer, and methyl ether terminated poly(ethylene glycol)-phthaloylchitosan (PPLC) were synthesized, characterized and self-assembled into stable water-dispersible spherical nanoparticles. The encapsulation of a model compound, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), was carried out to give particles with 67% (w/w) EHMC loading. The E to Z photoisomerization of EHMC encapsulated inside both particles was monitored and compared to non-encapsulated EHMC. Minimal E to Z photoisomerization was observed when EHMC was encapsulated in PCPLC particles prepared from a polymer with a maximum degree of 4-methoxycinnamoyl substitution. The results indicated that the grafted UVB absorptive chromophore, 4-methoxycinnamoyl moieties, situated at the shell of PCPLC nanoparticles acted as a UV-filtering barrier, protecting the encapsulated EHMC from the UVB radiation, thus minimizing its photoisomerization. In vitro experiments revealed the pH-dependent controlled release of EHMC from PCPLC and PPLC particles. Ex vivo experiments, using a Franz diffusion cell with baby mouse skin, indicated that neither PPLC nor PCPLC particles could penetrate the skin into the receptor medium after a 24 h topical application. When applied on the baby mouse skin, both EHMC-encapsulated PPLC and EHMC-encapsulated PCPLC showed comparable controlled releases of the EHMC. The released EHMC could transdermally penetrate the baby mouse skin.

  13. Photovoltaic module encapsulation design and materials selection, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, E.; Carroll, W.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Encapsulation material system requirements, material selection criteria, and the status and properties of encapsulation materials and processes available are presented. Technical and economic goals established for photovoltaic modules and encapsulation systems and their status are described. Available encapsulation technology and data are presented to facilitate design and material selection for silicon flat plate photovoltaic modules, using the best materials available and processes optimized for specific power applications and geographic sites. The operational and environmental loads that encapsulation system functional requirements and candidate design concepts and materials that are identified to have the best potential to meet the cost and performance goals for the flat plate solar array project are described. Available data on encapsulant material properties, fabrication processing, and module life and durability characteristics are presented.

  14. Impact of culture conditions on β-carotene encapsulation using Yarrowia lipolytica cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Tran Hai; Minh, Ho Thi Thu; Van Nhi, Tran Nguyen; Ngoc, Ta Thi Minh

    2017-09-01

    Yeast cell was reported as an effective natural preformed material for use in encapsulation of hydrophobic compounds. The encapsulation process was normally considered as passive transfer through cellular wall and cellular membrane. Beside solubility of hydrophobic compound in phospholipid membrane or plasmolysis, membrane characteristics of yeast cell which are differed between strains and influenced by culture conditions are main factors involving the accumulation of hydrophobic compound into yeast cell. In this study, the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica was used as micro-container shell to encapsulate a high hydrophobic compound - β-carotene. Yeast cell was cultured under different conditions and wet yeast biomass was incubated with β-carotene which was dissolved in soybean oil overnight. β-carotene accumulation was then extracted and evaluated by UV-VIS spectrometry. Optimization of culture condition was investigated using the Box-Behnken model. β-carotene encapsulation efficiency in Y. lipolytica was showed to be affected by both pH of medium and agitation conditions. The highest β-carotene encapsulation efficiency was optimized at 42.8 μg/g with Y. lipolytica cultured at pH 4.5, medium volume equal to 115 ml and agitation speed at 211 rpm.

  15. Characterization of Encapsulated Corrosion Inhibitors Containing Microparticles for Environmentally Friendly Smart Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Benjamin Pieter; Calle, Luz M.

    2015-01-01

    This poster presents the results obtained from experiments designed to evaluate the release properties, as well as the corrosion inhibition effectiveness, of several encapsulated corrosion inhibitors. Microencapsulation has been used in the development of environmentally friendly multifunctional smart coatings. This technique enables the incorporation of autonomous corrosion detection, inhibition and self-healing functionalities into many commercially available coating systems. Select environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated in organic and inorganic pH-sensitive microparticles and their release in basic solutions was studied. The release rate results showed that the encapsulation can be tailored from fast, for immediate corrosion protection, to slow, which will provide continued long-term corrosion protection. The incorporation of several corrosion inhibitor release profiles into a coating provides effective corrosion protection properties. To investigate the corrosion inhibition efficiency of the encapsulated inhibitors, electrochemical techniques were used to obtain corrosion potential, polarization curve and polarization resistance data. These measurements were performed using the free as well as the encapsulated inhibitors singly or in combinations. Results from these electrochemical tests will be compared to those obtained from weight loss and other accelerated corrosion experiments.

  16. EXTRACELLULAR MIMETICS: A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF CELL ENCAPSULATION UTILIZING HYDROGELS AND SCAFFOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Vieira Grinet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro encapsulation platform utilizing hydrogels and bone matrix (BM scaffolds to investigate the effects of microenvironmental parameters on encapsulated goat mesenchymal stem cells (gMSC was presented. The base encapsulation matrix was composed of a biocompatible hydrogel formed through a photoinitiated polymerization process. Different polymer concentrations were used to compare the effects of hydrogel crosslinking density on physical properties, as well as on cell viability. The potential of BM to support the growth and differentiation of gMSC was also analyzed. Both methods were compared in order to analyze viability. Structures that better allow flow of oxygen showed more promising results, whereas BM structures require a better evaluation method for concrete results.

  17. Viscous effects in liquid encapsulated liquid bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Duane T.

    2002-01-01

    An analytical derivation of the surface deflections and the streamfunctions for the flow inside a liquid encapsulated liquid bridge has been derived using an asymptotic expansion about a small capillary number. The model assumes an initially flat and cylindrical interface under the assumption that the densities of both fluids are equal. To simplify the analysis, the top and bottom walls are assumed to be stress-free and the Reynolds number is assumed to be negligible. Flow is generated either by a moving outer wall (shear-driven flow) or by applying a temperature difference across the top and bottom walls (Marangoni-driven flow). The resulting equations show that for the shear-driven flow, as the viscosity ratio increases, the surface deflections increase monotonically. For the Marangoni-driven flow there exist values of the viscosity ratio where the surface deflections reach a minimum and then switch signs. This investigation shows that it may be possible in more realistic systems to use an outer encapsulating liquid of the proper viscosity ratio to stabilize the liquid-liquid interface during float zone crystal growth

  18. Polyphosphonate induced coacervation of chitosan: Encapsulation of proteins/enzymes and their biosensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hailing; Cui, Yanyun; Li, Pan; Zhou, Yiming; Chen, Yu; Tang, Yawen; Lu, Tianhong

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Based on the coacervation of chitosan via the ionotropic crosslinking interaction, proteins/enzymes can be encapsulated in situ into chitosan matrix. -- Highlights: •The ionotropic crosslinking interactions result in the coacervation of chitosan. •A phosphonate-assisted encapsulation of proteins in chitosan matrix is introduced. •The encapsulated proteins retain their bioactivity. •The encapsulation method can be used to fabricate various chitosan-based biosensors. -- Abstract: Based on the polyphosphonate-assisted coacervation of chitosan, a simple and versatile procedure for the encapsulation of proteins/enzymes in chitosan–carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composites matrix was developed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) mapping demonstrated the hemoglobin (Hb) uniformly distributed into chitosan–CNTs composites matrix. Raman measurements indicated the CNTs in composites matrix retained the electronic and structural integrities of the pristine CNTs. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy displayed the encapsulated Hb preserved their near-native structure, indicating the polyphosphonate–chitosan–CNTs composites possessed excellent biocompatibility for the encapsulation of proteins/enzymes. Electrochemical measurements indicated the encapsulated Hb could directly exchange electron with the substrate electrode. Moreover, the modified electrode showed excellent bioelectrocatalytic activity for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. Under optimum experimental conditions, the fabricated electrochemical sensor displayed the fast response (less than 3 s), wide linear range (7.0 × 10 −7 to 2.0 × 10 −3 M) and low detection limit (4.0 × 10 −7 M) for the determination of hydrogen peroxide. This newly developed protocol was simple and mild and would certainly

  19. Polyphosphonate induced coacervation of chitosan: Encapsulation of proteins/enzymes and their biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hailing; Cui, Yanyun; Li, Pan; Zhou, Yiming; Chen, Yu, E-mail: ndchenyu@yahoo.cn; Tang, Yawen; Lu, Tianhong

    2013-05-07

    Graphical abstract: Based on the coacervation of chitosan via the ionotropic crosslinking interaction, proteins/enzymes can be encapsulated in situ into chitosan matrix. -- Highlights: •The ionotropic crosslinking interactions result in the coacervation of chitosan. •A phosphonate-assisted encapsulation of proteins in chitosan matrix is introduced. •The encapsulated proteins retain their bioactivity. •The encapsulation method can be used to fabricate various chitosan-based biosensors. -- Abstract: Based on the polyphosphonate-assisted coacervation of chitosan, a simple and versatile procedure for the encapsulation of proteins/enzymes in chitosan–carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composites matrix was developed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) mapping demonstrated the hemoglobin (Hb) uniformly distributed into chitosan–CNTs composites matrix. Raman measurements indicated the CNTs in composites matrix retained the electronic and structural integrities of the pristine CNTs. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy displayed the encapsulated Hb preserved their near-native structure, indicating the polyphosphonate–chitosan–CNTs composites possessed excellent biocompatibility for the encapsulation of proteins/enzymes. Electrochemical measurements indicated the encapsulated Hb could directly exchange electron with the substrate electrode. Moreover, the modified electrode showed excellent bioelectrocatalytic activity for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. Under optimum experimental conditions, the fabricated electrochemical sensor displayed the fast response (less than 3 s), wide linear range (7.0 × 10{sup −7} to 2.0 × 10{sup −3} M) and low detection limit (4.0 × 10{sup −7} M) for the determination of hydrogen peroxide. This newly developed protocol was simple and mild and

  20. What if physics is wrong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Zhoudunming

    2011-11-01

    Physics, an experiment-based science, seems to be the most appropriate subject in how to explain the inner workings of the world. We respect physics because it is based on facts that are perceived by our observations. However, what if we are not seeing the entire truth we seek? What if our observations are founded on sandy foundations? As humans, we desire to know what the truth is. Rene Descartes, a mathematician, philosopher, and physicist asked this question: what is the absolute truth in our universe? I want to solve the same puzzle. Many people believe that physics will reveal the truth of our universe. But, what if physics is wrong?

  1. Development of Hollow Steel Ball Macro-Encapsulated PCM for Thermal Energy Storage Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of thermal energy storage with phase change materials (PCMs for energy efficiency of buildings grew rapidly in the last few years. In this research, octadecane paraffin was served as a PCM, and a structural concrete with the function of indoor temperature control was developed by using a macro-encapsulated PCM hollow steel ball (HSB. The macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB was prepared by incorporation of octadecane into HSBs through vacuum impregnation. Test results showed that the maximum percentage of octadecane carried by HSBs was 80.3% by mass. The macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB has a latent heat storage capacity as high as 200.5 J/g. The compressive strength of concrete with macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB at 28 days ranged from 22 to 40 MPa. The indoor thermal performance test revealed that concrete with macro-encapsulated octadecane-HSB was capable of reducing the peak indoor air temperature and the fluctuation of indoor temperature. It can be very effective in transferring the heating and cooling loads away from the peak demand times.

  2. Synthesis of alumina ceramic encapsulation for self-healing materials on thermal barrier coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golim, O. P.; Prastomo, N.; Izzudin, H.; Hastuty, S.; Sundawa, R.; Sugiarti, E.; Thosin, K. A. Z.

    2018-03-01

    Durability of Thermal Barrier Coating or TBC can be optimized by inducing Self-Healing capabilities with intermetallic materials MoSi2. Nevertheless, high temperature operation causes the self-healing materials to become oxidized and lose its healing capabilities. Therefore, a method to introduce ceramic encapsulation for MoSi2 is needed to protect it from early oxidation. The encapsulation process is synthesized through a simple precipitation method with colloidal aluminum hydroxide as precursor and variations on calcination process. Semi-quantitative analysis on the synthesized sample is done by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. Meanwhile, qualitative analysis on the morphology of the encapsulation was carried out by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) equipped with dual Focus Ion Beam (FIB). The result of the experiment shows that calcination process significantly affects the final characteristic of encapsulation. The optimum encapsulation process was synthesized by colloidal aluminum hydroxide as a precursor, with a double step calcination process in low pressure until 900 °C.

  3. Development of Hollow Steel Ball Macro-Encapsulated PCM for Thermal Energy Storage Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhijun; Cui, Hongzhi; Tang, Waiching; Chen, Dazhu; Wen, Haibo

    2016-01-19

    The application of thermal energy storage with phase change materials (PCMs) for energy efficiency of buildings grew rapidly in the last few years. In this research, octadecane paraffin was served as a PCM, and a structural concrete with the function of indoor temperature control was developed by using a macro-encapsulated PCM hollow steel ball (HSB). The macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB was prepared by incorporation of octadecane into HSBs through vacuum impregnation. Test results showed that the maximum percentage of octadecane carried by HSBs was 80.3% by mass. The macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB has a latent heat storage capacity as high as 200.5 J/g. The compressive strength of concrete with macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB at 28 days ranged from 22 to 40 MPa. The indoor thermal performance test revealed that concrete with macro-encapsulated octadecane-HSB was capable of reducing the peak indoor air temperature and the fluctuation of indoor temperature. It can be very effective in transferring the heating and cooling loads away from the peak demand times.

  4. Development of Hollow Steel Ball Macro-Encapsulated PCM for Thermal Energy Storage Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhijun; Cui, Hongzhi; Tang, Waiching; Chen, Dazhu; Wen, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    The application of thermal energy storage with phase change materials (PCMs) for energy efficiency of buildings grew rapidly in the last few years. In this research, octadecane paraffin was served as a PCM, and a structural concrete with the function of indoor temperature control was developed by using a macro-encapsulated PCM hollow steel ball (HSB). The macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB was prepared by incorporation of octadecane into HSBs through vacuum impregnation. Test results showed that the maximum percentage of octadecane carried by HSBs was 80.3% by mass. The macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB has a latent heat storage capacity as high as 200.5 J/g. The compressive strength of concrete with macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB at 28 days ranged from 22 to 40 MPa. The indoor thermal performance test revealed that concrete with macro-encapsulated octadecane-HSB was capable of reducing the peak indoor air temperature and the fluctuation of indoor temperature. It can be very effective in transferring the heating and cooling loads away from the peak demand times. PMID:28787859

  5. Tuning the conductance of carbon nanotubes with encapsulated molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2007-01-01

    It was recently shown that a molecule encapsulated inside a carbon nanotube can be used to devise a novel type of non-volatile memory element. At the heart of the mechanism for storing and reading information is the new concept of a molecular gate where the molecule acts as a passive gate that hinders the flow of electrons for a given position relative to the nanotube host. By systematically exploring the effects of encapsulation of an acceptor molecule in a series of carbon nanotubes, we show that the reliability of the memory mechanism is very sensitive to the interaction between the nanotube host and the molecule guest

  6. Complexation/encapsulation of green tea polyphenols in mixed calcium carbonate and phosphate micro-particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabbadi, Amal; Jeckelmann, Nicolas; Haefliger, Olivier P; Ouali, Lahoussine

    2011-01-01

    We used a double-jet mixer to encapsulate water-soluble polyphenols, green tea extract (GTE), with calcium-based inorganic materials. The device mixed calcium chloride solutions with a solution of carbonate and phosphate in the presence of a GTE solution, and formed micro-particles which capture the GTE molecules. The micro-particles were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectroscopy to determine the encapsulation yield and loading of the different GTE components. We established correlations between (1) the efficiency of the GTE encapsulation and the composition of the mixed anion solutions and (2) the protonation degree of the ions and the molar ratio of calcium cations and carbonate/phosphate anions. An optimal and reproducible GTE loading of about 40% with an encapsulation yield of 65% was observed for a carbonate/phosphate molar composition of 4 : 1. In addition, our experimental results showed that the process is selective and favours the encapsulation of gallated species which form stronger complexes with calcium cations.

  7. Modification of encapsulation pressure of reverse micelles in liquid ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ronald W; Nucci, Nathaniel V; Wand, A Joshua

    2011-09-01

    Encapsulation within reverse micelles dissolved in low viscosity fluids offers a potential solution to the slow tumbling problem presented by large soluble macromolecules to solution NMR spectroscopy. The reduction in effective macromolecular tumbling is directly dependent upon the viscosity of the solvent. Liquid ethane is of sufficiently low viscosity at pressures below 5000 psi to offer a significant advantage. Unfortunately, the viscosity of liquid ethane shows appreciable pressure dependence. Reverse micelle encapsulation in liquid ethane often requires significantly higher pressures, which obviates the potential advantages offered by liquid ethane over liquid propane. Addition of co-surfactants or co-solvents can be used to manipulate the minimum pressure required to obtain stable, well-behaved solutions of reverse micelles prepared in liquid ethane. A library of potential additives is examined and several candidates suitable for use with encapsulated proteins are described. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Different encapsulation strategies for implanted electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkler Sebastian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in implant technology include increasing application of electronic systems in the human body. Hermetic encapsulation of electronic components is necessary, specific implant functions and body environments must be considered. Additional functions such as wireless communication systems require specialized technical solutions for the encapsulation.

  9. Magic ferritin: A novel chemotherapeutic encapsulation bullet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, Ece; Akif Kilic, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The dissociation of apoferritin into subunits at pH 2 followed by its reformation at pH 7.4 in the presence of doxorubicin-HCl gives rise to a solution containing five doxorubicin-HCl molecules trapped within the apoferritin. This is the first report showing that ferritin can encapsulate an anti-cancer drug into its cavity

  10. Matrix-encapsulated waste forms: application to idealized systems, commercial and SRP/INEL wastes, hydrated radiophases and encapsulant phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, R.; Vance, E.R.; McCarthy, G.J.; White, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the encapsulation strategy as applied to microscopic-scale encapsulation in ceramics composed of micron-sized grains of possibly more leachable radiophases intimately surrounded by micron-sized grains of more insoluble phases. The encapsulation approach should be valid, almost axiomatic, for defense waste. However, there are still problems to be investigated experimentally. These are (a) because of the dilution, it is difficult to confirm the geometry of the radionuclide-bearing phases relative to that of the matrix: one almost has to use the inverse approach by making leach measurements, (b) deciding between using the highly reactive oxyhydroxide sludges themselves or sintered calcine to be coated, (c) verification of the insolubility of the encapsulant phases in a variety of groundwaters, and (d) the production of ceramics of near-zero porosity, using hot-isostatic pressing, or incorporation in either silicate or phosphate cements

  11. Encapsulation of aluminium in geopolymers produced from metakaolin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuenzel, C. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Centre for Advanced Structural Ceramics, Department of Materials, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Neville, T.P. [Centre for CO_2 Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London (United Kingdom); Omakowski, T. [Flowcrete, Group Ltd., Cheshire (United Kingdom); Vandeperre, L. [Centre for Advanced Structural Ceramics, Department of Materials, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Boccaccini, A.R. [Institute of Biomaterials, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Bensted, J.; Simons, S.J.R. [Centre for CO_2 Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London (United Kingdom); Cheeseman, C.R., E-mail: c.cheeseman@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    Magnox swarf contaminated with trace levels of Al metal is an important UK legacy waste originated from the fuel rod cladding system used in Magnox nuclear power stations. Composite cements made from Portland cement and blast furnace slag form a potential encapsulation matrix. However the high pH of this system causes the Al metal to corrode causing durability issues. Geopolymers derived from metakaolin are being investigated as an alternative encapsulation matrix for Magnox swarf waste and the corrosion kinetics and surface interactions of Al with metakaolin geopolymer are reported in this paper. It is shown that the pH of the geopolymer paste can be controlled by the selection of metakaolin and the sodium silicate solution used to form the geopolymer. A decrease in pH of the activation solution reduces corrosion of the Al metal and increases the stability of bayerite and gibbsite layers formed on the Al surface. The bayerite and gibbsite act as a passivation layer which inhibits further corrosion and mitigates H{sub 2} generation. The research shows that optimised metakaolin geopolymers have potential to be used to encapsulate legacy Magnox swarf wastes.

  12. Encapsulation of ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, a light-sensitive UV filter, in lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, L; Habran, N; Henschel, V; Amighi, K

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to encapsulate ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EMC), a commonly used UVB filter, in a solid lipid matrix in order to obtain microparticles and then nanoparticles to reduce its photo-instability under UV light exposure. Glyceryl behenate, rice bran wax and ozokerite were investigated for encapsulating EMC. The suspensions of nanoparticles contained 70% encapsulated EMC (relative to the lipid mass). The absorbance level at 310 nm of suspensions containing nanoparticles was more than twice that of those containing microparticles. So, decreasing the size of particles improved the efficiency of light protection, regardless of the lipid material used. Moreover, free EMC presented a 30% loss of its efficiency after 2 h of irradiation, whereas the three NLC formulations showed a loss of absorbency between 10% and 21%. The in vitro cutaneous penetration test did not show a higher potential penetration for EMC contained in nanosuspensions compared to free EMC.

  13. Encapsulated Islet Transplantation: Where Do We Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithilingam, Vijayaganapathy; Bal, Sumeet; Tuch, Bernard E

    2017-01-01

    Transplantation of pancreatic islets encapsulated within immuno-protective microcapsules is a strategy that has the potential to overcome graft rejection without the need for toxic immunosuppressive medication. However, despite promising preclinical studies, clinical trials using encapsulated islets have lacked long-term efficacy, and although generally considered clinically safe, have not been encouraging overall. One of the major factors limiting the long-term function of encapsulated islets is the host's immunological reaction to the transplanted graft which is often manifested as pericapsular fibrotic overgrowth (PFO). PFO forms a barrier on the capsule surface that prevents the ingress of oxygen and nutrients leading to islet cell starvation, hypoxia and death. The mechanism of PFO formation is still not elucidated fully and studies using a pig model have tried to understand the host immune response to empty alginate microcapsules. In this review, the varied strategies to overcome or reduce PFO are discussed, including alginate purification, altering microcapsule geometry, modifying alginate chemical composition, co-encapsulation with immunomodulatory cells, administration of pharmacological agents, and alternative transplantation sites. Nanoencapsulation technologies, such as conformal and layer-by-layer coating technologies, as well as nanofiber, thin-film nanoporous devices, and silicone based NanoGland devices are also addressed. Finally, this review outlines recent progress in imaging technologies to track encapsulated cells, as well as promising perspectives concerning the production of insulin-producing cells from stem cells for encapsulation.

  14. Sol-gel method for encapsulating molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Ashley, Carol S.; Bhatia, Rimple; Singh, Anup K.

    2002-01-01

    A method for encapsulating organic molecules, and in particular, biomolecules using sol-gel chemistry. A silica sol is prepared from an aqueous alkali metal silicate solution, such as a mixture of silicon dioxide and sodium or potassium oxide in water. The pH is adjusted to a suitably low value to stabilize the sol by minimizing the rate of siloxane condensation, thereby allowing storage stability of the sol prior to gelation. The organic molecules, generally in solution, is then added with the organic molecules being encapsulated in the sol matrix. After aging, either a thin film can be prepared or a gel can be formed with the encapsulated molecules. Depending upon the acid used, pH, and other processing conditions, the gelation time can be from one minute up to several days. In the method of the present invention, no alcohols are generated as by-products during the sol-gel and encapsulation steps. The organic molecules can be added at any desired pH value, where the pH value is generally chosen to achieve the desired reactivity of the organic molecules. The method of the present invention thereby presents a sufficiently mild encapsulation method to retain a significant portion of the activity of the biomolecules, compared with the activity of the biomolecules in free solution.

  15. Synthesis of Polyamidoamine Dendrimer for Encapsulating Tetramethylscutellarein for Potential Bioactivity Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadrack, Daniel M; Mubofu, Egid B; Nyandoro, Stephen S

    2015-11-04

    The biomedical potential of flavonoids is normally restricted by their low water solubility. However, little has been reported on their encapsulation into polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers to improve their biomedical applications. Generation four (G4) PAMAM dendrimer containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid core with acrylic acid and ethylenediamine as repeating units was synthesized by divergent approach and used to encapsulate a flavonoid tetramethylscutellarein (TMScu, 1) to study its solubility and in vitro release for potential bioactivity enhancement. The as-synthesized dendrimer and the dendrimer-TMScu complex were characterized by spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. The encapsulation of 1 into dendrimer was achieved by a co-precipitation method with the encapsulation efficiency of 77.8% ± 0.69% and a loading capacity of 6.2% ± 0.06%. A phase solubility diagram indicated an increased water solubility of 1 as a function of dendrimer concentration at pH 4.0 and 7.2. In vitro release of 1 from its dendrimer complex indicated high percentage release at pH 4.0. The stability study of the TMScu-dendrimer at 0, 27 and 40 °C showed the formulations to be stable when stored in cool and dark conditions compared to those stored in light and warmer temperatures. Overall, PAMAM dendrimer-G4 is capable of encapsulating 1, increasing its solubility and thus could enhance its bioactivity.

  16. Influence of charge on encapsulation and release behavior of small molecules in self-assembled layer-by-layer microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandapalli, Praveen K; Labala, Suman; Vanamala, Deekshith; Koranglekar, Manali P; Sakimalla, Lakshmi A; Venuganti, Venkata Vamsi K

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of charge of model small molecules on their encapsulation and release behavior in layer-by-layer microcapsules (LbL-MC). Poly(styrene sulfonate) and poly(ethylene imine) were sequentially adsorbed on calcium carbonate sacrificial templates to prepare LbL-MC. Model molecules with varying charge, anionic - ascorbic acid, cationic - imatinib mesylate (IM) and neutral - 5-fluorouracil were encapsulated in LbL-MC. Free and encapsulated LbL-MC were characterized using zetasizer, FTIR spectroscope and differential scanning calorimeter. The influence of IM-loaded LbL-MC on cell viability was studied in B16F10 murine melanoma cells. Furthermore, biodistribution of IM-loaded LbL-MC with and without PEGylation was studied in BALB/c mice. Results showed spherical LbL-MC of 3.0 ± 0.4 μm diameter. Encapsulation efficiency of LbL-MC increased linearly (R(2 )= 0.89-0.99) with the increase in solute concentration. Increase in pH from 2 to 6 increased the encapsulation of charged molecules in LbL-MC. Charged molecules showed greater encapsulation efficiency in LbL-MC compared with neutral molecule. In vitro release kinetics showed Fickian and non-Fickian diffusion of small molecules, depending on the nature of molecular interactions with LbL-MC. At 50 μM concentration, free IM showed significantly (p < 0.05) more cytotoxicity compared with IM-loaded LbL-MC. Biodistribution studies showed that PEGylation of LbL-MC decreased the liver and spleen uptake of IM-encapsulated LbL-MC. In conclusion, LbL-MC can be developed as a potential carrier for small molecules depending on their physical and chemical properties.

  17. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  18. Hybrid Encapsulated Ionic Liquids for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennecke, Joan F [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Degnan, Jr, Thomas Francis [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); McCready, Mark J. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Stadtherr, Mark A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Stolaroff, Joshua K [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ye, Congwang [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-03

    Ionic liquids (ILs) and Phase Change Ionic Liquids (PCILs) are excellent materials for selective removal of carbon dioxide from dilute post-combustion streams. However, they are typically characterized as having high viscosities, which impairs their effectiveness due to mass transfer limitations, caused by the high viscosities. In this project, we are examining the benefits of encapsulating ILs and PCILs in thin polymeric shells to produce particles of approximately 100 to 600 µm in diameter that can be used in a fluidized bed absorber. The particles are produced by microencapsulation of the ILs and PCILs in CO2-permeable polymer shells. Here we report on the encapsulation of the IL and PCIL materials, thermodynamic testing of the encapsulated materials, mass transfer measurements in both a fluidized bed and a packed bed, determination of the effect of impurities (SO2, NOx and water) on the free and encapsulated IL and PCIL, recyclability of the CO2 uptake, selection and synthesis of kg quantities of the IL and PCIL, identification of scale-up methods for encapsulation and production of a kg quantity of the PCIL, construction and shakedown of the laboratory scale unit to test the encapsulated particles for CO2 capture ability and efficiency, use of our mass transfer model to predict mass transfer and identify optimal properties of the encapsulated particles, and initial testing of the encapsulated particles in the laboratory scale unit. We also show our attempts at developing shell materials that are resistant to water permeation. Overall, we have shown that the selected IL and PCIL can be successfully encapsulated in polymer shells and the methods scaled up to production levels. The IL/PCIL and encapsulated IL/PCIL react irreversibly with SO2 and NOx so the CO2 capture unit would need to be placed after the flue gas desulfurization and NOx reduction units. However

  19. B decays to wrong sign charm mesons at the DELPHI experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwanda, C.

    2001-05-01

    In the present work, b hadron decays to 'wrong sign charm' mesons, b → D-bar 0 X, b → D - X and b → D s - X, are studied using the data collected by the DELPHI experiment in the years 1994 and 1995, and the corresponding branching fractions are extracted. Decays b → c-bar are expected to occur through the Cabibbo favored transitions b → cW - and W - → cbar s, and hence wrong sign charm decays are in fact double charm transitions. The interest in this type of b decays is triggered by different motivations. At first, wrong sign charm decays provide evidence for an alternative mechanism leading to the production of charmed mesons in b decay ('upper vertex charm'), and, second, the double charm rate is related to n c , the mean number of charm quarks (and anti-quarks) produced per b decay, n c =1 + Br(b → c c-bar s). Predictions of the semileptonic B meson branching fraction, based on the heavy quark effective theory (HQET) and the heavy quark expansion (HQE), also fix the value of n c . By measuring the double charm rate, we can thus probe these predictions. The measurement of the inclusive wrong sign branching fractions proceeds through the following steps: At first, the charmed meson decays D 0 → K - π + , D + → K - π + π + and D s + → φ π + → K + K - π + are exclusively reconstructed in the DELPHI data. The charge of the c quark confined inside the charmed meson is determined by the charge of the kaon (D 0 , D + ) or by the charge of the pion (D s + ). The b quark charge at decay time in the charmed meson hemisphere is estimated by using identified particles. A neural network approach is adopted. By correlating both charge informations, we obtain the main discriminant variable for selecting wrong sign mesons. We measure the following branching ratios: Br(b → D-bar X)=(9.3 ± 1.7(stat) ± 1.3(syst))% and Br(b → D s - X)=(10.3 ± 1.1(stat) ± 2.9(syst))% (the first error is statistical, the second one systematic). This result is

  20. Laue: right or wrong?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Timir

    2015-01-01

    In 1912, Laue spots were discovered in x-ray scattering ‘photograms’ of crystals, which were amongst the most consequential experimental findings of the 20th century. Inter alia, spots established the x-ray waves and crystal lattice; plus, for the first time ever, revealed atoms as real physical objects. Laue, a protégé of Planck and a wave-optics expert, had theoretically predicted these spots, and promptly won the Physics Nobel Prize for 1914. The prize did not come easy: executing his experimentum cruces, over the judgments of Sommerfeld and Wien, required force of will and a certain amount of diplomacy. Besides, his explanation for missing spots and x-ray diffraction were proven wrong by Moseley, Darwin and the two Braggs. Traditionally, Laue’s three-dimensional diffraction model is reconciled with Bragg’s reflection formula by Ewald’s construction using reciprocal lattice space. Laue had overlooked that his fundamental equations violate Euclidean length invariance. This article shows that implementation of invariance consolidates Laue’s system of three (multi-parameter) equations into a single formula containing one integer, one angle and two distances; plus validating Bragg’s conjecture of reflection. This new derivation demonstrates that the mechanism of Laue spots is akin to the anti reflection coating the colour-plays in soap bubbles and oil slicks—reflection and interference not diffraction. Yet, Laue stimulated countless breakthroughs: Nobel Prizes and scientific innovations, with an enduring legacy of inspiration a century later. (invited comment)

  1. Laue: right or wrong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Timir

    2015-03-01

    In 1912, Laue spots were discovered in x-ray scattering ‘photograms’ of crystals, which were amongst the most consequential experimental findings of the 20th century. Inter alia, spots established the x-ray waves and crystal lattice; plus, for the first time ever, revealed atoms as real physical objects. Laue, a protégé of Planck and a wave-optics expert, had theoretically predicted these spots, and promptly won the Physics Nobel Prize for 1914. The prize did not come easy: executing his experimentum cruces, over the judgments of Sommerfeld and Wien, required force of will and a certain amount of diplomacy. Besides, his explanation for missing spots and x-ray diffraction were proven wrong by Moseley, Darwin and the two Braggs. Traditionally, Laue’s three-dimensional diffraction model is reconciled with Bragg’s reflection formula by Ewald’s construction using reciprocal lattice space. Laue had overlooked that his fundamental equations violate Euclidean length invariance. This article shows that implementation of invariance consolidates Laue’s system of three (multi-parameter) equations into a single formula containing one integer, one angle and two distances; plus validating Bragg’s conjecture of reflection. This new derivation demonstrates that the mechanism of Laue spots is akin to the anti reflection coating the colour-plays in soap bubbles and oil slicks—reflection and interference not diffraction. Yet, Laue stimulated countless breakthroughs: Nobel Prizes and scientific innovations, with an enduring legacy of inspiration a century later.

  2. Functional Design of Dielectric-Metal-Dielectric-Based Thin-Film Encapsulation with Heat Transfer and Flexibility for Flexible Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong Hyun; Choi, Seungyeop; Jeon, Yongmin; Kim, Hyuncheol; Chang, Ki Soo; Choi, Kyung Cheol

    2017-08-16

    In this study, a new and efficient dielectric-metal-dielectric-based thin-film encapsulation (DMD-TFE) with an inserted Ag thin film is proposed to guarantee the reliability of flexible displays by improving the barrier properties, mechanical flexibility, and heat dissipation, which are considered to be essential requirements for organic light-emitting diode (OLED) encapsulation. The DMD-TFE, which is composed of Al 2 O 3 , Ag, and a silica nanoparticle-embedded sol-gel hybrid nanocomposite, shows a water vapor transmission rate of 8.70 × 10 -6 g/m 2 /day and good mechanical reliability at a bending radius of 30 mm, corresponding to 0.41% strain for 1000 bending cycles. The electrical performance of a thin-film encapsulated phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (PHOLED) was identical to that of a glass-lid encapsulated PHOLED. The operational lifetimes of the thin-film encapsulated and glass-lid encapsulated PHOLEDs are 832 and 754 h, respectively. After 80 days, the thin-film encapsulated PHOLED did not show performance degradation or dark spots on the cell image in a shelf-lifetime test. Finally, the difference in lifetime of the OLED devices in relation to the presence and thickness of a Ag film was analyzed by applying various TFE structures to fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes (FOLEDs) that could generate high amounts of heat. To demonstrate the difference in heat dissipation effect among the TFE structures, the saturated temperatures of the encapsulated FOLEDs were measured from the back side surface of the glass substrate, and were found to be 67.78, 65.12, 60.44, and 39.67 °C after all encapsulated FOLEDs were operated at an initial luminance of 10 000 cd/m 2 for sufficient heat generation. Furthermore, the operational lifetime tests of the encapsulated FOLED devices showed results that were consistent with the measurements of real-time temperature profiles taken with an infrared camera. A multifunctional hybrid thin-film encapsulation

  3. Identifying wrong assemblies in de novo short read primary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Finally, some mis-assembly detecting tools have been evaluated for their ability to detect the wrongly assembledprimary contigs, suggesting a lot of scope for improvement in this area. The present work also proposes a simpleunsupervised learning-based novel approach to identify mis-assemblies in the contigs which was ...

  4. Preparation and anti-cancer activity of polymer-encapsulated curcumin nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Phuong Thu; Tran, Dai Lam; Nguyen, Xuan Phuc; Le, Mai Huong; Ha Tran, Thi Hong; Hoang, Thi My Nhung; Huong Le, Thi Thu; Duong, Tuan Quang

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (Cur) is a yellow compound isolated from rhizome of the herb curcuma longa. Curcumin possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and antimicrobial properties, and suppresses proliferation of many tumor cells. However, the clinical application of curcumin in cancer treatment is considerably limited due to its serious poor delivery characteristics. In order to increase the hydrophilicity and drug delivery capability, we encapsulated curcumin into copolymer PLA-TPGS, 1,3-beta-glucan (Glu), O-carboxymethyl chitosan (OCMCs) and folate-conjugated OCMCs (OCMCs-Fol). These polymer-encapsulated curcumin nanoparticles (Cur-PLA-TPGS, Cur-Glu, Cur-OCMCs and Cur-OCMCs-Fol) were characterized by infrared (IR), fluorescence (FL), photoluminescence (PL) spectra, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and found to be spherical particles with an average size of 50–100 nm, being suitable for drug delivery applications. They were much more soluble in water than not only free curcumin but also other biodegradable polymer-encapsulated curcumin nanoparticles. The anti-tumor promoting assay was carried out, showing the positive effects of Cur-Glu and Cur-PLA-TPGS on tumor promotion of Hep-G2 cell line in vitro. Confocal microscopy revealed that the nano-sized curcumin encapsulated by polymers OCMCs and OCMCs-Fol significantly enhanced the cellular uptake (cancer cell HT29 and HeLa). (paper)

  5. Preparation and anti-cancer activity of polymer-encapsulated curcumin nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu Ha, Phuong; Huong Le, Mai; Nhung Hoang, Thi My; Thu Huong Le, Thi; Quang Duong, Tuan; Tran, Thi Hong Ha; Tran, Dai Lam; Phuc Nguyen, Xuan

    2012-09-01

    Curcumin (Cur) is a yellow compound isolated from rhizome of the herb curcuma longa. Curcumin possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and antimicrobial properties, and suppresses proliferation of many tumor cells. However, the clinical application of curcumin in cancer treatment is considerably limited due to its serious poor delivery characteristics. In order to increase the hydrophilicity and drug delivery capability, we encapsulated curcumin into copolymer PLA-TPGS, 1,3-beta-glucan (Glu), O-carboxymethyl chitosan (OCMCs) and folate-conjugated OCMCs (OCMCs-Fol). These polymer-encapsulated curcumin nanoparticles (Cur-PLA-TPGS, Cur-Glu, Cur-OCMCs and Cur-OCMCs-Fol) were characterized by infrared (IR), fluorescence (FL), photoluminescence (PL) spectra, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and found to be spherical particles with an average size of 50-100 nm, being suitable for drug delivery applications. They were much more soluble in water than not only free curcumin but also other biodegradable polymer-encapsulated curcumin nanoparticles. The anti-tumor promoting assay was carried out, showing the positive effects of Cur-Glu and Cur-PLA-TPGS on tumor promotion of Hep-G2 cell line in vitro. Confocal microscopy revealed that the nano-sized curcumin encapsulated by polymers OCMCs and OCMCs-Fol significantly enhanced the cellular uptake (cancer cell HT29 and HeLa).

  6. Sol-gel encapsulation for controlled drug release and biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jonathan

    The main focus of this dissertation is to investigate the use of sol-gel encapsulation of biomolecules for controlled drug release and biosensing. Controlled drug release has advantages over conventional therapies in that it maintains a constant, therapeutic drug level in the body for prolonged periods of time. The anti-hypertensive drug Captopril was encapsulated in sol-gel materials of various forms, such as silica xerogels and nanoparticles. The primary objective was to show that sol-gel silica materials are promising drug carriers for controlled release by releasing Captopril at a release rate that is within a therapeutic range. We were able to demonstrate desired release for over a week from Captopril-doped silica xerogels and overall release from Captopril-doped silica nanoparticles. As an aside, the antibiotic Vancomycin was also encapsulated in these porous silica nanoparticles and desired release was obtained for several days in-vitro. The second part of the dissertation focuses on immobilizing antibodies and proteins in sol-gel to detect various analytes, such as hormones and amino acids. Sol-gel competitive immunoassays on antibody-doped silica xerogels were used for hormone detection. Calibration for insulin and C-peptide in standard solutions was obtained in the nM range. In addition, NASA-Ames is also interested in developing a reagentless biosensor using bacterial periplasmic binding proteins (bPBPs) to detect specific biomarkers, such as amino acids and phosphate. These bPBPs were doubly labeled with two different fluorophores and encapsulated in silica xerogels. Ligand-binding experiments were performed on the bPBPs in solution and in sol-gel. Ligand-binding was monitored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the two fluorophores on the bPBP. Titration data show that one bPBP has retained its ligand-binding properties in sol-gel.

  7. Encapsulation - how it will be achieved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, P.

    1990-01-01

    The work of the new Encapsulation Plant at British Nuclear Fuel Limited's (BNFL) Sellafield site is described in this article. Intermediate-level radioactive materials are encapsulated in a cement matrix in 500 litre stainless steel drums suitable for storage, transport and disposal. The drums will be stored in an above-ground air-cooled store until UK Nirex Limited have built the planned underground disposal facility. The concept of product specification is explored as it applies to the four stages of nuclear waste management, namely, processing, storage, transport and disposal. By following this approach the encapsulation plant will work within government regulations and the public concerns over safety and environmental issues can be met. U.K

  8. Encapsulation in the food industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, B F; Kermasha, S; Alli, I; Mulligan, C N

    1999-05-01

    Encapsulation involves the incorporation of food ingredients, enzymes, cells or other materials in small capsules. Applications for this technique have increased in the food industry since the encapsulated materials can be protected from moisture, heat or other extreme conditions, thus enhancing their stability and maintaining viability. Encapsulation in foods is also utilized to mask odours or tastes. Various techniques are employed to form the capsules, including spray drying, spray chilling or spray cooling, extrusion coating, fluidized bed coating, liposome entrapment, coacervation, inclusion complexation, centrifugal extrusion and rotational suspension separation. Each of these techniques is discussed in this review. A wide variety of foods is encapsulated--flavouring agents, acids bases, artificial sweeteners, colourants, preservatives, leavening agents, antioxidants, agents with undesirable flavours, odours and nutrients, among others. The use of encapsulation for sweeteners such as aspartame and flavours in chewing gum is well known. Fats, starches, dextrins, alginates, protein and lipid materials can be employed as encapsulating materials. Various methods exist to release the ingredients from the capsules. Release can be site-specific, stage-specific or signalled by changes in pH, temperature, irradiation or osmotic shock. In the food industry, the most common method is by solvent-activated release. The addition of water to dry beverages or cake mixes is an example. Liposomes have been applied in cheese-making, and its use in the preparation of food emulsions such as spreads, margarine and mayonnaise is a developing area. Most recent developments include the encapsulation of foods in the areas of controlled release, carrier materials, preparation methods and sweetener immobilization. New markets are being developed and current research is underway to reduce the high production costs and lack of food-grade materials.

  9. Righting wrongs and reforming rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Laurie C

    2014-03-01

    Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights."

  10. Using ß-cyclodextrin and Arabic Gum as Wall Materials for Encapsulation of Saffron Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atefi, Mohsen; Nayebzadeh, Kooshan; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Mortazavian, Amir Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Saffron essential oil has a pleasant aroma and medicinal activities. However, it is sensible into the environmental condition. Therefore, it should be protected against unwanted changes during storage or processing. Encapsulation is introduced as a process by which liable materials are protected from unwanted changes. In the present study, different ratios (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0) of ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) and arabic gum (GA) were used as wall martial for encapsulation saffron essential oil. In order to calculate of loading capacity (LC) and encapsulation efficiency (EE), and release (RE), safranal was determined as indicator of saffron essential oil using GC. According to the results, the highest LC and EE were related to the mixture of ß-CD/GA at a 75:25 ratio. In contrast, the lowest encapsulate hygroscopicity (EH) and RE were observed when only ß-CD was applied as wall material (P≤0.05). Comparing the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms of the control and encapsulate of ß-CD/GA (75:25) confirmed encapsulation of saffron essential oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images with high magnifications showed the rhombic structure that partially coated by GA. The mixture of ß-CD/GA at a 75:25 ratio can be recommended for saffron essential oil encapsulation.

  11. What's wrong with anomalous chiral gauge theory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieu, T.D.

    1994-05-01

    It is argued on general ground and demonstrated in the particular example of the Chiral Schwinger Model that there is nothing wrong with apparently anomalous chiral gauge theory. If quantised correctly, there should be no gauge anomaly and chiral gauge theory should be renormalisable and unitary, even in higher dimensions and with non-Abelian gauge groups. Furthermore, it is claimed that mass terms for gauge bosons and chiral fermions can be generated without spoiling the gauge invariance. 19 refs

  12. Encapsulation-Induced Stress Helps Saccharomyces cerevisiae Resist Convertible Lignocellulose Derived Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan O. Westman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of macroencapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS8066 to withstand readily and not readily in situ convertible lignocellulose-derived inhibitors was investigated in anaerobic batch cultivations. It was shown that encapsulation increased the tolerance against readily convertible furan aldehyde inhibitors and to dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, but not to organic acid inhibitors that cannot be metabolized anaerobically. Gene expression analysis showed that the protective effect arising from the encapsulation is evident also on the transcriptome level, as the expression of the stress-related genes YAP1, ATR1 and FLR1 was induced upon encapsulation. The transcript levels were increased due to encapsulation already in the medium without added inhibitors, indicating that the cells sensed low stress level arising from the encapsulation itself. We present a model, where the stress response is induced by nutrient limitation, that this helps the cells to cope with the increased stress added by a toxic medium, and that superficial cells in the capsules degrade convertible inhibitors, alleviating the inhibition for the cells deeper in the capsule.

  13. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 7: Module encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, E.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the Encapsulation Task was to develop, demonstrate, and qualify photovoltaic (PV) module encapsulation systems that would provide 20 year (later decreased to 30 year) life expectancies in terrestrial environments, and which would be compatible with the cost and performance goals of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project. The scope of the Encapsulation Task included the identification, development, and evaluation of material systems and configurations required to support and protect the optically and electrically active solar cell circuit components in the PV module operating environment. Encapsulation material technologies summarized include the development of low cost ultraviolet protection techniques, stable low cost pottants, soiling resistant coatings, electrical isolation criteria, processes for optimum interface bonding, and analytical and experimental tools for evaluating the long term durability and structural adequacy of encapsulated modules. Field testing, accelerated stress testing, and design studies have demonstrated that encapsulation materials, processes, and configurations are available that meet the FSA cost and performance goals.

  14. Performance of Deacetyled Glucomannan as Iron Encapsulation Excipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardhani Dyah H.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulation protects iron from degradation or oxidation possibilities due to its encapsulation material. Glucomannan (GM is a neutral polysaccharide consist of D-mannose and D-glucose connected with β-1,4 linkage. Deactylation transforms solubility of glucomannan as well as its gel structure. These properties support for excipient application. The aim of this work was to determine performance of deacetylated glucomannan as iron matrix. Deacetylation was conducted heterogeneously. Deacetylation did not change the backbone of GM. Higher alkali concentration has better ability to encapsulate iron. Extended deacetylation time and alkali concentration affect insignificantly on the performance of encapsulation to protect iron from oxidation. The release of iron from the matrix influences by deacetylation degree.

  15. Air encapsulation. I. Measurement in a field soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayer, M.J.; Hillel, D.

    1986-01-01

    Encapsulated air is an important component of shallow water table fluctuations. Their objective was to measure the quantity and persistence of encapsulated air in a field setting. Using sprinkling rates of either 3.5 x 10 -6 or 3.8 x 10 -5 m s -1 , they brought the water table in a field soil from a depth of 1.5 m to the surface on several occasions. Moisture contents during and after sprinkling were monitored with a neutron probe. Twice following sprinkling, the water table was maintained at the surface for more than 20 d, during which time they continued to monitor moisture contents. With the water table at the surface, differences between the porosity and the measured moisture content were attributed to encapsulated air. Encapsulated air contents ranged from 1.1 to 6.3% of the bulk soil volume, depending on the rate of sprinkling, soil depth, and initial soil moisture content. During ponding, encapsulated air persisted at the 0.3-m depth for up to 28 d. The results indicate that encapsulated air is measurable in a field situation and that its quantity and persistence should be considered in analyzing the results of similar field experiments. 16 references

  16. Encapsulation of curcumin in polymeric nanoparticles for antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffersson Krishan Trigo Gutierrez

    Full Text Available Curcumin (CUR has been used as photosensitizer in antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT. However its poor water solubility, instability, and scarce bioavalibility hinder its in vivo application. The aim of this study was to synthesize curcumin in polymeric nanoparticles (NP and to evaluate their antimicrobial photodynamic effect and cytoxicity. CUR in anionic and cationic NP was synthesized using polylactic acid and dextran sulfate by the nanoprecipitation method. For cationic NP, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide was added. CUR-NP were characterized by physicochemical properties, photodegradation, encapsulation efficiency and release of curcumin from nanoparticles. CUR-NP was compared with free CUR in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO as a photosensitizer for aPDT against planktonic and biofilms (mono-, dual- and triple-species cultures of Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The cytotoxicity effect of formulations was evaluated on keratinocytes. Data were analysed by parametric (ANOVA and non-parametric (Kruskal-Wallis tests (α = 0.05. CUR-NP showed alteration in the physicochemical properties along time, photodegradation similar to free curcumin, encapsulation efficiency up to 67%, and 96% of release after 48h. After aPDT planktonic cultures showed reductions from 0.78 log10 to complete eradication, while biofilms showed no antimicrobial effect or reductions up to 4.44 log10. Anionic CUR-NP showed reduced photoinactivation of biofilms. Cationic CUR-NP showed microbicidal effect even in absence of light. Anionic formulations showed no cytotoxic effect compared with free CUR and cationic CUR-NP and NP. The synthesized formulations improved the water solubility of CUR, showed higher antimicrobial photodynamic effect for planktonic cultures than for biofilms, and the encapsulation of CUR in anionic NP reduced the cytotoxicity of 10% DMSO used for free CUR.

  17. Encapsulation of curcumin in polymeric nanoparticles for antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo Gutierrez, Jeffersson Krishan; Zanatta, Gabriela Cristina; Ortega, Ana Laura Mira; Balastegui, Maria Isabella Cuba; Sanitá, Paula Volpato; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia; Barbugli, Paula Aboud

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin (CUR) has been used as photosensitizer in antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT). However its poor water solubility, instability, and scarce bioavalibility hinder its in vivo application. The aim of this study was to synthesize curcumin in polymeric nanoparticles (NP) and to evaluate their antimicrobial photodynamic effect and cytoxicity. CUR in anionic and cationic NP was synthesized using polylactic acid and dextran sulfate by the nanoprecipitation method. For cationic NP, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide was added. CUR-NP were characterized by physicochemical properties, photodegradation, encapsulation efficiency and release of curcumin from nanoparticles. CUR-NP was compared with free CUR in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a photosensitizer for aPDT against planktonic and biofilms (mono-, dual- and triple-species) cultures of Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The cytotoxicity effect of formulations was evaluated on keratinocytes. Data were analysed by parametric (ANOVA) and non-parametric (Kruskal-Wallis) tests (α = 0.05). CUR-NP showed alteration in the physicochemical properties along time, photodegradation similar to free curcumin, encapsulation efficiency up to 67%, and 96% of release after 48h. After aPDT planktonic cultures showed reductions from 0.78 log10 to complete eradication, while biofilms showed no antimicrobial effect or reductions up to 4.44 log10. Anionic CUR-NP showed reduced photoinactivation of biofilms. Cationic CUR-NP showed microbicidal effect even in absence of light. Anionic formulations showed no cytotoxic effect compared with free CUR and cationic CUR-NP and NP. The synthesized formulations improved the water solubility of CUR, showed higher antimicrobial photodynamic effect for planktonic cultures than for biofilms, and the encapsulation of CUR in anionic NP reduced the cytotoxicity of 10% DMSO used for free CUR. PMID:29107978

  18. Encapsulation and Hemocyte Numbers in Crocidolomia pavonana and Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera Attacked by Parasitoid Eriborus argenteopilosus Cameron (Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAMAYANTI BUCHORI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Eriborus argenteopilosus is the most important parasitoid attacking cabbage pest Crocidolomia pavonana in Indonesia. Previous studies proved that parasitoid encapsulation was found to be an important factor limiting the effectiveness of the parasitoid in controlling pest population in the field. Since 1998, we have conducted series studies to investigate encapsulation mechanism developed by hosts against parasitoid, responses of parasitoid toward encapsulation ability and to determine factors that may help parasitoid avoid encapsulation. Parasitoid responses were examined on two different hosts C. pavonana and Spodoptera litura. Our findings showed that parasitization level was found to be high both on C. pavonana and S. litura. Encapsulation occurred to be high in all larva stages of C. pavonana, in contrast encapsulation was recorded very low in all larvae stages of S. litura. We recorded that encapsulation in the larval body of C. pavonana was completed in 72 hours and mostly occurred in higher larval stage. Melanization was only recorded in encapsulated parasitoid inside larva body of C. pavonana, not in S. litura. We recorded that encapsulation increased blood cell number of both larvae C. pavonana and S. litura. Encapsulation may affect development of immature parasitoid. Weight of S. litura's pupae containing encapsulated parasitoid was found to be lower in S. litura, but not in C. pavonana. Our investigation also proved that superparasitism may help parasitoid avoid encapsulation.

  19. Encapsulated Bacillus anthracis interacts closely with liver endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piris-Gimenez, Alejandro; Corre, Jean-Philippe; Jouvion, Gregory; Candela, Thomas; Khun, Huot; Goossens, Pierre L

    2009-11-01

    The Bacillus anthracis poly-gamma-D-glutamate capsule is essential for virulence. It impedes phagocytosis and protects bacilli from the immune system, thus promoting systemic dissemination. To further define the virulence mechanisms brought into play by the capsule, we characterized the interactions between encapsulated nontoxinogenic B. anthracis and its host in vivo through histological analysis, perfusion, and competition experiments with purified capsule. Clearance of encapsulated bacilli from the blood was rapid (>90% clearance within 5 min), with 75% of the bacteria being trapped in the liver. Competition experiments with purified capsule polyglutamate inhibited this interaction. At the septicemic phase of cutaneous infection with spores, the encapsulated bacilli were trapped in the vascular spaces of the liver and interacted closely with the liver endothelium in the sinusoids and terminal and portal veins. They often grow as microcolonies containing capsular material shed by the bacteria. We show that, in addition to its inhibitory effect on the interaction with the immune system, the capsule surrounding B. anthracis plays an active role in mediating the trapping of the bacteria within the liver and may thus contribute to anthrax pathogenesis. Because other microorganisms produce polyglutamate, it may also represent a general mechanism of virulence or in vivo survival.

  20. The inhibitory effect of disulfiram encapsulated PLGA NPs on tumor growth: Different administration routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasehee, Hamidreza; Zarrinrad, Ghazaleh; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad; Ghaffari, Seyed Hamidollah; Faghihi, Shahab

    2016-06-01

    The strong anticancer activity of disulfiram is hindered by its rapid degradation in blood system. A novel folate-receptor-targeted poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) nanoparticle (NP) is developed for encapsulation and delivery of disulfiram into breast cancer tumor using passive (EPR effect) and active (folate receptor) targeting. The anticancer activity of disulfiram and its effect on caspase-3 activity and cell cycle are studied. The administration of encapsulated PLGA NPs using intra-peritoneal, intravenous and intra-tumor routes is investigated using animal model. Disulfiram shows strong cytotoxicity against MCF7 cell line. The activity of caspase-3 inhibited with disulfiram via dose dependent manner while the drug causes cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 and S phase time-dependently. The encapsulated disulfiram shows higher activity in apoptosis induction as compared to free drug. In nontoxic dose of encapsulated disulfiram, the highest and lowest efficacy of NPs in tumor growth inhibition is observed for intravenous injection and intraperitoneal injection. It is suggested that administration of disulfiram by targeted PLGA nanoparticles using intravenous injection would present an alternative therapeutic approach for solid tumor treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Retention of gene expression in porcine islets after agarose encapsulation and long-term culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumpala, Pradeep R.; Holdcraft, Robert W.; Martis, Prithy C.; Laramore, Melissa A.; Parker, Thomas S.; Levine, Daniel M.; Smith, Barry H.; Gazda, Lawrence S.

    2016-01-01

    Agarose encapsulation of porcine islets allows extended in vitro culture, providing ample time to determine the functional capacity of the islets and conduct comprehensive microbiological safety testing prior to implantation as a treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the effect that agarose encapsulation and long-term culture may have on porcine islet gene expression is unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the transcriptome of encapsulated porcine islets following long-term in vitro culture against free islets cultured overnight. Global gene expression analysis revealed no significant change in the expression of 98.47% of genes. This indicates that the gene expression profile of free islets is highly conserved following encapsulation and long-term culture. Importantly, the expression levels of genes that code for critical hormones secreted by islets (insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin) as well as transcripts encoding proteins involved in their packaging and secretion are unchanged. While a small number of genes known to play roles in the insulin secretion and insulin signaling pathways are differentially expressed, our results show that overall gene expression is retained following islet isolation, agarose encapsulation, and long-term culture. - Highlights: • Effect of agarose encapsulation and 8 week culture on porcine islets was analyzed. • Transcriptome analysis revealed no significant change in a majority (98%) of genes. • Agarose encapsulation allows for long-term culture of porcine islets. • Islet culture allows for functional and microbial testing prior to clinical use.

  2. Retention of gene expression in porcine islets after agarose encapsulation and long-term culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumpala, Pradeep R., E-mail: pdumpala@rixd.org [The Rogosin Institute – Xenia Division, 740 Birch Road, Xenia, OH 45385 (United States); Holdcraft, Robert W.; Martis, Prithy C.; Laramore, Melissa A. [The Rogosin Institute – Xenia Division, 740 Birch Road, Xenia, OH 45385 (United States); Parker, Thomas S.; Levine, Daniel M. [The Rogosin Institute, 505 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Smith, Barry H. [The Rogosin Institute, 505 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States); NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Gazda, Lawrence S. [The Rogosin Institute – Xenia Division, 740 Birch Road, Xenia, OH 45385 (United States)

    2016-08-05

    Agarose encapsulation of porcine islets allows extended in vitro culture, providing ample time to determine the functional capacity of the islets and conduct comprehensive microbiological safety testing prior to implantation as a treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the effect that agarose encapsulation and long-term culture may have on porcine islet gene expression is unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the transcriptome of encapsulated porcine islets following long-term in vitro culture against free islets cultured overnight. Global gene expression analysis revealed no significant change in the expression of 98.47% of genes. This indicates that the gene expression profile of free islets is highly conserved following encapsulation and long-term culture. Importantly, the expression levels of genes that code for critical hormones secreted by islets (insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin) as well as transcripts encoding proteins involved in their packaging and secretion are unchanged. While a small number of genes known to play roles in the insulin secretion and insulin signaling pathways are differentially expressed, our results show that overall gene expression is retained following islet isolation, agarose encapsulation, and long-term culture. - Highlights: • Effect of agarose encapsulation and 8 week culture on porcine islets was analyzed. • Transcriptome analysis revealed no significant change in a majority (98%) of genes. • Agarose encapsulation allows for long-term culture of porcine islets. • Islet culture allows for functional and microbial testing prior to clinical use.

  3. Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis in chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis;preoperative catheter drainage : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hoon [Dankook Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a well recognized, but uncommon, complication of chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. I report a case of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis in which percutaneous catheter drainage was performed preoperatively. Ultrasonography(US) and computed tomography(CT) showed a large multi-septated cystic mass which occupied nearly all the peritoneal cavity. Percutaneous drainage with two 8.5 French catheters was preoperatively performed under fluoroscopy and about 2100 ml of bloody fluid was drained for 20 days. On follow-up CT, the size of the cyst had significantly decreased and anoperation was performed. It is considered that percutaneous catheter drainage is useful in the preoperative decompression of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis.

  4. Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis in chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis;preoperative catheter drainage : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hoon

    1996-01-01

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a well recognized, but uncommon, complication of chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. I report a case of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis in which percutaneous catheter drainage was performed preoperatively. Ultrasonography(US) and computed tomography(CT) showed a large multi-septated cystic mass which occupied nearly all the peritoneal cavity. Percutaneous drainage with two 8.5 French catheters was preoperatively performed under fluoroscopy and about 2100 ml of bloody fluid was drained for 20 days. On follow-up CT, the size of the cyst had significantly decreased and anoperation was performed. It is considered that percutaneous catheter drainage is useful in the preoperative decompression of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

  5. Gravity-induced encapsulation of liquids by destabilization of granular rafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abkarian, Manouk; Protière, Suzie; Aristoff, Jeffrey M.; Stone, Howard A.

    2013-05-01

    Droplets and bubbles coated by a protective armour of particles find numerous applications in encapsulation, stabilization of emulsions and foams, and flotation techniques. Here we study the role of a body force, such as in flotation, as a means of continuous encapsulation by particles. We use dense particles, which self-assemble into rafts, at oil-water interfaces. We show that these rafts can be spontaneously or controllably destabilized into armoured oil-in-water droplets, which highlights a possible role for common granular materials in environmental remediation. We further present a method for continuous production and discuss the generalization of our approach towards colloidal scales.

  6. Effect of Photon Radiations in Semi-Rigid Artificial Tissue Sensitized by Protoporphyrin IX Encapsulated with Silica Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhadmeh, Ghaseb N.; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Razak, Khairunisak Abdul; Al-Akhras, M.-Ali H.

    2018-02-01

    This study involves the synthesis of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) encapsulated with Silica Nanoparticles (SiNPs) as an application for Photodynamic therapy. Semi-rigid artificial tissues with optical features similar to human tissue were used as sample materials to ascertain the efficacy of PpIX encapsulated with SiNPs. The disparity in optical characteristics (transmittance, reflectance, scattering, and absorption) of tissues treated with encapsulated PpIX and naked PpIX under light exposure (Intensity at 408 nm ~1.19 mW/cm2) was explored. The optimal exposure times required for naked PpIX and SiNPs encapsulated PpIX to engulf Red Blood Cells (RBCs) in the artificial tissue were subsequently measured. Comparative analysis showed that the encapsulated PpIX has a 91.5 % higher efficacy than naked PpIX. The results prove the applicability of PpIX encapsulated with SiNP on artificial tissue and possible use on human tissue.

  7. LHCb: Wrong-Sign to Right-Sign Yield in Flavor Tagged $D^0 \\to K\\pi$ Data at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Bessner, M

    2011-01-01

    Initial results on wrong-sign $D^0 \\rightarrow K^+ \\pi^-$ decays based on the 2010 dataset are presented: the selection criteria, the yield, the time-integrated ratio of wrong-sign to right-sign ($D^0 \\rightarrow K^- \\pi^+$) decays, and a decay time acceptance corrected ratio. The corrected ratio is measured to be $R_{acc \\, cor} = (0.409 \\pm 0.031 (stat.) \\pm 0.039 (sys.)) \\%$. This analysis is the first step towards the measurement of the time-dependent wrong-sign/right-sign ratio from which $D^0$ mixing parameters may be extracted.

  8. A formulation to encapsulate nootkatone for tick control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behle, Robert W; Flor-Weiler, Lina B; Bharadwaj, Anuja; Stafford, Kirby C

    2011-11-01

    Nootkatone is a component of grapefruit oil that is toxic to the disease-vectoring tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, but unfortunately causes phytotoxicity to treated plants and has a short residual activity due to volatility. We prepared a lignin-encapsulated nootkatone formulation to compare with a previously used emulsifiable formulation for volatility, plant phytotoxicity, and toxicity to unfed nymphs of I. scapularis. Volatility of nootkatone was measured directly by trapping nootkatone vapor in a closed system and indirectly by measuring nootkatone residue on treated filter paper after exposure to simulated sunlight (Xenon). After 24 h in the closed system, traps collected only 15% of the nootkatone applied as the encapsulated formulation compared with 40% applied as the emulsifiable formulation. After a 1-h light exposure, the encapsulated formulation retained 92% of the nootkatone concentration compared with only 26% retained by the emulsifiable formulation. For plant phytotoxicity, cabbage, Brassica oleracea L., leaves treated with the encapsulated formulation expressed less necrosis, retaining greater leaf weight compared with leaves treated with the emusifiable formulation. The nootkatone in the emulsifiable formulation was absorbed by cabbage and oat, Avena sativa L., plants (41 and 60% recovered 2 h after application, respectively), as opposed to 100% recovery from the plants treated with encapsulated nootkatone. Using a treated vial technique, encapsulated nootkatone was significantly more toxic to I. scapularis nymphs (LC50 = 20 ng/cm2) compared with toxicity of the emulsifiable formulation (LC50 = 35 ng/cm2). Thus, the encapsulation of nootkatone improved toxicity for tick control, reduced nootkatone volatility, and reduced plant phytotoxicity.

  9. Evaluation of antinociceptive activity of nanoliposome-encapsulated and free-form diclofenac in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jun Zheng; Tang, Sook Nai; Chiong, Hoe Siong; Yong, Yoke Keong; Zuraini, Ahmad; Hakim, Muhammad Nazrul

    2015-01-01

    Diclofenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that exhibits anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic activities. Liposomes have been shown to improve the therapeutic efficacy of encapsulated drugs. The present study was conducted to compare the antinociceptive properties between liposome-encapsulated and free-form diclofenac in vivo via different nociceptive assay models. Liposome-encapsulated diclofenac was prepared using the commercialized proliposome method. Antinociceptive effects of liposome-encapsulated and free-form diclofenac were evaluated using formalin test, acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test, Randall-Selitto paw pressure test, and plantar test. The results of the writhing test showed a significant reduction of abdominal constriction in all treatment groups in a dose-dependent manner. The 20 mg/kg liposome-encapsulated diclofenac demonstrated the highest antinociceptive effect at 78.97% compared with 55.89% in the free-form group at equivalent dosage. Both liposome-encapsulated and free-form diclofenac produced significant results in the late phase of formalin assay at a dose of 20 mg/kg, with antinociception percentages of 78.84% and 60.71%, respectively. Significant results of antinociception were also observed in both hyperalgesia assays. For Randall-Sellito assay, the highest antinociception effect of 71.38% was achieved with 20 mg/kg liposome-encapsulated diclofenac, while the lowest antinociceptive effect of 17.32% was recorded with 0 mg/kg liposome formulation, whereas in the plantar test, the highest antinociceptive effect was achieved at 56.7% with 20 mg/kg liposome-encapsulated diclofenac, and the lowest effect was shown with 0 mg/kg liposome formulation of 8.89%. The present study suggests that liposome-encapsulated diclofenac exhibits higher antinociceptive efficacy in a dose-dependent manner in comparison with free-form diclofenac.

  10. Encapsulation of gold nanoparticles into self-assembling protein nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yongkun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gold nanoparticles are useful tools for biological applications due to their attractive physical and chemical properties. Their applications can be further expanded when they are functionalized with biological molecules. The biological molecules not only provide the interfaces for interactions between nanoparticles and biological environment, but also contribute their biological functions to the nanoparticles. Therefore, we used self-assembling protein nanoparticles (SAPNs to encapsulate gold nanoparticles. The protein nanoparticles are formed upon self-assembly of a protein chain that is composed of a pentameric coiled-coil domain at the N-terminus and trimeric coiled-coil domain at the C-terminus. The self-assembling protein nanoparticles form a central cavity of about 10 nm in size, which is ideal for the encapsulation of gold nanoparticles with similar sizes. Results We have used SAPNs to encapsulate several commercially available gold nanoparticles. The hydrodynamic size and the surface coating of gold nanoparticles are two important factors influencing successful encapsulation by the SAPNs. Gold nanoparticles with a hydrodynamic size of less than 15 nm can successfully be encapsulated. Gold nanoparticles with citrate coating appear to have stronger interactions with the proteins, which can interfere with the formation of regular protein nanoparticles. Upon encapsulation gold nanoparticles with polymer coating interfere less strongly with the ability of the SAPNs to assemble into nanoparticles. Although the central cavity of the SAPNs carries an overall charge, the electrostatic interaction appears to be less critical for the efficient encapsulation of gold nanoparticles into the protein nanoparticles. Conclusions The SAPNs can be used to encapsulate gold nanoparticles. The SAPNs can be further functionalized by engineering functional peptides or proteins to either their N- or C-termini. Therefore encapsulation of gold

  11. Dosimetric study of a new polymer encapsulated palladium-103 seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, S; Vynckier, S

    2005-01-01

    The use of low-energy photon emitters for brachytherapy applications, as in the treatment of prostate or ocular tumours, has increased significantly over the last few years. Several new seed models utilizing 103 Pd and 125 I have recently been introduced. Following the TG43U1 recommendations of the AAPM (American Association of Physicists in Medicine) (Rivard et al 2004 Med. Phys. 31 633), dose distributions around these low-energy photon emitters are characterized by the dose rate constant, the radial dose function and the anisotropy function in water. These functions and constants can be measured for each new seed in a solid phantom (i.e. solid water such as WT1) using high spatial resolution detectors such as very small thermoluminescent detectors. These experimental results in solid water must then be converted into liquid water by using Monte Carlo simulations. This paper presents the dosimetric parameters of a new palladium seed, OptiSeed TM (produced by International Brachytherapy (IBt), Seneffe, Belgium), made with a biocompatible polymeric shell and with a design that differs from the hollow titanium encapsulated seed, InterSource 103 , produced by the same company. A polymer encapsulation was chosen by the company IBt in order to reduce the quantity of radioactive material needed for a given dose rate, and to improve the symmetry of the radiation field around the seed. The necessary experimental data were obtained by measurements with LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters (1 mm 3 ) in a solid water phantom (WT1) and then converted to values in liquid water using Monte Carlo calculations (MCNP-4C). Comparison of the results with a previous study by Reniers et al (2002 Appl. Radiat. Isot. 57 805) shows very good agreement for the dose rate constant and for the radial dose function. In addition, the results also indicate an improvement in isotropy compared to a conventional titanium encapsulated seed. The relative dose (anisotropy value relative to 90 deg.) from

  12. Cellulase immobilization on magnetic nanoparticles encapsulated in polymer nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Janaina S; Araújo, Pedro H H; Sayer, Claudia; Souza, Antonio A U; Viegas, Alexandre C; de Oliveira, Débora

    2017-04-01

    Immobilization of cellulases on magnetic nanoparticles, especially magnetite nanoparticles, has been the main approach studied to make this enzyme, economically and industrially, more attractive. However, magnetite nanoparticles tend to agglomerate, are very reactive and easily oxidized in air, which has strong impact on their useful life. Thus, it is very important to provide proper surface coating to avoid the mentioned problems. This study aimed to investigate the immobilization of cellulase on magnetic nanoparticles encapsulated in polymeric nanospheres. The support was characterized in terms of morphology, average diameter, magnetic behavior and thermal decomposition analyses. The polymer nanospheres containing encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles showed superparamagnetic behavior and intensity average diameter about 150 nm. Immobilized cellulase exhibited broader temperature stability than in the free form and great reusability capacity, 69% of the initial enzyme activity was maintained after eight cycles of use. The magnetic support showed potential for cellulase immobilization and allowed fast and easy biocatalyst recovery through a single magnet.

  13. Encapsulation of electroless copper patterns into diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenov, S.M.; Shafeev, G.A.; Lavrischev, S.V. [General Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The results are reported on encapsulating copper lines into diamond films grown by a DC plasma CVD. The process includes the steps of (i) laser activation of diamond for electroless metal plating, (ii) electroless copper deposition selectively onto the activated surface regions, and (iii) diamond regrowth on the Cu-patterned diamond films. The composition and electrical properties of the encapsulated copper lines were examined, revealing high purity and low electrical resistivity of the encapsulated electroless copper.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles encapsulated in poly-N-isopropylacrylamide-based polymeric nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, Muhammad; Udomluck, Nopphadol; Chang, Jihyun; Park, Hansoo; Kim, Kyobum

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the antimicrobial activities of poly- N -isopropylacrylamide (pNIPAM)-based polymeric nanoparticles encapsulating silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Three sizes of AgNP-encapsulating pNIPAM- and pNIPAM-NH 2 -based polymeric nanoparticles were fabricated. Highly stable and uniformly distributed AgNPs were encapsulated within polymeric nanoparticles via in situ reduction of AgNO 3 using NaBH 4 as the reducing agent. The formation and distribution of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, respectively. Both polymeric nanoparticles showed significant bacteriostatic activities against Gram-negative ( Escherichia coli ) and Gram-positive ( Staphylococcus aureus ) bacteria depending on the nanoparticle size and amount of AgNO 3 used during fabrication.

  15. Antimicrobial drugs encapsulated in fibrin nanoparticles for treating microbial infested wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphonsa, B Maria; Sudheesh Kumar, P T; Praveen, G; Biswas, Raja; Chennazhi, K P; Jayakumar, R

    2014-05-01

    In vitro evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal drugs encapsulated fibrin nanoparticles to prove their potential prospect of using these nanocomponent for effective treatment of microbial infested wounds. Surfactant-free oil-in-water emulsification-diffusion method was adopted to encapsulate 1 mg/ml each of antimicrobial drugs (Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole) in 4 ml of aqueous fibrinogen suspension and subsequent thrombin mediated cross linking to synthesize drug loaded fibrin nanoparticles. Ciprofloxacin loaded fibrin nanoparticles (CFNPs) showed size range of 253 ± 6 nm whereas that of Fluconazole loaded fibrin nanoparticles (FFNPs) was 260 ± 10 nm. Physico chemical characterizations revealed the firm integration of antimicrobial drugs within fibrin nanoparticles. Drug release studies performed at physiological pH 7.4 showed a release of 16% ciprofloxacin and 8% of fluconazole while as the release of ciprofloxacin at alkaline pH 8.5, was 48% and that of fluconazole was 37%. The antimicrobial activity evaluations of both drug loaded systems independently showed good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E.coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and antifungal activity against Candida albicans (C. albicans). The in vitro toxicity of the prepared drug loaded nanoparticles were further analyzed using Human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF) and showed adequate cell viability. The efficacies of both CFNPs and FFNPs for sustained delivery of encapsulated anti microbial drugs were evaluated in vitro suggesting its potential use for treating microbial infested wounds (diabetic foot ulcer).

  16. Encapsulation of iron nanoparticles in alginate biopolymer for trichloroethylene remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezbaruah, Achintya N.; Shanbhogue, Sai Sharanya; Simsek, Senay; Khan, Eakalak

    2011-01-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles (10–90 nm) were encapsulated in biodegradable calcium-alginate capsules for the first time for application in environmental remediation. Encapsulation is expected to offers distinct advances over entrapment. Trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation was 89–91% in 2 h, and the reaction followed pseudo first order kinetics for encapsulated NZVI systems with an observed reaction rate constant (k obs ) of 1.92–3.23 × 10 −2 min −1 and a surface normalized reaction rate constant (k sa ) of 1.02–1.72 × 10 −3 L m −2 min −1 . TCE degradation reaction rates for encapsulated and bare NZVI were similar indicating no adverse affects of encapsulation on degradation kinetics. The shelf-life of encapsulated NZVI was found to be four months with little decrease in TCE removal efficiency.

  17. What's Wrong with Walden Two? | Tabensky | South African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... his Brave New World. In short, I argue, perhaps scandalously, that one of the central conditions for genuine agency is that our lives are and must continue to be, to a large extent, out of our personal control. The promise of too much personal control, not too little (as Kane thinks), is what is wrong with Skinner's social utopia.

  18. Rapid fabrication of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulations for organic electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Kamran; Ali, Junaid [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Mehdi, Syed Murtuza [Department of Mechanical Engineering, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Choi, Kyung-Hyun, E-mail: amm@jejunu.ac.kr [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); An, Young Jin [Jeonnam Science and Technology Promotion Center, Yeongam-gun, Jeollanam-do 526-897 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulations are being developed through a unique R2R-AALD system. • The encapsulations have resulted in life time enhancement of PVP memristor devices. • The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulated memristor performed with superior stability for four weeks. • Encapsulated devices performed efficiently even after bending test for 100 cycles. - Abstract: Organic electronics have earned great reputation in electronic industry yet they suffer technical challenges such as short lifetimes and low reliability because of their susceptibility to water vapor and oxygen which causes their fast degradation. This paper report on the rapid fabrication of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulations through a unique roll-to-roll atmospheric atomic layer deposition technology (R2R-AALD) for the life time enhancement of organic poly (4-vinylphenol) (PVP) memristor devices. The devices were then categorized into two sets. One was processed with R2R-AALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulations at 50 °C and the other one was kept as un-encapsulated. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results revealed that pin holes and other irregularities in PVP films with average arithmetic roughness (R{sub a}) of 9.66 nm have been effectively covered by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulation having R{sub a} of 0.92 nm. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS spectrum for PVP film showed peaks of C 1s and O 1s at the binding energies of 285 eV and 531 eV, respectively. The respective appearance of Al 2p, Al 2s, and O 1s peaks at the binding energies of 74 eV, 119 eV, and 531 eV, confirms the fabrication of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films. Electrical current–voltage (I–V) measurements confirmed that the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulation has a huge influence on the performance, robustness and life time of memristor devices. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulated memristor performed with superior stability for four weeks whereas the un-encapsulated devices could only last for one

  19. Palisaded encapsulated neuroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesh S Manchanda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Palisaded encapsulated neuroma (PEN is a benign cutaneous or mucosal neural tumor which, usually, presents as a solitary, firm, asymptomatic, papule or nodule showing striking predilection for the face. It occurs commonly in middle age, and there is no sex predilection. Oral PEN are not common, and these lesions must be distinguished from other peripheral nerve sheath tumors such as the neurofibroma, neurilemma (schwannoma, and traumatic neuroma. The major challenge in dealing with lesions of PEN is to avoid the misdiagnosis of neural tumors that may be associated with systemic syndromes such as neurofibromatosis and multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2B. Here, we present a case of benign PEN of the gingiva in the left anterior mandibular region, laying importance on immunohistochemical staining in diagnosing such lesions.

  20. New process encapsulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of the various aspects of this study indicate that the encapsulation process is not only capable of reducing the percent of Radon-222 emanation but also reduces the possibility of the leaching of toxic elements. Radon-222 emanation after solidification showed a 93.51% reduction from the slurry. The Gamma Spectral Analyses of short-lived Radon daughters supported the above findings. Leach studies on solidified refinery waste and transformer oils indicate there is a significant reduction in the possibility of toxic substances leaching out of the solidified samples. Further studies are needed to confirm the results of this investigation; however, the present findings indicate that the process could substantially reduce Radon-222 exhalation into the environment from uranium tailings ponds and reduce toxic leachates from hazardous waste materials

  1. Optimisation of preparation conditions and properties of phytosterol liposome-encapsulating nattokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xu-Yan; Kong, Fan-Pi; Yuan, Gang-You; Wei, Fang; Jiang, Mu-Lan; Li, Guang-Ming; Wang, Zhan; Zhao, Yuan-Di; Chen, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Phytosterol liposomes were prepared using the thin film method and used to encapsulate nattokinase (NK). In order to obtain a high encapsulation efficiency within the liposome, an orthogonal experiment (L9 (3)(4)) was applied to optimise the preparation conditions. The molar ratio of lecithin to phytosterols, NK activity and mass ratio of mannite to lecithin were the main factors that influenced the encapsulation efficiency of the liposomes. Based on the results of a single-factor test, these three factors were chosen for this study. We determined the optimum extraction conditions to be as follows: a molar ratio of lecithin to phytosterol of 2 : 1, NK activity of 2500 U mL⁻¹ and a mass ratio of mannite to lecithin of 3 : 1. Under these optimised conditions, an encapsulation efficiency of 65.25% was achieved, which agreed closely with the predicted result. Moreover, the zeta potential, size distribution and microstructure of the liposomes prepared were measured, and we found that the zeta potential was -51 ± 3 mV and the mean diameter was 194.1 nm. From the results of the scanning electron microscopy, we observed that the phytosterol liposomes were round and regular in shape and showed no aggregation.

  2. Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candido, Paula de Castro Menezes; Werner, Andrea de Freitas; Pereira, Izabela Machado Flores; Matos, Breno Assuncao; Pfeilsticker, Rudolf Moreira; Silva Filho, Raul, E-mail: paulacmcandido@yahoo.com.br [Hospital Felicio Rocho, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, a rare cause of bowel obstruction, was described as a complication associated with peritoneal dialysis which is much feared because of its severity. The authors report a case where radiological findings in association with clinical symptoms have allowed for a noninvasive diagnosis of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, emphasizing the high sensitivity and specificity of computed tomography to demonstrate the characteristic findings of such a condition. (author)

  3. FEM Simulation of Influence of Protective Encapsulation on MEMS Pressure Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Qingshan; Janting, Jakob; Branebjerg, Jens

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the work is to evaluate the feasibility of packaging a MEMS silicon pressure sensor by using either a polymer encapsulation or a combination of a polymer encapsulation and a metallic protection Membrane (fig. 1). The potential application of the protected sensor is for harsh...... environments. Several steps of simulation are carried out:1) Comparisons of the sensitivities are made among the non-encapsulated silicon sensor, the polymer encapsulated and polymer with metal encapsulated sensor. This is for evaluating whether the encapsulating materials reduce the pressure sensitivity...... whether the metallic membrane / coating will peel off when applying the maximum pressure, which is 4000 bar leading to high shear stress between the metallic membrane and the polymer encapsulation material.3) Thermal calculations are made to evaluate the influence of the environment on the packaged sensor...

  4. High hydrostatic pressure encapsulation of doxorubicin in ferritin nanocages with enhanced efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Liping; Li, Zenglan; Guo, Fangxia; Li, Xiunan; Luo, Jian; Zhao, Dawei; Liu, Yongdong; Su, Zhiguo

    2017-07-20

    Human ferritin (HFn) nanocaging is becoming an appealing platform for anticancer drugs delivery. However, protein aggregation always occurs during the encapsulation process, resulting in low production efficiency. A new approach using high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) was explored in this study to overcome the problem of loading doxorubicin (DOX) in HFn. At the pressure of 500MPa and pH 5.5, DOX molecules were found to be encapsulated into HFn. Meanwhile, combining it with an additive of 20mM arginine completely inhibited precipitation and aggregation, resulting in highly monodispersed nanoparticles with almost 100% protein recovery. Furthermore, stepwise decompression and incubation of the complex in atmospheric pressure at pH 7.4 for another period could further increase the DOX encapsulation ratio. The HFn-DOX nanoparticles (NPs) showed similar morphology and structural features to the hollow cage and no notable drug leakage occurred for HFn-DOX NPs when stored at 4°C and pH 7.4 for two weeks. HFn-DOX NPs prepared through HHP also showed significant cytotoxicity in vitro and higher antitumor bioactivity in vivo than naked DOX. Moreover, This HHP encapsulation strategy could economize on DOX that was greatly wasted during the conventional preparation process simply through a desalting column. These results indicated that HHP could offer a feasible approach with high efficiency for the production of HFn-DOX NPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Single-step generation of fluorophore-encapsulated gold nanoparticle core-shell materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardar, R; Shem, P M; Pecchia-Bekkum, C; Bjorge, N S; Shumaker-Parry, J S

    2010-01-01

    We report a simple route to produce fluorophore-encapsulated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in a single step under aqueous conditions using the fluorophore 1-pyrenemethylamine (PMA). Different amounts of PMA were used and the resulting core-shell gold nanoparticles were analyzed using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Electron microscopy analysis shows nanoparticles consisting of a gold nanoparticle core which is encapsulated with a lower contrast shell. In the UV-visible spectra, we observed a significant red shift (37 nm) of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption maximum (λ max ) compared to citrate-stabilized AuNPs of a similar size. We attribute the prominent LSPR wavelength shift for PMA-AuNP conjugates to the increase in the local dielectric environment near the gold nanoparticles due to the shell formation. This simple, aqueous-based synthesis is a new approach to the production of fluorophore-encapsulated AuNPs that could be applicable in biological sensing systems and photonic device fabrication.

  6. A simple encapsulation method for organic optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Qian-Qian; An Qiao-Shi; Zhang Fu-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The performances of organic optoelectronic devices, such as organic light emitting diodes and polymer solar cells, have rapidly improved in the past decade. The stability of an organic optoelectronic device has become a key problem for further development. In this paper, we report one simple encapsulation method for organic optoelectronic devices with a parafilm, based on ternary polymer solar cells (PSCs). The power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of PSCs with and without encapsulation decrease from 2.93% to 2.17% and from 2.87% to 1.16% after 168-hours of degradation under an ambient environment, respectively. The stability of PSCs could be enhanced by encapsulation with a parafilm. The encapsulation method is a competitive choice for organic optoelectronic devices, owing to its low cost and compatibility with flexible devices. (atomic and molecular physics)

  7. A quantitative method for photovoltaic encapsulation system optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A., III; Minning, C. P.; Cuddihy, E. F.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the design of encapsulation systems for flat plate photovoltaic modules requires the fulfillment of conflicting design requirements. An investigation was conducted with the objective to find an approach which will make it possible to determine a system with optimum characteristics. The results of the thermal, optical, structural, and electrical isolation analyses performed in the investigation indicate the major factors in the design of terrestrial photovoltaic modules. For defect-free materials, minimum encapsulation thicknesses are determined primarily by structural considerations. Cell temperature is not strongly affected by encapsulant thickness or thermal conductivity. The emissivity of module surfaces exerts a significant influence on cell temperature. Encapsulants should be elastomeric, and ribs are required on substrate modules. Aluminum is unsuitable as a substrate material. Antireflection coating is required on cell surfaces.

  8. Influence of epoxy resin as encapsulation material of silicon photovoltaic cells on maximum current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acevedo-Gómez David

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an analysis about how the performance of silicon photovoltaic cells is influenced by the use of epoxy resin as encapsulation material with flat roughness. The effect of encapsulation on current at maximum power of mono-crystalline cell was tested indoor in a solar simulator bench at 1000 w/m² and AM1.5G. The results show that implementation of flat roughness layer onto cell surface reduces the maximum current inducing on average 2.7% less power with respect to a cell before any encapsulation. The losses of power and, in consequence, the less production of energy are explained by resin light absorption, reflection and partially neutralization of non-reflective coating.

  9. Preparation, characterization, and in vitro release study of albendazole-encapsulated nanosize liposomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Preety; Pandey, Bhumika; Lakhera, P C; Singh, K P

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to formulate effective and controlled release albendazole liposomal formulations. Albendazole, a hydrophobic drug used for the treatment of hydatid cysts, was encapsulated in nanosize liposomes. Rapid evaporation method was used for the preparation of albendazole-encapsulated conventional and PEGylated liposomes consisting of egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cholesterol (CH) in the molar ratios of (6:4) and PC:CH: polyethylene glycol (PEG) (5:4:1), respectively. In this study, PEGylated and conventional liposomes containing albendazole were prepared and their characteristics, such as particle size, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro drug release were investigated. The drug encapsulation efficiency of PEGylated and conventional liposomes was 81% and 72%, respectively. The biophysical characterization of both conventional and PEG-coated liposomes were done by transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Efforts were made to study in vitro release of albendazole. The drug release rate showed decrease in albendazole release in descending order: free albendazole, albendazole-loaded conventional liposomes, and least with albendazole-loaded PEG-liposomes. Biologically relevant vesicles were prepared and in vitro release of liposome-entrapped albendazole was determined. PMID:20309396

  10. Comparison of the Acidity of Heteropolyacids Encapsulated in or Impregnated on SBA-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Teresa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Heteropolyacids (HPA immobilized onto SBA-15 silica were prepared by two different ways using either impregnation or encapsulation methodologies. Two Keggin-type HPA, H3PW12O40 and H4SiW12O40 were considered in this study. The resulting hybrid materials were fully characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, XRD, FT-IR, Raman, diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopies and 31P MAS NMR. All characterization methods showed that at room temperature the catalysts contained well-dispersed and intact Keggin units throughout the solid. The catalytic activity of these solids was investigated in the isomerization of n-hexane. The impregnated and encapsulated phosphotungstic catalysts performed similarly in catalysis showing that the amount of active sites was nearly the same in both catalysts. On the contrary, the tungstosilicic encapsulated material was completely inactive while its impregnated counterpart was even more active than the phosphotungstic derived catalysts. The acidity of the solids was measured by various methods: microcalorimetry of ammonia adsorption, ammonia desorption followed by Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD and DRIFT/GC-MS and pyridine adsorption followed by infrared spectroscopy. Only pyridine adsorption and ammonia desorption followed by DRIFT/GC-MS agreed with the catalytic data. Ammonia adsorption followed by microcalorimetry was not able to differentiate between the four catalysts while the TPD experiments led to unreliable results, as not only the evolved ammonia but also other molecules such as water were taken into account in the measurements. The behavior difference between the encapsulated silico- and phosphotungstic acids was explained by a more pronounced encapsulation in the case of silicon.

  11. UF{sub 6} tiedowns for truck transport - right way/wrong way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, F.W. Jr. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Tiedown systems for truck transport of UF{sub 6} must be defined and controlled to assure the least risk for hauling the material over the highways. This paper and an associated poster display will present the current status of regulatory criteria for tiedowns, analyze the structural stresses involved in tiedowns for two major UF{sub 6} packaging systems, the 21PF series of overpacks and the 48 in. diameter shipping cylinders, and will present photographs showing some {open_quote}right ways{close_quotes} and some {open_quotes}wrong (or risky) ways{close_quotes} currently used for tiedown systems. Risky tiedown methods must be replaced with safer less risky methods to insure the safe transport of UF{sub 6}.

  12. Development of DBD plasma actuators: The double encapsulated electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Rasool; Zare-Behtash, Hossein; Hale, Craig; Kontis, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Plasma actuators are electrical devices that generate a wall bounded jet without the use of any moving parts. For aerodynamic applications they can be used as flow control devices to delay separation and augment lift on a wing. The standard plasma actuator consists of a single encapsulated (ground) electrode. The aim of this project is to investigate the effect of varying the number and distribution of encapsulated electrodes in the dielectric layer. Utilising a transformer cascade, a variety of input voltages are studied for their effect. In the quiescent environment of a Faraday cage the velocity flow field is recorded using particle image velocimetry. Through understanding of the mechanisms involved in producing the wall jet and the importance of the encapsulated electrode a novel actuator design is proposed. The actuator design distributes the encapsulated electrode throughout the dielectric layer. The experiments have shown that actuators with a shallow initial encapsulated electrode induce velocities greater than the baseline case at the same voltage. Actuators with a deep initial encapsulated electrode are able to induce the highest velocities as they can operate at higher voltages without breakdown of the dielectric.

  13. Examining Wrong Eye Implant Adverse Events in the Veterans Health Administration With a Focus on Prevention: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neily, Julia; Chomsky, Amy; Orcutt, James; Paull, Douglas E; Mills, Peter D; Gilbert, Christina; Hemphill, Robin R; Gunnar, William

    2018-03-01

    The study goals were to examine wrong intraocular lens (IOL) implant adverse events in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), identify root causes and contributing factors, and describe system changes that have been implemented to address this challenge. This study represents collaboration between the VHA's National Center for Patient Safety (NCPS) and the National Surgery Office (NSO). This report includes 45 wrong IOL implant surgery adverse events reported to established VHA NCPS and NSO databases between July 1, 2006, and June 31, 2014. There are approximately 50,000 eye implant procedures performed each year in the VHA. Wrong IOL implant surgery adverse events are reported by VHA facilities to the NCPS and the NSO. Two authors (A.C. and J.N.) coded the reports for event type (wrong lens or expired lens) and identified the primary contributing factor (coefficient κ = 0.837). A descriptive analysis was conducted, which included the reported yearly event rate. The main outcome measure was the reported wrong IOL implant surgery adverse events. There were 45 reported wrong IOL implant surgery adverse events. Between 2011 and June 30, 2014, there was a significant downward trend (P = 0.02, R = 99.7%) at a pace of -0.08 (per 10,000 cases) every year. The most frequently coded primary contributing factor was incomplete preprocedure time-out (n = 12) followed by failure to perform double check of preprocedural calculations based upon original data and implant read-back at the time the surgical eye implant was performed (n = 10). Preventing wrong IOL implant adverse events requires diligence beyond performance of the preprocedural time-out. In 2013, the VHA has modified policy to ensure double check of preprocedural calculations and implant read-back with positive impact. Continued analysis of contributing human factors and improved surgical team communication are warranted.

  14. Encapsulation and delivery of food ingredients using starch based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan

    2017-08-15

    Functional ingredients can be encapsulated by various wall materials for controlled release in food and digestion systems. Starch, as one of the most abundant natural carbohydrate polymers, is non-allergenic, GRAS, and cheap. There has been increasing interest of using starch in native and modified forms to encapsulate food ingredients such as flavours, lipids, polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins, enzymes, and probiotics. Starches from various botanical sources in granular or amorphous forms are modified by chemical, physical, and/or enzymatic means to obtain the desired properties for targeted encapsulation. Other wall materials are also employed in combination with starch to facilitate some types of encapsulation. Various methods of crafting the starch-based encapsulation such as electrospinning, spray drying, antisolvent, amylose inclusion complexation, and nano-emulsification are introduced in this mini-review. The physicochemical and structural properties of the particles are described. The encapsulation systems can positively influence the controlled release of food ingredients in food and nutritional applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ethical Issues in Family Practice: My Culture – Right or Wrong?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health professionals educated in and practicing Western medicine in multicultural ... P K Moser & T L Carson,(Eds.)New York: Oxford University Press: 63., if a practice is harmful – as it is with FGM ... bad, or right or wrong independently of.

  16. Protein encapsulation via porous CaCO3 microparticles templating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodkin, Dmitry V; Larionova, Natalia I; Sukhorukov, Gleb B

    2004-01-01

    Porous microparticles of calcium carbonate with an average diameter of 4.75 microm were prepared and used for protein encapsulation in polymer-filled microcapsules by means of electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly (ELbL). Loading of macromolecules in porous CaCO3 particles is affected by their molecular weight due to diffusion-limited permeation inside the particles and also by the affinity to the carbonate surface. Adsorption of various proteins and dextran was examined as a function of pH and was found to be dependent both on the charge of the microparticles and macromolecules. The electrostatic effect was shown to govern this interaction. This paper discusses the factors which can influence the adsorption capacity of proteins. A new way of protein encapsulation in polyelectrolyte microcapsules is proposed exploiting the porous, biocompatible, and decomposable microparticles from CaCO3. It consists of protein adsorption in the pores of the microparticles followed by ELbL of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes and further core dissolution. This resulted in formation of polyelectrolyte-filled capsules with protein incorporated in interpenetrating polyelectrolyte network. The properties of CaCO3 microparticles and capsules prepared were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, microelectrophoresis, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Lactalbumin was encapsulated by means of the proposed technique yielding a content of 0.6 pg protein per microcapsule. Horseradish peroxidase saves 37% of activity after encapsulation. However, the thermostability of the enzyme was improved by encapsulation. The results demonstrate that porous CaCO3 microparticles can be applied as microtemplates for encapsulation of proteins into polyelectrolyte capsules at neutral pH as an optimal medium for a variety of bioactive material, which can also be encapsulated by the proposed method. Microcapsules filled with encapsulated material may find applications in the field of

  17. Electrospun Phospholipid Fibers as Micro-Encapsulation and Antioxidant Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarforoush, Elhamalsadat; Mendes, Ana C; Baj, Vanessa; Beeren, Sophie R; Chronakis, Ioannis S

    2017-10-17

    Electrospun phospholipid (asolectin) microfibers were investigated as antioxidants and encapsulation matrices for curcumin and vanillin. These phospholipid microfibers exhibited antioxidant properties which increased after the encapsulation of both curcumin and vanillin. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the total phenolic content (TPC) of curcumin/phospholipid and vanillin/phospholipid microfibers remained stable over time at different temperatures (refrigerated, ambient) and pressures (vacuum, ambient). ¹H-NMR confirmed the chemical stability of both encapsulated curcumin and vanillin within phospholipid fibers. Release studies in aqueous media revealed that the phenolic bioactives were released mainly due to swelling of the phospholipid fiber matrix over time. The above studies confirm the efficacy of electrospun phospholipid microfibers as encapsulation and antioxidant systems.

  18. Electrospun Phospholipid Fibers as Micro-Encapsulation and Antioxidant Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhamalsadat Shekarforoush

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun phospholipid (asolectin microfibers were investigated as antioxidants and encapsulation matrices for curcumin and vanillin. These phospholipid microfibers exhibited antioxidant properties which increased after the encapsulation of both curcumin and vanillin. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC and the total phenolic content (TPC of curcumin/phospholipid and vanillin/phospholipid microfibers remained stable over time at different temperatures (refrigerated, ambient and pressures (vacuum, ambient. 1H-NMR confirmed the chemical stability of both encapsulated curcumin and vanillin within phospholipid fibers. Release studies in aqueous media revealed that the phenolic bioactives were released mainly due to swelling of the phospholipid fiber matrix over time. The above studies confirm the efficacy of electrospun phospholipid microfibers as encapsulation and antioxidant systems.

  19. The production of volvox spheres and their potential application in multi-drugs encapsulation and release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teong, Benjamin; Chang, Shwu Jen [Department of Biomedical Engineering, I-Shou University, College of Medicine, No. 8, Yida Rd., Jiaosu Village, Yanchao District, Kaohsiung City 82445, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Chin Wen [Department of Electrical Engineering, I-Shou University, No. 1, Sec. 1, Syuecheng Rd., Dashu District, Kaohsiung City 84001, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Shyh Ming, E-mail: smkuo@isu.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Engineering, I-Shou University, College of Medicine, No. 8, Yida Rd., Jiaosu Village, Yanchao District, Kaohsiung City 82445, Taiwan (China); Manousakas, Ioannis, E-mail: i.manousakas@ieee.org [Department of Biomedical Engineering, I-Shou University, College of Medicine, No. 8, Yida Rd., Jiaosu Village, Yanchao District, Kaohsiung City 82445, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-01

    Volvox sphere is a bio-mimicking concept of an innovative biomaterial structure of a sphere that contains smaller microspheres which then encapsulate chemicals, drugs and/or cells. The volvox spheres were produced via a high-voltage electrostatic field system, using alginate as the primary material. Encapsulated materials tested in this study include staining dyes, nuclear fast red and trypan blue, and model drugs, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cytochrome c (CytC). The external morphology of the volvox spheres was observed via electron microscopy whereas the internal structure of the volvox spheres was observed via an optical microscope with the aid of the staining dyes, since alginate is colorless and transparent. The diameter of the microspheres was about 200 to 300 μm, whereas the diameter of the volvox spheres was about 1500 μm. Volvox spheres were durable, retaining about 95% of their mass after 4 weeks. Factors affecting entrapment efficiency, such as temperature and concentration of the bivalent cross-linker, were compared followed by a 7-day in vitro release study. The encapsulation efficiency of CytC within the microspheres was higher at cold (∼ 4 °C) and warm (∼ 50 °C) temperatures whereas temperature has no obvious effect on the BSA encapsulation. High crosslinking concentration (25% w/v) of calcium chloride has resulted higher entrapment efficiency for BSA but not for CytC. Furthermore, volvox spheres showed a different release pattern of BSA and CytC when compared to microspheres encapsulating BSA and CytC. Despite the fact that the mechanisms behind remain unclear and further investigation is required, this study demonstrates the potential of the volvox spheres for drug delivery. - Highlights: • Volvox spheres contain smaller microspheres which can encapsulate drugs and/or cells. • Alginate is the primary material for the inner and outer spheres. • Encapsulation is affected by the crosslinking, temperature and the selection of drugs.

  20. The production of volvox spheres and their potential application in multi-drugs encapsulation and release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teong, Benjamin; Chang, Shwu Jen; Chuang, Chin Wen; Kuo, Shyh Ming; Manousakas, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Volvox sphere is a bio-mimicking concept of an innovative biomaterial structure of a sphere that contains smaller microspheres which then encapsulate chemicals, drugs and/or cells. The volvox spheres were produced via a high-voltage electrostatic field system, using alginate as the primary material. Encapsulated materials tested in this study include staining dyes, nuclear fast red and trypan blue, and model drugs, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cytochrome c (CytC). The external morphology of the volvox spheres was observed via electron microscopy whereas the internal structure of the volvox spheres was observed via an optical microscope with the aid of the staining dyes, since alginate is colorless and transparent. The diameter of the microspheres was about 200 to 300 μm, whereas the diameter of the volvox spheres was about 1500 μm. Volvox spheres were durable, retaining about 95% of their mass after 4 weeks. Factors affecting entrapment efficiency, such as temperature and concentration of the bivalent cross-linker, were compared followed by a 7-day in vitro release study. The encapsulation efficiency of CytC within the microspheres was higher at cold (∼ 4 °C) and warm (∼ 50 °C) temperatures whereas temperature has no obvious effect on the BSA encapsulation. High crosslinking concentration (25% w/v) of calcium chloride has resulted higher entrapment efficiency for BSA but not for CytC. Furthermore, volvox spheres showed a different release pattern of BSA and CytC when compared to microspheres encapsulating BSA and CytC. Despite the fact that the mechanisms behind remain unclear and further investigation is required, this study demonstrates the potential of the volvox spheres for drug delivery. - Highlights: • Volvox spheres contain smaller microspheres which can encapsulate drugs and/or cells. • Alginate is the primary material for the inner and outer spheres. • Encapsulation is affected by the crosslinking, temperature and the selection of drugs.

  1. K Basins fuel encapsulation and storage hazard categorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.

    1994-12-01

    This document establishes the initial hazard categorization for K-Basin fuel encapsulation and storage in the 100 K Area of the Hanford site. The Hazard Categorization for K-Basins addresses the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K-Basins and their supporting facilities. The Hazard Categorization covers the hazards associated with normal K-Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. The criteria categorizes a facility based on total curies per radionuclide located in the facility. Tables 5-3 and 5-4 display the results in section 5.0. In accordance with DOE-STD-1027 and the analysis provided in section 5.0, the K East Basin fuel encapsulation and storage activity and the K West Basin storage are classified as a open-quotes Category 2close quotes Facility

  2. Modeling Encapsulated Microbubble Dynamics at High Pressure Amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyse, Jan F.; Bose, Sanjeeb; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2017-11-01

    Encapsulated microbubbles are commonly used in ultrasound contrast imaging and are of growing interest in therapeutic applications where local cavitation creates temporary perforations in cell membranes allowing for enhanced drug delivery. Clinically used microbubbles are encapsulated by a shell commonly consisting of protein, polymer, or phospholipid; the response of these bubbles to externally imposed ultrasound waves is sensitive to the compressibility of the encapsulating shell. Existing models approximate the shell compressibility via an effective surface tension (Marmottant et al. 2005). We present simulations of microbubbles subjected to high amplitude ultrasound waves (on the order of 106 Pa) and compare the results with the experimental measurements of Helfield et al. (2016). Analysis of critical points (corresponding to maximum and minimum expansion) in the governing Rayleigh-Plesset equation is used to make estimates of the parameters used to characterize the effective surface tension of the encapsulating shell. Stanford Graduate Fellowship.

  3. When Rewards Go Wrong: A Tale of Five Motivational Misdirects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Piers; MacDonnell, Rhiannon

    2012-01-01

    At the heart of most performance management systems is a reward program. However, even when we are doing everything else right, rewards can go wrong. Here, we explore five ways that external incentives can damage performance, from destroying altruistic behavior to distracting people from the task. Fortunately, most of these downfalls are…

  4. Electrospun Phospholipid Fibers as Micro-Encapsulation and Antioxidant Matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shekarforoush, Elhamalsadat; Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Baj, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Electrospun phospholipid (asolectin) microfibers were investigated as antioxidants and encapsulation matrices for curcumin and vanillin. These phospholipid microfibers exhibited antioxidant properties which increased after the encapsulation of both curcumin and vanillin. The total antioxidant...... capacity (TAC) and the total phenolic content (TPC) of curcumin/phospholipid and vanillin/phospholipid microfibers remained stable over time at different temperatures (refrigerated, ambient) and pressures (vacuum, ambient). ¹H-NMR confirmed the chemical stability of both encapsulated curcumin and vanillin...

  5. High Throughput Single-cell and Multiple-cell Micro-encapsulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lagus, Todd P.; Edd, Jon F.

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidic encapsulation methods have been previously utilized to capture cells in picoliter-scale aqueous, monodisperse drops, providing confinement from a bulk fluid environment with applications in high throughput screening, cytometry, and mass spectrometry. We describe a method to not only encapsulate single cells, but to repeatedly capture a set number of cells (here we demonstrate one- and two-cell encapsulation) to study both isolation and the interactions between cells in groups of ...

  6. Oxygen Measurements in Liposome Encapsulated Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri, Joshua Benjamin

    Liposome encapsulated hemoglobins (LEH's) are of current interest as blood substitutes. An analytical methodology for rapid non-invasive measurements of oxygen in artificial oxygen carriers is examined. High resolution optical absorption spectra are calculated by means of a one dimensional diffusion approximation. The encapsulated hemoglobin is prepared from fresh defibrinated bovine blood. Liposomes are prepared from hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC), cholesterol and dicetylphosphate using a bath sonication method. An integrating sphere spectrophotometer is employed for diffuse optics measurements. Data is collected using an automated data acquisition system employing lock-in -amplifiers. The concentrations of hemoglobin derivatives are evaluated from the corresponding extinction coefficients using a numerical technique of singular value decomposition, and verification of the results is done using Monte Carlo simulations. In situ measurements are required for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives because most encapsulation methods invariably lead to the formation of methemoglobin, a nonfunctional form of hemoglobin. The methods employed in this work lead to high resolution absorption spectra of oxyhemoglobin and other derivatives in red blood cells and liposome encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH). The analysis using singular value decomposition method offers a quantitative means of calculating the fractions of oxyhemoglobin and other hemoglobin derivatives in LEH samples. The analytical methods developed in this work will become even more useful when production of LEH as a blood substitute is scaled up to large volumes.

  7. High voltage photo-switch package module having encapsulation with profiled metallized concavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, James S; Sanders, David M; Hawkins, Steven A; Sampayan, Stephen A

    2015-05-05

    A photo-conductive switch package module having a photo-conductive substrate or wafer with opposing electrode-interface surfaces metalized with first metallic layers formed thereon, and encapsulated with a dielectric encapsulation material such as for example epoxy. The first metallic layers are exposed through the encapsulation via encapsulation concavities which have a known contour profile, such as a Rogowski edge profile. Second metallic layers are then formed to line the concavities and come in contact with the first metal layer, to form profiled and metalized encapsulation concavities which mitigate enhancement points at the edges of electrodes matingly seated in the concavities. One or more optical waveguides may also be bonded to the substrate for coupling light into the photo-conductive wafer, with the encapsulation also encapsulating the waveguides.

  8. Use of Red Cactus Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Encapsulated Powder to Pigment Extruded Cereal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha G. Ruiz-Gutiérrez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulated powder of the red cactus pear is a potential natural dye for the food industry and a known antioxidant. Although the use of this powder is possible, it is not clear how it alters food properties, thus ensuing commercial acceptability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of encapsulated powder of the red cactus pear on the physicochemical properties of extruded cereals. The powder was mixed (2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% w/w with maize grits and extruded (mix moisture 22%, temperature 100°C, and screw speed 325 rpm. The physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of the extruded cereal were evaluated; extruded cereal without encapsulated powder was used as a control. All cereal extrudates pigmented with the encapsulated powder showed statistically significant differences (P<0.05 in expansion, water absorption, color, density, and texture compared to the control. The encapsulated powder had a positive effect on expansion and water absorption indices, as well as color parameters, but a negative effect on density and texture. Extruded cereal properties were significantly (P<0.05 correlated. Sensorially, consumers accepted the extruded cereal with a lower red cactus pear powder content (2.5% w/w, because this presented characteristics similar to extruded cereal lacking pigment.

  9. Hybrid Encapsulated Ionic Liquids for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennecke, Joan; Degnan, Thomas; McCready, Mark; Stadtherr, Mark; Stolaroff, Joshuah; Ye, Congwang

    2016-09-30

    Ionic liquids (ILs) and Phase Change Ionic Liquids (PCILs) are excellent materials for selective removal of carbon dioxide from dilute post-combustion streams. However, they are typically characterized as having high viscosities, which impairs their effectiveness due to mass transfer limitations, caused by the high viscosities. In this project, we are examining the benefits of encapsulating ILs and PCILs in thin polymeric shells to produce particles of approximately 100 to 600 μm in diameter that can be used in a fluidized bed absorber. The particles are produced by microencapsulation of the ILs and PCILs in CO2-permeable polymer shells. Here we report on the synthesis of the IL and PCIL materials, measurements of thermophysical properties including CO2 capacity and reprotonation equilibrium and kinetics, encapsulation of the ILs and PCILs, mechanical and thermodynamic testing of the encapsulated materials, development of a rate based model of the absorber, and the design of a laboratory scale unit to test the encapsulated particles for CO2 capture ability and efficiency. We show that the IL/PCIL materials can be successfully encapsulated, that they retain CO2 uptake capacity, and that the uptake rates are increased relative to a stagnant sample of IL liquid or PCIL powder.

  10. Considerations for successful transplantation of encapsulated pancreatic islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, P; Hamel, AF; Tatarkiewicz, K

    Encapsulation of pancreatic islets allows for transplantion in the absence of immunosuppression. The technology is based on the principle that transplanted tissue is protected for the host immune system by an artificial membrane. Encapsulation offers a solution to the shortage of donors in clinical

  11. Comparative assessment of plasmid DNA delivery by encapsulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To compare the gene delivery effectiveness of plasmid DNA (pDNA) encapsulated within poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles with that adsorbed on PLGA nanoparticles. Methods: PLGA nanoparticles were prepared using solvent-evaporation method. To encapsulate pDNA within the particles, ...

  12. Effect of spray-drying with organic solvents on the encapsulation, release and stability of fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encina, Cristian; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Holgado, Francisca; Giménez, Begoña; Vergara, Cristina; Robert, Paz

    2018-10-15

    Fish-oil (FO) was encapsulated with hydroxypropylcelullose (HPC) by conventional spray-drying with water (FO-water) and solvent spray-drying with ethanol (FO-EtOH), methanol (FO-MeOH) and acetone (FO-Acet) in order to study the effect of the solvent on the encapsulation efficiency (EE), microparticle properties and stability of FO during storage at 40 °C. Results showed that FO-Acet presented the highest EE of FO (92.0%), followed by FO-EtOH (80.4%), FO-MeOH (75.0%) and FO-water (71.1%). A decrease of the dielectric constant increased the EE of FO, promoting triglyceride-polymer interactions instead of oil-in-water emulsion retention. FO release profile in aqueous model was similar for all FO-microparticles, releasing only the surface FO, according to Higuchi model. Oxidative stability of FO significantly improved by spray-drying with MeOH, both in surface and encapsulated oil fractions. In conclusion, encapsulation of FO by solvent spray-drying can be proposed as an alternative technology for encapsulation of hydrophobic molecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel encapsulation systems and processes for overcoming the challenges of polypharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlu-Gul, Mine; Topcu, Ahmet Alptekin; Shams, Talayeh; Mahalingam, Suntharavathanan; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2014-10-01

    The encapsulation process has been studied to develop smart drug delivery systems for decades. In particular, micro-encapsulation and nano-encapsulation approaches have gained wide interest in the development of particulate drug delivery and achieved progress in specialties such as nano-medicine. Encapsulation technologies have evolved through various platforms including emulsion solvent evaporation, spray drying and polymer conjugation. Among current encapsulation methods, electrohydrodynamic and microfluidic processes stand out by enabling the making of formulations with uniform shape and nanoscale size. Pressurized gyration is a new method of combining rotation and controlled pressure to produce encapsulated structures of various morphologies. In this review we address key developments in electrohydrodynamic, microfluidic, their combined and new approaches as well as their potential to obtain combined therapies with desired drug release profiles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The horror of wrong-site surgery continues: report of two cases in a regional trauma centre in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwosu, Arinze

    2015-01-01

    Wrong- site surgeries are iatrogenic errors encountered in the course of surgical patient management. Despite the 'never do harm' pledge in the 'Hippocratic Oath' drafted in 5(th) century BC, man is after all human, with this limitation manifesting in the physician's art despite his best intention. Beyond the catastrophic consequences of wrong- site surgery on the patient and surgeon, and the opprobrium on the art of medicine, the incidents have come to be regarded as a quality-of-care indicator. Orthopaedic surgery is a specialty with a preponderance of this phenomenon and the attendant medico-legal issues relating to malpractice claims. Consequently the specialty had pioneered institutional initiatives at preventing these 'friendly-fires'. Awareness and implementation of these initiatives however remain low in many parts of the world, hampered by a culture of denial and shame. This report presents two cases of wrong-site surgery following trauma from road-traffic accident. The first case was a closed reduction of the 'wrong' dislocated hip in the trauma/emergency unit under the care of senior residents, while the second case was attempted wrong-site surgery on the right leg in a patient with fracture of the left tibia, in conjunction with bilateral femoral fracture and right radio-ulnar fracture; by an experienced Chief Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon operating elective list. Both are orthopaedic cases, each with some trauma to both lower extremeties. Neither of the cases was formally mentioned anywhere in clinical discourse in the hospital, much less a formal report or audit. There was no formal, institutionalized process to prevent wrong-site surgery in the health institution and this could have been largely responsible for these incidents. An open, mandatory process of reporting such incidents for relevant audit and awareness is necessary, as a mechanism for prevention rather than blame or punishment.

  15. Enhancement of survival of alginate-encapsulated Lactobacillus casei NCDC 298.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Surajit; Hati, Subrota; Puniya, Anil Kumar; Khamrui, Kaushik; Singh, Kishan

    2014-08-01

    Micro-encapsulation of hydrocolloids improves the survival of sensitive probiotic bacteria in the harsh conditions that prevail in foods and during gastrointestinal passage by segregating them from environments. Incorporation of additives in encapsulating hydrocolloids and coatings of microcapsules further improves the survival of the probiotics. In this study, the effect of incorporation of resistant-maize starch in alginate for micro-encapsulation and coating of microcapsules with poly-l-lysine, stearic acid and bees wax on the survival of encapsulated Lactobacillus casei NCDC 298 at pH 1.5, 2% high bile salt, 65 °C for 20 min and release of viable lactobacilli cells from the capsule matrix in simulated aqueous solutions of colonic pH were assessed. Addition of resistant maize starch (2%) improved the survival of encapsulated L. casei NCDC 298. Coating of microcapsules with poly-L-lysine did not further improve the protection of encapsulated cells from the harsh conditions; however, bees wax and stearic acid (2%) improved the survival under similar conditions. Incorporation of maize starch (2%) in alginate followed by coating of beads with stearic acid (2%) led to better protection and complete release of entrapped lactobacilli in simulated colonic pH solution was observed. Additional treatments improve the survival of alginate-encapsulated lactobacilli cells without hindering the release of active cells from the capsule matrix and hence, the resulting encapsulated probiotics can be exploited in the development of probiotic functional foods with better survival of sensitive probiotic organisms. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Letters to the Editor: Tattooing gone wrong | Hampton | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 55, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Letters to the Editor: Tattooing gone wrong. M I Hampton ...

  17. Designing deoxidation inhibiting encapsulation of metal oxide nanostructures for fluidic and biological applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Moumita, E-mail: ghoshiisc@gmail.com [Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Centre for Nano Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); IV. Institute of Physics, Georg-August-Universität-Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); III. Institute of Physics – Biophysics and Complex Systems, Georg-August-Universität-Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Ghosh, Siddharth [III. Institute of Physics – Biophysics and Complex Systems, Georg-August-Universität-Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Seibt, Michael [IV. Institute of Physics, Georg-August-Universität-Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Schaap, Iwan A.T. [III. Institute of Physics – Biophysics and Complex Systems, Georg-August-Universität-Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Institute of Biological Chemistry, Biophysics and Bioengineering, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Schmidt, Christoph F. [III. Institute of Physics – Biophysics and Complex Systems, Georg-August-Universität-Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Mohan Rao, G. [Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-12-30

    Graphical abstract: To retain atomic structure and morphology of ZnO nanostructures (caused by deoxidation of ZnO) in water/bio-fluids, we propose and demonstrate a robust and inexpensive encapsulation technique using bio-compatible non-ionic surfactant. - Highlights: • Aqueous solutions of ZnO nanorods with and without surfactant are prepared. • With time ZnO nanorods show structural deterioration in different aqueous solutions. • Crystallinity of ZnO nanorods in absence of aqueous solution remain unaffected. • Encapsulation of bio-compatible surfactant in alchohol avoid ZnO deoxidation. • Crystallinity and structure of ZnO nanorods after encapsulation remain unaffected. - Abstract: Due to their photoluminescence, metal oxide nanostructures such as ZnO nanostructures are promising candidates in biomedical imaging, drug delivery and bio-sensing. To apply them as label for bio-imaging, it is important to study their structural stability in a bio-fluidic environment. We have explored the effect of water, the main constituent of biological solutions, on ZnO nanostructures with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL) studies which show ZnO nanorod degeneration in water. In addition, we propose and investigate a robust and inexpensive method to encapsulate these nanostructures (without structural degradation) using bio-compatible non-ionic surfactant in non-aqueous medium, which was not reported earlier. This new finding is an immediate interest to the broad audience of researchers working in biophysics, sensing and actuation, drug delivery, food and cosmetics technology, etc.

  18. Encapsulation of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanphai, P; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2017-05-01

    The loading of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles was investigated, using multiple spectroscopic methods, thermodynamic analysis, TEM images and modeling. Thermodynamic parameters showed testosterone-chitosan bindings occur mainly via H-bonding and van der Waals contacts. As polymer size increased more stable steroid-chitosan conjugates formed and hydrophobic contact was also observed. The loading efficacy of testosterone-nanocarrier was 40-55% and increased as chitosan size increased. Testosterone encapsulation markedly alters chitosan morphology. Chitosan nanoparticles are capable of transporting testosterone in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microfabrication process for patterning metallic lithium encapsulated electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oukassi, Sami; Dunoyer, Nicolas; Salot, Raphael; Martin, Steve

    2009-01-01

    This work presents recent achievements concerning thin film encapsulation of metallic lithium negative electrode. In the context of this study, the encapsulation stack includes polymer and dielectric layers combined in such way to optimize barrier performances of the whole structure towards oxygen and water vapor permeation. The first part of this work is dedicated to the description of the barrier stack architecture and properties. A second part presents the application of a microfabrication process to the metallic lithium negative electrode and barrier stack so as to have very small features (100 μm x 100 μm patterns). The microfabrication process includes several steps of photolithography and etching (dry and wet) blocks, which allows us to reach the target critical dimensions. These results show a method of patterning functional metallic lithium. It demonstrates the feasibility of energy sources miniaturization which is an important issue in the field of autonomous and wireless sensor networks.

  20. Psychiatric patients' views on why their involuntary hospitalisation was right or wrong: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsakou, Christina; Rose, Diana; Amos, Tim; Bowers, Len; McCabe, Rosemarie; Oliver, Danielle; Wykes, Til; Priebe, Stefan

    2012-07-01

    To explore involuntary patients' retrospective views on why their hospitalisation was right or wrong. Involuntary patients were recruited from 22 hospitals in England and interviewed in-depth. The study drew on grounded theory and thematic analysis. Most of the patients felt mentally unwell before admission and out of control during their treatment. Despite these common experiences, three groups of patients with distinct views on their involuntary hospitalisation were identified: those who believed that it was right, those who thought it was wrong and those with ambivalent views. Those with retrospectively positive views believed that hospitalisation ensured that they received treatment, averted further harm and offered them the opportunity to recover in a safe place. They felt that coercion was necessary, as they could not recognise that they needed help when acutely unwell. Those who believed that involuntary admission was wrong thought that their problems could have been managed through less coercive interventions, and experienced hospitalisation as an unjust infringement of their autonomy, posing a permanent threat to their independence. Patients with ambivalent views believed that they needed acute treatment and that hospitalisation averted further harm. Nonetheless, they thought that their problems might have been managed through less coercive community interventions or a shorter voluntary hospitalisation. The study illustrates why some patients view their involuntary hospitalisation positively, whereas others believe it was wrong. This knowledge could inform the development of interventions to improve patients' views and treatment experiences.

  1. Improving patient safety through a clinical audit spiral: prevention of wrong tooth extraction in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, H; Waring, D

    2017-07-07

    Introduction With an increasing demand to improve patient safety within the NHS, it is important to ensure that measures are undertaken to continually improve patient care. Wrong site surgery has been defined as a 'never event'. This article highlights the importance of preventing wrong tooth extraction within orthodontics through an audit spiral over five years investigating the accuracy and clarity of orthodontic extraction letters at the University Dental Hospital of Manchester.Aims To examine compliance with the standards for accuracy and clarity of extraction letters and the incidence of wrong tooth extractions, and to increase awareness of the errors that can occur with extraction letters and of the current guidelines.Method A retrospective audit was conducted examining extraction letters sent to clinicians outside the department.Results It can be seen there has been no occurrence of a wrong site tooth extraction. The initial audit highlighted issues in conformity, with it falling below expected standards. Cycle two generally demonstrated a further reduction in compliance. Cycle three appeared to result in an increase in levels of compliance. Cycles 4 and 5 have demonstrated gradual improvements. However, it is noteworthy that in all cycles the audit standards were still not achieved, with the exception of no incidences of the incorrect tooth being extracted.Conclusion This audit spiral demonstrates the importance of long term re-audit to aim to achieve excellence in clinical care. There has been a gradual increase in standards through each audit.

  2. An accelerated stress testing program for determining the reliability sensitivity of silicon solar cells to encapsulation and metallization systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.; Davis, C. W.; Royal, E.

    1982-01-01

    The use of accelerated testing methods in a program to determine the reliability attributes of terrestrial silicon solar cells is discussed. Different failure modes are to be expected when cells with and without encapsulation are subjected to accelerated testing and separate test schedules for each are described. Unencapsulated test cells having slight variations in metallization are used to illustrate how accelerated testing can highlight different diffusion related failure mechanisms. The usefulness of accelerated testing when applied to encapsulated cells is illustrated by results showing that moisture related degradation may be many times worse with some forms of encapsulation than with no encapsulation at all.

  3. Notice of construction for the 105 KE encapsulation activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This is a Notice of Construction for the 105-KE Basin Fuel Encapsulation Activity. This Notice of Construction is being submitted to the State of Washington Department of Health pursuant to the Washington Administrative Code, 246-247, ''Radiation Protection--Air Emissions,'' as amended. The encapsulation activity will consist of all of the activities described in Section 1.3 as necessary to complete encapsulation of the fuel elements and sludge contained in the 105-KE Basin. The encapsulation activity will be carried out on the 105-KE Basin floor under a minimum of 3 m (10 ft) of water. The encapsulation activity.includes emptying irradiated fuel elements from the existing canisters stored in the 105-KE Basin, packaging.these fuel elements in new canisters, packaging sludge from previous fuel inventories and the current inventory in new canisters, capping these canisters of fuel elements and sludge, and returning the new canisters to the storage racks in the basin. The empty canisters will be cleaned and crushed underwater. Packaging and disposal of the crushed canisters will take place above the water

  4. Durable crystalline Si photovoltaic modules based on silicone-sheet encapsulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kohjiro; Ohwada, Hiroto; Furihata, Tomoyoshi; Masuda, Atsushi

    2018-02-01

    Crystalline Si photovoltaic (PV) modules were fabricated with sheets of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (silicone) as an encapsulant. The long-term durability of the silicone-encapsulated PV modules was experimentally investigated. The silicone-based modules enhanced the long-term durability against potential-induced degradation (PID) and a damp-heat (DH) condition at 85 °C with 85% relative humidity (RH). In addition, we designed and fabricated substrate-type Si PV modules based on the silicone encapsulant and an Al-alloy plate as the substratum, which demonstrated high impact resistance and high incombustible performance. The high chemical stability, high volume resistivity, rubber-like elasticity, and incombustibility of the silicone encapsulant resulted in the high durability of the modules. Our results indicate that silicone is an attractive encapsulation material, as it improves the long-term durability of crystalline Si PV modules.

  5. Lead macro-encapsulation conceptual and experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orebaugh, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    Macro-encapsulation, the regulatory treatment for radioactively contaminated lead (mixed) waste has been conceptually and experimentally evaluated for practical application. Epoxy encapsulants molded around lead billets have proven to be exceptionally rugged, easily applied, have high radiation and chemical stability, and minimize required process equipment and production of secondary wastes. This technology can now be considered developed, and can be applied as discussed in this report

  6. Encapsulation of curcumin in polyelectrolyte nanocapsules and their neuroprotective activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanowicz, Krzysztof; Jantas, Danuta; Piotrowski, Marek; Staroń, Jakub; Leśkiewicz, Monika; Regulska, Magdalena; Lasoń, Władysław; Warszyński, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    Poor water solubility and low bioavailability of lipophilic drugs can be potentially improved with the use of delivery systems. In this study, encapsulation of nanoemulsion droplets was utilized to prepare curcumin nanocarriers. Nanosize droplets containing the drug were encapsulated in polyelectrolyte shells formed by the layer-by-layer (LbL) adsorption of biocompatible polyelectrolytes: poly-L-lysine (PLL) and poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA). The size of synthesized nanocapsules was around 100 nm. Their biocompatibility and neuroprotective effects were evaluated on the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line using cell viability/toxicity assays (MTT reduction, LDH release). Statistically significant toxic effect was clearly observed for PLL coated nanocapsules (reduction in cell viability about 20%-60%), while nanocapsules with PLL/PGA coating did not evoke any detrimental effects on SH-SY5Y cells. Curcumin encapsulated in PLL/PGA showed similar neuroprotective activity against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell damage, as did 5 μM curcumin pre-dissolved in DMSO (about 16% of protection). Determination of concentration of curcumin in cell lysate confirmed that curcumin in nanocapsules has cell protective effect in lower concentrations (at least 20 times) than when given alone. Intracellular mechanisms of encapsulated curcumin-mediated protection engaged the prevention of the H2O2-induced decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) but did not attenuate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) formation. The obtained results indicate the utility of PLL/PGA shell nanocapsules as a promising, alternative way of curcumin delivery for neuroprotective purposes with improved efficiency and reduced toxicity.

  7. Suppression of intrinsic roughness in encapsulated graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Joachim Dahl; Gunst, Tue; Gregersen, Søren Schou

    2017-01-01

    Roughness in graphene is known to contribute to scattering effects which lower carrier mobility. Encapsulating graphene in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) leads to a significant reduction in roughness and has become the de facto standard method for producing high-quality graphene devices. We have...... fabricated graphene samples encapsulated by hBN that are suspended over apertures in a substrate and used noncontact electron diffraction measurements in a transmission electron microscope to measure the roughness of encapsulated graphene inside such structures. We furthermore compare the roughness...... of these samples to suspended bare graphene and suspended graphene on hBN. The suspended heterostructures display a root mean square (rms) roughness down to 12 pm, considerably less than that previously reported for both suspended graphene and graphene on any substrate and identical within experimental error...

  8. Encapsulation with structured triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipids provide excellent materials to encapsulate bioactive compounds for food and pharmaceutical applications. Lipids are renewable, biodegradable, and easily modified to provide additional chemical functionality. The use of structured lipids that have been modified with photoactive properties are ...

  9. Selective Co-Encapsulation Inside an M6 L4 Cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Stefan H A M; Becker, René; Kumpulainen, Tatu; de Bruin, Bas; Sawada, Tomohisa; Kato, Taito; Fujita, Makoto; Reek, Joost N H

    2016-10-17

    There is broad interest in molecular encapsulation as such systems can be utilized to stabilize guests, facilitate reactions inside a cavity, or give rise to energy-transfer processes in a confined space. Detailed understanding of encapsulation events is required to facilitate functional molecular encapsulation. In this contribution, it is demonstrated that Ir and Rh-Cp-type metal complexes can be encapsulated inside a self-assembled M 6 L 4 metallocage only in the presence of an aromatic compound as a second guest. The individual guests are not encapsulated, suggesting that only the pair of guests can fill the void of the cage. Hence, selective co-encapsulation is observed. This principle is demonstrated by co-encapsulation of a variety of combinations of metal complexes and aromatic guests, leading to several ternary complexes. These experiments demonstrate that the efficiency of formation of the ternary complexes depends on the individual components. Moreover, selective exchange of the components is possible, leading to formation of the most favorable complex. Besides the obvious size effect, a charge-transfer interaction may also contribute to this effect. Charge-transfer bands are clearly observed by UV/Vis spectrophotometry. A change in the oxidation potential of the encapsulated electron donor also leads to a shift in the charge-transfer energy bands. As expected, metal complexes with a higher oxidation potential give rise to a higher charge-transfer energy and a larger hypsochromic shift in the UV/Vis spectrum. These subtle energy differences may potentially be used to control the binding and reactivity of the complexes bound in a confined space. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  10. Encapsulated Unresolved Subdural Hematoma Mimicking Acute Epidural Hematoma: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Soo; Kim, Hyo-Joon; Kwon, Chang-Young

    2014-01-01

    Encapsulated acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) has been uncommonly reported. To our knowledge, a few cases of lentiform ASDH have been reported. The mechanism of encapsulated ASDH has been studied but not completely clarified. Encapsulated lentiform ASDH on a computed tomography (CT) scan mimics acute epidural hematoma (AEDH). Misinterpretation of biconvex-shaped ASDH on CT scan as AEDH often occurs and is usually identified by neurosurgical intervention. We report a case of an 85-year-old man presenting with a 2-day history of mental deterioration and right-sided weakness. CT scan revealed a biconvex-shaped hyperdense mass mixed with various densities of blood along the left temporoparietal cerebral convexity, which was misinterpreted as AEDH preoperatively. Emergency craniectomy was performed, but no AEDH was found beneath the skull. In the subdural space, encapsulated ASDH was located. En block resection of encapsulated ASDH was done. Emergency craniectomy confirmed that the preoperatively diagnosed AEDH was an encapsulated ASDH postoperatively. Radiologic studies of AEDH-like SDH allow us to establish an easy differential diagnosis between AEDH and ASDH by distinct features. More histological studies will provide us information on the mechanism underlying encapsulated ASDH. PMID:27169052

  11. Design, characterisation and application of alginate-based encapsulated pig liver esterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Jan; Gröger, Harald; Patel, Anant V

    2018-06-05

    Encapsulation of hydrolases in biopolymer-based hydrogels often suffers from low activities and encapsulation efficiencies along with high leaching and unsatisfactory recycling properties. Exemplified for the encapsulation of pig liver esterase the coating of alginate and chitosan beads have been studied by creating various biopolymer hydrogel beads. Enzyme activity and encapsulation efficiency were notably enhanced by chitosan coating of alginate beads while leaching remained nearly unchanged. This was caused by the enzymatic reaction acidifying the matrix, which increased enzyme retention through enhanced electrostatic enzyme-alginate interaction but decreased activity through enzyme deactivation. A practical and ready-to-use method for visualising pH in beads during reaction by co-encapsulation of a conventional pH indicator was also found. Our method proves that pH control inside the beads can only be realised by buffering. The resulting beads provided a specific activity of 0.267 μmol ∙ min -1 ∙ mg -1 , effectiveness factor 0.88, encapsulation efficiency of 88%, 5% leaching and good recycling properties. This work will contribute towards better understanding and application of encapsulated hydrolases for enzymatic syntheses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Improving gas sensor properties of encapsulated ZnO nanorods for ethanol detection using ZnO:Cr layer as an encapsulated layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Safa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, encapsulated ZnO nanorods with different amount of chromium (Cr dopant (0-4.5 at.% were prepared with hydrothermal method, and their sensitivities as gas sensors against ethanol vapor were investigated. Morphologies of samples were explored by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM which showed that encapsulation process increased the diameter of ZnO nanorods. Existence of Cr in ZnO nanorods structures was confirmed by Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, the ZnO:Cr nanorods had wurtzite crystal structure, and adding Cr did not alter the crystal structure of ZnO. Electrical measurements revealed that current levels of samples were decreased by adding Cr, while the current level of the sample with 4.5 at.% was increased. This reduction could be attributed to the presence of Cr3+ ions, which led to decrease of charge carriers. Besides, due to the catalytic properties of Cr and its lower ionization energy than Zn, it was observed that Cr dopant improved the detection sensitivity of samples, and decreased the optimum operating temperature of samples. Among all samples, the most sensitivity (14 was obtained based on the sample with 1.5 at.% of Cr for 500 ppm ethanol vapor at the optimum temperature (250 . In fact, by encapsulating the samples, they became rougher, so the appropriate places to absorb and decompose of gas molecules are increased.

  13. PEGylated lipid nanocapsules with improved drug encapsulation and controlled release properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervella, Pablo; Alonso-Sande, Maria; Ledo, Francisco; Lucero, Maria L; Alonso, Maria J; Garcia-Fuentes, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Drugs with poor lipid and water solubility are some of the most challenging to formulate in nanocarriers, typically resulting in low encapsulation efficiencies and uncontrolled release profiles. PEGylated nanocapsules (PEG-NC) are known for their amenability to diverse modifications that allow the formation of domains with different physicochemical properties, an interesting feature to address a drug encapsulation problem. We explored this problem by encapsulating in PEG-NC the promising anticancer drug candidate F10320GD1, used herein as a model for compounds with such characteristics. The nanocarriers were prepared from Miglyol(®), lecithin and PEG-sterate through a solvent displacement technique. The resulting system was a homogeneous suspension of particles with size around 200 nm. F10320GD1 encapsulation was found to be very poor (<15%) if PEG-NC were prepared using water as continuous phase; but we were able to improve this value to 85% by fixing the pH of the continuous phase to 9. Interestingly, this modification also improved the controlled release properties and the chemical stability of the formulation during storage. These differences in pharmaceutical properties together with physicochemical data suggest that the pH of the continuous phase used for PEG-NC preparation can modify drug allocation, from the external shell towards the inner lipid core of the nanocapsules. Finally, we tested the bioactivity of the drug-loaded PEG-NC in several tumor cell lines, and also in endothelial cells. The results indicated that drug encapsulation led to an improvement on drug cytotoxicity in tumor cells, but not in non-tumor endothelial cells. Altogether, the data confirms that PEG-NC show adequate delivery properties for F10320GD1, and underlines its possible utility as an anticancer therapy.

  14. Novel Solid Encapsulation of Ethylene Gas Using Amorphous α-Cyclodextrin and the Release Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Binh T; Bhandari, Bhesh R

    2016-05-04

    This research investigated the encapsulation of ethylene gas into amorphous α-cyclodextrins (α-CDs) at low (LM) and high (HM) moisture contents at 1.0-1.5 MPa for 24-120 h and its controlled release characteristics at 11.2-52.9% relative humidity (RH) for 1-168 h. The inclusion complexes (ICs) were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (CP-MAS (13)C NMR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ethylene concentrations in the ICs were from 0.45 to 0.87 mol of ethylene/mol CD and from 0.42 to 0.54 mol of ethylene/mol CD for LM and HM α-CDs, respectively. Ethylene gas released from the encapsulated powder at higher rates with increasing RH. An analysis of release kinetics using Avrami's equation showed that the LM and HM amorphous α-CDs were not associated with significant differences in release constant k and parameter n for any given RH condition. NMR spectra showed the presence of the characteristic carbon-carbon double bond of ethylene gas in the encapsulated α-CD powder.

  15. Encapsulated social perception of emotional expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smortchkova, Joulia

    2017-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the detection of emotional expressions is, in its early stages, informationally encapsulated. I clarify and defend such a view via the appeal to data from social perception on the visual processing of faces, bodies, facial and bodily expressions. Encapsulated social perception might exist alongside processes that are cognitively penetrated, and that have to do with recognition and categorization, and play a central evolutionary function in preparing early and rapid responses to the emotional stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nano spray drying for encapsulation of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpagaus, Cordin; Collenberg, Andreas; Rütti, David; Assadpour, Elham; Jafari, Seid Mahdi

    2018-05-17

    Many pharmaceuticals such as pills, capsules, or tablets are prepared in a dried and powdered form. In this field, spray drying plays a critical role to convert liquid pharmaceutical formulations into powders. In addition, in many cases it is necessary to encapsulate bioactive drugs into wall materials to protect them against harsh process and environmental conditions, as well as to deliver the drug to the right place and at the correct time within the body. Thus, spray drying is a common process used for encapsulation of pharmaceuticals. In view of the rapid progress of nanoencapsulation techniques in pharmaceutics, nano spray drying is used to improve drug formulation and delivery. The nano spray dryer developed in the recent years provides ultrafine powders at nanoscale and high product yields. In this paper, after explaining the concept of nano spray drying and understanding the key elements of the equipment, the influence of the process parameters on the final powders properties, like particle size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading and release, will be discussed. Then, numerous application examples are reviewed for nano spray drying and encapsulation of various drugs in the early stages of product development along with a brief overview of the obtained results and characterization techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Time integrated ratio of wrong-sign to right-sign $D^0 \\rightarrow K\\pi$ decays in 2010 data at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    The LHCb Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    First results of the measurement on wrong-sign $D^0 \\rightarrow K^{+} \\pi^{-}$ decays based on the 2010 dataset taken with the LHCb detector are presented. The ratio of wrong-sign to right-sign ($D^0 \\rightarrow K^{-} \\pi^{+}$) $D^0$ decays corrected for the decay time acceptance is determined to be $R_{{\\rm corr}}=(0.409 \\pm 0.031 ({\\rm stat.}) \\pm 0.039 ({\\rm sys.})) \\% $. This analysis is the first step towards a measurement of the time-dependent wrong-sign to right-sign ratio from which the $D^0$ mixing parameters can be extracted.

  18. Plantlets from encapsulated shoot buds of Catalpa ovata G. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Wysokińska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot buds isolated from in vitro shoot cultures of Catalpa ovata G. Don were encapsulated using 3% sodium alginate with sucrose (3% and 50 mM calcium chloride. The morphogenic response of encapsulated buds was affected by such factors, like composition of the media and the presence of growth regulators. The highest frequency of plantlet germination from encapsulated buds (70% within 4 weeks was obtained on Woody Plant medium (WP (Lloyd and McCown 1980 containing indole-3-butyric acid (IBA (1 mg/l. The process was substantially inhibited by cold-storage (4oC of encapsulated buds. In this case, the frequency response ranged from 3% to 22% dependent on storage period (28 or 42 days and the presence of the paraffin coat covering the alginate capsules. The plantlets developed from both unstored and stored encapsulated buds of C. ovata were transplanted to soil and grew in pots to phenotypically normal plants.

  19. Zeolite Encapsulated Nanocrystalline CuO: A Redox Catalyst for the Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthivel Vijaikumar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeolite encapsulated nanocrystalline CuO is synthesized and characterized by powder XRD and HRTEM analyses which clearly show that the particles are less than 15 nm and the nanoparticles are highly dispersed. This nano CuO encapsulated CuY zeolite is used as catalyst in the oxidation of aromatic secondary alcohols. CuY zeolite acts as an efficient support for nano CuO, by stabilizing it and preventing its aggregation. Plausible mechanisms for the formation of the various products are also given.

  20. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help...

  1. Properties of probiotics and encapsulated probiotics in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurt, V Hazal; Ötles, Semih

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics are microorganisms which confer health benefits upon application in sufficiently-high viable cell amounts. Probiotics are typically members of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species commonly associated with human gastrointestinal tracts. In the recent past, there has been a rising interest in producing functional foods containing encapsulated probiotic bacteria. Recent studies have been reported using dairy products like cheese, yogurt and ice cream as food carrier, and non-dairy products like meat, fruits, cereals, chocolate, etc. However, the industrial sector contains only few encapsulated probiotic products. Probiotics have been developed by several companies in a capsule or a tablet form. The review compiles probiotics, encapsulation technology and cell life in the food matrices.

  2. Encapsulation of bacteria and viruses in electrospun nanofibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salalha, W; Kuhn, J; Dror, Y; Zussman, E

    2006-01-01

    Bacteria and viruses were encapsulated in electrospun polymer nanofibres. The bacteria and viruses were suspended in a solution of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in water and subjected to an electrostatic field of the order of 1 kV cm -1 . Encapsulated bacteria in this work (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus albus) and bacterial viruses (T7, T4, λ) managed to survive the electrospinning process while maintaining their viability at fairly high levels. Subsequently the bacteria and viruses remain viable during three months at -20 and -55 deg. C without a further decrease in number. The present results demonstrate the potential of the electrospinning process for the encapsulation and immobilization of living biological material

  3. Quality changes and shelf-life extension of ready-to-eat fish patties by adding encapsulated citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Ricard; Claret, Anna; Stamatakis, Antonios; Martínez, Brigitte; Guerrero, Luis

    2017-12-01

    Citric acid is commonly used as a flavoring and preservative in food and beverages. The effect of adding citric acid directly or encapsulated (each at 1 and 2 g kg -1 ) on the quality and shelf-life of ready-to-eat sea bass patties was evaluated during storage at 4 °C in vacuum skin packaging. Microbial growth and total basic volatile nitrogen were maintained at relatively low levels up to 8 weeks of storage. With respect to oxidative stability, the addition of encapsulated citric acid minimized secondary oxidation values more efficiently than its direct addition, regardless of the concentration. This is in agreement with the decreased fishy odor observed in those patties containing encapsulated citric acid. Accordingly, sensory analysis showed that the addition of encapsulated citric acid at 1 g kg -1 resulted in lower scores in fish aroma compared to that of the control. Sourness is dependent on the amount of citric acid added, regardless of the form (direct or encapsulated). The form of citric acid addition, rather than the amount of citric acid added, caused changes in texture. Therefore, the use of encapsulated citric acid represents a suitable strategy that is of great interest in the seafood industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Carbide Nanoparticles Encapsulated in the Caves of Carbon Nanotubes by an In Situ Reduction-Carbonization Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunli Guo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbides (TiC, WC, and NbC nanoparticles fully encapsulated in the caves of carbon nanotubes (CNTs were synthesized via an in situ reduction-carbonization route at 600∘C in an autoclave. The structural features and morphologies of as-obtained products were investigated using by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. HRTEM studies showed that the average diameter of CNTs encapsulated with carbide nanoparticles are in the range of 15–40 nm. The reaction temperature, the reaction time, and the metal catalyst are found to play crucial roles to the product morphology. The growth mechanism of carbide nanoparticles encapsulated in CNTs was discussed in detail.

  5. Effect of pH and ionic strength on exposure and toxicity of encapsulated lambda-cyhalothrin to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jino; Hooven, Louisa A; Harper, Bryan; Harper, Stacey L

    2015-12-15

    Encapsulation of pesticide active ingredients in polymers has been widely employed to control the release of poorly water-soluble active ingredients. Given the high dispersibility of these encapsulated pesticides in water, they are expected to behave differently compared to their active ingredients; however, our current understanding of the fate and effects of encapsulated pesticides is still limited. In this study, we employed a central composite design (CCD) to investigate how pH and ionic strength (IS) affect the hydrodynamic diameter (HDD) and zeta potential of encapsulated λ-cyhalothrin and how those changes affect the exposure and toxicity to Daphnia magna. R(2) values greater than 0.82 and 0.84 for HDD and zeta potential, respectively, irrespective of incubation time suggest those changes could be predicted as a function of pH and IS. For HDD, the linear factor of pH and quadratic factor of pH×pH were found to be the most significant factors affecting the change of HDD at the beginning of incubation, whereas the effects of IS and IS×IS became significant as incubation time increased. For zeta potential, the linear factor of IS and quadratic factor of IS×IS were found to be the most dominant factors affecting the change of zeta potential of encapsulated λ-cyhalothrin, irrespective of incubation time. The toxicity tests with D. magna under exposure conditions in which HDD or zeta potential of encapsulated λ-cyhalothrin was maximized or minimized in the overlying water also clearly showed the worst-case exposure condition to D. magna was when the encapsulated λ-cyhalothrin is either stable or small in the overlying water. Our results show that water quality could modify the fate and toxicity of encapsulated λ-cyhalothrin in aquatic environments, suggesting understanding their aquatic interactions are critical in environmental risk assessment. Herein, we discuss the implications of our findings for risk assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  6. PROPAGANDA: HOW A GOOD WORD WENT WRONG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA LUCIA ŞUTIU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available What is propaganda and what is wrong with it? This may be the main question when studying this complex phenomenon. In this article we shall try to give an answer to this question and to find the most appropriate definition for this disputed concept. Nowadays, propaganda has a negative connotation and usually it is used to discredit somebody’s speech or actions, by implying that he is both illogical and unethical. But propaganda wasn’t seen always like that! In order to give an objective definition of this concept, it is very important for us to understand first what exactly happened with this word throughout history.

  7. Biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) nanosphere encapsulating superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sushant; Singh, Abhay Narayan; Verma, Anil; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) nanosphere encapsulating superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were successfully synthesized using double emulsion (w/o/w) solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of the nanosphere using dynamic light scattering, field emission scanning electron microscope, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed a spherical-shaped nanosphere in a size range of 812 ± 64 nm with moderate protein encapsulation efficiency of 55.42 ± 3.7 % and high in vitro protein release. Human skin HaCat cells were used for analyzing antioxidative properties of SOD- and CAT-encapsulated PCL nanospheres. Oxidative stress condition in HaCat cells was optimized with exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 1 mM) as external stress factor and verified through reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis using H2DCFDA dye. PCL nanosphere encapsulating SOD and CAT together indicated better antioxidative defense against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human skin HaCat cells in comparison to PCL encapsulating either SOD or CAT alone as well as against direct supplement of SOD and CAT protein solution. Increase in HaCat cells SOD and CAT activities after treatment hints toward uptake of PCL nanosphere into the human skin HaCat cells. The result signifies the role of PCL-encapsulating SOD and CAT nanosphere in alleviating oxidative stress.

  8. Strain response of stretchable micro-electrodes: Controlling sensitivity with serpentine designs and encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutruf, Philipp; Walia, Sumeet; Nur Ali, Md; Sriram, Sharath; Bhaskaran, Madhu

    2014-01-01

    The functionality of flexible electronics relies on stable performance of thin film micro-electrodes. This letter investigates the behavior of gold thin films on polyimide, a prevalent combination in flexible devices. The dynamic behavior of gold micro-electrodes has been studied by subjecting them to stress while monitoring their resistance in situ. The shape of the electrodes was systematically varied to examine resistive strain sensitivity, while an additional encapsulation was applied to characterize multilayer behavior. The realized designs show remarkable tolerance to repetitive strain, demonstrating that curvature and encapsulation are excellent approaches for minimizing resistive strain sensitivity to enable durable flexible electronics

  9. Accelerated thermal aging of rubber modified epoxy encapsulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayre, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A program is outlined to enable prediction of physical properties of rubber modified epoxy encapsulants over the life time of the extended life neutron generators. Preliminary results show that the chief aging phenomenon occurring is increased crosslink density of the epoxy matrix. No changes in the rubber phase have been detected. The effect of increased epoxy crosslink density has been higher volume resistivity at 66 0 C, increased tensile strength, and decreased ultimate elongation

  10. Investigations into encapsulation of intermediate level wastes containing organic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, J.

    1988-01-01

    A product evaluation programme was set up to investigate the properties of a variety of matrix-waste formulations prior to their encapsulation. The waste/matrix forms were defined and characterised and waste pretreatments studied. Potential encapsulation matrices were investigated for their suitability for individual waste streams. The physical, chemical and thermal properties, radiation stability and leaching behaviour of the formulations were studied. Operational and design limits for the encapsulation plant were defined. (U.K.)

  11. Landing on the Wrong Note: The Price We Paid for "Brown." 2004 DeWitt Wallace-"Reader's Digest" Distinguished Lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladson-Billings, Gloria

    2004-01-01

    The first part of the title of this lecture is taken from Ajay Heble's (2000) book "Landing on the Wrong Note: Jazz, Dissonance, and Critical Practice." The author chose this musical image to convey the problem of good intentions gone awry. No musician plans to play the wrong note. The plaintiffs, litigators, Supreme Court Justices, and civil…

  12. Characterization studies of lower and non-TDI polyurethane encapsulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.H.

    1993-09-01

    Polyurethane prepolymers containing toluene diisocyanate (TDI) are used within the Nuclear Weapons complex for many adhesive and encapsulation applications. As part of a program for minimizing hazards to workers and the environment, TDI will be eliminated. This report presents evaluation of alternative encapsulants

  13. Magnetic separation of encapsulated islet cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nano particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Esther; Trenkler, Anja; Feilen, Peter J; Wiegand, Frederik; Fottner, Christian; Ehrhart, Friederike; Zimmermann, Heiko; Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Dong Yun; Fischer, Stefan; Schreiber, Laura M; Weber, Matthias M

    2013-01-01

    Islet cell transplantation is a promising option for the restoration of normal glucose homeostasis in patients with type 1 diabetes. Because graft volume is a crucial issue in islet transplantations for patients with diabetes, we evaluated a new method for increasing functional tissue yield in xenogeneic grafts of encapsulated islets. Islets were labeled with three different superparamagnetic iron oxide nano particles (SPIONs; dextran-coated SPION, siloxane-coated SPION, and heparin-coated SPION). Magnetic separation was performed to separate encapsulated islets from the empty capsules, and cell viability and function were tested. Islets labeled with 1000 μg Fe/ml dextran-coated SPIONs experienced a 69.9% reduction in graft volume, with a 33.2% loss of islet-containing capsules. Islets labeled with 100 μg Fe/ml heparin-coated SPIONs showed a 46.4% reduction in graft volume, with a 4.5% loss of capsules containing islets. No purification could be achieved using siloxane-coated SPIONs due to its toxicity to the primary islets. SPION labeling of islets is useful for transplant purification during islet separation as well as in vivo imaging after transplantation. Furthermore, purification of encapsulated islets can also reduce the volume of the encapsulated islets without impairing their function by removing empty capsules. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Production and characterization of nanocapsules encapsulated linalool by ionic gelation method using chitosan as wall material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuobing XIAO

    Full Text Available Abstract Linalool has been extensively applied in various fields, such as flavoring agent, perfumes, cosmetics and medical science. However, linalool is unstable, volatile and readily oxidizable. A sensitive substance can be encapsulated in a capsule, so encapsulation technology can solve these problems. In this paper, linalool-loaded nanocapsules (Lin-nanocapsules were prepared via the ionic gelation method and Lin-nanocapsules were characterized. The results of Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR showed that linalool was successfully encapsulated in the wall materials. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM results demonstrated that the shapes of Lin-nanocapsules, with smooth surfaces, were nearly spherical. Lin-nanocapsule average particle size was 352 nm and its polydispersity index (PDI was proved to be 0.214 by the results of dynamic light scattering (DLC. Thermogravimetric results indicated that linalool loading capacity (LC was 15.17%, and encapsulation could decrease linalool release and increase linalool retaining time under the high temperature. Oscillatory shear and steady-state shear measurements of Lin-nanocapsule emulsions were systematically investigated. The results of steady-state shear showed that Lin-nanocapsule emulsion, which was Newtonian only for high shear rate, was non-Newtonian. It was proved by oscillatory shear that when oscillation frequency changed from low to high, Lin-nanocapsules emulsion changed from viscous into elastic.

  15. Introducing lattice strain to graphene encapsulated in hBN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, Hikari; Hiraide, Rineka; Ootuka, Youiti; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kanda, Akinobu

    Due to the characteristic lattice structure, lattice strain in graphene produces an effective gauge field. Theories tell that by controlling spatial variation of lattice strain, one can tailor the electronic state and transport properties of graphene. For example, under uniaxial local strain, graphene exhibits a transport gap at low energies, which is attractive for a graphene application to field effect devices. Here, we develop a method for encapsulating a strained graphene film in hexagonal boron-nitride (hBN). It is known that the graphene carrier mobility is significantly improved by the encapsulation of graphene in hBN, which has never been applied to strained graphene. We encapsulate graphene in hBN using the van der Waals assembly method. Strain is induced by sandwiching a graphene film between patterned hBN sheets. Spatial variation of strain is confirmed with micro Raman spectroscopy. Transport measurement of encapsulated strained graphene is in progress.

  16. Evaluation of antinociceptive activity of nanoliposome-encapsulated and free-form diclofenac in rats and mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh JZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jun Zheng Goh,1 Sook Nai Tang,1 Hoe Siong Chiong,1,2 Yoke Keong Yong,3 Ahmad Zuraini,1 Muhammad Nazrul Hakim1,4 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2InQpharm Group, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3Department of Human Anatomy, 4Halal Product Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Diclofenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID that exhibits anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic activities. Liposomes have been shown to improve the therapeutic efficacy of encapsulated drugs. The present study was conducted to compare the antinociceptive properties between liposome-encapsulated and free-form diclofenac in vivo via different nociceptive assay models. Liposome-encapsulated diclofenac was prepared using the commercialized proliposome method. Antinociceptive effects of liposome-encapsulated and free-form diclofenac were evaluated using formalin test, acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test, Randall–Selitto paw pressure test, and plantar test. The results of the writhing test showed a significant reduction of abdominal constriction in all treatment groups in a dose-dependent manner. The 20 mg/kg liposome-encapsulated diclofenac demonstrated the highest antinociceptive effect at 78.97% compared with 55.89% in the free-form group at equivalent dosage. Both liposome-encapsulated and free-form diclofenac produced significant results in the late phase of formalin assay at a dose of 20 mg/kg, with antinociception percentages of 78.84% and 60.71%, respectively. Significant results of antinociception were also observed in both hyperalgesia assays. For Randall–Sellito assay, the highest antinociception effect of 71.38% was achieved with 20 mg/kg liposome-encapsulated diclofenac, while the lowest antinociceptive effect of 17.32% was recorded with 0 mg/kg liposome formulation, whereas in the plantar test, the highest antinociceptive effect

  17. Nondestructive Assay Options for Spent Fuel Encapsulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jansson, Peter [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    2014-10-02

    This report describes the role that nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques and systems of NDA techniques may have in the context of an encapsulation and deep geological repository. The potential NDA needs of an encapsulation and repository facility include safeguards, heat content, and criticality. Some discussion of the facility needs is given, with the majority of the report concentrating on the capability and characteristics of individual NDA instruments and techniques currently available or under development. Particular emphasis is given to how the NDA techniques can be used to determine the heat production of an assembly, as well as meet the dual safeguards needs of 1) determining the declared parameters of initial enrichment, burn-up, and cooling time and 2) detecting defects (total, partial, and bias). The report concludes with the recommendation of three integrated systems that might meet the combined NDA needs of the encapsulation/repository facility.

  18. Nuclear-waste encapsulation by metal-matrix casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.G.; Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.

    1981-05-01

    Several encapsulation casting processes are described that were developed or used at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to embed simulated high-level wastes of two different forms (glass marbles and ceramic pellets) in metal matrices. Preliminary evaluations of these casting processes and the products are presented. Demonstrations have shown that 5- to 10-mm-dia glass marbles can be encapsulated on an engineering scale with lead or lead alloys by gravity or vacuum processes. Marbles approx. 12 mm in dia were successfully encapsulated in a lead alloy on a production scale. Also, 4- to 9-mm-dia ceramic pellets in containers of various sizes were completely penetrated and the individual pellets encased with aluminum-12 wt % silicon alloy by vacuum processes. Indications are that of the casting processes tested, aluminum 12 wt % silicon alloy vacuum-cast around ceramic pellets had the highest degree of infiltration or coverage of pellet surfaces

  19. Neural stem cells encapsulated in a functionalized self-assembling peptide hydrogel for brain tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tzu-Yun; Chen, Ming-Hong; Chang, Wen-Han; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Wang, Tzu-Wei

    2013-03-01

    Brain injury is almost irreparable due to the poor regenerative capability of neural tissue. Nowadays, new therapeutic strategies have been focused on stem cell therapy and supplying an appropriate three dimensional (3D) matrix for the repair of injured brain tissue. In this study, we specifically linked laminin-derived IKVAV motif on the C-terminal to enrich self-assembling peptide RADA(16) as a functional peptide-based scaffold. Our purpose is providing a functional self-assembling peptide 3D hydrogel with encapsulated neural stem cells to enhance the reconstruction of the injured brain. The physiochemical properties reported that RADA(16)-IKVAV can self-assemble into nanofibrous morphology with bilayer β-sheet structure and become gelationed hydrogel with mechanical stiffness similar to brain tissue. The in vitro results showed that the extended IKVAV sequence can serve as a signal or guiding cue to direct the encapsulated neural stem cells (NSCs) adhesion and then towards neuronal differentiation. Animal study was conducted in a rat brain surgery model to demonstrate the damage in cerebral neocortex/neopallium loss. The results showed that the injected peptide solution immediately in situ formed the 3D hydrogel filling up the cavity and bridging the gaps. The histological analyses revealed the RADA(16)-IKVAV self-assembling peptide hydrogel not only enhanced survival of encapsulated NSCs but also reduced the formation of glial astrocytes. The peptide hydrogel with IKVAV extended motifs also showed the support of encapsulated NSCs in neuronal differentiation and the improvement in brain tissue regeneration after 6 weeks post-transplantation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Light outputs of LED with various refractive indices and geometrical structures of encapsulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung-Tae [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Kyoung-Woo; Hwang, Jung-Ha; Kwon, Ho-Ki [LG Innotek Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Si-Hyun [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper we present the results of experiments and simulations for the light output power from LEDs for various refractive indices and the geometrical structures of the LED encapsulants. InGaN-based LED chips were fabricated and were bonded in Ag reflector cups within polyphthalamide (PPA) chip carriers; then, encapsulants with various refractive indices and the geometrical structures were fabricated onto them by using a dispensing method. The light output power with the encapsulant was shown to increase with the refractive index of the encapsulant materials in the case of a spherical encapsulant while it decreased in the case of a flat geometry encapsulant. We performed ray tracing simulations for the LED light output and confirmed that the simulation results were consistent with our experimentally measured results. In addition, the light output with the encapsulant rapidly increased with the sidewall angle of the chip carrier in the case of the flat encapsulant while it was not affected by the sidewall angle, remaining constant, in the case of the spherical geometry.

  1. Light outputs of LED with various refractive indices and geometrical structures of encapsulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung-Tae; Jo, Kyoung-Woo; Hwang, Jung-Ha; Kwon, Ho-Ki; Park, Si-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of experiments and simulations for the light output power from LEDs for various refractive indices and the geometrical structures of the LED encapsulants. InGaN-based LED chips were fabricated and were bonded in Ag reflector cups within polyphthalamide (PPA) chip carriers; then, encapsulants with various refractive indices and the geometrical structures were fabricated onto them by using a dispensing method. The light output power with the encapsulant was shown to increase with the refractive index of the encapsulant materials in the case of a spherical encapsulant while it decreased in the case of a flat geometry encapsulant. We performed ray tracing simulations for the LED light output and confirmed that the simulation results were consistent with our experimentally measured results. In addition, the light output with the encapsulant rapidly increased with the sidewall angle of the chip carrier in the case of the flat encapsulant while it was not affected by the sidewall angle, remaining constant, in the case of the spherical geometry.

  2. Court decisions in wrongful birth cases as possible discrimination against the child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Sustek

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The term wrongful birth denotes a claim brought by the parents of an unwanted child who was conceived or born due to medical negligence. The claims are often dismissed as contradictory to good morals or public order. However, there remains a neglected question whether the court decision to award or dismiss damages could constitute discrimination against the child concerned. While the child is not a party to the litigation, it is nevertheless unacceptable for the court not to take into account the effects of its decision on the child. In the case of award of damages, the court publicly affirms the legitimacy of the parentsꞌ need for compensation, that is the fact that the childꞌs birth represents recoverable harm to them. The court decision therefore means a different treatment in respect to other children whose benefits for the family are generally recognized and praised by the society. That might have serious psychological consequences for the child, depriving her or him of the full enjoyment of the right to dignity. This fact constitutes discrimination on the grounds of birth, which can be justified only by very weighty reasons. Such reasons may be arguably given in the case of a child incapable of understanding the meaning of wrongful birth litigation, whose special needs are extremely burdensome on the family. On the other hand, the dismissal of the claim cannot represent a negative discrimination against the child. Keywords: Discrimination. Wrongful birth. International human rights law. Human rights of the child. Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  3. Hypolipidaemic and anti-oxidative potential of encapsulated herb (Terminalia arjuna) added vanilla chocolate milk in high cholesterol fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawale, Pravin Digambar; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Abdul Hussain, Shaik; Kumar, Anuj; Kapila, Suman; Patil, Girdhari Ramdas

    2016-03-15

    Atherosclerosis is associated with coronary artery disease and occurs in developing as well as developed countries. In the present investigation, hypolipidaemic and anti-oxidative properties of encapsulated herb (Terminalia arjuna, 1.8%) added vanilla chocolate dairy drink was evaluated in high cholesterol fed Wistar rats for 60 days. At the end of the experimental period, a significant decrease in the body weight gain by rats receiving the encapsulated herb extract was noted as compared to high cholesterol fed rats. Administration of microencapsulated herb showed a statistically significant decrease in organ weights (epididymal fat and liver). Moreover, a significant decrease in serum lipids such as triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and atherogenic index was observed with encapsulated Terminalia arjuna extract in high cholesterol fed group. Increases in reduced glutathione and decreases in TBARS levels were also reported in both liver and red blood cell lysates with encapsulated herb supplementation. The results demonstrated that the bioactive components (phytosterols, flavanoids, saponins and tannins etc.) which are present in the encapsulated T. arjuna not only withstand the processing conditions but also are effectively released in the intestine and show their effects, such as hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities, for better treating cardiovascular disease. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Encapsulant Adhesion to Surface Metallization on Photovoltaic Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tracy, Jared; Bosco, Nick; Dauskardt, Reinhold

    2017-11-01

    Delamination of encapsulant materials from PV cell surfaces often appears to originate at regions with metallization. Using a fracture mechanics based metrology, the adhesion of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulant to screen-printed silver metallization was evaluated. At room temperature, the fracture energy Gc [J/m2] of the EVA/silver interface (952 J/m2) was ~70% lower than that of the EVA/antireflective (AR) coating (>2900 J/m2) and ~60% lower than that of the EVA to the surface of cell (2265 J/m2). After only 300 h of damp heat aging, the adhesion energy of the silver interface dropped to and plateaued at ~50-60 J/m2 while that of the EVA/AR coating and EVA/cell remained mostly unchanged. Elemental surface analysis showed that the EVA separates from the silver in a purely adhesive manner, indicating that bonds at the interface were likely displaced in the presence of humidity and chemical byproducts at elevated temperature, which in part accounts for the propensity of metalized surfaces to delaminate in the field.

  5. What I got wrong about shelterin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Titia

    2018-05-24

    The ASBMB 2018 Bert and Natalie Vallee award in Biomedical Sciences honors our work on shelterin, a protein complex that helps cells distinguish the chromosome ends from sites of DNA damage. Shelterin protects telomeres from all aspects of the DNA damage response, including ATM and ATR serine/threonine kinase signaling and several forms of double-strand break repair. Today, this six-subunit protein complex could easily be identified in one single proteomics step. But it took us more than 15 years to piece the entire shelterin complex together, one protein at a time. Although we did a lot of things right, here I tell the story of shelterin's discovery with an emphasis on the things that I got wrong along the way. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Encapsulation of health-promoting ingredients: applications in foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolve, Roberta; Galgano, Fernanda; Caruso, Marisa Carmela; Tchuenbou-Magaia, Fideline Laure; Condelli, Nicola; Favati, Fabio; Zhang, Zhibing

    2016-12-01

    Many nutritional experts and food scientists are interested in developing functional foods containing bioactive agents and many of these health-promoting ingredients may benefit from nano/micro-encapsulation technology. Encapsulation has been proven useful to improve the physical and the chemical stability of bioactive agents, as well as their bioavailability and efficacy, enabling their incorporation into a wide range of formulations aimed to functional food production. There are several reviews concerning nano/micro-encapsulation techniques, but none are focused on the incorporation of the bioactive agents into food matrices. The aim of this paper was to investigate the development of microencapsulated food, taking into account the different bioactive ingredients, the variety of processes, techniques and coating materials that can be used for this purpose.

  7. Wrong-Site Surgery, Retained Surgical Items, and Surgical Fires : A Systematic Review of Surgical Never Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Susanne; Maggard-Gibbons, Melinda; Nguyen, David K; Dawes, Aaron J; Miake-Lye, Isomi; Beroes, Jessica M; Booth, Marika J; Miles, Jeremy N V; Shanman, Roberta; Shekelle, Paul G

    2015-08-01

    Serious, preventable surgical events, termed never events, continue to occur despite considerable patient safety efforts. To examine the incidence and root causes of and interventions to prevent wrong-site surgery, retained surgical items, and surgical fires in the era after the implementation of the Universal Protocol in 2004. We searched 9 electronic databases for entries from 2004 through June 30, 2014, screened references, and consulted experts. Two independent reviewers identified relevant publications in June 2014. One reviewer used a standardized form to extract data and a second reviewer checked the data. Strength of evidence was established by the review team. Data extraction was completed in January 2015. Incidence of wrong-site surgery, retained surgical items, and surgical fires. We found 138 empirical studies that met our inclusion criteria. Incidence estimates for wrong-site surgery in US settings varied by data source and procedure (median estimate, 0.09 events per 10,000 surgical procedures). The median estimate for retained surgical items was 1.32 events per 10,000 procedures, but estimates varied by item and procedure. The per-procedure surgical fire incidence is unknown. A frequently reported root cause was inadequate communication. Methodologic challenges associated with investigating changes in rare events limit the conclusions of 78 intervention evaluations. Limited evidence supported the Universal Protocol (5 studies), education (4 studies), and team training (4 studies) interventions to prevent wrong-site surgery. Limited evidence exists to prevent retained surgical items by using data-matrix-coded sponge-counting systems (5 pertinent studies). Evidence for preventing surgical fires was insufficient, and intervention effects were not estimable. Current estimates for wrong-site surgery and retained surgical items are 1 event per 100,000 and 1 event per 10,000 procedures, respectively, but the precision is uncertain, and the per

  8. Human T-cell line (Jurkat cell) encapsulation by nano-organized polyelectrolytes and their response assessment in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Siddharth [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), Stem Cell and Gene Therapy Research Group (India); Afrin, Fahrat [Jamia Hamdard, Department of Biotechnology (India); Tripathi, R. P.; Gangenahalli, Gurudutta, E-mail: gugdutta@rediffmail.com [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), Stem Cell and Gene Therapy Research Group (India)

    2013-07-15

    Single living Jurkat cells have been encapsulated through polyelectrolytes nanoparticles poly(allyl amine hydrochloride) size 15.6 nm and poly(styrene-co-sulfonic acid sodium salt) size 30.2 nm, through layer by layer coating of oppositely charged plasma membrane. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy results showed complete shielding of Jurkat cells, and no changes in cell surface morphology of encapsulated cells were observed. Cell viability was not affected after encapsulation and no toxicity was found. In vivo studies demonstrated no significant changes in hematological and biochemical parameters of blood serum at day 1 and 7 in mice. Histopathological analyses of liver and spleen tissues showed nontoxic nature of prepared formulations.

  9. TmDOTA-tetraglycinate encapsulated liposomes as pH-sensitive LipoCEST agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina L Opina

    Full Text Available Lanthanide DOTA-tetraglycinate (LnDOTA-(gly₄⁻ complexes contain four magnetically equivalent amide protons that exchange with protons of bulk water. The rate of this base catalyzed exchange process has been measured using chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST NMR techniques as a function of solution pH for various paramagnetic LnDOTA-(gly₄⁻ complexes to evaluate the effects of lanthanide ion size on this process. Complexes with Tb(III, Dy(III, Tm(III and Yb(III were chosen because these ions induce large hyperfine shifts in all ligand protons, including the exchanging amide protons. The magnitude of the amide proton CEST exchange signal differed for the four paramagnetic complexes in order, Yb>Tm>Tb>Dy. Although the Dy(III complex showed the largest hyperfine shift as expected, the combination of favorable chemical shift and amide proton CEST linewidth in the Tm(III complex was deemed most favorable for future in vivo applications where tissue magnetization effects can interfere. TmDOTA-(gly₄⁻ at various concentrations was encapsulated in the core interior of liposomes to yield lipoCEST particles for molecular imaging. The resulting nanoparticles showed less than 1% leakage of the agent from the interior over a range of temperatures and pH. The pH versus amide proton CEST curves differed for the free versus encapsulated agents over the acidic pH regions, consistent with a lower proton permeability across the liposomal bilayer for the encapsulated agent. Nevertheless, the resulting lipoCEST nanoparticles amplify the CEST sensitivity by a factor of ∼10⁴ compared to the free, un-encapsulated agent. Such pH sensitive nano-probes could prove useful for pH mapping of liposomes targeted to tumors.

  10. Encapsulation of albumin in self-assembled layer-by-layer microcapsules: comparison of co-precipitation and adsorption techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labala, Suman; Mandapalli, Praveen Kumar; Bhatnagar, Shubhmita; Venuganti, Venkata Vamsi Krishna

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to prepare and characterize polymeric self-assembled layer-by-layer microcapsules (LbL-MC) to deliver a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). The aim is to compare the BSA encapsulation in LbL-MC using co-precipitation and adsorption methods. In co-precipitation method, BSA was co-precipitated with growing calcium carbonate particles to form a core template. Later, poly(styrene sulfonate) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) were sequentially adsorbed onto the CaCO3 templates. In adsorption method, preformed LbL-MC were incubated with BSA and encapsulation efficiency is optimized for pH and salt concentration. Free and BSA-encapsulated LbL-MC were characterized using Zetasizer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimeter. Later, in vitro release studies were performed using dialysis membrane method at pH 4, 7.4 and 9. Results from Zetasizer and SEM showed free LbL-MC with an average size and zeta-potential of 2.0 ± 0.6 μm and 8.1 ± 1.9 mV, respectively. Zeta-potential of BSA-loaded LbL-MC was (-)7.4 ± 0.7 mV and (-)5.7 ± 1.0 mV for co-precipitation and adsorption methods, respectively. In adsorption method, BSA encapsulation in LbL-MC was found to be greater at pH 6.0 and 0.2 M NaCl. Co-precipitation method provided four-fold greater encapsulation efficiency (%) of BSA in LbL-MC compared with adsorption method. At pH 4, the BSA release from LbL-MC was extended up to 120 h. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that BSA encapsulated in LBL-MC through co-precipitation is stable toward trypsin treatment. In conclusion, co-precipitation method provided greater encapsulation of BSA in LbL-MC. Furthermore, LbL-MC can be developed as carriers for pH-controlled protein delivery.

  11. Survival of encapsulated potentially probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum D6SM3 with bioemulsifier derived from spent yeast in simulated gastrointestinal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweena Dikit

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of encapsulation with three kinds of emulsifier (Tween 80, gum arabic and bioemulsifier extracted from spent yeast on the survival of Lactobacillus plantarum D6SM3 in simulated gastrointestinal tract during storage at 4°C and room temperature was investigated. The survival of all encapsulated cells treated in simulated gastric juice was higher than free cells at both pH 2.5 and 3.0. The viability of the free and encapsulated cells showed a gradual decline throughout the storage period at 4°C. However, the viability rapidly declined at room temperature. In addition, the droplet size distribution of encapsulated cells was compared between those with and without an emulsifier by using the laser diffraction method. The particle size and polydispersity value of encapsulated cells were controlled better in emulsion with emulsifier added. The surface of encapsulated cells with emulsifier exhibited smoother characteristics than those without emulsifier.

  12. Update on cellular encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kate E; Johnson, Robert C; Papas, Klearchos K

    2018-05-06

    There is currently a significant disparity between the number of patients who need lifesaving transplants and the number of donated human organs. Xenotransplantation is a way to address this disparity and attempts to enable the use of xenogeneic tissues have persisted for centuries. While immunologic incompatibilities have presented a persistent impediment to their use, encapsulation may represent a way forward for the use of cell-based xenogeneic therapeutics without the need for immunosuppression. In conjunction with modern innovations such as the use of bioprinting, incorporation of immune modulating molecules into capsule membranes, and genetic engineering, the application of xenogeneic cells to treat disorders ranging from pain to liver failure is becoming increasingly realistic. The present review discusses encapsulation in the context of xenotransplantation, focusing on the current status of clinical trials, persistent issues such as antigen shedding, oxygen availability, and donor selection, and recent developments that may address these limitations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Biological responses of T cells encapsulated with polyelectrolyte-coated gold nanorods and their cellular activities in a co-culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanakull, Porntida; Killingsworth, Murray C.; Pissuwan, Dakrong

    2017-11-01

    Currently, human T cell therapy is of considerable scientific interest. In addition, cell encapsulation has become an attractive approach in biomedical applications. Here, we propose an innovative technique of single-cell encapsulation of human T cells using polyelectrolytes combined with gold nanorods. We have demonstrated encapsulation of human Jurkat T cells with poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS)-coated gold nanorods (PSS-GNRs). Other forms of encapsulation, using polyelectrolytes without GNRs, were also performed. After Jurkat T cells were encapsulated with poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and/or PSS-GNRs or PSS, most cells survived and could proliferate. Jurkat T cells encapsulated with a double layer of PSS-GNR/PAH (PSS-GNR/PAH@Jurkat) showed the highest rate of cell proliferation when compared to 24-h encapsulated cells. With the exception of IL-6, no significant induction of inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-1β, and TNF-α) was observed. Interestingly, when encapsulated cells were co-cultured with THP-1 macrophages, co-cultures exhibited TNF-α production enhancement. However, the co-culture of THP-1 macrophage and PSS-GNR/PAH@Jurkat or PSS/PAH@Jurkat did not enhance TNF-α production. No significant inductions of IL-2, IL-1β, and IL-6 were detected. These data provide promising results, demonstrating the potential use of encapsulated PSS-GNR/PAH@Jurkat to provide a more inert T cell population for immunotherapy application and other biomedical applications.

  14. Encapsulation and retention of chelated-copper inside hydrophobic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervella, Pablo; Ortiz, Elisa Parra; Needham, David

    2016-01-01

    ) Chelate copper into the octaethyl porphyrin; (3) Encapsulate OEP-Cu in nanoparticles: the encapsulation efficiency of copper into liquid nanoparticles (LNP), solid nanoparticles (SNP) and phospholipid liposomes (PL) was evaluated by UV-Vis and atomic absorption spectroscopy; (4) Retain the encapsulated...... OEP-Cu in the liquid or solid cores of the nanoparticles in the presence of a lipid sink. RESULTS: (1) The size of the nanoparticles was found to be strongly dependent on the Reynolds number and the initial concentration of components for the fast injection technique. At high Reynolds number (2181......), a minimum value for the particle diameter of ∼30nm was measured. (2) Copper was chelated by OEP in a 1:1mol ratio with an association constant of 2.57×10(5)M(-1). (3) The diameter of the nanoparticles was not significantly affected by the presence of OEP or OEP-Cu. The percentage of encapsulation of copper...

  15. Imaging features of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ti, Joanna P

    2010-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to present the spectrum of radiologic findings of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). CONCLUSION: Although a rare diagnosis, encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis in patients undergoing CAPD has a high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis is often delayed because clinical features are insidious and nonspecific. Radiologic imaging may be helpful in the early diagnosis of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis and in facilitating timely intervention for CAPD patients with encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis.

  16. Conceptual design of a connected vehicle wrong-way driving detection and management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This report describes the tasks completed to develop a concept of operations, functional requirements, and : high-level system design for a Connected Vehicle (CV) Wrong-Way Driving (WWD) Detection and Management : System. This system was designed to ...

  17. Encapsulated Synbiotic Dietary Supplementation at Different Dosages to Prevent Vibriosis in White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Zubaidah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of encapsulated synbiotic (Bacillus sp. NP5 and oligosaccharide dietary at different dosages on growth performance, survival rate, feed conversion ratio, and immune responses of Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio infection. The shrimps of the main treatments were fed by the diet that contained three different dosages of encapsulated synbiotic [0.5% (A, 1% (B, and 2% (C (w/w] with feeding rate of 5% of shrimp biomass (4 times a day. The shrimps of two control treatments (negative control and positive control were fed only by commercial feed without supplementation of encapsulated synbiotic. The growth, feed conversion ratio, and survival rate were observed after 30 days of encapsulated synbiotic dietary. The shrimps were then challenged by injection of Vibrio harveyi (6 log colony forming units/mL 0.1 mL/shrimp, excluded the negative control treatment. Afterward, the survival and immune responses were observed for 9 days after experimental infection. The shrimps treated with 2% encapsulated synbiotic (treatment C in the diet showed the highest growth performance (2.98 ± 0.42%, feed conversion ratio (1.26 ± 0.19, and better immune responses i.e. total hemocyte counts, differential hemocyte count, phenoloxidase, and intestine bacteria observation compared to those of positive control treatment.

  18. Islet and Stem Cell Encapsulation for Clinical Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Rahul; Alexander, Michael; Robles, Lourdes; Foster 3rd, Clarence E.; Lakey, Jonathan R.T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, improvements in islet isolation techniques have made islet transplantation an option for a certain subset of patients with long-standing diabetes. Although islet transplants have shown improved graft function, adequate function beyond the second year has not yet been demonstrated, and patients still require immunosuppression to prevent rejection. Since allogeneic islet transplants have experienced some success, the next step is to improve graft function while eliminating the need for systemic immunosuppressive therapy. Biomaterial encapsulation offers a strategy to avoid the need for toxic immunosuppression while increasing the chances of graft function and survival. Encapsulation entails coating cells or tissue in a semipermeable biocompatible material that allows for the passage of nutrients, oxygen, and hormones while blocking immune cells and regulatory substances from recognizing and destroying the cell, thus avoiding the need for systemic immunosuppressive therapy. Despite advances in encapsulation technology, these developments have not yet been meaningfully translated into clinical islet transplantation, for which several factors are to blame, including graft hypoxia, host inflammatory response, fibrosis, improper choice of biomaterial type, lack of standard guidelines, and post-transplantation device failure. Several new approaches, such as the use of porcine islets, stem cells, development of prevascularized implants, islet nanocoating, and multilayer encapsulation, continue to generate intense scientific interest in this rapidly expanding field. This review provides a comprehensive update on islet and stem cell encapsulation as a treatment modality in type 1 diabetes, including a historical outlook as well as current and future research avenues. PMID:25148368

  19. High Resolution NMR Studies of Encapsulated Proteins In Liquid Ethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ronald W.; Lefebvre, Brian G.; Wand, A. Joshua

    2005-01-01

    Many of the difficulties presented by large, aggregation-prone, and membrane proteins to modern solution NMR spectroscopy can be alleviated by actively seeking to increase the effective rate of molecular reorientation. An emerging approach involves encapsulating the protein of interest within the protective shell of a reverse micelle, and dissolving the resulting particle in a low viscosity fluid, such as the short chain alkanes. Here we present the encapsulation of proteins with high structural fidelity within reverse micelles dissolved in liquid ethane. The addition of appropriate co-surfactants can significantly reduce the pressure required for successful encapsulation. At these reduced pressures, the viscosity of the ethane solution is low enough to provide sufficiently rapid molecular reorientation to significantly lengthen the spin-spin NMR relaxation times of the encapsulated protein. PMID:16028922

  20. Comparisons of alternative sites for the encapsulation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havel, R.

    2000-12-01

    This report discuses the pros and cons of localizing the spent fuel encapsulation plant at the planned Swedish repository for spent nuclear fuel or at CLAB (Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel). After weighing together all aspects (economy, technology, safety, transports, personnel and environment) it is concluded that building the encapsulation plant in direct connection to CLAB is the most advantageous alternative

  1. Micro-Encapsulation of non-aqueous solvents for energy-efficient carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolaroff, Joshua K; Ye, Congwang; Oakdale, James [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Baker, Sarah; Nugyen, Du; Smith, William; Aines, Roger

    2016-11-14

    Here, we demonstrate micro-encapsulation of several promising designer solvents: an IL, PCIL, and CO2BOL. We develop custom polymers that cure by UV light in the presence of each solvent while maintaining high CO2 permeability. We use several new process strategies to accommodate the viscosity and phase changes. We then measure and compare the CO2 absorption rate and capacity as well as the multi-cycle performance of the encapsulated solvents. These results are compared with previous work on encapsulated sodium carbonate solution. The prospects for designer solvents to reduce the cost of post-combustion capture and the implications for process design with encapsulated solvents are discussed.

  2. Patterned three-dimensional encapsulation of embryonic stem cells using dielectrophoresis and stereolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Piyush; Marchwiany, Daniel; Duarte, Carlos; Bashir, Rashid

    2013-03-01

    Controlling the assembly of cells in three dimensions is very important for engineering functional tissues, drug screening, probing cell-cell/cell-matrix interactions, and studying the emergent behavior of cellular systems. Although the current methods of cell encapsulation in hydrogels can distribute them in three dimensions, these methods typically lack spatial control of multi-cellular organization and do not allow for the possibility of cell-cell contacts as seen for the native tissue. Here, we report the integration of dielectrophoresis (DEP) with stereolithography (SL) apparatus for the spatial patterning of cells on custom made gold micro-electrodes. Afterwards, they are encapsulated in poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels of different stiffnesses. This technique can mimic the in vivo microscale tissue architecture, where the cells have a high degree of three dimensional (3D) spatial control. As a proof of concept, we show the patterning and encapsulation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and C2C12 skeletal muscle myoblasts. mESCs show high viability in both the DEP (91.79% ± 1.4%) and the no DEP (94.27% ± 0.5%) hydrogel samples. Furthermore, we also show the patterning of mouse embryoid bodies (mEBs) and C2C12 spheroids in the hydrogels, and verify their viability. This robust and flexible in vitro platform can enable various applications in stem cell differentiation and tissue engineering by mimicking elements of the native 3D in vivo cellular micro-environment. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Conformally encapsulated multi-electrode arrays with seamless insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabada, Phillipe J.; Shah, Kedar G.; Tolosa, Vanessa; Pannu, Satinderall S.; Tooker, Angela; Delima, Terri; Sheth, Heeral; Felix, Sarah

    2016-11-22

    Thin-film multi-electrode arrays (MEA) having one or more electrically conductive beams conformally encapsulated in a seamless block of electrically insulating material, and methods of fabricating such MEAs using reproducible, microfabrication processes. One or more electrically conductive traces are formed on scaffold material that is subsequently removed to suspend the traces over a substrate by support portions of the trace beam in contact with the substrate. By encapsulating the suspended traces, either individually or together, with a single continuous layer of an electrically insulating material, a seamless block of electrically insulating material is formed that conforms to the shape of the trace beam structure, including any trace backings which provide suspension support. Electrical contacts, electrodes, or leads of the traces are exposed from the encapsulated trace beam structure by removing the substrate.

  4. Evaluation of Encapsulated Inhibitor for Autonomous Corrosion Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsey, M. N.; Li, W.; Buhrow, J. W.; Calle, L. M.; Pearman, B. P.; Zhang, X.

    2015-01-01

    This work concerns the development of smart coating technologies based on microencapsulation for the autonomous control of corrosion. Microencapsulation allows the incorporation of corrosion inhibitors into coating which provides protection through corrosion-controlled release of these inhibitors.One critical aspect of a corrosion protective smart coating is the selection of corrosion inhibitor for encapsulation and comparison of the inhibitor function before and after encapsulation. For this purpose, a systematic approach is being used to evaluate free and encapsulated corrosion inhibitors by salt immersion. Visual, optical microscope, and Scanning Electron Microscope (with low-angle backscatter electron detector) are used to evaluate these inhibitors. It has been found that the combination of different characterization tools provide an effective method for evaluation of early stage localized corrosion and the effectiveness of corrosion inhibitors.

  5. Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgran, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation using encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration.

  6. Encapsulation plant preliminary design, phase 2. Repository connected facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkola, T.

    2006-12-01

    The disposal facility of the spent nuclear fuel will be located in Olkiluoto. The encapsulation plant is a part of the disposal facility. In this report, an independent encapsulation plant is located above the underground repository. In the encapsulation plant, the spent fuel is received and treated for disposal. In the fuel handling cell, the spent fuel assemblies are unloaded from the spent fuel transport casks and loaded into the disposal canisters. The gas atmosphere of the disposal canister is changed, the bolted inner canister lid is closed, and the electron beam welding method is used to close the lid of the outer copper canister. The disposal canisters are cleaned and transferred into the buffer store after the machining and inspection of the copper lid welds. From the buffer store, the disposal canisters are transferred into the repository spaces by help of the canister lift. All needed stages of operation are to be performed safely without any activity releases or remarkable personnel doses. The bentonite block interim storage is associated with the encapsulation plant. The bentonite blocks are made from bentonite powder. The bentonite blocks are used as buffer material around the disposal canister in the deposition hole. The average production rate of the encapsulation plant is 40 canisters per year. The nominal maximum production capacity is 100 canisters per year in one shift operation. (orig.)

  7. Advances in encapsulation technologies for the management of mercury-contaminated hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, Paul; Chattopadhyay, Sandip

    2004-01-01

    Although industrial and commercial uses of mercury have been curtailed in recent times, there is a demonstrated need for the development of reliable hazardous waste management techniques because of historic operations that have led to significant contamination and ongoing hazardous waste generation. This study was performed to evaluate whether the U.S. EPA could propose treatment and disposal alternatives to the current land disposal restriction (LDR) treatment standards for mercury. The focus of this article is on the current state of encapsulation technologies that can be used to immobilize elemental mercury, mercury-contaminated debris, and other mercury-contaminated wastes, soils, sediments, or sludges. The range of encapsulation materials used in bench-scale, pilot-scale, and full-scale applications for mercury-contaminated wastes are summarized. Several studies have been completed regarding the application of sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification, chemically bonded phosphate ceramic encapsulation, and polyethylene encapsulation. Other materials reported in the literature as under development for encapsulation use include asphalt, polyester resins, synthetic elastomers, polysiloxane, sol-gels, Dolocrete TM , and carbon/cement mixtures. The primary objective of these encapsulation methods is to physically immobilize the wastes to prevent contact with leaching agents such as water. However, when used for mercury-contaminated wastes, several of these methods require a pretreatment or stabilization step to chemically fix mercury into a highly insoluble form prior to encapsulation. Performance data is summarized from the testing and evaluation of various encapsulated, mercury-contaminated wastes. Future technology development and research needs are also discussed

  8. Encapsulation of ionic electroactive polymers: reducing the interaction with environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakson, P.; Aabloo, A.; Tamm, T.

    2016-04-01

    Ionic electro-active polymer (iEAP) actuators are composite materials that change their mechanical properties in response to external electrical stimulus. The interest in these devices is mainly driven by their capability to generate biomimetic movements, and their potential use in soft robotics. The driving voltage of an iEAP-actuator (0.5… 3 V) is at least an order of magnitude lower than that needed for other types of electroactive polymers. To apply iEAP-actuators in potential real-world applications, the capability of operating in different environments (open air, different solvents) must be available. In their natural form, the iEAP-actuators are capable of interacting with the surrounding environment (evaporation of solvent from the electrolyte solution, ion or solvent exchange, humidity effects), therefore, for prevention of unpredictable behavior of the actuator and the contamination of the environment, encapsulation of the actuator is needed. The environmental contamination aspect of the encapsulation material is substantial when selecting an applicable encapsulant. The suitable encapsulant should form thin films, be light in weight, elastic, fit tightly, low cost, and easily reproducible. The main goal of the present study is to identify and evaluate the best potential encapsulation techniques for iEAPactuators. Various techniques like thin film on liquid coating, dip coating, hot pressing, hot rolling; and several materials like polydimethylsiloxane, polyurethane, nitrocellulose, paraffin-composite-films were investigated. The advantages and disadvantages of the combinations of the above mentioned techniques and materials are discussed. Successfully encapsulated iEAP-actuators gained durability and were stably operable for long periods of time under ambient conditions. The encapsulation process also increased the stability of the iEAP-actuator by minimizing the environment effects. This makes controlling iEAP-actuators more straight-forward and

  9. Fabrication of hemispherical liquid encapsulated structures based on droplet molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Hiroki; Miki, Norihisa

    2015-12-01

    We have developed and demonstrated a method for forming spherical structures of a thin polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane encapsulating a liquid. Liquid encapsulation can enhance the performance of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices by providing deformability and improved dielectric properties. Parylene deposition and wafer bonding are applied to encapsulate liquid into a MEMS device. In parylene deposition, a parylene membrane is directly formed onto a liquid droplet. However, since the parylene membrane is stiff, the membrane is fragile. Although wafer bonding can encapsulate liquid between two substrates, the surface of the fabricated structure is normally flat. We propose a new liquid encapsulation method by dispensing liquid droplets. At first, a 20 μl PDMS droplet is dispensed on ethylene glycol. A 70 μl glycerin droplet is dispensed into a PDMS casting solution layer. The droplet forms a layer on heated ethylene glycol. Glycerin and ethylene glycol are chosen for their high boiling points. Additionally, a glycerin droplet is dispensed on the layer and surrounded by a thin PDMS casting solution film. The film is baked for 1 h at 75 °C. As the result, a structure encapsulating a liquid in a flexible PDMS membrane is obtained. We investigate the effects of the volume, surface tension, and guide thickness on the shape of the formed structures. We also evaluated the effect of the structure diameter on miniaturization. The structure can be adapted for various functions by changing the encapsulated liquid. We fabricated a stiffness-tunable structure by dispensing a magnetorheoligical fluid droplet with a stiffness that can be changed by an external magnetic field. We also confirmed that the proposed structure can produce stiffness differences that are distinguishable by humans.

  10. It's a wrap: encapsulation as a management tool for marine biofouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalah, Javier; Brook, Rosemary; Cahill, Patrick; Fletcher, Lauren M; Hopkins, Grant A

    2016-01-01

    Encapsulation of fouled structures is an effective tool for countering incursions by non-indigenous biofoulers. However, guidelines for the implementation of encapsulation treatments are yet to be established. This study evaluated the effects of temperature, biomass, community composition, treatment duration and the biocide acetic acid on biofoulers. In laboratory trials using the model organisms Ciona spp. and Mytilus galloprovincialis, increasing the temperature or biomass speeded up the development of a toxic environment. Total mortality for Ciona spp. occurred within 72 and 24 h at 10 and 19°C, respectively. M. galloprovincialis survived up to 18 days, with high biomass increasing mortality at 10°C only. In a field study, three-month-old and four-year-old communities were encapsulated with and without acetic acid. Mortality took up to 10 days for communities encapsulated without acetic acid, compared to 48 h with acetic acid. The insights gained from this study will be useful in developing standardised encapsulation protocols.

  11. Modeling an array of encapsulated germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, R

    2012-01-01

    A probability model has been presented for understanding the operation of an array of encapsulated germanium detectors generally known as composite detector. The addback mode of operation of a composite detector has been described considering the absorption and scattering of γ-rays. Considering up to triple detector hit events, we have obtained expressions for peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios of the cluster detector, which consists of seven hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. Results have been obtained for the miniball detectors comprising of three and four seven hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. The formalism has been extended to the SPI spectrometer which is a telescope of the INTEGRAL satellite and consists of nineteen hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. This spectrometer comprises of twelve detector modules surrounding the cluster detector. For comparison, we have considered a spectrometer comprising of nine detector modules surrounding the three detector configuration of miniball detector. In the present formalism, the operation of these sophisticated detectors could be described in terms of six probability amplitudes only. Using experimental data on relative efficiency and fold distribution of cluster detector as input, the fold distribution and the peak-to-total, peak-to-background ratios have been calculated for the SPI spectrometer and other composite detectors at 1332 keV. Remarkable agreement between experimental data and results from the present formalism has been observed for the SPI spectrometer.

  12. Encapsulation of cosmetic active ingredients for topical application--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Francisca; Santos, Lúcia

    2016-02-01

    Microencapsulation is finding increasing applications in cosmetics and personal care markets. This article provides an overall discussion on encapsulation of cosmetically active ingredients and encapsulation techniques for cosmetic and personal care products for topical applications. Some of the challenges are identified and critical aspects and future perspectives are addressed. Many cosmetics and personal care products contain biologically active substances that require encapsulation for increased stability of the active materials. The topical and transdermal delivery of active cosmetic ingredients requires effective, controlled and safe means of reaching the target site within the skin. Preservation of the active ingredients is also essential during formulation, storage and application of the final cosmetic product. Microencapsulation offers an ideal and unique carrier system for cosmetic active ingredients, as it has the potential to respond to all these requirements. The encapsulated agent can be released by several mechanisms, such as mechanical action, heat, diffusion, pH, biodegradation and dissolution. The selection of the encapsulation technique and shell material depends on the final application of the product, considering physical and chemical stability, concentration, required particle size, release mechanism and manufacturing costs.

  13. 5-Fluorouracil Encapsulated Chitosan Nanoparticles for pH-Stimulated Drug Delivery: Evaluation of Controlled Release Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seda Tığlı Aydın

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles consisting of human therapeutic drugs are suggested as a promising strategy for targeted and localized drug delivery to tumor cells. In this study, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles were prepared in order to investigate potentials of localized drug delivery for tumor environment due to pH sensitivity of chitosan nanoparticles. Optimization of chitosan and 5-FU encapsulated nanoparticles production revealed 148.8±1.1 nm and 243.1±17.9 nm particle size diameters with narrow size distributions, which are confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM images. The challenge was to investigate drug delivery of 5-FU encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles due to varied pH changes. To achieve this objective, pH sensitivity of prepared chitosan nanoparticle was evaluated and results showed a significant swelling response for pH 5 with particle diameter of ∼450 nm. In vitro release studies indicated a controlled and sustained release of 5-FU from chitosan nanoparticles with the release amounts of 29.1–60.8% due to varied pH environments after 408 h of the incubation period. pH sensitivity is confirmed by mathematical modeling of release kinetics since chitosan nanoparticles showed stimuli-induced release. Results suggested that 5-FU encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles can be launched as pH-responsive smart drug delivery agents for possible applications of cancer treatments.

  14. Preparation of micro-encapsulated strawberry fragrance and its application in the aromatic wallpaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zuobing

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Micro-encapsulated strawberry fragrance was successfully prepared with wall materials including maltodextrin, sodium octenylsuccinate and gum Arabic. The micro-capsule was added to wallpaper and aromatic wallpaper with strawberry characteristics was obtained. The particle distribution, surface morphology, chemical structure, thermal property and controlled release performance of micro-encapsulated fragrance and aromatic wallpaper were investigated using laser particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-TR, thermal gravity analysis (TGA and chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS. The results showed that the average diameter of micro-capsule was 2 μm and the particles mainly distributed in the tissues of wallpaper. The result of TGA showed that the micro-capsule had a good stability. Meanwhile, the aromatic wallpaper had strawberry aroma more than 3 months and took on excellent controlled release performance.

  15. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) singly encapsulated cesium chloride capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    Three nonstandard Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) cesium chloride capsules are being shipped from WESF (225B building) to the 324 building. They would normally be shipped in the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) cask under its US Department of Energy (DOE) license (DOE 1996), but these capsules are nonstandard: one has a damaged or defective weld in the outer layer of encapsulation, and two have the outer encapsulation removed. The 3 capsules, along with 13 other capsules, will be overpacked in the 324 building to meet the requirements for storage in WESF's pool

  16. Near-Infrared Squaraine Dye Encapsulated Micelles for in Vivo Fluorescence and Photoacoustic Bimodal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Joseph, James; Lin, Manjing; Menon, Nishanth Venugopal; Borah, Parijat; Ng, Hao Jun; Loong, Yun Xian; Kang, Yuejun; Yu, Sidney Wing-Kwong; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-06-23

    Combined near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging techniques present promising capabilities for noninvasive visualization of biological structures. Development of bimodal noninvasive optical imaging approaches by combining NIR fluorescence and photoacoustic tomography demands suitable NIR-active exogenous contrast agents. If the aggregation and photobleaching are prevented, squaraine dyes are ideal candidates for fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging. Herein, we report rational selection, preparation, and micelle encapsulation of an NIR-absorbing squaraine dye (D1) for in vivo fluorescence and photoacoustic bimodal imaging. D1 was encapsulated inside micelles constructed from a biocompatible nonionic surfactant (Pluoronic F-127) to obtain D1-encapsulated micelles (D1(micelle)) in aqueous conditions. The micelle encapsulation retains both the photophysical features and chemical stability of D1. D1(micelle) exhibits high photostability and low cytotoxicity in biological conditions. Unique properties of D1(micelle) in the NIR window of 800-900 nm enable the development of a squaraine-based exogenous contrast agent for fluorescence and photoacoustic bimodal imaging above 820 nm. In vivo imaging using D1(micelle), as demonstrated by fluorescence and photoacoustic tomography experiments in live mice, shows contrast-enhanced deep tissue imaging capability. The usage of D1(micelle) proven by preclinical experiments in rodents reveals its excellent applicability for NIR fluorescence and photoacoustic bimodal imaging.

  17. p p →A →Z h and the wrong-sign limit of the two-Higgs-doublet model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Pedro M.; Liebler, Stefan; Wittbrodt, Jonas

    2018-03-01

    We point out the importance of the decay channels A →Z h and H →V V in the wrong-sign limit of the two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM) of type II. They can be the dominant decay modes at moderate values of tan β , even if the (pseudo)scalar mass is above the threshold where the decay into a pair of top quarks is kinematically open. Accordingly, large cross sections p p →A →Z h and p p →H →V V are obtained and currently probed by the LHC experiments, yielding conclusive statements about the remaining parameter space of the wrong-sign limit. In addition, mild excesses—as recently found in the ATLAS analysis b b ¯→A →Z h —could be explained. The wrong-sign limit makes other important testable predictions for the light Higgs boson couplings.

  18. Review of metal-matrix encapsulation of solidified radioactive high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1978-05-01

    Literature describing previous and current work on the encapsulation of solidified high-level waste forms in a metal matrix was reviewed. Encapsulation of either stabilized calcine pellets or glass beads in alloys by casting techniques was concluded to be the most developed and direct approach to fabricating solid metal-matrix waste forms. Further characterizations of the physical and chemical properties of metal-matrix waste forms are still needed to assess the net attributes of metal-encapsulation alternatives. Steady-state heat transfer properties of waste canisters in air and water environments were calculated for four reference waste forms: (1) calcine, (2) glass monoliths, (3) metal-encapsulated calcine, and (4) metal-encapsulated glass beads. A set of criteria for the maximum allowable canister centerline and surface temperatures and heat generation rates per canister at the time of shipment to a Federal repository was assumed, and comparisons were made between canisters of these reference waste forms of the shortest time after reactor discharge that canisters could be filled and the subsequent ''interim'' storage times prior to shipment to a Federal repository for various canister diameters and waste ages. A reference conceptual flowsheet based on existing or developing technology for encapsulation of stabilized calcine pellets is discussed. Conclusions and recommendations are presented

  19. Mechanical Robustness and Hermeticity Monitoring for MEMS Thin Film Encapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santagata, F.

    2011-01-01

    Many Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) require encapsulation, to prevent delicate sensor structures being exposed to external perturbations such as dust, humidity, touching, and gas pressure. An upcoming and cost-effective way of encapsulation is zero-level packaging or thin-film

  20. Hexagonal Boron Nitride assisted transfer and encapsulation of large area CVD graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shautsova, Viktoryia; Gilbertson, Adam M.; Black, Nicola C. G.; Maier, Stefan A.; Cohen, Lesley F.

    2016-07-01

    We report a CVD hexagonal boron nitride (hBN-) assisted transfer method that enables a polymer-impurity free transfer process and subsequent top encapsulation of large-area CVD-grown graphene. We demonstrate that the CVD hBN layer that is utilized in this transfer technique acts as a buffer layer between the graphene film and supporting polymer layer. We show that the resulting graphene layers possess lower doping concentration, and improved carrier mobilities compared to graphene films produced by conventional transfer methods onto untreated SiO2/Si, SAM-modified and hBN covered SiO2/Si substrates. Moreover, we show that the top hBN layer used in the transfer process acts as an effective top encapsulation resulting in improved stability to ambient exposure. The transfer method is applicable to other CVD-grown 2D materials on copper foils, thereby facilitating the preparation of van der Waals heterostructures with controlled doping.

  1. Postmortem analysis of encapsulation around long-term ventricular endocardial pacing leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candinas, R; Duru, F; Schneider, J; Lüscher, T F; Stokes, K

    1999-02-01

    To analyze the site and thickness of encapsulation around ventricular endocardial pacing leads and the extent of tricuspid valve adhesion, from today's perspective, with implications for lead removal and sensor location. Gross cardiac postmortem analysis was performed in 11 cases (8 female and 3 male patients; mean age, 78+/-7 years). None of the patients had died because of pacemaker malfunction. The mean implant time was 61+/-60 months (range, 4 to 184). The observations ranged from encapsulation only at the tip of the pacing lead to complete encapsulation along the entire length of the pacing lead within the right ventricle. Substantial areas of adhesion at the tricuspid valve apparatus were noted in 7 of the 11 cases (64%). The firmly attached leads could be removed only by dissection, and in some cases, removal was possible only by damaging the associated structures. No specific optimal site for sensor placement could be identified along the ventricular portion of the pacing leads; however, the fibrotic response was relatively less prominent in the atrial chamber. Extensive encapsulation is present in most long-term pacemaker leads, which may complicate lead removal. The site and thickness of encapsulation seem to be highly variable. Tricuspid valve adhesion, which is usually underestimated, may be severe. In contrast to earlier reports, our study demonstrates that the extent of fibrotic encapsulation may not be related to the duration since lead implantation. Moreover, we noted no ideal encapsulation-free site for sensors on the ventricular portion of long-term pacing leads.

  2. Wrong directions of the energetic policy; Descaminhos da politica energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Joaquim Francisco

    1997-12-31

    The energetic planning should take an important role in the formulation of the economic and social development policy of any country. This work presents the opinion of the author in relation to this issue in what concerns the Brazilian experience. Several actions considered wrong by the author, which were taken by the government in what concerns energetic policy are presented and their expected consequences in the near future are discussed 6 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Estimating service lifetimes of a polymer encapsulant for photovoltaic modules from accelerated testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czanderna, A.W.; Pern, F.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    In this paper, most of the emphasis is on A9918 ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) used commercially as the pottant for encapsulating photovoltaic (PV) modules, in which the efficiencies in field-deployed modules have been reduced by 10-70% in 4-12 years. Yet, projections were made by several different research groups in the 1980s that the EVA lifetime could range from 2-100 years. The authors (1) elucidate the complexity of the encapsulation problem, (2) indicate the performance losses reported for PV systems deployed since 1981, (3) critically assess the service lifetime predictions for EVA as a PV pottant based on studies by others for which they review the inherent errors in their assumptions about the Arrhenius relation, (4) show how degradation of minimodules in laboratory experiments that simulate reality can produce efficiency losses comparable to those in field-degraded PV modules reported in the literature, and (5) outline an acceptable methodology for making a service lifetime prediction of the polymer encapsulant, including the essential need for relating accelerated lifetime testing to real-time testing with a sufficient number of samples.

  4. Comparative study of DNA encapsulation into PLGA microparticles using modified double emulsion methods and spray drying techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, C G; Kissel, T

    2005-05-01

    Recently, several research groups have shown the potential of microencapsulated DNA as adjuvant for DNA immunization and in tissue engineering approaches. Among techniques generally used for microencapsulation of hydrophilic drug substances into hydrophobic polymers, modified WOW double emulsion method and spray drying of water-in-oil dispersions take a prominent position. The key parameters for optimized microspheres are particle size, encapsulation efficiency, continuous DNA release and stabilization of DNA against enzymatic and mechanical degradation. This study investigates the possibility to encapsulate DNA avoiding shear forces which readily degrade DNA during this microencapsulation. DNA microparticles were prepared with polyethylenimine (PEI) as a complexation agent for DNA. Polycations are capable of stabilizing DNA against enzymatic, as well as mechanical degradation. Further, complexation was hypothesized to facilitate the encapsulation by reducing the size of the macromolecule. This study additionally evaluated the possibility of encapsulating lyophilized DNA and lyophilized DNA/PEI complexes. For this purpose, the spray drying and double emulsion techniques were compared. The size of the microparticles was characterized by laser diffractometry and the particles were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). DNA encapsulation efficiencies were investigated photometrically after complete hydrolysis of the particles. Finally, the DNA release characteristics from the particles were studied. Particles with a size of <10 microm which represent the threshold for phagocytic uptake could be prepared with these techniques. The encapsulation efficiency ranged from 100-35% for low theoretical DNA loadings. DNA complexation with PEI 25?kDa prior to the encapsulation process reduced the initial burst release of DNA for all techniques used. Spray-dried particles without PEI exhibited high burst releases, whereas double emulsion techniques showed continuous

  5. Swedish encapsulation station review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G.

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB's document 'Plan 1996'. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL's Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International's experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation

  6. Effects of micro-encapsulation on morphology and endocrine function of cryopreserved neonatal porcine islet-like cell clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, M; Satou, H; Kimura, T; Kobayashi, T; Yamaguchi, A; Nakagawara, G; Iwata, H

    2000-10-27

    For the success of clinical islets transplantation, the development of a long-term storage method is necessary. However, the structure of digested islets is scanty for culture and cryopreservation. In this study, the effect of micro-encapsulation to cryopreserved porcine islet-like cell clusters (ICCs) was investigated. The ICCs prepared from neonatal pigs by collagenase digestion and culture technique were cryopreserved and micro-encapsulated in 5% agarose membranes. After cryopreservation, ICC cultured without encapsulation (group A) and cultured with encapsulation (group B) were assessed by comparison with no cryopreserved ICC (control) both in vitro by static incubation test and in vivo in a xenotransplantation study. Micro-encapsulation was able to maintain the fine morphology and the number of ICCs of group B after 7 days of culture. There were not significant differences in insulin secretion of group B and control on day 1 and 7 of culture (1 day:11+/-0.99, 7 days: 5.30+/-1.08 microU/ICC/hr NS versus control). On day 7 of culture, the retrieval rate of group B (105.2+/-9.8%) is obviously higher compared with group A (63.0+/-6.3%). In the xenotransplatation model, the ICCs of group B showed long survival time (7.9+/-0.4 weeks) and good transplantation effect. Our study suggests that micro-encapsulation is one of the useful method for cryopreserved ICC to maintain the fine morphology and effectively recover the endocrine function.

  7. A study of wrong-sign single muon production in νμ-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S.R.; Auchincloss, P.S.; Blair, R.; Haber, C.; Ruiz, M.; Oltman, E.; Sciulli, F.J.; Shaevitz, M.H.; Smith, W.H.; Merritt, F.S.; Oreglia, M.; Reutens, P.; Coleman, R.; Fisk, H.E.; Lamm, M.J.; Levinthal, D.; Yovanovitch, D.D.; Marsh, W.; Rapidis, P.A.; White, H.B.; Bodek, A.; Borcherding, F.; Giokaris, N.; Lang, K.; Stockdale, I.E.

    1989-01-01

    We report on a search for ν μ -induced events where the single emerging muon carries lepton number opposite that of the incident neutrino. The rate and kinematic quantities of the candidate events are compared with known backgrounds from anti ν μ -induced charged current interactions and ν-induced interactions that produce dileptons. We derive an upper limit on the rate of wrong-sign single muon production relative to the rate of ν μ charged current interactions to be 1.6x10 -4 for y -4 for y>0.5 (90% CL). These upper limits enable us to constrain exotic sources of wrong-sign muons such as the charm component of the nucleon sea, flavor changing neutral currents and lepton number violating processes. Finally, the rate and kinematic properties of these events are compared with those of the neutrino-induced opposite-sign dimuon events. (orig.)

  8. Treatment of diabetic rats with encapsulated islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Ian R; Yanay, Ofer; Waldron, Lanaya; Gilbert, Merle; Fuller, Jessica M; Tupling, Terry; Lernmark, Ake; Osborne, William R A

    2008-12-01

    Immunoprotection of islets using bioisolator systems permits introduction of allogeneic cells to diabetic patients without the need for immunosuppression. Using TheraCyte immunoisolation devices, we investigated two rat models of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), BB rats and rats made diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment. We chose to implant islets after the onset of diabetes to mimic the probable treatment of children with T1DM as they are usually diagnosed after disease onset. We encapsulated 1000 rat islets and implanted them subcutaneously (SQ) into diabetic biobreeding (BB) rats and STZ-induced diabetic rats, defined as two or more consecutive days of blood glucose>350 mg/dl. Rats were monitored for weight and blood glucose. Untreated BB rats rapidly lost weight and were euthanized at >20% weight loss that occurred between 4 and 10 days from implantation. For period of 30-40 days following islet implantation weights of treated rats remained steady or increased. Rapid weight loss occurred after surgical removal of devices that contained insulin positive islets. STZ-treated rats that received encapsulated islets showed steady weight gain for up to 130 days, whereas untreated control rats showed steady weight loss that achieved >20% at around 55 days. Although islet implants did not normalize blood glucose, treated rats were apparently healthy and groomed normally. Autologous or allogeneic islets were equally effective in providing treatment. TheraCyte devices can sustain islets, protect allogeneic cells from immune attack and provide treatment for diabetic-mediated weight loss in both BB rats and STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  9. Micelle-encapsulated fullerenes in aqueous electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ala-Kleme, T., E-mail: timo.ala-kleme@utu.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland); Maeki, A.; Maeki, R.; Kopperoinen, A.; Heikkinen, M.; Haapakka, K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland)

    2013-03-15

    Different micellar particles Mi(M{sup +}) (Mi=Triton X-100, Triton N-101 R, Triton CF-10, Brij-35, M{sup +}=Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cs{sup +}) have been prepared in different aqueous H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}/MOH background electrolytes. It has been observed that these particles can be used to disperse the highly hydrophobic spherical [60]fullerene (1) and ellipsoidal [70]fullerene (2). This dispersion is realised as either micelle-encapsulated monomers Mi(M{sup +})1{sub m} and Mi(M{sup +})2{sub m} or water-soluble micelle-bound aggregates Mi(M{sup +})1{sub agg} and Mi(M{sup +})2{sub agg}, where especially the hydration degree and polyoxyethylene (POE) thickness of the micellar particle seems to play a role of vital importance. Further, the encapsulation microenvironment of 1{sub m} was found to depend strongly on the selected monovalent electrolyte cation, i.e., the encapsulated 1{sub m} is accommodated in the more hydrophobic microenvironment the higher the cationic solvation number is. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different micellar particles is used to disperse [60]fullerene and [70]fullerene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fullerene monomers or aggregates are dispersed encaging or bounding by micelles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effective facts are hydration degree and polyoxyethylene thickness of micelle.

  10. Encapsulation of polymer photovoltaic prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2006-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for the encapsulation of polymer and organic photovoltaic prototypes is presented. The method employs device preparation on glass substrates with subsequent sealing using glass fiber reinforced thermosetting epoxy (prepreg) against a back plate. The method allows...

  11. Encapsulation and Nano-Encapsulation of Papain Active Sites to Enhance Radiolityc Stability and Decrease Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugão, A. B.; Varca, G. H.C.; Mathor, M. B.; Santos Lopes, P.; Rogero, M. S.S.; Rogero, J.R., E-mail: ablugao@ipen.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Papain is used as an ingredient in various enzymatic debridement preparations. Those paste-like preparations are based on water solution and usually are sterilized by radiation. As a consequence, there is a major decrease in papain activity. Papain containing preparations are used in chronic wounds treatment in order to clean and remove the necrotic tissue. However FDA (2008) is taking an action against such products due to severe adverse events reported in patients submitted to papain treatments. Thus, the main goal of this proposal is to develop encapsulated papain containing membranes based on hydrogels and silicone rubber in an attempt to achieve a controllable distribution of size and delivery profile, a toxicity reduction and provide stability towards radiation processing through molecular encapsulation with β-cyclodextrin, which may also provide protection to the enzyme against radiation induced radiolysis. (author)

  12. Encapsulation and Nano-Encapsulation of Papain Active Sites to Enhance Radiolityc Stability and Decrease Toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugão, A.B.; Varca, G.H.C.; Mathor, M.B.; Santos Lopes, P.; Rogero, M.S.S.; Rogero, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Papain is used as an ingredient in various enzymatic debridement preparations. Those paste-like preparations are based on water solution and usually are sterilized by radiation. As a consequence, there is a major decrease in papain activity. Papain containing preparations are used in chronic wounds treatment in order to clean and remove the necrotic tissue. However FDA (2008) is taking an action against such products due to severe adverse events reported in patients submitted to papain treatments. Thus, the main goal of this proposal is to develop encapsulated papain containing membranes based on hydrogels and silicone rubber in an attempt to achieve a controllable distribution of size and delivery profile, a toxicity reduction and provide stability towards radiation processing through molecular encapsulation with β-cyclodextrin, which may also provide protection to the enzyme against radiation induced radiolysis. (author)

  13. Novel strategy for the preparation of graphene-encapsulated mesoporous metal oxides with enhanced lithium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Rong; Yue, Wenbo; Niu, Fangzhou; Ma, Jie

    2016-01-01

    As potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, mesoporous metal oxides show high reversible capacities but relatively poor cycle stability due to the structural collapse during cycles. Graphene-encapsulated mesoporous metal oxides may increase the electronic conductivity of the composite as well as stabilize the mesostructure of metal oxides, thereby enhancing the electrochemical performance of mesoporous metal oxides. Herein we describe a novel strategy for the preparation of graphene-encapsulated mesoporous metal oxides (SnO_2, Mn_3O_4), which exhibit superior electrochemical performance compared to pure mesoporous metal oxides. Moreover, some mesoporous metal oxides may be further reduced to low-valence metal oxides when calcined in presence of graphene. Mesoporous metal oxides with high isoelectric points are not essential for this synthesis method since metal oxides are connected with graphene through mesoporous silica template, thus expanding the types of graphene-encapsulated mesoporous metal oxides.

  14. The preparation and the sustained release of titanium dioxide hollow particles encapsulating L-ascorbic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Yoko; Kadota, Kazunori; Shimosaka, Atsuko; Yoshida, Mikio; Oshima, Kotaro; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki

    2018-05-01

    The preparation of the titanium dioxide hollow particles encapsulating L-ascorbic acid via sol-gel process using inkjet nozzle has been performed, and the sustained release and the effect protecting against degradation of L-ascorbic acid in the particles were investigated. The morphology of titanium dioxide particles was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). The sustained release and the effect protecting against degradation of L-ascorbic acid were estimated by dialysis bag method in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) (pH = 7.4) as release media. The prepared titanium dioxide particles exhibited spherical porous structures. The particle size distribution of the titanium dioxide particles was uniform. The hollow titanium dioxide particles encapsulating L-ascorbic acid showed the sustained release. It was also found that the degradation of L-ascorbic acid could be inhibited by encapsulating L-ascorbic acid in the titanium dioxide hollow particles.

  15. Antioxidant Effects of Quercetin and Catechin Encapsulated into PLGA Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Pool

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric nanoparticles (PLGA have been developed for the encapsulation and controlled release of quercetin and catechin. Nanoparticles were fabricated using a solvent displacement method. Physicochemical properties were measured by light scattering, scanning electron microscopy and ζ-potential, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release profiles were obtained from differential pulse voltammetry experiments. Antioxidant properties of free and encapsulated flavonoids were determined by TBARS, fluorescence spectroscopy and standard chelating activity methods. Relatively small (d≈ 400 nm polymeric nanoparticles were obtained containing quercetin or catechin in a non-crystalline form (EE ≈ 79% and the main interactions between the polymer and each flavonoid were found to consist of hydrogen bonds. In vitro release profiles were pH-dependant, the more acidic pH, the faster release of each flavonoid from the polymeric nanoparticles. The inhibition of the action of free radicals and chelating properties, were also enhanced when quercetin and catechin were encapsulated within PLGA nanoparticles. The information obtained from this study will facilitate the design and fabrication of polymeric nanoparticles as possible oral delivery systems for encapsulation, protection and controlled release of flavonoids aimed to prevent oxidative stress in human body or food products.

  16. Encapsulation of lycopene in Chlorella pyrenoidosa: Loading properties and stability improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Chuanfen; Tang, Wenting

    2017-11-15

    Aiming to improve the stability of lycopene and incorporate it into a complex nutraceutical, exogenous lycopene-loaded Chlorella pyrenoidosa cells (CPCs) were developed. The complex had an encapsulation yield of 13.06±0.89% and an encapsulation efficiency of 96.31±3.10%. Fluorescence analyses indicated that lycopene was encapsulated in the CPCs. X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric analyses were conducted and compared to those of the non-loaded CPCs, lycopene and their physical mixture. These studies demonstrated that lycopene was amorphous in the complex. The degradation kinetics indicated that encapsulation increased the stability of lycopene. The antioxidant activity of lycopene loaded CPCs against DPPH free radicals was higher than that of the unencapsulated lycopene after storage at 25°C for 25d. This study proved the feasibility of encapsulation of lycopene in the CPCs and combined the activities of both materials, which could be employed in the production of novel nutraceuticals to reduce oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nuclear power is neither right nor wrong: the case for a tertium datur in the ethics of technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillerbrand, Rafaela; Peterson, Martin

    2014-06-01

    The debate over the civilian use of nuclear power is highly polarised. We argue that a reasonable response to this deep disagreement is to maintain that advocates of both camps should modify their positions. According to the analysis we propose, nuclear power is neither entirely right nor entirely wrong, but rather right and wrong to some degree. We are aware that this non-binary analysis of nuclear power is controversial from a theoretical point of view. Utilitarians, Kantians, and other moral theorists make sharp, binary distinctions between right and wrong acts. However, an important argument speaking in favour of our non-binary analysis is that it better reflects our considered intuitions about the ethical trade-offs we face in discussions of nuclear power. The aim of this article is to make this argument sharp by explaining how it can be rendered compatible with, and supported by, the Capability Approach, which is quickly becoming one of the most influential frameworks for thinking about human development.

  18. Spent LWR fuel encapsulation and dry storage demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahorich, R.J.; Durrill, D.C.; Cross, T.E.; Unterzuber, R.

    1980-01-01

    In 1977 the Spent Fuel Handling and Packaging Program (SFHPP) was initiated by the Department of Energy to develop and test the capability to satisfactorily encapsulate typical spent fuel assemblies from commercial light-water nuclear power plants and to establish the suitability of one or more surface and near surface concepts for the interim dry storage of the encapsulated spent fuel assemblies. The E-MAD Facility at the Nevada Test Site, which is operated for the Department of Energy by the Advanced Energy Systems Division (AESD) of the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, was chosen as the location for this demonstration because of its extensive existing capabilities for handling highly radioactive components and because of the desirable site characteristics for the proposed storage concepts. This paper describes the remote operations related to the process steps of handling, encapsulating and subsequent dry storage of spent fuel in support of the Demonstration Program

  19. Encapsulation of biological species in sol-gel matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnie, K.S.; Bartlett, J.R.; Woolfrey, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    Two examples are given of the gelation of silica sols containing bio catalysts, resulting in their encapsulation in porous matrices. Urease was encapsulated in gels made from a mixture of TMOS and alkyltrimethoxysilane. Enzyme activities, monitored by measuring the rate of production of ammoniacal nitrogen as urea was decomposed, ranged up to 60% of that of the unencapsulated species. Anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria were encapsulated in a gel produced from colloidal silica, thus avoiding contact with alcohol. The detection of H 2 S produced in the doped gel indicated that the bacteria were able to continue normal metabolic function within the gel matrix. A gel initially doped with ∼ 5 x 10 5 cells cm -3 , exhibited an optimum sulphate reduction rate of 11 ug h -1 cm -3 ; this reduction rate was quickly re-established after storage of the gel for 14 weeks. Copyright (2000) The Australian Ceramic Society

  20. Elastin-like polypeptides: the power of design for smart cell encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandiera, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Cell encapsulation technology is still a challenging issue. Innovative methodologies such as additive manufacturing, and alternative bioprocesses, such as cell therapeutic delivery, where cell encapsulation is a key tool are rapidly gaining importance for their potential in regenerative medicine. Responsive materials such as elastin-based recombinant expression products have features that are particularly attractive for cell encapsulation. They can be designed and tailored to meet desired requirements. Thus, they represent promising candidates for the development of new concept-based materials that can be employed in this field. Areas covered: An overview of the design and employment of elastin-like polypeptides for cell encapsulation is given to outline the state of the art. Special attention is paid to the design of the macromolecule employed as well as to the method of matrix formation and the biological system involved. Expert opinion: As a result of recent progress in regenerative medicine there is a compelling need for materials that provide specific properties and demonstrate defined functional features. Rationally designed materials that may adapt according to applied external stimuli and that are responsive to biological systems, such as elastin-like polypeptides, belong to this class of smart material. A run through the components described to date represents a good starting point for further advancement in this area. Employment of these components in cell encapsulation application will promote its advance toward 'smart cell encapsulation technology'.

  1. Uptake of encapsulated 99mTc-MIBI into simple or pegylated liposomes in cultured cells and in tumour-bearing nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergote, J.; Belhaj-Tayeb, H.; Banisadr, G.; Leger, G.; Briane, D.; Moretti, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Encapsulating 99m Tc-MIBI into liposomes could prolong its circulation half-life in blood without alteration of tracer abilities. In addition, surface coating of liposomes with polyethylene-glycol (PEG) have been shown to be efficient vehicles for antibiotics or 99m Tc-tracers. The uptake of encapsulated 99m Tc-MIBI into liposomes, simple or pegylated, in cancerous cells and its biodistribution were compared to the free 99m Tc-MIBI. The encapsulation of 99m Tc-MIBI into liposomes was obtained using a K + diffusion potential method. Untrapped 99m Tc-MIBI into liposomes preparations 'Small Unilamellar Vesicles' (SUVs) was removed by passing the SUVs through a chromatography column. 99m Tc-MIBI uptake in cells was qualified by measuring radioactivity retained in K562 and MCF7-ras cells incubated with encapsulated or free 99m Tc-MIBI. The biodistribution was explored in tumour-bearing nude mice. The efficiency with which 99m Tc-MIBI was encapsulated in liposomes was 45% - 50% for pegylated or not. In the two cell lines, the accumulation of 99m Tc-MIBI was similar either the tracer was free or encapsulated into liposomes. One hour after injection, the biodistribution showed a higher clearance for free 99m Tc-MIBI than for encapsulated tracer into liposomes. The tumour accumulated in a greater extent the encapsulated form than the free 99m Tc-MIBI. Encapsulated 99m Tc-MIBI into PEG-liposomes would be a promising radiopharmaceutical for tumour imaging in vivo. (author)

  2. Polyamine transporter potABCD is required for virulence of encapsulated but not nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley R Pipkins

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is commonly found in the human nasopharynx and is the causative agent of multiple diseases. Since invasive pneumococcal infections are associated with encapsulated pneumococci, the capsular polysaccharide is the target of licensed pneumococcal vaccines. However, there is an increasing distribution of non-vaccine serotypes, as well as nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae (NESp. Both encapsulated and nonencapsulated pneumococci possess the polyamine oligo-transport operon (potABCD. Previous research has shown inactivation of the pot operon in encapsulated pneumococci alters protein expression and leads to a significant reduction in pneumococcal murine colonization, but the role of the pot operon in NESp is unknown. Here, we demonstrate deletion of potD from the NESp NCC1 strain MNZ67 does impact expression of the key proteins pneumolysin and PspK, but it does not inhibit murine colonization. Additionally, we show the absence of potD significantly increases biofilm production, both in vitro and in vivo. In a chinchilla model of otitis media (OM, the absence of potD does not significantly affect MNZ67 virulence, but it does significantly reduce the pathogenesis of the virulent encapsulated strain TIGR4 (serotype 4. Deletion of potD also significantly reduced persistence of TIGR4 in the lungs but increased persistence of PIP01 in the lungs. We conclude the pot operon is important for the regulation of protein expression and biofilm formation in both encapsulated and NCC1 nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, in contrast to encapsulated pneumococcal strains, polyamine acquisition via the pot operon is not required for MNZ67 murine colonization, persistence in the lungs, or full virulence in a model of OM. Therefore, NESp virulence regulation needs to be further established to identify potential NESp therapeutic targets.

  3. Hydrogels for in situ encapsulation of biomimetic membrane arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibragimova, Sania; Jensen, Karin Bagger Stibius; Szewczykowski, Piotr Przemyslaw

    2012-01-01

    to chemically initiated hydrogels; however, for all hydrogels the permeability was several-fold higher than the water permeability of conventional reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. Lifetimes of freestanding BLM arrays in gel precursor solutions were short compared to arrays formed in buffer. However, polymerizing......Hydrogels are hydrophilic, porous polymer networks that can absorb up to thousands of times their own weight in water. They have many potential applications, one of which is the encapsulation of freestanding black lipid membranes (BLMs) for novel separation technologies or biosensor applications....... We investigated gels for in situ encapsulation of multiple BLMs formed across apertures in a hydrophobic ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) support. The encapsulation gels consisted of networks of poly(ethylene glycol)-dimethacrylate or poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate polymerized using either...

  4. The Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS): 5. Encapsulated bleb after initial trabeculectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, A L; Van Veldhuisen, P C; Gaasterland, D E; Ederer, F; Sullivan, E K; Cyrlin, M N

    1999-01-01

    To compare the incidence of encapsulated bleb after trabeculectomy in eyes with and without previous argon laser trabeculoplasty and to assess other risk factors for encapsulated bleb development. After medical treatment failure, eyes enrolled in the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS) were randomly assigned to sequences of interventions starting with either argon laser trabeculoplasty or trabeculectomy. In the present study we compared the clinical course for 1 year after trabeculectomy in 119 eyes with failed argon laser trabeculoplasty with that of 379 eyes without previous argon laser trabeculoplasty. Data on bleb encapsulation were collected at the time that the encapsulation was diagnosed, and 3 and 6 months later. Of multiple factors examined in the AGIS data for the risk of developing encapsulated bleb, only male gender and high school graduation without further formal education were statistically significant. Encapsulation occurred in 18.5% of eyes with previous argon laser trabeculoplasty failure and 14.5% of eyes without previous argon laser trabeculoplasty (unadjusted relative risk, 1.27; 95% confidence limits = 0.81, 2.00; P = .23). After adjusting for age, gender, educational achievement, prescribed systemic beta-blockers, diabetes, visual field score, and years since glaucoma diagnosis, this difference remains statistically not significant. Four weeks after trabeculectomy, mean intraocular pressure was 7.5 mm Hg higher in eyes with (22.5 mm Hg) than without (15.0 mm Hg) encapsulated bleb; at 1 year after trabeculectomy and the resumption of medical therapy when needed, this excess was reduced to 1.4 mm Hg. This study, as did two previous studies, found male gender to be a risk factor for bleb encapsulation. Four studies, including the present study, have reported a higher rate of encapsulation in eyes with previous argon laser trabeculoplasty; in two of the studies, one of which was the present study, the rate was not statistically

  5. Thickness-Dependent Strain Effect on the Deformation of the Graphene-Encapsulated Au Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangli Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The strain effect on graphene-encapsulated Au nanoparticles is investigated. A finite-element calculation is performed to simulate the strain distribution and morphology of the monolayer and multilayer graphene-encapsulated Au nanoparticles, respectively. It can be found that the inhomogeneous strain and deformation are enhanced with the increasing shrinkage of the graphene shell. Moreover, the strain distribution and deformation are very sensitive to the layer number of the graphene shell. Especially, the inhomogeneous strain at the interface between the graphene shell and encapsulated Au nanoparticles is strongly tuned by the graphene thickness. For the mono- and bilayer graphene-encapsulated Au nanoparticles, the dramatic shape transformation can be observed. However, with increasing the graphene thickness further, there is hardly deformation for the encapsulated Au nanoparticles. These simulated results indicate that the strain and deformation can be designed by the graphene layer thickness, which provides an opportunity to engineer the structure and morphology of the graphene-encapsulated nanoparticles.

  6. The interpretation of encapsulating anaphors in Spanish and their functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    Encapsulating anaphors differ from other types of anaphor by having one or more situations - not an entity - as its referent. The main aim of the article is to propose a hypothesis for how anaphoric encapsulation is resolved. The hypothesis builds on the cognitive linguistic theory of instruction...

  7. Microscale Strategies for Generating Cell-Encapsulating Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khademhosseini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels in which cells are encapsulated are of great potential interest for tissue engineering applications. These gels provide a structure inside which cells can spread and proliferate. Such structures benefit from controlled microarchitectures that can affect the behavior of the enclosed cells. Microfabrication-based techniques are emerging as powerful approaches to generate such cell-encapsulating hydrogel structures. In this paper we introduce common hydrogels and their crosslinking methods and review the latest microscale approaches for generation of cell containing gel particles. We specifically focus on microfluidics-based methods and on techniques such as micromolding and electrospinning.

  8. Properties of Lactobacillus reuteri chitosan-calcium-alginate encapsulation under simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Ying; Tang, Yi-Ju; King, V An-Erl; Chou, Jen-Wei; Tsen, Jen-Horng

    2015-03-01

    The protective effects of encapsulation on the survival of Lactobacillus reuteri and the retention of the bacterium's probiotic properties under simulated gastrointestinal conditions were investigated. Viable counts and the remaining probiotic properties of calcium (Ca)-alginate encapsulated (A group), chitosan-Ca-alginate encapsulated (CA group), and unencapsulated, free L. reuteri (F group) were determined. Encapsulation improved the survival of L. reuteri subjected to simulated gastrointestinal conditions, with the greatest protective effect achieved in the CA group. The degree of cell membrane injury increased with increasing bile salt concentrations at constant pH, but the extent of injury was less in the encapsulated than in the free cells. Adherence rates were, in descending order: CA (0.524%)>A (0.360%)>F (0.275%). Lactobacillus reuteri cells retained their antagonistic activity toward Listeria monocytogenes even after incubation of the lactobacilli under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Displacement of the pathogen by cells released from either of the encapsulation matrices was higher than that by free cells. The safety of L. reuteri was demonstrated in an in vitro invasion assay. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  9. Encapsulation of dye molecules into mesoporous polymer resin and mesoporous polymer-silica films by an evaporation-induced self-assembly method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi Yue; Li Nan; Tu Jinchun; Zhang Yujie [School of Material Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Li Xiaotian, E-mail: xiaotianli@jlu.edu.c [School of Material Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Shao Changlu, E-mail: clshao@nenu.edu.c [Center for Advanced Optoelectronic Functional Materials Research, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Polymer resin and polymer-silica films with highly ordered mesostructure have been used as host materials to encapsulate DCM (4-(dicyanomethylene) -2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4h-pyran), a kind of fluorescent dye, through evaporation-induced self-assembly method (EISA). After encapsulation, the composites show significant blue-shift in photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Particularly, by changing the excitation wavelength, the samples show different emission bands. These phenomena are related to the mesostructure and the positions of DCM molecules in the host.

  10. Asymmetrical Polyhedral Configuration of Giant Vesicles Induced by Orderly Array of Encapsulated Colloidal Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Yuno; Toyota, Taro

    2016-01-01

    Giant vesicles (GVs) encapsulating colloidal particles by a specific volume fraction show a characteristic configuration under a hypertonic condition. Several flat faces were formed in GV membrane with orderly array of inner particles. GV shape changed from the spherical to the asymmetrical polyhedral configuration. This shape deformation was derived by entropic interaction between inner particles and GV membrane. Because a part of inner particles became to form an ordered phase in the region neighboring the GV membrane, free volume for the other part of particles increased. Giant vesicles encapsulating colloidal particles were useful for the model of "crowding effect" which is the entropic interaction in the cell.

  11. First-principles calculations of the indigo encapsulation and adsorption by MgO nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Ochoa, F., E-mail: fsanchez@ifuap.buap.mx; Cocoletzi, Gregorio H. [Instituto de Física “Ing. Luis Rivera Terrazas,” Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Av. San Claudio y Blvd. 18 Sur, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue (Mexico); Canto, Gabriel I. [Departamento de Materiales y Corrosión, Centro de Investigación en Corrosión, Universidad Autónoma de Campeche, Col. Buenavista, C.P. 24039 San Francisco de Campeche, Campeche (Mexico); Takeuchi, Noboru [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, CP. 22800 Ensenada, B.C (Mexico)

    2014-06-07

    We have performed ab-initio calculations to investigate the structural and electronic properties of (m,m) chiral magnesium oxide nanotubes, (m,m)MgONTs, to explore the encapsulation, inclusion, and adsorption of dyes (organic molecules) such as Indigo (IND). Studies start by determining the structural parameters of the MgO nanotubes with different diameters and the IND. The indigo encapsulation into the MgONT is studied considering four (m,m) chiralities which yield 4 different NT diameters. In the endohedral functionalization, the indigo is within the NT at a tilt angle as in previous theoretical studies of organic molecules inside carbon and boron-nitride nanotubes. Results show that the encapsulation is a strong exothermic process with the m = 6 case exhibiting the largest encapsulation energy. It is also explored the indigo adsorption on the NT surface in the parallel and perpendicular configurations. The perpendicular configuration of the IND adsorption on the (8,8)MgONT exhibits the largest energy. The indigo inclusion within the NTs meets a potential barrier when m < 6, however this barrier diminishes as the index increases. Additionally, we have determined the total density of states (DOS), partial DOS, electron charge redistributions, and the highest occupied molecular orbital–lowest unoccupied molecular orbital levels for the NTs with m = 6. Very strong binding energies and electron charge transfer from the IND to NTs is present in the atomic structures.

  12. Hanford waste encapsulation: strontium and cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, R.R.

    1976-06-01

    The strontium and cesium fractions separated from high radiation level wastes at Hanford are converted to the solid strontium fluoride and cesium chloride salts, doubly encapsulated, and stored underwater in the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). A capsule contains approximately 70,000 Ci of 137 Cs or 70,000 to 140,000 Ci of 90 Sr. Materials for fabrication of process equipment and capsules must withstand a combination of corrosive chemicals, high radiation dosages and frequently, elevated temperatures. The two metals selected for capsules, Hastelloy C-276 for strontium fluoride and 316-L stainless steel for cesium chloride, are adequate for prolonged containment. Additional materials studies are being done both for licensing strontium fluoride as source material and for second generation process equipment

  13. Technology of mammalian cell encapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uludag, H; De Vos, P; Tresco, PA

    2000-01-01

    Entrapment of mammalian cells in physical membranes has been practiced since the early 1950s when it was originally introduced as a basic research tool. The method has since been developed based on the promise of its therapeutic usefulness in tissue transplantation. Encapsulation physically isolates

  14. Atomically Precise Nanocluster Assemblies Encapsulating Plasmonic Gold Nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Amrita; Fernandez, Ann Candice; Som, Anirban; Mondal, Biswajit; Natarajan, Ganapati; Paramasivam, Ganesan; Lahtinen, Tanja; Häkkinen, Hannu; Nonappa, Nonappa; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2018-04-01

    We present the self-assembled structures of atomically precise, ligand-protected noble metal nanoclusters leading to encapsulation of plasmonic gold nanorods (GNRs). Unlike highly sophisticated DNA nanotechnology, our approach demonstrates a strategically simple hydrogen bonding-directed self-assembly of nanoclusters leading to octahedral nanocrystals encapsulating GNRs. Specifically, we use the p-mercaptobenzoic acid (pMBA) protected atomically precise nanocluster, Na4[Ag44(pMBA)30] and pMBA functionalized GNRs. High resolution transmission and scanning transmission electron tomographic reconstructions suggest that the geometry of the GNR surface is responsible for directing the assembly of silver nanoclusters via H-bonding leading to octahedral symmetry. Further, use of water dispersible gold nanoclusters, Au~250(pMBA)n and Au102(pMBA)44 also formed layered shells encapsulating GNRs. Such cluster assemblies on colloidal particles present a new category of precision hybrids with diverse possibilities. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A facile method to prepare superparamagnetic iron oxide and hydrophobic drug-encapsulated biodegradable polyurethane nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kuo-Wei; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs) have a wide range of biomedical applications such as in magnetic resonance imaging, targeting, and hyperthermia therapy. Aggregation of SPIO NPs can occur because of the hydrophobic surface and high surface energy of SPIO NPs. Here, we developed a facile method to encapsulate SPIO NPs in amphiphilic biodegradable polymer. Anionic biodegradable polyurethane nanoparticles (PU NPs) with ~35 nm size and different chemistry were prepared by waterborne processes. SPIO NPs were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation. SPIO NPs were then added to the aqueous dispersion of PU NPs, followed by application of high-frequency (~20 kHz) ultrasonic vibration for 3 min. This method rendered SPIO-PU hybrid NPs (size ~110 nm) suspended in water. SPIO-PU hybrid NPs contained ~50-60 wt% SPIO and retained the superparamagnetic property (evaluated by a magnetometer) as well as high contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. SPIO-PU NPs also showed the ability to provide cell hyperthermic treatment. Using the same ultrasonic method, hydrophobic drug (Vitamin K3 [VK3]) or (9-(methylaminomethyl) anthracene [MAMA]) could also be encapsulated in PU NPs. The VK3-PU or MAMA-PU hybrid NPs had ~35 nm size and different release profiles for PUs with different chemistry. The encapsulation efficiency for VK3 and MAMA was high (~95%) without burst release. The encapsulation mechanism may be attributed to the low glass transition temperature (Tg) and good mechanical compliance of PU NPs. The new encapsulation method involving waterborne biodegradable PU NPs is simple, rapid, and effective to produce multimodular NP carriers.

  16. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Origanum dictamnus Extracts before and after Encapsulation in Liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Tsaknis

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanol or dichloromethane extracts of O. dictamnus, produced from wild and organic cultivated specimens, were determined. The Rancimat and malondialdehyde (MDA by HPLC methods were used to measure the antioxidant action, in comparison with that of the common commercial antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT and α-tocopherol. The extracts that presented high antioxidant activity were encapsulated in liposomes and their antioxidant action was again estimated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Thermaloxidative decomposition of the samples (pure liposomes and encapsulated extracts and the modification of the main transition temperature for the lipid mixture and the splitting of the calorimetric peak in the presence of the antioxidants were also studied by the DSC method. All extracts showed antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Their action proved superior to α-tocopherol. The methanol extract of organic cultivated O. dictamnus (240 ppm showed higher activity than butylated hydroxytoluene. After encapsulation in liposomes the antioxidant as well as antimicrobial activities proved to be higher than those of the same extracts in pure form.

  17. Encapsulated iron-based oxygen reduction electrocatalysts by high pressure pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhong, Lijie; Hu, Yang; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen

    2017-01-01

    ) and a half-wave potential of 0.72 V in acid media. After 10,000 potential cycles, only 25 mV shift of half-wave potential is observed showing excellent stability. An analogue material prepared from nitrogen-free precursors shows significant electrochemical activity though it is much lower than that from...... the nitrogen containing precursors and can be improved by post treatment in ammonia. These results indicate the contribution to the catalysis from surface nitrogen functionalities and encapsulated metal-containing nanoparticles. (C) 2017 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights...

  18. Characterisation of electrospun gelatine nanofibres encapsulated with Moringa oleifera bioactive extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hani, Norziah M; Torkamani, Amir E; Azarian, Mohammad H; Mahmood, Kamil Wa; Ngalim, Siti Hawa

    2017-08-01

    Drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves have been used as a folk herbal medicine across many cultures since ancient times. This is most probably due to presence of phytochemicals possessing antioxidant properties, which could retard oxidative stress, and their degenerative effect. The current study deals with nanoencapsulation of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaf ethanolic extract within fish sourced gelatine matrix using electrospinning technique. The total phenolic and flavonoid content, radical scavenging (IC 50 ) and metal reducing properties were 67.0 ± 2.5 mg GAE g -1 sample 32.0 ± 0.5 mg QE g -1 extract, 0.08 ± 0.01 mg mL -1 and 510 ± 10 µmol eq Fe(II) g -1 extract, respectively. Morphological and spectroscopic analysis of the fibre mats confirmed successful nanoencapsulation of MO extract within defect free nanofibres via electrospinning process. The percentage encapsulation efficiency (EE) was between 80% and 85%. Furthermore, thermal stability of encapsulated fibres, especially at 3% and 5% of core loading content, was significantly improved. Toxicological analysis revealed that the extract in its original and encapsulated form was safe for oral consumption. Overall, the present study showed the potential of ambient temperature electrospinning process as a safe nanoencapsulation method, where MO extract retained its antioxidative capacities. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Structure and electronic properties of molybdenum monatomic wires encapsulated in carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GarcIa-Fuente, A; Vega, A [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica. Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); GarcIa-Suarez, V M; Ferrer, J [Departamento de Fisica and CINN, Universidad de Oviedo, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-07-06

    Monatomic chains of molybdenum encapsulated in single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) of different chiralities are investigated using density functional theory. We determine the optimal size of the CNT for encapsulating a single atomic wire, as well as the most stable atomic arrangement adopted by the wire. We also study the transport properties in the ballistic regime by computing the transmission coefficients and tracing them back to the electronic conduction channels of the wire and the host. We predict that CNTs of appropriate radii encapsulating a Mo wire have metallic behavior, even if both the nanotube and the wire are insulators. Therefore, encapsulation of Mo wires in CNTs is a way to create conductive quasi-one-dimensional hybrid nanostructures.

  20. Encapsulated Curcumin for Transdermal Administration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a proniosomal carrier system of curcumin for transdermal delivery. Methods: Proniosomes of curcumin were prepared by encapsulation of the drug in a mixture of Span 80, cholesterol and diethyl ether by ether injection method, and then investigated as a transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS).

  1. Reactants encapsulation and Maillard Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troise, A.D.; Fogliano, V.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades many efforts have been addressed to the control of Maillard Reaction products in different foods with the aim to promote the formation of compounds having the desired color and flavor and to reduce the concentration of several potential toxic molecules. Encapsulation, already

  2. Silver nanowires network encapsulated by low temperature sol-gel ZnO for transparent flexible electrodes with ambient stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Wonjung; Cho, Wonki; Baik, Seung Jae

    2018-01-01

    As a geometrically engineered realization of transparent electrode, Ag nanowires network is promising for its superior characteristics both on electrical conductivity and optical transmittance. However, for a potential commercialization of Ag nanowires network, further investigations on encapsulation materials are necessary to prevent degradation caused by ambient aging. In addition, the temperature range of the coating process for the encapsulation material needs to be low enough to prevent degradation of polymer substrates during the film coating processes, when considering emerging flexible device application of transparent electrodes. We present experimental results showing that low temperature sol-gel ZnO processed under 130 °C is an effective encapsulation material preventing ambient oxidation of Ag nanowires network without degrading electrical, optical, and mechanical properties.

  3. Improved performance of InSe field-effect transistors by channel encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guangda; Wang, Yiming; Han, Lin; Yang, Zai-Xing; Xin, Qian; Kudrynskyi, Zakhar R.; Kovalyuk, Zakhar D.; Patanè, Amalia; Song, Aimin

    2018-06-01

    Due to the high electron mobility and photo-responsivity, InSe is considered as an excellent candidate for next generation electronics and optoelectronics. In particular, in contrast to many high-mobility two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as phosphorene, InSe is more resilient to oxidation in air. Nevertheless, its implementation in future applications requires encapsulation techniques to prevent the adsorption of gas molecules on its surface. In this work, we use a common lithography resist, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to encapsulate InSe-based field-effect transistors (FETs). The encapsulation of InSe by PMMA improves the electrical stability of the FETs under a gate bias stress, and increases both the drain current and electron mobility. These findings indicate the effectiveness of the PMMA encapsulation method, which could be applied to other 2D materials.

  4. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  5. Chemical Characterization of an Encapsulated Red Wine Powder and Its Effects on Neuronal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rocha-Parra

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Red wine polyphenols are known for their implications for human health protection, although they suffer from high instability. For this reason, a red wine powder was prepared by freeze-drying encapsulation in maltodextrin/arabic gum matrix, and its composition was determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-QTOF. More than thirty polyphenols, including anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols, phenolic acids and stilbenoids, were identified. Some of the main quantified polyphenols were: malvidin-3-O-glucoside, malvidin 3-O-(6″-acetyl-glucose, petunidin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, syringenin-3-O-glucoside, epicatechin, gallic acid and syringic acid. The biological activity of this de-alcoholized and encapsulated red wine on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells was studied. The results showed that the encapsulated red wine powder has active redox properties, as verified by performing reactive oxygen species (ROS analysis utilizing a neuronal model. This could help explain its action against the neurotoxicity induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA.

  6. Chemical Characterization of an Encapsulated Red Wine Powder and Its Effects on Neuronal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Parra, Diego; Chirife, Jorge; Zamora, Clara; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia

    2018-04-07

    Red wine polyphenols are known for their implications for human health protection, although they suffer from high instability. For this reason, a red wine powder was prepared by freeze-drying encapsulation in maltodextrin/arabic gum matrix, and its composition was determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-QTOF). More than thirty polyphenols, including anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols, phenolic acids and stilbenoids, were identified. Some of the main quantified polyphenols were: malvidin-3- O -glucoside, malvidin 3- O -(6″-acetyl-glucose), petunidin-3- O -glucoside, quercetin-3- O -glucuronide, syringenin-3- O -glucoside, epicatechin, gallic acid and syringic acid. The biological activity of this de-alcoholized and encapsulated red wine on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells was studied. The results showed that the encapsulated red wine powder has active redox properties, as verified by performing reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis utilizing a neuronal model. This could help explain its action against the neurotoxicity induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA).

  7. Formulation, characterization, and expression of a recombinant MOMP Chlamydia trachomatis DNA vaccine encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cambridge CD

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chino D Cambridge, Shree R Singh, Alain B Waffo, Stacie J Fairley, Vida A DennisCenter for NanoBiotechnology Research (CNBR, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USAAbstract: Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterial sexually transmitted infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Previous vaccination attempts have employed the recombinant major outer membrane protein (MOMP of C. trachomatis nonetheless, with limited success, perhaps, due to stability, degradation, and delivery issues. In this study we cloned C. trachomatis recombinant MOMP DNA (DMOMP and encapsulated it in chitosan nanoparticles (DMCNP using the complex coacervation technique. Physiochemical characterizations of DMCNP included transmission and scanning electron microcopy, Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and zeta potential. Encapsulated DMOMP was 167–250 nm, with a uniform spherical shape and homogenous morphology, and an encapsulation efficiency > 90%. A slow release pattern of encapsulated DMOMP, especially in acidic solution, was observed over 7 days. The zeta potential of DMCNP was ~8.80 mV, which indicated that it was highly stable. Toxicity studies of DMCNP (25–400 µg/mL to Cos-7 cells using the MTT assay revealed minimal toxicity over 24–72 hours with >90% viable cells. Ultra-violet visible (UV-vis spectra indicated encapsulated DMOMP protection by chitosan, whereas agarose gel electrophoresis verified its protection from enzymatic degradation. Expression of MOMP protein in DMCNP-transfected Cos-7 cells was demonstrated via Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Significantly, intramuscular injection of BALB/c mice with DMCNP confirmed the delivery of encapsulated DMOMP, and expression of the MOMP gene transcript in thigh muscles and spleens. Our data show that encapsulation of DMOMP in biodegradable chitosan nanoparticles imparts stability and protection from enzymatic digestion, and enhances delivery and

  8. Synthesis and characterization of a stable humic-urease complex: application to barley seed encapsulation for improving N uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvila, Beaufray G; Pilar-Izquierdo, María C; Busto, María D; Perez-Mateos, Manuel; Ortega, Natividad

    2016-07-01

    Most N fertilizers added to soil are not efficiently used by plants and are lost to the atmosphere or leached from the soil, causing environmental pollution and increasing cost. Barley seed encapsulation in calcium alginate gels containing free or immobilized urease to enhance plant utilization of soil N was investigated. Urease was immobilized with soil humic acids (HA). A central composite face-centered design was applied to optimize the immobilization process, reaching an immobilization yield of 127%. Soil stability of urease was enhanced after the immobilization. Seed encapsulation with free urease (FU) and humic-urease complex (HUC) resulted in a urease activity retention in the coating layer of 46% and 24%, and in germination rates of 87% and 92%, respectively. Under pot culture conditions, the pots planted with seeds encapsulated with FU and HUC showed higher ammonium N (NH4 (+) -N) (26% and 64%, respectively) than the control soil at 28 days after planting (DAP). Moreover, the seed encapsulation with FU and HUC increased the N uptake 83% and 97%, respectively, at 35 DAP. Seed encapsulation with urease could substantially contribute to enhancing plant N nutrition in the early stages of seedling establishment. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Tracking hypoxic signaling within encapsulated cell aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, Matthew L; Sahai, Suchit; Blanchette, James O

    2011-12-16

    , is therefore reduced and limited by diffusion. This reduced oxygen availability may especially impact β-cells whose insulin secretory function is highly dependent on oxygen. Capsule composition and geometry will also impact diffusion rates and lengths for oxygen. Therefore, we also describe a technique for identifying hypoxic cells within our PEG capsules. Infection of the cells with a recombinant adenovirus allows for a fluorescent signal to be produced when intracellular hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathways are activated. As HIFs are the primary regulators of the transcriptional response to hypoxia, they represent an ideal target marker for detection of hypoxic signaling. This approach allows for easy and rapid detection of hypoxic cells. Briefly, the adenovirus has the sequence for a red fluorescent protein (Ds Red DR from Clontech) under the control of a hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) trimer. Stabilization of HIF-1 by low oxygen conditions will drive transcription of the fluorescent protein (Figure 1). Additional details on the construction of this virus have been published previously. The virus is stored in 10% glycerol at -80° C as many 150 μL aliquots in 1.5 mL centrifuge tubes at a concentration of 3.4 x 10(10) pfu/mL. Previous studies in our lab have shown that MIN6 cells encapsulated as aggregates maintain their viability throughout 4 weeks of culture in 20% oxygen. MIN6 aggregates cultured at 2 or 1% oxygen showed both signs of necrotic cells (still about 85-90% viable) by staining with ethidium bromide as well as morphological changes relative to cells in 20% oxygen. The smooth spherical shape of the aggregates displayed at 20% was lost and aggregates appeared more like disorganized groups of cells. While the low oxygen stress does not cause a pronounced drop in viability, it is clearly impacting MIN6 aggregation and function as measured by glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Western blot analysis of encapsulated cells in 20% and 1% oxygen also

  10. Acute epidural-like appearance of an encapsulated solid non-organized chronic subdural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Ruth; Pascual, José M; Subhi-Issa, Issa; Yus, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    We report the exceptional case of an encapsulated solid non-organized chronic subdural hematoma (SDH) in a 67-year-old woman that was admitted with acute hemiplegia followed by rapid deterioration in consciousness 5 months after a minor head trauma. Computed tomography (CT) showed an extracerebral biconvex shaped hyperdense mass that led to the misdiagnosis of an acute epidural hematoma. Urgent craniotomy revealed an encapsulated mass filled with solid fresh clot in the subdural space. Complete evacuation of this SDH, including both its inner and outer membranes, was achieved, and the patient recovered successfully. Histological analysis confirmed that the content of the hematoma corresponded to a newly formed clot that was enclosed between an inner membrane, composed of two collagen layers, and an outer membrane with a three layered structure. Chronic SDH may seldom present as an encapsulated solid non-organized lesion that consists of a fibrous capsule enclosing a fresh clot and lacking the thick fibrous septations that typically connect the inner and outer membranes of organized chronic SDH. This entity mimics the clinical course and radiological appearance of acute epidural hematomas and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of extracerebral hyperdense biconvex shaped lesions.

  11. Zein-based colloidal particles for encapsulation and delivery of epigallocatechin gallate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donsì, F.; Voudouris, P.; Veen, S.J.; Velikov, K.P.

    Zein, a water insoluble plant protein from a renewable natural source, has been identified as a highly promising material for the production of protein-based colloidal particles for the encapsulation of lipophilic compounds. However, the encapsulation of hydrophilic, water-soluble, bioactive

  12. Survival of encapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum during isothermal heating and bread baking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Chen, Xiao Dong; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of encapsulation on the survival of Lactobacillus plantarum during isothermal heating and bread baking was investigated. Four encapsulating materials were evaluated, i.e., reconstituted skim milk (RSM), gum arabic (GA), maltodextrin (MD) and inulin. Freeze dried bacteria survived better

  13. Improved Hepatoprotective Effect of Liposome-Encapsulated Astaxanthin in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hung Chiu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced acute hepatotoxicity is significantly associated with oxidative stress. Astaxanthin (AST, a xanthophyll carotenoid, is well known for its potent antioxidant capacity. However, its drawbacks of poor aqueous solubility and low bioavailability have limited its utility. Liposome encapsulation is considered as an effective alternative use for the improvement of bioavailability of the hydrophobic compound. We hypothesized that AST encapsulated within liposomes (LA apparently shows improved stability and transportability compared to that of free AST. To investigate whether LA administration can efficiently prevent the LPS-induced acute hepatotoxicity, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = six per group were orally administered liposome-encapsulated AST at 2, 5 or 10 mg/kg-day (LA-2, LA-5, and LA-10 for seven days and then were LPS-challenged (i.p., 5 mg/kg. The LA-10 administered group, but not the other groups, exhibited a significant amelioration of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine (CRE, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, IL-6, and hepatic nuclear NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, suggesting that LA at a 10 mg/kg-day dosage renders hepatoprotective effects. Moreover, the protective effects were even superior to that of positive control N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 200 mg/kg-day. Histopathologically, NAC, free AST, LA-2 and LA-5 partially, but LA-10 completely, alleviated the acute inflammatory status. These results indicate that hydrophobic AST after being properly encapsulated by liposomes improves bioavailability and can also function as potential drug delivery system in treating hepatotoxicity.

  14. Encapsulation of high temperature thermoelectric modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, James R.; Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Park, Youngsam

    2017-07-11

    A method of encapsulating a thermoelectric device and its associated thermoelectric elements in an inert atmosphere and a thermoelectric device fabricated by such method are described. These thermoelectric devices may be intended for use under conditions which would otherwise promote oxidation of the thermoelectric elements. The capsule is formed by securing a suitably-sized thin-walled strip of oxidation-resistant metal to the ceramic substrates which support the thermoelectric elements. The thin-walled metal strip is positioned to enclose the edges of the thermoelectric device and is secured to the substrates using gap-filling materials. The strip, substrates and gap-filling materials cooperatively encapsulate the thermoelectric elements and exclude oxygen and water vapor from atmospheric air so that the elements may be maintained in an inert, non-oxidizing environment.

  15. Delegation and beyond: what happens when things go wrong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Both midwives and maternity support workers can be confused about who is liable if a task is delegated and something goes wrong. With proper understanding of roles and a knowledge of which tasks can and can't be delegated, however, the midwife should be protected, particularly as in practice the NHS body will have vicarious liability in the event of any claim. Clinical negligence training identifies the risks and responsibilities involved--and, leaving aside issues of delegation, training should also instil common sense safeguards against incurring criminal liability, which is independent from any professional or civil sanction.

  16. Support vector machine incremental learning triggered by wrongly predicted samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ting-long; Guan, Qiu; Wu, Yi-rong

    2018-05-01

    According to the classic Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) theorem, at every step of incremental support vector machine (SVM) learning, the newly adding sample which violates the KKT conditions will be a new support vector (SV) and migrate the old samples between SV set and non-support vector (NSV) set, and at the same time the learning model should be updated based on the SVs. However, it is not exactly clear at this moment that which of the old samples would change between SVs and NSVs. Additionally, the learning model will be unnecessarily updated, which will not greatly increase its accuracy but decrease the training speed. Therefore, how to choose the new SVs from old sets during the incremental stages and when to process incremental steps will greatly influence the accuracy and efficiency of incremental SVM learning. In this work, a new algorithm is proposed to select candidate SVs and use the wrongly predicted sample to trigger the incremental processing simultaneously. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve good performance with high efficiency, high speed and good accuracy.

  17. A chemically stable PVD multilayer encapsulation for lithium microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, J F; Sousa, R; Cunha, D J; Vieira, E M F; Goncalves, L M; Silva, M M; Dupont, L

    2015-01-01

    A multilayer physical vapour deposition (PVD) thin-film encapsulation method for lithium microbatteries is presented. Lithium microbatteries with a lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO 2 ) cathode, a lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) electrolyte and a metallic lithium anode are under development, using PVD deposition techniques. Metallic lithium film is still the most common anode on this battery technology; however, it presents a huge challenge in terms of material encapsulation (lithium reacts with almost any materials deposited on top and almost instantly begins oxidizing in contact with atmosphere). To prove the encapsulation concept and perform all the experiments, lithium films were deposited by thermal evaporation technique on top of a glass substrate, with previously patterned Al/Ti contacts. Three distinct materials, in a multilayer combination, were tested to prevent lithium from reacting with protection materials and atmosphere. These multilayer films were deposited by RF sputtering and were composed of lithium phosphorous oxide (LiPO), LiPON and silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ). To complete the long-term encapsulation after breaking the vacuum, an epoxy was applied on top of the PVD multilayer. In order to evaluate oxidation state of lithium films, the lithium resistance was measured in a four probe setup (cancelling wires/contact resistances) and resistivity calculated, considering physical dimensions. A lithium resistivity of 0.16 Ω μm was maintained for more than a week. This PVD multilayer exonerates the use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD), glove-box chambers and sample manipulation between them, significantly reducing the fabrication cost, since battery and its encapsulation are fabricated in the same PVD chamber. (paper)

  18. A chemically stable PVD multilayer encapsulation for lithium microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, J. F.; Sousa, R.; Cunha, D. J.; Vieira, E. M. F.; Silva, M. M.; Dupont, L.; Goncalves, L. M.

    2015-10-01

    A multilayer physical vapour deposition (PVD) thin-film encapsulation method for lithium microbatteries is presented. Lithium microbatteries with a lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) cathode, a lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) electrolyte and a metallic lithium anode are under development, using PVD deposition techniques. Metallic lithium film is still the most common anode on this battery technology; however, it presents a huge challenge in terms of material encapsulation (lithium reacts with almost any materials deposited on top and almost instantly begins oxidizing in contact with atmosphere). To prove the encapsulation concept and perform all the experiments, lithium films were deposited by thermal evaporation technique on top of a glass substrate, with previously patterned Al/Ti contacts. Three distinct materials, in a multilayer combination, were tested to prevent lithium from reacting with protection materials and atmosphere. These multilayer films were deposited by RF sputtering and were composed of lithium phosphorous oxide (LiPO), LiPON and silicon nitride (Si3N4). To complete the long-term encapsulation after breaking the vacuum, an epoxy was applied on top of the PVD multilayer. In order to evaluate oxidation state of lithium films, the lithium resistance was measured in a four probe setup (cancelling wires/contact resistances) and resistivity calculated, considering physical dimensions. A lithium resistivity of 0.16 Ω μm was maintained for more than a week. This PVD multilayer exonerates the use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD), glove-box chambers and sample manipulation between them, significantly reducing the fabrication cost, since battery and its encapsulation are fabricated in the same PVD chamber.

  19. Alginate: A Versatile Biomaterial to Encapsulate Isolated Ovarian Follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, Julie; Amorim, Christiani A

    2017-07-01

    In vitro culture of ovarian follicles isolated or enclosed in ovarian tissue fragments and grafting of isolated ovarian follicles represent a potential alternative to restore fertility in cancer patients who cannot undergo cryopreservation of embryos or oocytes or transplantation of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue. In this regard, respecting the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of isolated follicles is crucial to maintaining their proper follicular physiology. To this end, alginate hydrogel has been widely investigated using follicles from numerous animal species, yielding promising results. The goal of this review is therefore to provide an overview of alginate applications utilizing the biomaterial as a scaffold for 3D encapsulation of isolated ovarian follicles. Different methods of isolated follicle encapsulation in alginate are discussed in this review, as its use of 3D alginate culture systems as a tool for in vitro follicle analysis. Possible improvements of this matrix, namely modification with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptide or combination with fibrin, are also summarized. Encouraging results have been obtained in different animal models, and particularly with isolated follicles encapsulated in alginate matrices and grafted to mice. This summary is designed to guide the reader towards development of next-generation alginate scaffolds, with enhanced properties for follicle encapsulation.

  20. Encapsulation method for atom probe tomography analysis of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.J.; Giddings, A.D.; Wu, Y.; Verheijen, M.A.; Prosa, T.J.; Roozeboom, F.; Rice, K.P.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Geiser, B.P.; Kelly, T.F.

    2015-01-01

    Open-space nanomaterials are a widespread class of technologically important materials that are generally incompatible with analysis by atom probe tomography (APT) due to issues with specimen preparation, field evaporation and data reconstruction. The feasibility of encapsulating such non-compact matter in a matrix to enable APT measurements is investigated using nanoparticles as an example. Simulations of field evaporation of a void, and the resulting artifacts in ion trajectory, underpin the requirement that no voids remain after encapsulation. The approach is demonstrated by encapsulating Pt nanoparticles in an ZnO:Al matrix created by atomic layer deposition, a growth technique which offers very high surface coverage and conformality. APT measurements of the Pt nanoparticles are correlated with transmission electron microscopy images and numerical simulations in order to evaluate the accuracy of the APT reconstruction. - Highlights: • Pt nanoparticles were analyzed using atom probe tomography and TEM. • The particles were prepared by encapsulation using atomic layer deposition. • Simulation of field evaporation near a void results in aberrations in ion trajectories. • Apparent differences between TEM and APT analyses are reconciled through simulation of field evaporation from a low-field matrix containing high-field NPs; ion trajectory aberrations are shown to lead to an apparent mixing of the matrix into the NPs.

  1. Preparation and structure of carbon encapsulated copper nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Chuncheng; Xiao Feng; Cui Zuolin

    2008-01-01

    Carbon-encapsulated copper nanoparticles were synthesized by a modified arc plasma method using methane as carbon source. The particles were characterized in detail by transmission electron microscope, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry. The encapsulated copper nanoparticles were about 30 nm in diameter with 3-5 nm graphitic carbon shells. The outside graphitic carbon layers effectively prevented unwanted oxidation of the copper inside. The effect of the ratio of He/CH 4 on the morphologies and the formation of the carbon shell were investigated

  2. Oxidation of Bioethanol using Zeolite-Encapsulated Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Abildstrøm, Jacob Oskar; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    With the ongoing developments in biomass conversion, the oxidation of bioethanol to acetaldehyde may become a favorable and green alternative to the preparation from ethylene. Here, a simple and effective method to encapsulate gold nanoparticles in zeolite silicalite-1 is reported and their high...... zeolite crystals comprise a broad range of mesopores and contain up to several hundred gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 2-3nm that are distributed inside the zeolites rather than on the outer surface. The encapsulated nanoparticles have good stability and result in 50% conversion of ethanol with 98...

  3. Oxidation of Bioethanol using Zeolite-Encapsulated Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Abildstrøm, Jacob Oskar; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    With the ongoing developments in biomass conversion, the oxidation of bioethanol to acetaldehyde may become a favorable and green alternative to the preparation from ethylene. Here, a simple and effective method to encapsulate gold nanoparticles in zeolite silicalite‐1 is reported and their high...... zeolite crystals comprise a broad range of mesopores and contain up to several hundred gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 2–3 nm that are distributed inside the zeolites rather than on the outer surface. The encapsulated nanoparticles have good stability and result in 50 % conversion of ethanol with 98...

  4. Charge transfer in conjugated oligomers encapsulated into carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almadori, Y.; Alvarez, L.; Michel, T.; Le Parc, R.; Bantignies, J.L.; Hermet, P.; Sauvajol, J.L. [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5521, Universite Montpellier 2, 34095 Montpellier (France); Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5521, CNRS, 34095 Montpellier (France); Arenal, R. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Microstructures, CNRS-ONERA, 92322 Chatillon (France); Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas, Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon, U. Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Babaa, R. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, CEA, IRAMIS, SPCSI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Chemical Engineering Department, University of Technology PETRONAS, UTP, Ipoh-Perak (Malaysia); Jouselme, B.; Palacin, S. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, CEA, IRAMIS, SPCSI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2011-11-15

    This study deals with a hybrid system consisting in quaterthiophene derivative encapsulated inside single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Investigations of the encapsulation step are performed by transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy data point out different behaviors depending on the laser excitation energy with respect to the optical absorption of quaterthiophene. At low excitation energy (far from the oligomer resonance window) there is no significant modification of the Raman spectra before and after encapsulation. By contrast, at high excitation energy (close to the oligomer resonance window), Raman spectra exhibit a G-band shift together with an important RBM intensity loss, suggesting a significant charge transfer between the inserted molecule and the host nanotubes. Those results suggest a photo induced process leading to a significant charge transfer. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Moving Past "Right" or "Wrong" toward a Continuum of Young Children's Semantic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    Vocabulary development is a critical goal for early childhood education. However, it is difficult for researchers and teachers to determine whether this goal is being met, given the limitations of current assessment tools. These tools tend to view word knowledge dichotomously--as right or wrong. A clear sense of children's depth of semantic…

  6. Influence of the Encapsulation Efficiency and Size of Liposome on the Oral Bioavailability of Griseofulvin-Loaded Liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Gim Ming Ong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of the encapsulation efficiency and size of liposome on the oral bioavailability of griseofulvin-loaded liposomes. Griseofulvin-loaded liposomes with desired characteristics were prepared from pro-liposome using various techniques. To study the effect of encapsulation efficiency, three preparations of griseofulvin, namely, griseofulvin aqueous suspension and two griseofulvin-loaded liposomes with different amounts of griseofulvin encapsulated [i.e., F1 (32% and F2(98%], were administered to rats. On the other hand, to study the effect of liposome size, the rats were given three different griseofulvin-loaded liposomes of various sizes, generated via different mechanical dispersion techniques [i.e., FTS (142 nm, MS (357 nm and NS (813 nm], but with essentially similar encapsulation efficiencies (about 93%. Results indicated that the extent of bioavailability of griseofulvin was improved 1.7–2.0 times when given in the form of liposomes (F1 compared to griseofulvin suspension. Besides that, there was an approximately two-fold enhancement of the extent of bioavailability following administration of griseofulvin-loaded liposomes with higher encapsulation efficiency (F2, compared to those of F1. Also, the results showed that the extent of bioavailability of liposomal formulations with smaller sizes were higher by approximately three times compared to liposomal formulation of a larger size. Nevertheless, a further size reduction of griseofulvin-loaded liposome (≤400 nm did not promote the uptake or bioavailability of griseofulvin. In conclusion, high drug encapsulation efficiency and small liposome size could enhance the oral bioavailability of griseofulvin-loaded liposomes and therefore these two parameters deserve careful consideration during formulation.

  7. Silk sericin-alginate-chitosan microcapsules: hepatocytes encapsulation for enhanced cellular functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Sunita; Dey, Sanchareeka; Kundu, Subhas C

    2014-04-01

    The encapsulation based technology permits long-term delivery of desired therapeutic products in local regions of body without the need of immunosuppressant drugs. In this study microcapsules composed of sericin and alginate micro bead as inner core and with an outer chitosan shell are prepared. This work is proposed for live cell encapsulation for potential therapeutic applications. The sericin protein is obtained from cocoons of non-mulberry silkworm Antheraea mylitta. The sericin-alginate micro beads are prepared via ionotropic gelation under high applied voltage. The beads further coated with chitosan and crosslinked with genipin. The microcapsules developed are nearly spherical in shape with smooth surface morphology. Alamar blue assay and confocal microscopy indicate high cell viability and uniform encapsulated cell distribution within the sericin-alginate-chitosan microcapsules indicating that the microcapsules maintain favourable microenvironment for the cells. The functional analysis of encapsulated cells demonstrates that the glucose consumption, urea secretion rate and intracellular albumin content increased in the microcapsules. The study suggests that the developed sericin-alginate-chitosan microcapsule contributes towards the development of cell encapsulation model. It also offers to generate enriched population of metabolically and functionally active cells for the future therapeutics especially for hepatocytes transplantation in acute liver failure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. When patients are harmed, but are not wronged: ethics, law, and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaas, Paul B; Berge, Keith H; Klaas, Kelsey M; Klaas, James P; Larson, Annalise Noelle

    2014-09-01

    Iatrogenic injury-injury caused unintentionally by medical treatment-breaks the oldest and most famous rule of medical ethics: primum non nocere, or above all, do no harm. Medical malpractice law, however, focuses on whether an injury was caused by negligence, not on whether an injury was iatrogenic. Iatrogenic injury inflicted without negligence is a common pattern in medical malpractice lawsuits; it is likely the pattern of Jacobs v Cross (Minnesota, 1872), in which Dr W. W. Mayo testified as an expert witness. As a matter of law, the doctor defendants should win all those lawsuits, for iatrogenic injury inflicted without negligence is not a legal wrong in the United States and has not been considered a legal wrong for hundreds of years. However, the medical ethics applicable to doctors' duties to report incompetence in colleagues, including those who inflict excessive iatrogenic injury, have developed dramatically over time. In 1872, the ethical codes in the United States exhorted doctors not to criticize another doctor, even if incompetent. Today, doctors in the United States are ethically required to report an incompetent colleague. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and Testing of a Prototype Connected Vehicle Wrong-Way Driving Detection and Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    The primary objective of Phase II was to develop a prototype connected vehicle wrong-way driving detection and management system at the Texas A&M University Respect, Excellence, Leadership, Loyalty, Integrity, Selfless Service (RELLIS) campus. The pu...

  10. Dome shaped micro-laser encapsulated in a flexible film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioppolo, T.; Manzo, M.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated multimode laser emission from a dome shaped micro-scale resonator encapsulated in a flexible polymer film. The resonator with a radius of ~60 microns was made of Norland Blocking Adhesive (NBA 107) doped with a solution of rhodamine 6G and ethanol. The dome was encapsulated in a flexible polymeric film made of polydymethylsiloxane (PDMS) with a thickness of 1 mm. The micro-scale laser was optically pumped using a frequency doubled Q-switch Nd:YAG laser with pulse repetition of 10 Hz and pulse duration of 9 ns. Experiments were carried out to investigate the lasing properties of this laser structure. The pumping threshold for multimode laser emission was below 100 µJ cm-2. The average optical quality factor for all observed laser modes was of the order of 104. Using a fluence of 315.8 µJ cm-2 it was observed that the intensity of the laser emission dropped by 62% after 5 min of operation. These results showed that these solid state flexible lasers are easy to fabricate and can be integrated into novel flexible photonic devices and novel photonic sensors.

  11. Mercuric iodide semiconductor detectors encapsulated in polymeric resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Joao F. Trencher; Santos, Robinson A. dos; Ferraz, Caue de M.; Oliveira, Adriano S.; Velo, Alexandre F.; Mesquita, Carlos H. de; Hamada, Margarida M., E-mail: mmhamada@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Disch, Christian; Fiederle, Michael [Albert-Ludwigs Universität Freiburg - UniFreibrug, Freiburg Materials Research Center - FMF, Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The development of new semiconductor radiation detectors always finds many setback factors, such as: high concentration of impurities in the start materials, poor long term stability, the surface oxidation and other difficulties discussed extensively in the literature, that limit their use. In this work was studied, the application of a coating resin on HgI2 detectors, in order to protect the semiconductor crystal reactions from atmospheric gases and to isolate electrically the surface of the crystals. Four polymeric resins were analyzed: Resin 1: 50% - 100%Heptane, 10% - 25% methylcyclohexane, <1% cyclohexane; Resin 2: 25% - 50% ethanol, 25% - 50% acetone, <2,5% ethylacetate; Resin 3: 50% - 100% methylacetate, 5% - 10% n-butylacetate; Resin 4: 50% - 100% ethyl-2-cyanacrylat. The influence of the polymeric resin type used on the spectroscopic performance of the HgI{sub 2} semiconductor detector is, clearly, demonstrated. The better result was found for the detector encapsulated with Resin 3. An increase of up to 26 times at the stability time was observed for the detectors encapsulated compared to that non-encapsulated detector. (author)

  12. Encapsulation of pancreatic islets for transplantation in diabetes : the untouchable islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, P; Marchetti, P

    The aim of encapsulation of pancreatic islets is to transplant in the absence of immunosuppression. It is based on the principle that transplanted tissue is protected from the host immune system by an artificial membrane. Encapsulation allows for application of insulin-secreting cells of animal or

  13. Design documentation: Krypton encapsulation preconceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, D.A.

    1994-10-01

    US EPA regulations limit the release of Krypton-85 to the environment from commercial facilities after January 1, 1983. In order to comply with these regulations, Krypton-85, which would be released during reprocessing of commercial nuclear fuel, must be collected and stored. Technology currently exists for separation of krypton from other inert gases, and for its storage as a compressed gas in steel cylinders. The requirements, which would be imposed for 100-year storage of Krypton-85, have led to development of processes for encapsulation of krypton within a stable solid matrix. The objective of this effort was to provide preconceptual engineering designs, technical evaluations, and life cycle costing data for comparison of two alternate candidate processes for encapsulation of Krypton-85. This report has been prepared by The Ralph M. Parsons Company for the US Department of Energy

  14. Design documentation: Krypton encapsulation preconceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, D.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-10-01

    US EPA regulations limit the release of Krypton-85 to the environment from commercial facilities after January 1, 1983. In order to comply with these regulations, Krypton-85, which would be released during reprocessing of commercial nuclear fuel, must be collected and stored. Technology currently exists for separation of krypton from other inert gases, and for its storage as a compressed gas in steel cylinders. The requirements, which would be imposed for 100-year storage of Krypton-85, have led to development of processes for encapsulation of krypton within a stable solid matrix. The objective of this effort was to provide preconceptual engineering designs, technical evaluations, and life cycle costing data for comparison of two alternate candidate processes for encapsulation of Krypton-85. This report has been prepared by The Ralph M. Parsons Company for the US Department of Energy.

  15. Development of PLGA–PEG encapsulated miltefosine based drug delivery system against visceral leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rishikesh; Sahoo, Ganesh Chandra [Biomedical and Nanomedicine Department, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute Medical Science (ICMR) (India); Pandey, Krishna; Das, V.N.R.; Topno, Roshan K. [Clinical Medicine Department, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute Medical Science (ICMR) (India); Ansari, Md Yousuf [Pharmacoinformatics Department, National Institute Pharmaceutica Research and Education Industrial Area, Hajipur (India); Rana, Sindhuprava [Biomedical and Nanomedicine Department, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute Medical Science (ICMR) (India); Das, Pradeep [Molecular Biology Department, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute Medical Science (ICMR) (India)

    2016-02-01

    Targeted drug delivery systems are ideal technology to increase the maximum mechanism of action with smaller dose, we have developed miltefosine encapsulated PLGA–PEG nanoparticles (PPEM) to target macrophage of infected tissues against Leishmania donovani. The structural characterization of PLGA–PEG by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has shown a size range of 10 to 15 nm. Synthesis and drug encapsulation confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and confirmed NP encapsulation. The dose of nano encapsulated miltefosine decreased by fifty percent as compared to that of a conventional miltefosine and Amphoterecin B. The inhibition of amastigotes in the splenic tissue with nano encapsulated miltefosine (23.21 ± 23) was significantly more than the conventional miltefosine (89.22 ± 52.7) and Amphoterecin B (94.12 ± 55.1). This study signifies that there is an increased contact surface area of the nano encapsulated drug and significant reduction in size, improved the efficacy in both in vitro and in vivo study than that of the conventional miltefosine, Amphoterecin B. - Graphical abstract: The analyses of detailed structure characterized by TEM and DLS confirmed the nano-size of the particle 10–20 nm and FTIR confirmed for antileishmanial drug encapsulation in to PLGA–PEG. The dose of miltefosine is decreased by fifty percent as the IC50 value is decreased from 0.2 to 0.1 μg. Further inhibitions of amastigotes in the splenic tissue with these nanoparticles are significantly more than the conventional miltefosine and PLGA–PEG encapsulated Amphoterecin B (23.21 ± 23/89.09 ± 52.7/92.12 ± 55.1). - Highlights: • Synthesis of PLGA-PEG encapsulated miltefosine nanoparticles has been done. • An IC50 value of PPEM (0.1 ug/ml), miltefosine (0.2 μg/ml) and AmpB (1 μg/ml) were observed two fold better efficacies. • Inhibition of amastigotes of PPEM (23.21 ± 23) was significantly more than

  16. Encapsulation of Aloe Vera and Its Effect During Yogur Incubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Adolfo Parra Huertas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The yogurt is milk derivative highly consumed around the world,as well as aloe vera. Both have reports tocontribute to human health. The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of the addition of capsules with aloe vera during the incubation of yogurt. Aloeverawas encapsulated in alginate at two different concentrations, 1% and 2%,addingthe capsules from the moment of incubation and comparing the effect of the addition of capsules withthe non-addition of them. For these samples were determined: pH, acidity, syneresis, lactic acid bacteria count, sensory evaluation and proximate analysis. The results indicated that for the three treatments pH values and acid behaved similarly to each characteristic of the yogurt during incubation. The lactic acid bacteria count indicated that treatment with capsules containing 2% sodium alginate had higher counts. Sensorially, three treatments had a favorable acceptability; proximate analysis had favorable values . In conclusion,the tests showed the viability of encapsulated aloe vera in the manufacture of yogurt during incubation time without being affected by the concentration of sodium alginate.

  17. Stability and loading properties of curcumin encapsulated in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Yaser; Sabahi, Hossein; Rahaie, Mahdi

    2016-11-15

    Curcumin (Cur), a polyphenols with pharmacological function, was successfully encapsulated in algae (Alg) cell (Chlorella vulgaris) as confirmed by fluorescence microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Fluorescence micrographs, TGA, DSC and FTIR spectra suggested the hypothesis inclusion Cur in Nano-empty spaces inside cell wall of Alg. The TGA analysis showed that the thermal stability of Alg and Cur at algae/curcumin complex was 3.8% and 33% higher than their free forms at 0-300°C and 300-600°C ranges, respectively. After encapsulation in Alg cells, the photostability of Cur was enhanced by about 2.5-fold. Adsorption isotherm of Cur into Alg was fitted with the Freundlich isotherm. The microcapsules were loaded with Cur up to about 55% w/w which is much higher than other reported bio-carriers. In conclusion, the data proved that Chlorella vulgaris cell can be used as a new stable carrier for Cur. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. GOLD NANOPARTICLES ENCAPSULATED IN A POLYMERIC MATRIX OF SODIUM ALGINATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Lelia POP

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic nanoparticles can be used as building blocks for the design of multifunctional systems based on polymeric capsules. The use of functionalised particles in therapeutics and imaging and understanding their effect on the cell functions are among the current challenges in nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. The aim of the study was to manufacture and characterize polymeric microstructures by encapsulating plasmonic gold nanoparticles in biocompatible matrix of sodium alginate. The gold nanoparticles were obtained by reduction of tetracluoroauric acid with sodium citrate. To characterize the microcapsules, UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopy, optical and confocal microscopy experiments were performed. In vitro cytotoxicity tests on HFL-1 cells were also performed. The capsules have spherical shape and 120 μm diameter. The presence of encapsulated gold nanoparticles is also shown by confocal microscopy. In vitro tests show that the microcapsules are not cytotoxic upon 24 h of cells exposure to microcapsules concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 25 capsules per cell. The obtained microcapsules of sodium alginate loaded with plasmonic gold nanoparticles could potentially be considered as release systems for biologically relevant molecules.

  19. Encapsulation of Antifouling Organic Biocides in Poly(lactic acid) Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtsikakis, Aristotelis; Kavetsou, Eleni; Chronaki, Konstantina; Kiosidou, Evangelia; Pavlatou, Evangelia; Karana, Alexandra; Papaspyrides, Constantine; Detsi, Anastasia; Karantonis, Antonis; Vouyiouka, Stamatina

    2017-09-26

    The scope of the current research was to assess the feasibility of encapsulating three commercial antifouling compounds, Irgarol 1051, Econea and Zinc pyrithione, in biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles. The emulsification-solvent evaporation technique was herein utilized to manufacture nanoparticles with a biocide:polymer ratio of 40%. The loaded nanoparticles were analyzed for their size and size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and thermal properties, while the relevant physicochemical characteristics were correlated to biocide-polymer system. In addition, the encapsulation process was scaled up and the prepared nanoparticles were dispersed in a water-based antifouling paint in order to examine the viability of incorporating nanoparticles in such coatings. Metallic specimens were coated with the nanoparticles-containing paint and examined regarding surface morphology.

  20. Encapsulation of Antifouling Organic Biocides in Poly(lactic acid) Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtsikakis, Aristotelis; Kavetsou, Eleni; Chronaki, Konstantina; Kiosidou, Evangelia; Pavlatou, Evangelia; Karana, Alexandra; Papaspyrides, Constantine; Detsi, Anastasia; Karantonis, Antonis; Vouyiouka, Stamatina

    2017-01-01

    The scope of the current research was to assess the feasibility of encapsulating three commercial antifouling compounds, Irgarol 1051, Econea and Zinc pyrithione, in biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles. The emulsification–solvent evaporation technique was herein utilized to manufacture nanoparticles with a biocide:polymer ratio of 40%. The loaded nanoparticles were analyzed for their size and size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and thermal properties, while the relevant physicochemical characteristics were correlated to biocide–polymer system. In addition, the encapsulation process was scaled up and the prepared nanoparticles were dispersed in a water-based antifouling paint in order to examine the viability of incorporating nanoparticles in such coatings. Metallic specimens were coated with the nanoparticles-containing paint and examined regarding surface morphology. PMID:28952560

  1. Preliminary Hazards Analysis of K-Basin Fuel Encapsulation and Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickland, G.C.

    1994-01-01

    This Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) systematically examines the K-Basin facilities and their supporting systems for hazards created by abnormal operating conditions and external events (e.g., earthquakes) which have the potential for causing undesirable consequences to the facility worker, the onsite individual, or the public. The operational activities examined are fuel encapsulation, fuel storage and cooling. Encapsulation of sludges in the basins is not examined. A team of individuals from Westinghouse produced a set of Hazards and Operability (HAZOP) tables documenting their examination of abnormal process conditions in the systems and activities examined in K-Basins. The purpose of this report is to reevaluate and update the HAZOP in the original Preliminary Hazard Analysis of K-Basin Fuel Encapsulation and Storage originally developed in 1991

  2. Safeguards by Design at the Encapsulation Plant in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingegneri, M.; Baird, K.; Park, W.-S.; Coyne, J.M.; Enkhjin, L.; Chew, L.S.; Plenteda, R.; Sprinkle, J.; Yudin, Y.; Ciuculescu, C.; Koutsoyannopoulos, C.; Murtezi, M.; Schwalbach, P.; Vaccaro, S.; Pekkarinen, J.; Thomas, M.; Zein, A.; Honkamaa, T.; Hamalainen, M.; Martikka, E.; Moring, M.; Okko, O.

    2015-01-01

    Finland has launched a spent fuel disposition project to encapsulate all of its spent fuel assemblies and confine the disposal canisters in a deep geological repository. The construction of the underground premises started several years ago with the drilling, blasting and reinforcement of tunnels and shafts to ensure the safe deep underground construction and disposal techniques in the repository, while the design of the encapsulation plant (EP) enters the licencing phase preliminary to its construction. The spent fuel assemblies, which have been safeguarded for decades at the nuclear power plants, are going to be transported to the EP, loaded into copper canisters and stored in underground tunnels where they become inaccessible after backfilling. Safeguards measures are needed to ensure that final spent fuel verification is performed before its encapsulation and that no nuclear material is diverted during the process. This is an opportunity for the inspectorates to have the infrastructure necessary for the safeguards equipment incorporated in the design of the encapsulation plant before licencing for construction occurs. The peculiarity of this project is that it is going to run for more than a century. Therefore, significant changes are to be expected in the technical capabilities available for implementing safeguards (e.g., verification techniques and instruments), as well as in the process itself, e.g., redesign for the encapsulation of future fuel types. For these reasons a high degree of flexibility is required in order to be able to shift to different solutions at a later stage while minimizing the interference with the licencing process and facility operations. This paper describes the process leading to the definition of the technical requirements by IAEA and Euratom to be incorporated in the facility's design. (author)

  3. Leaching characteristics of encapsulated controlled low-strength materials containing arsenic-bearing waste precipitates from refractory gold bioleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzalakos, S; Dudeney, A W L; Chan, B K C

    2016-07-01

    We report on the leaching of heavy elements from cemented waste flowable fill, known as controlled low-strength materials (CLSM), for potential mine backfill application. Semi-dynamic tank leaching tests were carried out on laboratory-scale monoliths cured for 28 days and tested over 64 days of leaching with pure de-ionised water as leachant. Mineral processing waste include flotation tailings from a Spanish nickel-copper sulphide concentrate, and two bioleach neutralisation precipitates (from processing at 35°C and 70°C) from a South African arsenopyrite concentrate. Encapsulated CLSM formulations were evaluated to assess the reduction in leaching by encapsulating a 'hazardous' CLSM core within a layer of relatively 'inert' CLSM. The effect of each bioleach waste in CLSM core and tailings in CLSM encapsulating medium, are assessed in combination and in addition to CLSM with ordinary silica sand. Results show that replacing silica sand with tailings, both as core and encapsulating matrix, significantly reduced leachability of heavy elements, particularly As (from 0.008-0.190 mg/l to 0.008-0.060 mg/l), Ba (from 0.435-1.540 mg/l to 0.050-0.565 mg/l), and Cr (from 0.006-0.458 mg/l to 0.004-0.229 mg/l), to below the 'Dutch List' of groundwater contamination intervention values. Arsenic leaching was inherently high from both bioleach precipitates but was significantly reduced to below guideline values with encapsulation and replacing silica sand with tailings. Tailings proved to be a valuable encapsulating matrix largely owing to small particle size and lower hydraulic conductivity reducing diffusion transport of heavy elements. Field-scale trials would be necessary to prove this concept of encapsulation in terms of scale and construction practicalities, and further geochemical investigation to optimise leaching performance. Nevertheless, this work substantiates the need for alternative backfill techniques for sustainable management of hazardous finely-sized bulk

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Encapsulated Nanosilica Particles with an Acrylic Copolymer by in Situ Emulsion Polymerization Using Thermoresponsive Nonionic Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoosh Vashaee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites of encapsulated silica nanoparticles were prepared by in situ emulsion polymerization of acrylate monomers. The synthesized material showed good uniformity and dispersion of the inorganic components in the base polymer, which enhances the properties of the nanocomposite material. A nonionic surfactant with lower critical solution temperature (LCST was used to encapsulate the silica nanoparticles in the acrylic copolymer matrix. This in situ method combined the surface modification and the encapsulation in a single pot, which greatly simplified the process compared with other conventional methods requiring separate processing steps. The morphology of the encapsulated nanosilica particles was investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, which confirmed the uniform distribution of the nanoparticles without any agglomerations. A neat copolymer was also prepared as a control sample. Both the neat copolymer and the prepared nanocomposite were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermal gravimetric analyses (TGA, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA and the flame resistance test. Due to the uniform dispersion of the non-agglomerated nanoparticles in the matrix of the polymer, TGA and flame resistance test results showed remarkably improved thermal stability. Furthermore, DMTA results demonstrated an enhanced storage modulus of the nanocomposite samples compared with that of the neat copolymer, indicating its superior mechanical properties.

  5. Remediation of trichloroethylene by bio-precipitated and encapsulated palladium nanoparticles in a fixed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebel, Tom; Verhagen, Pieter; Simoen, Henri; De Gusseme, Bart; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy

    2009-08-01

    Trichloroethylene is a toxic and recalcitrant groundwater pollutant. Palladium nanoparticles bio-precipitated on Shewanella oneidensis were encapsulated in polyurethane, polyacrylamide, alginate, silica or coated on zeolites. The reactivity of these bio-Pd beads and zeolites was tested in batch experiments and trichloroethylene dechlorination followed first order reaction kinetics. The calculated k-values of the encapsulated catalysts were a factor of six lower compared to non-encapsulated bio-Pd. Bio-Pd, used as a catalyst, was able to dechlorinate 100 mgL(-1) trichloroethylene within a time period of 1h. The main reaction product was ethane; yet small levels of chlorinated intermediates were detected. Subsequently polyurethane cubes empowered with bio-Pd were implemented in a fixed bed reactor for the treatment of water containing trichloroethylene. The influent recycle configuration resulted in a cumulative removal of 98% after 22 h. The same reactor in a flow through configuration achieved removal rates up to 1059 mg trichloroethylene g Pd(-1)d(-1). This work showed that fixed bed reactors with bio-Pd polyurethane cubes can be instrumental for remediation of water contaminated with trichloroethylene.

  6. Eyewitness Testimony, False Confession, and Human Performance Technology: An Examination of Wrongful Convictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    Wrongful criminal convictions have come to the attention of the public and the criminal justice community in recent decades as a result of DNA evidence that has proven innocence after conviction. Research has suggested that as many as 3% to 5% of people currently imprisoned did not, in fact, commit the crimes for which they were convicted. A…

  7. Determination of the Wrong Sign Decay Rate D0 -> K+pi- and the Sensitivity to D0-D0bar Mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egede, Ulrik

    2001-01-01

    The D 0 meson can decay to the wrong sign K + π - state either through a doubly Cabibbo suppressed decay or via mixing to the (bar D) 0 state followed by the Cabibbo favoured decay (bar D) 0 → K + π - . We measure the rate of wrong sign decays relative to the Cabibbo favoured decay to (0.383 ± 0.044 ± 0.022)% and give our sensitivity to a mixing signal

  8. The encapsulation of an amphiphile into polystyrene microspheres of narrow size distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellach Michal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Encapsulation of compounds into nano- or microsized organic particles of narrow size distribution is of increasing importance in fields of advanced imaging and diagnostic techniques and drug delivery systems. The main technology currently used for encapsulation of molecules within uniform template particles while retaining their size distribution is based on particle swelling methodology, involving penetration of emulsion droplets into the particles. The swelling method, however, is efficient for encapsulation only of hydrophobic compounds within hydrophobic template particles. In order to be encapsulated, the molecules must favor the hydrophobic phase of an organic/aqueous biphasic system, which is not easily achieved for molecules of amphiphilic character. The following work overcomes this difficulty by presenting a new method for encapsulation of amphiphilic molecules within uniform hydrophobic particles. We use hydrogen bonding of acid and base, combined with a pseudo salting out effect, for the entrapment of the amphiphile in the organic phase of a biphasic system. Following the entrapment in the organic phase, we demonstrated, using fluorescein and (antibiotic tetracycline as model molecules, that the swelling method usually used only for hydrophobes can be expanded and applied to amphiphilic molecules.

  9. Encapsulating spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, L.R.; Gunasekaran, M.

    1979-01-01

    A system is described for encapsulating spent nuclear fuel discharged from nuclear reactors in the form of rods or multi-rod assemblies. The rods are completely and contiguously enclosed in concrete in which metallic fibres are incorporated to increase thermal conductivity and polymers to decrease fluid permeability. This technique provides the advantage of acceptable long-term stability for storage over the conventional underwater storage method. Examples are given of suitable concrete compositions. (UK)

  10. The effect of colloidal silica nanoparticles encapsulated fluorescein dye using micelle entrapment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Atiqah; Zakaria, Nor Dyana; Lockman, Zainovia; Razak, Khairunisak Abdul

    2018-05-01

    The advancement of nanoparticle-based approaches such as quantum dots (QDs), metallic (Au and Ag) NPs, silica NPs and other types of nanomaterial have led to a large variety of biomolecular imaging and labelling reagents with controlled size and shaped to overcome the limitation of conventional organic dye. In this study, the yellowish green color of fluorescein dye was encapsulated into colloidal silica nanoparticles by using micelle entrapment approach. Two different size of silica nanoparticles encapsulated fluorescein dye (27.7 ± 5.6 and 46.73 ± 4.3 nm) with spherical and monodispered of nanoparticles were synthesised by varying the volume of co-solvent during the synthesis process. The particles size, particles morphology, absorption spectrum and the photostability of fluorescein dye was measured by using dynamic light scaterring (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and UV-Vis spectrometer. Furthermore, the effect of photostability of of silica nanoparticles encapsulated fluorescein dye was measured under radiation of 200 W of Halogen lamp for 60 minutes. The silica nanoparticles encapsulated fluorescein dye was more stable compared to bare fluorescein dye after the exposure. In conclusion, the photostability of silica nanoparticles encapsulated fluorescein dye was improved compared to bare fluorescein dye, thus silica nanoparticles encapsulation successfully provides protection from the photobleaching and photodegradation of fluorescein dye.

  11. Optimization of de-esterified tragacanth microcapsules by computational fluid dynamic and the Taguchi design with purpose of the cell encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvandimanesh, Azin; Sadrjavadi, Komail; Akbari, Mona; Fattahi, Ali

    2017-12-01

    This work presents the development of the new De-Esterified Tragacanth (DET) microcapsules (MCs). Co-flow extrusion method was applied for producing the MCs; the processing parameters were optimized by the Taguchi design to obtain the smallest and the most spherical MCs. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling was accomplished to show the formation of droplets at different airflows, and finally, βTC3 pancreatic cells were encapsulated in the MCs. The optimum MCs had 214.58μm size and 60.75% sphericality. The air pressure and the cross-linking reaction of DET were the most influential parameter in size and the sphericality of MCs, respectively. CFD showed two velocity vortices with rotational flow formed in the chamber, which caused changing the droplet moving direction. The encapsulated cells were proliferated, and cell viability was not reduced during six days. These phenomena make DET MCs a potential candidate for the cell encapsulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Encapsulation on Antimicrobial Activity of Herbal Extracts with Lysozyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Matouskova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics has increased. The use of natural components with antimicrobial properties can be of great significance to reduce this problem. The presented work is focused on the study of the effect of encapsulation of selected plant and animal antimicrobial substances (herbs, spices, lysozyme and nisin on their activity and stability. Antimicrobial components were packaged into liposomes and polysaccharide particles (alginate, chitosan and starch. Antimicrobial activity was tested against two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens bacteria. Encapsulation was successful in all types of polysaccharide particles and liposomes. The prepared particles exhibited very good long-term stability, especially in aqueous conditions. Antimicrobial activity was retained in all types of particles. Liposomes with encapsulated herb and spice extracts exhibited very good inhibitory effect against all tested bacterial strains. Most of herbal extracts had very good antimicrobial effect against the tested Gram-negative bacterial strains, while Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to lysozyme particles. Thus, particles with co-encapsulated herbs and lysozyme are more active against different types of bacteria, and more stable and more effective during long-term storage. Particles with encapsulated mixture of selected plant extracts and lysozyme could be used as complex antimicrobial preparation with controlled release in the production of food and food supplements, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

  13. Effect of antioxidant properties of lecithin emulsifier on oxidative stability of encapsulated bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuanjie; Tikekar, Rohan V; Nitin, N

    2013-06-25

    Oxidation of encapsulated bioactive compounds in emulsions is one of the key challenges that limit shelf life of emulsion containing products. Oxidation in these emulsions is triggered by permeation of free radicals generated at the emulsion interface. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of antioxidant properties of common emulsifiers (lecithin and Tween 20) in reducing permeation of free radicals across the emulsion interface. Radical permeation rates were correlated with oxidative stability of a model bioactive compound (curcumin) encapsulated in these emulsions. Rate of permeation of peroxyl radicals from the aqueous phase to the oil phase of emulsion was inversely proportional to the antioxidant properties of emulsifiers. The rate of radical permeation was significantly higher (plecithin compared to native lecithin that showed higher antioxidant activity. Free radical permeation rate correlated with stability of curcumin in emulsions and was significantly higher (plecithin stabilized emulsions as compared to Tween 20 emulsions. Overall, this study demonstrates that antioxidant activity of emulsifiers significantly influences permeation of free radicals across the emulsion interface and the rate of oxidation of bioactive encapsulant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 0.5% Liposome-encapsulated 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) photodynamic therapy for acne treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jee-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Dong-Hun; Kim, Byung-Yoon; Cho, Soyun; Kwon, In-Ho; Choi, Won-Woo; Kang, Seong-Min; Won, Chong-Hyun; Chang, Sung-Eun; Lee, Mi-Woo; Choi, Jee-Ho; Moon, Kee-Chan

    2011-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy using topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) has been successful in treating acne vulgaris, but sun avoidance for at least 48 hours after treatment is necessary due to the risk of post-treatment photosensitivity. Recently, a lower concentration of liposome-encapsulated 5-ALA was introduced to minimize this risk. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of liposome-encapsulated 0.5% 5-ALA in the photodynamic therapy of inflammatory acne and its effects on sebum secretion in Asian skin. Thirteen Korean subjects with inflammatory acne were administered 0.5% ALA spray before photoradiation treatment. Photoradiation was performed at 3.5-6.0 J/cm(2) three times during each of two visits, performed 2 weeks apart. Improvement of acne was evaluated subjectively and objectively based on the Korean Acne Grading System. Sebum secretion was measured quantitatively at each visit. The mean reduction in acne grade at the end of the treatment was 43.2%. Of the patients, 69.2% reported improvements in subjective skin oiliness, but fewer showed objective reductions in sebum secretion as determined by the Sebumeter® SM10. No serious adverse events were observed. Photodynamic therapy using liposome-encapsulated 0.5% 5-ALA improved inflammatory acne with minimal side effects in Asians.

  15. Fisetin yeast-based bio-capsules via osmoporation: effects of process variables on the encapsulation efficiency and internalized fisetin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Câmara, Antonio Anchieta; Dupont, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Gervais, Patrick; Rosenthal, Amauri; Correia, Roberta Targino Pinto; Pedrini, Márcia Regina da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Osmoporation is an innovative method that can be used with food-grade yeast cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as natural encapsulating matrices. This technique overcomes barriers that difficult encapsulation and enables the internalization of fragile bioactive molecules such as fisetin into yeasts. In the present study, we assessed the effects of concentration, osmotic pressure, and temperature on the encapsulation efficiency (EE) and internalized fisetin content (IF). Two different quantification strategies were investigated: direct extraction (DE) without cell washing or freeze-drying steps and indirect extraction (IE) performed after washings with ethanol and freeze-drying. Our results showed that osmoporation improved EE (33 %) and IF (1.199 mg). The best experimental conditions were found by using DE. High-resolution images showed that the yeast cell envelope was preserved during osmoporation at 30 MPa and 84 % of yeast cells remained viable after treatment. Washing cells with organic solvent led to decreased EE (0.65 %) and IF (0.023 mg). This was probably due to either damages caused to yeast cell envelope or fisetin dragged out of cell. Overall, the results demonstrated the adequacy and relevant biotechnological potential of yeasts as encapsulating matrices for hydrophobic compounds. This fresh biotechnological approach has proven to be a promising tool for the production of bioactive-rich food products.

  16. Solid-Phase Immunoassay of Polystyrene-Encapsulated Semiconductor Coreshells for Cardiac Marker Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghee Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A solid-phase immunoassay of polystyrene-encapsulated semiconductor nanoparticles was demonstrated for cardiac troponin I (cTnI detection. CdSe/ZnS coreshells were encapsulated with a carboxyl-functionalized polystyrene nanoparticle to capture the target antibody through a covalent bonding and to eliminate the photoblinking and toxicity of semiconductor luminescent immunosensor. The polystyrene-encapsulated CdSe/ZnS fluorophores on surface-modified glass chip identified cTnI antigens at the level of ~ng/mL. It was an initial demonstration of diagnostic chip for monitoring a cardiovascular disease.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of aba-type copolymers for encapsulation of bovine hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Felipe F.; Andrade, Cristina T.

    2012-01-01

    The use of biopolymers for the development of oxygen carriers has been extensively investigated. In this work, three different ABA triblock copolymers were synthesized and used to encapsulate purified bovine hemoglobin, using a double emulsion technique. The effect of polymer composition, homogenization velocity, and addition of a surfactant, on the protein entrapment was evaluated. These copolymers, which have a hydrophilic block, achieved higher values of encapsulation efficiency than the corresponding homopolymers. The increase in homogenization strength also promoted an increase in encapsulation efficiency. Capsules formation occurred even in the absence of PVA. (author)

  18. Thermal and optical performance of encapsulation systems for flat-plate photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minning, C. P.; Coakley, J. F.; Perrygo, C. M.; Garcia, A., III; Cuddihy, E. F.

    1981-01-01

    The electrical power output from a photovoltaic module is strongly influenced by the thermal and optical characteristics of the module encapsulation system. Described are the methodology and computer model for performing fast and accurate thermal and optical evaluations of different encapsulation systems. The computer model is used to evaluate cell temperature, solar energy transmittance through the encapsulation system, and electric power output for operation in a terrestrial environment. Extensive results are presented for both superstrate-module and substrate-module design schemes which include different types of silicon cell materials, pottants, and antireflection coatings.

  19. Device for encapsulating radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suthanthiran, K.

    1994-01-01

    A capsule for encapsulating radioactive material for radiation treatment comprising two or more interfitting sleeves, wherein each sleeve comprises a closed bottom portion having a circumferential wall extending therefrom, and an open end located opposite the bottom portion. The sleeves are constructed to fit over one another to thereby establish an effectively sealed capsule container. 3 figs

  20. Liposome encapsulation of fluorescent nanoparticles: Quantum dots and silica nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-S.; Yao Jie; Durst, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) and silica nanoparticles (SNs) are relatively new classes of fluorescent probes that overcome the limitations encountered by organic fluorophores in bioassay and biological imaging applications. We encapsulated QDs and SNs in liposomes and separated nanoparticle-loaded liposomes from unencapsulated nanoparticles by size exclusion chromatography. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy was used to measure the average number of nanoparticles inside each liposome. Results indicated that nanoparticle-loaded liposomes were formed and separated from unencapsulated nanoparticles by using a Sepharose gel. As expected, fluorescence self-quenching of nanoparticles inside liposomes was not observed. Each liposome encapsulated an average of three QDs. These studies demonstrated that nanoparticles could be successfully encapsulated into liposomes and provided a methodology to quantify the number of nanoparticles inside each liposome by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

  1. Nutritional value of micro-encapsulated fish oils in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Annemette; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    1996-01-01

    The nutritional value of a micro-encapsulated fish oil product has been investigated. Three groups of 10 male Wistar rats each were fed dietscontaining 20% (w/w) of fat, and only the type and form of the fat added was different. In the test groups 5% (w/w) of fish oil either as such or in amicro......-encapsulated form was incorporated in the diets. The remaining fat was lard supplemented with corn oil to a dietary content of linoleic acid at10% (w/w). The control group received lard and corn oil only. A mixture similar to the dry matter in the micro-encapsulated product was alsoadded to the diets not containing...... this product. The uptake of marine (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from both types of fish oil supplementwas reflected in the fatty acid profiles of liver phosphatidyl cholines (PC), phosphatidyl ethanolamines (PE), triglycerides (TG) and cardiolipin (CL).A suppression of the elongation of linoleic...

  2. Preparation of SnSe thin films by encapsulated selenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabar D. Hutagalung; Samsudi Sakrani; Yussof Wahab

    1994-01-01

    Tin selenide thin films were prepared by encapsulated selenization. A stacked layer of evaporated Sn and Se films were annealed in a carbon block at temperatures 100 - 500 degree Celsius for 3 hours. X-ray analysis and SEM (Scanning electron) micrograph results showed that SnSe was initially formed at 150 degree Celsius with crystal size 30.0 nm and reached optimum formation at 200 daximum of 57.4 % yield of 5-decene. Other factors such as reaction temperatures, types of solvent and wt% of rhenium loadings influence the activity of the catalytic system

  3. Sputtered Encapsulation as Wafer Level Packaging for Isolatable MEMS Devices: A Technique Demonstrated on a Capacitive Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azrul Azlan Hamzah

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses sputtered silicon encapsulation as a wafer level packaging approach for isolatable MEMS devices. Devices such as accelerometers, RF switches, inductors, and filters that do not require interaction with the surroundings to function, could thus be fully encapsulated at the wafer level after fabrication. A MEMSTech 50g capacitive accelerometer was used to demonstrate a sputtered encapsulation technique. Encapsulation with a very uniform surface profile was achieved using spin-on glass (SOG as a sacrificial layer, SU-8 as base layer, RF sputtered silicon as main structural layer, eutectic gold-silicon as seal layer, and liquid crystal polymer (LCP as outer encapsulant layer. SEM inspection and capacitance test indicated that the movable elements were released after encapsulation. Nanoindentation test confirmed that the encapsulated device is sufficiently robust to withstand a transfer molding process. Thus, an encapsulation technique that is robust, CMOS compatible, and economical has been successfully developed for packaging isolatable MEMS devices at the wafer level.

  4. Aerobic TCE degradation by encapsulated toluene-oxidizing bacteria, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungjin; Bae, Wookeun; Hwang, Jungmin; Park, Jaewoo

    2010-01-01

    The degradation rates of toluene and trichloroethylene (TCE) by Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus spp. that were encapsulated in polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers were evaluated in comparison with the results of exposure to suspended cultures. PEG monomers were polymerized together with TCE-degrading microorganisms, such that the cells were encapsulated in and protected by the matrices of the PEG polymers. TCE concentrations were varied from 0.1 to 1.5 mg/L. In the suspended cultures of P. putida, the TCE removal rate decreased as the initial TCE concentration increased, revealing TCE toxicity or a limitation of reducing power, or both. When the cells were encapsulated, an initial lag period of about 10-20 h was observed for toluene degradation. Once acclimated, the encapsulated P. putida cultures were more tolerant to TCE at an experimental range of 0.6-1.0 mg/L and gave higher transfer efficiencies (mass TCE transformed/mass toluene utilized). When the TCE concentration was low (e.g., 0.1 mg/L) the removal of TCE per unit mass of cells (specific removal) was significantly lower, probably due to a diffusion limitation into the PEG pellet. Encapsulated Bacillus spp. were able to degrade TCE cometabolically. The encapsulated Bacillus spp. gave significantly higher values than did P. putida in the specific removal and the transfer efficiency, particularly at relatively high TCE concentration of approximately 1.0±0.5 mg/L. The transfer efficiency by encapsulated Bacillus spp. in this study was 0.27 mgTCE/mgToluene, which was one to two orders of magnitude greater than the reported values.

  5. What went wrong in California's electricity market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikeung Woo

    2001-01-01

    The California electricity market reform promised to deliver reliable service at low and stable prices. Frequent capacity shortages and the ensuing rolling black-outs, price spikes, and large price volatility since Summer 2000 raise a simple but substantive question: what went wrong? The answer to this question will help countries contemplating electricity market reform not to commit similar mistakes. We find the answer by identifying the major factors that have turned the California dream into a nightmare. Such factors include poor market design, market power, sustained demand growth not matched by new capacity, rising marginal cost, and financial insolvency. Proposed remedies include an alternative market settlement process, long-term contract, fast licensing and siting process for new generation and transmission, conservation and energy-efficiency, distributed resources, rate options, and debt restructuring. The California experience suggests that a reversible regulatory reform is a safe alternative to an irreversible market reform. (Author)

  6. Analysis of Double-encapsulated Fuel Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, Jason Dean [Idaho National Laboratory; Medvedev, Pavel G [Idaho National Laboratory; Novascone, Stephen Rhead [Idaho National Laboratory; Perez, Danielle Marie [Idaho National Laboratory; Williamson, Richard L [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-09-01

    In an LWR fuel rod, the cladding encapsulates the fuel, contains fission products, and transfers heat directly to the water coolant. In some situations, it may be advantageous to separate the cladding from the coolant through use of a secondary cladding or capsule. This may be done to increase confidence that the fuel or fission products will not mix with the coolant, to provide a mechanism for controlling the rod temperature, or to place multiple experimental rodlets within a single housing. With an axisymmetric assumption, it is possible to derive closed-form expressions for the temperature profile in a fuel rod using radially-constant thermal conductivity in the fuel. This is true for both a traditional fuel-cladding rod and a double-encapsulated fuel (fuel, cladding, capsule) configuration. Likewise, it is possible to employ a fuel performance code to analyse both a traditional and a double-encapsulated fuel. In the case of the latter, two sets of gap heat transfer conditions must be imposed. In this work, we review the equations associated with radial heat transfer in a cylindrical system, present analytic and computational results for a postulated power and gas mixture history for IFA-744, and describe the analysis of the AFC-2A, 2B metallic fuel alloy experiments at the Advanced Test Reactor, including the effect of a release of fission products into the cladding-capsule gap. The computational results for these two cases were obtained using BISON, a fuel performance code under development at Idaho National Laboratory.

  7. Dispensing of very low volumes of ultra high viscosity alginate gels: a new tool for encapsulation of adherent cells and rapid prototyping of scaffolds and implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepp, Michael M; Ehrhart, Friederike; Shirley, Stephen G; Howitz, Steffen; Zimmermann, Heiko

    2009-01-01

    We present a tool for dispensing very low volumes (20 nL or more) of ultra high viscosity (UHV) medical-grade alginate hydrogels. It uses a modified piezo-driven micrometering valve, integrated into a versatile system that allows fast prototyping of encapsulation procedures and scaffold production. Valves show excellent dispensing properties for UHV alginate in concentrations of 0.4% and 0.7% and also for aqueous liquids. An optimized process flow provides excellent handling of biological samples under sterile conditions. This technique allows the encapsulation of adherent cells and structuring of substrates for biotechnology and regenerative medicine. A variety of cell lines showed at least 70% viability after encapsulation (including cell lines that are relevant in regenerative medicine like Hep G2), and time-lapse analysis revealed cells proliferating and showing limited motility under alginate spots. Cells show metabolic activity, gene product expression, and physiological function. Encapsulated cells have contact with the substrate and can exchange metabolites while being isolated from macromolecules in the environment. Contactless dispensing allows structuring of substrates with alginate, isolation and transfer of cell-alginate complexes, and the dispensing of biological active hydrogels like extracellular matrix-derived gels.

  8. A facile method to prepare superparamagnetic iron oxide and hydrophobic drug-encapsulated biodegradable polyurethane nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng K

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kuo-Wei Cheng, Shan-hui Hsu Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs have a wide range of biomedical applications such as in magnetic resonance imaging, targeting, and hyperthermia therapy. Aggregation of SPIO NPs can occur because of the hydrophobic surface and high surface energy of SPIO NPs. Here, we developed a facile method to encapsulate SPIO NPs in amphiphilic biodegradable polymer. Anionic biodegradable polyurethane nanoparticles (PU NPs with ~35 nm size and different chemistry were prepared by waterborne processes. SPIO NPs were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation. SPIO NPs were then added to the aqueous dispersion of PU NPs, followed by application of high-frequency (~20 kHz ultrasonic vibration for 3 min. This method rendered SPIO-PU hybrid NPs (size ~110 nm suspended in water. SPIO-PU hybrid NPs contained ~50–60 wt% SPIO and retained the superparamagnetic property (evaluated by a magnetometer as well as high contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. SPIO-PU NPs also showed the ability to provide cell hyperthermic treatment. Using the same ultrasonic method, hydrophobic drug (Vitamin K3 [VK3] or (9-(methylaminomethylanthracene [MAMA] could also be encapsulated in PU NPs. The VK3-PU or MAMA-PU hybrid NPs had ~35 nm size and different release profiles for PUs with different chemistry. The encapsulation efficiency for VK3 and MAMA was high (~95% without burst release. The encapsulation mechanism may be attributed to the low glass transition temperature (Tg and good mechanical compliance of PU NPs. The new encapsulation method involving waterborne biodegradable PU NPs is simple, rapid, and effective to produce multimodular NP carriers. Keywords: superparamagnetic iron oxide, polyurethane, drug release, hybrid nanoparticles

  9. RGD peptide-modified multifunctional dendrimer platform for drug encapsulation and targeted inhibition of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuedan; Alves, Carla S; Oliveira, Nilsa; Rodrigues, João; Zhu, Jingyi; Bányai, István; Tomás, Helena; Shi, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Development of multifunctional nanoscale drug-delivery systems for targeted cancer therapy still remains a great challenge. Here, we report the synthesis of cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide-conjugated generation 5 (G5) poly(amidoamine) dendrimers for anticancer drug encapsulation and targeted therapy of cancer cells overexpressing αvβ3 integrins. In this study, amine-terminated G5 dendrimers were used as a platform to be sequentially modified with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FI) via a thiourea linkage and RGD peptide via a polyethylene glycol (PEG) spacer, followed by acetylation of the remaining dendrimer terminal amines. The developed multifunctional dendrimer platform (G5.NHAc-FI-PEG-RGD) was then used to encapsulate an anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). We show that approximately six DOX molecules are able to be encapsulated within each dendrimer platform. The formed complexes are water-soluble, stable, and able to release DOX in a sustained manner. One- and two-dimensional NMR techniques were applied to investigate the interaction between dendrimers and DOX, and the impact of the environmental pH on the release rate of DOX from the dendrimer/DOX complexes was also explored. Furthermore, cell biological studies demonstrate that the encapsulation of DOX within the G5.NHAc-FI-PEG-RGD dendrimers does not compromise the anticancer activity of DOX and that the therapeutic efficacy of the dendrimer/DOX complexes is solely related to the encapsulated DOX drug. Importantly, thanks to the role played by RGD-mediated targeting, the developed dendrimer/drug complexes are able to specifically target αvβ3 integrin-overexpressing cancer cells and display specific therapeutic efficacy to the target cells. The developed RGD peptide-targeted multifunctional dendrimers may thus be used as a versatile platform for targeted therapy of different types of αvβ3 integrin-overexpressing cancer cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 31 CFR 100.18 - Counterfeit notes to be marked; “redemption” of notes wrongfully so marked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... moneys, and all officers of national banks, shall stamp or write in plain letters the word “counterfeit... money, which shall be presented at their places of business; and if such officers shall wrongfully stamp...

  11. Isolation and Identification of an Indigenous Probiotic Lactobacillus Strain: Its Encapsulation with Natural Branched Polysaccharids to Improve Bacterial Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Sadat Foroutan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Probiotics have to reach their site of action in certain numbers in order to exhibit positive health effects. Encapsulation has shown remarkable enhancing effects on probiotic survival in simulated gastric conditions compared to free bacteria. The purpose of this study was identification and evaluation of a potential probiotic strain using encapsulation process by new carriers in order to improve probiotic viability during in vitro simulated conditions.Material and Methods: A native Lactobacillus was isolated from yogurt, identified as Lactobacillus casei PM01 (NCBI registered and analyzed for probiotic properties alongside established probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43556, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. Acid and bile resistance, adhesion to Caco-2 cells and antibiotic resistance were evaluated. Lactobacillus casei PM01 was encapsulated with alginate, chitosan and natural branched polysaccharides (pectin, tragacanth gum and gum Arabic by using extrusion technique. Encapsulation efficiency, acidification activity and viability of entrapped Lactobacillus casei PM01 in simulated gastric pH were determined. Results and Conclusion: Based on the results, all the three strains could be considered as potential probiotics, and are good candidates for further in vitro and in vivo evaluation. The results showed that the survival of encapsulated Lactobacillus casei PM01 was significantly (p≤0.05 increased when it was incubated in simulated gastric pH. It can be concluded that indigenous Lactobacillus casei PM01 in encapsulated form is introduced as an efficient probiotic strain for using in dairy products.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  12. Multiple encapsulation of LANL waste using polymers. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Polymer encapsulation of lead shielding/blasting grit (surrogate) mixed waste was optimized at bench scale using melamine formaldehyde, polyurethane, and butadiene thermosetting polymers. Three pellet-based intermediate waste forms, and a final waste form, were prepared, each providing an additional level of integrity. Encapsulated waste integrity was measured by chemical and physical techniques. Compliance was established using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Equipment appropriate to pilot-scale demonstration of program techniques was investigated. A preliminary equipment list and layout, and process block flow diagram were prepared

  13. Plastic Encapsulated Microcircuits (PEMs) Reliability Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, M.

    2000-01-01

    It is reported by some users and has been demonstrated by others via testing and qualification that the quality and reliability of plastic-encapsulated microcircuits (PEMs) manufactured today are excellent in commercial applications and closely equivalent, and in some cases superior to their hemetic counterparts.

  14. Encapsulation of nanoparticles into single-crystal ZnO nanorods and microrods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinzhang; Notarianni, Marco; Rintoul, Llew; Motta, Nunzio

    2014-01-01

    One-dimensional single crystal incorporating functional nanoparticles of other materials could be an interesting platform for various applications. We studied the encapsulation of nanoparticles into single-crystal ZnO nanorods by exploiting the crystal growth of ZnO in aqueous solution. Two types of nanodiamonds with mean diameters of 10 nm and 40 nm, respectively, and polymer nanobeads with size of 200 nm have been used to study the encapsulation process. It was found that by regrowing these ZnO nanorods with nanoparticles attached to their surfaces, a full encapsulation of nanoparticles into nanorods can be achieved. We demonstrate that our low-temperature aqueous solution growth of ZnO nanorods do not affect or cause degradation of the nanoparticles of either inorganic or organic materials. This new growth method opens the way to a plethora of applications combining the properties of single crystal host and encapsulated nanoparticles. We perform micro-photoluminescence measurement on a single ZnO nanorod containing luminescent nanodiamonds and the spectrum has a different shape from that of naked nanodiamonds, revealing the cavity effect of ZnO nanorod.

  15. Best in show but not best shape: a photographic assessment of show dog body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Such, Z R; German, A J

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that owners often wrongly perceive overweight dogs to be in normal condition. The body shape of dogs attending shows might influence owners' perceptions, with online images of overweight show winners having a negative effect. This was an observational in silico study of canine body condition. 14 obese-prone breeds and 14 matched non-obese-probe breeds were first selected, and one operator then used an online search engine to identify 40 images, per breed, of dogs that had appeared at a major national UK show (Crufts). After images were anonymised and coded, a second observer subjectively assessed body condition, in a single sitting, using a previously validated method. Of 1120 photographs initially identified, 960 were suitable for assessing body condition, with all unsuitable images being from longhaired breeds. None of the dogs (0 per cent) were underweight, 708 (74 per cent) were in ideal condition and 252 (26 per cent) were overweight. Pugs, basset hounds and Labrador retrievers were most likely to be overweight, while standard poodles, Rhodesian ridgebacks, Hungarian vizslas and Dobermanns were least likely to be overweight. Given the proportion of show dogs from some breeds that are overweight, breed standards should be redefined to be consistent with a dog in optimal body condition. British Veterinary Association.

  16. Modulation of Rat Cecal Microbiota by Administration of Raffinose and Encapsulated Bifidobacterium breve

    OpenAIRE

    Dinoto, Achmad; Suksomcheep, Akarat; Ishizuka, Satoshi; Kimura, Hanae; Hanada, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Asano, Kozo; Tomita, Fusao; Yokota, Atsushi

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the effects of administration of raffinose and encapsulated Bifidobacterium breve JCM 1192T cells on the rat cecal microbiota, in a preclinical synbiotic study groups of male WKAH/Hkm Slc rats were fed for 3 weeks with four different test diets: basal diet (group BD), basal diet supplemented with raffinose (group RAF), basal diet supplemented with encapsulated B. breve (group CB), and basal diet supplemented with both raffinose and encapsulated B. breve (group RCB). The bacteri...

  17. Cyclic water-trimer encapsulation into D2 (22)-C84 fullerene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slanina, Zdeněk; Uhlík, Filip; Nagase, Shigeru; Akasaka, Takeshi; Lu, Xing; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2018-03-01

    The cyclic water-trimer encapsulations into D2 (22)-C84 fullerene are evaluated. The encapsulation energy is computed at the M06-2X/6-31++G∗∗ level and it is found that the trimer storage in C84 yields the potential-energy gain of 10.4 kcal/mol. The encapsulated trimer can have two different forms, either the conformation known with the free gas-phase water trimer or the arrangement with the three non-hydrogen bonded H atoms on the same side of the O-O-O plane. The latter endohedral isomer is lower in the potential energy by 0.071 kcal/mol and forms about 57% of their equilibrium mixture at room temperature.

  18. Analysis of the events on the operating of the wrong compartment of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Lixin; Zhou Hong; Zhang Hao; Che Shuwei; Zhang Jiajun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an operational event that unit trip caused by the operating of the wrong compartment, due to the personnel error is introduced. Through in-depth research on this kind of events the causes of the events are found, some suggestions are put forward. It can provide a reference for preventing the similar events from recurring to other NPPs. (authors)

  19. Accelerated/abbreviated test methods of the low-cost silicon solar array project. Study 4, task 3: Encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolyer, J. M.; Mann, N. R.

    1977-01-01

    Methods of accelerated and abbreviated testing were developed and applied to solar cell encapsulants. These encapsulants must provide protection for as long as 20 years outdoors at different locations within the United States. Consequently, encapsulants were exposed for increasing periods of time to the inherent climatic variables of temperature, humidity, and solar flux. Property changes in the encapsulants were observed. The goal was to predict long term behavior of encapsulants based upon experimental data obtained over relatively short test periods.

  20. Micro/nano encapsulation of some paraffin eutectic mixtures with poly(methyl methacrylate) shell: Preparation, characterization and latent heat thermal energy storage properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarı, Ahmet; Alkan, Cemil; Bilgin, Cahit

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Four kinds of micro/nano capsules, PMMA/(C17-C24), PMMA/(C19-C18), PMMA/(C19-C24) and PMMA/(C20-C24), were synthesized successfully as novel encapsulated phase change materials (PCMs) for the different monomer/PEM ratios via emulsion polymerization. The FTIR spectroscopy analysis confirmed the polymerization reaction occurred around the PEMs to be used as core materials. The POM, SEM and PSD analysis results showed that the synthesized PMMA/PEM micro/nano capsules had spherical shape appearance and micro/nano sizes. DSC analysis measurements revealed that the prepared micro/nano capsules containing the highest PEM content had a melting temperature range of about 20–36 °C and latent heat capacities in the range of about 86–169 J/g. TGA findings demonstrated that the encapsulated PEMs had good thermal reliability and chemical stability even after subjecting them to 5000 melting/freezing cycles. Furthermore, the prepared micro/nano capsules had reasonable thermal conductivity values and fine melting–freezing reversibility. - Highlights: • PSD analysis results showed that the encapsulated PEMs had micro/nano sized-spheres. • The encapsulated PEMs melt in the temperature range of about 20–36 °C. • The encapsulated PEMs had latent heat capacities of in the range of about 86–169 J/g. • TGA results demonstrated that they had good thermal stability. • The encapsulated PEMs had good thermal conductivity and phase change reversibility. - Abstract: This work is aimed to prepare, characterize and determine the latent heat thermal energy storage properties of micro/nano encapsulated paraffin eutectic mixtures (PEMs) with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) shell. The eutectic combination ratios and optimum melting temperatures of C17-C24, C19-C18, C19-C24 and C20-C24 mixtures were find out prior to the encapsulation processes. Four kinds of micro/nano capsules, PMMA/(C17-C24), PMMA/(C19-C18), PMMA/(C19-C24) and PMMA/(C20-C24), were synthesized

  1. Group navigation and the "many-wrongs principle" in models of animal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codling, E A; Pitchford, J W; Simpson, S D

    2007-07-01

    Traditional studies of animal navigation over both long and short distances have usually considered the orientation ability of the individual only, without reference to the implications of group membership. However, recent work has suggested that being in a group can significantly improve the ability of an individual to align toward and reach a target direction or point, even when all group members have limited navigational ability and there are no leaders. This effect is known as the "many-wrongs principle" since the large number of individual navigational errors across the group are suppressed by interactions and group cohesion. In this paper, we simulate the many-wrongs principle using a simple individual-based model of movement based on a biased random walk that includes group interactions. We study the ability of the group as a whole to reach a target given different levels of individual navigation error, group size, interaction radius, and environmental turbulence. In scenarios with low levels of environmental turbulence, simulation results demonstrate a navigational benefit from group membership, particularly for small group sizes. In contrast, when movement takes place in a highly turbulent environment, simulation results suggest that the best strategy is to navigate as individuals rather than as a group.

  2. Wax encapsulation of water-soluble compounds for application in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellema, M; Van Benthum, W A J; Boer, B; Von Harras, J; Visser, A

    2006-11-01

    Water-soluble ingredients have been successfully encapsulated in wax using two preparation techniques. The first technique ('solid preparation') leads to relatively large wax particles. The second technique ('liquid preparation') leads to relatively small wax particles immersed in vegetable oil. On the first technique: stable encapsulation of water-soluble colourants (dissolved at low concentration in water) has been achieved making use of beeswax and PGPR. The leakage from the capsules, for instance of size 2 mm, is about 30% after 16 weeks storage in water at room temperature. To form such capsules a minimum wax mass of 40% relative to the total mass is needed. High amounts of salt or acids at the inside water phase causes more leaking, probably because of the osmotic pressure difference. Osmotic matching of inner and outer phase can lead to a dramatic reduction in leakage. Fat capsules are less suitable to incorporate water soluble colourants. The reason for this could be a difference in crystal structure (fat is less ductile and more brittle). On the second technique: stable encapsulation of water-soluble colourants (encapsulated in solid wax particles) has been achieved making use of carnauba wax. The leakage from the capsules, for instance of size 250 mm, is about 40% after 1 weeks storage in water at room temperature.

  3. Preparation of keratin-based microcapsules for encapsulation of hydrophilic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabinejad, Hossein; Patrucco, Alessia; Caringella, Rosalinda; Montarsolo, Alessio; Zoccola, Marina; Pozzo, Pier Davide

    2018-01-01

    The interest towards microcapsules based on non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible polymers, such as proteins, is increasing considerably. In this work, microcapsules were prepared using water soluble keratin, known as keratoses, with the aim of encapsulating hydrophilic molecules. Keratoses were obtained via oxidizing extraction of pristine wool, previously degreased by Soxhlet. In order to better understand the shell part of microcapsules, pristine wool and obtained keratoses were investigated by FT-IR, gel-electrophoresis and HPLC. Production of the microcapsules was carried out by a sonication method. Thermal properties of microcapsules were investigated by DSC. Microencapsulation and dye encapsulation yields were obtained by UV-spectroscopy. Morphological structure of microcapsules was studied by light microscopy, SEM, and AFM. The molecular weights of proteins analyzed using gel-electrophoresis resulted in the range of 38-62kDa. The results confirmed that the hydrophilic dye (Telon Blue) was introduced inside the keratoses shells by sonication and the final microcapsules diameter ranged from 0.5 to 4µm. Light microscope investigation evidenced the presence of the dye inside the keratoses vesicles, confirming their capability of encapsulating hydrophilic molecules. The microcapsule yield and dye encapsulation yield were found to be 28.87±3% and 83.62±5% respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel encapsulation technique for incorporation of high permittivity fillers into silicone elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw; Hvilsted, Søren; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2014-01-01

    permittivity fillers, 2) Grafting of high permittivity molecules onto the polymer backbone in the elastomer, and 3) Encapsulation of high permittivity fillers. The approach investigated here is a new type of encapsulation which does not interfere with the mechanical properties to the same content...

  5. A policy of nuclear energy or energy conservation - on the construction of a wrong alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traube, K.

    1981-01-01

    From the content: a secret good-bye - wrong information from the energy experts - is there any priority for the efficient utilization of energie - do nuclear energy and energy conservation measures complement each other - the hidden socio-political dimensions - counter-information is necessary. (HP) [de

  6. Encapsulation of spent nuclear fuel-safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederman, E.

    1983-04-01

    Two methods of encapsulation are studied, both including a copper canister. In one process the copper canister with the spent fuel is filled with copper powder and pressed to solid copper metal at high pressure. In the other process lead is cast around the fuel before the canister is sealed by electron beam welding. The activity decay of the fuel has been going on for 40 years before it arrives to the encapsulation station. This is the basic reason for expecting less activity release and less contamination of the plant than would be the case with fuel recently taken out from the reactors. In analysing the plant safety, experience from the nuclear power plants, from the planning of the Swedish central storage facility for spent fuel (CLAB) and from La Hague has been used. The analysis is also based on experience of todays technology, although it should be possible to improve the encapsulation process further before time has come to actually build the plant. The environment activity release will be very low, both at normal operation and following accidents in the plant. Using very conservative release rates also the most severe anticipated accident in the plant will induce a dose to critical group of only 3 μSv. The staff dose can also be kept low. Due to remote handling, fuel damage will not primarily give staff dose. Of the totally anticipated staff dose of 150 man mSv/year the greatest portion will come from external radiation during repair work in areas where fuel containing canisters by failure can not be taken away. The hot isostatic pressed (HIP) canister process contains more operations than does the lead casting and welding procedure. It is therefore expected to give the highest activity release and staff dose unless extra measures are taken to keep them low. Using remote operation and adequate equipment the encapsulation station with any of the two processes can be built and run with good radiological safety. (author)

  7. Osmotic pressure-dependent release profiles of payloads from nanocontainers by co-encapsulation of simple salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Shahed; Rosenauer, Christine; Kappl, Michael; Mohr, Kristin; Landfester, Katharina; Crespy, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    The encapsulation of payloads in micro- to nano-scale capsules allows protection of the payload from the surrounding environment and control of its release profile. Herein, we program the release of hydrophilic payloads from nanocontainers by co-encapsulating simple inorganic salts for adjusting the osmotic pressure. The latter either leads to a burst release at high concentrations of co-encapsulated salts or a sustained release at lower concentrations. Osmotic pressure causes swelling of the nanocapsule's shell and therefore sustained release profiles can be adjusted by crosslinking it. The approach presented allows for programing the release of payloads by co-encapsulating inexpensive salts inside nanocontainers without the help of stimuli-responsive materials.The encapsulation of payloads in micro- to nano-scale capsules allows protection of the payload from the surrounding environment and control of its release profile. Herein, we program the release of hydrophilic payloads from nanocontainers by co-encapsulating simple inorganic salts for adjusting the osmotic pressure. The latter either leads to a burst release at high concentrations of co-encapsulated salts or a sustained release at lower concentrations. Osmotic pressure causes swelling of the nanocapsule's shell and therefore sustained release profiles can be adjusted by crosslinking it. The approach presented allows for programing the release of payloads by co-encapsulating inexpensive salts inside nanocontainers without the help of stimuli-responsive materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01882c

  8. Anisotropic silica mesostructures for DNA encapsulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The encapsulation of biomolecules in inert meso or nanostructures is an important step towards controlling drug delivery agents. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) are of immense importance owing to their high surface area, large pore size, uniform particle size and chemical inertness. Reverse micellar method with ...

  9. Treatment of Diabetes with Encapsulated Islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Paul; Spasojevic, Milica; Faas, Marijke M.; Pedraz, JL; Orive, G

    2010-01-01

    Cell encapsulation has been proposed for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases since it allows for transplantation of cells in the absence of undesired immunosuppression. The technology has been proposed to be a solution for the treatment of diabetes since it potentially allows a mandatory

  10. Review of potential processing techniques for the encapsulation of wastes in thermoplastic polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.R.; Lageraaen, P.R.; Kalb, P.D.

    1995-08-01

    Thermoplastic encapsulation has been extensively studied at Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) Environmental and Waste Technology Center (EWTC) as a waste encapsulation technology applicable to a wide range of waste types including radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. Encapsulation involves processing thermoplastic and waste materials into a waste form product by heating and mixing both materials into a homogeneous molten mixture. Cooling of the melt results in a solid monolithic waste form in which contaminants have been completely surrounded by a polymer matrix. Heating and mixing requirements for successful waste encapsulation can be met using proven technologies available in various types of commercial equipment. Processing techniques for thermoplastic materials, such as low density polyethylene (LDPE), are well established within the plastics industry. The majority of commercial polymer processing is accomplished using extruders, mixers or a combination of these technologies. Extruders and mixers are available in a broad range of designs and are used during the manufacture of consumer and commercial products as well as for compounding applications. Compounding which refers to mixing additives such as stabilizers and/or colorants with polymers, is analogous to thermoplastic encapsulation. Several processing technologies were investigated for their potential application in encapsulating residual sorbent waste in selected thermoplastic polymers, including single-screw extruders, twin-screw extruders, continuous mixers, batch mixers as well as other less conventional devices. Each was evaluated based on operational ease, quality control, waste handling capabilities as well as degree of waste pretreatment required. Based on literature review, this report provides a description of polymer processing technologies, a discussion of the merits and limitations of each and an evaluation of their applicability to the encapsulation of sorbent wastes

  11. Review of potential processing techniques for the encapsulation of wastes in thermoplastic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, B.R.; Lageraaen, P.R.; Kalb, P.D.

    1995-08-01

    Thermoplastic encapsulation has been extensively studied at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s (BNL) Environmental and Waste Technology Center (EWTC) as a waste encapsulation technology applicable to a wide range of waste types including radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. Encapsulation involves processing thermoplastic and waste materials into a waste form product by heating and mixing both materials into a homogeneous molten mixture. Cooling of the melt results in a solid monolithic waste form in which contaminants have been completely surrounded by a polymer matrix. Heating and mixing requirements for successful waste encapsulation can be met using proven technologies available in various types of commercial equipment. Processing techniques for thermoplastic materials, such as low density polyethylene (LDPE), are well established within the plastics industry. The majority of commercial polymer processing is accomplished using extruders, mixers or a combination of these technologies. Extruders and mixers are available in a broad range of designs and are used during the manufacture of consumer and commercial products as well as for compounding applications. Compounding which refers to mixing additives such as stabilizers and/or colorants with polymers, is analogous to thermoplastic encapsulation. Several processing technologies were investigated for their potential application in encapsulating residual sorbent waste in selected thermoplastic polymers, including single-screw extruders, twin-screw extruders, continuous mixers, batch mixers as well as other less conventional devices. Each was evaluated based on operational ease, quality control, waste handling capabilities as well as degree of waste pretreatment required. Based on literature review, this report provides a description of polymer processing technologies, a discussion of the merits and limitations of each and an evaluation of their applicability to the encapsulation of sorbent wastes.

  12. Development of test models to quantify encapsulated bioburden in spacecraft polymer materials by cultivation-dependent and molecular methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, Anja; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Mahnert, Alexander; Probst, Alexander; Flier, Niwin; Auerbach, Anna; Weber, Christina; Haberer, Klaus; Boeker, Alexander

    Bioburden encapsulated in spacecraft polymers (such as adhesives and coatings) poses a potential risk to scientific exploration of other celestial bodies, but it is not easily detectable. In this study, we developed novel testing strategies to estimate the quantity of intrinsic encapsulated bioburden in polymers used frequently on spaceflight hardware. In particular Scotch-Weld (TM) 2216 B/A (Epoxy adhesive); MAP SG121FD (Silicone coating), Solithane (®) 113 (Urethane resin); ESP 495 (Silicone adhesive); and Dow Corning (®) 93-500 (Silicone encapsulant) were investigated. As extraction of bioburden from polymerized (solid) materials did not prove feasible, a method was devised to extract contaminants from uncured polymer precursors by dilution in organic solvents. Cultivation-dependent analyses showed less than 0.1-2.5 colony forming units (cfu) per cm³ polymer, whereas quantitative PCR with extracted DNA indicated considerably higher values, despite low DNA extraction efficiency. Results obtained by this method reflected the most conservative proxy for encapsulated bioburden. To observe the effect of physical and chemical stress occurring during polymerization on the viability of encapsulated contaminants, Bacillus safensis spores were embedded close to the surface in cured polymer, which facilitated access for different analytical techniques. Staining by AlexaFluor succinimidyl ester 488 (AF488), propidium monoazide (PMA), CTC (5-cyano-2,3-diotolyl tetrazolium chloride) and subsequent confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) demonstrated that embedded spores retained integrity, germination and cultivation ability even after polymerization of the adhesive Scotch-Weld™ 2216 B/A.

  13. Amidase encapsulated O-carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles for vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, K T; Sreelakshmi, M; Nisha, N; Jayakumar, R; Biswas, Raja

    2014-02-01

    This work reports the development of amidase encapsulated O-carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles (Ami-O-CMC NPs) of 300±50 nm size by ionic cross-linking method. The prepared Ami-O-CMC NPs had an encapsulation efficiency of 55.39%. Haemolysis assay and cytotoxicity studies proved the hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility of the prepared NPs. The sustained release of Ami from the NPs is expected to prolong its immunogenicity and in turn lead to development of better protective immunity against Staphylococcus aureus infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dome shaped micro-laser encapsulated in a flexible film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioppolo, T; Manzo, M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated multimode laser emission from a dome shaped micro-scale resonator encapsulated in a flexible polymer film. The resonator with a radius of ∼60 microns was made of Norland Blocking Adhesive (NBA 107) doped with a solution of rhodamine 6G and ethanol. The dome was encapsulated in a flexible polymeric film made of polydymethylsiloxane (PDMS) with a thickness of 1 mm. The micro-scale laser was optically pumped using a frequency doubled Q-switch Nd:YAG laser with pulse repetition of 10 Hz and pulse duration of 9 ns. Experiments were carried out to investigate the lasing properties of this laser structure. The pumping threshold for multimode laser emission was below 100 µJ cm −2 . The average optical quality factor for all observed laser modes was of the order of 10 4 . Using a fluence of 315.8 µJ cm −2 it was observed that the intensity of the laser emission dropped by 62% after 5 min of operation. These results showed that these solid state flexible lasers are easy to fabricate and can be integrated into novel flexible photonic devices and novel photonic sensors. (paper)

  15. Consumer Acceptance of Bars and Gummies with Unencapsulated and Encapsulated Resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Clarissa C; Lee, Soo-Yeun; Lee, Youngsoo

    2016-05-01

    The addition of resveratrol, a polyphenol found in red wine and peanuts, to food products would help to provide the health benefits associated with the compound to the consumer in a wide array of food matrices. The bitterness of resveratrol and instability of its bioactive form in light are 2 major challenges with the incorporation of the compound into food products. Microencapsulation in a sodium caseinate matrix was utilized as a strategy to overcome these challenges. The objective of this research was to show the application of the resveratrol microcapsules in easy-to-consume foods. Consumer acceptance was evaluated for gummies and bars with encapsulated resveratrol in comparison to the controls. Four different controls were used: 1) without any resveratrol OR protein (Plain), 2) unencapsulated resveratrol (Resv), 3) sodium caseinate and unencapsulated resveratrol just mixed without encapsulation (P + R), and 4) sodium caseinate only (PRO). Two concentrations of resveratrol that have been shown to offer therapeutic effects in humans were tested (10 and 40 mg/d). The overall liking, evaluated using a 9-point scale, of bars with 10 mg of encapsulated resveratrol did not differ significantly from the control without any added resveratrol and protein (Plain) or from the controls with equivalent protein and/or resveratrol concentrations. For gummies, the samples with the resveratrol microcapsules had a significantly lower overall liking than the controls with the same protein and/or resveratrol content. This research demonstrated application of resveratrol microcapsules into easy-to-consume food products in order to deliver the health benefits to the consumer. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Bioaccessibility and Cellular Uptake of β-Carotene Encapsulated in Model O/W Emulsions: Influence of Initial Droplet Size and Emulsifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the initial emulsion structure (droplet size and emulsifier on the properties of β-carotene-loaded emulsions and the bioavailability of β-carotene after passing through simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT digestion were investigated. Exposure to GIT significantly changed the droplet size, surface charge and composition of all emulsions, and these changes were dependent on their initial droplet size and the emulsifiers used. Whey protein isolate (WPI-stabilized emulsion showed the highest β-carotene bioaccessibility, while sodium caseinate (SCN-stabilized emulsion showed the highest cellular uptake of β-carotene. The bioavailability of emulsion-encapsulated β-carotene based on the results of bioaccessibility and cellular uptake showed the same order with the results of cellular uptake being SCN > TW80 > WPI. An inconsistency between the results of bioaccessibility and bioavailability was observed, indicating that the cellular uptake assay is necessary for a reliable evaluation of the bioavailability of emulsion-encapsulated compounds. The findings in this study contribute to a better understanding of the correlation between emulsion structure and the digestive fate of emulsion-encapsulated nutrients, which make it possible to achieve controlled or potential targeted delivery of nutrients by designing the structure of emulsion-based carriers.

  17. Production of wrong sign muons in neutrino-nucleon and antineutrino-nucleon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onipchuk, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    The contribution is considered introduced by the quasipartonic mechanism to production of muons with a wrong sign in ν μ (ν-bar μ )N collisions. The ratios of muon production cross sections in the processes ν μ (ν-bar μ )N → μ + (μ - ) + ... to the inclusive cross sections have been calculated. Comparison to neutrino-nucleon data is made. The x and y distributions and mean kinematical characteristics of the scattered neutrinos are found

  18. Restoring Ovarian Endocrine Function with Encapsulated Ovarian Allograft in Immune Competent Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Anu; Day, James Ronald; Cichon, Alexa Leigh; Lefferts, Adam; Cascalho, Marilia; Shikanov, Ariella

    2017-07-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a major complication of cytotoxic treatments due to extreme ovarian sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiation. In pediatric cancer patients modern therapy has improved the long-term survival to over 80% in the United States. However, these cancer survivors face long-term health problems related to treatment toxicity. In female cancer survivors POI leads to sterility, along with the consequences of estrogen deficiency such as premature osteopenia, muscle wasting, accelerated cardiovascular diseases and a vast array of other health and developmental problems. These long-lasting effects are particularly significant for young girls reaching puberty. As such, restoring ovarian endocrine function is paramount in this population. In the present study, we evaluated the feasibility of restoring ovarian endocrine function in ovariectomized mice by transplanting syngeneic and allogeneic ovarian tissue encapsulated in alginate capsules or TheraCyte ® . Histological analysis of the implants retrieved after 7 and 30 days' post implantation showed follicular development up to the secondary and antral stages in both syngeneic and allogeneic implants. Implantation of syngeneic and allogeneic ovarian grafts encapsulated in TheraCyte devices restored ovarian endocrine function, which was confirmed by decreased serum FSH levels from 60 to 70 ng/mL in ovariectomized mice to 30-40 ng/mL 30 days after implantation. Absence of allo-MHC-specific IgG and IgM antibodies in the sera of implanted mice with allogeneic ovarian tissue encapsulated in TheraCyte indicate that the implants did not evoke an allo-immune response, while the allogeneic controls were rejected 21 days after implantation. Our results show that TheraCyte effectively isolates the graft from immune recognition but also supports follicular growth.

  19. What's wrong with me? Coming to terms with same sex attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Brian

    2011-10-01

    Many, if not all, young people question what is wrong with them when they begin to realise that they are attracted to people of the same sex. This can be because of feelings of confusion, guilt and shame, which can develop in reaction to the society in which they live; feelings that are often mirrored by the families of the young people concerned. This article explains the theories behind sexuality to help nurses provide unprejudiced, appropriate support and information to children and young people seeking help.

  20. Correlative Light-Electron Microscopy of Lipid-Encapsulated Fluorescent Nanodiamonds for Nanometric Localization of Cell Surface Antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Feng-Jen; Chen, Yen-Wei; Huang, Yao-Kuan; Lee, Hsien-Ming; Lin, Chun-Hung; Chang, Huan-Cheng

    2018-02-06

    Containing an ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy centers in crystal matrices, fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) are a new type of photostable markers that have found wide applications in light microscopy. The nanomaterial also has a dense carbon core, making it visible to electron microscopy. Here, we show that FNDs encapsulated in biotinylated lipids (bLs) are useful for subdiffraction imaging of antigens on cell surface with correlative light-electron microscopy (CLEM). The lipid encapsulation enables not only good dispersion of the particles in biological buffers but also high specific labeling of live cells. By employing the bL-encapsulated FNDs to target CD44 on HeLa cell surface through biotin-mediated immunostaining, we obtained the spatial distribution of these antigens by CLEM with a localization accuracy of ∼50 nm in routine operations. A comparative study with dual-color imaging, in which CD44 was labeled with FND and MICA/MICB was labeled with Alexa Fluor 488, demonstrated the superior performance of FNDs as fluorescent fiducial markers for CLEM of cell surface antigens.

  1. Thermally Induced Encapsulation of Food Nutrients into Phytoferritin through the Flexible Channels without Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Tian, Jing; Liu, Yuqian; Yang, Zhiying; Wu, Dandan; Zhou, Zhongkai

    2017-11-22

    The cavity of phytoferritin provides a nanospace to encapsulate and deliver food nutrient molecules. However, tranditional methods to prepare the ferritin-nutrient complexes must undergo acid/alkaline conditions or apply additives. In this work, we provide a novel guideline that thermal treatment at 60 °C can expand ferritin channels by uncoiling the surrounding α-helix. Upon reduction of the temperature to 20 °C, food nutrient rutin can be encapsulated in apo-soybean seed ferritin (apoSSF) at pH 7.0 through channels without disassembly of the protein cage and with no addition of additives. Results indicated that one apoSSF could encapsulate about 10.5 molecules of rutin, with an encapsulation ratio of 8.08% (w/w). In addition, the resulting rutin-loaded SSF complexes were monodispersed in a size of 12 nm in aqueous solution. This work provides a novel pathway for the encapsulation of food nutrient molecules into the nanocavity of ferritin under a neutral pH condition induced by thermal treatment.

  2. Whey microbeads as a matrix for the encapsulation and immobilisation of riboflavin and peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Graham J; Egan, Thelma; Jacquier, Jean Christophe; O'Sullivan, Michael; Dolores O'Riordan, E

    2014-10-01

    Whey microbeads manufactured using a cold-set gelation process, have been used to encapsulate bioactives. In this study whey microbeads were used to encapsulate riboflavin using 2 methods. Riboflavin was added to the microbead forming solution however diffusional losses of riboflavin occurred during the subsequent bead preparation. To overcome riboflavin loss, a second approach to 'load' whey microbeads by soaking in riboflavin was assessed. Significantly (p⩽0.05) higher concentrations of riboflavin were obtained in 'loaded' microbeads (361 mg/L) compared to riboflavin added to the microbead forming solution (48 mg/L). Riboflavin uptake by the microbeads was shown to be via a partition process. As partitioning is often driven by hydrophobic interactions the uptake of amino acids and peptides of varying hydrophobicities by the microbeads was examined. The % encapsulation increased with increasing molecule hydrophobicity with a maximum of 89% encapsulation. Whey microbeads are well suited to act as sorbents for encapsulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of Encapsulant Adhesion to Surface Metallization of Photovoltaic Cells: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tracy, Jared; Dauskardt, Reinhold; Bosco, Nick

    2017-06-14

    Delamination of encapsulant materials from PV cell surfaces often appears to originate at regions with metallization. Using a fracture mechanics based metrology, the adhesion of EVA encapsulant to screen printed silver metallization was evaluated. At room temperature, the fracture energy, Gc [J/m2], of the EVA/silver interface (952 J/m2) was ~70% lower than that of the EVA/AR coating (>2900 J/m2) and ~60% lower than that of the EVA to the surface of cell (2265 J/m2). After only 300 hours of damp heat aging, the adhesion energy of the silver interface dropped to and plateaued at ~50-60 J/m2, while that of the EVA/AR coating and EVA/cell remained mostly unchanged. Elemental surface analysis showed that the EVA separates from the silver in a purely adhesive manner, indicating that bonds at the interface were likely displaced in the presence of humidity and elevated temperature, and may explain the propensity for delamination to occur at metallized surfaces in the field.

  4. Elementary study of encapsulation of radioisotope battery prototype based on 63Ni radio-voltaic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hui; Zhang Huaming; Luo Shunzhong; Wang Heyi; Fu Zhonghua

    2012-01-01

    For isotope battery application, it is necessary to encapsulate in a certain method. After having accomplished selection of material composing and proportion, procedure and encapsulating process based on GD3217Y detector. the different types of device come from untouched, loaded by slip of stainless steel with or without 63 Ni isotope were encapsulated respectively. Despite necessary reliability of package has been evaluated in the previous work. in view of specialty due to the incorporation of radioactive isotopes into device, the reliability issue must be further taken into account for actual application. Hence, we emphasize on the comparison about electrical capability of types of devices under the different situations, namely, before and after encapsulation, the natural aging and artificial accelerated aging. The results of the comparison indicate that the adoption of the method of the encapsulation supply effectively stable electrical capability at the condition of ensuring safety of radioactive source besides improving environmental adaptability for device. Further, it offers technological support for the encapsulation of radioisotope battery based on β radio-voltaic effect. (authors)

  5. Quantum entanglement: facts and fiction - how wrong was Einstein after all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordén, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Einstein was wrong with his 1927 Solvay Conference claim that quantum mechanics is incomplete and incapable of describing diffraction of single particles. However, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox of entangled pairs of particles remains lurking with its 'spooky action at a distance'. In molecules quantum entanglement can be viewed as basis of both chemical bonding and excitonic states. The latter are important in many biophysical contexts and involve coupling between subsystems in which virtual excitations lead to eigenstates of the total Hamiltonian, but not for the separate subsystems. The author questions whether atomic or photonic systems may be probed to prove that particles or photons may stay entangled over large distances and display the immediate communication with each other that so concerned Einstein. A dissociating hydrogen molecule is taken as a model of a zero-spin entangled system whose angular momenta are in principle possible to probe for this purpose. In practice, however, spins randomize as a result of interactions with surrounding fields and matter. Similarly, no experiment seems yet to provide unambiguous evidence of remaining entanglement between single photons at large separations in absence of mutual interaction, or about immediate (superluminal) communication. This forces us to reflect again on what Einstein really had in mind with the paradox, viz. a probabilistic interpretation of a wave function for an ensemble of identically prepared states, rather than as a statement about single particles. Such a prepared state of many particles would lack properties of quantum entanglement that make it so special, including the uncertainty upon which safe quantum communication is assumed to rest. An example is Zewail's experiment showing visible resonance in the dissociation of a coherently vibrating ensemble of NaI molecules apparently violating the uncertainty principle. Einstein was wrong about diffracting single photons where space-like anti

  6. Autologous fibrin glue as an encapsulating scaffold for delivery of retinal progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Anwar Esmail Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The retina is a highly sophisticated piece of the neural machinery that begins the translation of incoming light signals into meaningful visual information. Several degenerative diseases of the retina are characterized by photoreceptor loss and eventually lead to irreversible blindness. Regenerative medicine, using tissue engineering-based constructs to deliver progenitor cells or photoreceptors along with supporting carrier matrix is a promising approach for restoration of structure and function. Fresh fibrin glue (FG produced by the CryoSeal®FS system in combination with mouse retinal progenitor cells (RPCs were evaluated in this study. In vitro expanded RPCs isolated from postnatal mouse retina were encapsulated into FG and cultured in the presence of the protease inhibitor, tranexamic acid. Encapsulation of RPCs into FG did not show adverse effects on cell proliferation or cell survival. RPCs exhibited fibroblast-like morphology concomitantly with attachment to the encapsulating FG surface. They expressed α7 and β3 integrin subunits that could mediate attachment to fibrin matrix via an RGD independent mechanism. The three dimensional environment and the attachment surface provided by FG was associated with a rapid downregulation of the progenitor marker SOX2 and enhanced the expression of the differentiation markers CRX and recoverin. However, the in vitro culture conditions did not promote full differentiation into mature photoreceptors. Nevertheless, we have shown that autologous fibrin, when fabricated into a scaffold for RPCs for delivery to the retina, provides the cells with external cues that could potentially improve the differentiation events. Hence, transient encapsulation of RPCs into FG could be a valid and potential treatment strategy to promote retinal regeneration following degenerative diseases. However, further optimization is necessary to maximize the outcomes in terms of mature photoreceptors.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of SN-38-Encapsulated Phytantriol Cubosomes Containing α-Monoglyceride Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md Ashraf; Noguchi, Shuji; Iwao, Yasunori; Oka, Toshihiko; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    SN-38 is a potent active metabolite of irinotecan that has been considered as an anticancer candidate. However, the clinical development of this compound has been hampered by its poor aqueous solubility and chemical instability. In this study, we developed SN-38-encapsulated cubosomes to resolve these problems. Six α-monoglyceride additives, comprising monocaprylin, monocaprin, monolaurin, monomyristin, monopalmitin, and monostearin, were used to prepare phytantriol (PHYT) cubosomes by probe sonication. The mean particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential values of these systems were around 190-230 nm, 0.19-0.25 and -17 to -22 mV, respectively. Small-angle X-ray scattering analyses confirmed that the SN-38-encapsulated cubosomes existed in the Pn̄3m space group both with and without the additives. The monoglyceride additives led to around a two-fold increase in the solubility of SN-38 compared with the PHYT cubosome. The drug entrapment efficiency of PHYT cubosomes with additives was greater than 97%. The results of a stability study at 25°C showed no dramatic changes in the particle size or polydispersity index characteristics, with at least 85% of the SN-38 existing in its active lactone form after 10 d, demonstrating the high stability of the cubosome nanoparticles. Furthermore, approximately 55% of SN-38 was slowly released from the cubosomes with additives over 96 h in vitro under physiological conditions. Taken together, these results show that the SN-38-encapsulated PHYT cubosome particles are promising drug carriers that should be considered for further in vivo experiments, including drug delivery to tumor cells using the enhanced permeability and retention effect.

  8. Application of Electrostatic Extrusion – Flavour Encapsulation and Controlled Release

    OpenAIRE

    Manojlovic, Verica; Rajic, Nevenka; Djonlagic, Jasna; Obradovic, Bojana; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this study was the development of flavour alginate formulations aimed for thermally processed foods. Ethyl vanilline was used as the model flavour compound. Electrostatic extrusion was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanilline in alginate gel microbeads. The obtained microbeads with approx. 10 % w/w of ethyl vanilline encapsulated in about 2 % w/w alginate were uniformly sized spheres of about 450 ?m. Chemical characterization by H-NMR spectroscopy revealed that the algi...

  9. Utilization of macro encapsulated phase change materials for the development of thermal energy storage and structural lightweight aggregate concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, Shazim Ali; Cui, H.Z.; Zhang, Hang; Xing, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Compressive strength of LWAC with Paraffin–LWA was higher than 15 MPa. • Shrinkage strain with Paraffin–LWA reduced by 41.8%. • For outdoor testing, temperature at room center with Paraffin–LWA reduced by 2.9 °C. • Recovery period with Paraffin–LWA was less than average life span of building. • A reduction of 465 kg CO 2 -eq/year or 12.91 kg CO 2 -eq/year/m 2 was achieved. - Abstract: Structural–functional integrated materials are one of directions of rapid development for saving-energy materials. Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are latent thermal storage materials possessing a large amount of heat energy stored during its phase change stage. Porous lightweight aggregate (LWA) can serve as the carrier for PCM. In this research, a structural concrete with function of indoor temperature control were prepared by using macro encapsulated PCM–LWA. The indoor and outdoor tests were performed to determine the thermal performance of the lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) containing macro encapsulated Paraffin–LWA. The compressive strength and shrinkage strain of LWAC with macro encapsulated PCM–LWA were evaluated. Finally, the economic and environmental aspects of application of macro encapsulated Paraffin–LWA in a typical floor area of public housing rental flat in Hong Kong were assessed. From indoor thermal performance test, it was found that LWAC incorporated with macro encapsulated Paraffin–LWA has a function of reducing the energy consumption by decreasing the indoor temperature; flatten the fluctuation of indoor temperature and shifting the loads away from the peak periods. Moreover, from outdoor thermal performance test, it was found that the performance of macro encapsulated Paraffin–LWA in adjusting the room temperature was optimized when there was a remarkable temperature difference between the day and night. Test results showed that the compressive strengths of LWAC incorporating macro encapsulated Paraffin

  10. Efficient Asymmetric Index Encapsulation Scheme for Anonymous Content Centric Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Content Centric Networking (CCN is an effective communication paradigm that well matches the features of wireless environments. To be considered a viable candidate in the emerging wireless networks, despite the clear benefits of location-independent security, CCN must at least have parity with existing solutions for confidential and anonymous communication. This paper designs a new cryptographic scheme, called Asymmetric Index Encapsulation (AIE, that enables the router to test whether an encapsulated header matches the token without learning anything else about both of them. We suggest using the AIE as the core protocol of anonymous Content Centric Networking. A construction of AIE which strikes a balance between efficiency and security is given. The scheme is proved to be secure based on the DBDH assumption in the random oracle with tight reduction, while the encapsulated header and the token in our system consist of only three elements.

  11. Encapsulation of black carrot juice using spray and freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, S; Kar, Abhijit; Mohapatra, Debabandya; Kalia, Pritam

    2015-12-01

    Black carrot juice extracted using pectinase enzyme was encapsulated in three different carrier materials (maltodextrin 20DE, gum arabic and tapioca starch) using spray drying at four inlet temperatures (150, 175, 200 and 225 ℃) and freeze drying at a constant temperature of - 53 ℃ and vacuum of 0.22-0.11 mbar with the constant feed mixture. The products were analyzed for total anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility index, encapsulation efficiency and total colour change. For both the drying methods followed in this study, maltodextrin 20DE as the carrier material has proven to be better in retaining maximum anthocyanin and antioxidant activity compared to gum arabic and tapioca starch. The best spray dried product, was obtained at 150 ℃. The most acceptable was the freeze dried product with maximum anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility index, encapsulation efficiency and colour change. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Single-step laser-based fabrication and patterning of cell-encapsulated alginate microbeads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingsley, D M; Dias, A D; Corr, D T; Chrisey, D B

    2013-01-01

    Alginate can be used to encapsulate mammalian cells and for the slow release of small molecules. Packaging alginate as microbead structures allows customizable delivery for tissue engineering, drug release, or contrast agents for imaging. However, state-of-the-art microbead fabrication has a limited range in achievable bead sizes, and poor control over bead placement, which may be desired to localize cellular signaling or delivery. Herein, we present a novel, laser-based method for single-step fabrication and precise planar placement of alginate microbeads. Our results show that bead size is controllable within 8%, and fabricated microbeads can remain immobilized within 2% of their target placement. Demonstration of this technique using human breast cancer cells shows that cells encapsulated within these microbeads survive at a rate of 89.6%, decreasing to 84.3% after five days in culture. Infusing rhodamine dye into microbeads prior to fluorescent microscopy shows their 3D spheroidal geometry and the ability to sequester small molecules. Microbead fabrication and patterning is compatible with conventional cellular transfer and patterning by laser direct-write, allowing location-based cellular studies. While this method can also be used to fabricate microbeads en masse for collection, the greatest value to tissue engineering and drug delivery studies and applications lies in the pattern registry of printed microbeads. (paper)

  13. NANOEMULSIFIKASI SPONTAN EKSTRAK JINTAN HITAM DAN KARAKTERISTIK PRODUK ENKAPSULASINYA [Spontaneous Nanoemulsification of Black Cumin Extract and the Characteristics of the Encapsulation Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovie Farah Diba1*

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on the use of low energy nano technology on black cumin is still limited. Encapsulation of black cumin extract nanoemulsion has been developed and the products have been characterized. The aims of this study were to determine the extraction method of the black cumin seed, produce black cumin extract nanoemulsion by spontaneous emulsification technique, and produce encapsulated black cumin extract nanoemulsion. Three steps of experiments were done in this study, i.e. extraction, nanoemulsification and encapsulation. In the first step, extraction was done using maceration and reflux methods and the best result was sent to the next step. Second, a spontaneous nanoemulsification was performed using organic phase (ethanol 70%, and water phase (Tween 80 solution at 1, 2 and 3% w/w to produce the best nanoemulsion. Finally, the best nanoemulsion based on size, homogeneity, and stability of the particles, was encapsulated using two different encapsulating material compositions, i.e. maltodextrin (100% and a combination of maltodextrin and soy protein isolate at a ratio of 80 : 20 (w/w. The results showed that the three-hour reflux method produced better black cumin extract properties than that of maceration. Use of 3% surfactant gave a stable nanoemulsion with average droplet size of 10.93 nm. Reconstitution of the encapsulated nanoemulsion resulted in products with more spherical globules, indicating an efficient encapsulation process. The combination of of maltodextrin and soy protein isolate provided a better preservation of phenolic content and antioxidant capacity as compared to the use of maltodextrin alone.

  14. Encapsulation of Mg-Zr alloy in metakaolin-based geo-polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooses, Adrien; Steins, Prune; Dannoux-Papin, Adeline; Lambertin, David; Poulesquen, Arnaud; Frizon, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to propose a suitable material for the encapsulation of Mg-Zr alloy wastes issued from fuel cladding of the first generation nuclear reactors. Stability over time, good mechanical properties and low gas production are the main requirements that embedding matrices must comply with in order to be suitable for long run storage. One of the main issues encapsulating Mg-Zr alloy in mineral binder is the hydrogen production related to Mg-Zr alloys corrosion and water radiolysis process. In this context, metakaolin geo-polymers offer an interesting outlook: corrosion densities of Mg-Zr alloys are significantly lower than in Portland cement. This work firstly presents the hydrogen production of Mg-Zr alloy embedded in geo-polymers prepared from different the activation solution (NaOH or KOH). The effect of addition of fluorine on the magnesium corrosion in geo-polymer has been investigated too. The results point out that sodium geo-polymer is a suitable binder for Mg-Zr alloy encapsulation with respect to magnesium corrosion resistance. Furthermore the presence of fluorine reduces significantly the hydrogen release. Then, the impact of fluorine on the geo-polymer network formation was studied by rheological, calorimetric and 19 F NMR measurements. No direct effect resulting from the addition of fluorine has been shown on the geo-polymer binder. Secondly, the formulation of the encapsulation matrix has been adjusted to fulfil the expected physical and mechanical properties. Observations, dimensional evolutions and compressive strengths demonstrated that addition of sand to the geo-polymer binder is efficient to meet the storage criteria. Consequently, a matrix formulation compatible with Mg-Zr alloy encapsulation has been proposed. Finally, irradiation tests have been carried out to assess the hydrogen radiolytic yield of the matrix under exposure to γ radiation. (authors)

  15. Encapsulation and handling of spent nuclear fuel for final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennerberg, B.; Larker, H.; Ageskog, L.

    1983-05-01

    The handling and embedding of those metal parts which arrive to the encapsulation station with the fuel is described. For the encapsulation of fuel two alternatives are presented, both with copper canisters but with filling of lead and copper powder respectively. The sealing method in the first case is electron beam welding, in the second case hot isostatic pressing. This has given the headline of the two chapters describing the methods: Welded copper canister and Pressed copper canister. Chapter 1, Welded copper canister, presents the handling of the fuel when it arrives to the encapsulation station, where it is first placed in a buffer pool. From this pool the fuel is transferred to the encapsulation process and thereby separated from fuel boxes and boron glass rod bundles, which are transported together with the fuel. The encapsulation process comprises charging into a copper canister, filling with molten lead, electron beam welding of the lid and final inspection. The transport to and handling in the final repository are described up to the deposition and sealing in the deposition hole. Handling of fuel residues is treated in one of the sections. In chapter 2, Pressed copper canister, only those parts of the handling, which differ from chapter 1 are described. The hot isostatic pressing process is given in the first sections. The handling includes drying, charging into the canister, filling with copper powder, seal lid application and hot isostatic pressing before the final inspection and deposition. In the third chapter, BWR boxes in concrete moulds, the handling of the metal parts, separated from the fuel, are dealt with. After being lifted from the buffer pool they are inserted in a concrete mould, the mould is filled with concrete, covered with a lid and after hardening transferred to its own repository. The deposition in this repository is described. (author)

  16. Stability Comparison of Free and Encapsulated Lactobacilus casei ATCC 393 in Yoghurt for Long Time Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Lelia POP

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An innovative method of L. casei ATCC 393 encapsulation has been reported in the present study using pectin combined with alginate. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of encapsulation on the survival of L. casei ATCC 393 in yoghurt during long time storage, free or encapsulated in alginate and alginate pectin microspheres, and influence over yoghurt properties, particularly acidification. Over 35 days of storage in yoghurt, the encapsulated probiotic cells proved a higher viability compared with free probiotic cells. An even higher viability and stability was observed for the samples where pectin was used. Pectin acts as prebiotic during encapsulation of L. casei ATCC 393.

  17. Effect of cationic grafted copolymer structure on the encapsulation of bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, Nicholas; Topal, Ç. Özge; Hikkaduwa Koralege, Rangika S.; Hartson, Steve; Ranjan, Ashish; Liu, Jing; Pope, Carey; Ramsey, Joshua D.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate a library of poly-L-lysine (PLL)-graft (g)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) copolymers for the ability to encapsulate effectively a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and to characterize the stability and protein function of the resulting nanoparticle. A library of nine grafted copolymers was produced by varying PLL molecular weight and PEG grafting ratio. Electrostatic self-assembly of the protein and the grafted copolymer drove encapsulation. The formation of protein/polymer nanoparticles with a core/shell structure was confirmed using PAGE, dynamic light scattering, and electron microscopy. Encapsulation of the BSA into nanoparticles was strongly dependent on the copolymer-to-protein mass ratio, PEG grafting ratio, and PLL molecular weight. A copolymer-to-protein mass ratio of 7:1 and higher was generally required for high levels of encapsulation, and under these conditions, no loss of protein activity was observed. Copolymer characteristics also influenced nanoparticle resistance to polyanions and protease degradation. The results indicate that a copolymer of 15–30 kDa PLL, with a PEG grafting ratio of 10:1, is most promising for protein delivery. - Highlights: • A 4–70 kDa range of PLL-g-PEG copolymers was able to encapsulate BSA into NPs. • Encapsulation of BSA by PLL-g-PEG not only retained but increased esterolytic activity. • NPs were stable against protease degradation and polyanion dissociation.

  18. Effect of cationic grafted copolymer structure on the encapsulation of bovine serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Nicholas [School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Topal, Ç. Özge [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Hikkaduwa Koralege, Rangika S. [School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Hartson, Steve [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Ranjan, Ashish; Liu, Jing; Pope, Carey [Department of Physiological Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Ramsey, Joshua D., E-mail: josh.ramsey@okstate.edu [School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate a library of poly-L-lysine (PLL)-graft (g)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) copolymers for the ability to encapsulate effectively a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and to characterize the stability and protein function of the resulting nanoparticle. A library of nine grafted copolymers was produced by varying PLL molecular weight and PEG grafting ratio. Electrostatic self-assembly of the protein and the grafted copolymer drove encapsulation. The formation of protein/polymer nanoparticles with a core/shell structure was confirmed using PAGE, dynamic light scattering, and electron microscopy. Encapsulation of the BSA into nanoparticles was strongly dependent on the copolymer-to-protein mass ratio, PEG grafting ratio, and PLL molecular weight. A copolymer-to-protein mass ratio of 7:1 and higher was generally required for high levels of encapsulation, and under these conditions, no loss of protein activity was observed. Copolymer characteristics also influenced nanoparticle resistance to polyanions and protease degradation. The results indicate that a copolymer of 15–30 kDa PLL, with a PEG grafting ratio of 10:1, is most promising for protein delivery. - Highlights: • A 4–70 kDa range of PLL-g-PEG copolymers was able to encapsulate BSA into NPs. • Encapsulation of BSA by PLL-g-PEG not only retained but increased esterolytic activity. • NPs were stable against protease degradation and polyanion dissociation.

  19. Encapsulation of nanoparticles into single-crystal ZnO nanorods and microrods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhang Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional single crystal incorporating functional nanoparticles of other materials could be an interesting platform for various applications. We studied the encapsulation of nanoparticles into single-crystal ZnO nanorods by exploiting the crystal growth of ZnO in aqueous solution. Two types of nanodiamonds with mean diameters of 10 nm and 40 nm, respectively, and polymer nanobeads with size of 200 nm have been used to study the encapsulation process. It was found that by regrowing these ZnO nanorods with nanoparticles attached to their surfaces, a full encapsulation of nanoparticles into nanorods can be achieved. We demonstrate that our low-temperature aqueous solution growth of ZnO nanorods do not affect or cause degradation of the nanoparticles of either inorganic or organic materials. This new growth method opens the way to a plethora of applications combining the properties of single crystal host and encapsulated nanoparticles. We perform micro-photoluminescence measurement on a single ZnO nanorod containing luminescent nanodiamonds and the spectrum has a different shape from that of naked nanodiamonds, revealing the cavity effect of ZnO nanorod.

  20. Niosomal encapsulation of ethambutol hydrochloride for increasing its efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ridy, Mohammed Shafik; Yehia, Soad Aly; Kassem, Mahfouz Abd-El-Megeid; Mostafa, Dina Mahmoud; Nasr, Essam Amin; Asfour, Marwa Hasanin

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a worldwide health concern. In 2011, about 8.7 million new cases developed TB and 1.4 million people died from it. Enhancement of ethambutol hydrochloride activity and safety in treatment of TB through niosomal encapsulation. Niosomes were prepared by the thin-film hydration method. They were characterized, investigated for in vitro release, lung disposition and in vivo biological evaluation. Entrapment efficiency of ethambutol hydrochloride ranged from 12.20% to 25.81%. Zeta potential values inferred stability of neutral and negatively charged formulations. In vitro release was biphasic. Lung targeting was increased by niosomal encapsulation. Biological evaluation revealed superiority of niosomal ethambutol hydrochloride over the free drug. Neutral and negatively charged niosomal vesicles are dispersed homogenously unlike positively charged vesicles. Niosomal encapsulation results in controlled drug release. Niosomal formulations targeted more drugs to mice lungs for a prolonged period of time resulting in: decreased root-specific lung weight, bacterial counts in lung homogenates and optimizing pathological effect on guinea pigs lungs, livers and spleens. Encapsulation of ethambutol hydrochloride in niosomal formulations for the treatment of TB provides higher efficacy and safety compared with the free drug.

  1. Defining Threshold Values of Encapsulant and Backsheet Adhesion for PV Module Reliability: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosco, Nicholas S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eafanti, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tracy, Jared [Stanford University; Dauskardt, Reinhold [Stanford University

    2017-08-28

    The width-tapered cantilever beam method is used to quantify the debond energy (adhesion) of encapsulant and backsheet structures of 27 modules collected from the field. The collected population of modules contains both those that have remained in-tact and those with instances of either or both encapsulant and backsheet delamination. From this survey, initial threshold values (an adhesion value above which a module should remain intact throughout its lifetime) for encapsulant and backsheet interfaces are proposed. For encapsulants this value is about 60 J/m2 and for backsheets about 20 J/m2. It is expected that these values will continue to be refined and evolve as the width-tapered cantilever beam method becomes adopted by the PV industry, and that they may aid in the future improvement of accelerated lifetime tests and the development of new, low-cost materials.

  2. Stability of encapsulated beef-like flavourings prepared from enzymatically hydrolysed mushroom proteins with other precursors under conventional and microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfy, Shereen N; Fadel, Hoda H M; El-Ghorab, Ahmed H; Shaheen, Mohamed S

    2015-11-15

    A comparative study was carried out between two beef-like flavourings prepared by conventional and microwave heating (CBF and MBF) of enzymatic hydrolysate of mushroom protein with other flavour precursors. GC-MS analysis of the isolated volatiles revealed that the thiol containing compounds were the predominate in both samples. However, MBF comprised higher concentration of these compounds (13.84 ± 0.06%) than CBF (10.74 ± 0.06%). The effect of microencapsulation with gum Arabic by using spray drying on the odour profile and volatile compounds of the two encapsulated samples (E-CBF and E-MBF) was investigated. The results revealed significant qualitative and quantitative variations in the volatiles of both samples. The highly volatile compounds decreased remarkably in concentration with encapsulation, while the pyrazines, thiazoles and disulphides showed opposite trend. The significant decrease in the thiol containing compounds in E-CBF and E-MBF were attributed to their oxidation to other compounds such as disulphide compounds which showed significant increase in the encapsulated samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative studies on osmosis based encapsulation of sodium diclofenac in porcine and outdated human erythrocyte ghosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukara, Katarina; Drvenica, Ivana; Ilić, Vesna; Stančić, Ana; Mišić, Danijela; Vasić, Borislav; Gajić, Radoš; Vučetić, Dušan; Kiekens, Filip; Bugarski, Branko

    2016-12-20

    The objective of our study was to develop controlled drug delivery system based on erythrocyte ghosts for amphiphilic compound sodium diclofenac considering the differences between erythrocytes derived from two readily available materials - porcine slaughterhouse and outdated transfusion human blood. Starting erythrocytes, empty erythrocyte ghosts and diclofenac loaded ghosts were compared in terms of the encapsulation efficiency, drug releasing profiles, size distribution, surface charge, conductivity, surface roughness and morphology. The encapsulation of sodium diclofenac was performed by an osmosis based process - gradual hemolysis. During this process sodium diclofenac exerted mild and delayed antihemolytic effect and increased potassium efflux in porcine but not in outdated human erythrocytes. FTIR spectra revealed lack of any membrane lipid disorder and chemical reaction with sodium diclofenac in encapsulated ghosts. Outdated human erythrocyte ghosts with detected nanoscale damages and reduced ability to shrink had encapsulation efficiency of only 8%. On the other hand, porcine erythrocyte ghosts had encapsulation efficiency of 37% and relatively slow drug release rate. More preserved structure and functional properties of porcine erythrocytes related to their superior encapsulation and release performances, define them as more appropriate for the usage in sodium diclofenac encapsulation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Alginate micro-encapsulation of mesenchymal stromal cells enhances modulation of the neuro-inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Elizabeth C; Schloss, Rene S; Yarmush, Martin L; Shreiber, David I

    2015-10-01

    Modulation of inflammation after brain trauma is a key therapeutic goal aimed at limiting the consequences of the subsequent injury cascade. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to dynamically regulate the inflammatory environment in several tissue systems, including the central nervous system. There has been limited success, however, with the use of direct implantation of cells in the brain caused by low viability and engraftment at the injury site. To circumvent this, we encapsulated MSCs in alginate microspheres and evaluated the ability of these encapsulated MSCs to attenuate inflammation in rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC). OHSC were administered lipopolysaccharide to induce inflammation and immediately co-cultured with encapsulated or monolayer human MSCs. After 24 h, culture media was assayed for the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) produced by OHSC, as well as MSC-produced trophic mediators. Encapsulated MSCs reduced TNF-α more effectively than did monolayer MSCs. Additionally, there was a strong correlation between increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and reduction of TNF-α. In contrast to monolayer MSCs, inflammatory signals were not required to stimulate PGE2 production by encapsulated MSCs. Further encapsulation-stimulated changes were revealed in a multiplex panel analyzing 27 MSC-produced cytokines and growth factors, from which additional mediators with strong correlations to TNF-α levels were identified. These results suggest that alginate encapsulation of MSCs may not only provide an improved delivery vehicle for transplantation but may also enhance MSC therapeutic benefit for treating neuro-inflammation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Nutritional management of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: intradialytic parenteral nutrition, nutritional management, encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis ... reflection of fluid retention and the underlying inflammatory process, ... The patient appeared weak and frail, with severe generalised muscle ... was recommended on diagnosis of EPS to prevent further peritoneal.

  6. Oil encapsulation in core-shell alginate capsules by inverse gelation II: comparison between dripping techniques using W/O or O/W emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Evandro; Poncelet, Denis; Rodrigues, Ramila Cristiane; Renard, Denis

    2017-09-01

    In the first part of this article, it was described an innovative method of oil encapsulation from dripping-inverse gelation using water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions. It was noticed that the method of oil encapsulation was quite different depending on the emulsion type (W/O or oil-in-water (O/W)) used and that the emulsion structure (W/O or O/W) had a high impact on the dripping technique and the capsules characteristics. The objective of this article was to elucidate the differences between the dripping techniques using both emulsions and compare the capsule properties (mechanical resistance and release of actives). The oil encapsulation using O/W emulsions was easier to perform and did not require the use of emulsion destabilisers. However, capsules produced from W/O emulsions were more resistant to compression and showed the slower release of actives over time. The findings detailed here widened the knowledge of the inverse gelation and gave opportunities to develop new techniques of oil encapsulation.

  7. Human bone marrow stem cell-encapsulating calcium phosphate scaffolds for bone repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Michael D.; Xu, Hockin H.K.

    2010-01-01

    Due to its injectability and excellent osteoconductivity, calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is highly promising for orthopedic applications. However, a literature search revealed no report on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (hBMSC) encapsulation in CPC for bone tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to encapsulate hBMSCs in alginate hydrogel beads and then incorporate them into CPC, CPC–chitosan and CPC–chitosan–fiber scaffolds. Chitosan and degradable fibers were used to mechanically reinforce the scaffolds. After 21 days, that the percentage of live cells and the cell density of hBMSCs inside CPC-based constructs matched those in alginate without CPC, indicating that the CPC setting reaction did not harm the hBMSCs. Alkaline phosphate activity increased by 8-fold after 14 days. Mineral staining, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction confirmed that apatitic mineral was deposited by the cells. The amount of hBMSC-synthesized mineral in CPC–chitosan–fiber matched that in CPC without chitosan and fibers. Hence, adding chitosan and fibers, which reinforced the CPC, did not compromise hBMSC osteodifferentiation and mineral synthesis. In conclusion, hBMSCs were encapsulated in CPC and CPC–chitosan–fiber scaffolds for the first time. The encapsulated cells remained viable, osteodifferentiated and synthesized bone minerals. These self-setting, hBMSC-encapsulating CPC-based constructs may be promising for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:20451676

  8. Encapsulation in alginate-skim milk microspheres improves viability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus in stimulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ling-Xia; Fang, Xiu-Juan; Yu, Zhen; Xin, Yang; Liu, Xiao-Ying; Shi, Lu-E; Tang, Zhen-Xing

    2013-05-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) was encapsulated in alginate-skim milk microspheres. Characteristics of encapsulated L. bulgaricus, such as pH stability, bile stability, storage stability and release property, were studied in this paper. The viability of free L. bulgaricus was not observed after 1 min in simulated gastric fluids (SGF) at pH 2.5 or 2.0. Compared with that of free L. bulgaricus, the viability of encapsulated L. bulgaricus only decreased 0.7 log CFU/g and 2 log CFU/g after 2.0 h incubation in SGF at pH 2.5 and pH 2.0, respectively. L. bulgaricus was also sensitive to bile solution. The viability of free L. bulgaricus was fully lost after 1 h incubation in 1 and 2% bile solution, while the viability of encapsulated L. bulgaricus was only lost 2 log CFU/g and 2.6 log CFU/g in 1 and 2% bile solution at the same time, respectively. Encapsulated L. bulgaricus could be completely released from microspheres in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 6.8) within 2 h. The viability of encapsulated L. bulgaricus retained around 8 log CFU/g when stored at 4°C for 30 days. The current encapsulation technique enables a large proportion of L. bulgaricus to remain good bioactive in a simulated gastrointestinal tract environment.

  9. Encapsulation of protease from Aspergillus oryzae and lipase from Thermomyces lanuginoseus using alginate and different copolymer types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Thi Mong Thu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the application of enzymes in food as a food processing aid and enzyme supplement is of interest and widely used, the enzymes can be easily deactivated or lose their activity due to many causes such as pH and moisture as well as through the introduction of incompatible ingredients during food processing and storage. These problems can be solved by the encapsulation technique, especially in a gel matrix. The influences were studied of the alginate concentration, types of copolymer and their concentrations on the bead size, encapsulation yield (EY, encapsulation efficiency (EE, leakage and the retention of enzyme activity during storage period of encapsulated protease from Aspergillus oryzae and lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus beads. A solution of purified protease or lipase was encapsulated in calcium alginate-chitosan beads (CACB, calcium alginate-xanthan gum beads (CAXB and calcium alginate-maltodextrin beads (CAMB using the extrusion method. Increasing the alginate and copolymer concentrations in the solution increased the bead size, EY, EE and the retention of enzyme activity during the storage period and reduced leakage of both the encapsulated protease and lipase. In addition, different types of copolymer significantly (p ≤ 0.05 affected these properties of both encapsulated enzymes. Furthermore, protease encapsulated using 2.0% alginate and 0.2% chitosan provided the highest EY (81.7% and EE (77.2% with a bead size of 1.85 mm and 8.1% leakage. The retention of encapsulated protease activity and the shelf-life of encapsulated enzyme which was expressed as half-life, the time required for the enzyme activity to decrease by half (thalf life were 75.8% and 27.2 wk, respectively after storage at 4 °C for 10 wk. For lipase, encapsulation using 2.0% alginate and 0.4% xanthan gum provided the highest EY (42.5% and EE (43.9% and the bead size and leakage were 1.81 mm and 6.2%, respectively. The retention of encapsulated

  10. Encapsulation of phytosterols and phytosterol esters in liposomes made with soy phospholipids by high pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan C; Acevedo, Nuria; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2017-11-15

    Phytosterols and phytosterol esters were encapsulated within large unilamellar liposomes prepared with soy phospholipids using a microfluidizer. The average particle diameter of these liposomal vesicles increased with increasing amounts of encapsulated phytosterols, especially with increasing free sterol content. The phytosterol content, liposomal particle size, and phytosterol encapsulation efficiency started to plateau when liposomes were prepared with MOPS buffer dispersions that contained 50 mg ml -1 soy phospholipid and more than 4% phytosterol blend, suggesting the saturation of phytosterol encapsulation. We proposed an encapsulation mechanism of free sterols and phytosterol esters in liposomes, where free sterols were mainly encapsulated within the lumen of these liposomes as crystals, and sterol esters and some free sterols were incorporated within the phospholipid bilayer of the liposomal membrane. The results from this work could provide the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries a practical method to produce loaded liposomes using inexpensive phospholipid mixtures for the delivery of bioactive ingredients.

  11. Unique coexistence of dispersion stability and nanoparticle chemisorption in alkylamine/alkylacid encapsulated silver nanocolloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoshima, Keisuke; Hirakawa, Yuya; Togashi, Takanari; Kurihara, Masato; Arai, Shunto; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2018-04-17

    Surface encapsulation of metal nanoparticles (NPs) is fundamental to achieve sufficient dispersion stability of metal nanocolloids, or metal nanoink. However, the feature is incompatible with surface reactive nature of the metal NPs, although these features are both essential to realizing the functional applications into printed electronics technologies. Here we show that two different kinds of encapsulation for silver NPs (AgNPs) by alkylamine and alkylacid together are the key to achieve unique compatibility between the high dispersion stability as dense nanoclolloids and the AgNP chemisorption printing on activated patterned polymer surfaces. Advanced confocal dynamic light scattering study reveals that an additive trace amount of oleic acid is the critical parameter for controlling the dispersion and coagulative (or surface-reactive) characteristics of the silver nanocolloids. The composition of the disperse media is also important for obtaining highly concentrated but low-viscosity silver nanocolloids that show very stable dispersion. The results demonstrate that the high-resolution AgNP chemisorption printing is possible only by using unique silver nanocolloids composed of an exceptional balance of ligand formulation and dispersant composition.

  12. Nano- and micro-structured assemblies for encapsulation of food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Mary Ann; Hemar, Yacine

    2009-04-01

    This tutorial review provides an overview of the science of food materials and encapsulation techniques that underpin the development of delivery vehicles for functional food components, nutrients and bioactives. Examples of how the choice of materials, formulation and process affect the structure of micro- and nano-encapsulated ingredients and the release of the core are provided. The review is of relevance to chemists, material scientists, food scientists, engineers and nutritionists who are interested in addressing delivery challenges in the food and health industries.

  13. [Encapsulation of a mechatronic implant that restores the ability to accommodate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinschmitt, L; Gengenbach, U; Bretthauer, G

    2010-12-01

    In order to restore the ability of accommodation of the human eye, a lens implant manufactured by micro system technology can be used. This highly integrated Artificial Accommodation System contains sensitive electronics as well as moving components in order to adapt its refractive power. One challenge of the production of this system is the encapsulation. It has to be a biocompatible and long-term reliable package. In this paper the advantages of a hermetic glass package over other approaches of encapsulation are introduced. Concepts of production for a glass package are presented. The package is thereby optimised to be placed in the optical path of the eye, but it can also be used for the encapsulation of other implants. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Emergence of DNA-encapsulating liposomes from a DNA-lipid blend film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimobayashi, Shunsuke; Hishida, Mafumi; Kurimura, Tomo; Ichikawa, Masatoshi

    A Micro-scale giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) densely encapsulating molecular systems is one of the simplest life-mimicking model systems. The dehydration-rehydration process proposed by Deamer et al. more than 30 years ago generates vesicles to satisfy the constraints of micro-scale size, unilamellarity and densely polymer-encapsulation. Nevertheless, the physico-chemical mechanism of a set of dehydration-rehydration process has been poorly understood. The present study reveals crucial factors on the process through fluorescent microscopic observation and small angle x-ray scattering. From the results, we propose a plausible physical mechanism for the process, making it possible to optimize the encapsulation of any agent This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows Grant (No. 25-1270) and by KAKENHI (Nos. 26707020, 25103012, and 26115709).

  15. Randomized clinical trial of encapsulated and hand-mixed glass-ionomer ART restorations: one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Maria Cristina Carvalho de Almendra; Fagundes, Ticiane Cestari; Modena, Karin Cristina da Silva; Cardia, Guilherme Saintive; Navarro, Maria Fidela de Lima

    2018-01-18

    This prospective, randomized, split-mouth clinical trial evaluated the clinical performance of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC; Riva Self-Cure, SDI), supplied in capsules or in powder/liquid kits and placed in Class I cavities in permanent molars by the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach. A total of 80 restorations were randomly placed in 40 patients aged 11-15 years. Each patient received one restoration with each type of GIC. The restorations were evaluated after periods of 15 days (baseline), 6 months, and 1 year, according to ART criteria. Wilcoxon matched pairs, multivariate logistic regression, and Gehan-Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical analysis. Patients were evaluated after 15 days (n=40), 6 months (n=34), and 1 year (n=29). Encapsulated GICs showed significantly superior clinical performance compared with hand-mixed GICs at baseline (p=0.017), 6 months (p=0.001), and 1 year (p=0.026). For hand-mixed GIC, a statistically significant difference was only observed over the period of baseline to 1 year (p=0.001). Encapsulated GIC presented statistically significant differences for the following periods: 6 months to 1 year (p=0.028) and baseline to 1 year (p=0.002). Encapsulated GIC presented superior cumulative survival rate than hand-mixed GIC over one year. Importantly, both GICs exhibited decreased survival over time. Encapsulated GIC promoted better ART performance, with an annual failure rate of 24%; in contrast, hand-mixed GIC demonstrated a failure rate of 42%.

  16. Human embryonic stem cell-encapsulation in alginate microbeads in macroporous calcium phosphate cement for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Minghui; Chen, Wenchuan; Weir, Michael D.; Thein-Han, Wahwah; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2012-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are exciting for regenerative medicine applications because of their strong proliferative ability and multilineage differentiation capability. To date there has been no report on hESC seeding with calcium phosphate cement (CPC). The objective of this study was to investigate hESC-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hESCd-MSC) encapsulation in hydrogel microbeads in macroporous CPC for bone tissue engineering. hESCs were cultured to form embryoid bodies (EBs), and the MSCs were then migrated out of the EBs. hESCd-MSCs had surface markers characteristic of MSCs, with positive alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining when cultured in osteogenic medium. hESCd-MSCs were encapsulated in alginate at a density of 1 million cells/mL, with an average microbead size of 207 µm. CPC contained mannitol porogen to create a porosity of 64% and macropores with size of 218 µm, with 20% absorbable fibers for additional porosity when the fibers degrade. hESCd-MSCs encapsulated in microbeads in CPC had good viability from 1 to 21 d. ALP gene expression at 21 d was 25-fold that at 1 d. Osteocalcin (OC) at 21 d was two orders of magnitude of that at 1 d. ALP activity in colorimetric p-nitrophenyl phosphate assay at 21 d was 5-fold that at 1 d. Mineral synthesis by the encapsulated hESCd-MSCs at 21 d was 7-fold that at 1 d. Potential benefits of the CPC-stem cell paste include injectability, intimate adaptation to complex-shaped bone defects, ease in contouring to achieve esthetics in maxillofacial repairs, and in situ setting ability. In conclusion, hESCd-MSCs were encapsulated in alginate microbeads in macroporous CPC showing good cell viability, osteogenic differentiation and mineral synthesis for the first time. The hESCd-MSC-encapsulating macroporous CPC construct is promising for bone regeneration in a wide range of orthopedic and maxillofacial applications. PMID:22633970

  17. Sol-gel encapsulation of pullulanase in the presence of hybrid magnetic (Fe3O4-chitosan) nanoparticles improves thermal and operational stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jie; Li, Xingfei; Zhan, Xiaobei; Xu, Xueming; Tian, Yaoqi; Xie, Zhengjun; Jin, Zhengyu

    2017-06-01

    Pullulanase was sol-gel encapsulated in the presence of magnetic chitosan/Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. The resulting immobilized pullulanase was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that the addition of pullulanase created a more regular surface on the sol-gel matrix and an enhanced magnetic response to an applied magnetic field. The maximal activity retention (83.9%) and specific activity (291.7 U/mg) of the immobilized pullulanase were observed under optimized conditions including an octyltriethoxysilane:tetraethoxysilane (OTES:TEOS) ratio of 1:2 and enzyme concentration of 0.484 mg/mL sol. The immobilized enzyme exhibited good thermal stability. When the temperature was above 60 °C, the immobilized pullulanase showed significantly higher activity than the free enzyme (p sol-gel encapsulation and co-immobilized by crosslinking-encapsulation retained 52 and 69% of their initial activity after 5 h at 62 °C, respectively, compared to 11% for the free enzyme. Moreover, the stability of the pullulanase was improved by crosslinking-encapsulation, as the enzyme retained more than 85 and 81% of its original activity after 5 and 6 consecutive reuses, respectively, compared to 80 and 72% of its original activity for simple sol-gel encapsulated enzymes. This indicated the leakage of enzyme molecules through the pores of the gel was substantially abated by cross-linking. Such immobilized pullulanase provides high stability and ease of enzyme recovery, characteristics that are advantageous for applications in the food industry that involve continuous starch processing.

  18. Encapsulation of Adenovirus Serotype 5 in Anionic Lecithin Liposomes using a Bead-Based Immunoprecipitation Technique Enhances Transfection Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, N.; Herrera, V.; Zhang, L.; Hedjran, F.; Feuer, R.; Blair, S.; Trogler, W.; Reid, T.

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) constitute a promising class of cancer therapeutics which exploit validated genetic pathways known to be deregulated in many cancers. To overcome an immune response and to enhance its potential use to treat primary and metastatic tumors, a method for liposomal encapsulation of adenovirus has been developed. The encapsulation of adenovirus in non-toxic anionic lecithin-cholesterol-PEG liposomes ranging from 140–180nm in diameter have been prepared by self-assembly around the viral capsid. The encapsulated viruses retain their ability to infect cancer cells. Furthermore, an immunoprecipitation (IP) technique has shown to be a fast and effective method to extract non-encapsulated viruses and homogenize the liposomes remaining in solution. 78% of adenovirus plaque forming units were encapsulated and retained infectivity after IP processing. Additionally, encapsulated viruses have shown enhanced transfection efficiency up to 4× higher compared to non-encapsulated Ads. Extracting non-encapsulated viruses from solution may prevent an adverse in vivo immune response and may enhance treatment for multiple administrations. PMID:25154663

  19. Encapsulation of adenovirus serotype 5 in anionic lecithin liposomes using a bead-based immunoprecipitation technique enhances transfection efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Natalie; Herrera, Vanessa; Zhang, Lingzhi; Hedjran, Farah; Feuer, Ralph; Blair, Sarah L; Trogler, William C; Reid, Tony R; Kummel, Andrew C

    2014-11-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) constitute a promising class of cancer therapeutics which exploit validated genetic pathways known to be deregulated in many cancers. To overcome an immune response and to enhance its potential use to treat primary and metastatic tumors, a method for liposomal encapsulation of adenovirus has been developed. The encapsulation of adenovirus in non-toxic anionic lecithin-cholesterol-PEG liposomes ranging from 140 to 180 nm in diameter have been prepared by self-assembly around the viral capsid. The encapsulated viruses retain their ability to infect cancer cells. Furthermore, an immunoprecipitation (IP) technique has shown to be a fast and effective method to extract non-encapsulated viruses and homogenize the liposomes remaining in solution. 78% of adenovirus plaque forming units were encapsulated and retained infectivity after IP processing. Additionally, encapsulated viruses have shown enhanced transfection efficiency up to 4 × higher compared to non-encapsulated Ads. Extracting non-encapsulated viruses from solution may prevent an adverse in vivo immune response and may enhance treatment for multiple administrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Secure Hybrid Encryption from Weakened Key Encapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Hofheinz (Dennis); E. Kiltz (Eike); A. Menezes

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe put forward a new paradigm for building hybrid encryption schemes from constrained chosen-ciphertext secure (CCCA) key-encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs) plus authenticated symmetric encryption. Constrained chosen-ciphertext security is a new security notion for KEMs that we propose. It

  1. Nonlinear oscillation and interfacial stability of an encapsulated microbubble under dual-frequency ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yunqiao [MOE Key Laboratory of Hydrodynamics, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Calvisi, Michael L [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, CO 80918, United States of America (United States); Wang, Qianxi, E-mail: yunqiaoliu@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Mathematics, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    Encapsulated microbubbles (EMBs) are widely used in medical ultrasound imaging as contrast-enhanced agents. However, the potential damaging effects of violent collapsing EMBs to cells and tissues in clinical settings have remained a concern. Dual-frequency ultrasound is a promising technique for improving the efficacy and safety of sonography. The system modeled consists of the external liquid, membrane and internal gases of an EMB. The microbubble dynamics are simulated using a simple nonlinear interactive theory, considering the compressibility of the internal gas, viscosity of the liquid flow and viscoelasticity of the membrane. The radial oscillation and interfacial stability of an EMB under single- and dual-frequency excitations are compared. The simulation results show that the dual-frequency technique produces larger backscatter pressure at higher harmonics of the primary driving frequency—this enriched acoustic spectrum can enhance blood-tissue contrast and improve the quality of sonographic images. The results further show that the acoustic pressure threshold associated with the onset of shape instability is greater for dual-frequency driving. This suggests that the dual-frequency technique stabilizes the encapsulated bubble, thereby improving the efficacy and safety of contrast-enhanced agents. (paper)

  2. Nootkatone encapsulation by cyclodextrins: Effect on water solubility and photostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfoury, Miriana; Landy, David; Ruellan, Steven; Auezova, Lizette; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Fourmentin, Sophie

    2017-12-01

    Nootkatone (NO) is a sesquiterpenoid volatile flavor, used in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, possessing also insect repellent activity. Its application is limited because of its low aqueous solubility and stability; this could be resolved by encapsulation in cyclodextrins (CDs). This study evaluated the encapsulation of NO by CDs using phase solubility studies, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy and molecular modeling. Solid CD/NO inclusion complex was prepared and characterized for encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity using UV-Visible. Thermal properties were investigated by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis and release studies were performed using multiple headspace extraction. Formation constants (K f ) proved the formation of stable inclusion complexes. NO aqueous solubility, photo- and thermal stability were enhanced and the release could be insured from solid complex in aqueous solution. This suggests that CDs are promising carrier to improve NO properties and, consequently, to enlarge its use in foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals preparations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Zeolite encapsulation of H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, S.; Lakner, J.F.

    1982-08-01

    Experiments with H 2 have shown that it is possible to encapsulate gases in the structure of certain molecular sieves. This method may offer a better means of temporarily storing and disposing of tritium over some others presently in use. The method may also prove safer, and may enable isotope separation, and removal of 3 He. Initial experiments were performed with H 2 to screen potential candidates for use with tritium

  4. Prolonged analgesic effect of PLGA-encapsulated bee venom on formalin-induced pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Injae; Kim, Beom-Soo; Lee, Hyejung; Lee, Kang-Min; Shim, Insop; Kang, Sung-Keel; Yin, Chang-Shick; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2009-10-01

    To enhance the medicinal activity of bee venom (BV) acupuncture, bee venom was loaded into biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (BV-PLGA-NPs) by a water-in-oil-in-water-emulsion/solvent-evaporation technique. Rat formalin tests were performed after subcutaneous injection of BV-PLGA-NPs to the Zusanli acupuncture point (ST36) at 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h before plantar injection of 2% formalin. BV-PLGA-NPs treatment showed comparable analgesic activity to typical BV acupuncture during the late phase, compared with saline-treated controls, and the analgesic effect lasted for 12h. PLGA-encapsulation was also effective in alleviating the edema induced by allergens in bee venom. These results indicate that PLGA-encapsulation provided a more prolonged effect of BV acupuncture treatment, while maintaining a comparable therapeutic effect.

  5. Poly(ester-anhydride):poly(beta-amino ester) micro- and nanospheres: DNA encapsulation and cellular transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Blaine A; Burdick, Jason A; Little, Steve R; Langer, Robert

    2005-11-04

    Poly(ester-anhydride) delivery devices allow flexibility regarding carrier dimensions (micro- versus nanospheres), degradation rate (anhydride versus ester hydrolysis), and surface labeling (through the anhydride functional unit), and were therefore tested for DNA encapsulation and transfection of a macrophage P388D1 cell line. Poly(l-lactic acid-co-sebacic anhydride) and poly(l-lactic acid-co-adipic anhydride) were synthesized through melt condensation, mixed with 25 wt.% poly(beta-amino ester), and formulated with plasmid DNA (encoding firefly luciferase) into micro- and nanospheres using a double emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. The micro- and nanospheres were then characterized (size, morphology, zeta potential, DNA release) and assayed for DNA encapsulation and cellular transfection over a range of poly(ester-anhydride) copolymer ratios. Poly(ester-anhydride):poly(beta-amino ester) composite microspheres (6-12 microm) and nanospheres (449-1031 nm), generated with copolymers containing between 0 and 25% total polyanhydride content, encapsulated plasmid DNA (>or=20% encapsulation efficiency). Within this polyanhydride range, poly(adipic anhydride) copolymers provided DNA encapsulation at an increased anhydride content (10%, microspheres; 10-25%, nanospheres) compared to poly(sebacic anhydride) copolymers (1%, microspheres and nanospheres) with cellular transfection correlating with the observed DNA encapsulation.

  6. Encapsulation of nodal cuttings and shoot tips for storage and exchange of cassava germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danso, K E; Ford-Lloyd, B V

    2003-04-01

    We report the encapsulation of in vitro-derived nodal cuttings or shoot tips of cassava in 3% calcium alginate for storage and germplasm exchange purposes. Shoot regrowth was not significantly affected by the concentration of sucrose in the alginate matrix while root formation was. In contrast, increasing the sucrose concentration in the calcium chloride polymerisation medium significantly reduced regrowth from encapsulated nodal cuttings of accession TME 60444. Supplementing the alginate matrix with increased concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid enhanced complete plant regrowth within 2 weeks. Furthermore, plant regrowth by encapsulated nodal cuttings and shoot tips was significantly affected by the duration of the storage period as shoot recovery decreased from almost 100% to 73.3% for encapsulated nodal cuttings and 94.4% to 60% for shoot tips after 28 days of storage. The high frequency of plant regrowth from alginate-coated micropropagules coupled with high viability percentage after 28 days of storage is highly encouraging for the exchange of cassava genetic resources. Such encapsulated micropropagules could be used as an alternative to synthetic seeds derived from somatic embryos.

  7. Secure Encapsulation and Publication of Biological Services in the Cloud Computing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weizhe; Wang, Xuehui; Lu, Bo; Kim, Tai-hoon

    2013-01-01

    Secure encapsulation and publication for bioinformatics software products based on web service are presented, and the basic function of biological information is realized in the cloud computing environment. In the encapsulation phase, the workflow and function of bioinformatics software are conducted, the encapsulation interfaces are designed, and the runtime interaction between users and computers is simulated. In the publication phase, the execution and management mechanisms and principles of the GRAM components are analyzed. The functions such as remote user job submission and job status query are implemented by using the GRAM components. The services of bioinformatics software are published to remote users. Finally the basic prototype system of the biological cloud is achieved. PMID:24078906

  8. Secure Encapsulation and Publication of Biological Services in the Cloud Computing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhe Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Secure encapsulation and publication for bioinformatics software products based on web service are presented, and the basic function of biological information is realized in the cloud computing environment. In the encapsulation phase, the workflow and function of bioinformatics software are conducted, the encapsulation interfaces are designed, and the runtime interaction between users and computers is simulated. In the publication phase, the execution and management mechanisms and principles of the GRAM components are analyzed. The functions such as remote user job submission and job status query are implemented by using the GRAM components. The services of bioinformatics software are published to remote users. Finally the basic prototype system of the biological cloud is achieved.

  9. Secure encapsulation and publication of biological services in the cloud computing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weizhe; Wang, Xuehui; Lu, Bo; Kim, Tai-hoon

    2013-01-01

    Secure encapsulation and publication for bioinformatics software products based on web service are presented, and the basic function of biological information is realized in the cloud computing environment. In the encapsulation phase, the workflow and function of bioinformatics software are conducted, the encapsulation interfaces are designed, and the runtime interaction between users and computers is simulated. In the publication phase, the execution and management mechanisms and principles of the GRAM components are analyzed. The functions such as remote user job submission and job status query are implemented by using the GRAM components. The services of bioinformatics software are published to remote users. Finally the basic prototype system of the biological cloud is achieved.

  10. Chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles encapsulated in PLGA nanofibers for siRNA delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Menglin; Gao, Shan; Dong, Mingdong

    2012-01-01

    Composite nanofibers of biodegradable poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) encapsulating chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by electrospinning. Acidic/alkaline hydrolysis and a bulk/surface degradation mechanism were investigated in order to achieve an optimized release profile...... for prolonged and efficient gene silencing. Thermo-controlled AFM in situ imaging not only revealed the integrity of the encapsulated chitosan/siRNA polyplex but also shed light on the decreasing Tg of PLGA on the fiber surfaces during release. A triphasic release profile based on bulk erosion was obtained at p......RNA transfection, where the encapsulated chitosan/siRNA NPs exhibited up to 50% EGFP gene silencing activity after 48 h post-transfection on H1299 cells....

  11. Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guloy, A.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the cementitious properties and agglomeration characteristics of coal conversion byproducts to encapsulate and immobilize hazardous waste materials. The intention was to establish an economical way of co-utilization and co-disposal of wastes. In addition, it may aid in the eradication of air pollution problems associated with the fine-powdery nature of fly ash. Encapsulation into agglomerates is a novel approach of treating toxic waste. Although encapsulation itself is not a new concept, existing methods employ high-cost resins that render them economically unfeasible. In this investigation, the toxic waste was contained in a concrete-like matrix whereby fly ash and other cementitious waste materials were utilized. The method incorporates the principles of solidification, stabilization and agglomeration. Another aspect of the study is the evaluation of the agglomeration as possible lightweight aggregates. Since fly ash is commercially used as an aggregate, it would be interesting to study the effect of incorporating toxic wastes in the strength development of the granules. In the investigation, the fly ash self-cementation process was applied to electroplating sludges as the toxic waste. The process hoped to provide a basis for delisting of the waste as hazardous and, thereby greatly minimize the cost of its disposal. Owing to the stringent regulatory requirements for hauling and disposal of hazardous waste, the cost of disposal is significant. The current practice for disposal is solidifying the waste with portland cement and dumping the hardened material in the landfill where the cost varies between $700--950/ton. Partially replacing portland cement with fly ash in concrete has proven beneficial, therefore applying the same principles in the treatment of toxic waste looked very promising

  12. Polyethylene encapsulation full-scale technology demonstration. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Lageraaen, P.R.

    1994-10-01

    A full-scale integrated technology demonstration of a polyethylene encapsulation process, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD), was conducted at the Environmental ampersand Waste Technology Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL.) in September 1994. As part of the Polymer Solidification National Effort, polyethylene encapsulation has been developed and tested at BNL as an alternative solidification technology for improved, cost-effective treatment of low-level radioactive (LLW), hazardous and mixed wastes. A fully equipped production-scale system, capable of processing 900 kg/hr (2000 lb/hr), has been installed at BNL. The demonstration covered all facets of the integrated processing system including pre-treatment of aqueous wastes, precise feed metering, extrusion processing, on-line quality control monitoring, and process control

  13. Encapsulation of biomaterials in porous glass-like matrices prepared via an aqueous colloidal sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dean-Mo; Chen, I-Wei

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for the encapsulation of biologically important proteins into transparent, porous silica matrices by an alcohol-free, aqueous, colloidal sol-gel process, and to the biological materials encapsulated thereby. The process is exemplified by studies involving encapsulated cytochrome c, catalase, myoglobin, and hemoglobin, although non-proteinaceous biomaterials, such as active DNA or RNA fragments, cells or even tissues, may also be encapsulated in accordance with the present methods. Conformation, and hence activity of the biomaterial, is successfully retained after encapsulation as demonstrated by optical characterization of the molecules, even after long-term storage. The retained conformation of the biomaterial is strongly correlated to both the rate of gelation and the subsequent drying speed of the encapsulatng matrix. Moreover, in accordance with this process, gelation is accelerated by the use of a higher colloidal solid concentration and a lower synthesis pH than conventional methods, thereby enhancing structural stability and retained conformation of the biomaterials. Thus, the invention also provides a remarkable improvement in retaining the biological activity of the encapsulated biomaterial, as compared with those involved in conventional alkoxide-based processes. It further provides new methods for the quantitative and qualitative detection of test substances that are reactive to, or catalyzed by, the active, encapsulated biological materials.

  14. Spectral perturbations from silicon diode detector encapsulation and shielding in photon fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Karin; Ahnesjö, Anders

    2010-11-01

    Silicon diodes are widely used as detectors for relative dose measurements in radiotherapy. The common manufacturing practice is to encapsulate the diodes in plastic for protection and to facilitate mounting in scanning devices. Diodes intended for use in photon fields commonly also have a shield of a high atomic number material (usually tungsten) integrated into the encapsulation to selectively absorb low-energy photons to which silicon diodes would otherwise over-response. However, new response models based on cavity theories and spectra calculations have been proposed for direct correction of the readout from unshielded (e.g., "electron") diodes used in photon fields. This raises the question whether it is correct to assume that the spectrum in a water phantom at the location of the detector cavity is not perturbed by the detector encapsulation materials. The aim of this work is to investigate the spectral effects of typical encapsulations, including shielding, used for clinical diodes. The effects of detector encapsulation of an unshielded and a shielded commercial diode on the spectra at the detector cavity location are studied through Monte Carlo simulations with PENELOPE-2005. Variance reduction based on correlated sampling is applied to reduce the CPU time needed for the simulations. The use of correlated sampling is found to be efficient and to not introduce any significant bias to the results. Compared to reference spectra calculated in water, the encapsulation for an unshielded diode is demonstrated to not perturb the spectrum, while a tungsten shielded diode caused not only the desired decrease in low-energy scattered photons but also a large increase of the primary electron fluence. Measurements with a shielded diode in a 6 MV photon beam proved that the shielding does not completely remove the field-size dependence of the detector response caused by the over-response from low-energy photons. Response factors of a properly corrected unshielded diode

  15. Observation and Characterization of Fragile Organometallic Molecules Encapsulated in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ogawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermally fragile tris(η5-cyclopentadienylerbium (ErCp3 molecules are encapsulated in single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs with high yield. We realized the encapsulation of ErCp3 with high filling ratio by using high quality SWCNTs at an optimized temperature under higher vacuum. Structure determination based on high-resolution transmission electron microscope observations together with the image simulations reveals the presence of almost free rotation of each ErCp3 molecule in SWCNTs. The encapsulation is also confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Trivalent character of Er ions (i.e., Er3+ is confirmed by X-ray absorption spectrum.

  16. Production of wrong-sign muons in neutrino-nucleon and antineutrino-nucleon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onipchuk, A.B.; Choban, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    We consider the contribution of the quasiparton mechanism to the production of wrong-sign muons in ν/sub μ/(nu-bar/sub μ/)N collisions. We obtain the ratios of the production cross sections of muons in the processes ν/sub μ/(nu-bar/sub μ/)N→μ + (μ - )+... and the inclusive cross sections, and compare them with experiment in the case of neutrino-nucleon interactions. We find the x and y distributions and the average kinematical characteristics of the scattered neutrino

  17. Characterization of a bonding-in-liquid technique for liquid encapsulation into MEMS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okayama, Yoshiyuki; Nakahara, Keijiro; Arouette, Xavier; Ninomiya, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Yasuaki; Orimo, Yoshinori; Hotta, Atsushi; Omiya, Masaki; Miki, Norihisa

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate and characterize a new bonding-in-liquid technique (BiLT) for the encapsulation of liquids in MEMS devices. Liquid encapsulation enables innovative MEMS devices with various functions exploiting the unique characteristics of liquids, such as high deformation and spherical shape due to surface tension. Interfusion of air bubbles, variation of the liquid quantity and leakage of the encapsulated liquid must be avoided, or device performance will deteriorate. In BiLT, two structural layers are passively aligned and brought into contact in a solution, and the encapsulation cavities are filled uniformly with liquid, without air bubbles. A UV-curable resin is used as an adhesive that does not require heat or vacuum to bond the layers, but UV irradiation. DI water, glycerin and phosphate buffer saline were successfully encapsulated in silicon structural layers with PDMS membranes. We experimentally evaluated the bond strengths and alignment accuracy of BiLT in order to provide crucial information for the application of this process to the packaging and/or manufacturing of MEMS devices. Since conventional aligners are not applicable to BiLT, we experimentally evaluated the accuracy of an in-solution passive alignment process, which made use of matching concave and convex structures.

  18. Dystopian Schools: Recovering Dewey's Radical Aesthetics in an Age of Utopia-Gone-Wrong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heybach, Jessica A.; Sheffield, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we first suggest that contemporary school policies and practices represent a utopia-gone-wrong. In striving for an unattainable educational utopia--that is, all students will be proficient in math and reading by 2014--current polices and their resulting practices have brought a classic dystopian turn--the dehumanization of…

  19. Enhanced lifetime characteristics in flexible polymer light-emitting devices by encapsulation of epoxy/silica-coated gold nanoparticles resin (ESGR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Pin-Hsiang; Huang, Chien-Jung; Yang, Cheng-Fu; Meen, Teen-Hang; Wang, Yeong-Her

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of a new multilayer encapsulation for the lifetime of flexible PLEDs on plastic substrate. The multilayer encapsulation consisted of a novel epoxy/silica-coated gold nanoparticles resin (ESGR) as the pre-encapsulation layer and a SiO 2 layer as the encapsulation cap. The ESGR was prepared by mixing UV-curable epoxy resin and powders of silica-coated gold nanoparticles. The silica-coated gold nanoparticles is a necessity because the epoxy resin is not a good moisture barrier. The flexible PLEDs with multilayer encapsulation exhibited no dark spots after being stored for over 300 h at 25 deg. C and 60% relative humidity. Also, the operational half-luminance decay time of device was 1360 h, seven times longer than that of a device without encapsulation. These results confirmed that the multilayer encapsulation, which restricted the moisture that penetrated into the devices, could be applied to the encapsulation of flexible PLEDs.

  20. Encapsulation of TRISO particle fuel in durable soda-lime-silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, Paul G.; Corkhill, Claire L.; Stennett, Martin C.; Hand, Russell J.; Meyer, Willem C.H.M.; Hyatt, Neil C.

    2013-01-01

    Tri-Structural Isotropic (TRISO) coated particle-fuel is a key component in designs for future high temperature nuclear reactors. This study investigated the suitability of three soda lime silicate glass compositions, for the encapsulation of simulant TRISO particle fuel. A cold press and sinter (CPS) methodology was employed to produce TRISO particle–glass composites. Composites produced were determined to have an aqueous durability, fracture toughness and Vickers’ hardness comparable to glasses currently employed for the disposal of high level nuclear wastes. Sintering at 700 °C for 30 min was found to remove all interconnected porosity from the composite bodies and oxidation of the outer pyrolytic carbon layer during sintering was prevented by processing under a 5% H 2 /N 2 atmosphere. However, the outer pyrolytic carbon layer was not effectively wetted by the encapsulating glass matrix. The aqueous durability of the TRISO particle–glass composites was investigated using PCT and MCC-1 tests combined with geochemical modelling. It was found that durability was dependent on silicate and calcium solution saturation. This study provides significant advancements in the preparation of TRISO particle encapsulant waste forms. The potential for the use of non-borosilicate sintered glass composites for TRISO particle encapsulation has been confirmed, although further refinements are required